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1

Multipurpose Rooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college multipurpose rooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

2

Privatized multipurpose reactor initiative  

SciTech Connect

ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility.

Davis, G.A. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

1995-12-31

3

Multipurpose Compact Spectrometric Unit  

SciTech Connect

A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is multipurpose device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.

Bocarov, Viktor; Cermak, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; Stekl, Ivan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

2009-11-09

4

Multipurpose hardened spacecraft insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Multipurpose Hardened Spacecraft Multilayer Insulation (MLI) system was developed and implemented to meet diverse survivability and performance requirements. Within the definition and confines of a MLI assembly (blanket), the design: (1) provides environmental protection from natural and induced nuclear, thermal, and electromagnetic radiation; (2) provides adequate electrostatic discharge protection for a geosynchronous satellite; (3) provides adequate shielding to meet radiated emission needs; and (4) will survive ascent differential pressure loads between enclosed volume and space. The MLI design is described which meets these requirements and design evolution and verification is discussed. The application is for MLI blankets which closeout the area between the laser crosslink subsystem (LCS) equipment and the DSP spacecraft cabin. Ancillary needs were implemented to ease installation at launch facility and to survive ascent acoustic and vibration loads. Directional venting accommodations were also incorporated to avoid contamination of LCS telescope, spacecraft sensors, and second surface mirrors (SSMs).

Steimer, Carlos H.

1990-01-01

5

Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

1991-01-01

6

Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator (MACS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the present paper is to describe the Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator (MACS) currently being developed by the Army Research Institute, Fort Benning Field Unit. MACS represents a low-cost training/simulation alternative which can eventua...

J. E. Schroeder

1984-01-01

7

21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section... Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists...medical purposes for the cultivation and...

2009-04-01

8

21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section... Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists...medical purposes for the cultivation and...

2010-04-01

9

Multi-purpose seismic transducer  

SciTech Connect

A multi-purpose seismic transducer includes a first seismic sensor having a first transfer function. A transfer-function shaping filter is coupled to the output of the first seismic sensor. The filter is adjustable to shape the first transfer function to match a plurality of different second transfer functions.

Hall, E.M.

1981-02-24

10

Development of a Multipurpose Aeromedical Tray Holder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The multipurpose aeromedical tray holder was designed and developed to provide a simple and safe method to support a tray, with food or medical supplies, in a functional position over a litter patient during aeromedical airlift. Prototypes underwent initi...

1973-01-01

11

Multipurpose Thermal Insulation Test Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-purpose thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials, or other components. The test apparatus is a fluid boil-off calorimeter system for calibrated measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) of a specimen material at a fixed vacuum level. The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a fluid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the inner vessel and thermal guards, is suspended from the top of the vacuum chamber. Handling tools attach to the cold mass assembly for convenient manipulation of the assembly and for the installation or wrapping of insulation test materials. Liquid nitrogen is typically supplied to the inner vessel using a fill tube with funnel. A single port through the top of the vacuum chamber facilitates both filling and venting. Aerogel composite stacks with reflective films are fastened to the top and the bottom of the inner vessel as thermal guards. The comparative k-value of the insulation material is determined by measuring the boil-off flow rate of gas, the temperature differential across the insulation thickness, and the dimensions (length and diameters) of the test specimen.

Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

12

Multipurpose Watermarking Based on Multiscale Curvelet Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipurpose watermarking for content authentication and copyright verification are accomplished by using the multiscale curvelet transform. A curvelet transform gains better and sparser representation than most traditional multiscale transforms. In this paper, an image is decomposed into multiscale coefficients with a dyadic number of wedges constructed from a variety of neighboring scales. Image hash is designed to extract image features

Chune Zhang; L. L. Cheng; Zhengding Qiu; Lee-ming Cheng

2008-01-01

13

How To Light a Multipurpose Facility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the questions to ask when designing or retrofitting the lighting needs for a multipurpose campus facility. Issues addressed include the tasks the facility is expected to accommodate, the benefits of available lighting sources, the facility's layout and dimensions, aesthetics and functionality, and budgetary considerations. (GR)

Ries, Jack

1998-01-01

14

50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? A...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects based on the uses...

2013-10-01

15

50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? A...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects based on the uses...

2011-10-01

16

50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? A...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects based on the uses...

2012-10-01

17

Multipurpose radiac for field surveys and training  

SciTech Connect

The Instrument Technologies Group at Los Alamos has developed a multipurpose radiac. It uses a variety of detectors coupled with a CMOS microprocessor to provide ease of use and an unambiguous display. It allows concurrent surveys for alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron radiation. In addition, it has an external data link for coupling to and from data acquisition/storage equipment, hence making it a perfect training tool. The instrument is small (4x8x2.4 in.) and lightweight (<2 lbs). It runs for 50 hours on common batteries.

Wolf, M.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Jarrett, J.D.

1984-01-01

18

Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System was developed to provide remote, interactive information retrieval capability for various types of data bases to be processed on different types of small and medium size computers. Use of the system for three different data bases is decribed: (1) LANDSAT photo look-up, (2) land use, and (3) census/socioeconomic. Each of the data base elements is shown together with other detailed information that a user would require to contact the system remotely, to transmit inquiries on commands, and to receive the results of the queries or commands.

1977-01-01

19

Next Generation MultiPurpose Microprocessor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Next Generation Multipurpose Microprocessor (NGMP) is a SPARC V8(E) based multi-core architecture that provides a significant performance increase compared to earlier generations of European space processors. The NGMP is currently in development at Aeroflex Gaisler in Göteborg, Sweden, in an activity initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA). This paper describes the baseline architecture, points out key choices that have been made and emphasises design decisions that are still open. The software tools and operating systems that will be available for the NGMP, together with a general overview of the new LEON4FT microprocessor, are also described.

Andersson, J.; Gaisler, J.; Weigand, R.

2010-08-01

20

Radiation aspects of the Redox multipurpose dissolver incident  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a record of the radiation and contamination effect of the Redox multipurpose dissolver incident and the steps taken after the incident to control the contamination. The new multipurpose dissolver was installed in R cell in March, 1960. It was used successfully until the evening of April 17, 1960, at which time some of the uranium metal ignited

Uebelacker

1960-01-01

21

Multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a design for a multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer capable of measuring optical radiation ranging in intensity from the subvisual light levels associated with night sky airglow emissions to the intense flux levels of direct sunlight. The instrument has twelve interference filters for wavelength selection, a 2.5/sup 0/ field of view for nighttime observations, and a 1.5/sup 0/ field of view for daytime observations. A photomultiplier tube is used as the low light-level detector, and a silicon-PIN photodiode serves as the insolation detector. A particular measurement sequence is programmed into the instrument and can be modified by reading a cassette tape in the field. Normal operation is fully automatic.

Kleckner, E.W.; Michalsky, J.J.; Smith, L.L.; Schmelzer, J.R.; Severtsen, R.H.; Berndt, J.L.

1981-11-01

22

Multi-purpose neutron radiography system  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design is given for a low cost, multipurpose radiography system suited for the needs of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The proposed neutron source is californium-252. One purpose is to provide an in-house capability for occasional, reactor quality, neutron radiography thus replacing the recently closed Omega-West Reactor. A second purpose is to provide a highly reliable standby transportable neutron radiography system. A third purpose is to provide for transportable neutron probe gamma spectroscopy techniques. The cost is minimized by shared use of an existing x-ray facility, and by use of an existing transport cask. The achievable neutron radiography and radioscopy performance characteristics have been verified. The demonstrated image qualities range from high resolution gadolinium - SR film, with L:D = 100:1, to radioscopy using a LIXI image with L:D = 30:1 and neutron fluence 3.4 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}.

Barton, J.P. [NRE Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bryant, L.E.; Berry, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-07-01

23

MINIS: Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS) was developed in response to the need for a data management system capable of operation on several different minicomputer systems. The desired system had to be capable of performing the functions of a LANDSAT photo descriptive data retrieval system while remaining general in terms of other acceptable user definable data bases. The system also had to be capable of performing data base updates and providing user-formatted output reports. The resultant MINI System provides all of these capabilities and several other features to complement the data management system. The MINI System is currently implemented on two minicomputer systems and is in the process of being installed on another minicomputer system. The MINIS is operational on four different data bases.

1976-01-01

24

Design of a Digital Graphical Multipurpose Database of Jakarta.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis identifies the user requirements for a digital graphical multipurpose database of land use in Jakarta. Organizational and institutional requirements are considered. The conclusion is drawn that, map users in Jakarta have increasing needs for de...

E. C. A. Markvoort

1991-01-01

25

21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a)...

2013-04-01

26

50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? Yes...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities. A...

2011-10-01

27

50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? Yes...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities. A...

2013-10-01

28

50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? Yes...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities. A...

2012-10-01

29

Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar-powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is, therefore, beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multipurpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of using solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year-long effort by a group of eight students, divided into four teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a lightweight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structural design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion were governed by weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is an MPRPV weighing 35 N that cruises at 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 12.5 percent-efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were researched and tested during the design process.

1991-01-01

30

EuroSkyWay Multipurpose Terminal: architecture and design methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the architecture of the EuroSkyWay Multipurpose Terminal, aimed to satisfy the need of the Provider and Gateway Terminal of the EuroSkyWay system. First, an overview of the EuroSkyWay system is shown, with a short description of the proprietary EuroSkyWay protocol layer and of the terminals. The extension of the OMT methodology that has been used to design the system is described. Then, the architecture of the Multipurpose Terminal described in terms of configurations, hardware and software.

Ciancarelli, C.; Macchia, G.

2002-07-01

31

OCRWM Bulletin: Westinghouse begins designing multi-purpose canister  

SciTech Connect

This publication consists of two parts: OCRWM (Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management) Bulletin; and Of Mountains & Science which has articles on the Yucca Mountain project. The OCRWM provides information about OCRWM activities and in this issue has articles on multi-purpose canister design, and transportation cask trailer.

NONE

1995-09-01

32

Process control and dosimetry in a multipurpose irradiation facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Availability of the multipurpose irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute has encouraged several local industries to use gamma radiation for sterilization or decontamination of various products. Prior to routine processing, dose distribution studies are undertaken for each product and product geometry. During routine irradiation, dosimeters are placed at the minimum and maximum dose positions of a process load.

Cabalfin, E. G.; Lanuza, L. G.; Solomon, H. M.

1999-08-01

33

An overview of the Korea multi-purpose satellite (KOMPSAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korea has initiated its own space program since 1990, successfully launching its first microsatellite into the earch orbit in 1992, and scientific sounding rockets in 1993. Broadcast and communications satellites were launched in geostationary orbit in 1995. A multipurpose satellite, KOMPSAT is under the joint-development with an American company with its launch target in mid 1999. Recently, the national space

Byung Kyo Kim

1999-01-01

34

New generation of radiacs: small computerized multipurpose radiation monitors  

SciTech Connect

The Health Division at Los Alamos has developed a multipurpose radiation monitoring device that is computer-controlled, lightweight (3 lb), includes multiple radiation detectors running simultaneously, and is simple to use. LCD displays indicate the various radiation parameters in both alphanumeric and graphics format. Internal batteries allow 100 hours of use.

Umbarger, C.J.; Bjarke, G.O.; Erkkila, B.H.; Trujillo, F.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.

1983-02-01

35

Breeder Spent Fuel Handling Program multipurpose cask design basis document  

SciTech Connect

The Breeder Spent Fuel Handling (BSFH) Program multipurpose cask Design Basis Document defines the performance requirements essential to the development of a legal weight truck cask to transport FFTF spent fuel from reactor to a reprocessing facility and the resultant High Level Waste (HLW) to a repository. 1 ref.

Duckett, A.J.; Sorenson, K.B.

1985-09-01

36

A new look at multipurpose power transmission fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubricant quality impacts performance and durability of heavy-duty off-highway equipment. Accordingly, equipment manufacturers work cooperatively with the petroleum and additive industries to develop performance specifications for lubricants and utilize these specifications in making recommendations for the end user. Currently, a new industry classification is being developed for multipurpose power transmission fluids. This paper discusses this proposed classification and other trends

W. H. Cave; M. I. Michael

1987-01-01

37

Design of Multipurpose Sensing System for Human Gait Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a multipurpose sensing system and fast phase analysis algorithms to predict and estimate behaviors of human being in advance. The sensing system is designed lightly and simply to minimize data acquisition errors and composed of six absolute encoders, eight FSR sensors, and FPGA board for data processing. The eight FSR sensors are attached at four

Dongwoon Che; Ohung Kwon; Jaeik Shim

2006-01-01

38

Multi-Purpose Tests: A Solution to Test Proliferation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research, conducted for California State Department of Education, is one component of a feasibility study focusing on ways to make the testing process more efficient by application of multi-purpose tests (MPT). MPT are designed, administered and scored to serve more than one purpose and to consolidate and unify testing programs as a partial…

Holmes, Susan E.

39

Multipurpose community telecenters for rural development in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to: assess the situation of rural population in Pakistan and information facilities available to them including telecommunications, computers and public libraries; document the community information initiatives in terms of objectives, institutional framework, staff, services, use, finance, technology and lessons learned; understand challenges and opportunities regarding the establishment of multipurpose community telecenters (MCTs) in rural areas

Khalid Mahmood

2005-01-01

40

Functional group interactions of a 5-HT3R antagonist  

PubMed Central

Background Lerisetron, a competitive serotonin type 3 receptor (5-HT3R) antagonist, contains five functional groups capable of interacting with amino acids in the 5-HT3R binding site. Site directed mutagenesis studies of the 5-HT3AR have revealed several amino acids that are thought to form part of the binding domain of this receptor. The specific functional groups on the ligand that interact with these amino acids are, however, unknown. Using synthetic analogs of lerisetron as molecular probes in combination with site directed mutagenesis, we have identified some of these interactions and have proposed a model of the lerisetron binding site. Results Two analogs of lerisetron were synthesized to probe 5-HT3R functional group interactions with this compound. Analog 1 lacks the N1 benzyl group of lerisetron and analog 2 contains oxygen in place of the distal piperazine nitrogen. Both analogs show significantly decreased binding affinity to wildtype 5-HT3ASRs. Mutations at W89, R91, Y142 and Y152 produced significant decreases in binding compared to wildtype receptors. Binding affinities of analogs 1 and 2 were altered only by mutations at W89, and Y152. Conclusions Based on the data obtained for lerisetron and analogs 1 and 2, we have proposed a tentative model of the lerisetron binding pocket of the 5-HT3ASR. According to this model, The N-benzyl group interacts in a weak interaction with R91 while the benzimidazole group interacts with W89. Our data support an interaction of the distal amino nitrogen with Y142 and Y152.

Venkataraman, Padmavati; Joshi, Prasad; Venkatachalan, Srinivasan P; Muthalagi, Mani; Parihar, Harish S; Kirschbaum, Karen S; Schulte, Marvin K

2002-01-01

41

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Four: Registration Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

STD 11, RFC 822, defines a message representation protocol specifying considerable detail about US-ASCII message headers, and leaves the message content, or message body, as flat US-ASCII text. This set of documents, collectively called the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, or MIME, redefines the format of messages to allow for (1) textual message bodies in character sets other than US-ASCII,

J. Klensin

1996-01-01

42

Multipurpose modular lentiviral vectors for RNA interference and transgene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have created a multipurpose modular lentiviral vector system for expressing both transgenes and miRNA 30-based short hairpins\\u000a (shRNAmirs) for RNAi. The core of the resulting vector system, pLVmir, allows a simple two step cloning procedure for expressing\\u000a shRNAmirs under the control of a Pol II promoter in both a constitutive and conditional manner. The adapted cloning method\\u000a includes a

Venu Kesireddy; Dieter O. Fürst

2010-01-01

43

Multipurpose bus interface utilizing a digital signal processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-purpose bus interface comprising a digital signal processor which receives a clock signal and control signals from a Manchester type encoder\\/decoder and then processes the clock and control signals allowing for the serial transfer of data to and from the 1553 multiplex data bus, the encoder\\/decoder and the digital signal processor into an IC memory card for storage in

Christian L. Houlberg

1994-01-01

44

A Multi-Purpose Wireless Network Emulator: QOMET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this paper we present the design and usage of the multi-purpose wireless ,network ,emulator ,that we develop, QOMET. QOMET implements a two-stage scenario-driven,approach ,to wireless ,network emulation. We give ,here the details of the ,improved model,and ,additional ,functionality that make ,it currently possible to use ,QOMET to convert ,a real- world,scenario to a ,sequence ,of network-condition descriptors for

Razvan Beuran; Junya Nakata; Takashi Okada; Lan Tien Nguyen; Yasuo Tan; Yoichi Shinoda

2008-01-01

45

Programmable Thermostat Module Upgrade for the Multipurpose Logistics Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-121/ULF 1.1 mission was the maiden flight of the programmable thermostat module (PTM) system used to control the 28 V shell heaters on the multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM). These PTMs, in conjunction with a data recorder module (DRM), provide continuous closed loop temperature control and data recording of MPLM on-orbit heater operations. This Technical Memorandum discusses the hardware design, development, test, and verification (DDT&V) activities performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as well as the operational implementation and mission performance.

Clark, D. W.; Glasgow, S. d.; Reagan, S. E.; Presson, K. H.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

2007-01-01

46

A multipurpose model of Hermes-Columbus docking mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the foreseen missions of the HERMES spacevehicle is the servicing to the Columbus Free Flying Laboratory (MTFF). Docking between the two spacecraft is a critical operation in which the Docking Mechanism (DM) has a major role. In order to analyze and assess robustness of initially selected concepts and to identify suitable implementation solutions, through the investigation of main parameters involved in the docking functions, a multipurpose model of DM was developed and tested. This paper describes the main design features as well as the process of calibrating and testing.

Gonzalez-Vallejo, J. J.; Fehse, W.; Tobias, A.

1992-01-01

47

Recommendations for Use of SQ3R in Introductory Psychology Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyzed descriptions found in 12 introductory psychology textbooks on the recommended use of SQ3R for improving reading in order to determine whether such descriptions reflect issues and concerns found in the SQ3R literature. We classified sample questions to determine the types of questions that are suggested to guide use of SQ3R. A majority…

Feldt, Ronald C.; Hensley, Robert

2009-01-01

48

Multipurpose image watermarking algorithm based on multistage vector quantization.  

PubMed

The rapid growth of digital multimedia and Internet technologies has made copyright protection, copy protection, and integrity verification three important issues in the digital world. To solve these problems, the digital watermarking technique has been presented and widely researched. Traditional watermarking algorithms are mostly based on discrete transform domains, such as the discrete cosine transform, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Most of these algorithms are good for only one purpose. Recently, some multipurpose digital watermarking methods have been presented, which can achieve the goal of content authentication and copyright protection simultaneously. However, they are based on DWT or DFT. Lately, several robust watermarking schemes based on vector quantization (VQ) have been presented, but they can only be used for copyright protection. In this paper, we present a novel multipurpose digital image watermarking method based on the multistage vector quantizer structure, which can be applied to image authentication and copyright protection. In the proposed method, the semi-fragile watermark and the robust watermark are embedded in different VQ stages using different techniques, and both of them can be extracted without the original image. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in terms of robustness and fragility. PMID:15971780

Lu, Zhe-Ming; Xu, Dian-Guo; Sun, Sheng-He

2005-06-01

49

System Engineering Strategy for Distributed Multi-Purpose Simulation Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the system engineering approach used to develop distributed multi-purpose simulations. The multi-purpose simulation architecture focuses on user needs, operations, flexibility, cost and maintenance. This approach was used to develop an International Space Station (ISS) simulator, which is called the International Space Station Integrated Simulation (ISIS)1. The ISIS runs unmodified ISS flight software, system models, and the astronaut command and control interface in an open system design that allows for rapid integration of multiple ISS models. The initial intent of ISIS was to provide a distributed system that allows access to ISS flight software and models for the creation, test, and validation of crew and ground controller procedures. This capability reduces the cost and scheduling issues associated with utilizing standalone simulators in fixed locations, and facilitates discovering unknowns and errors earlier in the development lifecycle. Since its inception, the flexible architecture of the ISIS has allowed its purpose to evolve to include ground operator system and display training, flight software modification testing, and as a realistic test bed for Exploration automation technology research and development.

Bhula, Dlilpkumar; Kurt, Cindy Marie; Luty, Roger

2007-01-01

50

Development of a multipurpose smart recorder for general aviation aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intelligent flight recorder, called the Smart Recorder, was fabricated and installed on a King Air aircraft used in standard commercial charter service. This recorder was used for collection of data toward two objectives: (1) the characterization of the typical environment encountered by the aircraft; and (2) research in the area of trend monitoring. Data processing routines and data presentation formats were defined that are applicable to commuter size aircraft. The feasibility of a cost-effective, multipurpose recorder for general aviation aircraft was successfully demonstrated. Implementation of on-board environmental data processing increased the number of flight hours that could be stored on a single data cartridge and simplified the data management problem by reducing the volume of data to be processed in the laboratory. Trend monitoring algorithms showed less variability in the trend plots when compared against plots of manual data.

White, J. H.; Finger, J. F.

1988-01-01

51

Multipurpose Panel Display Device Investigation. [technology assessment and product development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multipurpose panel was developed to provide a flexible control and a LED display panel with easily changeable nomenclature for use in applications where panel space is limited, but where a number of similar subsystems must be controlled, or where basic panel nomenclature and functions must be changed rapidly, as in the case of between mission changes of space shuttle payloads. In the first application, panel area limitations are overcome by time sharing a central control panel among several subsystems. In the latter case, entire control panel changes are effected by simply replacing a memory module, thereby reducing the extent of installation and checkout procedures between missions. Several types of control technologies (other than LED's) which show potential in meeting criteria for overcoming limitations of the panel are assessed.

Sliwa, R.

1977-01-01

52

Development of a multipurpose hand controller for JEMRMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype multipurpose hand controller for the JEMRMS (Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System) was developed. The hand controller (H/C) is an orthogonal type, with 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) and small size. The orthogonal type H/C is very simple for coordinate transformations and can easily control any type of manipulators. In fact, the JEMRMS is planned to have two manipulators controlled by a common H/C at this stage. The H/C was able to be used as a rate control joystick and a force reflection master arm, using an experimental 6 DOF manipulator. Good maneuverability was confirmed in the verification test. The orthogonal type H/C is suitable for use as a common H/C for the two manipulators of the JEMRMS.

Matsuhira, Nobuto; Iikura, Shoichi; Asakura, Makoto; Shinomiya, Yasuo

1990-01-01

53

Chemical composition and interlayer arrangement of polytype 3R 2 Mg–Al layered double hydroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polytype 3R2 of Mg–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) can be synthesized either directly by hydrothermal treatment of magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium trihydroxide (ATH) at 170°C or by a two-step synthesis. By the latter method, first polytype 3R1 is hydrothermally formed with a Mg\\/Al ratio of 2.2 at 90°C, which is subsequently converted at 170°C into polytype 3R2 with

W. N. Budhysutanto; D. van Agterveld; E. Schomaker; B. D. Rossenaar; G. M. van Rosmalen; H. J. M. Kramer

2011-01-01

54

Research Results Digest. Number 16, June 1997. Multipurpose Fare Media: Developments and Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This digest contains examples of multipurpose transit fare payment programs and discusses institutional, technological, and financial issues that must be addressed to implement such programs. This will be of interest to transit managers, transit planners,...

1998-01-01

55

A description of model 3B of the multipurpose ventricular actuating system. [providing controlled driving pressures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multipurpose ventricular actuating system is a pneumatic signal generating device that provides controlled driving pressures for actuating pulsatile blood pumps. Overall system capabilities, the timing circuitry, and calibration instruction are included.

Webb, J. A., Jr.

1974-01-01

56

AVCOAT Density Characterization for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post flight TPS analysis will be conducted on the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. The material characterization includes density profiling through the AVCOAT TPS thickness. Results help to further development more accurate TPS response models.

Rodriguez, E. D.; Santos, J. A.; Bose, D.; Vander Kam, J.

2014-06-01

57

A Methodology for Analyzing a Multipurpose Concentrator in a Priority Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note describes some operating characteristics of a multipurpose concentrator for a switch and a method for analyzing such a concentrator in a priority environment. Messages from several classes are buffered by the concentrator and subsequen...

M. J. Fischer P. A. Vena

1973-01-01

58

77 FR 38766 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...S. organizations. The International Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose...ability to determine which international organizations are most suited...identifying and verifying potential international buyers of U.S. goods and...exporting experience, marketing, events and...

2012-06-29

59

Simplified optoelectronic 3R regenerator using nonlinear electro-optical transformation in an electroabsorption modulator.  

PubMed

A simplified optoelectronic 3R regenerator without electrical signal processing is demonstrated by utilizing the nonlinear electro-optical transfer function of an electroabsorption modulator. 3R regeneration of impaired 10-Gb/s RZ signals is demonstrated, verifying the proposed concept. PMID:19495166

Chou, Hsu-Feng; Bowers, John

2005-04-01

60

Quantification of 3R,3'R-zeaxanthin in plant derived food by a diastereomeric dilution assay applying chiral high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

For quantification of 3R,3'R-zeaxanthin in plant derived food, a new diastereomeric dilution assay (DIDA) was developed using chiral high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode-array detection (HPLC/DAD). As diastereomeric internal standard (I.S.), 3R,3'S-(meso)-zeaxanthin was applied. DIDA showed sufficient sensitivity with low limits of detection and quantification (18 microg100 g(-1) and 45 microg 100 g(-1)), a good inter-assay coefficient of variation (2.4%), determined by analysis of a certified BCR reference material, and a good recovery (94.7%). To prove the applicability of DIDA, various plant materials were analyzed, showing that DIDA is highly advisable if saponification is applied during work-up to hydrolyze xanthophyll esters. PMID:17070819

Schlatterer, Jörg; Maurer, Svenja; Breithaupt, Dietmar E

2006-12-29

61

Human resources for maternal health: multi-purpose or specialists?  

PubMed Central

A crucial question in the aim to attain MDG5 is whether it can be achieved faster with the scaling up of multi-purpose health workers operating in the community or with the scaling up of professional skilled birth attendants working in health facilities. Most advisers concerned with maternal mortality reduction concur to promote births in facilities with professional attendants as the ultimate strategy. The evidence, however, is scarce on what it takes to progress in this path, and on the 'interim solutions' for situations where the majority of women still deliver at home. These questions are particularly relevant as we have reached the twentieth anniversary of the safe motherhood initiative without much progress made. In this paper we review the current situation of human resources for maternal health as well as the problems that they face. We propose seven key areas of work that must be addressed when planning for scaling up human resources for maternal health in light of MDG5, and finally we indicate some advances recently made in selected countries and the lessons learned from these experiences. Whilst the focus of this paper is on maternal health, it is acknowledged that the interventions to reduce maternal mortality will also contribute to significantly reducing newborn mortality. Addressing each of the seven key areas of work – recommended by the first International Forum on 'Midwifery in the Community', Tunis, December 2006 – is essential for the success of any MDG5 programme. We hypothesize that a great deal of the stagnation of maternal health programmes has been the result of confusion and careless choices in scaling up between a limited number of truly skilled birth attendants and large quantities of multi-purpose workers with short training, fewer skills, limited authority and no career pathways. We conclude from the lessons learnt that no significant progress in maternal mortality reduction can be achieved without a strong political decision to empower midwives and others with midwifery skills, and a substantial strengthening of health systems with a focus on quality of care rather than on numbers, to give them the means to respond to the challenge.

Fauveau, Vincent; Sherratt, Della R; de Bernis, Luc

2008-01-01

62

Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a crew will be living and working in microgravity, interfacing with their physical environment. Without optimum restraints and mobility aids (R&MA' s), the crewmembers may be handicapped for perfonning some of the on-orbit tasks. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity area and may cause prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Thus, determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment are crucial to astronauts' well-being and productivity. The purpose of this project is to develop requirements and guidelines, and conceptual designs, for an ergonomically designed multi-purpose crew restraint. In order to achieve this goal, the project would involve development of functional and human factors requirements, design concept prototype development, analytical and computer modeling evaluations of concepts, two sets of micro gravity evaluations and preparation of an implementation plan. It is anticipated that developing functional and design requirements for a multi-purpose restraint would facilitate development of ergonomically designed restraints to accommodate the off-nominal but repetitive tasks, and minimize the performance degradation due to lack of optimum setup for onboard task performance. In addition, development of an ergonomically designed restraint concept prototype would allow verification and validation of the requirements defined. To date, we have identified "unique" tasks and areas of need, determine characteristics of "ideal" restraints, and solicit ideas for restraint and mobility aid concepts. Focus group meetings with representatives from training, safety, crew, human factors, engineering, payload developers, and analog environment representatives were key to assist in the development of a restraint concept based on previous flight experiences, the needs of future tasks, and crewmembers' preferences. Also, a catalog with existing IVA/EVA restraint and mobility aids has been developed. Other efforts included the ISS crew debrief data on restraints, compilation of data from MIR, Skylab and ISS on restraints, and investigating possibility of an in-flight evaluation of current restraint systems. Preliminary restraint concepts were developed and presented to long duration crewmembers and focus groups for feedback. Currently, a selection criterion is being refined for prioritizing the candidate concepts. Next steps include analytical and computer modeling evaluations of the selected candidate concepts, prototype development, and microgravity evaluations.

Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

2004-01-01

63

Development of multi-purpose MW gyrotrons for fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest development achievements in the University of Tsukuba of over-1 MW power level gyrotrons required in present-day fusion devices, GAMMA 10, Large Helical Device (LHD), QUEST, Heliotron J and NSTX, are presented. The obtained maximum outputs are 1.9 MW for 0.1 s on the 77 GHz LHD tube and 1.2 MW for 1 ms on the 28 GHz GAMMA 10 one, which are new records in these frequency ranges. In long-pulse operation, 0.3 MW for 40 min at 77 GHz and 0.54 MW for 2 s at 28 GHz are achieved. A new programme of 154 GHz 1 MW development has started for high-density plasma heating in LHD. On the first 154 GHz tube, 1.0 MW for 1 s is achieved. As a next activity of the 28 GHz gyrotron, an over-1.5 MW gyrotron is designed and fabricated to study the multi-MW oscillation. The possibility of 0.4 MW continuous wave and 2 MW level output in operations of a few seconds, after the improvements of output window and mode converter, is shown. Moreover, a new design study of dual-frequency gyrotron at 28 and 35 GHz has started, which indicates the practicability of the multi-purpose gyrotron.

Minami, R.; Kariya, T.; Imai, T.; Numakura, T.; Endo, Y.; Nakabayashi, H.; Eguchi, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Mutoh, T.; Ito, S.; Idei, H.; Zushi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Sakamoto, K.; Mitsunaka, Y.; the GAMMA 10 Group

2013-06-01

64

Research and development of a multipurpose test chassis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract was to design, fabricate, and laboratory test a multipurpose test chassis to provide transport, power, ancillary systems, and instrumentation for the testing of prototype roof drilling and bolting equipment. During the contract, modification authorized the fabrication of two additional test chassis. The basic chassis is a modified Lee-Norse drive storage unit. This chassis was selected because of its tracked propulsion system which provides low ground pressure and high maneuverability. Transport of the system being tested is provided by attachment to the hydraulically elevatable front mounting plate on the chassis. Power for testing is provided by five independent hydraulic circuits. Electrical (110 and 220 volts AC) and pneumatic (3 scfm at 125 psi) power are also available for control system use. The test chassis design also includes a vacuum dust collection system. An instrument panel allows for monitoring of hydraulic supply pressures and hydraulic return pressure, flow, and temperature. Dust collection, compressed air, and electrical system parameter instrumentation is also provided. Fabrication of the units proceeded generally on schedule with the exception of significant delays caused by late delivery of the electric drive motors, problems with the tram control system, and delays in MSHA approval. The three test chassis have been delivered.

Alexander, P.T.

1980-02-01

65

Multipurpose Logistics Module, Leonardo, Rests in Discovery's Payload Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This in-orbit close up shows the Italian Space Agency-built multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), Leonardo, the primary cargo of the STS-102 mission, resting in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth station assembly flight and NASA's 103rd overall flight, STS-102 launched March 8, 2001 for an almost 13 day mission.

2001-01-01

66

STS-102 Onboard Photograph Inside Multipurpose Logistics Module, Leonardo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot James M. Kelly (left) and Commander James D. Wetherbee for the STS-102 mission, participate in the movement of supplies inside Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). In this particular photograph, the two are handling a film magazine for the IMAX cargo bay camera. The primary cargo of the STS-102 mission, the Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth station assembly flight, the STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

2001-01-01

67

Prevalence of rare MC3R variants in obese cases and lean controls.  

PubMed

The role of mutations in the melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) gene, which is implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is still under debate. Animal studies have clearly proven that, together with the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), the MC3R is a critical receptor for melanocortin peptides within the leptin-melanocortin signaling cascade. However, as several mutations have been found in lean individuals and not all mutations seem to cause receptor dysfunction, results from mutation screens in obese humans remain controversial. In the present study, we screened for rare variants in the MC3R gene of obese children and lean controls to assess the prevalence of MC3R mutations in the Belgian population. We screened 249 severely overweight and obese children and adolescents and 239 lean adults for mutations in the coding region of MC3R. Mutation screening was performed by high resolution melting curve analysis and direct sequencing. We identified four non-synonymous coding variations in the obese population, all of which had been reported previously. In addition, we also found four novel rare MC3R variants in the lean control population, suggesting that not all MC3R mutations are disease-causing. Overall, the total prevalence of rare MC3R variants was 1 % in Belgian obese children and adolescents compared to 1.02 % in lean controls. Ultimately, cosegregation studies combined with comprehensive functional analysis is required to determine the potential pathogenic role of rare MC3R variants in causing human obesity. PMID:23264184

Zegers, Doreen; Beckers, Sigri; Hendrickx, Rik; Van Camp, Jasmijn K; Van Hoorenbeeck, Kim; Desager, Kristine N; Massa, Guy; Van Gaal, Luc F; Van Hul, Wim

2013-10-01

68

Mutations in the melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) gene: Impact on human obesity or adiposity.  

PubMed

The melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R), together with the related melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), are important regulators of energy homeostasis. Rodent studies have demonstrated that the two receptors have non-redundant roles in regulating energy balance. However, while mutations for the MC4R have been established as a cause of monogenic obesity, mutations in the MC3R gene remain controversially associated with human obesity pathogenesis. This editorial summarizes the current status of MC3R in rodent energy homeostasis and human obesity pathogenesis. PMID:20882712

Tao, Ya-Xiong

2010-10-01

69

Comparative evaluation of multi-purpose solutions in the stabilization of tear lysozyme.  

PubMed

The range and extent of tear proteins removed by various multi-purpose solutions has been investigated, but there is little information in the literature about their ability to prevent denaturation of tear proteins, particularly lysozyme. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of Bausch+Lomb Biotrue™ multi-purpose solution and other care solutions to affect denaturation of lysozyme using a lysozyme activity assay. The test solutions used were: Biotrue multi-purpose solution, Bausch+Lomb renu(®) fresh™, formerly ReNu MultiPlus(®), Alcon OPTI-FREE RepleniSH, Alcon OPTI-FREE EXPRESS, CIBA VISION AQuify, and AMO COMPLETE Multi-Purpose Solution Easy Rub Formula. A phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution served as a control. The test and control solutions containing lysozyme were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a known denaturant of the enzyme. The assay was based on digestion of the cell wall of Micrococcus luteus in a suspension, a substrate sensitive to active lysozyme. Enzymatic activity against M. luteus was used to assess activity of lysozyme. The decrease in the turbidity of the cell wall suspension, a measure of relative enzyme activity, was determined by following the decrease in absorbance (at 450nm) over time using a spectrophotometer. Statistically significant greater stabilization of lysozyme was observed with Biotrue multi-purpose solution and renu fresh than with OPTI-FREE RepleniSH, OPTI-FREE EXPRESS, AQuify, COMPLETE Multi-Purpose Solution Easy Rub Formula, and a PBS control. The lysozyme activity assay revealed that Biotrue multi-purpose solution and renu fresh have the ability to stabilize lysozyme under conditions that typically denature the protein. PMID:21071258

Barniak, Vicki L; Burke, Susan E; Venkatesh, Srini

2010-12-01

70

Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.  

PubMed

In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

2013-11-30

71

Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990). Appendix A3-R  

SciTech Connect

Techniques in use at the Hanford Reservation as of March, 1990 for the analysis of liquids and radioactive effluents are described. Limitations and applications of the techniques are included. This report is Appendix A3-R.

Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

1993-05-01

72

Arginine methylation at histone H3R2 controls deposition of H3K4 trimethylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifications on histones control important biological processes through their effects on chromatin structure. Methylation at lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4) is found at the 5' end of active genes and contributes to transcriptional activation by recruiting chromatin-remodelling enzymes. An adjacent arginine residue (H3R2) is also known to be asymmetrically dimethylated (H3R2me2a) in mammalian cells, but its location within genes

Antonis Kirmizis; Helena Santos-Rosa; Christopher J. Penkett; Michael A. Singer; Michiel Vermeulen; Matthias Mann; Jürg Bähler; Roland D. Green; Tony Kouzarides

2007-01-01

73

Melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R) gene variants in extremely obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Following several reports of linkage of obesity related phenotypes to human chromosome 20q we sought to determine whether variations of the melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R) gene are associated with obesity.DESIGN: We screened the MC3R gene coding region and approximately 2 kb of 5? and 3? flanking sequences for DNA variants in unrelated extremely obese women and average weight controls

W-D Li; E-J Joo; EB Furlong; M Galvin; K Abel; CJ Bell; R Arlen Price

2000-01-01

74

T3/rT3-ratio is associated with insulin resistance independent of TSH.  

PubMed

Thyroid dysfunction has been shown to be associated with insulin resistance (IR). This may involve peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism, which is assumed to be reflected by the ratio triiodothyronine/reverse triiodothyronine (T3/rT3-ratio). To explore a potential association between the T3/rT3-ratio and IR we investigated pairs which differed in IR, but were matched by sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). For this purpose, matched pair analyses were embedded into a cross sectional study group. 22 pairs were matched from either the first or the third tertile of HOMA%S of a cohort of 353 euthyroid subjects with normal glucose metabolism who did not take any medication. The T3/rT3-ratio was compared in the matched pairs. The T3/rT3-ratio was significantly increased in the insulin resistant subjects compared to their insulin sensitive partners (8.78 ± 0.47 vs. 7.33 ± 0.33, p=0.019). Furthermore the T3/rT3-ratio was lower in men compared to women (p for the within-subject effect=0.046) both in the insulin sensitive and the insulin resistant subjects. Here we show that the T3/rT3-ratio, which is supposed to reflect the tissue thyroid hormone metabolism, is significantly increased in insulin resistant subjects. This further supports a link between thyroid function and IR. PMID:21104580

Ruhla, S; Arafat, A M; Weickert, M O; Osterhoff, M; Isken, F; Spranger, J; Schöfl, C; Pfeiffer, A F H; Möhlig, M

2011-02-01

75

The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism Is Associated With Muscle Power in Male Japanese Athletes.  

PubMed

Kikuchi, N, Nakazato, K, Min, S-k, Ueda, D, and Igawa, S. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscle power in male Japanese athletes. J Strength Cond Res 28(7): 1783-1789, 2014-In this study, we investigated whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscular power in Japanese collegiate athletes by analyzing the mean and peak power results of a 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) with respect to the ACTN3 R577X genotype in 253 Japanese athletes (144 men and 109 women). Each athlete performed a 30-second WAnT with a resistance equal to 7.5% of his or her body weight. Genotyping for the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan approach. The ACTN3 R577X genotypes exhibited a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution in our population. The relative and absolute mean power results of the 30-second WAnT did not differ significantly among the genotypes. However, the relative peak power result of the WAnT was significantly higher in the R-allele-dominant model groups than in the XX group in male but not female athletes. These results suggest that the ACTN3 R allele is associated with the relative peak power during the WAnT in male Japanese collegiate athletes. PMID:24343324

Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi; Min, Seok-Ki; Ueda, Dai; Igawa, Shoji

2014-07-01

76

A multipurpose immobilized biocatalyst with pectinase, xylanase and cellulase activities  

PubMed Central

Background The use of immobilized enzymes for catalyzing various biotransformations is now a widely used approach. In recent years, cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have emerged as a novel and versatile biocatalyst design. The present work deals with the preparation of a CLEA from a commercial preparation, Pectinex™ Ultra SP-L, which contains pectinase, xylanase and cellulase activities. The CLEA obtained could be used for any of the enzyme activities. The CLEA was characterized in terms of kinetic parameters, thermal stability and reusability in the context of all the three enzyme activities. Results Complete precipitation of the three enzyme activities was obtained with n-propanol. When resulting precipitates were subjected to cross-linking with 5 mM glutaraldehyde, the three activities initially present (pectinase, xylanase and cellulase) were completely retained after cross-linking. The Vmax/Km values were increased from 11, 75 and 16 to 14, 80 and 19 in case of pectinase, xylanase and cellulase activities respectively. The thermal stability was studied at 50°C, 60°C and 70°C for pectinase, xylanase and cellulase respectively. Half-lives were improved from 17, 22 and 32 minutes to 180, 82 and 91 minutes for pectinase, xylanase and cellulase respectively. All three of the enzymes in CLEA could be reused three times without any loss of activity. Conclusion A single multipurpose biocatalyst has been designed which can be used for carrying out three different and independent reactions; 1) hydrolysis of pectin, 2) hydrolysis of xylan and 3) hydrolysis of cellulose. The preparation is more stable at higher temperatures as compared to the free enzymes.

Dalal, Sohel; Sharma, Aparna; Gupta, Munishwar Nath

2007-01-01

77

Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees on the fur farmlands in the Jebel Marra highlands, Western Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the traditional agroforestry systems based on Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees as practised by the sedentary Fur people on the lower slopes and highlands of the Jebel Marra massif, Sudan. The basic agrosilvopastoral system consists of terraced village fields, where semipermanent rainfed cropping of staple millet and other subsistence crops takes place under stands of multipurpose

S. Miehe

1986-01-01

78

3C3R modified PBL pediatric teaching of Chinese medical students.  

PubMed

A Content, Context, Connection and Researching, Reasoning, Reflecting (3C3R) model is a conceptual framework for problem-based learning (PBL) problem design. We introduced the 3C3R-PBL method into a pediatric teaching plan, and evaluated its effectiveness and feasibility. The 3C3R model was applied in a pediatric problem design teaching plan "why the lips turn purple when a baby is crying". All students were assigned either into a traditional PBL course or into a 9-step 3C3R model PBL course (3C3R-PBL). The performance outcomes of both groups were compared. For the PBL group, the proportion of students scoring ?4 for content, context, and problem design connection, was 90.8%, 80.3%, and 64.5% respectively, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 71.4%, and 28.6%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ?4 was 81.6%, 55.3%, and 40.8%, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 100%, and 57.1%. The learning difficulty was not considered high with only 31.6% of students and 42.9% of tutors rating the task as difficult. For the 3C3R-PBL group, the proportion of students scoring content, context, and connection, ?4 was 100%, 98.4%, and 90.5%, while for tutors it was 100%, 100%, 83.3%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ?4 was 95.2%, 88.9%, and 76.2%, while for tutors it was 100% for all 3 R components. Students and tutors were convinced by the content, case context, research process and reasoning process of both teaching plans, while scores for connection and reflecting were significantly improved when the PBL plan was amended by a 3C3R model (p<0.05) and the case learning difficulty was statistically increased (p<0.05). The 3C3R model, evaluated for the first time in China, was helpful for effective and reliable problem design in a pediatric PBL teaching plan for Chinese students. PMID:23667610

Xue, Haihong; Qian, Jihong; Wang, Lianwen; Yuan, Xiaojun; Chen, Yi; Wu, Weilan; Chen, Yan; Sun, Kun

2013-01-01

79

Dynamic versus static allocation policies in multipurpose multireservoir systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the competition for water is likely to increase in the near future due to socioeconomic development and population growth, water resources managers will face hard choices when allocating water between competing users. Because water is a vital resource used in multiple sectors, including the environment, the allocation is inherently a political and social process, which is likely to become increasingly scrutinized as the competition grows between the different sectors. Since markets are usually absent or ineffective, the allocation of water between competing demands is achieved administratively taking into account key objectives such as economic efficiency, equity and maintaining the ecological integrity. When crop irrigation is involved, water is usually allocated by a system of annual rights to use a fixed, static, volume of water. In a fully-allocated basin, moving from a static to a dynamic allocation process, whereby the policies are regularly updated according to the hydrologic status of the river basin, is the first step towards the development of river basin management strategies that increase the productivity of water. More specifically, in a multipurpose multireservoir system, continuously adjusting release and withdrawal decisions based on the latest hydrologic information will increase the benefits derived from the system. However, the extent to which such an adjustment can be achieved results from complex spatial and temporal interactions between the physical characteristics of the water resources system (storage, natural flows), the economic and social consequences of rationing and the impacts on natural ecosystems. The complexity of the decision-making process, which requires the continuous evaluation of numerous trade-offs, calls for the use of integrated hydrologic-economic models. This paper compares static and dynamic management approaches for a cascade of hydropower-irrigation reservoirs using stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) formulations. As its name indicates, SDDP is an extension of SDP that removes the curse of dimensionality found in discrete SDP and can therefore be used to analyze large-scale water resources systems. For the static approach, the multiobjective (irrigation-hydropower) optimization problem is solved using the constraint method, i.e. net benefits from hydropower generation are maximized and irrigation water withdrawals are additional constraints. In the dynamic approach, the SDDP model seeks to maximize the net benefits of both hydropower and irrigation crop production. A cascade of 8 reservoirs in the Turkish and Syrian parts of the Euphrates river basin is used as a case study.

Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.; van der Zaag, P.

2007-12-01

80

Go3R - semantic Internet search engine for alternative methods to animal testing.  

PubMed

Consideration and incorporation of all available scientific information is an important part of the planning of any scientific project. As regards research with sentient animals, EU Directive 86/609/EEC for the protection of laboratory animals requires scientists to consider whether any planned animal experiment can be substituted by other scientifically satisfactory methods not entailing the use of animals or entailing less animals or less animal suffering, before performing the experiment. Thus, collection of relevant information is indispensable in order to meet this legal obligation. However, no standard procedures or services exist to provide convenient access to the information required to reliably determine whether it is possible to replace, reduce or refine a planned animal experiment in accordance with the 3Rs principle. The search engine Go3R, which is available free of charge under http://Go3R.org, runs up to become such a standard service. Go3R is the world-wide first search engine on alternative methods building on new semantic technologies that use an expert-knowledge based ontology to identify relevant documents. Due to Go3R's concept and design, the search engine can be used without lengthy instructions. It enables all those involved in the planning, authorisation and performance of animal experiments to determine the availability of non-animal methodologies in a fast, comprehensive and transparent manner. Thereby, Go3R strives to significantly contribute to the avoidance and replacement of animal experiments. PMID:19326030

Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Grune, Barbara; Doms, Andreas; Alvers, Michael R; Spielmann, Horst; Schroeder, Michael

2009-01-01

81

Amphiphilic cationic ?(3R3)-peptides: membrane active peptidomimetics and their potential as antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

We introduce a novel class of membrane active peptidomimetics, the amphiphilic cationic ?(3R3)-peptides, and evaluate their potential as antimicrobial agents. The design criteria, the building block and oligomer synthesis as well as a detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) study are reported. Specifically, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) was employed to investigate structural features of amphiphilic cationic ?(3R3)-peptide sequences at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic air/liquid interface. Furthermore, Langmuir monolayers of anionic and zwitterionic phospholipids have been used to model the interactions of amphiphilic cationic ?(3R3)-peptides with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular membranes in order to predict their membrane selectivity and elucidate their mechanism of action. Lastly, antimicrobial activity was tested against Gram-positive M. luteus and S. aureus as well as against Gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa bacteria along with testing hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity. We found that amphiphilic cationic ?(3R3)-peptide sequences combine high and selective antimicrobial activity with exceptionally low cytotoxicity in comparison to values reported in the literature. Overall, this study provides further insights into the SAR of antimicrobial peptides and peptidomimetics and indicates that amphiphilic cationic ?(3R3)-peptides are strong candidates for further development as antimicrobial agents with high therapeutic index. PMID:24694059

Mosca, Simone; Keller, Janos; Azzouz, Nahid; Wagner, Stefanie; Titz, Alexander; Seeberger, Peter H; Brezesinski, Gerald; Hartmann, Laura

2014-05-12

82

Polymorphisms in MC3R promoter and CTSZ 3'UTR are associated with tuberculosis susceptibility.  

PubMed

We have validated the association of two genes on chromosome 20q13.31-33 with tuberculosis susceptibility. A previous genome-wide linkage study performed by Cooke et al identified the genes melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and cathepsin Z (CTSZ) as possible candidates in tuberculosis susceptibility. MC3R has been implicated in obesity studies and is known to play a role in many biological systems including the regulation of energy homeostasis and fat metabolism. CTSZ has been detected in immune cells, such as macrophages and monocytes, and it is hypothesized that the protein may play a role in the immune response. In our South African population a case-control study confirmed the previously reported association with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in CTSZ and found an association in MC3R with a SNP not previously implicated in tuberculosis susceptibility. Six SNPs in MC3R and eight in CTSZ were genotyped and haplotypes were inferred. SNP rs6127698 in the promoter region of MC3R (cases = 498; controls = 506) and rs34069356 in the 3'UTR of CTSZ (cases = 396; controls = 298) both showed significant association with tuberculosis susceptibility (P = 0.0004 and < 0.0001, respectively), indicating that pathways involving these proteins, not previously researched in this disease, could yield novel therapies for tuberculosis. PMID:21368909

Adams, Lindsey A; Möller, Marlo; Nebel, Almut; Schreiber, Stefan; van der Merwe, Lize; van Helden, Paul D; Hoal, Eileen G

2011-06-01

83

Pharmaceutical evaluation of multipurpose excipients for direct compressed tablet manufacture: comparisons of the capabilities of multipurpose excipients with those in general use.  

PubMed

Recently, a novel type of multipurpose excipient (MPE) with high binding characteristics and high fluidity has been developed. In this study, the capabilities of MPEs (Ludipress and Microcelac) were compared with those of excipients in general use. Also, the effects on powder and tableting characteristics of the physical properties and contents of active ingredients were examined in tablets prepared with these MPEs by the direct compression method. Multipurpose excipients mixed with adjuvants such as fillers, binders, lubricants, disintegrants, and the like show superior fluidity and compressibility. Tablets containing very small amounts of highly active ingredients with little dispersion were prepared. However, with increases in active ingredient content, each of the physical properties was affected strongly by the properties of the active ingredient. Tablets with appropriate hardness and disintegration characteristics could be prepared by mixing of different types of MPEs. PMID:10434130

Goto, K; Sunada, H; Danjo, K; Yonezawa, Y

1999-08-01

84

Superior thermoelectric response in the 3R phases of hydrated NaxRhO2.  

PubMed

Density functional theory is used to investigate the thermoelectric properties of the 3R phases of NaxRhO2 for different Na vacancy configurations and concentrations. As compared to the analogous 2H phases, the modified stacking of the atomic layers in the 3R phases reduces the interlayer coupling. As a consequence, the 3R phases are found to be superior in the technologically relevant temperature range. The Rh d(3z(2)-r(2)) orbitals still govern the valence band maxima and therefore determine the transport properties. A high figure of merit of 0.35 is achieved in hydrated Na0.83RhO2 at 580?K by water intercalation, which is 34% higher than in the non-hydrated phase. PMID:24633155

Saeed, Y; Singh, N; Schwingenschlögl, U

2014-01-01

85

Superior thermoelectric response in the 3R phases of hydrated NaxRhO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory is used to investigate the thermoelectric properties of the 3R phases of NaxRhO2 for different Na vacancy configurations and concentrations. As compared to the analogous 2H phases, the modified stacking of the atomic layers in the 3R phases reduces the interlayer coupling. As a consequence, the 3R phases are found to be superior in the technologically relevant temperature range. The Rh orbitals still govern the valence band maxima and therefore determine the transport properties. A high figure of merit of 0.35 is achieved in hydrated Na0.83RhO2 at 580 K by water intercalation, which is 34% higher than in the non-hydrated phase.

Saeed, Y.; Singh, N.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

2014-03-01

86

The Design and Development of an Undercover Multipurpose Anti-spoofing Kit (UnMask)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and development of a software system to support law enforcement in investigating and prosecuting email based crimes. It focuses on phishing scams which use emails to trick users into revealing personal data. The system described in this paper, called the Undercover Multipurpose Anti-Spoofing Kit (UnMask), will enable investigators to reduce the time and effort needed

Sudhir Aggarwal; Jasbinder Bali; Zhenhai Duan; Leo Kermes; Wayne Liu; Shahank Sahai; Zhenghui Zhu

2007-01-01

87

Restoring Natural Streamflow Variability by Modifying Multi-purpose Reservoir Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-purpose reservoirs typically provide benefits of water supply, hydroelectric power, and flood mitigation. Hydroelectric power generations generally do not consume water. However, temporal distribution of downstream flows is highly changed due to hydro-peaking effects. Associated with offstream diversion of water supplies for municipal, industrial, and agricultural requirements, natural streamflow characteristics of magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change is

J. Shiau

2010-01-01

88

Multipurpose electric furnace system. [for use in Apollo-Soyuz Test Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multipurpose electric furnace system of advanced design for space applications was developed and tested. This system is intended for use in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program. It consists of the furnace, control package and a helium package for rapid cooldown.

Mazelsky, R.; Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Johnson, R. A.; Mchugh, J. P.; Foust, H. C.; Piotrowski, P. A.

1974-01-01

89

Multi-Purpose Senior Centers -- Program Development Handbook for State and Area Agencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook is one of seven in a series describing specific services needed by the elderly. The handbook presents the state-of- the-art in multipurpose senior centers to assist State and area agencies on aging to fulfill goals of service development, te...

M. B. Holmes

1977-01-01

90

Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN...

B. D. Bihari C. J. Duke J. D. Semrau

2013-01-01

91

Multipurpose panel, phase 1, study report. [display utilizing multiplexing and digital techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of a multipurpose panel which provides a programmable electronic display for changeable panel nomenclature, multiplexes similar indicator display signals to the signal display, and demultiplexes command signals is examined. Topics discussed include: electronic display technology, miniaturized electronic and memory devices, and data management systems which employ digital address and multiplexing.

Parkin, W.

1975-01-01

92

SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL NUMBER DENSITIES FOR MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER CRITICALITY CALCULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the number densities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be used in criticality evaluations of the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) waste packages. The objective of this analysis is to provide material number density information which will be referenced by future MPC criticality design analyses, such as for those supporting the Conceptual Design Report.

D. A. Thomas

1996-01-12

93

Multipurpose Intense 14 MeV Neutron Source at Bratislava: Design Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present state of design of the multipurpose intense 14 MeV neutron source based on a D exp + ion beam and a metal tritide target is reported. It is essentially a 300 keV electrostatic air insulated accelerator capable to accelerate a deuterium ion bea...

J. Pivarc S. Hlavac J. Kral P. Oblozinsky I. Ribansky

1980-01-01

94

Testing basic performance of a very small wind turbine designed for multi-purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very small wind turbine system for multi-purposes was developed and its performance was reported in this paper. The rotor diameter of the turbine is 500mm. The tests of the energy output, turbine speed, power coefficient, and torque of turbine were carried out for a wide rage of free stream velocity. The flow around the wind turbine and the influence

Hiroyuki Hirahara; M. Zakir Hossain; Masaaki Kawahashi; Yoshitami Nonomura

2005-01-01

95

A Multi-purpose Tactile Vest for Astronauts in the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 10 day taxiflight to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2004, Dutch astronaut André Kuipers is scheduled to test a multi-purpose vibro- tactile vest. The main application of the vest is supporting the astronaut's orien- tation awareness. To this end, we employ an artificial gravity vector analogy. The location of vibration on the torso indicates the direction of

Jan B. F. van Erp; Hendrik A. H. C van Veen

2003-01-01

96

A multi-purpose remote controller based on Bluetooth mobile phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a multi-purpose remote controller based on Bluetooth mobile phone (MRCBMP) is proposed to provide users for a convenient control interface. The IR, RF and Bluetooth modules are integrated into the microcontroller module cooperated with Bluetooth mobile phone by Bluetooth module. By MRCBMP, users can control IR, RF and Bluetooth controlled objects without the numerous conventional remote controllers.

Chih-Hung Wu; Li-Shan Ma; Yu-Jyun Cai; Ting-Fu Yeh

2010-01-01

97

A Multipurpose Fitness Playground for Individuals with Autism: Ideas for Design and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the five-step process used to design and construct a multipurpose fitness playground for students with autism. It can be followed to design school- or community-based playgrounds to meet the various needs of individuals with disabilities. This design yielded an outdoor classroom that can be used during physical education…

Menear, Kristi Sayers; Smith, Shannon C.; Lanier, Shane

2006-01-01

98

Study on the Heavy Water Management and Water Treatment in KMRR (Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heavy water is used as reflector and moderator, while light water as coolant and moderator in the KMRR (Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor). The followings were considered as most important in this study. 1. To keep the heavy water quality at reactor gra...

Y. E. Kim K. W. Sung J. W. Jung H. S. Chung D. H. Ahn

1987-01-01

99

Design for multipurpose use: an application of DfE concept in a developing economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design for Environment (DfE) has been defined as the systematic integration of environmental considerations into product and process design. And it has been discovered that material and space can be saved when several functions are integrated into a single product by taking advantage of common components. In this design and development project, a multipurpose thresher was designed based on an

Israel Dunmade

2004-01-01

100

Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) is the Army's proposed replacement to the Vietnam-era M-113 personnel carriers, which are still in service in a variety of support capacities in Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs). While M-113s no longer serve as...

A. Feickert

2013-01-01

101

No Contribution of IP3-R(2) to Disease Phenotype in Models of Dilated Cardiomyopathy or Pressure Overload Hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the contribution of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3, IP3) receptors (IP3-R) to disease progression in mouse models of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and pressure overload hypertrophy. Mice expressing mammalian sterile 20 like kinase and dominant negative phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in heart (Mst1 x dn-PI3K-2Tg; DCM-2Tg) develop severe DCM and conduction block, associated with increased expression of IP3-R(2) and heightened generation of Ins(1,4,5)P3. Similar increases in Ins(1,4,5)P3 and IP3-R(2) are caused by thoracic aortic constriction (TAC). Methods and Results To evaluate the contribution of IP3-R(2) to disease progression, the DCM-2Tg mice were further crossed with mice in which the type 2 IP3-R (IP3-R(2)?/?) had been deleted (DCM-2Tg x IP3-R(2) ?/?) and TAC was performed on IP3-R(2) ?/?mice. Hearts from DCM-2Tg mice and DCM-2Tg x IP3-R(2) ?/? were similar in terms of chamber dilatation, atrial enlargement and ventricular wall thinning. Electrophysiological changes were also similar in the DCM-2Tg mice, with and without IP3-R(2). Deletion of IP3-R(2) did not alter the progression of heart failure, as DCM-2Tg mice with and without IP3-R(2) had similarly reduced contractility, increased lung congestion, atrial thrombus and both strains died between 10 and 12 weeks of age. Loss of IP3-R(2) did not alter the progression of hypertrophy following TAC. Conclusions We conclude that IP3-R(2) do not contribute to the progression of DCM or pressure overload hypertrophy despite increased expression and heightened generation of the ligand, Ins(1,4,5)P3.

Cooley, Nicola; Ouyang, Kunfu; McMullen, Julie R.; Kiriazis, Helen; Sheikh, Farah; Wu, Wei; Mu, Yongxin; Du, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Ju; Woodcock, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

102

Dynamic analysis and simulation of continuous 3R oblique axis non-spherical wrist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the theory of graph representation, the canonical graph representation of the continuous 3R oblique non-spherical wrist was setup, and links were divided into carriers and carried links. The concept of virtual link was introduced, and contributions of the carried links to the generalized inertia forces were divided into two parts. The first part is due to the motion

Chaoying Liu; Zhanzhong Wang; Yanjun Han; Xiaoke Fan; Wenwu Guo

2008-01-01

103

We Do Not Dream of the 3 R's: Implications for the Nature of Dreaming Mentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines the extent to which dream recall involves the “3 R's” (reading, writing, and arithmetic). Two separate studies were done. In the first study, two scorers rated, on a blind basis, a total of 456 written dream reports, available from five previous studies. There was perfect agreement between the two scorers. They agreed that there were no instances

Ernest Hartmann

2000-01-01

104

The 3R's of Solid Waste & the Population Factor for a Sustainable Planet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Opens with a brief history of human awareness of our effect upon the environment. Culminates with a discussion of a strategy to handle solid wastes. This plan includes the 3R's: (1) source reduction; (2) direct reuse of products; and (3) recycling. Also provides statistics on recycling practices of some countries. (ZWH)

Wagner, Joan

1995-01-01

105

A new asymmetric synthesis of (2 S,3 R,4 R,5 S)-trihydroxypipecolic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel four step synthesis of enantiomerically pure (2S,3R,4R,5S)-trihydroxypipecolic acid, starting from readily available materials, that is, condensation products of (R)-(?)-phenylglycinol with a mesotrihydroxylated glutaraldehyde, is described. The scope and limitations of the reaction have also been investigated.

Andriamihamina Tsimilaza; Tony Tite; Sabrina Boutefnouchet; Marie-Christine Lallemand; François Tillequin; Henri-Philippe Husson

2007-01-01

106

Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

2009-01-01

107

Measuring 14 Properties with the Multi-Purpose Instrument and a Temperature Free Method of Measuring Thermal Transport Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multi-purpose instrument originally designed to determine seven properties was extended in its capabilities to measure additional properties. The paper describes briefly the instrument and the operational procedures and brings the results of measurement...

W. Leidenfrost

1969-01-01

108

Evaluation Plan for the Education, Community Demonstration and Health Services Research Activities of the Multipurpose Arthritis Centers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Multipurpose Arthritis Centers (MACs) of the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIADDK) were established to develop new knowledge and improve the dissemination of existing knowledge about arthritis and relate...

1982-01-01

109

SNIFFER System: A Multipurpose Aerial Platform for Large Area Radiological Surveillance, Emergency Management and Air Pollution Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After several years of research and development, the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (the National Institute of Health in Italy) in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment has implemented and is now commissioning the SNIFFER system, a multipurpose air...

D. M. Castelluccio E. Cisbani S. Frullani

2008-01-01

110

Development of Techniques for Multi-Purpose Management of Reusable Water Before it Enters the Great Salt Lake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problems involving legal ownership and the multipurpose use of available water on the eastern shores of the Great Salt Lake have been in existence for more than a century. These problems are currently increasing proportionately with the recent rapid incre...

D. M. Rees F. D. Arnold D. M. Andersen G. C. Collett

1966-01-01

111

Determination of the pozzolanic activity of fluid catalytic cracking residue. Thermogravimetric analysis studies on FC3R–lime pastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R) from a petrol refinery played a pozzolanic role in portland cement system as revealed by previous experimental data. In the present study, the pozzolanic activity of FC3R was investigated by means thermogravimetry (TG) of cured lime–FC3R pastes. The influence of pozzolan\\/lime ratio on the pozzolanic activity was investigated. Due to the chemical composition of

J. Payá; J. Monzó; M. V. Borrachero; S. Velázquez; M. Bonilla

2003-01-01

112

TACR3 mutations disrupt NK3R function through distinct mechanisms in GnRH-deficient patients.  

PubMed

Neurokinin B (NKB) and its G-protein-coupled receptor, NK3R, have been implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH release; however, little is known about the structure-function relationship of this ligand-receptor pair. Moreover, loss-of-function NK3R mutations cause GnRH deficiency in humans. Using missense mutations in NK3R we previously identified in patients with GnRH deficiency, we demonstrate that Y256H and Y315C NK3R mutations in the fifth and sixth transmembrane domains (TM5 and TM6), resulted in reduced whole-cell (79.3±7.2%) or plasma membrane (67.3±7.3%) levels, respectively, compared with wild-type (WT) NK3R, with near complete loss of inositol phosphate (IP) signaling, implicating these domains in receptor trafficking, processing, and/or stability. We further demonstrate in a FRET-based assay that R295S NK3R, in the third intracellular loop (IL3), bound NKB but impaired dissociation of Gq-protein subunits from the receptor compared with WT NK3R, which showed a 10.0 ± 1.3% reduction in FRET ratios following ligand binding, indicating activation of Gq-protein signaling. Interestingly, R295S NK3R, identified in the heterozygous state in a GnRH-deficient patient, also interfered with dissociation of G proteins and IP signaling from wild-type NK3R, indicative of dominant-negative effects. Collectively, our data illustrate roles for TM5 and TM6 in NK3R trafficking and ligand binding and for IL3 in NK3R signaling.-Noel, S. D., Abreu, A. P., Xu, S., Muyide, T., Gianetti, E., Tusset, C., Carroll, J., Latronico, A. C., Seminara, S. B., Carroll, R. S., Kaiser, U. B. TACR3 mutations disrupt NK3R function through distinct mechanisms in GnRH-deficient patients. PMID:24376026

Noel, Sekoni D; Abreu, Ana Paula; Xu, Shuyun; Muyide, Titilayo; Gianetti, Elena; Tusset, Cintia; Carroll, Jessica; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Seminara, Stephanie B; Carroll, Rona S; Kaiser, Ursula B

2014-04-01

113

Validation of Cryo-EM Structure of IP3R1 Channel  

PubMed Central

Summary About a decade ago, three electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) single particle reconstructions of IP3R1 were reported at low resolution. Disturbingly, these structures bore little similarity to one another, even at the level of quaternary structure. Recently, we published an improved structure of IP3R1 at ~1 nm resolution. However, this structure did not bear any resemblance to any of the three previously published structures, leading to the question of why the new structure should be considered more reliable than the original three. Here we apply several methods, including class-average/map comparisons, tilt-pair validation, and use of multiple refinement software packages, to give strong evidence for the reliability of our recent structure. The map resolution and feature resolvability are assessed with the ‘gold standard’ criterion. This approach is generally applicable to assessing the validity of cryo-EM maps of other molecular machines.

Murray, Stephen C.; Flanagan, John; Popova, Olga B.; Chiu, Wah; Ludtke, Steven J.; Serysheva, Irina I.

2013-01-01

114

The role of IP3R clustering in Ca2+ signalinG.  

PubMed

Ca(2+) is the most important second messenger controlling a variety of intracellular processes by oscillations of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. These oscillations occur by Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into the cytosol through channels and the re-uptake of Ca(2+) into the ER by pumps. A common channel type present in many cell types is the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R), which is activated by IP(3) and Ca(2+) itself leading to Ca(2+) induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). We have shown in an experimental study, that Ca(2+) oscillations are sequences of random spikes that occur by wave nucleation. We use here our recently developed model for Ca(2+) dynamics in 3 dimension to illuminate the role of IP(3)R clustering within spatial extended systems. PMID:19425119

Skupin, Alexander; Falcke, Martin

2008-01-01

115

First-principles calculations on mechanical and elastic properties of 2H- and 3R-WS2 under pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure, mechanical stability and elastic properties of 2H- and 3R-WS2 under pressure have been investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The equilibrium lattice parameters of 2H- and 3R-WS2 at 0 GPa are consistent with experimental and other theoretical values. 2H-WS2 is more stable than 3R-WS2 when pressure is less than 5.8 GPa whereas 3R-WS2 is more stable than 2H-WS2 when pressure is higher than 5.8 GPa. According to the mechanical stability criteria, both 2H- and 3R-WS2 exhibit mechanical stability under the pressure range from 0 to 20 GPa. With the increasing pressure, the elastic moduli (E, B, G), sound velocities (vs, vp, vm) and Debye temperatures of 2H- and 3R-WS2 increase monotonously whereas volume and specific heat decrease. Large elastic anisotropies in compressibility and in shear were demonstrated for 2H- and 3R-WS2 at 0 GPa. As the pressure increases, anisotropies in compressibility and in shear become weak for 2H- and 3R-WS2. Moreover, 2H- and 3R-WS2 under pressure have higher hardness and better ductility than those at 0 GPa.

Feng, Li-ping; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Zheng-tang

2014-06-01

116

Nanoscale characterization of the ferroelectric domain structure in multiferroic RMnO3 (R: rare earths)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progresses in fabrication and nanoscale characterization of high quality complex oxides have driven a significant understanding of underlying physics in the field of multiferroic and ferroelectric materials. The hexagonal manganites, RMnO3 (R: rare earths), have been extensively studied because of the rich physics of the hexagonal system with both long-range electric and magnetic orders. In this work, intriguing ferroelectric

Taekjib Choi; Yoichi Horibe; Hee-Taek Yi; Young Jai Choi; Weida Wu; Sang-Wook Cheong

2010-01-01

117

Studies on photo-electro-chemical catalytic degradation of acid scarlet 3R dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of photo-electro-chemical catalytic reactor was designed. Cathode and anode of the new reactor were made of high-purity\\u000a graphite and titanium dioxide electrode respectively. A saturated calomel electrode (SCE) was used as the reference electrode.\\u000a Under the condition of ultraviolet radiation and anodic bias-voltage, acid scarlet 3R was degraded by the process of photoelectrocatalysis\\u000a with titanium dioxide electrode

Mingyu Li; Lin Xiong; Yunyun Chen; Na Zhang; Yuanming Zhang; Hua Yin

2005-01-01

118

The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism across Three Groups of Elite Male European Athletes  

PubMed Central

The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) is a strong candidate to influence elite athletic performance. Yet, controversy exists in the literature owing to between-studies differences in the ethnic background and sample size of the cohorts, the latter being usually low, which makes comparisons difficult. In this case:control genetic study we determined the association between elite athletic status and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism within three cohorts of European Caucasian men, i.e. Spanish, Polish and Russian [633 cases (278 elite endurance and 355 power athletes), and 808 non-athletic controls]. The odds ratio (OR) of a power athlete harbouring the XX versus the RR genotype compared with sedentary controls was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34–0.48; P?=?0.006]. We also observed that the OR of an endurance athlete having the XX versus the RR genotype compared with power athletes was 1.88 (95%CI: 1.07–3.31; P?=?0.028). In endurance athletes, the OR of a “world-class” competitor having the XX genotype versus the RR+RX genotype was 3.74 (95%CI: 1.08–12.94; P?=?0.038) compared with those of a lower (“national”) competition level. No association (P>0.1) was noted between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and competition level (world-class versus national-level) in power athletes. Our data provide comprehensive support for the influence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on elite athletic performance.

Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Femia, Pedro; Pushkarev, Vladimir P.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Dyatlov, Dmitry A.; Lekontsev, Evgeny V.; Kulikov, Leonid M.; Birk, Ruth

2012-01-01

119

Oncogenic CSF3R Mutations in Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia and Atypical CML  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The molecular causes of many hematologic cancers remain unclear. Among these cancers are chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and atypical (BCR-ABL1–negative) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), both of which are diagnosed on the basis of neoplastic expansion of granulocytic cells and exclusion of genetic drivers that are known to occur in other myeloproliferative neoplasms and myeloproliferative– myelodysplastic overlap neoplasms. METHODS To identify potential genetic drivers in these disorders, we used an integrated approach of deep sequencing coupled with the screening of primary leukemia cells obtained from patients with CNL or atypical CML against panels of tyrosine kinase–specific small interfering RNAs or small-molecule kinase inhibitors. We validated candidate oncogenes using in vitro transformation assays, and drug sensitivities were validated with the use of assays of primary-cell colonies. RESULTS We identified activating mutations in the gene encoding the receptor for colonystimulating factor 3 (CSF3R) in 16 of 27 patients (59%) with CNL or atypical CML. These mutations segregate within two distinct regions of CSF3R and lead to preferential downstream kinase signaling through SRC family–TNK2 or JAK kinases and differential sensitivity to kinase inhibitors. A patient with CNL carrying a JAK-activating CSF3R mutation had marked clinical improvement after the administration of the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. CONCLUSIONS Mutations in CSF3R are common in patients with CNL or atypical CML and represent a potentially useful criterion for diagnosing these neoplasms. (Funded by the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society and others.)

Maxson, Julia E.; Gotlib, Jason; Pollyea, Daniel A.; Fleischman, Angela G.; Agarwal, Anupriya; Eide, Christopher A.; Bottomly, Daniel; Wilmot, Beth; McWeeney, Shannon K.; Tognon, Cristina E.; Pond, J. Blake; Collins, Robert H.; Goueli, Basem; Oh, Stephen T.; Deininger, Michael W.; Chang, Bill H.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Druker, Brian J.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.

2013-01-01

120

Neutron powder diffraction study of NDâ intercalated titanium disulfide, 3R-TiSâNDâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron powder diffraction of rhombohedral 3R-TiSâNDâ (a = 3.419 \\/Angstrom\\/, c = 27.03 \\/Angstrom\\/ at 300 K, space group R\\/anti\\/3m) has shown that NDâ molecules and NDâ\\/sup +\\/ ions, present in a ratio of about 5 to 1 from chemical and physical evidence, occupy statistically the trigonal-prismatic holes between TiSâ sandwiches. One cannot distinguish between NDâ and NDâ\\/sup +\\/. Powder

H. J. M. Bouwmeester; G. A. Wiegers

1988-01-01

121

ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprinting in elite Japanese athletes.  

PubMed

The ACTN3 R577X genotype has been found to associate with sprint/power phenotypes in all elite athlete cohorts investigated. This association has not been extensively studied in elite Asian athletes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association between the ACTN3 R577X genotype and elite Japanese track and field athlete status. 299 elite Japanese track and field athletes (134 sprint/power athletes; 165 endurance/middle-power athletes) and 649 Japanese controls were genotyped for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism. All athletes were of national or international level. Sprint/power athletes showed a higher frequency of RR + RX genotype than controls (111/134 [82.8%] vs. 478/649 [73.7%], P = 0.025 under the R-dominant model), while there was no significant difference between endurance/middle-power athletes and controls (126/165 [76.4%] vs. 478/649 [73.7%], P = 0.48 under the R-dominant model). Sprinters with the RR + RX genotype had significantly faster personal best times for the 100?m than those with XX genotype (10.42 ± 0.05?s vs. 10.64 ± 0.09?s, P = 0.042); no such association was found in the 400?m sprinters (47.02 ± 0.36?s vs. 47.56 ± 0.99?s, P = 0.62). ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprint/power performance in elite Japanese track and field athletes, especially short sprint performance. PMID:23868678

Mikami, E; Fuku, N; Murakami, H; Tsuchie, H; Takahashi, H; Ohiwa, N; Tanaka, H; Pitsiladis, Y P; Higuchi, M; Miyachi, M; Kawahara, T; Tanaka, M

2014-02-01

122

Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration scheme with improved scalability using TOAD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel re-timing, re-amplifying, and re-shaping (3R) regeneration system is proposed to process multiple WDM (wavelengthdivision-multiplexing) channels simultaneously. Its re-timing capability is investigated by both simulation and experiment with polarizationscrambling method at 10 Gb/s bit rate. Jitter tolerance up to 0.8 UIpp is demonstrated with BER improvement and floor breaking ability.

Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Shankar, Raji; Prucnal, Paul R.

2006-10-01

123

IP3R2 levels dictate the apoptotic sensitivity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells to an IP3R-derived peptide targeting the BH4 domain of Bcl-2  

PubMed Central

Disrupting inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R)/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) complexes using a cell-permeable peptide (stabilized TAT-fused IP3R-derived peptide (TAT-IDPS)) that selectively targets the BH4 domain of Bcl-2 but not that of B-cell lymphoma 2-extra large (Bcl-Xl) potentiated pro-apoptotic Ca2+ signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. However, the molecular mechanisms rendering cancer cells but not normal cells particularly sensitive to disrupting IP3R/Bcl-2 complexes are poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the effect of TAT-IDPS in a more heterogeneous Bcl-2-dependent cancer model using a set of ‘primed to death' diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DL-BCL) cell lines containing elevated Bcl-2 levels. We discovered a large heterogeneity in the apoptotic responses of these cells to TAT-IDPS with SU-DHL-4 being most sensitive and OCI-LY-1 being most resistant. This sensitivity strongly correlated with the ability of TAT-IDPS to promote IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release. Although total IP3R-expression levels were very similar among SU-DHL-4 and OCI-LY-1, we discovered that the IP3R2-protein level was the highest for SU-DHL-4 and the lowest for OCI-LY-1. Strikingly, TAT-IDPS-induced Ca2+ rise and apoptosis in the different DL-BCL cell lines strongly correlated with their IP3R2-protein level, but not with IP3R1-, IP3R3- or total IP3R-expression levels. Inhibiting or knocking down IP3R2 activity in SU-DHL-4-reduced TAT-IDPS-induced apoptosis, which is compatible with its ability to dissociate Bcl-2 from IP3R2 and to promote IP3-induced pro-apoptotic Ca2+ signaling. Thus, certain chronically activated B-cell lymphoma cells are addicted to high Bcl-2 levels for their survival not only to neutralize pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family members but also to suppress IP3R hyperactivity. In particular, cancer cells expressing high levels of IP3R2 are addicted to IP3R/Bcl-2 complex formation and disruption of these complexes using peptide tools results in pro-apoptotic Ca2+ signaling and cell death.

Akl, H; Monaco, G; La Rovere, R; Welkenhuyzen, K; Kiviluoto, S; Vervliet, T; Molgo, J; Distelhorst, C W; Missiaen, L; Mikoshiba, K; Parys, J B; De Smedt, H; Bultynck, G

2013-01-01

124

Antiausterity activity of arctigenin enantiomers: importance of (2R,3R)-absolute configuration.  

PubMed

From a MeOH extract of powdered roots of Wikstroemia indica, six dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration [(+)-arctigenin (1), (+)-matairesinol (2), (+)-trachelogenin (3), (+)-nortrachelogenin (4), (+)-hinokinin (5), and (+)-kusunokinin (6)] were isolated, whereas three dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration [(-)-arctigenin (1*), (-)-matairesinol (2*), (-)-trachelogenin (3*)] were isolated from Trachelospermum asiaticum. The in vitro preferential cytotoxic activity of the nine compounds was evaluated against human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM), but none of the six lignans (1-6) with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration showed preferential cytotoxicity. On the other hand, three lignans (1*-3*) with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration exhibited preferential cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner with PC50 values of 0.54, 6.82, and 5.85 microM, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of (-)- and (+)-arctigenin was evaluated against the activation of Akt, which is a key process in the tolerance to nutrition starvation. Interestingly, only (-)-arctigenin (1*) strongly suppressed the activation of Akt. These results indicate that the (2R,3R)-absolute configuration of (-)-enantiomers should be required for the preferential cytotoxicity through the inhibition of Akt activation. PMID:24660468

Awale, Suresh; Kato, Mamoru; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Li, Feng; Miyoshi, Chika; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

2014-01-01

125

Uncommon GNAQ, MMP8, AKT3, EGFR, and PIK3R1 Mutations in Thyroid Cancers  

PubMed Central

Frequent mutations in the GNAQ, MMP8, Akt3, EGFR, and PIK3R1 genes have been reported in human cancers but mostly have not been well examined in thyroid cancer. Selected exons of GNAQ, MMP8, AKT3, EGFR, and PIK3R1 genes were sequenced in various thyroid cancers. We found a G2203A EGFR mutation, resulting in a G735S amino acid change, in one of 21 (5%) papillary thyroid cancer samples. We did not find any mutation in the MMP8 gene, but observed a frequent SNP A259G (K87E) genotype switch in various types of thyroid cancer samples. We did not find any mutation in the GNAQ, AKT3, and PIK3R1genes in various types of thyroid cancer. No mutation in these genes was found in 12 cell lines derived from various types of thyroid cancer. Therefore, unlike in other cancers, mutations in these genes are uncommon in thyroid cancer.

Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Dong, Jianli; Xie, Jingwu

2011-01-01

126

A model of multi-purpose ecosystem management for degraded Mediterranean uplands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reconcile the need for conserving and improving neglected Mediterranean upland ecosystems with socio-economic advancement, new concepts of integrated landscape management are required. For this purpose a mode of a closely interwoven network of multiple land-use patterns is suggested, based on vegetation management and manipulation of the soil-plant-animal complex and on multi-purpose environmental landscaping and afforestation. The latter

Zev Naveh

1978-01-01

127

Multi-purpose sulphur-sodium cell and mockup battery of twelve cells for electric car  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report provides results of electrical tests of multipurpose cells and electric car mockup battery of twelve cells. It is shown that, sulphur-sodium accumulators, being produced at STC “ISTOK”, have adequate reliability in testing under electric car batteries conditions. They withstand discharge current of up to 1.0 A\\/cm2 density and demonstrate consistent characteristics at operating current densities of 0.1-0.3 A\\/cm2.

Yu. V. Nikolaev; V. I. Vbyvanets; V. S. Suganeev; D. N. Dzhalandinov; A. P. Belousenko; V. N. Fedorova

1996-01-01

128

Research on an aerial-image multipurpose processing system based on C\\/S architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, aiming at mass-data aerial-images, a multipurpose system has been proposed. The system is based on c\\/s architecture design mode and supported by Oracle9i Database Server. On the implementation, C# .net technology has been adopted. In the process of image processing, several advanced international algorithms have been effectively amended and applied, like Retinex, SIFT, and Pyramid. With the

Chen Chao; Zhou Jianjun; Guo Wei; Li Jiang; He Jun; Sun Bo

2009-01-01

129

Conceptual design for a waste-management system that uses multipurpose canisters  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating the use of multipurpose canisters in the system being developed for the management and disposal of spent fuel from commercial nuclear reactors. This system will consist of a transportation system, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a repository for permanent disposal. The repository will also accept high-level waste, but multipurpose canisters will be used only for commercial spent fuel. Spent-fuel assemblies are metal rods filled with uranium pellets. Most spent fuel is stored under water, in specially designed pools, at the site of the reactor. At many commercial reactor sites, however, the storage capacities of the pools have been exhausted, and the utilities are procuring dry-storage systems from various vendors. Several dry-storage systems are available: concrete casks, metal casks, modular vertical vaults, and modular horizontal vaults. To provide a basis for the decision about using multipurpose canisters, the Department of Energy has recently completed a conceptual design. This paper summarizes the use, operation, design, licensing, and cost of the system.

Not Available

1994-01-01

130

Characterization of a flatworm inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) reveals a role in reproductive physiology  

PubMed Central

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca2+channels that elevate cytoplasmic Ca2+ in response to the second messenger IP3. Here, we describe the identification and in vivo functional characterization of the planarian IP3R, the first intracellular Ca2+ channel to be defined in flatworms. A single IP3R gene in Dugesia japonica encoded a 2666 amino acid protein (Dj.IP3R) that shared well conserved structural features with vertebrate IP3R counterparts. Expression of an NH2-terminal Dj.IP3R region (amino acid residues 223–585) recovered high affinity 3H-IP3 binding (0.9 ± 0.1 nM) which was abolished by a single point mutation of an arginine residue (R495L) important for IP3 coordination. In situ hybridization revealed that Dj.IP3R mRNA was most strongly expressed in the pharynx and optical nerve system as well as the reproductive system in sexualized planarians. Consistent with this observed tissue distribution, in vivo RNAi of Dj.IP3R resulted in a decreased egg-laying behavior suggesting Dj.IP3R plays an upstream role in planarian reproductive physiology.

Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaolong; Chan, John D.; Marchant, Jonathan S.

2013-01-01

131

Wavelength-maintaining polarization-insensitive all-optical 3R regenerator.  

PubMed

High-rate long-haul fiber communications systems will require high-speed efficient signal regeneration. By introducing a simple semiconductor-optical-amplifier wavelength converter into the folded ultrafast nonlinear interferometer, we demonstrate a polarization-insensitive wavelength-maintaining 3R all-optical regenerator. The extinction ratio between the on and off states is 21 dB. Bit-error rate data show no error floor and <0.3-dB power penalty when compared with a baseline measurement. Moreover, changes in input polarization cause no change in performance. The regenerator maintained a constant polarization and constant output power, independent of the input polarization. PMID:19503503

Savage, Shelby; Robinson, Bryan; Hamilton, Scott; Ippen, Erich

2006-03-01

132

Weak ferromagnetism in hexagonal orthoferrites RFeO3 (R = Lu, Er-Tb)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexagonal orthoferrites of rare earths RFeO3 (R = Lu, Er-Tb) were grown epitaxially on (111)ZrO2(Y2O3) substrates using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Temperature and field dependences of magnetization were measured and analyzed for all samples and revealed weak ferromagnetic behavior below T = 120-140 K. The difference in electronic structure along with a distinct similarity in the crystal structure of hexagonal manganites RMnO3 and hexagonal orthoferrites RFeO3 are brought into focus in order to explain the results. Hexagonal orthoferrites are regarded as a promising family of multiferroics.

Akbashev, A. R.; Semisalova, A. S.; Perov, N. S.; Kaul, A. R.

2011-09-01

133

Superresolution Localization of Single Functional IP3R Channels Utilizing Ca2+ Flux as a Readout  

PubMed Central

Abstract The subcellular localization of membrane Ca2+ channels is crucial for their functioning, but is difficult to study because channels may be distributed more closely than the resolution of conventional microscopy is able to detect. We describe a technique, stochastic channel Ca2+ nanoscale resolution (SCCaNR), employing Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes to localize stochastic openings and closings of single Ca2+-permeable channels within <50 nm, and apply it to examine the clustered arrangement of inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channels underlying local Ca2+ puffs. Fluorescence signals (blips) arising from single functional IP3Rs are almost immotile (diffusion coefficient <0.003 ?m2 s?1), as are puff sites over prolonged periods, suggesting that the architecture of this signaling system is stable and not subject to rapid, dynamic rearrangement. However, rapid stepwise changes in centroid position of fluorescence are evident within the durations of individual puffs. These apparent movements likely result from asynchronous gating of IP3Rs distributed within clusters that have an overall diameter of ?400 nm, indicating that the nanoscale architecture of IP3R clusters is important in shaping local Ca2+ signals. We anticipate that SCCaNR will complement superresolution techniques such as PALM and STORM for studies of Ca2+ channels as it obviates the need for photoswitchable labels and provides functional as well as spatial information.

Wiltgen, Steven M.; Smith, Ian F.; Parker, Ian

2010-01-01

134

Association between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and artistic gymnastic performance in Italy.  

PubMed

The ACTN3 (R577X) gene encodes for a structural protein that is exclusively expressed in the Z-disc of type II muscle fibers. Homozygosis (577XX) for the stop codon in the ACTN3 polymorphism results in alpha-actinin-3 complete deficiency. Previous studies have shown low frequencies of the ACTN3 XX genotype in elite sprinters compared to the general population. This study tests 35 Italian elite gymnasts and 53 controls. ACTN3 XX genotype (2.8% vs. 18.8%; p < 0.04) and X allele (27.1% vs. 43.3%; p < 0.04) frequencies were significantly lower in gymnasts compared to controls. The ACTN3 XX genotype was underrepresented in female and male gymnasts compared to controls, but was only significant for males (male: 0% vs. 16.1%, p < 0.04; female: 5.5% vs. 22.7%, p = 0.39). These results suggest that alpha-actinin-3 is beneficial to skeletal muscle function in generating forceful contractions at high velocity. In conclusion, our results associated the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism with male and possibly female elite gymnastic performance. PMID:19405879

Massidda, Myosotis; Vona, Giuseppe; Calò, Carla M

2009-06-01

135

Determination of the pozzolanic activity of fluid catalytic cracking residue. Thermogravimetric analysis studies on FC3R-lime pastes  

SciTech Connect

Spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R) from a petrol refinery played a pozzolanic role in portland cement system as revealed by previous experimental data. In the present study, the pozzolanic activity of FC3R was investigated by means thermogravimetry (TG) of cured lime-FC3R pastes. The influence of pozzolan/lime ratio on the pozzolanic activity was investigated. Due to the chemical composition of FC3R is similar to metakaolin (MK), and knowing that MK has a high pozzolanic activity, the latter was used as a material of comparison in this study. The scope of the study is the determination of the pozzolanic activity of FC3R and the evaluation of amount and nature of pozzolanic products. The products obtained from the reaction between FC3R components (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and calcium hydroxide (CH) have been characterized, finding that the main pozzolanic reaction product was similar to hydrated gehlenite (calcium aluminosilicate hydrate) CSH and CAH were also formed in the reaction. FC3R showed higher pozzolanic reactivity than metakaolin, for low-lime content pastes and early curing age. Thermogravimetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) became very useful techniques for evaluation of reactivity.

Paya, J.; Monzo, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Velazquez, S.; Bonilla, M

2003-07-01

136

The neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3R) antagonist SB222200 prevents the apomorphine-evoked surface but not nuclear NK3R redistribution in dopaminergic neurons of the rat ventral tegmental area.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a severe condition that has been associated with functional abnormalities in dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Neurokinin-3 receptors (NK3Rs) of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides modulate the activity of VTA DA neurons and might be involved in DA abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. Recent work from our lab showed that systemic injection of the dopamine D1/D2 receptor agonist apomorphine in rats, which mimics schizophrenia-like behaviors in humans, also evoked a redistribution of NK3Rs in DA neurons of the rat VTA. In the present study, VTA microinjection of the selective NK3R antagonist SB222200 (1 nmol/0.2 ?l) or the nuclear import blocker SN50 (2 ?g/0.2 ?l) was performed in awake rats 10 min prior to systemic injection of apomorphine. VTA sections were dual immunolabeled for the NK3R (immunogold) and the dopamine synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, immunoperoxidase). Electron microscopic quantifications of somatic and dendritic densities of NK3 immunogold particles were compared in rats receiving central and systemic injections. In DA (TH-labeled) dendrites, VTA microinjection of SB222200 prevented the apomorphine-evoked decrease in surface NK3R density as well as the apomorphine-induced increase in cytoplasmic NK3R density. In contrast, VTA microinjection of SN50, but not SB222200, prevented the apomorphine-induced increase in nuclear NK3R density. VTA microinjection of SB222200 or SN50 without apomorphine had no effect on the NK3R distribution or density in TH and non-TH profiles within the VTA. In non-TH, presumably GABAergic neurons of the VTA, the NK3R densities in somata and dendrites were not significantly changed by apomorphine with or without SB222200. The results suggest that the NK3R antagonist SB222200 is effective against the apomorphine-evoked NK3R internalization in VTA DA dendrites, but does not prevent nuclear NK3R trafficking in VTA DA neurons. These results might have important implications in targeting NK3R antagonists in basic or clinical studies. PMID:23673279

Hether, S; Misono, K; Lessard, A

2013-09-01

137

Prioritizing multipurpose prevention technology development and investments using a target product profile.  

PubMed

Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) represent a powerful opportunity to address the unmet sexual and reproductive health needs of women in at-risk populations around the world in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The development of MPT products for the combination prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV) is a high-risk/high-gain, expensive process. The associated challenges are compounded by limitations in available resources for the development, evaluation, and delivery of such products. Consequently, an objective process for identifying MPT products with the highest public health impact potential is necessary to serve as the basis of coordinated investment of supporting agencies in the development of such products. Moreover, this process would serve as a framework for product development organizations, guiding their product development strategies. The Scientific Agenda Working Group of the Initiative for Multipurpose Prevention Technologies conducted an MPT pipeline evaluation exercise for the purpose of defining specific MPT product priorities, and to identify MPT technology gaps which need to be addressed in order to achieve development of optimal products. Through a formal and objective process, a set of MPT priority product recommendations emerged, along with several priority MPT gaps. Further, specific MPT development process priorities were identified. The detailed process and summary findings of this exercise are presented here. This article is based on a presentation at the "Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies," held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188707

Romano, Joe; Manning, Judy; Hemmerling, Anke; McGrory, Elizabeth; Holt, Bethany Young

2013-12-01

138

Restoring Natural Streamflow Variability by Modifying Multi-purpose Reservoir Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-purpose reservoirs typically provide benefits of water supply, hydroelectric power, and flood mitigation. Hydroelectric power generations generally do not consume water. However, temporal distribution of downstream flows is highly changed due to hydro-peaking effects. Associated with offstream diversion of water supplies for municipal, industrial, and agricultural requirements, natural streamflow characteristics of magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change is significantly altered by multi-purpose reservoir operation. Natural flow regime has long been recognized a master factor for ecosystem health and biodiversity. Restoration of altered flow regime caused by multi-purpose reservoir operation is the main objective of this study. This study presents an optimization framework that modifying reservoir operation to seeking balance between human and environmental needs. The methodology presented in this study is applied to the Feitsui Reservoir, located in northern Taiwan, with main purpose of providing stable water-supply and auxiliary purpose of electricity generation and flood-peak attenuation. Reservoir releases are dominated by two decision variables, i.e., duration of water releases for each day and percentage of daily required releases within the duration. The current releasing policy of the Feitsui Reservoir releases water for water-supply and hydropower purposes during 8:00 am to 16:00 pm each day and no environmental flows releases. Although greater power generation is obtained by 100% releases distributed within 8-hour period, severe temporal alteration of streamflow is observed downstream of the reservoir. Modifying reservoir operation by relaxing these two variables and reserve certain ratio of streamflow as environmental flow to maintain downstream natural variability. The optimal reservoir releasing policy is searched by the multi-criterion decision making technique for considering reservoir performance in terms of shortage ratio and power generation and downstream hydrologic alterations in terms of ecological relevant indicators. The results show that the proposed methodology can mitigate hydro-peaking effects on natural variability, while maintains efficient reservoir operation.

Shiau, J.

2010-12-01

139

Pharmacokinetics of a multipurpose pod-intravaginal ring simultaneously delivering five drugs in an ovine model.  

PubMed

Multipurpose technologies that simultaneously protect from sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy are urgently needed. Pod-intravaginal rings (IVRs) formulated with the antiretroviral agents (ARVs) tenofovir, nevirapine, and saquinavir and the contraceptives etonogestrel and estradiol were evaluated in sheep. Steady-state concentrations were maintained for 28 days with controlled, sustained delivery. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that pod IVRs can deliver three ARVs from different mechanistic classes and a progestin-estrogen combination over the wide range needed for putative preventative efficacy. PMID:23752507

Moss, John A; Malone, Amanda M; Smith, Thomas J; Kennedy, Sean; Nguyen, Cali; Vincent, Kathleen L; Motamedi, Massoud; Baum, Marc M

2013-08-01

140

Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hoertkorn, T.R. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (United States)

1993-05-01

141

The Multi-Purpose Detector for NICA heavy-Ion Collider at JINR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is designed to study heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna. Its main components located inside a superconducting solenoid are a tracking system composed of a silicon microstrip vertex detector followed by a large volume time-projection chamber, a time-of-flight system for particle identification and a barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. A zero degree hadron calorimeter is designed specifically to measure the energy of spectators. In this paper, all parts of the apparatus are described and their tracking and particle identification parameters are discussed in some detail.

Rogachevsky, O. V.

2012-05-01

142

Accumulation of spatial charge in the time projection chamber of a multipurpose detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the results of a numerical simulation of the process of spatial positive charge accumulation in the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of the multipurpose detector (MPD) at Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). Based on the spatial distribution of the charges, the problem of calculating the potential of the electrostatic field created by these charges has been solved. The radial, angular, and axial distortions in the electron motions from the point of ionization to the readout planes are calculated.

Merts, S. P.; Razin, S. V.; Rogachevskii, O. V.

2013-01-01

143

A compact multipurpose nanomanipulator for use inside a scanning electron microscope  

SciTech Connect

A compact, two-stage nanomanipulator was designed and built for use inside a scanning electron microscope. It consists of a fine stage employing piezostacks that provide a 15 {mu}m range in three dimensions and a coarse stage based on commercially available stick-slip motors. Besides the fabrication of enhanced probes for scanning probe microscopy and the enhancement of electron field emitters, other novel manipulation processes were developed, such as locating, picking up, and positioning small nanostructures with an accuracy of {approx}10 nm. In combination with in situ I-V experiments, welding, and etching, this results in a multipurpose nanofactory, enabling a new range of experiments.

Heeres, E. C.; Katan, A. J.; Es, M. H. van; Beker, A. F.; Hesselberth, M.; Zalm, D. J. van der [Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Oosterkamp, T. H. [Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Leiden Probe Microscopy, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

2010-02-15

144

Learning How To Read Empirical Research Articles: An Application of a Modified Version of SQ3R.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes strategies to facilitate college students learning from scientific journal articles. Builds upon a variant of SQ3R as a basic strategy and utilizes a cognitive strategy instruction (CSI) model for sequencing instruction. (NH)

Feldt, Ronald C.; Moore, Robert E.

1999-01-01

145

Enantioselective formal synthesis of (-)-podophyllotoxin from (2S,3R)-3-arylaziridine-2-carboxylate.  

PubMed

Meyers' 4-aryl-1-tetralone-lactone and ent-Zhang's 2-diarylmethyl-4-oxobutanoate were synthesized in the formal synthesis of (-)-podophyllotoxin from (2S,3R)-3-arylaziridine-2-carboxylate, via 3,3-diarylpropanoate as a common intermediate, in an overall 42% yield through 10 steps and 31% yield through 6 steps, respectively. The key steps in the synthesis were regio- and diastereoselective ring opening with an aromatic nucleophile, samarium iodide promoted reductive C-N bond cleavage, and Stille coupling for introducing the vinyl functionality. The starting aziridine was enantioselectively prepared from 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde by guanidinium ylide mediated asymmetric aziridination. All nitrogen components used in the reaction sequence are reusable as the starting guanidinium source. PMID:23496308

Takahashi, Masato; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Ishikawa, Tsutomu

2013-04-01

146

Study of structural, electronic and elastic properties of RPd3 (R = Lu and Sc) compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural, electronic and elastic properties of nonmagnetic RPd3 (R = Lu and Sc) compounds, which crystallize in AuCu3-type structure, are studied using first principles density functional theory based on full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The calculations are carried out within the PBE-GGA and WC-GGA for the exchange correlation potential. Our calculated ground state properties such as lattice constant (a0), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B') are in good agreement with the experimental results. We first time predict the elastic constants for these compounds using different approximations of GGA. These RPd3 compounds are found to be ductile in nature in accordance with Pugh's criteria. The computed electronic band structures and density of states show metallic character of these compounds.

Thakur, Veena; Pagare, Gitanjali; Chouhan, S. S.; Sanyal, S. P.

2014-04-01

147

Synthesis of 3R-Cu MO 2+ ? ( M=Ga, Sc, In)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvements have been made in the single-phase synthesis of 3R CuScO 2 and CuInO 2 by the metathesis reaction between CuCl and AMO 2 ( A=Li, Na; M=Sc, In). A new flux-assisted procedure has also been devised for the preparation of single-phase CuGaO 2 at temperatures near 600°C. Oxygen insertion into CuScO 2 and CuInO 2 has been examined by heating samples in air to a temperature of 450°C. A single phase of composition CuInO 2.67 can be produced by this method, while oxygen uptake for CuScO 2 under similar conditions results in the production of CuO and Sc 2O 3.

Park, Sangmoon; Keszler, Douglas A.

2003-07-01

148

Study of elastic moduli and thermal properties of RMnO3 (R = La, Nd) compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we develop a theoretical model for quantitative analysis of temperature-dependent heat capacity calculation of the magnetoresistance compounds RMnO3 (R = La, Nd). The results on heat capacity obtained by us are in good agreement with the measured values. An effective interionic interaction potential (EIoIP) with the long-range Coulomb, van der Waals (vdW) interaction and short-range repulsive interaction up to second neighbor ions within the Hafemeister and Flygare approach was formulated to estimate the Debye and Einstein temperature and was found to be consistent with the available experimental data. In addition, the properties studied are the cohesive energy, molecular force constant, Restrahlen frequency and Gruneisen parameter. After characterizing thermal properties, a systematic investigation of elastic behavior has been undertaken and it has been found that the elastic moduli are decreasing continuously with increasing temperature.

Varshney, Dinesh; Choudhary, Dinesh

2014-06-01

149

The regulation of food intake by selective stimulation of the type 3 melanocortin receptor (MC3R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of binding sites for melanocortin peptides exist within the arcuate nucleus, and a functional response to melanocortin peptides has been demonstrated in arcuate POMC neurons. Because the MC3R is thought to function as an inhibitory autoreceptor on POMC neurons, we reasoned that peripheral injections of MC3R-specific agonists would act within the arcuate nucleus to inhibit POMC neurons and

Daniel L. Marks; Victor Hruby; Gregor Brookhart; Roger D. Cone

2006-01-01

150

Apoptosis induced clustering of IP(3)R1 in nuclei of non-differentiated PC12 cells.  

PubMed

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors are emerging as key sites for regulation by pro- and anti-apoptotic factors. Induction of apoptosis for 3?h increased mRNA and protein levels of type 1 IP(3) receptors in non-differentiated (ND), but not in differentiated (D) PC12 cells. Inhibitors of the IP(3) R's calcium release-2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and xestospongin-completely prevented Bax and caspase-3 mRNA increase after treatment with the apoptosis inducer set (AIK), and this reinforces the importance of IP(3) R1 in the apoptosis of ND PC12 cells. Apoptosis induction not only increases the IP(3) R1 protein, but it also causes formation of IP(3) R1 clusters in the nucleus which most likely result from fusion of the nucleoplasmic reticulum and/or IP(3) R1 translocation to the nucleus. This is quite similar to the observations noted after overexpression of IP(3) R1 in PC12 cells. The amount of IP(3) induced calcium release was higher in control than in AIK-treated cells. From our results we propose that after the apoptosis induction the amount of intranuclear calcium decreased dramatically due to the increase of calcium permeability of the nuclear calcium store vesicles. Therefore, increase of the calcium permeability may result from IP(3) receptors translocation to nuclei that can boost the calcium transport through IP(3) receptors. PMID:21302308

Ondrias, Karol; Lencesova, Lubomira; Sirova, Marta; Labudova, Martina; Pastorekova, Silvia; Kopacek, Juraj; Krizanova, Olga

2011-12-01

151

Magnetic properties and microscopic structures of ultrathin Co/?3 × ?3 - R30°-Ag/Si(111) films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combined scanning tunneling microscopy and surface magneto-optic Kerr effect studies were employed to study the relation between magnetic properties and the microscopic interfacial structures of ultrathin Co/?3 × ?3 - R30°-Ag/Si(111) films. On the top of ?3 × ?3 - R30°-Ag/Si(111), pure Co clusters formed without disrupting the ?3 × ?3 - R30° structure of the Ag buffer layer. The great strain due to the large mismatch between Co and the substrate influenced the nucleation of Co atoms to form large clusters. No magnetic hysteresis in the polar configuration was observed for films thinner than 10 monolayers. The easy axis of magnetization was in the surface plane. Capping ?3 × ?3 - R30°-Ag on top of the Si(111) surface before the deposition of the Co overlayers can efficiently reduce the nonferromagnetic Co-Si compound to zero thickness. For Co coverage between 2.9 and 4.2 monolayers, a lower Curie temperature was observed in ultrathin films. Due to the existence of a smooth interface between Co and the ?3 × ?3 - R30°-Ag buffer, the coercivity for Co/?3 × ?3 - R30°-Ag/Si(111) is smaller than that for Co/Si(111).

Tsay, Jyh-Shen; Fu, Tsu-Yi; Kao, Chih-Kuei; Huang, Xiao-Lan; Shue, Jyh-Ron; Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yao, Yeong-Der

2013-06-01

152

Development of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) coatings for multipurpose mechanical pump seals.  

SciTech Connect

The reliability and performance of silicon carbide (SiC) shaft seals on multipurpose mechanical pumps are improved by applying a protective coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). UNCD exhibits extreme hardness (97 GPa), low friction (0.1 in air) and outstanding chemical resistance. Consequently, the application of UNCD coatings to multipurpose mechanical pump seals can reduce frictional energy losses and eliminate the downtime and hazardous emissions from seal failure and leakage. In this study, UNCD films were prepared by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition utilizing an argon/methane gas mixture. Prior to coating, the SiC seals were subjected to mechanical polishing using different grades of micron-sized diamond powder to produce different starting surfaces with well-controlled surface roughnesses. Following this roughening process, the seals were seeded by mechanical abrasion with diamond nanopowder, and subsequently coated with UNCD. The coated seals were subjected to dynamic wear testing performed at 3600 RPM and 100 psi for up to 10 days during which the seals were periodically removed and inspected. The UNCD-coated seals were examined using Raman microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and adhesion testing before and after the wear testing. These analyses revealed that delamination of the UNCD films was prevented when the initial SiC seal surface had an initial roughness >0.1 {micro}m. In addition, the UNCD surfaces showed no measurable wear as compared to approximately 0.2 {micro}m of wear for the untreated SiC surfaces.

Kovalchenko, A. M.; Elam, J. W.; Erdemir, A.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Libera, J. A.; Pellin, M. J.; Gruen, D. M.; Hryn, J. N. (Materials Science Division); (Georgia Inst. of Tech.)

2011-01-01

153

Hole and electron doping of RNiO{sub 3} (R = La, Nd)  

SciTech Connect

The effect of hole and electron doping in the perovskites RNiO{sub 3} (R = rare earths) has been studied. R{sub 1-x}A{sub x}NiO{sub 3} (R = La, Nd; A = Sr, Th; O {le} x {le} 0.1) were prepared under 200 bars of oxygen and were characterized by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and resistivity measurements. The neutron data for rhombohedral La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}NiO{sub 3} or orthorhombic Nd{sub 0.95}A{sub 0.05}NiO{sub 3} (A = Sr, Th) show that Sr or Th replace at random the rare-earth cations, whereas the oxygen positions remain fully occupied. NiO{sub 6} octahedra are either contracted, in the hole-doped Sr-containing samples, or expanded, in the electron-doped Th-containing compounds, as a consequence of the decrease/increase of the Ni-O bond lengths electronically induced by doping. Accordingly, bond-valence calculations give a valence for nickel higher/lower than +3, for the Sr/Th-doped compounds, respectively. The transport properties dramatically change with respect to the undoped compounds. The metal-to-insulator transition present in NdNiO{sub 3} (T = 200 K) disappears for Nd{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 3}, which remains metallic down to 1.5 K even for the smallest doping rate (5%). This fact can be structurally related to the straightening, by 1.4{degrees} for x = 0.05, of the (Ni-O-Ni) angles, which govern the transfer integral between Ni-3d and O-2p orbitals. For Nd{sub 0.95}Th{sub 0.05}NiO{sub 3} there is a suppression of the metal-insulator transition toward low temperatures (T = 132 K). Electronic factors, related to the injection of holes or electrons into the bands of the solid, are mostly responsible for the structural changes observed in these doped compounds, which cannot be explained by simple steric considerations.

Alonso, J.A.; Martinez-Lope, M.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materials de Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Ciencia de Materials de Madrid (Spain); Hidalgo, M.A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materials de Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Ciencia de Materials de Madrid (Spain); [Universidad de Alcala de Henares (Spain)

1995-04-01

154

Multipurpose Monoprints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information on monoprints, describing the process of creating monoprints, the various uses of monoprints, historical information on monoprints, ideas about variations of this process, and printmaking artists. Includes teaching suggestions and learning objectives. (CMK)

Fowler, Judith

2002-01-01

155

(2R,3R)-3-O-Benzoyl-N-benzyl-tartramide1  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C18H17NO6 [systematic name: (2R,3R)-4-benzyl­amino-2-benzo­yloxy-3-hy­droxy-4-oxobutanoic acid], is the first structurally characterized unsymmetrical monoamide–monoacyl tartaric acid derivative. The mol­ecule shows a staggered conformation around the tartramide Csp3—Csp3 bond with trans-oriented carboxyl and amide groups. The mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular N—H?O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H?O hydrogen bonds between the carboxyl and amide carbonyl groups, forming translational chains along [001]. Further O—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds as well as weaker C—H?O and C—H?? inter­molecular inter­actions extend the supra­molecular assembly into a double-layer structure parallel to (100). There are no directional inter­actions between the double layers.

Madura, Izabela D.; Zachara, Janusz; Bernas, Urszula; Hajmowicz, Halina; Synoradzki, Ludwik

2012-01-01

156

Characterization of chitosan/montmorillonite membranes as adsorbents for Bezactiv Orange V-3R dye.  

PubMed

The synthesis, characterization and environmental application of chitosan/montmorillonite membrane for adsorption Bezactiv Orange V-3R were investigated. Chitosan/montmorillonite membranes were synthesized in different ratios, containing 10-50% of montmorillonite (MMT) in membrane. These membranes were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption kinetics were investigated using three different concentrations of Bezactiv Orange dye (30, 50 and 80 mg/L). The adsorption capacity increases with increasing amount of MMT in membranes. These membranes show the highest adsorption capacity when the initial dye concentration was 80 mg/L. The results show that the optimum condition for adsorption of Bezactiv Orange is pH 6. A comparison of kinetic models was evaluated for the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order and intra-particle diffusion. The experimental data were fitted to the pseudo-second order kinetic model, and also followed by intra-particle diffusion. Intra-particle diffusion is not the only rate-controlling step. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were applied to experimental equilibrium data at different concentration of dye solution. The results indicated the competency of chitosan/MMT membranes adsorbent for Bezactiv Orange adsorption. PMID:22305598

Nesic, Aleksandra R; Velickovic, Sava J; Antonovic, Dusan G

2012-03-30

157

Cylindrical crystals of molybdenite-3R:sem- and x-ray investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flat faces are the characteristic feature of ionic crystals; nevertheless, among them there are cleavage-faced ones, up to the crystals with cylindrical shapes. More often they occur among minerals with layer structure or minerals with higher tendency to structural defectiveness (cylindrite, franckeite, asbestos, jamesonite, boulangerite and etc.). We studied exotic cylindrical crystals of molybdenite, discovered in the pegmatite veins of Slyudyanogorsky deposit of muscovite in Middle Ural by Kobyashev Yu. S., Zverev G. F. in 1973. Crystals have cylindrical shape, sometimes with sharpened or flattened wedge-shaped edges. Their length is 2-10 mm, diameter 0.8-mm. At the cross section crystals possess concentrically-laminar composition with tabulated axled canal with diameter about 120mkm. Thin layers arise packages about 15 mkm thickness. In the section crystals are fixed up to 6 such packages visually as well as by methods of X-ray phase-dispersed introscopy. According to the data of monocrystal and powder X-ray molybdenite represents as trigonal polytype 3R-R3m with insignificant quantity of hexagonal polytype 2H-P6@3/mmc. Twisting of leaf-like crystalline germs is one of the reasons of formation of cylindrical crystals due to syngenetic shistosity of containing rocks with crystallization.

Yushkin, N.; Zhabin, A.

2003-04-01

158

Prevalence and impact of colony stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) mutations among Egyptian acute myeloid leukemia patients.  

PubMed

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) mutations have been implicated in the progression of severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) to leukemia. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of colony stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) mutations among Egyptian acute myeloid leukemia and their clinic-pathological impact. The study was conducted on 179 adult patients (156 de novo AML and 23 secondary AML on top of SCN). CSF3R mutations were analyzed by sequencing of the PCR products. CSF3R mutations were detected in 2 cases out of 156 de novo AML patients (1.2%) and eighteen cases out of 23 secondary AML patients (78.2%). It was noticed that most of the mutant cases are of younger age, have a high white blood cells count, high bone marrow blasts, bad performance status, and absence of extra medullary disease and with low rate induction remission. Also the overall survival of AML patient's secondary to CSF3R mutations was shorter as compared to those with wild type AML cases. In conclusion the frequency of CSF3R mutations is highly prevalent among AML patients secondary to SCN compared to de novo AML. PMID:24746896

Aref, Salah; El-Ghonemy, Mohamed; Abouzeid, Tarek; El-Sabbagh, Amr; El-Baiomy, Mohamed

2014-06-01

159

Attenuated Pik3r1 Expression Prevents Insulin Resistance and Adipose Tissue Macrophage Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

Obese white adipose tissue (AT) is characterized by large-scale infiltration of proinflammatory macrophages, in parallel with systemic insulin resistance; however, the cellular stimulus that initiates this signaling cascade and chemokine release is still unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunits on AT macrophage (ATM) infiltration in obesity. Here, we find that the Pik3r1 regulatory subunits (i.e., p85?/p55?/p50?) are highly induced in AT from high-fat diet–fed obese mice, concurrent with insulin resistance. Global heterozygous deletion of the Pik3r1 regulatory subunits (?HZ), but not knockout of Pik3r2 (p85?), preserves whole-body, AT, and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, despite severe obesity. Moreover, ATM accumulation, proinflammatory gene expression, and ex vivo chemokine secretion in obese ?HZ mice are markedly reduced despite endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hypoxia, adipocyte hypertrophy, and Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Furthermore, bone marrow transplant studies reveal that these improvements in obese ?HZ mice are independent of reduced Pik3r1 expression in the hematopoietic compartment. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that Pik3r1 expression plays a critical role in mediating AT insulin sensitivity and, more so, suggest that reduced PI3K activity is a key step in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response in obese AT.

McCurdy, Carrie E.; Schenk, Simon; Holliday, Michael J.; Philp, Andrew; Houck, Julie A.; Patsouris, David; MacLean, Paul S.; Majka, Susan M.; Klemm, Dwight J.; Friedman, Jacob E.

2012-01-01

160

Modeling and simulation of various hybrid electric configurations of the high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have been studied mainly with the aim or increasing fuel economy, little has been done in order to improve both fuel economy and performance. However, vehicular dynamic performance characteristics such as acceleration and gradeability are of prime importance in military vehicles such as the high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). This paper is concentrated on the

Antonis Antoniou; Jonathan Komyathy; Justin Bench; Ali Emadi

2005-01-01

161

Application of composite particle swarm optimization in reliable design, production, and maintenance planning for multipurpose process plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, reliable design, production, and maintenance planning for multipurpose process plant is formulated as a multi-objective mathematical optimization problem. In this work, five objectives: the total cost of utilities, preventive and corrective maintenance costs, design costs as a function of equipment initial failure rate, and the profit generated by the delivered products are considered in the optimization. To

Ping Ren; Liqun Gao; Yang Zhang; Nan Li

2008-01-01

162

Design and Development of Multi-Purpose CCD Camera System with Thermoelectric Cooling: Hardware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed and developed a multi-purpose CCD camera system for three kinds of CCDs; KAF-0401E(768×512), KAF-1602E(1536×1024), KAF-3200E(2184×1472) made by KODAK Co.. The system supports fast USB port as well as parallel port for data I/O and control signal. The packing is based on two stage circuit boards for size reduction and contains built-in filter wheel. Basic hardware components include clock pattern circuit, A/D conversion circuit, CCD data flow control circuit, and CCD temperature control unit. The CCD temperature can be controlled with accuracy of approximately 0.4° C in the max. range of temperature, ? 33° C. This CCD camera system has with readout noise 6 e^{-}, and system gain 5 e^{-}/ADU. A total of 10 CCD camera systems were produced and our tests show that all of them show passable performance.

Kang, Y.-W.; Byun, Y. I.; Rhee, J. H.; Oh, S. H.; Kim, D. K.

2007-12-01

163

NASA AND ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In March 2011, NASA and ESA made a decision to partially offset the European obligations deriving from the extension of the ISS Program until the end of 2020 with different means than ATVs, following the ATV-5 mission foreseen in mid-2014. NASA and ESA considered a number of barter options, and concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module and Spacecraft Adaptor for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter element with the most interest. A joint ESA - NASA working group was established to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage. The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin. This paper gives an overview of the results of the on-going study as well as its projected utilization for the global space exploration endeavour.

Free, James M.; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie

2012-01-01

164

Multipurpose Small Size Fast Reactor: Its Basic Concept and Application to Nuclear Hydrogen Production  

SciTech Connect

Here we propose a basic concept of a multipurpose small-sized fast reactor and its applicability to produce nuclear hydrogen for near future mass use of hydrogen industrial and public use. The modular-type fast reactor of 150 MW thermal output does not require fuel exchange nor decommissioning on the site, and can be transported from the factory in a fabricated form. For the hydrogen production, we propose to use the sorption enhanced reforming process (SERP), in which the steam-methane reforming can take place around 450 - 550. Since this temperature range is rather low compared to the ongoing steam reforming method (> 800 ), the SERP system combined with an adequate nuclear reactor system should be a promising one to cope with the coming age of hydrogen civilization. (authors)

Endo, H. [Toshiba Corporation (Japan); Sawada, T.; Ninokata, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2002-07-01

165

Delivery of multipurpose prevention drug combinations from electrospun nanofibers using composite microarchitectures  

PubMed Central

Background Electrospun drug-eluting fabrics have enormous potential for the delivery of physicochemically diverse drugs in combination by controlling the underlying material chemistry and fabric microarchitecture. However, the rationale for formulating drugs at high drug loading in the same or separate fibers is unknown but has important implications for product development and clinical applications. Methods Using a production-scale free-surface electrospinning instrument, we produced electrospun nanofibers with different microscale geometries for the co-delivery of tenofovir (TFV) and levonorgestrel (LNG) – two lead drug candidates for multipurpose prevention of HIV acquisition and unintended pregnancy. We investigated the in vitro drug release of TFV and LNG combinations from composites that deliver the two drugs from the same fiber (combined fibers) or from separate fibers in a stacked or interwoven architecture. For stacked composites, we also examined the role that fabric thickness has on drug-release kinetics. We also measured the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the drugs delivered alone and in combination. Results Herein, we report on the solution and processing parameters for the free-surface electrospinning of medical fabrics with controlled microarchitecture and high drug loading (up to 20 wt%). We observed that in vitro release of the highly water-soluble TFV, but not the water-insoluble LNG, was affected by composite microarchitecture, fabric thickness, and drug content. Finally, we showed that the drug-loaded nanofibers are noncytotoxic and that the antiviral activity of TFV is preserved through the electrospinning process and when combined with LNG. Conclusion Electrospun fabrics with high drug loading create multicomponent systems that benefit from the independent control of the nanofibrous microarchitecture. Our findings are significant because they will inform the design and production of composite electrospun fabrics for the co-delivery of physicochemically diverse drugs that may be useful for multipurpose prevention.

Blakney, Anna K; Krogstad, Emily A; Jiang, Yonghou H; Woodrow, Kim A

2014-01-01

166

Frizzled/PCP-dependent asymmetric neuralized expression determines R3/R4 fates in the Drosophila eye.  

PubMed

Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a common feature in many epithelia, reflected in cellular organization within the plane of an epithelium. In the Drosophila eye, Frizzled (Fz)/PCP signaling induces cell-fate specification of the R3/R4 photoreceptors through regulation of Notch activation in R4. Except for Dl upregulation in R3, the mechanism of how Fz/PCP signaling regulates Notch in this context is not understood. We demonstrate that the E3-ubiquitin ligase Neuralized (Neur), required for Dl-N signaling, is asymmetrically expressed within the R3/R4 pair. It is required in R3, where it is also upregulated in a Fz/PCP-dependent manner. As is the case for Dl, N activity in R4 further represses neur expression, thus, reinforcing the asymmetry. We demonstrate that Neur asymmetry is instructive in correct R3/R4 specification. Our data indicate that Fz/PCP-dependent Neur expression in R3 ensures the proper directionality of Dl-N signaling during R3/R4 specification. PMID:17141162

del Alamo, David; Mlodzik, Marek

2006-12-01

167

R3-R4 deletion in the PRNP gene is associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)  

SciTech Connect

There are conflicting reports on the association of deletions in the PRNP gene on chromosome 20 with CJD, a rapidly progressive fatal spongiform encephalopathy. We accumulated data suggesting that a deletion of R3-R4 type (parts of the third and fourth repeats are deleted from the area of four repeating 24 bp sequences in the 5{prime} region of the gene) is causing CJD. Screening of 129 unaffected control individuals demonstrated presence of a deletion of R2 type in four (1.55% of the studied chromosomes), but none of them had the R3-R4 type. Of 181 screened patients with spongiform encephalopathies, two had a deletion of R3-R4 type with no other mutations in the coding sequence. Both patients had a classical rapidly progressive dementing disease and diffuse spongiform degeneration, and both cases were apparently sporadic. The same R3-R4 type of deletion was detected in three additional neuropathologically confirmed spongiform encephalopathy patients, of which two had other known pathogenic mutations in the PRNP gene: at codon 178 on the methionine allele exhibiting the phenotype of fatal familial insomnia, and codon 200 causing CJD with severe dementia; the third was a patient with iatrogenic CJD who developed the disease after treatment with growth hormone extracted from cadaveric human pituitary glands. In all cases the deletion coincided with a variant sequence at position 129 coding for methionine.

Cervenakova, L.; Brown, P.; Nagle, J. [and others

1994-09-01

168

Three novel SNPs in the coding region of the bovine MC3R gene and their associations with growth traits.  

PubMed

The involvement of melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) is well recognized in the regulation of feeding efficiency, body weight, and energy homeostasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between MC3R gene polymorphisms and growth traits. Three novel SNPs (c.24C?T, c.220T?A, c.734G?C) and five haplotypes were identified in 234 Xiangxi cattle. The associations between MC3R gene polymorphisms and growth traits indicated that the individuals with TT and AT genotypes maintained higher body weight than those with the AA genotype at the c.220T?A locus (P < 0.05). The animals with GG and CG genotypes had higher heart girth and body weight than those with the CC genotype at c.734G?C (P < 0.05). The animals with H3H3 and H2H3 haplotype combinations had higher body weight than those with other haplotype combinations (P < 0.05). The results suggest that these SNPs in the MC3R gene might be useful genetic markers for marker-assisted selection and cattle breeding. PMID:24233436

Luoreng, Zhuo Ma; Wang, Xing Ping; Ma, Yun; Li, Feng; Guo, Dong Sheng; Li, Na; Wang, Jin Ren

2014-02-01

169

CSF3R T618I is a highly prevalent and specific mutation in chronic neutrophilic leukemia.  

PubMed

Truncation mutations of the receptor cytoplasmic domain for colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF3R) are frequently seen in severe congenital neutropenia, whereas activating missense mutations affecting the extracellular domain (exon 14) have been described in hereditary neutrophilia and chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL). In order to clarify mutational frequency, specificity and phenotypic associations, we sequenced CSF3R exons 14-17 in 54 clinically suspected cases of CNL (n=35) or atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML; n=19). Central review of these cases confirmed WHO-defined CNL in 12 patients, monoclonal gammopathy (MG)-associated CNL in 5 and WHO-defined aCML in 9. A total of 14 CSF3R mutations were detected in 13 patients, including 10 with CSF3RT618I (exon 14 mutation, sometimes annotated as CSF3R T595I). CSF3RT618I occurred exclusively in WHO-defined CNL with a mutational frequency of 83% (10 of 12 cases). CSF3R mutations were not seen in aCML or MG-associated CNL. CSF3RT618I was also absent among 170 patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF; n=76) or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML; n=94). SETBP1 mutational frequencies in WHO-defined CNL, aCML, CMML and PMF were 33, 0, 7 and 3%, respectively. Four CSF3RT618I-mutated cases co-expressed SETBP1 mutations. We conclude that CSF3RT618I is a highly sensitive and specific molecular marker for CNL and should be incorporated into current diagnostic criteria. PMID:23604229

Pardanani, A; Lasho, T L; Laborde, R R; Elliott, M; Hanson, C A; Knudson, R A; Ketterling, R P; Maxson, J E; Tyner, J W; Tefferi, A

2013-09-01

170

Cooperativity of RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations in severe congenital neutropenia: a unique pathway in myeloid leukemogenesis.  

PubMed

Severe congenital neutropenia (CN) is a preleukemic bone marrow failure syndrome with a 20% risk of evolving into leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patterns of acquisition of leukemia-associated mutations were investigated using next-generation deep-sequencing in 31 CN patients who developed leukemia or MDS. Twenty (64.5%) of the 31 patients had mutations in RUNX1. A majority of patients with RUNX1 mutations (80.5%) also had acquired CSF3R mutations. In contrast to their high frequency in CN patients who developed leukemia or MDS, RUNX1 mutations were found in only 9 of 307 (2.9%) patients with de novo pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. A sequential analysis at stages prior to overt leukemia revealed RUNX1 mutations to be late events in leukemic transformation. Single-cell analyses in 2 patients showed that RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations were present in the same malignant clone. Functional studies demonstrated elevated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced proliferation with diminished myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic CD34(+) cells coexpressing mutated forms of RUNX1 and CSF3R. The high frequency of cooperating RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations in CN patients suggests a novel molecular pathway of leukemogenesis: mutations in the hematopoietic cytokine receptor (G-CSFR) in combination with the second mutations in the downstream hematopoietic transcription fator (RUNX1). The detection of both RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations could be used as a marker for identifying CN patients with a high risk of progressing to leukemia or MDS. PMID:24523240

Skokowa, Julia; Steinemann, Doris; Katsman-Kuipers, Jenny E; Zeidler, Cornelia; Klimenkova, Olga; Klimiankou, Maksim; Unalan, Murat; Kandabarau, Siarhei; Makaryan, Vahagn; Beekman, Renee; Behrens, Kira; Stocking, Carol; Obenauer, Julia; Schnittger, Susanne; Kohlmann, Alexander; Valkhof, Marijke G; Hoogenboezem, Remco; Göhring, Gudrun; Reinhardt, Dirk; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Stanulla, Martin; Vandenberghe, Peter; Donadieu, Jean; Zwaan, C Michel; Touw, Ivo P; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Dale, David C; Welte, Karl

2014-04-01

171

CSF3R T618I is a highly prevalent and specific mutation in chronic neutrophilic leukemia  

PubMed Central

Truncation mutations of the receptor cytoplasmic domain for colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF3R) are frequently seen in severe congenital neutropenia, whereas activating missense mutations affecting the extracellular domain (exon 14) have been described in hereditary neutrophilia and chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL). In order to clarify mutational frequency, specificity and phenotypic associations, we sequenced CSF3R exons 14–17 in 54 clinically suspected cases of CNL (n=35) or atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML; n=19). Central review of these cases confirmed WHO-defined CNL in 12 patients, monoclonal gammopathy (MG)-associated CNL in 5 and WHO-defined aCML in 9. A total of 14 CSF3R mutations were detected in 13 patients, including 10 with CSF3RT618I (exon 14 mutation, sometimes annotated as CSF3R T595I). CSF3RT618I occurred exclusively in WHO-defined CNL with a mutational frequency of 83% (10 of 12 cases). CSF3R mutations were not seen in aCML or MG-associated CNL. CSF3RT618I was also absent among 170 patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF; n=76) or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML; n=94). SETBP1 mutational frequencies in WHO-defined CNL, aCML, CMML and PMF were 33, 0, 7 and 3%, respectively. Four CSF3RT618I-mutated cases co-expressed SETBP1 mutations. We conclude that CSF3RT618I is a highly sensitive and specific molecular marker for CNL and should be incorporated into current diagnostic criteria.

Pardanani, A; Lasho, TL; Laborde, RR; Elliott, M; Hanson, CA; Knudson, RA; Ketterling, RP; Maxson, JE; Tyner, JW; Tefferi, A

2014-01-01

172

Genetic Regulation of Development in Sorghum bicolor (IX. The ma3R Allele Disrupts Diurnal Control of Gibberellin Biosynthesis).  

PubMed Central

The diurnal regulation of gibberellin (GA) concentrations in Sorghum bicolor was studied in a mutant lacking a light-stable 123-kD phytochrome (ma3Rma3R), wild-type (ma3ma3,Ma3Ma3), and heterozygous (ma3ma3R) cultivars. GAs were determined in shoots of 14-d-old plants by gas chromatography-selected ion-monitoring-mass spectrometry. GA12 levels fluctuated rhythmically in Ma3Ma3, ma3ma3, and,ma3Rma3R; Peak levels occured 3 to 9 h after lights-on. In some experiments, GA53 levels followed a similar pattern. There was no rhythmicity in levels of GA19 and GA8 in any genotype. In ma3ma3 and Ma3Ma3, GA20 levels increased at lights-on, peaked in the afternoon, and decreased to minimum levels in darkness. In ma3Rma3R, peak GA20 levels occured at lights-on, 9 h earlier than in the wild-type genotypes. The pattern for GA1 levels closely followed GA20 levels in all cultivars. One copy of ma3 restored near wild-type regulation of GA20 levels. GA rhythms persisted in 25-d-old ma3ma3 plants. Since absence of the 123-kD phytochrome disrupted diurnal regulation of the GA19 -> GA20 step, the ma3Rma3R genotype may be viewed as being phase shifted in the rhythmic levels of GA20 and GA1 rather than as simply overproducing them.

Foster, K. R.; Morgan, P. W.

1995-01-01

173

Senior Center Studies and Program Evaluations: Outcomes of the Challenge Grants Initiative of the National Eldercare Institute on Multipurpose Senior Centers and Community Focal Points.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication provides an overview of the results of nine studies and program evaluations conducted during the second and third years of the National Eldercare Institute on Multipurpose Senior Centers and Community Focal Points. The primary objective o...

1995-01-01

174

Modeling and Simulation of Various Hybrid-Electric Configurations of the High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although hybrid-electric vehicles have been studied mainly with the aim of increasing fuel economy, little has been done in order to improve both fuel economy and performance. However, vehicular-dynamic-performance characteristics such as acceleration and climbing ability are of prime importance in military vehicles such as the high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). This paper concentrates on the models that describe hybridized

Antonis I. Antoniou; Jonathan Komyathy; Justin Bench; Ali Emadi

2007-01-01

175

Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module

B. Peterson; R. Wheeler

2002-01-01

176

Mapping of the mouse macrophage inflammatory protein-1{alpha} receptor gene Scya3r and two related mouse {beta} chemokine receptor-like genes to chromosome 9  

SciTech Connect

Macrophage inflammatory protein-1{alpha} (MIP-1{alpha}) and RANTES are members of the {beta} chemokine family of leukocyte chemoattractants. We have previously cloned three mouse genes by cross-hybridization with the human MIP-1{alpha}/RANTES receptor gene CMKBR1. One of the mouse genes, Scya3r, encodes a functional MIP-1{alpha} receptor. The functions of the other two, Scya3r-rs1 and Scya3r-rs2, are not known. We have now mapped Scya3r, Scya3r-rs1, and Scya3r-rs2 to chromosome 9, in a region of conserved synteny with the location of CMKBR1. Thus, like chemokine genes and {alpha} chemokine receptor genes, this group of {Beta} chemokine receptor genes arose by tandem duplication. 17 refs., 2 figs.

Kozak, C.A.; Gao, Ji-Liang; Murphy, P.M. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1995-09-01

177

Demonstration of two efficient optical 3R data regenerators at 40 Gb\\/s using EAM or SOA as all-optical decision gate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we experimentally demonstrate efficient optical 3R regeneration of 40-Gb\\/s degraded data signals by using two schemes. The first 3R regenerator incorporates a dual-ring injection mode-locked fiber ring laser as the clock recovery module and an electro-absorption modulator (EAM) as the decision gate and the other 3R regenerator consists of an amplified feedback laser (AFL) for all-clock recovery

Wenke Yu; Xiaofan Zhao; Li Huo; Li Wang; Caiyun Lou

2011-01-01

178

The multi-module, multi-resolution system (M{sup 3}R): A novel small-animal SPECT system  

SciTech Connect

We have designed and built an inexpensive, high-resolution, tomographic imaging system, dubbed the multi-module, multi-resolution system, or M{sup 3}R. Slots machined into the system shielding allow for the interchange of pinhole plates, enabling the system to operate over a wide range of magnifications and with virtually any desired pinhole configuration. The flexibility of the system allows system optimization for specific imaging tasks and also allows for modifications necessary due to improved detectors, electronics, and knowledge of system construction (e.g., system sensitivity optimization). We provide an overview of M{sup 3}R, focusing primarily on system design and construction, aperture construction, and calibration methods. Reconstruction algorithms will be described and reconstructed images presented.

Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Barrett, Harrison H. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); College of Optical Sciences and Department of Radiology, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Arizona, 1609 N. Warren Ave., Bldg 211, Tucson, Arizona 85724 (United States); College of Optical Sciences and Department of Radiology, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

2007-03-15

179

PHONON DEPENDENCE ON THERMAL PROPERTIES OF RGaO3(R = La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have systematically investigated the effect of phonons on elastic, thermal and cohesive properties for rare earth gallates RGaO3(R = La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd) by means of a Rigid Ion Model after modifying its framework to incorporate the van der Waals interactions. Besides that, we have calculated the temperature dependence of the specific heat for the present orthogallates. The results on bulk modulus, Debye temperature and specific heat reproduce well with the available experimental data.

Parveen, Atahar; Gaur, N. K.

2012-03-01

180

Novel potato micro-tuber-inducing compound, (3R,6S)-6-hydroxylasiodiplodin, from a strain of Lasiodiplodia theobromae.  

PubMed

A novel potato micro-tuber-inducing compound was isolated from the culture broth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae Shimokita 2. The structure of the isolated compound was determined as (3R,6S)-6-hydroxylasiodiplodin by means of spectroscopic analyses, the modified Mosher method, and chemical conversion. The compound showed potato micro-tuber-inducing activity at a concentration of 10(-4) M, using the culture of single-node segments of potato stems in vitro. PMID:16116294

Li, Peng; Takahashi, Kosaku; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

2005-08-01

181

Solid waste management associated with the development of 3R initiatives: case study in major urban areas of Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to describe the application and progress of the Reduce-Reuse-Recycle (3R) initiative and its\\u000a gradual implementation and development in solid waste management in Vietnam through the study of the municipal solid waste\\u000a management (MSWM) systems of eight major urban cities and provinces. The resulting survey and studies showed that there are\\u000a big challenges for MSWM

Ngo Kim Chi; Pham Quoc Long

2011-01-01

182

A neutron powder diffraction study of ND3 intercalated titanium disulfide, 3R-TiS2ND3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron powder diffraction of rhombohedral 3R-TiS2ND3 (a = 3.419 Å, c = 27.03 Å at 300 K, space group R3m) has shown that ND3 molecules and ND+4 ions, present in a ratio of about 5 to 1 from chemical and physical evidence, occupy statistically the trigonal-prismatic holes between TiS2 sandwiches. One cannot distinguish between ND3 and ND+4. Powder intensities calculated

H. J. M. Bouwmeester; G. A. Wiegers

1988-01-01

183

Regenerative SPM-Based Wavelength Conversion and Field Demonstration of 160Gb\\/s All-Optical 3R Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a 160-Gb\\/s all-optical 3R regenerator consisting of a wavelength converter based on self-phase-modulation (SPM) and a non-linear optical loop mirror (NOLM). Particularly, we focus on the simple method to improve the performance of dual-stage wavelength conversion. The dual-stage configuration is useful to alleviate pulse-to-pulse interaction, which degrades both conversion bandwidth and regenerative effect. Total conversion

Hitoshi Murai; Yoshihiro Kanda; Masatoshi Kagawa; Shin Arahira

2010-01-01

184

Crystal growth and magnetic property of orthorhombic RMnO 3 (R=Sm–Ho) perovskites by mild hydrothermal synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have successfully grown several RMnO3 (R=Sm–Ho) crystals by mild hydrothermal treatment of mixtures prepared from rare earth oxides, k-birnessite gel and KOH. Crystal growth of rare earth manganate perovskites was sensitive to alkalinity, temperature, filling fraction, nature of the rare earth ion and composition of initial reaction mixture. The structure of DyMnO3 by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) and of

Yan Chen; Hongming Yuan; Guanghua Li; Ge Tian; Shouhua Feng

2007-01-01

185

PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression  

SciTech Connect

Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

E Rajakumara; Z Wang; H Ma; L Hu; H Chen; Y Lin; R Guo; F Wu; H Li; et al.

2011-12-31

186

The Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor (IP3R) and Its Regulators: Sometimes Good and Sometimes Bad Teamwork  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Changes in the amount of calcium inside cells initiate many cellular events, including muscle contraction, hormone secretion, and cell growth. These changes can be modulated in time and space by the cell to tailor its response to the prevailing conditions. A major pathway used for the release of calcium from intracellular stores involves opening the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), a calcium channel that is part of a signaling complex with multiple binding partners. This Review, which contains 2 tables, 6 figures, and 119 references, discusses the role of specific binding partners in regulating the function of the IP3R. These studies provide information on how these channels work and form the background for the investigation of disease-induced changes in calcium release channel function. The initiation of intracellular calcium signals can depend on factors as diverse as the nonuniform distribution of a binding partner in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum or the activation of a calcium-binding protein in the cytoplasm. Once calcium signals start, they can be transient, sustained, or oscillating; these temporal aspects of the signal are regulated by similarly diverse factors. Changes in intracellular calcium regulation occur in many diseases. As more and more new regulators of the IP3R are discovered, it will be important to understand the teamwork needed to regulate and modulate this complex system.

Chi-un Choe (Yale University;Departments of Pharmacology and Cellular and Molecular Physiology REV); Barbara E. Ehrlich (Yale University;Departments of Pharmacology and Cellular and Molecular Physiology REV)

2006-11-28

187

Aluminum Tolerance Genes on the Short Arm of Chromosome 3R Are Linked to Organic Acid Release in Triticale1  

PubMed Central

Triticale, a hybrid between wheat and rye, shows a high degree of Al tolerance that is inherited from rye, but the mechanisms of high Al tolerance in both rye and triticale are unknown. We found that the short arm of chromosome 3R carries genes necessary for Al tolerance in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmark cv Currency). Detailed comparative studies with a 3DS.3RL translocation line (ST22) and a non-substitution line (ST2) were conducted. Root elongation was similarly inhibited by Al in ST2 and ST22 during the first 12 h of Al treatment, but more strongly in ST22 than in ST2 at 18 h and thereafter. The root inhibition induced by other metals (Cu, Cd, and La) was similar between ST2 and ST22, suggesting that the action of the genes for Al tolerance on the short arm of triticale chromosome 3R is highly specific to Al. A 2-fold larger amount of malate and citrate was released from the roots of ST2 than from ST22 at 12 and 18 h after Al treatment, respectively. The marked lag phase in the inhibition of root elongation and the release of organic acids implies that the expression of genes on the short arm of triticale chromosome 3R is induced by Al, and that these genes are necessary for the release of organic acids.

Ma, Jian Feng; Taketa, Shin; Yang, Zhen Ming

2000-01-01

188

Multi-criteria objective based climate change impact assessment for multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resources systems with reservoirs are expected to be sensitive to climate change. Assessment studies that analyze the impact of climate change on the performance of reservoirs can be divided in two groups: (1) Studies that simulate the operation under projected inflows with the current set of operational rules. Due to non adapted operational rules the future performance of these reservoirs can be underestimated and the impact overestimated. (2) Studies that optimize the operational rules for best adaption of the system to the projected conditions before the assessment of the impact. The latter allows for estimating more realistically future performance and adaption strategies based on new operation rules are available if required. Multi-purpose reservoirs serve various, often conflicting functions. If all functions cannot be served simultaneously at a maximum level, an effective compromise between multiple objectives of the reservoir operation has to be provided. Yet under climate change the historically preferenced compromise may no longer be the most suitable compromise in the future. Therefore a multi-objective based climate change impact assessment approach for multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems is proposed in the study. Projected inflows are provided in a first step using a physically based rainfall-runoff model. In a second step, a time series model is applied to generate long-term inflow time series. Finally, the long-term inflow series are used as driving variables for a simulation-based multi-objective optimization of the reservoir system in order to derive optimal operation rules. As a result, the adapted Pareto-optimal set of diverse best compromise solutions can be presented to the decision maker in order to assist him in assessing climate change adaption measures with respect to the future performance of the multi-purpose reservoir system. The approach is tested on a multi-purpose multi-reservoir system in a mountainous catchment in Germany. A climate change assessment is performed for climate change scenarios based on the SRES emission scenarios A1B, B1 and A2 for a set of statistically downscaled meteorological data. The future performance of the multi-purpose multi-reservoir system is quantified and possible intensifications of trade-offs between management goals or reservoir utilizations are shown.

Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels

2014-05-01

189

A new NASA LaRC Multi-Purpose Prepregging Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-purpose prepregging machine has been designed and built for NASA Langley Research Center. The machine has numerous advantages over existing units due to its various modular components. Each of these can be used individually or simultaneously depending on the required prepregging method. A reverse roll coater provides the ability to prepare thin films from typical hot-melt thermoset formulations. Also, if necessary, the design allows direct fiber impregnation within the reverse roll coater gap. Included in the impregnation module is a solution dip tank allowing the fabrication of thermoplastic prepregs from solution. The proceeding modules within the unit consist of four nip stations, two hot-plates, a hot-sled option and a high temperature oven. This paper describes the advantages of such a modular construction and discusses the various processing combinations available to the prepregger. A variety of high performance prepreg material systems were produced on IM7 (Hercules) carbon fiber. These included LaRC RP46, a PMR-type resin processed from methanol and two polyamide acids, LaRC IA and LaRC ITPI, prpregged from N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP). Parameters involved in the production of these prepreg materials are presented as are the mechanical properties of the resulting good quality laminates. A brief introduction into the existing prepregging science is presented. Topics relating to solution prepregging are identified with a focus on the current research effort and its future development.

Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Dixon, D.; Johnston, N. J.

1993-01-01

190

The multipurpose time-of-flight neutron reflectometer “Platypus” at Australia's OPAL reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this manuscript we describe the major components of the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer at the 20 MW OPAL reactor in Sydney, Australia. Platypus is a multipurpose spectrometer for the characterisation of solid thin films, materials adsorbed at the solid-liquid interface and free-liquid surfaces. It also has the capacity to study magnetic thin films using spin-polarised neutrons. Platypus utilises a white neutron beam ( ?=2-20 Å) that is pulsed using boron-coated disc chopper pairs; thus providing the capacity to tailor the wavelength resolution of the pulses to suit the system under investigation. Supermirror optical components are used to focus, deflect or spin-polarise the broad bandwidth neutron beams, and typical incident spectra are presented for each configuration. A series of neutron reflectivity datasets are presented, indicating the quality and flexibility of this spectrometer. Minimum reflectivity values of <10 -7 are observed; while maximum thickness values of 325 nm have been measured for single-component films and 483 nm for a multilayer system. Off-specular measurements have also been made to investigate in-plane features as opposed to those normal to the sample surface. Finally, the first published studies conducted using the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer are presented.

James, M.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; Saerbeck, T.; Hamilton, W. A.; Klose, F.

2011-03-01

191

Feasibility study for a DOE research and production fuel multipurpose canister  

SciTech Connect

This is a report of the feasibility of multipurpose canisters for transporting, storing, and sing of Department of Energy research and production spent nuclear fuel. Six representative Department of Energy fuel assemblies were selected, and preconceptual canister designs were developed to accommodate these assemblies. The study considered physical interface, structural adequacy, criticality safety, shielding capability, thermal performance of the canisters, and fuel storage site infrastructure. The external envelope of the canisters was designed to fit within the overpack casks for commercial canisters being developed for the Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The budgetary cost of canisters to handle all fuel considered is estimated at $170.8M. One large conceptual boiling water reactor canister design, developed for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, and two new canister designs can accommodate at least 85% of the volume of the Department of Energy fuel considered. Canister use minimizes public radiation exposure and is cost effective compared with bare fuel handling. Results suggest the need for additional study of issues affecting canister use and for conceptual design development of the three canisters.

Lopez, D.A.; Abbott, D.G.

1994-02-01

192

Evaluation of Suited and Unsuited Human Functional Strength Using Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic Dynamometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the planned summer research was to develop a procedure to determine the isokinetic functional strength of suited and unsuited participants in order to estimate the coefficient of micro-gravity suit on human strength. To accomplish this objective, the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility's Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic dynamometer (MMID) was used. Development of procedure involved selection and testing of seven routines to be tested on MMID. We conducted the related experiments and collected the data for 12 participants. In addition to the above objective, we developed a procedure to assess the fatiguing characteristics of suited and unsuited participants using EMG technique. We collected EMG data on 10 participants while performing a programmed routing on MMID. EMG data along with information on the exerted forces, effector speed, number of repetitions, and duration of each routine were recorded for further analysis. Finally, gathering and tabulation Of data for various human strengths for updating of MSIS (HSIS) strength requirement, which started in summer 2003, also continued.

Aghazadeh, Fred

2005-01-01

193

Application of a multipurpose unequal probability stream survey in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A stratified, spatially balanced sample with unequal probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of unusual but significant environmental settings to support empirical modeling of the factors affecting those conditions. The design and field application of the survey are discussed in light of these multiple objectives. A probability (random) sample of 175 first-order nontidal streams was selected for synoptic sampling of water chemistry and benthic and riparian ecology during late winter and spring 2000. Twenty-five streams were selected within each of seven hydrogeologic subregions (strata) that were delineated on the basis of physiography and surficial geology. In each subregion, unequal inclusion probabilities were used to provide an approximately even distribution of streams along a gradient of forested to developed (agricultural or urban) land in the contributing watershed. Alternate streams were also selected. Alternates were included in groups of five in each subregion when field reconnaissance demonstrated that primary streams were inaccessible or otherwise unusable. Despite the rejection and replacement of a considerable number of primary streams during reconnaissance (up to 40 percent in one subregion), the desired land use distribution was maintained within each hydrogeologic subregion without sacrificing the probabilistic design.

Ator, S. W.; Olsen, A. R.; Pitchford, A. M.; Denver, J. M.

2003-01-01

194

MYRRHA a multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications  

SciTech Connect

MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator driven system (ADS) in development at SCK-CEN. MYRRHA is able to work both in subcritical (ADS) as in critical mode. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for generation IV (GEN IV) systems, material developments for fusion reactors, radioisotope production and industrial applications, such as Si-doping. MYRRHA will also demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling the three components (accelerator, spallation target and subcritical reactor) at reasonable power level to allow operation feedback, scalable to an industrial demonstrator and allow the study of efficient transmutation of high-level nuclear waste. MYRRHA is based on the heavy liquid metal technology and so it will contribute to the development of lead fast reactor (LFR) technology and in critical mode, MYRRHA will play the role of European technology pilot plant in the roadmap for LFR. In this paper the historical evolution of MYRRHA and the rationale behind the design choices is presented and the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system is described. (authors)

Abderrahim, H. A.; Baeten, P. [SCK CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

2012-07-01

195

INITIAL WASTE PACKAGE PROBABILISTIC CRITICALITY ANALYSIS: MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER WITH DISPOSAL CONTAINER (TBV)  

SciTech Connect

This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide an assessment of the present waste package design from a criticality risk standpoint. The specific objectives of this initial analysis are to: (1) Establish a process for determining the probability of waste package criticality as a function of time (in terms of a cumulative distribution function, probability distribution function, or expected number of criticalities in a specified time interval) for various waste package concepts; (2) Demonstrate the established process by estimating the probability of criticality as a function of time since emplacement for an intact multi-purpose canister waste package (MPC-WP) configuration; (3) Identify the dominant sequences leading to waste package criticality for subsequent detailed analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to document and demonstrate the developed process as it has been applied to the MPC-WP. This revision is performed to correct deficiencies in the previous revision and provide further detail on the calculations performed. This analysis is similar to that performed for the uncanistered fuel waste package (UCF-WP, B00000000-01717-2200-00079).

J.R. Massari

1995-10-06

196

MATISSE: Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In planetary sciences, design, assemble and launch onboard instruments are only preliminary steps toward the final aim of converting data into scientific knowledge, as the real challenge is the data analysis and interpretation. Up to now data have been generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e. common ftp servers where the user can manually search for data browsing directories organized in a time order manner. However, as datasets to be stored and searched become particularly large, this latter task absorbs a great part of the time, subtracting time to the real scientific work. In order to reduce the time spent to search and analyze data MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), a new set of software tools developed together with the scientific teams of the instruments involved, is under development at ASDC (ASI Science Data Center), whose experience in space missions data management is well known (e.g., \\citealt{verrecchia07,pittori09,giommi09,massaro11}) and its features and aims will be presented here.

Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Antonelli, L. A.

197

PROGRAPE-1: A Programmable, Multi-Purpose Computer for Many-Body Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed PROGRAPE-1 (PROgrammable GRAPE-1), a programmable multi-purpose computer for many-body simulations. The main difference between PROGRAPE-1 and ``traditional'' GRAPE systems is that the former uses FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chips as the processing elements, while the latter relies on a hardwired pipeline processor specialized to gravitational interactions. Since the logic implemented in FPGA chips can be reconfigured, we can use PROGRAPE-1 to calculate not only gravitational interactions, but also other forms of interactions, such as the van der Waals force, hydro\\-dynamical interactions in the SPHr calculation, and so on. PROGRAPE-1 comprises two Altera EPF10K100 FPGA chips, each of which contains nominally 100000 gates. To evaluate the programmability and performance of PROGRAPE-1, we implemented a pipeline for gravitational interactions similar to that of GRAPE-3. One pipeline is fitted into a single FPGA chip, operated at 16 MHz clock. Thus, for gravitational interactions, PROGRAPE-1 provided a speed of 0.96 Gflops-equivalent. PROGRAPE will prove to be useful for a wide-range of particle-based simulations in which the calculation cost of interactions other than gravity is high, such as the evaluation of SPH interactions.

Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Kawai, Atsushi; Makino, Junichiro

2000-10-01

198

A Design and Development of Multi-Purpose CCD Camera System with Thermoelectric Cooling: Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a software which we developed for the multi-purpose CCD camera. This software can be used on the all 3 types of CCD - KAF-0401E (768×512), KAF-1602E (15367times;1024), KAF-3200E (2184×1472) made in KODAK Co.. For the efficient CCD camera control, the software is operated with two independent processes of the CCD control program and the temperature/shutter operation program. This software is designed to fully automatic operation as well as manually operation under LINUX system, and is controled by LINUX user signal procedure. We plan to use this software for all sky survey system and also night sky monitoring and sky observation. As our results, the read-out time of each CCD are about 15sec, 64sec, 134sec for KAF-0401E, KAF-1602E, KAF-3200E., because these time are limited by the data transmission speed of parallel port. For larger format CCD, the data transmission is required more high speed. we are considering this control software to one using USB port for high speed data transmission.

Oh, S. H.; Kang, Y. W.; Byun, Y. I.

2007-12-01

199

A multipurpose quality assurance phantom for the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP).  

PubMed

In this work, the suitability and performance of a mouse-size MOSFET (Mousefet) phantom is investigated for routine quality assurance (QA) of the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). This Mousefet phantom is a simple construction consisting of five micro-MOSFETS custom integrated in a quincunx pattern within a tissue-equivalent phantom, allowing repeat/multiple QA tasks to be quickly performed in one experimental set-up. The Mousefet phantom is particularly evaluated for facilitating SARRP QA tasks which may warrant daily evaluation, including output constancy, isocenter congruency test and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image geometric accuracy. Results for the output constancy measurements showed a maximum daily variation of less than 2.6% for all MOSFETS, in consonance with observations from concurrent ion chamber measurements. It is also shown that the design of the Mousefet phantom allows the output check data to be used for prompt verification of beam energy and cone profile constancy. For the isocenter congruency test, it is demonstrated that the Mousefet phantom can detect 0.3 mm deviations of the CBCT isocenter from the radiation isocenter. Meanwhile, results for CBCT image geometric accuracy were consistently found to be within 2% of the expected value. Other CBCT image quality parameters could also be assessed in terms of image intensity constancy, noise and image uniformity. Overall, the results establish the Mousefet phantom as a simple and time-efficient multipurpose tool that could be employed effectively for routine QA of the SARRP. PMID:22491061

Ngwa, Wilfred; Tsiamas, Panagiotis; Zygmanski, Piotr; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Berbeco, Ross I

2012-05-01

200

High-current ion source development for the Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) project has been initiated to develop and build a high current proton/H- linear accelerator capable of delivering an 1 GeV cw proton beam with an intensity of 20 mA in the final stage. The major proton beam will be used for nuclear-waste transmutation, energy production, and nuclear physics experiments while utilizing the minor negative hydrogen beam for basic science research and medical therapy. A Duoplasmatron proton source for the KOMAC linear accelerator has been built at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The hydrogen beam currents of up to 50 mA at the extraction voltage of 50 kV are routinely obtained. A low normalized rms emittance of 0.2 ? mm mrad and a proton fraction of over 80% are obtained in this source. With the 100% duty factor of ion source operation, the arc filaments of the source have survived over 40 h. Except for the filament lifetime, the achieved parameters of the proton beam source are satisfying most requirements of the KOMAC ion source. The ion sources can extract the 10 mA nitrogen beam and 3 mA argon beam for the industrial surface modification processes.

Cho, Y. S.; Choi, B. H.; Hong, I. S.; Hwang, Y. S.

2000-02-01

201

Development of JSTAMP-Works/NV and HYSTAMP for Multipurpose Multistage Sheet Metal Forming Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1996, Japan Research Institute Limited (JRI) has been providing a sheet metal forming simulation system called JSTAMP-Works packaged the FEM solvers of LS-DYNA and JOH/NIKE, which might be the first multistage system at that time and has been enjoying good reputation among users in Japan. To match the recent needs, ``faster, more accurate and easier'', of process designers and CAE engineers, a new metal forming simulation system JSTAMP-Works/NV is developed. The JSTAMP-Works/NV packaged the automatic healing function of CAD and had much more new capabilities such as prediction of 3D trimming lines for flanging or hemming, remote control of solver execution for multi-stage forming processes and shape evaluation between FEM and CAD. On the other way, a multi-stage multi-purpose inverse FEM solver HYSTAMP is developed and will be soon put into market, which is approved to be very fast, quite accurate and robust. Lastly, authors will give some application examples of user defined ductile damage subroutine in LS-DYNA for the estimation of material failure and springback in metal forming simulation.

Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu

2005-08-01

202

Assessing marginal water values in multipurpose multireservoir systems via stochastic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Conference on Water and the Environment held in Dublin in 1992 emphasized the need to consider water as an economic good. Since water markets are usually absent or ineffective, the value of water cannot be directly derived from market activities but must rather be assessed through shadow prices. Economists have developed various valuation techniques to determine the economic value of water, especially to handle allocation issues involving environmental water uses. Most of the nonmarket valuation studies reported in the literature focus on long-run policy problems, such as permanent (re)allocations of water, and assume that the water availability is given. When dealing with short-run allocation problems, water managers are facing complex spatial and temporal trade-offs and must therefore be able to track site and time changes in water values across different hydrologic conditions, especially in arid and semiarid areas where the availability of water is a limiting and stochastic factor. This paper presents a stochastic programming approach for assessing the statistical distribution of marginal water values in multipurpose multireservoir systems where hydropower generation and irrigation crop production are the main economic activities depending on water. In the absence of a water market, the Lagrange multipliers correspond to shadow prices, and the marginal water values are the Lagrange multipliers associated with the mass balance equations of the reservoirs. The methodology is illustrated with a cascade of hydroelectric-irrigation reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin in Turkey and Syria.

Tilmant, A.; Pinte, D.; Goor, Q.

2008-12-01

203

Phosphorylation of IP3R1 and the regulation of [Ca2+]i responses at fertilization: a role for the MAP kinase pathway  

PubMed Central

A sperm-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal ([Ca2+]i) underlies the initiation of embryo development in most species studied to date. The inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1) in mammals, or its homologue in other species, is thought to mediate the majority of this Ca2+ release. IP3R1-mediated Ca2+ release is regulated during oocyte maturation such that it reaches maximal effectiveness at the time of fertilization, which, in mammalian eggs, occurs at the metaphase stage of the second meiosis (MII). Consistent with this, the [Ca2+]i oscillations associated with fertilization in these species occur most prominently during the MII stage. In this study, we have examined the molecular underpinnings of IP3R1 function in eggs. Using mouse and Xenopus eggs, we show that IP3R1 is phosphorylated during both maturation and the first cell cycle at a MPM2-detectable epitope(s), which is known to be a target of kinases controlling the cell cycle. In vitro phosphorylation studies reveal that MAPK/ERK2, one of the M-phase kinases, phosphorylates IP3R1 at at least one highly conserved site, and that its mutation abrogates IP3R1 phosphorylation in this domain. Our studies also found that activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway is required for the IP3R1 MPM2 reactivity observed in mouse eggs, and that eggs deprived of the MAPK/ERK pathway during maturation fail to mount normal [Ca2+]i oscillations in response to agonists and show compromised IP3R1 function. These findings identify IP3R1 phosphorylation by M-phase kinases as a regulatory mechanism of IP3R1 function in eggs that serves to optimize [Ca2+]i release at fertilization.

Lee, Bora; Vermassen, Elke; Yoon, Sook-Young; Vanderheyden, Veerle; Ito, Junya; Alfandari, Dominique; De Smedt, Humbert; Parys, Jan B.; Fissore, Rafael A.

2010-01-01

204

Strategic Focus on 3R Principles Reveals Major Reductions in the Use of Animals in Pharmaceutical Toxicity Testing.  

PubMed

The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Oberg, Mattias

2014-01-01

205

Strategic Focus on 3R Principles Reveals Major Reductions in the Use of Animals in Pharmaceutical Toxicity Testing  

PubMed Central

The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level.

Tornqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Oberg, Mattias

2014-01-01

206

Role of Adiponectin and Inflammation in Insulin Resistance of Mc3r and Mc4r Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the involvement of hypoadiponectinemia and inflammation in coupling obesity to insulin resistance in melanocortin-3 receptor and melanocortin-4 receptor knockout (KO) mice (Mc3\\/4rKO).Research Methods and Procedures: Sera and tissue were collected from 6-month-old Mc3rKO, Mc4rKO, and wild-type C57BL6J litter mates maintained on low-fat diet or exposed to high-fat diet (HFD) for 1 or 3 months. Inflammation was assessed

James L. Trevaskis; Barbara Gawronska-Kozak; Gregory M. Sutton; Michele McNeil; Jacqueline M. Stephens; Steven R. Smith; Andrew A. Butler

2007-01-01

207

Cascadability properties of MZI-SOA-based all-optical 3R regenerators for RZ-DPSK signals.  

PubMed

We experimentally demonstrate 50 cascaded all-optical 3R regenerators over a 1,000 km transmission distance for 10-Gb/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) signals. The regenerator consists of integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based wavelength converters. Regenerative properties and tolerance to pattern dependent effects have been studied in terms of Q-factor measurement, and error free operation with input OSNR of 20 dB/0.1 nm has also been demonstrated. PMID:21643188

Kise, Tomofumi; Nguyen, Kimchau N; Garcia, John M; Poulsen, Henrik N; Blumenthal, Daniel J

2011-05-01

208

All-optical 3R regeneration using a single fiber-optical parametric oscillator with idler feedback control circuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All-optical clock recovery and data regeneration are simultaneously achieved by use of a single fiber-optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) with idler feedback control circuit for the first time. A return-to-zero (RZ) 3R regeneration is experimentally demonstrated by optimizing the operating parameters of the FOPO. Experimental results show that the performance of extinction ratio and timing jitter for the regenerated signal are improved in terms of transfer function slopes of 1.9 and 0.16, respectively, and the maximal receiver sensitivity improvement is up to 3.42 dB.

Wen, Feng; Wu, Bao-Jian; Zhou, Xing-Yu; Wang, Li-Hui; Qiu, Kun

2014-03-01

209

Meta-analysis of the ocular biocompatibility of a new multipurpose lens care system  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the biocompatibility of a novel multipurpose solution (MPS) with a dual disinfectant system containing polyaminopropyl biguanide and polyquaternium-1 (Biotrue®) by analysis of biomicroscopy signs and adverse events in six large clinical trials. Methods Data from six consecutive, prospective clinical trials conducted from February 2008 to March 2010 were combined for meta-analysis. Subjects used the new MPS daily for periods of 2 weeks to 6 months. Slit-lamp signs were graded at each follow-up visit using an ordinal scale (0, one; 1, trace; 2, mild; 3, moderate; 4, severe). Analysis for biocompatibility included tracking of greater than grade 2 slit-lamp findings and number of adverse events. Results A total of 1,567 subjects (3,134 eyes) and 81 clinical investigators participated in the six studies, with 1,499 subjects completing the studies. Based on subject days in the studies, there were 72,904 exposures to the MPS and 7,212 biomicroscopy examinations. The completion rate for the studies was 96.3%. Per observation incidence of any finding greater than grade 2 at the follow-up visits were: corneal staining 0.08%, limbal injection 0.04%, bulbar injection 0.04%, tarsal conjunctiva abnormality 0.09%, and neovascularization 0.01%. There were no other slit-lamp signs greater than grade 2 and no statistically significant difference between hydrogels and silicone hydrogels for any finding. There were no reports of adverse events during the trials. Conclusion Analysis of over 72,000 daily exposures and 7,212 eye examinations showed that the novel MPS exhibited excellent biocompatibility in subjects using daily wear hydrogel or silicone hydrogel lenses.

Reindel, William; Merchea, Mohinder M; Rah, Marjorie J; Zhang, Lening

2013-01-01

210

Coping with high reliabilities in multi-objective optimizations of multi-purpose reservoir systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoir systems responsible for potable water supply have commonly to be operated to meet the demands with an occurrence-based reliability higher than 99% (in contrast, the reliability e.g. of irrigation water supply may less than 90%). This requirement is not fully met in most studies which use single- or multi-objective optimization techniques for the optimization of reservoir operation problems. For dealing with very high reliabilities, long time series of several thousand years may be necessary for resilient calculations of those reliabilities using a Monte Carlo approach. However, unreasonable computational costs are the consequence. Thus, in many studies formulations of objective functions have so far been restricted to formulations that minimize an expected value or variance between various demands and the according deliveries. In this study we present a new approach to enable the explicit formulation of the reservoir performance by means of reliability in objective functions. A simulation based multi-objective optimization method is introduced that theoretically allows for highly efficient and robust optimization of operating rules over time periods of several thousand years. The technical framework of the approach comprises (i) a multivariate time series model, (ii) a new Monte-Carlo recombination technique that is capable of shortening the time series with little small loss of information (iii), a reservoir model coupled with an evolutionary optimization strategy using a box constraint handler and decision variable coding technique for constraint free optimization and (iv) a validation step. In a real case application, the multi-purpose multi-reservoir system Klingenberg - Lehnmühle - Rauschenbach (Germany) is optimized to meeting a reliability of supply in three levels of supply, ranging from 99% to 99,95%, as well as for minimizing pumping costs and to preserve water quality. It is shown that the new approach is capable of providing a resilient Pareto-front with a broad range of compromises between achievable reliabilities and the other two objectives.

Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels

2014-05-01

211

Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies  

PubMed Central

There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs). IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of women’s health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not disrupt intercourse or have high rates of expulsion. Herein, we reviewed the microbicide and MPT IVRs currently in development, with a focus on the clinical aspects of IVR assessment and the challenges facing microbicide and MPT IVR product development, clinical testing, and implementation. The information in this review was drawn from PubMed searches and a recent microbicide/MPT product development workshop organized by CONRAD.

Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R; Hurlburt, Jennifer A; Doncel, Gustavo F

2013-01-01

212

Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

Popa, R.; Popa, F.; Popa, B.; Zachia-Zlatea, D.

2010-08-01

213

Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies.  

PubMed

There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs). IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of women's health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not disrupt intercourse or have high rates of expulsion. Herein, we reviewed the microbicide and MPT IVRs currently in development, with a focus on the clinical aspects of IVR assessment and the challenges facing microbicide and MPT IVR product development, clinical testing, and implementation. The information in this review was drawn from PubMed searches and a recent microbicide/MPT product development workshop organized by CONRAD. PMID:24174884

Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R; Hurlburt, Jennifer A; Doncel, Gustavo F

2013-01-01

214

Development of a new contact lens multipurpose solution: Comparative analysis of microbiological, biological and clinical performance  

PubMed Central

Purpose Antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and clinical performance of a new soft contact lens multi-purpose solution (COMPLETE® RevitaLens) based on polyquaternium-1 and alexidine dihydrochloride (NuMPS) was evaluated. Methods Antimicrobial efficacy was assessed according to ISO 14729 for both biocidal and regimen performance against bacteria and fungi. Acanthamoeba efficacy was tested along with ability to retain antimicrobial activity on partial evaporation. In vitro cytotoxicity of NuMPS and OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® MPS (MPS-3) was assessed based on ISO 10993-5 and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) methods. In addition, a 3 month, double-masked, parallel group clinical trial comparing safety and acceptability with respect to MPS-3 was conducted with 4 silicone hydrogel (SiHy) and FDA Group IV lens types. Results NuMPS showed broad antimicrobial efficacy, including Acanthamoeba, giving a 3–4 log10 reduction in viability after 6 hours contact time. NuMPS also passed ISO 14729 regimens with SiHy and etafilcon lenses for bacteria, fungi and also Acanthamoeba. The cytotoxicity of NuMPS was equivalent or better compared to MPS-3. In the clinical trial, there was no statistically significant between-group difference in corneal staining (p > 0.05). Patients using MPS-3 had more adverse events than patients using NuMPS: 11.8 % (11/93) versus 2.8 % (5/177), respectively, (p < 0.05). There were no differences noted in cleanliness or wearing comfort (p > 0.05). Conclusion Taken together, the results of these studies indicate that the NuMPS is a novel and effective soft contact lens care solution.

Kilvington, Simon; Huang, Ling; Kao, Eugenia; Powell, Charles H.

2010-01-01

215

Design for multipurpose use: an application of DfE concept in a developing economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design for Environment (DfE) has been defined as the systematic integration of environmental considerations into product and process design. And it has been discovered that material and space can be saved when several functions are integrated into a single product by taking advantage of common components. In this design and development project, a multipurpose thresher was designed based on an integrated concept of design for modularity, disassembly, demanufacturing and remanufacturing. The machine can be used to thresh various types of farm produce such as rice, sorghum, cowpea and rye by changing the concave and the cylinder (threshing drum). The configuration of the machine enables access to most of the component parts without changing the tools needed for disassembly because the same type of fasteners was used. Furthermore, the functional units (the shelling unit, the separation unit and the grading unit) were assembled into modules such that only the faulty part needs to be replaced if necessary. The design was so simplified that the operator can make the changes for different uses without any difficulty. The machine has been successfully tested with a number of these products and it is scheduled for tests with other produce like corn and peanuts. The modularity of the functional unit will facilitate multi-lifecycle use of machine and/or its component parts. The uniformity of the liaisons and simplification of the configuration will reduce both the disassembly times and maintenance cost. By this integration, the material requirements for four different machines are conserved, environmental emissions that would be associated with the manufacture, transportation and disposal of four machines are eliminated while the capital requirements by farmers for machinery are reduced to about a quarter. Consequently the total lifecycle cost is kept minimum while the eco-efficiency is maximized.

Dunmade, Israel

2004-12-01

216

The application of Russell and Burch 3R principle in rodent models of neurodegenerative disease: the case of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Currently, the accepted ethical standards for the regulation of animal experimentation are provided by the 3R principle (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement). The development of alternative methods to the use of animals (Replacement), the design of adequate experimental protocols to reduce the number of animals (Reduction), the application of refinement practices (Refinement) are all aspects to be considered to ensure ethical and scientific validity to animal experimentation. This review intends to address these issues, using experimental research on Parkinson's disease (PD) as a paradigmatic example of the use of animal models to improve knowledge on a devastating human pathology. In particular, current rodent models of PD and their validity are reviewed and discussed, and methodologies that may ultimately reduce animal's suffering emphasized. Although procedures referring to with 3R principle can be traced in the literature reviewed, they are not considered yet an important part of the methodological information. The formal inclusion in scientific papers of a section devoted to 3Rs may increase knowledge and eventually adherence to this principle by scientists. PMID:18771685

Manciocco, Arianna; Chiarotti, Flavia; Vitale, Augusto; Calamandrei, Gemma; Laviola, Giovanni; Alleva, Enrico

2009-01-01

217

Frequency and Relative Prevalence of Calcium Blips and Puffs in a Model of Small IP3R Clusters.  

PubMed

In this work, we model the local calcium release from clusters with a few inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channels, focusing on the stochastic process in which an open channel either triggers other channels to open (as a puff) or fails to cause any channel to open (as a blip). We show that there are linear relations for the interevent interval (including blips and puffs) and the first event latency against the inverse cluster size. However, nonlinearity is found for the interpuff interval and the first puff latency against the inverse cluster size. Furthermore, the simulations indicate that the blip fraction among all release events and the blip frequency are increasing with larger basal [Ca(2+)], with blips in turn giving a growing contribution to basal [Ca(2+)]. This result suggests that blips are not just lapses to trigger puffs, but they may also possess a biological function to contribute to the initiation of calcium waves by a preceding increase of basal [Ca(2+)] in cells that have small IP3R clusters. PMID:24896114

Qi, Hong; Huang, Yandong; Rüdiger, Sten; Shuai, Jianwei

2014-06-01

218

Photocatalytic decolorization of Remazol Black 5 and Remazol Brilliant Orange 3R by mesoporous TiO2.  

PubMed

Mesoporous TiO2 microparticles (TiO2-11) were prepared through the micelle hydrothermal method using a 1:1 M ratio of 1-tetradecylamine:Ti(OiPr)4. TiO2-11 microparticles exhibited significantly higher decolorization percentage of Remazol Black 5 (RB5) and Remazol Brilliant Orange (3R) dyes than other TiO2 microparticles formed with different molar ratios of 1-tetradecylamine:Ti(OiPr)4, and P25 and anatase TiO2. The results showed that the decolorization of the dyes by the microparticles was affected by the different irradiation wavelengths, catalyst dosages, dye concentrations, initial pH values, as well as electron acceptors. The kinetic experiments with varying initial pH values were in accordance with the second-order model. In addition, the adsorption study of the dyes in the dark fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. With the addition of 20 mmol/mL of three electron acceptors, H2O2, KBrO3, and (NH4)2S2O8, the decolorization of the RB5 and 3R dyes increased by 54% and 35%, 59% and 41%, and 36% and 33%, respectively. Hence, this technique for the preparation of the mesoporous TiO2 microparticles can facilitate more efficient decolorization of dyes in an aqueous solution. PMID:22531430

Chen, Chia-Yun; Cheng, Meng-Cheng; Chen, Arh-Hwang

2012-07-15

219

Selective doping in a surface band and atomic structures of the Ge(111) (?3 × ?3)R30°-Au surface.  

PubMed

Atomic and electronic structures of the Ge(111) (?3 × ?3)R30°-Au surface with two metallic bands are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The bias-voltage-dependent periodic structure observed by STM is consistent with the electronic structure calculated for an optimized conjugate honeycomb chained trimer (CHCT) model. Electrons are selectively doped to the electron-like surface metallic band by excess Au atoms, which form triangle structures with the Au trimers of the CHCT model. The discrepancy for the bottom energy of the electron-like band between the ARPES results and those of the calculation is attributed to the doping. The triangle structure is mobile at room temperature, but stable at 80 K. Both Au and Ge atoms deposited at room temperature on the Ge(111) (?3 × ?3)R30°-Au surface dope electrons to the electron-like surface metallic band. Moreover, the Au atoms increase the spin-orbit interaction at the surface, and thus make the splitting of the spin-polarized band due to the interaction larger than that before the deposition. PMID:23248164

Nakatsuji, Kan; Motomura, Yuya; Niikura, Ryota; Komori, Fumio

2013-01-30

220

Exome sequencing identifies a novel mutation in PIK3R1 as the cause of SHORT syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background SHORT syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition whose name is the acronym of short stature, hyperextensibility of joints, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly and teething delay (MIM 269880). Additionally, the patients usually present a low birth weight and height, lipodystrophy, delayed bone age, hernias, low body mass index and a progeroid appearance. Case presentation In this study, we used whole-exome sequencing approaches in two patients with clinical features of SHORT syndrome. We report the finding of a novel mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8), as well as a recurrent mutation c.1945C > T (p.Arg649Trp) in this gene. Conclusions We found a novel frameshift mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8) which consists of a deletion right before the site of substrate recognition. As a consequence, the protein lacks the position that interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue of the substrate, resulting in the development of SHORT syndrome.

2014-01-01

221

Syntheses and antimycobacterial activities of [(2S,3R)-2-(amino)-4-(arenesulfonamido)-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutane derivatives.  

PubMed

The syntheses of hydroxyethylsulfonamides, (2S,3R)-tert-butyl N-[4-(N-benzyl-4-R-phenylsulfonamido)-3- hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamates and (5) (2S,3R)-2-amino-4-[N-benzyl-4-R-benzenesulfonamido]-3-hydroxy-1- phenylbutane hydrochlorides (6), derived from (2S,3S)-Boc-phenylalanine epoxide, are reported. None of the compounds, containing the Boc group, showed activity against M. tuberculosis ATTC 27294, while compounds 6 did, with the most active compounds having R = p-Cl, p-Br and p-Me. Results indicate that the presence of a free amino group at C2 and the sulphonamide moiety are important for biological activity. The antimycobacterial activity of compounds 6 correlated well with the calculated lipophilicities, but not with the electronic effects of the substituents, R. All compounds 6 were highly cytotoxic against the hepatoma cell lineage Hep G2 A16. The X-ray crystal structure of compound [(6: R = Me).H2O] is also reported. In the propeller-like conformation adopted by the cation, the amino and hydroxy groups have a cis arrangement, and thus are suitably placed to form 5- membered chelates. PMID:23627296

Moreth, Marcele; Gomes, Claudia R B; Lourenço, Maria C S; Soares, Rodrigo P; Rocha, Marcele N; Kaiser, Carlos R; de Souza, Marcus V N; Wardell, Solange M S V N; Wardell, James L

2014-03-01

222

Design and fabrication of a multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system for KSTAR.  

PubMed

A multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system was developed for measuring two-dimensional x-ray emissivity profile, electron temperature, Ar impurity transport, and total radiation power. A remotely controlled filter wheel was designed with three different choices of filters. The electron temperature profile can be determined from the ratio of two channels having different thickness of Be layer, and the Ar impurity concentration transport can be determined from a pair of Ar Ross filters (CaF(2) and NaCl thin films). Without any filters, this diagnostic system can also be used as a bolometer. PMID:23127019

Lee, Seung Hun; Chai, Kil Byoung; Jang, Siwon; Ko, Won-Ha; Kim, Junghee; Seo, Dongcheol; Lee, Jongha; Bogatu, I N; Kim, Jin-Soo; Choe, Wonho

2012-10-01

223

Design and fabrication of a multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system for KSTAR  

SciTech Connect

A multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system was developed for measuring two-dimensional x-ray emissivity profile, electron temperature, Ar impurity transport, and total radiation power. A remotely controlled filter wheel was designed with three different choices of filters. The electron temperature profile can be determined from the ratio of two channels having different thickness of Be layer, and the Ar impurity concentration transport can be determined from a pair of Ar Ross filters (CaF{sub 2} and NaCl thin films). Without any filters, this diagnostic system can also be used as a bolometer.

Lee, Seung Hun; Chai, Kil Byoung; Jang, Siwon; Choe, Wonho [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won-Ha; Kim, Junghee; Seo, Dongcheol; Lee, Jongha [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Bogatu, I. N.; Kim, Jin-Soo [FAR-TECH, Inc., 10350 Science Center Drive, Building 14, Suite 150, San Diego, California 92121-1136 (United States)

2012-10-15

224

Multipurpose modular experimental station for the DiProI beamline of Fermi@Elettra free electron laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a compact modular apparatus with a flexible design that will be operated at the DiProI beamline of the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser (FEL) for performing static and time-resolved coherent diffraction imaging experiments, taking advantage of the full coherence and variable polarization of the short seeded FEL pulses. The apparatus has been assembled and the potential of the experimental setup is demonstrated by commissioning tests with coherent synchrotron radiation. This multipurpose experimental station will be open to general users after installation at the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser in 2011.

Pedersoli, Emanuele; Capotondi, Flavio; Cocco, Daniele; Zangrando, Marco; Kaulich, Burkhard; Menk, Ralf H.; Locatelli, Andrea; Mentes, Tevfik O.; Spezzani, Carlo; Sandrin, Gilio; Bacescu, Daniel M.; Kiskinova, Maya; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars; Chapman, Henry N.; Nelson, A. J.; Frank, Matthias; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Woods, Bruce W.; Bogan, Michael J.; Hajdu, Janos

2011-04-01

225

One body, many heads; the Cerberus of catalysis. A new multipurpose in-situ cell for XAS at ALBA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new multi-purpose in-situ cell and its control system have been developed for synchrotron-based techniques as are X-Ray Absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The cell is made of a stainless steel 'body' and three different exchangeable 'heads' to tackle different scientific areas that include solid-gas catalysis, solid-liquid catalysis and electrocatalysis. The different versions of the cell are herein described and their functionality is exemplified by some case studies.

Guilera, G.; Rey, F.; Hernández-Fenollosa, J.; Cortés-Vergaz, J. J.

2013-04-01

226

Chemical ecology of astigmatid mites--XLV. (2R, 3R)-epoxyneral: sex pheromone of the acarid mite Caloglyphus sp. (Acarina: Acaridae).  

PubMed

(2R,3R)-2,3-Epoxy-3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal [(2R,3R)-epoxyneral] was identified as the female sex pheromone from an acarid mite, Caloglyphus sp. (Astigmata:Acaridae), whose phoretic hypopi had been collected from the Cockchafer, Melolontha japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Sexual activity of the males was induced by exposure to a 0.1-1 ng dose of synthetic (2R,3R)-epoxyneral. The enantiomer of the pheromone, (2S,3S)-epoxyneral, was inactive and its admixture did not inhibit the activity of the natural pheromone. PMID:8733606

Mori, N; Kuwahara, Y; Kurosa, K

1996-03-01

227

The Absolute Configuration for Inthomycin C: Revision of Previously Published Work with a Reinstatement of the (3R)-Configuration for (-)-Inthomycin C.  

PubMed

Stereochemical evidence is presented to demonstrate that (-)-inthomycin C has (3R)- and not (3S)-stereochemistry. Careful reappraisal of the previously published work2-5 now indicates that the Hatakeyama, Hale, Ryu, and Taylor teams all have synthesized (-)-(3R)-inthomycin C. The newly measured [?]D of pure (-)-(3R)-inthomycin C (98% ee) is -7.9 (c 0.33, CHCl3) and not -41.5 (c 0.1, CHCl3) as was previously reported in 2012. PMID:24957611

Hale, Karl J; Hatakeyama, Susumi; Urabe, Fumiya; Ishihara, Jun; Manaviazar, Soraya; Grabski, Milosz; Maczka, Maciej

2014-07-01

228

Application of a passively mode-locked quantum-dot Fabry-Perot laser in 40 Gb/s all-optical 3R regeneration.  

PubMed

The application of a mode-locked quantum-dot Fabry-Perot (QD-FP) laser in a wavelength preserving all-optical 3R regenerator is demonstrated at 40 Gb/s. The 3R regenerator consists of a QD-FP laser for low-timing jitter clock recovery, cross-phase modulation based retiming, and self-phase modulation based reshaping. The performance of the alloptical 3R regenerator is assessed experimentally in terms of the Q-factor, timing jitter and bit-error ratio. PMID:20588784

Tang, Xuefeng; Chung, Sung Han; Cartledge, John C; Shen, Alexandre; Akrout, Akram; Duan, Guang-Hua

2010-04-26

229

A Modern Explorer's Journey - using events for innovative multipurpose educational outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observations are important across the specter of geo-sciences. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. The lack of dedicated funding to support specific Science &Technology activities in support of GEOSS is one of the most important obstacles to engaging the Science &Technology communities in its implementation. Finding resources to outreach and capacity building is likewise a challenge. The continuation of GEO and GEOSS rely on political support which again is influenced by public opinions. The GEO Ministerial Summit in 2014 was an event that both needed visibility and represented an opportunity to mobilize the GEO community in producing outreach and educational material. Through the combined resources from two of GEO tasks in the GEO work plan, a multipurpose educational outreach project was planned and executed. This project addressed the following issues: How can the GEO community mobilize resources for its work plan projects in the Societal Benefit Area Water? How can we produce more educational and capacity building material? How can the GEO community support the GEO secretariat related to public relations (material and otherwise) Based on activities described in the GEO work plan, a showcase video and online campaign consisting on a series of webinars were developed and produced. The video and webinars were linked through a common reference: the water cycle. Various aspects of the water cycle ranging from general to more technical and scientific education were covered in the webinars, while the video called A Modern Explorer's Journey focused on story telling with a more emotional appeal. The video was presented to the Ministers at the GEO Ministerial Summit and distributed widely to the GEO community and through social media and articles (as embedded YouTube and more). A discussion of challenges and successes of this event-based educational outreach project will be presented. Continued use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community. Lessons learned need to be provided continuously and this project add to this material.

Lilja Bye, Bente

2014-05-01

230

Multi-Purpose Utility of Circulating Plasma DNA Testing in Patients with Advanced Cancers  

PubMed Central

Tumor genomic instability and selective treatment pressures result in clonal disease evolution; molecular stratification for molecularly targeted drug administration requires repeated access to tumor DNA. We hypothesized that circulating plasma DNA (cpDNA) in advanced cancer patients is largely derived from tumor, has prognostic utility, and can be utilized for multiplex tumor mutation sequencing when repeat biopsy is not feasible. We utilized the Sequenom MassArray System and OncoCarta panel for somatic mutation profiling. Matched samples, acquired from the same patient but at different time points were evaluated; these comprised formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tumor tissue (primary and/or metastatic) and cpDNA. The feasibility, sensitivity, and specificity of this high-throughput, multiplex mutation detection approach was tested utilizing specimens acquired from 105 patients with solid tumors referred for participation in Phase I trials of molecularly targeted drugs. The median cpDNA concentration was 17 ng/ml (range: 0.5–1600); this was 3-fold higher than in healthy volunteers. Moreover, higher cpDNA concentrations associated with worse overall survival; there was an overall survival (OS) hazard ratio of 2.4 (95% CI 1.4, 4.2) for each 10-fold increase in cpDNA concentration and in multivariate analyses, cpDNA concentration, albumin, and performance status remained independent predictors of OS. These data suggest that plasma DNA in these cancer patients is largely derived from tumor. We also observed high detection concordance for critical ‘hot-spot’ mutations (KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA) in matched cpDNA and archival tumor tissue, and important differences between archival tumor and cpDNA. This multiplex sequencing assay can be utilized to detect somatic mutations from plasma in advanced cancer patients, when safe repeat tumor biopsy is not feasible and genomic analysis of archival tumor is deemed insufficient. Overall, circulating nucleic acid biomarker studies have clinically important multi-purpose utility in advanced cancer patients and further studies to pursue their incorporation into the standard of care are warranted.

Perkins, Geraldine; Yap, Timothy A.; Pope, Lorna; Cassidy, Amy M.; Dukes, Juliet P.; Riisnaes, Ruth; Massard, Christophe; Cassier, Philippe A.; Miranda, Susana; Clark, Jeremy; Denholm, Katie A.; Thway, Khin; Gonzalez De Castro, David; Attard, Gerhardt; Molife, L. Rhoda; Kaye, Stan B.; Banerji, Udai; de Bono, Johann S.

2012-01-01

231

NASA Planning for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Ground Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Orion Ground Processing Team was originally formed by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Constellation (Cx) Project Office's Orion Division to define, refine and mature pre-launch and post-landing ground operations for the Orion human spacecraft. The multidisciplined KSC Orion team consisted of KSC civil servant, SAIC, Productivity Apex, Inc. and Boeing-CAPPS engineers, project managers and safety engineers, as well as engineers from Constellation's Orion Project and Lockheed Martin Orion Prime contractor. The team evaluated the Orion design configurations as the spacecraft concept matured between Systems Design Review (SDR), Systems Requirement Review (SRR) and Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The team functionally decomposed prelaunch and post-landing steps at three levels' of detail, or tiers, beginning with functional flow block diagrams (FFBDs). The third tier FFBDs were used to build logic networks and nominal timelines. Orion ground support equipment (GSE) was identified and mapped to each step. This information was subsequently used in developing lower level operations steps in a Ground Operations Planning Document PDR product. Subject matter experts for each spacecraft and GSE subsystem were used to define 5th - 95th percentile processing times for each FFBD step, using the Delphi Method. Discrete event simulations used this information and the logic network to provide processing timeline confidence intervals for launch rate assessments. The team also used the capabilities of the KSC Visualization Lab, the FFBDs and knowledge of the spacecraft, GSE and facilities to build visualizations of Orion pre-launch and postlanding processing at KSC. Visualizations were a powerful tool for communicating planned operations within the KSC community (i.e., Ground Systems design team), and externally to the Orion Project, Lockheed Martin spacecraft designers and other Constellation Program stakeholders during the SRR to PDR timeframe. Other operations planning tools included Kaizen/Lean events, mockups and human factors analysis. The majority of products developed by this team are applicable as KSC prepares 21st Century Ground Systems for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Launch System.

Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

2011-01-01

232

Multipurpose contrast enhancement on epiphyseal plates and ossification centers for bone age assessment  

PubMed Central

Background The high variations of background luminance, low contrast and excessively enhanced contrast of hand bone radiograph often impede the bone age assessment rating system in evaluating the degree of epiphyseal plates and ossification centers development. The Global Histogram equalization (GHE) has been the most frequently adopted image contrast enhancement technique but the performance is not satisfying. A brightness and detail preserving histogram equalization method with good contrast enhancement effect has been a goal of much recent research in histogram equalization. Nevertheless, producing a well-balanced histogram equalized radiograph in terms of its brightness preservation, detail preservation and contrast enhancement is deemed to be a daunting task. Method In this paper, we propose a novel framework of histogram equalization with the aim of taking several desirable properties into account, namely the Multipurpose Beta Optimized Bi-Histogram Equalization (MBOBHE). This method performs the histogram optimization separately in both sub-histograms after the segmentation of histogram using an optimized separating point determined based on the regularization function constituted by three components. The result is then assessed by the qualitative and quantitative analysis to evaluate the essential aspects of histogram equalized image using a total of 160 hand radiographs that are implemented in testing and analyses which are acquired from hand bone online database. Result From the qualitative analysis, we found that basic bi-histogram equalizations are not capable of displaying the small features in image due to incorrect selection of separating point by focusing on only certain metric without considering the contrast enhancement and detail preservation. From the quantitative analysis, we found that MBOBHE correlates well with human visual perception, and this improvement shortens the evaluation time taken by inspector in assessing the bone age. Conclusions The proposed MBOBHE outperforms other existing methods regarding comprehensive performance of histogram equalization. All the features which are pertinent to bone age assessment are more protruding relative to other methods; this has shorten the required evaluation time in manual bone age assessment using TW method. While the accuracy remains unaffected or slightly better than using unprocessed original image. The holistic properties in terms of brightness preservation, detail preservation and contrast enhancement are simultaneous taken into consideration and thus the visual effect is contributive to manual inspection.

2013-01-01

233

Friction Stir Weld Application and Tooling Design for the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), commonly known as the Orion capsule, is planned to be the United States' next manned spacecraft for missions beyond low earth orbit. Following the cancellation of the Constellation program and creation of SLS (Space Launch System), the need arose for the MPCV to utilize the Delta IV Heavy rocket for a test launch scheduled for 2014 instead of the previously planned Ares I rocket. As a result, an adapter (MSA) must be used in conjunction with the MPCV to account for the variation in diameter of the launch vehicles; 5.5 meters down to 5.0 meters. Prior to ight article fabrication, a path nder (test article) will be fabricated to ne tune the associated manufacturing processes. The adapter will be comprised of an aluminum frustum (partial cone) that employs isogrid technology and circumferential rings on each end. The frustum will be fabricated by friction stir welding (FSW) three individual panels together on a Vertical Weld Tool (VWT) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Subsequently, each circumferential ring will be friction stir welded to the frustum using a Robotic Weld Tool (RWT). The irregular geometry and large mass of the MSA require that extensive tooling preparation be put into support structures for the friction stir weld. The tooling on the VWT will be comprised of a set of conveyors mounted on pre-existing stanchions so that the MSA will have the ability to be rotated after each of the three friction stir welds. The tooling requirements to friction stir weld the rings with the RWT are somewhat more demanding. To support the mass of the MSA and resist the load of the weld tool, a system of mandrels will be mounted to stanchions and assembled in a circle. The goal of the paper will be to explain the design, fabrication, and assembly of the tooling, to explain the use of friction stir welding on the MSA path nder, and also to discuss the lessons learned and modi cations made in preparation for ight article fabrication in support of the 2014 launch of the Orion MPCV.

Alcorn, John

2013-01-01

234

Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India.  

PubMed

Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run. PMID:22555388

Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

2013-01-01

235

Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run.

Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

2013-01-01

236

LTP impairment by fractalkine/CX3CL1 in mouse hippocampus is mediated through the activity of adenosine receptor type 3 (A3R).  

PubMed

We have examined how the chemokine fractalkine/CX(3)CL1 influences long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 mouse hippocampal slices. Field potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded upon electrical stimulation of Schaffer collaterals. It was found that application of CX(3)CL1 inhibits LTP when present during the critical induction period. LTP impairment (i) failed to occur in CX(3)CR1 deficient mice (CX(3)CR1(GFP/GFP)) and in the presence of okadaic acid (OA); (ii) required the activation of adenosine receptor 3 (A(3)R), since it was prevented in A(3)R-deficient mice or by MRS1523, a selective A(3)R antagonist. Together, these findings indicate that CX(3)CL1 inhibits hippocampal LTP through A(3)R activity. PMID:19709758

Maggi, Laura; Trettel, Flavia; Scianni, Maria; Bertollini, Cristina; Eusebi, Fabrizio; Fredholm, Bertil B; Limatola, Cristina

2009-10-30

237

Evaluation of ischemia and myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) controlled by coronary arteriography (CA) and biplane left ventricular cineventriculography (LVCV) were investigated with the 15- (p(I-123)iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid ana...

J. Kropp M. Joergens K. P. Glaenzer B. Luederitz H. J. Biersack

1993-01-01

238

First modeling of the PDSMZ-type optical-3R gate scheme and its available degree of random-amplitude-noise suppression.  

PubMed

We have modeled the semiconductor-optical-amplifier (SOA) - based polarization-discriminating-symmetric-Mach-Zehnder (PDSMZ) - type (i.e., a UNI-type) 3R gating scheme, and have searched for an optimum set of 3R-gating conditions. Primary parts of the optimum parameters we obtained - such as the interferometer delay time Deltat and the widths of input data and clock pulses in the gate model - matched those from previously reported 3R-loop transmission experiments fairly well. We also found that the 3R-gating mechanism which forms the regenerated output signal differs greatly from what it has been thought to be. Based on this model, we have characterized the available degree of random-amplitude-noise suppression. PMID:19503348

Ueno, Yoshiyasu; Toyoda, Masashi; Suzuki, Rei; Nagasue, Youhe

2006-01-01

239

First modeling of the PDSMZ-type optical-3R gate scheme and its available degree of random-amplitude-noise suppression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have modeled the semiconductor-optical-amplifier (SOA) - based polarization-discriminating-symmetric-Mach-Zehnder (PDSMZ) - type (i.e., a UNI-type) 3R gating scheme, and have searched for an optimum set of 3R-gating conditions. Primary parts of the optimum parameters we obtained - such as the interferometer delay time ?t and the widths of input data and clock pulses in the gate model - matched those from previously reported 3R-loop transmission experiments fairly well. We also found that the 3R-gating mechanism which forms the regenerated output signal differs greatly from what it has been thought to be. Based on this model, we have characterized the available degree of random-amplitude-noise suppression.

Ueno, Yoshiyasu; Toyoda, Masashi; Suzuki, Rei; Nagasue, Youhe

2006-01-01

240

Magnons and crystal-field transitions in hexagonal RMnO3 (R = Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Far-infrared optical transmission spectra of the antiferromagnetic resonances, or magnons, and crystal-field (CF) transitions have been studied in hexagonal RMnO3 (R = Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) single crystals. The magnon and CF frequencies, their oscillator strengths, and effective g factors have been measured using external magnetic fields up to 9 T in the temperature range between 1.5 and 100 K. The magnon frequency increases systematically with a decrease of the R ion radius. The magnetic ordering of R ions (R = Er, Tm, Yb) was observed at low temperatures T<3.5 K and in strong external magnetic fields. The observed effects are analyzed taking into account the main magnetic interactions in the system including exchange of the Mn3+ spins with R3+ paramagnetic moments.

Standard, E. C.; Stanislavchuk, T.; Sirenko, A. A.; Lee, N.; Cheong, S.-W.

2012-04-01

241

Scanning tunneling spectroscopy investigation of the (?3×?3) R30° Sn/Si(1 1 1) ? and ? surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) has been used to investigate the electronic structure of the 1/3 ML Sn 1- xSi x/Si(1 1 1) 2D alloy at 300 K for the two limiting cases of x?0 and x=0.5 corresponding to the ? and ? (or mosaic) phases of the Sn induced (?3×?3) R30° structure. Spectra of the ?-surface compare well with k? resolved photoemission and inverse photoemission spectra reported in the literature, but less well, in the empty state region, with theoretical band structure calculations. The surface is metallic (or semiconducting with a small gap of order 100 meV) and there are two main structures above and below the Fermi level. STS of the ? phase also shows metallic (or similar semiconducting) behaviour of the surface, in contrast to the related semiconducting ?-Pb/Si(1 1 1) and ?-Pb/Ge(1 1 1) phases.

Ressel, B.; Di Teodoro, C.; Profeta, G.; Ottaviano, L.; Cháb, V.; Prince, K. C.

2004-08-01

242

Threonine overproduction in yeast strains carrying the HOM3-R2 mutant allele under the control of different inducible promoters.  

PubMed

The HOM3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for aspartate kinase, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of the metabolic flux that leads to threonine biosynthesis. With the aim of obtaining yeast strains able to overproduce threonine in a controlled way, we have placed the HOM3-R2 mutant allele, which causes expression of a feedback-insensitive enzyme, under the control of four distinctive regulatable yeast promoters, namely, PGAL1, PCHA1, PCYC1-HSE2, and PGPH1. The amino acid contents of strains bearing the different constructs were analyzed both under repression and induction conditions. Although some differences in overall threonine production were found, a maximum of around 400 nmol/mg (dry weight) was observed. Other factors, such as excretion to the medium and activity of the catabolic threonine/serine deaminase, also affect threonine accumulation. Thus, improvement of threonine productivity by yeast cells would probably require manipulation of these and other factors. PMID:9872767

Farfán, M J; Aparicio, L; Calderón, I L

1999-01-01

243

Threonine Overproduction in Yeast Strains Carrying the HOM3-R2 Mutant Allele under the Control of Different Inducible Promoters  

PubMed Central

The HOM3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for aspartate kinase, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of the metabolic flux that leads to threonine biosynthesis. With the aim of obtaining yeast strains able to overproduce threonine in a controlled way, we have placed the HOM3-R2 mutant allele, which causes expression of a feedback-insensitive enzyme, under the control of four distinctive regulatable yeast promoters, namely, PGAL1, PCHA1, PCYC1-HSE2, and PGPH1. The amino acid contents of strains bearing the different constructs were analyzed both under repression and induction conditions. Although some differences in overall threonine production were found, a maximum of around 400 nmol/mg (dry weight) was observed. Other factors, such as excretion to the medium and activity of the catabolic threonine/serine deaminase, also affect threonine accumulation. Thus, improvement of threonine productivity by yeast cells would probably require manipulation of these and other factors.

Farfan, Maria-Jose; Aparicio, Luis; Calderon, Isabel L.

1999-01-01

244

Crystal growth and magnetic property of orthorhombic RMnO 3 (R=Sm-Ho) perovskites by mild hydrothermal synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have successfully grown several RMnO 3 (R=Sm-Ho) crystals by mild hydrothermal treatment of mixtures prepared from rare earth oxides, k-birnessite gel and KOH. Crystal growth of rare earth manganate perovskites was sensitive to alkalinity, temperature, filling fraction, nature of the rare earth ion and composition of initial reaction mixture. The structure of DyMnO 3 by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) and of the others by Rietveld refinement indicate that these perovskites adopt orthorhombic symmetry, which is in contrast to the usual observation of hexagonal structure in RMnO 3 with heavier rare earth ions prepared under normal or high-pressure conditions. The variable temperature magnetization studies of these crystals show magnetic ordering at low temperatures and are in agreement with earlier reports.

Chen, Yan; Yuan, Hongming; Li, Guanghua; Tian, Ge; Feng, Shouhua

2007-07-01

245

Optical properties and electronic structure of multiferroic hexagonal orthoferrites RFeO3 (R = Ho, Er, Lu)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on optical studies of the thin films of multiferroic hexagonal (P.G. 6mm) rare-earth orthoferrites RFeO3 (R = Ho, Er, Lu) grown epitaxially on a (111)-surface of ZrO2(Y2O3) substrate. The optical absorption study in the range of 0.6-5.6 eV shows that the films are transparent below 1.9 eV above this energy four broad intense absorption bands are distinguished. The absorption spectra are analyzed taking into account the unusual fivefold coordination of the Fe3+ ion. Temperature dependence of the optical absorption at 4.9 eV shows anomaly at 124 K, which we attribute to magnetic ordering of iron sublattices.

Pavlov, V. V.; Akbashev, A. R.; Kalashnikova, A. M.; Rusakov, V. A.; Kaul, A. R.; Bayer, M.; Pisarev, R. V.

2012-03-01

246

Characterization and turnover of CD73/IP(3)R3-positive microvillar cells in the adult mouse olfactory epithelium.  

PubMed

The main olfactory epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: sensory neurons, supporting cells, microvillar cells, and basal progenitor cells. Several populations of microvillar olfactory cells have been described, whose properties are not yet fully understood. In this study, we aimed to clarify the classification of microvillar cells by introducing a specific marker, CD73. Furthermore, we investigated the turnover of CD73-microvillar cells during adult life. Using direct and indirect immunofluorescence in adult main olfactory epithelium, we first demonstrate that ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) is a reliable marker for microvillar cells reported previously to express phospholipase C ?2 (PLC ?2) along with type 3 IP(3) receptors (IP(3)R3) and transient receptor potential channels 6 (TRPC6), as well as for cells labeled by transgenic expression of tauGFP driven by the IP(3)R3 promoter. The ubiquitous CD73 immunoreactivity in the microvilli of these 2 cell populations indicates that they correspond to the same cell type (CD73-microvillar cell), endowed with a signal transduction cascade mobilizing Ca(++) from intracellular stores. These microvillar cells respond to odors, possess a basal process, and do not degenerate after bulbectomy, suggesting that they contribute to cellular homeostasis in the olfactory epithelium. Next, we examined whether CD73-microvillar cells undergo turnover in the adult olfactory epithelium. By combining CD73 immunofluorescence and BrdU pulse labeling, we show delayed BrdU incorporation in a small fraction of CD73-positive microvillar cells, which persists for several weeks after BrdU administration. These findings indicate that CD73-microvillar cells likely differentiate from proliferating progenitor cells and have a slow turnover despite their apical position in the olfactory epithelium. These combined properties are unique among olfactory cells, in line with the possibility that they might regulate cellular homeostasis driven by extracellular ATP and adenosine. PMID:22952298

Pfister, Sandra; Dietrich, Maren G; Sidler, Corinne; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Knuesel, Irene; Elsaesser, Rebecca

2012-11-01

247

Calcineurin-NFATc regulates type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2) expression during cardiac remodeling.  

PubMed

In heart, the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (InsP3R2) is the predominant isoform expressed and is localized in the nuclear membrane of ventricular myocytes. InsP3R2-mediated Ca(2+) release regulates hypertrophy specific gene expression by modulating CaMKII?, histone deacetylase, and calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathways. InsP3R2 protein is a hypertrophy specific marker and is overexpressed in heart failure animal models and in humans. However, the regulation of InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression during cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure is not known. Here we show the transcriptional regulation of the Itpr2 gene in adult cardiomyocytes. Our data demonstrates that, InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression is activated by hypertrophic agonists and attenuated by InsP3R inhibitors 2-aminoethoxyldiphenyl borate and xestospongin-C. The Itpr2 promoter is regulated by the calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathway. NFATc1 regulates Itpr2 gene expression by directly binding to the Itpr2 promoter. The calcineurin-NFATc mediated up-regulation of the Itpr2 promoter was attenuated by cyclosporine-A. InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression was up-regulated in calcineurin-A transgenic mice and in human heart failure. Collectively, our data suggests that ITPR2 and hypertrophy specific gene expression is regulated, in part, by a positive feedback regulation between InsP3R2 and calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathways. PMID:24415751

Sankar, Natesan; deTombe, Pieter P; Mignery, Gregory A

2014-02-28

248

Comparative Analysis of a Putative Tuberculosis-Susceptibility Gene, MC3R, and Pseudogene Sequences in Cattle, African Buffalo, Hyena, Rhinoceros and Other African Bovids and Ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in humans have suggested the possible involvement of melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and other components of the central melanocortin system in host defense against mycobacteria. We report a genomic DNA nucleotide sequence highly homologous to human MC3R in several bovids and non-bovid African wildlife species. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the orthologous genes of cattle and buffalo are highly homologous (89.4

A. Müller; M. Möller; L. A. Adams; R. M. Warren; E. G. Hoal; P. D. van Helden

2012-01-01

249

Dual Histamine H3R/Serotonin 5-HT4R Ligands with Antiamnesic Properties: Pharmacophore-Based Virtual Screening and Polypharmacology.  

PubMed

In recent years, preclinical and clinical studies have generated considerable interest in the development of histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonists as novel treatment for degenerative disorders associated with impaired cholinergic function. To identify novel scaffolds for H3R antagonism, a common feature-based pharmacophore model was developed and used to screen the 17,194 compounds of the CERMN (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur le Médicament de Normandie) chemical library. Out of 268 virtual hits which have been gathered in 34 clusters, we were particularly interested in tricyclic derivatives also exhibiting a potent 5HT4R affinity. Benzo[h][1,6]naphthyridine derivatives showed the highest H3R affinity, and compound 17 (H3R Ki = 41.6 nM; 5-HT4R Ki = 208 nM) completely reversed the amnesiant effect of scopolamine at 3 mg/kg in a spatial working memory experiment. For the first time we demonstrated the feasibility to combine H3R and 5-HT4R activities in a single molecule, raising the exciting possibility that dual H3R antagonist/5HT4R agonist have potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24857631

Lepailleur, Alban; Freret, Thomas; Lemaître, Stéphane; Boulouard, Michel; Dauphin, François; Hinschberger, Antoine; Dulin, Fabienne; Lesnard, Aurélien; Bureau, Ronan; Rault, Sylvain

2014-06-23

250

Inhibition of the Ca2+ release channel, IP3R subtype 3 by caffeine slows glioblastoma invasion and migration and extends survival  

PubMed Central

Ca2+ signaling is an important determining factor in many cellular processes, especially in cancer cell proliferation, motility and invasion. Glioblastoma is the deadliest brain cancer with its average survival time of less than a year, with the most prominent cellular feature being the ability of these cells to migrate to and invade the neighboring tissue. We hypothesized that disturbing the Ca2+ signaling pathway would decrease the propensity for these cells to migrate. Thus, we investigated the detailed Ca2+ signaling pathway of the glioblastoma cells in response to various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) and G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists. Here we report that caffeine, which is a well-known activator of ryanodine receptors (RyRs), paradoxically inhibits inositol-1, 4, 5-triphospate receptor(IP3R)-mediated Ca2+ increase by selectively targeting IP3R subtype 3(IP3R3), whose mRNA expression is significantly increased in glioblastoma cells. Consequently, by inhibiting IP3R3-mediated Ca2+ release, caffeine was found to inhibit the invasion and migration of various glioblastoma cell lines in scrape motility, Matrigel invasion, soft agar, and brain slice implantation assays. In a mouse xenograft model of glioblastoma, caffeine intake via drinking water greatly increased mean survival duration of subject animals. These findings propose IP3R3 as a novel target for glioblastoma treatment and that caffeine may be a useful adjunct therapy that slows glioblastoma invasion and migration by selectively targeting IP3R3.

Kang, Sang Soo; Han, Kyung-Seok; Ku, Bo Mi; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Hong, Jinpyo; Shin, Hye Young; Almonte, Antoine G.; Woo, Dong Ho; Brat, Daniel J.; Hwang, Eun Mi; Yoo, Seung Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee; Park, Sung-Hye; Paek, Sun Ha; Roh, Eun Joo; Lee, Sung joong; Park, Jae-Yong; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Lee, C. Justin

2009-01-01

251

A Multipurpose Apparatus to Measure Viscosity and Surface Tension of Solutions: The Measurement of the Molecular Cross-Sectional Area of N-Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multipurpose apparatus that can be used to measure the viscosity of solution by the Ostwald method and the surface tension of solution by the drop-weight method or by the capillary-rise method is developed. The apparatus is convenient for in-situ preparation of solutions of different concentrations and avoids the error that frothing of the…

Xin Zhang; Shouxin Liu; Booxin Li; Na An; Fan Zhang

2004-01-01

252

Nutritional and anti-nutritional characters and rumen degradability of dry matter and nitrogen for some multipurpose tree species with potential for agroforestry in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a preliminary study on the nutritional value of seven multipurpose trees (MPTs), currently showing potential use in agroforestry systems in Zimbabwe, crude protein values ranged from 189 g kg?1 DM in Flemingia macrophylla to 292 g kg?1 DM in Acacia angustissima. Acid detergent fibre (ADF) content was low especially in Sesbania sesban (99 g kg?1 DM), while ADF contents

B. H. Dzowela; L. Hove; J. H. Topps; P. L. Mafongoya

1995-01-01

253

Chemical composition, rumen degradation, and gas production characteristics of some multipurpose fodder trees and shrubs during wet and dry seasons in the humid tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variations in chemical composition, dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) degradation, and gas production characteristics of 18 multipurpose trees and shrubs (MPTs) from the humid lowlands of West Africa were evaluated. The MPTs have potential for the development of integrated crop and livestock agroforestry technologies in the region. The experiment was conducted in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria during the main-wet

A Larbi; J. W Smith; I. O Kurdi; I. O Adekunle; A. M Raji; D. O Ladipo

1998-01-01

254

Can an environment-friendly management policy improve the overall performance of an artificial lake? Analysis of a multipurpose dam in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking as example a multipurpose dam in Greece, we wish to show that by following a rational operation policy, where the improvement of the broader environmental system becomes a high-priority target, it is possible to achieve a much more efficient allocation of its “traditional” water uses. In this context, we review the 50-year history of the Plastiras reservoir in central

Andreas Efstratiadis; Kimon Hadjibiros

255

Enhanced tolerance to chilling stress in OsMYB3R-2 transgenic rice is mediated by alteration in cell cycle and ectopic expression of stress genes.  

PubMed

MYB transcription factors play central roles in plant responses to abiotic stresses. How stress affects development is poorly understood. Here, we show that OsMYB3R-2 functions in both stress and developmental processes in rice (Oryza sativa). Transgenic plants overexpressing OsMYB3R-2 exhibited enhanced cold tolerance. Cold treatment greatly induced the expression of OsMYB3R-2, which encodes an active transcription factor. We show that OsMYB3R-2 specifically bound to a mitosis-specific activator cis-element, (T/C)C(T/C)AACGG(T/C)(T/C)A, a conserved sequence that was found in promoters of cyclin genes such as OsCycB1;1 and OsKNOLLE2. In addition, overexpression of OsMYB3R-2 in rice led to higher transcript levels of several G2/M phase-specific genes, including OsCycB1;1, OsCycB2;1, OsCycB2;2, and OsCDC20.1, than those in OsMYB3R-2 antisense lines or wild-type plants in response to cold treatment. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an increased cell mitotic index in overexpressed transgenic lines of OsMYB3R-2 after cold treatment. Furthermore, resistance to cold stress in the transgenic plants overexpressing OsCycB1;1 was also enhanced. The level of cellular free proline was increased in the overexpressed rice lines of OsMYB3R-2 and OsCycB1;1 transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants under the cold treatment. These results suggest that OsMYB3R-2 targets OsCycB1;1 and regulates the progress of the cell cycle during chilling stress. OsCPT1, which may be involved in the dehydration-responsive element-binding factor 1A pathway, showed the same transcription pattern in response to cold as did OsCycB1;1 in transgenic rice. Therefore, a cold resistance mechanism in rice could be mediated by regulating the cell cycle, which is controlled by key genes including OsMYB3R-2. PMID:19279197

Ma, Qibin; Dai, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yunyuan; Guo, Jing; Liu, Yaju; Chen, Na; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Dajian; Xu, Zhihong; Zhang, Xiansheng; Chong, Kang

2009-05-01

256

Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Active Thermal Control and Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in 2014. The development of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the completing the components which are on EFT1. Additional development work has been done to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation for a flight tests in of EM1 in 2017 and in and EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2012 to April 2013.

Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward

2013-01-01

257

Development of a multipurpose vacuum chamber for serial optical and diffraction experiments with free electron laser radiation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a development of a multipurpose vacuum chamber which primal function is to be used in pump/probe experiments with free electron laser (FEL) radiation. The chamber is constructed for serial diffraction and serial spectroscopy allowing a fast exchange of samples during the measurement process. For the fast exchange of samples, liquid jet systems are used. Both applications, utilizing soft x-ray FEL pulses as pump and optical laser pulses as probe and vice versa are documented. Experiments with solid samples as well as the liquid jet samples are presented. When working with liquid jets, a system of automatically refilled liquid traps for capturing liquids has been developed in order to ensure stable vacuum conditions. Differential pumping stages are placed in between the FEL beamline and the experimental chamber so that working pressure in the chamber can be up to four orders of magnitude higher than the pressure in the FEL beamline.

Rajkovic, I.; Hallmann, J.; Gruebel, S.; More, R.; Quevedo, W.; Petri, M.; Techert, S. [Department of Structural Dynamics of (Bio)chemical Systems, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37070 Goettingen (Germany)

2010-04-15

258

Nucleation and growth of Ag islands on the (.sqroot.3 × .sqroot.3)R30° phase of Ag on Si(111)  

SciTech Connect

We use scanning tunneling microscopy to measure densities and characteristics of Ag islands that form on the ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{sup o}-Ag phase on Si(111), as a function of deposition temperature. Nucleation theory predicts that the logarithm of island density varies linearly with inverse deposition temperature. The data show two linear regimes. At 50-125 K, islands are relatively small, and island density decreases only slightly with increasing temperature. At 180-250 K, islands are larger and polycrystalline, and island density decreases strongly with increasing temperature. At 300 K, Ag atoms can travel for distances of the order of 1 {micro}m. Assuming that Ag diffusion occurs via thermally activated motion of single atoms between adjacent sites, the data can be explained as follows. At 50-125 K, the island density does not follow conventional Arrhenius scaling due to limited mobility and a consequent breakdown of the steady-state condition for the adatom density. At {approx} 115-125 K, a transition to conventional Arrhenius scaling with critical nucleus size (i = 1) begins, and at 180-250 K, i > 1 prevails. The transition points indicate a diffusion barrier of 0.20-0.23 eV and a pairwise Ag-Ag bond strength of 0.14 eV. These energy values lead to an estimate of i {approx} 3-4 in the regime 180-250 K, where island density varies strongly with temperature.

Belianinov, A.; Unal, B.; Ho, K.-M.; Wang, C.-Z.; Evans, J. W.; Tringides, M. C.; Thiel, P. A.

2011-06-06

259

An investigation of the Si(111)-(?3 × ?3)R30°-Ag surface by Li + impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Si(111)-(?3 × ?3)R30°-Ag surface has been investigated using the technique of Li + impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy. Typical LEED ?3 domain sizes were estimated to be on the order of 150 Å for a 1 ML coverage of Ag, with the ?3 structure persisting for coverages of Ag up to 35 ML. Silver islanding was found to influence the appearance of the 5 keV Li + ICISS angular scans even for 1 ML coverages of Ag deposited at 480°C. A detailed structural analysis of the Si(111)-?3-Ag surface (0.25 ML deposition) involved the comparison of 5 keV Li + ICISS experimental data along the [11 overline2], [ overline110] and [2 overlinebar31] azimuths with computer simulations of the scattered ion intensities based on previously proposed models for the ?3 surface. Nine structurally different models were tested, and only the missing-top-layer (MTL) and the honeycomb-chained-trimer (HCT) models were found to be consistent with all the experimental results. An estimate of 0.4 Å for the maximum downward vertical displacement of the Ag atoms with resect to the surface Si atoms in the MTL model is made. The effects of increased thermal vibrational amplitude in the simulation of Si?Ag shadowing effects is also discussed. The interpretations of previous noble gas ICISS results are shown to be inconsistent with the present alkali metal ICISS study of the ?3 surface.

Daley, Richard S.; Charatan, Robert M.; Williams, R. Stanley

1990-12-01

260

How omics technologies can contribute to the '3R' principles by introducing new strategies in animal testing.  

PubMed

In Europe, in light of ethical, political and commercial pressure, every effort should be made to replace animals with alternatives (e.g. in vitro models), to reduce the number of animals used in experiments to a minimum and to refine current testing strategies in a way that ensures animals undergo minimum pain and distress. Methods currently used in toxicology for mandatory safety tests rely heavily on the dosing of animals, followed by the detection and pathological evaluation of manifested toxic lesions. Through the integration of so-called 'omics' technologies, a global analysis of treatment-related changes on the molecular level becomes feasible and therefore might provide a means for predicting toxicity before classical toxicological endpoints. This Opinion article summarizes the key features of pushing the '3R' principles in animal testing, discusses the possible impact on safety testing in toxicology and describes the potential of using omics technologies for improved toxicity prediction to meet ethical, political and commercial expectations. PMID:16782220

Kroeger, Michaela

2006-08-01

261

Investigation of hyperfine interactions in RMO3 (R =La, Nd; M =Cr, Fe) antiferromagnetic perovskite oxides using PAC spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local magnetic interaction at the transition metal sites in RMO3 (R=La, Nd; M=Cr, Fe) compounds has been investigated by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique using 181Hf?181Ta probe nuclei. The present measurements cover a temperature range from 10 K to 1000 K. Above the respective Neel temperature, each compound shows a unique quadrupolar frequency that decreases linearly with temperature. These interactions were assigned to the radioactive probe substituting Cr or Fe sites. Below TN, a combined electric plus magnetic hyperfine interaction was observed. The magnetic interaction revealed that the super transferred hyperfine fields on 181Ta at the Cr sites in (La,Nd)CrO3 extrapolated to 0 K, are much smaller than the corresponding values at Fe sites in (La,Nd)FeO3. This difference was attributed to different distribution of d electrons in Cr3+ (3d3) and Fe3+ (3d5) ions in each compound. As the fields for Nd compounds are smaller than those for La compounds, the role of rare-earth ions in the magnetism of these oxides is also discussed.

Carbonari, A. W.; Cavalcante, F. H. M.; Junqueira, A. C.; Leite, D. M. T.; Saxena, R. N.; Mestnik-Filho, J.

262

Investigation of hyperfine interactions in RMO 3 (R = La, Nd; M = Cr, Fe) antiferromagnetic perovskite oxides using PAC spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local magnetic interaction at the transition metal sites in RMO3 (R = La, Nd; M = Cr, Fe) compounds has been investigated by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique using 181Hf?181Ta probe nuclei. The present measurements cover a temperature range from 10 K to 1000 K. Above the respective Néel temperature, each compound shows a unique quadrupolar frequency that decreases linearly with temperature. These interactions were assigned to the radioactive probe substituting Cr or Fe sites. Below T N , a combined electric plus magnetic hyperfine interaction was observed. The magnetic interaction revealed that the super transferred hyperfine fields on 181Ta at the Cr sites in (La,Nd)CrO3 extrapolated to 0 K, are much smaller than the corresponding values at Fe sites in (La,Nd)FeO3. This difference was attributed to different distribution of d electrons in Cr3 + (3d3) and Fe3 + (3d5) ions in each compound. As the fields for Nd compounds are smaller than those for La compounds, the role of rare-earth ions in the magnetism of these oxides is also discussed.

Carbonari, A. W.; Cavalcante, F. H. M.; Junqueira, A. C.; Leite, D. M. T.; Saxena, R. N.; Mestnik-Filho, J.

2007-07-01

263

Dielectric properties of PVDF thin films doped with 3 wt.% of RCl3 (R = Gd or Er)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric permittivity (?'), electric modulus (M?), and ac conductivity (?ac) of pure polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and PVDF containing 3 wt.% RCl3 (R = Er or Gd) were measured. The incorporation of 3 wt.% of ErCl3 or GdCl3 within the PVDF matrix is found significantly to increase its ?' and ?ac. All investigated samples show different relaxation processes within the studied temperature and frequency ranges. The first process is ?a-relaxation, which occurs around the glass transition temperature, Tg. The second process is ?c-relaxation, which is associated with the molecular motions in the crystalline region of the main polymer chain. Third is the ?-relaxation which observed for pure PVDF at low temperatures and high frequencies. The frequency dependence of ?ac shows that the conduction mechanism for pure PVDF and PVDF containing 3 wt.% of RCl3 is correlated barrier hopping (CBH). The binding energy of the carriers was calculated based on the CBH model. Finally, the results obtained in this work are discussed and compared with those for 3 wt.% LaCl3-doped PVDF and similar materials.

El-Sayed, S.; Abdel-Baset, T. A.; Hassen, A.

2014-03-01

264

High-pressure structural stability of multiferroic hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Y, Ho, Lu)  

SciTech Connect

Structural changes in RMnO{sub 3} (R= Y, Ho, Lu) under high pressure were examined by synchrotron x-ray diffraction methods at room temperature. Compression occurs more readily in the ab plane than along the c axis. With increased pressure, a pressure-induced hexagonal to orthorhombic phase transition was observed starting at {approx}22 GPa for Lu(Y)MnO{sub 3}. When the pressure is increased to 35 GPa, a small volume fraction of Lu(Y)MnO{sub 3} is converted to the orthorhombic phase and the orthorhombic phase is maintained on pressure release. High-pressure infrared absorption spectroscopy and Mn K-edge near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy confirm that the hexagonal P6{sub 3}cm structure is stable below {approx}20 GPa and the environment around the Mn ion is not changed. Shifts in the unoccupied p-band density of states with pressure are observed in the Mn K-edge spectra. A schematic pressure-temperature phase diagram is given for the small ion RMnO{sub 3} system.

Gao, P.; Tappero, R.; Chen, Z.; Tyson, T.A.; Wu, T.; Ahn, K.H.; Liu, Z.; Kim, S.B. and Cheong, S.W.

2011-06-27

265

High-pressure Structural Stability of Multiferroic Hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Y Ho Lu)  

SciTech Connect

Structural changes in RMnO{sub 3} (R = Y, Ho, Lu) under high pressure were examined by synchrotron x-ray diffraction methods at room temperature. Compression occurs more readily in the ab plane than along the c axis. With increased pressure, a pressure-induced hexagonal to orthorhombic phase transition was observed starting at {approx}22 GPa for Lu(Y)MnO{sub 3}. When the pressure is increased to 35 GPa, a small volume fraction of Lu(Y)MnO{sub 3} is converted to the orthorhombic phase and the orthorhombic phase is maintained on pressure release. High-pressure infrared absorption spectroscopy and Mn K-edge near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy confirm that the hexagonal P6{sub 3}cm structure is stable below {approx}20 GPa and the environment around the Mn ion is not changed. Shifts in the unoccupied p-band density of states with pressure are observed in the Mn K-edge spectra. A schematic pressure-temperature phase diagram is given for the small ion RMnO{sub 3} system.

P Gao; Z Chen; T Tyson; T Wu; K Ahn; Z Liu; R Tappero; S Kim; S Cheong

2011-12-31

266

High-pressure structural stability of multiferroic hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Y, Ho, Lu)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural changes in RMnO3 (R= Y, Ho, Lu) under high pressure were examined by synchrotron x-ray diffraction methods at room temperature. Compression occurs more readily in the ab plane than along the c axis. With increased pressure, a pressure-induced hexagonal to orthorhombic phase transition was observed starting at ˜22 GPa for Lu(Y)MnO3. When the pressure is increased to 35 GPa, a small volume fraction of Lu(Y)MnO3 is converted to the orthorhombic phase and the orthorhombic phase is maintained on pressure release. High-pressure infrared absorption spectroscopy and Mn K-edge near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy confirm that the hexagonal P63cm structure is stable below ˜20 GPa and the environment around the Mn ion is not changed. Shifts in the unoccupied p-band density of states with pressure are observed in the Mn K-edge spectra. A schematic pressure-temperature phase diagram is given for the small ion RMnO3 system.

Gao, P.; Chen, Z.; Tyson, T. A.; Wu, T.; Ahn, K. H.; Liu, Z.; Tappero, R.; Kim, S. B.; Cheong, S.-W.

2011-06-01

267

40 Gbit/s all-optical 3R regeneration based on F-P filter and SOA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

40Gbit/s all-optical 3R regeneration was demonstrated. The wavelength of the data signal was converted with an SOA by cross-gain modulation (XGM). The clock recovery was based on Fabry-Perot (F-P) filter of high finesse (F=1000). The actual bit rate of the data signal was 40.04796Gbit/s, matching the free spectral range (FSR) of the F-P filter. Two SOAs were used in series as the decision gate to make full use of the nonlinearity. Taking advantage of the chirp, one narrowband OBF was used to reshape the waveforms in the clock recovery, so as to reduce the pattern effect. Another narrowband OBF was used after the decision gate to diminish the tails of the pulses. The clock signal had a root mean square (RMS) timing jitter of around 843fs. The output data signal of the regenerator had an optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of more than 40dB/0.1nm. The maximum timing jitter was 1.439ps.

Zhu, Likai; Yu, Jinlong; Zhang, Aixu; Wang, Yaotian; Zhang, Yandong; Yang, Enze

2005-12-01

268

Preparation and orientation control of RMnO 3 (R=Y, Yb) thin film by chemical solution deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RMnO 3 (R=Y, Yb) thin films were prepared by chemical solution deposition using alkoxy-derived precursors. The crystallization behavior, orientation and morphology of YMnO 3 films depended on the annealing conditions. It was confirmed that heat treatment in vacuum at the initial stage of crystallization affected the restraint of the perovskite phase and the formation of the hexagonal phase, and the following heat treatment in oxygen promoted c-axis orientation and grain growth. In contrast, YbMnO 3 films crystallized in the hexagonal phase both in vacuum and oxygen. The orientation of the YbMnO 3 films did not strongly depend on the annealing ambience compared with that of YMnO 3 films. The substitution of Y ion by Yb ion made it easy to form the hexagonal structure. However, the surface roughness became larger. The lattice constant of c-axis increased and that of a-axis decreased as the Yb ratio increased.

Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Nishizawa, Kaori; Miki, Takeshi; Kato, Kazumi

2002-04-01

269

Imaging the quantal substructure of single IP3R channel activity during Ca2+ puffs in intact mammalian cells.  

PubMed

The spatiotemporal patterning of Ca(2+) signals regulates numerous cellular functions, and is determined by the functional properties and spatial clustering of inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) Ca(2+) release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. However, studies at the single-channel level have been hampered because IP(3)Rs are inaccessible to patch-clamp recording in intact cells, and because excised organelle and bilayer reconstitution systems disrupt the Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) process that mediates channel-channel coordination. We introduce here the use of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to image single-channel Ca(2+) flux through individual and clustered IP(3)Rs in intact mammalian cells. This enables a quantal dissection of the local calcium puffs that constitute building blocks of cellular Ca(2+) signals, revealing stochastic recruitment of, on average, approximately 6 active IP(3)Rs clustered within <500 nm. Channel openings are rapidly ( approximately 10 ms) recruited by opening of an initial trigger channel, and a similarly rapid inhibitory process terminates puffs despite local [Ca(2+)] elevation that would otherwise sustain Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release indefinitely. Minimally invasive, nano-scale Ca(2+) imaging provides a powerful tool for the functional study of intracellular Ca(2+) release channels while maintaining the native architecture and dynamic interactions essential for discrete and selective cell signaling. PMID:19332787

Smith, Ian F; Parker, Ian

2009-04-14

270

Automatic sorting of toxicological information into the IUCLID (International Uniform Chemical Information Database) endpoint-categories making use of the semantic search engine Go3R.  

PubMed

The knowledge-based search engine Go3R, www.Go3R.org, has been developed to assist scientists from industry and regulatory authorities in collecting comprehensive toxicological information with a special focus on identifying available alternatives to animal testing. The semantic search paradigm of Go3R makes use of expert knowledge on 3Rs methods and regulatory toxicology, laid down in the ontology, a network of concepts, terms, and synonyms, to recognize the contents of documents. Search results are automatically sorted into a dynamic table of contents presented alongside the list of documents retrieved. This table of contents allows the user to quickly filter the set of documents by topics of interest. Documents containing hazard information are automatically assigned to a user interface following the endpoint-specific IUCLID5 categorization scheme required, e.g. for REACH registration dossiers. For this purpose, complex endpoint-specific search queries were compiled and integrated into the search engine (based upon a gold standard of 310 references that had been assigned manually to the different endpoint categories). Go3R sorts 87% of the references concordantly into the respective IUCLID5 categories. Currently, Go3R searches in the 22 million documents available in the PubMed and TOXNET databases. However, it can be customized to search in other databases including in-house databanks. PMID:24389116

Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Hareng, Lars; Wareing, Britta; Langsch, Angelika; Zschunke, Matthias; Alvers, Michael R; Landsiedel, Robert

2014-06-01

271

Effect of variations of the size and structure of the principal alkyl group on alkene elimination from the immonium ions CH 3CH 2CH?N +(CH 3)R, CH 3CH 2CH 2CH?N +(CH 3)R and CH 3CH 2CH 2CH 2CH?N +(CH 3)R 1 1 Dedicated to Professor Henri Edouard Audier on the occasion of his 60th birthday  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactions of three homologous series of metastable immonium ions of general structure, CH3(CH2)mCH?N+(CH3)R, [m = 1–3; R = n-CnH2n+1, n = 1–10, 12, and 14, iso-C5H11, CH2CH(CH3)C2H5, neo-C5H11, and CH2CH2C(CH3)3] are reported and discussed. The first member of each homologous series is anomalous in undergoing several reactions, including elimination of molecular hydrogen and a methyl radical. In contrast, higher

Simon J Mandeville; Richard D Bowen; Moschoula A Trikoupis; Johan K Terlouw

2000-01-01

272

Demonstration of two efficient optical 3R data regenerators at 40 Gb/s using EAM or SOA as all-optical decision gate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, we experimentally demonstrate efficient optical 3R regeneration of 40-Gb/s degraded data signals by using two schemes. The first 3R regenerator incorporates a dual-ring injection mode-locked fiber ring laser as the clock recovery module and an electro-absorption modulator (EAM) as the decision gate and the other 3R regenerator consists of an amplified feedback laser (AFL) for all-clock recovery and a semiconductor optical amplifier delayed interferometer (SOA-DI)as the optical decision gate. Optical clock with low timing jitter and uniform amplitude are successfully extracted with the use of the clock recovery units and significant improvement of the signal quality are obtained from 40-Gb/s RZ data signals degraded by polarization mode dispersion(PMD), chromatic dispersion or noise of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE).

Yu, Wenke; Zhao, Xiaofan; Huo, Li; Wang, Li; Lou, Caiyun

2011-11-01

273

Ultrafast electron dynamics and recombination at the Ge(1 1 1):Sn(?{3}×?{3})R30° surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first study revealing the electronic structure and electron dynamics of the excited adatom state at the Ge(1 1 1):Sn(?{3}×?{3})R30° surface. By the use of time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, the normally unoccupied electronic structure of the partly empty Sn adatom can be probed. From the angle-resolved data we conclude that the adatom electrons at the Ge:Sn surface are more delocalized than at the clean Ge(1 1 1)c(2×8) surface. A unique pump-and-probe technique, based on a pulsed femtosecond laser-system, has also allowed us to study the recombination process of the excited state. We connect the recombination process of the excited electrons to the coherent fluctuations of the Sn adatoms. As a result we present an estimate for the time between each collective and coherent adatom flip ?t=9 ps, i.e. an adatom switching frequency ??0.1 THz. We find that our results, contrary to scanning tunneling microscopy measurements [F. Ronci, S. Colonna, S.D. Thorpe, A. Cricenti, G. Le Lay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 156101], agree very well with values extracted from molecular dynamics simulations found in the literature [J. Avila, A. Mascaraque, E.G. Michel, M.C. Asensio, G. Le Lay, J. Ortega, R. Pérez, F. Flores, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 442; D. Farias, W. Kaminski, J. Lobo, J. Ortega, E. Hulpke, R. Perez, F. Flores, E.G. Michel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 16103].

Månsson, M.; Tjernberg, O.; Göthelid, M.; Grishin, M. A.; Claesson, T.; Karlsson, U. O.

2008-03-01

274

Mechanism of Optical Resolutions via Diastereoisomeric Salt Formation. Part 7 Role of the solvents in the optical resolution of ?-phenylethylamine by 2R,3R-tartaric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical resolution of ?-phenylethylamine (1) by 2R,3R-tartaric acid (2) was studied in different solvents, the precipitated\\u000a salts were subjected to thermoanalytical measurements and X-ray powder diffraction. The most efficient resolution can be accomplished\\u000a by using methanol, the precipitate, an unsolvated salt containing the S-(-)-1?2R,3R-(+)-2 salt in abundance, is not a simple\\u000a mixture of the diastereoisomeric salt pair, but a

D. Kozma; Cs. Novák; K. Tomor; Gy. Pokol; E. Fogassy

2000-01-01

275

Efficient synthesis of (2 R,3 R)- and (2 S,3 S)-2,3-diaminobutane-1,4-diol and their dibenzyl ethers  

Microsoft Academic Search

(2R,3R)-2,3-Diaminobutane-1,4-diol 6 and its dibenzyl ether 7 were efficiently synthesized starting from L-tartaric acid 1a. The crucial step, debenzylation of intermediate dibenzyloxydiazide 4, was accomplished in good yield by boron trichloride-dimethyl sulfide complex. The enantiomeric series was similarly obtained starting from D-tartaric acid.

Andreas Scheurer; Paul Mosset; Rolf W. Saalfrank

1997-01-01

276

Effect of Nourishing "Yin"-Removing "Fire" Chinese Herbal Mixture on Hypothalamic NKB/NK3R Expression in Female Precocious Rats  

PubMed Central

Aim. The present study aims to investigate the effects of nourishing “Yin”-removing “Fire” Chinese herb mixture on the hypothalamic NKB/NK3R expression in female precocious model rats. Materials and Methods. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal (N), central precocious puberty (CPP) model (M), CPP fed with Chinese herbal mixture (CHM), and CPP fed with normal saline (MS). Rats on postnatal day 5 were given a single subcutaneous injection of 300??g to establish CPP model rats. Rats of CHM and MS groups were continuously administered with nourishing “Yin”-removing “Fire” Chinese herb mixture or saline since postnatal day 15. The expressions of hypothalamic NKB/NK3R were detected by means of real-time PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence histochemistry. Results. The day of vaginal opening and establishment of two regular estrous cycles were delayed in the CHM group compared with M and MS groups. The expression of hypothalamic NKB/NK3R mRNA and protein in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and medial preoptic (MPO) area were decreased significantly in the CHM group compared with the M and MS groups on the day of onset-puberty. Conclusions. These results indicate that the NKB/NK3R signaling pathway might be involved in the effect of herbal mixture treatment on CPP.

Wang, Shiran; Zhu, Liting; Yu, Jian; Tian, Zhanzhuang

2014-01-01

277

The CSF3R T618I mutation causes a lethal neutrophilic neoplasia in mice that is responsive to therapeutic JAK inhibition.  

PubMed

We have recently identified targetable mutations in CSF3R (GCSFR) in 60% of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and atypical (BCR-ABL-negative) chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) patients. Here we demonstrate that the most prevalent, activating mutation, CSF3R T618I, is sufficient to drive a lethal myeloproliferative disorder in a murine bone marrow transplantation model. Mice transplanted with CSF3R T618I-expressing hematopoietic cells developed a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by overproduction of granulocytes and granulocytic infiltration of the spleen and liver, which was uniformly fatal. Treatment with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib lowered the white blood count and reduced spleen weight. This demonstrates that activating mutations in CSF3R are sufficient to drive a myeloproliferative disorder resembling aCML and CNL that is sensitive to pharmacologic JAK inhibition. This murine model is an excellent tool for the further study of neutrophilic myeloproliferative neoplasms and implicates the clinical use of JAK inhibitors for this disease. PMID:24081659

Fleischman, Angela G; Maxson, Julia E; Luty, Samuel B; Agarwal, Anupriya; Royer, Lacey R; Abel, Melissa L; MacManiman, Jason D; Loriaux, Marc M; Druker, Brian J; Tyner, Jeffrey W

2013-11-21

278

The CSF3R T618I mutation causes a lethal neutrophilic neoplasia in mice that is responsive to therapeutic JAK inhibition  

PubMed Central

We have recently identified targetable mutations in CSF3R (GCSFR) in 60% of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and atypical (BCR-ABL–negative) chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) patients. Here we demonstrate that the most prevalent, activating mutation, CSF3R T618I, is sufficient to drive a lethal myeloproliferative disorder in a murine bone marrow transplantation model. Mice transplanted with CSF3R T618I–expressing hematopoietic cells developed a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by overproduction of granulocytes and granulocytic infiltration of the spleen and liver, which was uniformly fatal. Treatment with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib lowered the white blood count and reduced spleen weight. This demonstrates that activating mutations in CSF3R are sufficient to drive a myeloproliferative disorder resembling aCML and CNL that is sensitive to pharmacologic JAK inhibition. This murine model is an excellent tool for the further study of neutrophilic myeloproliferative neoplasms and implicates the clinical use of JAK inhibitors for this disease.

Fleischman, Angela G.; Maxson, Julia E.; Luty, Samuel B.; Agarwal, Anupriya; Royer, Lacey R.; Abel, Melissa L.; MacManiman, Jason D.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Druker, Brian J.

2013-01-01

279

A Quasi-Experimental Study of Adolescent Learning Using the SQ3R Strategy Instruction with Web-Based Learning Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the effects of strategy instruction on lower and higher-level learning in the hypertext format of a WebQuest. The SQ3R and Classification/Categorization study strategies were used to investigate the effects of comprehension in a recall and essay task. Two hundred fifty-four eighth-grade…

Guzniczak, Lizabeth A.

2007-01-01

280

A Multipurpose Sampling Loop for Analysis of Nanogram to Milligram per Cubic Meter Levels of Sulfur Compounds in the Atmosphere, Natural Gas and Gaseous Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multipurpose sampling loop coupled with a GC-sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD) for analysis of nanogram per cubic meter to milligram per cubic meter levels of sulfur compounds in the atmosphere, natural gas and gaseous fuels is reported in this paper. Samples with higher concentrations of sulfur compounds (> 70 ?g\\/m) can be introduced to the GC-SCD by the sampling loop

H. Tang; P. Heaton; M. Hadley

1996-01-01

281

Chemoenzymatic synthesis of (2R,3R,4R)-dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), a new activator of antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2.  

PubMed

Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ, 1a) is a specific and potent inhibitor of NF-?B, and it is now being developed as an anti-inflammatory and anticancer agent. While previously only the (2S,3S,4S)-form had been available from the racemate by using lipase-catalyzed enantioselective resolution, in the present study a new route for production of the (2R,3R,4R)-form was established by use of a chemoenzymatic approach. (1R*,2R*,3R*)-2,3-Epoxy-5-N-[(2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino]-4,4-dimethoxycyclohex-5-en-1-ol (2a) was hexanoylated on both secondary and phenolic hydroxy groups, and subjected to Burkholderia cepacia lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis. The reaction proceeded in a highly enantioselective manner (E >500) to give (1S,2S,3S)-2a in an enantiomerically pure state. Several chemical steps of transformation from the enzyme reaction product gave (2R,3R,4R)-DHMEQ (1a) without any loss of stereochemical purity. Moreover, we newly found that (2R,3R,4R)-DHMEQ activated Nrf2, which is a transcription factor that induces the expression of multiple antioxidant enzymes. It activated Nrf2 in a promoter reporter assay. It also increased the expression of target antioxidant proteins and cancelled ROS-induced cell death in a neuronal cell line. Thus, (2R,3R,4R)-DHMEQ was efficiently prepared by a newly designed route using lipase, and it may be useful as a new anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:21541373

Niitsu, Yukihiro; Hakamata, Masatoshi; Goto, Yuko; Higashi, Toshinori; Shoji, Mitsuru; Sugai, Takeshi; Umezawa, Kazuo

2011-06-21

282

A theoretical study of H2 dissociation on (3×3)R30°CO/Ru(0001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the influence of preadsorbed CO on the dissociative adsorption of H2 on Ru(0001) with density functional theory calculations. For a coverage of 1/3 ML CO, we investigated different possible reaction paths for hydrogen dissociation using nudged elastic band and adaptive nudged elastic band calculations. One reaction path was studied in detail through an energy decomposition and molecular orbital type of analysis. The minimum barrier for H2 dissociation is found to be 0.29 eV. At the barrier the H-H bond is hardly stretched. Behind this barrier a molecular chemisorption minimum is present. Next, the molecule overcomes a second barrier, with a second local chemisorption minimum behind it. To finally dissociate to chemisorbed atoms, the molecule has to overcome a third barrier. To move along the reaction path from reactants to products, the hydrogen molecule needs to rotate, and to significantly change its center-of-mass position. The procedure of mapping out reaction paths for H2 reacting on low-index surfaces of bare metals (computing two-dimensional elbow plots for fixed impact high-symmetry sites and H2 orientations parallel to the surface) does not work for H2+CO/Ru. The first barrier in the path is recovered, but the features of the subsequent stretch to the dissociative chemisorption minimum are not captured, because the molecule is not allowed to change its center-of-mass position or to rotate. The dissociative chemisorption of H2 on CO/Ru(0001) is endoergic, in contrast to the case of H2 on bare Ru(0001). The zero-point energy corrected energies of molecularly and dissociatively chemisorbed H2 are very close, suggesting that it may be possible to detect molecularly chemisorbed H2 on (3×3)R30°CO/Ru(0001). The presence of CO on the surface increases the barrier height to dissociation compared with bare Ru(0001). Based on an energy decomposition and molecular orbital analysis we attribute the increase in the barrier height mainly to an occupied-occupied interaction between the bonding H2 ?g orbital and the (surface-hybridized) CO 1? orbitals, i.e., to site blocking. There is a small repulsive contribution to the barrier from the interaction between the H2 molecule and the Ru part of the CO covered Ru surface, but it is smaller than one might expect based on the calculations of H2 interacting with a clean Ru surface, and on calculations of H2 interacting with the CO overlayer only. Actually, the analysis suggests that the Ru surface as a subsystem is (slightly) more reactive for the reaction path studied with CO preadsorbed on it than without it. Thus, the results indicate that the influence of CO on H2 dissociation on Ru is not only a simple site-blocking effect, the electronic structure of the underlying Ru is changed.

Groot, I. M. N.; Juanes-Marcos, J. C.; Olsen, R. A.; Kroes, G. J.

2010-04-01

283

MGEANT--A generic multi-purpose Monte-Carlo simulation package for gamma-ray experiments  

SciTech Connect

We present a generic multi-purpose Monte-Carlo simulation package, based on GEANT and the CERN Program Library, which is appropriate for gamma-ray astronomy, and allows the rapid prototyping of a wide variety of detector systems. Instrument specific geometry and materials data can simply be supplied via input files, and are independent of the main code. The user can select from a standard set of event generators and beam options (implemented as 'plug-ins') which would be needed in an astrophysical or instrument calibration context. The philosophy of this approach is to facilitate the implementation of new software add-ons and changes in the instrumental setup. This is especially useful for projects which involve a large group of developers and collaborators. MGEANT has been successfully used to perform background calculations and to generate the instrument response for the WIND/TGRS instrument, and is currently being used to study the background, sensitivity, response, and imaging capabilities of the INTEGRAL/SPI.

Seifert, Helmut; Naya, Juan E.; Sturner, Steven J. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland 20771 (United States); Universities Space Research Association (United States); Teegarden, Bonnard J. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland 20771 (United States)

1997-05-10

284

A prospective clinical study of a multipurpose adhesive used for the cementation of resin-bonded bridges.  

PubMed

A clinical trial was conducted to assess comparatively the clinical performance of anterior resin-bonded bridges (RBBs) cemented with Panavia 21 Opaque (PO) or Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (SBMP) used in conjunction with Scotchbond Resin Cement (SRC). Thirty-three bridges were cemented with PO and 31 bridges with SRC. The bridges were assessed six months after placement via a postal questionnaire. Two bridges (one in each group) failed at that stage. Clinical assessments at one year revealed that one PO bridge and five SRC bridges had failed. Chi-squared analysis, however, showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the retention rate of the two groups. At the end of two years, eight bridges had failed (three PO and five SRC). Chi-squared analysis again revealed no significant difference in the retention rate provided by the two adhesives. Greyness of the abutment teeth of bridges cemented with SRC was a drawback in using this material. Many operators who participated in the trial felt the use of SRC/SBMP was time-consuming and rather complicated. PMID:11699175

Aboush, Y E; Estetah, N

2001-01-01

285

Full-scale prototype of the circular track detector for the multipurpose detector facility at the NICA acceleration complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the NICA heavy ion collider, which is now under way, assumes the development of a Multipurpose Detector (MPD), including an end-cap tracker (EC) (which can be a wheel-type tracker based on thin-wall drift tubes (straws) similar to the inner detector of the transition radiation tracker (TRT) in the ATLAS experiment). The identical front and back tracker modules mounted behind the TPC are to ensure the detection of Au-Au ion collision products in the pseudorapidity range from 1.4 to 2.1 with good track parameters of reconstructed events. Each module will contain 60 circular straw planes and maximum straw occupancy will be no higher than 0.2 particle per collision. The NICA EC is substantially different from its analogue and requires a certain amount of R&D. The first results from applying new technology to make a full-scale prototype of the circular EC detector for NICA are presented.

Berezin, G. S.; Boguslavskii, I. V.; Grigalashvili, N.; Davkov, V. I.; Davkov, K. I.; Zhukov, I. A.; Zinchenko, A. I.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Lysan, V. M.; Myalkovskiy, V. V.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Topilin, N. D.; Shabunov, A. V.; Cholakov, V. D.

2012-03-01

286

Novel, multi-purpose, PMMA-type adhesive resin with newly synthesized microcapsule of radical polymerization initiators.  

PubMed

The behavior of microencapsulated polymerization initiators in dental adhesives is unknown. This study investigated the effects of new microencapsulated initiators in novel, multi-purpose, PMMA-type adhesive resin on the bonding performance and polymerization reactivity. Microencapsulated BPO and 1,3,5-trimethylbarbituric acid (TMBA) with PEMA as a shell polymer were quantitatively synthesized at 97-98% yield with 30-54 microm diameter. Adhesive-MC (comprising the synthesized microcapsules) and Adhesive-BR (comprising bare BPO and bare TMBA) were prepared and stored at 5 degrees C, 23 degrees C, and 40 degrees C for two months. MMA monomer was used as a solvent for the microcapsules. At the starting period, there were no significant differences between Adhesive-MC and Adhesive-BR in shear bond strength to enamel or dentin treated with or without surface treatment agent (p<0.05); moreover, their curing times (tc=304 seconds) were almost the same. After two months' storage at 40 degrees C, Adhesive-BR degraded in bond strength and showed markedly delayed polymerization reactivity as storage period progressed. In direct contrast, it was found that Adhesive-MC still retained its capabilities for adhesion to gold alloy and initiation of radical polymerization (p<0.05). PMID:18309610

Fuchigami, Kiyomi; Ikemura, Kunio; Ichizawa, Kensuke

2008-01-01

287

Iodine Tagging Velocimetry and Mechanism in the Hypersonic Near Wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study demonstrates a new molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) method for velocity measurements of high speed flow. It demonstrates offbody Iodine Tagging Velocimetry (ITV) in the hypersonic near wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) model. Experiments are performed in the NASA-Langley 31-inch Mach 10 air wind tunnel. A 0.5% I2 / N2 mixture is seeded on the leeward backshell of the model using a pressure tap. I2 laser-induced fluorescence is excited along a 5.5 mm line using an ArF excimer laser near 193 nm. Results indicate I2 absorbs at least 2 photons to produce iodine ions and electrons. These recombine as the tagged region is displaced downstream to produce I (2P3/2) whose emission is monitored at 206 nm. Results at P0 = 2.41 MPa (350 psi), T0 = 990K, and 10 micro-sec transit times produce velocities from 630-820 m/sec across the I2 seeded jet at a distance of 38.2 mm (25.5 jet diameters) downstream from the jet orifice. Maximum wake jet velocities near the shear layer are 59% of freestream velocity.

Balla, R. Jeffrey

2013-01-01

288

In situ multipurpose time-resolved spectrometer for monitoring nanoparticle generation in a high-pressure fluid  

SciTech Connect

We developed a multipurpose time-resolved spectrometer for studying the dynamics of nanoparticles generated by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) in a high-pressure fluid. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure optical cell and three spectrometers for in situ measurements. The optical cell was designed for experiments at temperatures up to 400 K and pressures up to 30 MPa with fluctuations within {+-}0.1% h{sup -1}. The three spectrometers were used for the following in situ measurements at high pressures: (i) transient absorption spectrum measurements from 350 to 850 nm to investigate the dynamics of nanoparticle generation from nanoseconds to milliseconds after laser irradiation, (ii) absorption spectrum measurements from 220 to 900 nm to observe the time evolution of nanoparticles from seconds to hours after laser ablation, and (iii) dynamic light scattering measurements to track nanoparticles with sizes from 10 nm to 10 {mu}m in the time range from seconds to hours after laser ablation. By combining these three spectrometers, we demonstrate in situ measurements of gold nanoparticles generated by PLA in supercritical fluids. This is the first report of in situ time-resolved measurements of the dynamics of nanoparticles generated in a supercritical fluid.

Wei, Shaoyu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, 739-8526 Higashi-hiroshima (Japan); Saitow, Ken-ichi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, 739-8526 Higashi-hiroshima (Japan); Natural Science Center for Basic Research and Development (N-BARD), 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, 739-8526 Higashi-hiroshima (Japan)

2012-07-15

289

Tractable synthesis of multipurpose screening compounds with under-represented molecular features for an open access screening platform.  

PubMed

The layout of multipurpose screening libraries must address criteria for the compounds such as novelty, diversity potential, innovative design, and last but not least synthetic tractability. While academic compound collections are often innovative, novel, and highly divers, synthesis of analogs or larger substance quantities is often hampered by complex multistep syntheses with low overall yields. In addition, covalently binding compounds and interaction motifs designed to bind metal ions were discriminated against by the paradigm that these interaction types must almost inevitably lead to toxic effects. We would like to challenge this hypothesis. The lack of such interactions could be a reason for frequent failure in the disclosure of hits for hitherto undruggable target proteins using commercially available screening collections. Thus, easily synthesizable screening candidates equipped to bind covalently to nucleophiles or to metalloenzymes by chelation are under-represented in public access screening libraries. Within this work, we present the synthesis and deposition of 88 compounds with five distinct functional classes, each of which features under-represented screening motifs, for example, metal ion complexation, reversible covalent binding, or halogen bonding. The collection includes acetohydrazides, acylhydrazones, propylene glycol ethers, 2-cyanoacetamides, and 2-cyanoacrylamides. The rational for the synthesis of most of the compounds was recently published by our group and is now supplemented by additional compounds reported here for the first time. The public access disposition enables academic research groups to collectively expand the druggable space and interdisciplinary collaborate within the scientific field. PMID:24687389

Wilde, Felix; Specker, Edgar; Neuenschwander, Martin; Nazaré, Marc; Bodtke, Anja; Link, Andreas

2014-08-01

290

Environmental factors influencing survival of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a multipurpose constructed treatment wetland in southern California.  

PubMed

Survival of the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, differed among marshes in a demonstration 9.9-ha multipurpose constructed treatment wetland designed to improve the quality of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in southern California. At a mean loading rate of 3.3 kg NH4-N ha(-1) d(-1) (6 kg total N ha(-1) d(-1)), the suitability of the wetland to support a population of sticklebacks was estimated to be low. The development of potentially toxic levels of un-ionized ammonia, particularly during periods when pH increased concomitantly with oxygen generation by phytoplankton biomass > 300 mg chlorophyll a liter(-1), and disinfection by-products were associated with lowered survivorship of sentinel fish. Moreover, the high oxygen demand from nitrification of NH4-N created daily periods of low dissolved oxygen concentration (6-16 h at < 2 mg liter(-1)) in the open water areas of the shallow marshes. Low dissolved oxygen concentration in open water zones of the seven marshes during a part of each day and persistent anaerobic conditions in the emergent vegetation rendered the majority of the wetland's substrate surface unavailable for successful reproduction by sticklebacks. The potential sites for Gasterosteus to replace mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki, as a biological control agent against mosquitoes are probably limited to comparatively cool-water habitats with high water quality, such as riverine wetlands. PMID:17633430

Walton, William E; Wirth, Margaret C; Workman, Parker D

2007-06-01

291

Design and investigations of the superconducting magnet system for the multipurpose superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source  

SciTech Connect

The production of intense beams of heavy ions with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) is an important request at many accelerators. According to the ECR condition and considering semi-empirical scaling laws, it is essential to increase the microwave frequency together with the magnetic flux density of the ECRIS magnet system. A useful frequency of 28 GHz, therefore, requires magnetic flux densities above 2.2 T implying the use of superconducting magnets. A cooperation of European institutions initiated a project to build a multipurpose superconducting ECRIS (MS-ECRIS) in order to achieve an increase of the performances in the order of a factor of ten. After a first design of the superconducting magnet system for the MS-ECRIS, the respective cold testing of the built magnet system reveals a lack of mechanical performance due to the strong interaction of the magnetic field of the three solenoids with the sextupole field and the magnetization of the magnetic iron collar. Comprehensive structural analysis, magnetic field calculations, and calculations of the force pattern confirm thereafter these strong interactions, especially of the iron collar with the solenoidal fields. The investigations on the structural analysis as well as suggestions for a possible mechanical design solution are given.

Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Maeder, J.; Rossbach, J.; Spaedtke, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Komorowski, P.; Meyer-Reumers, M.; Krischel, D.; Fischer, B. [Bruker Advanced Supercon GmbH, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany); Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L. [Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)

2012-02-15

292

Controlling stereoselectivity by enzymatic and chemical means to access enantiomerically pure (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives?  

PubMed Central

A chemoenzymatic strategy for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure novel alkaloids (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines is presented. The key steps are the biocatalytic stereoselective reductive amination of substituted 1-phenylpropan-2-one derivatives to yield chiral amines employing microbial ?-transaminases, and the diastereoselective reduction of a Bischler–Napieralski imine intermediate by catalytic hydrogenation in the presence of palladium on charcoal, leading exclusively to the desired cis-isomer.

Orden, Alejandro A.; Schrittwieser, Joerg H.; Resch, Verena; Mutti, Francesco G.; Kroutil, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

293

Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}: Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and thermal behavior  

SciTech Connect

The new 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} (1), where Piv=OOCBu{sup t-}, was synthesized in high yield (>95%) by the reaction of thulium acetate with pivalic acid in air at 100 Degree-Sign S. According to the X-ray diffraction data, the metal atoms in compound 1 are in an octahedral ligand environment unusual for lanthanides. The magnetic and luminescence properties of polymer 1, it's the solid-phase thermal decomposition in air and under argon, and the thermal behavior in the temperature range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S were investigated. The vaporization process of complex 1 was studied by the Knudsen effusion method combined with mass-spectrometric analysis of the gas-phase composition in the temperature range of 570-680 K. - Graphical Abstract: Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic, luminescence properties, the thermal behavior and the volatility for the compound {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} were investigated. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized the coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tm atoms in polymer have the coordination number 6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer exhibits blue-color emission at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer shows high thermal stability and volatility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer has no phase transitions in the range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S.

Fomina, Irina, E-mail: fomina@igic.ras.ru [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 31, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Dobrokhotova, Zhanna; Aleksandrov, Grygory [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 31, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Emelina, Anna; Bykov, Mikhail [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1/3, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Malkerova, Irina [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 31, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Bogomyakov, Artem [International Tomography Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya Str. 3a, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Puntus, Lada [Kotel'nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Mokhovaya Str. 11-7, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Novotortsev, Vladimir; Eremenko, Igor [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 31, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15

294

The L266V tau mutation is associated with frontotemporal dementia and Pick-like 3R and 4R tauopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of rapidly progressive frontotemporal dementia presenting at age 33 years. At autopsy there was severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes. Tau-positive Pick bodies, which ultrastructurally were composed of straight filaments, were present, accompanied by severe neuronal loss and gliosis. RD3, a tau antibody specific for the three-repeat (3R) isoforms, labeled the Pick bodies. ET3, a

Marion Hogg; Zoran M. Grujic; Matt Baker; Serpil Demirci; Angela L. Guillozet; Alison P. Sweet; Laura L. Herzog; Sandra Weintraub; M.-Marsel Mesulam; Nichole E. LaPointe; T. C. Gamblin; Robert W. Berry; Lester I. Binder; Rohan de Silva; Andrew Lees; Marisol Espinoza; Peter Davies; Andrew Grover; Naruhiko Sahara; Takashi Ishizawa; Dennis Dickson; Shu-Hui Yen; Michael Hutton; Eileen H. Bigio

2003-01-01

295

High pressure studies of magnetic, electronic, and local structure properties in the rare-earth orthoferrites RFeO3 (R = Nd, Lu)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high pressure modification of the electronic structure, magnetic properties, and local crystal structure have been studied in the rare-earth RFeO3 (R=Nd, Lu) orthoferrites in both pure single crystals and polycrystalline samples doped with Sn. The pressure dependences of the unit cell parameters, Néel temperatures, supertransferred hyperfine magnetic fields at tin nuclei H Sn, and the optical absorption edge have been obtained. The relations of the obtained values with the geometry of exchange interactions were analyzed.

Gavriliuk, A. G.; Stepanov, G. N.; Lyubutin, I. S.; Stepin, A. S.; Trojan, I. A.; Sidorov, V. A.

2000-07-01

296

Structural Determination of Molecular Overlayer Systems with Normal Photoelectron Diffraction: c(2×2) CONi(001) and (3×3)R 30° CONi(111)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical normal photoelectron diffraction studies of CO adsorbed on Ni are presented. It is shown for the first time that normal photoelectron diffraction can yield definitive structure determinations in molecular adsorbate systems. The linear-bonded atop geometry of c(2×2) CO- Ni(001) is confirmed, while CO is found to occupy the twofold bridge site in (3×3)R 30° CO- Ni(111).

S. D. Kevan; R. F. Davis; D. H. Rosenblatt; J. G. Tobin; M. G. Mason; D. A. Shirley; C. H. Li; S. Y. Tong

1981-01-01

297

Structural determination of molecular overlayer systems with normal photoelectron diffraction: c(2 x 2)CONi(001) and (. sqrt. 3 x. sqrt. 3)R30° CONi(111)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical normal photoelectron diffraction studies of CO adsorbed on Ni are presented. It is shown for the first time that normal photoelectron diffraction can yield definitive structure determinations in molecular adsorbate systems. The linear-bonded atop geometry of c(2 x 2)CO-Ni(001) is confirmed, while CO is found to occupy the twofold bridge site in (..sqrt..3 x ..sqrt..3)R30° CO-Ni(111).

S. D. Kevan; R. F. Davis; D. H. Rosenblatt; J. G. Tobin; M. G. Mason; D. A. Shirley; C. H. Li; S. Y. Tong

1981-01-01

298

Heterogeneous myocardial distribution of iodine-123 15-( p -iodophenyl)-3- R,S -methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that iodine-123 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) is an agent for myocardial fatty acid metabolism in animal models. The aim of the present study was to determine whether alterations in fatty acid uptake and\\/or utilization in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) could be detected by 123I-BMIPP. Myocardial imaging with 123I-BMIPP and thallium-201 (201Tl) was performed in 14 fasted

Yasuchika Takeishi; Junya Chiba; Shinya Abe; Ichiro Tonooka; Akio Komatani; Hitonobu Tomoike

1992-01-01

299

Transition between the 1 x 1 and ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} surface structures of GaN in the vapor-phase environment  

SciTech Connect

Out-of-plane structures of the GaN(0001) surface in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) environment have been determined using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering. The authors measured 11{bar 2}{ell} crystal truncation rod intensities at a variety of temperatures and ammonia partial pressures on both sides of the 1 x 1 to ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} surface phase transition. The out-of-plane structure of the ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} phase appears to be nearly independent of temperature below the transition, while the structure of the 1 x 1 phase changes increase rapidly as the phase transition is approached from above. A model for the structure of the 1 x 1 phase with a partially-occupied top Ga layer agrees well with the data. The observed temperature dependence is consistent with a simple model of the equilibrium between the vapor phase and the surface coverage of Ga and N. In addition, the authors present results on the kinetics of reconstruction domain coarsening following a quench into the ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} phase field.

Munkholm, A.; Thompson, C.; Stephenson, G. B.; Eastman, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Fini, P.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.

2000-01-12

300

Divergent effects of muscarinic receptor subtype gene ablation on murine colon tumorigenesis reveals association of M3R and zinc finger protein 277 expression in colon neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Background M3 and M1 subtype muscarinic receptors are co-expressed in normal and neoplastic intestinal epithelial cells. In mice, ablating Chrm3, the gene encoding M3R, robustly attenuates intestinal tumor formation. Here we investigated the effects of Chrm1 gene ablation, alone and in combination with Chrm3 ablation. Methods We used wild-type, Chrm1-/-, Chrm3-/- and combined Chrm1-/-/Chrm3-/- knockout (dual knockout) mice. Animals were treated with azoxymethane, an intestine-selective carcinogen. After 20 weeks, colon tumors were counted and analyzed histologically and by immunohistochemical staining. Tumor gene expression was analyzed using microarray and results validated by RT-PCR. Key findings were extended by analyzing gene and protein expression in human colon cancers and adjacent normal colon tissue. Results Azoxymethane-treated Chrm3-/- mice had fewer and smaller colon tumors than wild-type mice. Reductions in colon tumor number and size were not observed in Chrm1-/- or dual knockout mice. To gain genetic insight into these divergent phenotypes we used an unbiased microarray approach to compare gene expression in tumors from Chrm3-/- to those in wild-type mice. We detected altered expression of 430 genes, validated by quantitative RT-PCR for the top 14 up- and 14 down-regulated genes. Comparing expression of this 28-gene subset in tumors from wild-type, Chrm3-/-, Chrm1-/- and dual knockout mice revealed significantly reduced expression of Zfp277, encoding zinc finger protein 277, in tissue from M3R-deficient and dual knockout mice, and parallel changes in Zfp277 protein expression. Notably, mRNA and protein for ZNF277, the human analogue of Zfp277, were increased in human colon cancer compared to adjacent normal colon, along with parallel changes in expression of M3R. Conclusions Our results identify a novel candidate mouse gene, Zfp277, whose expression pattern is compatible with a role in mediating divergent effects of Chrm3 and Chrm1 gene ablation on murine intestinal neoplasia. The biological importance of this observation is strengthened by finding increased expression of ZNF277 in human colon cancer with a parallel increase in M3R expression. The role of zinc finger protein 277 in colon cancer and its relationship to M3R expression and activation are worthy of further investigation.

2014-01-01

301

Allelic Variants of Melanocortin 3 Receptor Gene (MC3R) and Weight Loss in Obesity: A Randomised Trial of Hypo-Energetic High- versus Low-Fat Diets  

PubMed Central

Introduction The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R) have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets. Subjects and Methods This research is based on the NUGENOB study, a trial conducted to assess weight loss during a 10-week dietary intervention involving two different hypo-energetic (high-fat and low-fat) diets. A total of 760 obese patients were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the single exon of MC3R gene and its flanking regions, including the missense variants Thr6Lys and Val81Ile. Linear mixed models and haplotype-based analysis were carried out to assess the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and differential weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. Results No differences in drop-out rate were found by MC3R genotypes. The rs6014646 polymorphism was significantly associated with weight loss using co-dominant (p?=?0.04) and dominant models (p?=?0.03). These p-values were not statistically significant after strict control for multiple testing. Haplotype-based multivariate analysis using permutations showed that rs3827103–rs1543873 (p?=?0.06), rs6014646–rs6024730 (p?=?0.05) and rs3746619–rs3827103 (p?=?0.10) displayed near-statistical significant results in relation to weight loss. No other significant associations or gene*diet interactions were detected for weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. Conclusion The study provided overall sufficient evidence to support that there is no major effect of genetic variants of MC3R and differential weight loss after a 10-week dietary intervention with hypo-energetic diets in obese Europeans.

Santos, Jose L.; De la Cruz, Rolando; Holst, Claus; Grau, Katrine; Naranjo, Carolina; Maiz, Alberto; Astrup, Arne; Saris, Wim H. M.; MacDonald, Ian; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo

2011-01-01

302

"Quantal" Ca2+ release at the cytoplasmic aspect of the Ins(1,4,5)P3R channel in smooth muscle.  

PubMed

Smooth muscle responds to activation of the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor [Ins(1,4,5)P(3)R] with a graded concentration-dependent ("quantal") Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) store. Graded release seems incompatible both with the finite capacity of the store and the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR)-like facility, at Ins(1,4,5)P3Rs, that, once activated, should release the entire content of SR Ca2+. The structural organization of the SR and the regulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3R activity by inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] and Ca2+ have each been proposed to explain ;quantal' Ca2+ release. Here, we propose that regulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3R activity by lumenal Ca2+ acting at the cytoplasmic aspect of the receptor might explain ;quantal' Ca2+ release in smooth muscle. The entire SR store was found to be lumenally continuous and Ca2+ could diffuse freely throughout: peculiarities of SR structure are unlikely to account for ;quantal' release. While Ca2+ release was regulated by [Ca2+] within the SR, the velocity of release increased (accelerated) during the release process. The extent of acceleration of release determined the peak cytoplasmic [Ca2+] and was attenuated by a reduction in SR [Ca2+] or an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffering. Positive feedback by released Ca2+ acting at the cytoplasmic aspect of Ins(1,4,5)P3Rs (i.e. CICR-like) might (a) account for the acceleration, (b) provide the regulation of release by SR [Ca2+] and (c) explain the ;quantal' release process itself. During Ca2+ release, SR [Ca2+] and thus unitary Ins(1,4,5)P3R currents decline, CICR reduces and stops. With increasing [Ins(1,4,5)P3], coincidental activation of several neighbouring Ins(1,4,5)P3Rs offsets the reduced Ins(1,4,5)P3R current to renew CICR and Ca2+ release. PMID:18073237

McCarron, John G; Chalmers, Susan; Muir, Thomas C

2008-01-01

303

Managing runoff and flow pathways in a small rural catchment to reduce flood risk with other multi-purpose benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 2000 to 2009 there have been a high number of flood events throughout Northern Europe. Meanwhile, there is a demand for land in which to construct homes and businesses on, which is encroaching on land which is prone to flooding. Nevertheless, flood defences usually protect us from this hazard. However, the severity of floods and this demand for land has increased the number of homes which have been flooded in the past ten years. Public spending on flood defences can only go so far which targets the large populations first. Small villages and communities, where in many cases normal flood defences are not cost effective, tend to wait longer for flood mitigation strategies. The Belford Burn (Northumberland, UK) catchment is a small rural catchment that drains an area of 6 km2. It flows through the village of Belford. There is a history of flooding in Belford, with records of flood events dating back to 1877. Normal flood defences are not suitable for this catchment as it failed the Environment Agency (EA) cost benefit criteria for support. There was a desire by the local EA Flood Levy Team and the Northumbria Regional Flood Defence Committee at the Environment Agency to deliver an alternative catchment-based solution to the problem. The EA North East Flood Levy team and Newcastle University have created a partnership to address the flood problem using soft engineered runoff management features. Farm Integrated Runoff Management (FIRM) plans manage flow paths directly by storing slowing and filtering runoff at source on farms. The features are multipurpose addressing water quality, trapping sediment, creating new habitats and storing and attenuating flood flow. Background rainfall and stream stage data have been collected since November 2007. Work on the first mitigation features commenced in July 2008. Since that date five flood events have occurred in the catchment. Two of these flood events caused widespread damage in other areas of the county. However, in Belford only two houses were flooded. Data from the catchment and mitigation features showed that the defence measures resulted in an increase in travel time of the peak and attenuated high flows which would have usually travelled quickly down the channel to the village. For example, the pilot feature appears to have increased the travel time of a flood peak at the top of the catchment from 20 minutes to 35 minutes over a 1 km stretch of channel. There are currently ten active mitigation features present in the catchment. More features are planned for construction this year. Early data from the catchment indicates that the runoff attenuation features are having an impact on reducing flood flows in the channel and also slowing down the flood peak. At the same time the multi-purpose aspects of the features are apparent.

Wilkinson, Mark; Welton, Phil; Kerr, Peter; Quinn, Paul; Jonczyk, Jennine

2010-05-01

304

A novel multipurpose monoclonal antibody for evaluating human c-MET expression in preclinical and clinical settings  

PubMed Central

The inappropriate expression of the c-MET cell surface receptor in many human solid tumors necessitates the development of companion diagnostics to identify those patients who could benefit from c-MET targeted therapies. Tumor tissues are formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) for histopathological evaluation, making the development of an antibody against c-MET that accurately and reproducibly detects the protein in FFPE samples an urgent need. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, designated MET4, from a panel of MET-avid monoclonal antibodies, based on its specific staining pattern in FFPE preparations of normal human prostate tissues. The accuracy of MET4 immunohistochemistry (MET4-IHC) was assessed by comparing MET4-IHC in FFPE cell pellets with immunoblotting analysis. The technical reproducibility of MET4-IHC possessed a percentage coefficient of variability (%CV) of 6.25% in intra-assay and inter-assay testing. Comparison with other commercial c-MET antibody detection reagents demonstrated equal specificity and increased sensitivity for c-MET detection in prostate tissues. In two cohorts of ovarian cancers and gliomas, MET4 reacted with ovarian cancers of all histological subtypes (strong staining in 25%) and with 63% of gliomas. In addition, MET4 bound c-Met on the surfaces of cultured human cancer cells and tumor xenografts. In summary, the MET4 monoclonal antibody accurately and reproducibly measures c-MET expression by IHC in FFPE tissues and can be used for molecular imaging in-vivo. These properties encourage further development of MET4 as a multipurpose molecular diagnostics reagent to help to guide appropriate selection of patients being considered for treatment with c-MET-antagonistic drugs.

Knudsen, Beatrice S.; Zhao, Ping; Resau, James; Cottingham, Sandra; Gherardi, Ermanno; Xu, Eric; Berghuis, Bree; Daugherty, Jennifer; Grabinski, Tessa; Toro, Jose; Giambernardi, Troy; Skinner, R. Scot; Gross, Milton; Hudson, Eric; Kort, Eric; Lengyel, Ernst; Ventura, Aviva; Xie, Qian; Hay, Rick; Woude, George Vande; Cao, Brian

2010-01-01

305

THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER (MPC) WITH ACD DISPOSAL CONTAINER (SCPB: N/A)  

SciTech Connect

This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24,5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Subsystem Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude MPC compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual MPC design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded MPC performance is similar to an MPC loaded with commercial BWR SNF. Future design efforts will focus on specific MPC vendor designs and BWR MOX SNF designs when they become available.

T.L. Lotz

1995-11-13

306

78 FR 56921 - South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FXRS282108E8PD0-134-F2013227943] South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4...report (EIS/EIR) for the proposed restoration of ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W...is Phase 2 of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project and consists of restoring...

2013-09-16

307

The Role of Combination Techniques in Maximizing the Utility of Precipitation Estimates from Several Multi-Purpose Remote-Sensing Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multi-purpose remote-sensing products from various satellites have proved crucial in developing global estimates of precipitation. Examples of these products include low-earth-orbit and geosynchronous-orbit infrared (leo- and geo-IR), Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Television Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data, and passive microwave data such as that from the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I). Each of these datasets has served as the basis for at least one useful quasi-global precipitation estimation algorithm; however, the quality of estimates varies tremendously among the algorithms for the different climatic regions around the globe.

Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

308

Atomic distribution, local structure and cation size effect in o-R1-xCaxMnO3 (R?=?Dy, Y, and Ho).  

PubMed

We propose new interatomic potentials for the small rare-earth-based orthorhombic RMnO3 (R?=?Dy, Y, Ho), which accurately model the structural properties of these extreme cases of lanthanide manganate series. They are further employed to investigate the intrinsic defects in o-RMnO3 and the cation distribution and local structure in o-R1-xCaxMnO3 (R?=?Dy, Y, Ho). Schottky disorders are found to be the dominant structural defects, and the possibility of a small degree of anti-site disorder of R and Mn ions over A and B sites is found. The introduced Ca dopants tend to form chemically and structurally like CaMnO3 clusters in the lightly doped system, which can be regarded as representations of microscopic phase separation. The local structural disorder is reduced with increasing doping density. For o-R0.5Ca0.5MnO3 (R?=?Dy, Y, Ho), the charge ordering state is intrinsically favored, and the layer stripe model is shown to be energetically more favorable and structurally more reasonable. Moreover, the tendency to form charge ordered stripes increases with the decrease of R size. The local structure in the layer stripe pattern deviates largely from the average structure: RMnO3-like and CaMnO3-like layers are formed. The size of R ion has a significant influence on the doping effect on Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion and a manganate with a larger R will experience a larger reduction on the anisotropy of Mn-O bonds in Mn(3+)O6 octahedra. However, the change of octahedral tilting upon doping does not vary much with R radii. PMID:24172853

Jiang, Ning; Zhang, X; Yu, Yi

2013-11-27

309

Thermoanalytical Study of O,O'-Dibenzoyl-(2R,3R)Tartaric Acid Supramolecular Compounds Part II. Investigation of the resolution of racemic alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resolution of three chiral alcohols with O,O'-dibenzoyl-(2R,3R)-tartaric acid (DBTA) via diastereoisomeric supramolecular\\u000a compound formation was investigated with thermoanalytical methods. On the basis of TG measurements the DBTA:chiral alcohol\\u000a molar ratio in the compounds is 1:1 which agrees with the results of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The DBTA –\\u000a chiral alcohol supramolecular compounds have different supramolecular structure than the DBTA

Cs. Kassai; R. Illés; G. Pokol; J. Sztatisz; E. Fogassy; D. Kozma

2000-01-01

310

A Griffiths-like phase in antiferromagnetic R0.5Eu0.5MnO3 (R = Pr, Nd, Sm).  

PubMed

We report a Griffiths-like phase in isovalent doped rare-earth manganites R(0.5)Eu(0.5)MnO(3) (R = Pr, Nd, Sm). Rietveld refinement of the structural data reveals strong orthorhombic and Jahn-Teller distortions. The dc and ac magnetic studies nicely demonstrate aspects of Griffiths phase-like behaviour. The presence of short range ferromagnetically correlated spin clusters is observed above the antiferromagnetic transition temperature. A disorder driven phase inhomogeneity arising from strong structural distortion is the possible origin of this behaviour. PMID:23315393

Karmakar, A; Majumdar, S; Kundu, S; Nath, T K; Giri, S

2013-02-13

311

??-Melanocyte stimulation hormone (??-MSH) truncation studies results in the cautionary note that ??-MSH is not selective for the mouse MC3R over the mouse MC5R.  

PubMed

The melanocortin system has been implicated in a multitude of physiological pathways including obesity, satiety, energy homeostasis, sexual behavior, pigmentation, sodium regulation, hypertension, and many others. Based upon studies of the endogenous melanocortin receptor agonists at the cloned human melanocortin receptor proteins, it was concluded that the ?-MSH related agonist ligands are selective for the MC3 versus the MC4 and MC5 receptors. In attempts to understand and identify the specific amino acids of ??-MSH important for MC3R selectivity, we have performed N- and C-terminal truncation studies and pharmacologically characterized twenty-eight ligands at the mouse MC1 and MC3-5 melanocortin receptors. The C-terminal Trp-Asp?-Arg¹?-Phe¹¹ residues are important for nM potency at the mMC3R and the Arg?-Trp? residues are important for mMC5R nM potency. We observed the unanticipated results that several of the C-terminal truncated analogs possessed nM agonist potency at the mMC3 and mMC5Rs which lead us to perform a comparative side-by-side study of the mouse and human MC5R. These data resulted in ?M ??-MSH analog potency at the hMC5R, consistent with previous reports, however at the mMC5R, nM ??-MSH analog potency was observed. Thus, these data support the hypothesis of important species specific differences in ?-MSH related ligand potency at the rodent versus human MC5R subtype that is critical for the interpretation of in vivo rodent physiological studies. These results prompted us to examine the affects of a peripherally administered melanocortin agonist on hypothalamic gene expression levels of the MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R. The super potent non-selective NDP-MSH agonist was administered i.p. and resulted in significantly decreased levels of mMC3R and mMC5R hypothalamic mRNA versus saline control. These data provide for the first time data demonstrating peripherally administered NDP-MSH can modify hypothalamic melanocortin receptor expression levels. PMID:20833220

Joseph, Christine G; Yao, Hua; Scott, Joseph W; Sorensen, Nicholas B; Marnane, Rebecca N; Mountjoy, Kathleen G; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

2010-12-01

312

Crystal structures and magnetic properties of novel rare-earth copper sulfides, EuRCuS3 (R = Y, Gd Lu)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel quaternary rare-earth copper sulfides EuRCuS3 (R = Y, Gd-Lu excluding Ho, Er) have been investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, and specific heat measurements. These compounds crystallize in the Eu2CuS3-type structure for R = Y, Gd-Dy and in the KZrCuS3-type structure for R = Tm-Lu. Both EuY CuS3 and EuLuCuS3 show a ferromagnetic transition and the other EuRCuS3 compounds show a ferrimagnetic transition at around 5.0 K.

Wakeshima, Makoto; Furuuchi, Fumito; Hinatsu, Yukio

2004-08-01

313

Multipurpose Transportation, Aging, and Disposal Canisters for Used Nuclear Fuel - Getting From Here to There and Beyond  

SciTech Connect

The idea of a universal canister system, in which used fuel can be placed at reactor sites, transported and - without ever needing to be re-opened -, disposed of in a geologic repository, is certainly not new. Originally proposed by DOE in the early 1990's as the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) system, this common sense idea has always had considerable appeal as a means to reduce used fuel handling and simplify repository surface facility operations. However, difficulties in launching the development of such a system, in the face of large uncertainties in repository design and limited program funding, caused the original MPC project to be abandoned in 1997. Then, after eight years of inactivity in this area, DOE, while experiencing difficulty completing the repository surface facility design and having missed a December 2004 deadline for submittal of a repository license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), re-proposed the concept. Under this renewed initiative, the MPC systems were renamed as Transportation, Aging, and Disposal or TAD canister systems. DOE's repository design had advanced significantly at this point and industry, having gained considerable experience through the design, licensing, manufacture, and loading of over 800 used fuel dry storage systems, was well positioned to provide DOE with the meaningful technical input that would be necessary to bring the TAD concept to reality. With a firm foundation on which to build, industry actively engaged DOE in an extensive series of interactions to facilitate TAD development. This paper describes the evolution of the TAD concept through the industry/DOE dialogue that occurred over an 18 month period beginning in January 2006. It discusses the technical issues that were addressed and resolved through this collaboration. Successful completion of this dialogue led to the issuance, by DOE, of a final TAD design specification in July, 2007. This specification is being used by DOE as a fundamental input to the Yucca Mountain license application that DOE expects to submit to the NRC no later than June 2008. DOE is now in the process completing a procurement of TAD demonstrations. As part of these demonstrations, DOE expects industry vendors to seek and obtain storage and transportation licenses for the TADs by 2010 and for utilities to deploy them at reactor sites by 2012. (authors)

McCullum, R. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

2008-07-01

314

Electronic structures of hexagonal RMnO3 ( R=Gd , Tb, Dy, and Ho) thin films: Optical spectroscopy and first-principles calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the electronic structure of multiferroic hexagonal RMnO3 ( R=Gd , Tb, Dy, and Ho) thin films using both optical spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. One of the difficulties in explaining the electronic structures of hexagonal RMnO3 is that they exist in nature with limited rare earth ions (i.e., R=Sc , Y, and Ho-Lu), so a systematic study in terms of the different R ions has been lacking. Recently, our group succeeded in fabricating hexagonal RMnO3 ( R=Gd , Tb, and Dy) using the epitaxial stabilization technique [Adv. Mater. (Weinheim Ger.) 18, 3125 (2006)]. Using artificially stabilized hexagonal RMnO3 , we extended the optical spectroscopic studies on the hexagonal multiferroic manganite system. We observed two optical transitions located near 1.7 and 2.3eV , in addition to the predominant absorption above 5eV . With the help of first-principles calculations, we attributed the low-lying optical absorption peaks to interband transitions from the oxygen states hybridized strongly with different Mn orbital symmetries to the Mn3d3z2-r2 state. As the ionic radius of the rare earth ion increased, we observed a systematic increase of the lowest peak position, which became more evident when compared with previously reported results. We explained this systematic change in terms of a flattening of the MnO5 triangular bipyramid.

Choi, Woo Seok; Kim, Dong Geun; Seo, Sung Seok A.; Moon, Soon Jae; Lee, Daesu; Lee, Jung Hyuk; Lee, Ho Sik; Cho, Deok-Yong; Lee, Yun Sang; Murugavel, Pattukkannu; Yu, Jaejun; Noh, Tae W.

2008-01-01

315

The new red-emitting phosphor of oxyfluoride Ca2RF4PO4:Eu3+ (R=Gd, Y) for solid state lighting applications.  

PubMed

The novel red-emitting phosphors of Eu3+-activated Ca2RF4PO4:Eu3+ (R=Gd, Y) prepared by a solid-state reaction have been evaluated as a candidate for white solid state lighting. The detailed luminescence properties, e.g., the excitation spectra, the luminescence spectra and quantum efficiency under the excitation of near-UV, and decay lifetimes were reported. The phosphors can be efficiently excited by near UV light and exhibit a dominant emission peaked at 611 nm (5D0-7F2) with CIE coordinates of (x=0.661, y=0.333). The thermal stabilities were investigated from the luminescence intensities, color purity and the decay curves by increasing temperature. The luminescence parameters related to white LEDs applications were compared to some red phosphors and discussed in details. The red-emitting Ca2RF4PO4:Eu3+ (R=Gd, Y) may be potentially useful in the fabrication of white LEDs. PMID:21451656

Huang, Yanlin; Nakai, Yosuke; Tsuboi, Taiju; Seo, Hyo Jin

2011-03-28

316

The identification of (3R,4S)-5-fluoro-5-deoxy-D-ribulose-1-phosphate as an intermediate in fluorometabolite biosynthesis in Streptomyces cattleya.  

PubMed

(3R,4S)-5-Fluoro-5-deoxy-D-ribulose-1-phosphate (5-FDRulP) has been identified as the third fluorinated intermediate on the biosynthetic pathway to fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine in Streptomyces cattleya. 5-FDRulP is generated after formation of 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine (5'-FDA) and then phosphorolysis of 5'-FDA to 5-fluoro-5-deoxy-D-ribose-1-phosphate (5-FDRP) by the action of a purine nucleoside phosphorylase. An isomerase mediates the conversion of 5-FDRP to 5-FDRulP. The identity of the (3R,4S) diastereoisomer of 5-FDRulP was established by comparative (19)F{(1)H} NMR studies whereby 5-FDRulP that accumulated in a cell free extract of S. cattleya, was treated with a phytase to generate the non-phosphorylated sugar, 5-fluoro-5-deoxy-D-ribulose (5-FDRul). This S. cattleya product was compared to the product of an in-vitro biotransformation where separately 5-fluoro-5-deoxy-D-ribose and 5-fluoro-5-deoxy-D-xylose were converted to 5-fluoro-5-deoxy-D-ribulose and 5-fluoro-5-deoxy-D-xylulose respectively by the action of glucose isomerase. It was demonstrated that 5-fluoro-5-deoxy-D-ribose gave the identical diastereoisomer to that observed from 5-FDRulP. PMID:17574646

Onega, Mayca; McGlinchey, Ryan P; Deng, Hai; Hamilton, John T G; O'Hagan, David

2007-10-01

317

Association of MC3R gene polymorphisms with body weight in the red fox and comparative gene organization in four canids.  

PubMed

There are five genes encoding melanocortin receptors. Among canids, the genes have mainly been studied in the dog (MC1R, MC2R and MC4R). The MC4R gene has also been analysed in the red fox. In this report, we present a study of chromosome localization, comparative sequence analysis and polymorphism of the MC3R gene in the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog. The gene was localized by FISH to the following chromosome: 24q24-25 in the dog, 14p16 in the red fox, 18q13 in the arctic fox and NPP4p15 in the Chinese raccoon dog. A high identity level of the MC3R gene sequences was observed among the species, ranging from 96.0% (red fox--Chinese raccoon dog) to 99.5% (red fox--arctic fox). Altogether, eight polymorphic sites were found in the red fox, six in the Chinese raccoon dog and two in the dog, while the arctic fox appeared to be monomorphic. In addition, association of several polymorphisms with body weight was analysed in red foxes (the number of genotyped animals ranged from 319 to 379). Two polymorphisms in the red fox, i.e. a silent substitution c.957A>C and c.*185C>T in the 3'-flanking sequence, showed a significant association (P < 0.01) with body weight. PMID:20477806

Skorczyk, A; Flisikowski, K; Szydlowski, M; Cieslak, J; Fries, R; Switonski, M

2011-02-01

318

Substance P activates both contractile and inflammatory pathways in lymphatics through the neurokinin receptors NK1R and NK3R  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular signaling mechanisms by which substance P (SP) modulates lymphatic muscle contraction and to determine whether SP stimulates both contractile as well as inflammatory pathways in the lymphatics. Methods A rat mesenteric lymphatic muscle cell culture model (RMLMCs) and known specific pharmacological inhibitors were utilized to delineate SP mediated signaling pathways in lymphatics. Results We detected expression of neurokinin receptor 1 (NK1R) and neurokinin receptor 3 (NK3R) in RMLMCs. SP stimulation increased phosphorylation of myosin light chain 20 (MLC20) as well as p38 mitogen associated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) indicating activation of both a contractile and a pro-inflammatory MAPK pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of both NK1R and NK3R significantly affected the downstream SP signaling. We further examined whether there was any crosstalk between the two pathways upon SP stimulation. Inhibition of ERK1/2 decreased levels of p-MLC20 after SP activation, in a PKC dependent manner, indicating a potential crosstalk between these two pathways. Conclusions These data provide the first evidence that SP mediated crosstalk between pro-inflammatory and contractile signaling mechanisms exists in the lymphatic system and may be an important bridge between lymphatic function modulation and inflammation.

Chakraborty, Sanjukta; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Davis, Michael J.; Zawieja, David C.; Muthuchamy, Mariappan

2010-01-01

319

An overview on CALR and CSF3R mutations and a proposal for revision of WHO diagnostic criteria for myeloproliferative neoplasms.  

PubMed

Disease-specific mutations facilitate diagnostic precision and drug target discovery. In myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), this is best exemplified by the chronic myeloid leukemia-associated BCR-ABL1. No other mutation in MPN has thus far shown a similar degree of diagnostic accuracy or therapeutic relevance. However, JAK2 and KIT mutations are detected in more than 90% of patients with polycythemia vera and systemic mastocytosis, respectively, and are therefore used as highly sensitive clonal markers in these diseases. JAK2 and MPL mutations also occur in essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), but their diagnostic value is limited by suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. The molecular diagnostic gap in JAK2/MPL-unmutated ET/PMF is now partially addressed by the recent discovery of calreticulin (CALR) mutations in the majority of such cases. However, bone marrow morphology remains the central diagnostic platform and is essential for distinguishing ET from prefibrotic PMF and diagnosing patients those do not express JAK2, MPL or CALR (triple-negative). The year 2013 was also marked by the description of CSF3R mutations in the majority of patients with chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL). Herein, we argue for the inclusion of CALR and CSF3R mutations in the World Health Organization classification system for ET/PMF and CNL, respectively. PMID:24441292

Tefferi, A; Thiele, J; Vannucchi, A M; Barbui, T

2014-07-01

320

Electroluminescent Multipurpose Spacecraft Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development effort described herein, was concerned with the fabrication of a solid state display and associated electronics. The basis of the display was the integral switch electroluminescent lamp substrates. Switching diodes were imbedded in a thin ...

J. Lidoski

1969-01-01

321

Multipurpose Photonic Transducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Features include smallness and noise immunity. Photonic transducer is interferometer with two arms. Small relative axial motions of mirrors detected as shifts in interference pattern. Version measures temperature changes via differential expansion or contraction of stalks. New transducers smaller (typical size less than 1 cm) and coupled to monitoring equipment with optical fibers instead of wires. Well suited to biomedical instrumentation.

Du Fresne, E. R.; Dowler, W. L.

1985-01-01

322

Multipurpose Weather Roundup Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Program RWR9 reads Surface Airways Observations (SAO's) from the local AFOS database and reformats them into plain language collectives for Hourly, State, and Regional Weather Roundups. Output is suitable for direct transmission on the state weather wire....

W. E. Sunkel

1983-01-01

323

A multipurpose digital modulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical basis and hardware implementation of a versatile device which uses digital signal-processing methods to achieve signal modulation are reported. The carrier-modulation process is formulated as a simple quadrature equation; a generalized description of the signal constellation to be processed is derived; the pulse-shaping scheme is explained; and the system architecture is described in detail and illustrated with diagrams. Experimental results obtained with a breadboard transmitter based on this modulation technique are presented in extensive graphs. The power spectra and eye diagrams generated for different QPSK, 8PSK, and MSK modulation schemes are shown to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. It is suggested that this modulator could be readily implemented in VLSI and mass produced.

Davarian, Faramaz; Sumida, Joe T.

1989-01-01

324

Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

1969-01-01

325

Multi-Purpose Antenna.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description is given of a microwave antenna, useful on a spacecraft, which utilizes a single dish reflector and single coaxial horn structure to transmit at two frequencies, and to receive signals at a third frequency that allow tracking. The horn struc...

K. E. Woo

1970-01-01

326

Heats of formation of Co(CO)(2)NOPR(3), R = CH(3) and C(2)H(5), and its ionic fragments.  

PubMed

A joint threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence spectrometry (TPEPICO) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) study on the thermochemistry of Co(CO)(2)NOPR(3), R = CH(3) (Me) and C(2)H(5) (Et), complexes is presented. Adiabatic ionization energies of 7.36 +/- 0.04 and 7.24 +/- 0.04 eV, respectively, were extracted from scans of the total ion and threshold electron signals. In the TPEPICO study, the following 0 K onsets were determined for the various fragment ions: CoCONOPMe(3)(+), 8.30 +/- 0.05 eV; CoNOPMe(3)(+), 9.11 +/- 0.05 eV; CoPMe(3)(+) 10.80 +/- 0.05 eV; CoCONOPEt(3)(+), 8.14 +/- 0.05 eV; CoNOPEt(3)(+), 8.92 +/- 0.05 eV; and CoPEt(3)(+), 10.66 +/- 0.05 eV. These onsets were combined with the Co(+)-PR(3) (R = CH(3) and C(2)H(5)) bond dissociation energies of 2.88 +/- 0.11 and 3.51 +/- 0.17 eV, obtained from the TCID experiments, to derive the heats of formation of the neutral and ionic species. Thus, the Co(CO)(2)NOPR(3) (R = CH(3) and C(2)H(5)) 0 K heats of formation were found to be -350 +/- 13 and -376 +/- 18 kJ x mol(-)(1), respectively. These heats of formation were combined with the published heat of formation of Co(CO)(3)NO to determine the substitution enthalpies of the carbonyl to phosphine substitution reactions. Room-temperature values of the heats of formation are also given using the calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies. Analysis of the TCID experimental results provides indirectly the adiabatic ionization energies of the free phosphine ligands, P(CH(3))(3) and P(C(2)H(5))(3), of 7.83 +/- 0.03 and 7.50 +/- 0.03 eV, respectively. PMID:15984866

Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Sztáray, Bálint; Baer, Tomas; Iceman, Christopher; Armentrout, Peter B

2005-07-01

327

Developmental aspects of cardiac Ca(2+) signaling: interplay between RyR- and IP(3)R-gated Ca(2+) stores.  

PubMed

The dominant mode of intracellular Ca(2+) release in adult mammalian heart is gated by ryanodine receptors (RyRs), but it is less clear whether inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-gated Ca(2+) release channels (IP(3)Rs), which are important during embryogenesis, play a significant role during early postnatal development. To address this question, we measured confocal two-dimensional Ca(2+) dependent fluorescence images in acutely isolated neonatal (days 1 to 2) and juvenile (days 8-10) rat cardiomyocytes, either voltage-clamped or permeabilized, where rapid exchange of solution could be used to selectively activate the two types of Ca(2+) release channel. Targeting RyRs with caffeine produced large and rapid Ca(2+) signals throughout the cells. Application of ATP and endothelin-1 to voltage-clamped, or IP(3) to permeabilized, cells produced smaller and slower Ca(2+) signals that were most prominent in subsarcolemmal regions and were suppressed by either the IP(3)R-blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate or replacement of the biologically active form of IP(3) with its L-stereoisomer. Such IP(3)R-gated Ca(2+) releases were amplified by Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) via RyRs since they were also reduced by compounds that block the RyRs (tetracaine) or deplete the Ca(2+) pools they gate (caffeine, ryanodine). Spatial analysis revealed both subsarcolemmal and perinuclear origins for the IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) release events RyR- and IP(3)R-gated Ca(2+) signals had larger magnitudes in juvenile than in neonatal cardiomyocytes. Ca(2+) signaling was generally quite similar in atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes but showed divergent development of IP(3)-mediated regulation in juveniles. Our data suggest that an intermediate stage of Ca(2+) signaling may be present in developing cardiomyocytes, where, in addition to RyR-gated Ca(2+) pools, IP(3)-gated Ca(2+) release is sufficiently large in magnitude and duration to trigger or contribute to activation of CICR and cardiac contraction. PMID:20304819

Janowski, Einsley; Berríos, Melissa; Cleemann, Lars; Morad, Martin

2010-06-01

328

Preparation of germatranyl triflates: reactions of germatranes N(CH 2CHRO) 3X (X=Br, OTf, OSiMe 3; R=H, Me) with lithium reagents  

Microsoft Academic Search

New germatranes N(CH2CHRO)3GeOTf (4a, R=H; 4b, R=Me) were prepared in quantitative yield by treatment of N(CH2CHRO)3GeOSiMe3 (2a and 2b), with Me3SiOTf. The reactions of germatranes N(CH2CHRO)3GeX [3a, X=Br, R=H; 4a, X=OSO2CF3, R=H; 4b, X=OSO2CF3, R=Me; 2a, X=OSiMe3, R=H; 2b, X=OSiMe3, R=Me] with LiY reagents were studied. A series of germatranes N(CH2CHRO)3GeY [5a, R=H, Y=Ind (indenyl); 5b, R=Me, Y=Ind; 6a, R=H,

Sergey S. Karlov; Pavel L. Shutov; Novruz G. Akhmedov; Markus A. Seip

2000-01-01

329

Theoretical calculational studies on the mechanism of thermal dissociations for RN 3 (R=CH 3, CH 3CH 2, (CH 3) 2CH, (CH 3) 3C)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanisms of RN 3 (R=CH 3, CH 3CH 2, (CH 3) 2CH, (CH 3) 3C) dissociations are proposed based on CAS, MP2 and B3LYP methods. The energy gaps between the ground-state reactants RN 3 and the intersystem crossing (ISC) points are only a little lower than respective potential energy barriers of the spin-allowed reactions, 1RN 3 ? 1RN + 1N 2. The ISC point, therefore, is considered as a transition state of the spin-forbidden reactions, 1RN 3 ? 3RN + 1N 2. The methods of IRC and topological analysis of electron density are used to explain and predict the thermal dissociation pathways of the reactions studied.

Zeng, Yanli; Sun, Qiao; Meng, Lingpeng; Zheng, Shijun; Wang, Dianxun

2004-06-01

330

Large magnetocaloric effect with a wide working temperature span in the R2CoGa3 (R = Gd, Dy, and Ho) compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects of R2CoGa3 (R = Gd, Dy, and Ho) compounds. It is found that all the compounds are ferromagnetic with the Curie temperatures of TC = 50, 17, and 10 K for R = Gd, Dy, and Ho, respectively. The R2CoGa3 have large magnetic entropy change (?S) that arise from the second-order ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase transition. The maximum values of ?S are found to be -12.6, -10.8, and -13.8 J/kg K with corresponding refrigerant capacity values of 382, 252, and 287 J/kg for a magnetic field change of 0-50 kOe, respectively. The large ?S values with little or no hysteresis losses as well as wide working temperature spans imply that the R2CoGa3 compounds may serve as promising candidates for magnetic refrigeration.

Wang, L. C.; Cui, L.; Dong, Q. Y.; Mo, Z. J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.

2014-06-01

331

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Bacillus coagulans 2-6.  

PubMed

(2R,3R)-2,3-Butanediol dehydrogenase (R,R-BDH) from Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is a zinc-dependent medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase. Recombinant R,R-BDH with a His6 tag at the C-terminus was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and purified by Ni2+-chelating affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289?K. The crystallization condition consisted of 8%(v/v) Tacsimate pH 4.6, 18%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350. The crystal diffracted to 2.8?Å resolution in the orthorhombic space group P2?2?2?, with unit-cell parameters a=88.35, b=128.73, c=131.03?Å. PMID:24100567

Miao, Xiangzhi; Huang, Xianhui; Zhang, Guofang; Zhao, Xiufang; Zhu, Xianming; Dong, Hui

2013-10-01

332

Computational Analysis of mRNA Expression Profiles Identifies the ITG Family and PIK3R3 as Crucial Genes for Regulating Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu). TNBC has worse clinical outcomes than other breast cancer subtypes. However, the key molecules and mechanisms of TNBC migration remain unclear. In this study, we compared two normalized microarray datasets from GEO database between Asian (GSE33926) and non-Asian populations (GSE46581) to determine the molecules and common pathways in TNBC migration. We demonstrated that 16 genes in non-Asian samples and 9 genes in Asian samples are related to TNBC migration. In addition, our analytic results showed that 4 genes, PIK3R3, ITGB1, ITGAL, and ITGA6, were involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Our results indicated potential genes that link to TNBC migration. This study may help identify novel therapeutic targets for drug development in cancer therapy.

Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Wei-Chiao

2014-01-01

333

PET Imaging of (2R,3R)-5-[18F]Fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ((-)-FEOBV) in rat and monkey brain: A Radioligand for the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter  

PubMed Central

Introduction The regional brain distribution of (2R,3R)-5-[ [18F]fluoroethoxy-benzovesamicol ((-)-[18F]FEOBV), a radioligand for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), was examined in vivo in mice, rats, and rhesus monkeys. Methods Regional brain distributions of (-)-[18F]FEOBV in mice were determined using ex vivo dissection. MicroPET imaging was used to determine the regional brain pharmacokinetics of the radioligand in rat and rhesus monkey brains. Results In all three species, clear heterogeneous regional brain distributions were obtained, with the rank order of brain tissues (striatum>thalamus>cortex>cerebellum) consistent with the distribution of cholinergic nerve terminals containing the VAChT. Conclusions (-)-[18F]FEOBV remains a viable candidate for further development as an in vivo imaging agent for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies of the VAChT in the human brain.

Kilbourn, Michael R.; Hockley, Brian; Lee, Lihsueh; Sherman, Phillip; Quesada, Carole; Frey, Kirk A.; Koeppe, Robert A.

2009-01-01

334

Hydrothermally controlled growth and magnetic properties of multi-morphology manganese oxide (RMnO3, R=Ca, Sr, Ba) nano- and microcrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a general hydrothermal route to multi-morphology manganese oxide (RMnO3, R=Ca, Sr, Ba) nano- and microcrystals and reports the magnetic properties of their nanowires as well. Adjustment of the synthesis conditions, particularly the change of the concentrations of n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and NaOH, led to the formation of nano- and microcrystals with wire-, belt-, pyramid-, flower-, and arrow-like morphologies. Considering the shape-dependent magnetic properties of nanocrystals, nanowires were selected as representative samples for magnetic measurements. At low temperature, the nanowires exhibited interesting competing ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic interactions, and the magnetization values increase significantly with increasing the radius of positive ions from Ca2+ to Ba2+.

Zhang, Jinhua; Yu, Dabin; Du, Kai; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Dapeng; Wang, Yong; Chen, Leilei; Kong, Mingguang; Zou, Jiwei

2013-10-01

335

Lithium ion conduction in A-site deficient perovskites R 1\\/4Li 1\\/4TaO 3 (R=La, Nd, Sm and Y)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New lithium ion conductors of perovskite-type compounds R1\\/4Li1\\/4TaO3 (R=La, Nd, Sm and Y) were synthesized, and their crystal structure and lithium ion conductivity were characterized. Symmetry of the perovskite lattice changed from cubic for La1\\/4Li1\\/4TaO3 to tetragonal for Nd1\\/4Li1\\/4TaO3 and Sm1\\/4Li1\\/4TaO3, and to orthorhombic for Y1\\/4Li1\\/4TaO3. The alternate ordering of R and Li ions and vacancies at the A-sites was

Katsuyoshi Mizumoto; Shinsuke Hayashi

1999-01-01

336

Wavelength-preserving polarization-insensitive all-optical 3R regenerator based on self- and cross-phase modulation and offset filtering utilizing Raman amplification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical regeneration has the potential to significantly increase the reach of long-haul transmission systems. In this thesis, wavelength-preserving polarization-insensitive all-optical 3R regeneration is investigated and demonstrated for 10 and 40 Gb/s signals. The all-optical regenerator utilizes a self-pulsating laser for clock recovery, cross-phase modulation (XPM) based spectral broadening in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) and offset filtering for retiming, and self-phase modulation based spectral broadening in a HNLF and offset filtering for reshaping. Raman amplification is used to increase the XPM-based spectral broadening and thus allow a design that meets the tradeoffs involved in simultaneously achieving good retiming and reshaping performance. The regenerator is shown to reduce amplitude noise and timing jitter while not causing a BER penalty. To fully validate the regeneration scheme, the cascadability is demonstrated using a recirculating loop. For a 10 Gb/s signal, with a regenerator spacing of 240 km, a return-to-zero, on-off-keyed (RZ-OOK) signal was transmitted over 18,000 km (75 loops) with a power penalty of 1.6 dB at a BER of 10 -9 compared to the back-to-back case. For a 40 Gb/s signal, with a regenerator spacing of 80 km, a RZ-OOK signal was transmitted over 8,000 km (100 loops) with a power penalty of 1.2 dB. In addition, all-optical 3R regeneration is demonstrated using a multimode quantum-dot Fabry Perot laser with ultra-low timing jitter.

Chung, Sung Han

337

Belford proactive flood solutions: scientific evidence to influence local and national policy by multi-purpose runoff management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased risk from flooding continues to be of concern to governments all around the world and flood protection is becoming more of a challenge. In the UK, climate change projections indicate more extremes within the weather systems. In addition, there is an increased demand for using land in urban areas beside channels. These developments both put pressure on our flood defences and there is a need for new solutions to managing flood risk. There is currently support within the England and Wales Environment Agency for sustainable flood management solutions such as storage ponds, wetlands, beaver dams and willow riparian features (referred to here as Runoff Attenuation Features, or RAFs). However the effectiveness of RAFs are not known at the catchment scale since they have only really been trailed at the plot scale. These types of mitigation measure can offer benefits to water quality and create ecological habitats. The village of Belford, situated in the Belford Burn catchment (6km2), northern England, has suffered from numerous flood events. In addition, the catchment suffers from water quality issues within the channel and high sediment loads are having an impact on the ecology of the nearby estuary. There was a desire by the Local Environment Agency Flood Levy team to deliver an alternative catchment-based solution to the problem. With funding from the Northumbria Regional Flood Defence Committee, the Environment Agency North East Local Levy team and Newcastle University have created a partnership to address the flood problem trailing soft engineered RAF’s at the catchment scale. The partnership project, “Belford proactive flood solutions” is testing novel techniques in reducing flood risk in small sub-catchments for the Environment Agency. The project provides the information needed to understand whether the multi-functional mitigation measures are working at the sub-catchment scale. Data suggest that the mitigation measures present have delayed the overall travel time of the flood peak in the catchment by 33%. The current maximum flood storage capacity of all the features stands at around 15,000 m3. The evidence also suggests that a dam like in-stream mitigation measure can significantly reduce sediment load. Other benefits of some mitigation features include large increase in the population of water voles over the past two years. The scheme also acts as a demonstration site for interested stakeholders where they can learn about this approach to flood risk management and see the multipurpose benefits. As the project has progressed and lessons have been learnt, it has been possible to develop a runoff management toolkit for implementing these mitigation measures in other catchments of similar size. Already, the local Environment Agency has utilised the tools and recently applied similar mitigation measures to other catchments. On-going modelling exercises in the project are using the data to explore the up-scaling of the features to larger catchments.

Wilkinson, M.; Quinn, P. F.; Jonczyk, J.

2010-12-01

338

Overexpression of an R1R2R3 MYB Gene, OsMYB3R-2, Increases Tolerance to Freezing, Drought, and Salt Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

We used a cDNA microarray approach to monitor the expression profile of rice (Oryza sativa) under cold stress and identified 328 cold-regulated genes. Thirteen such genes encoding MYB, homeodomain, and zinc finger proteins with unknown functions showed a significant change in expression under 72-h cold stress. Among them, OsMYB3R-2 was selected for further study. Unlike most plant R2R3 MYB transcription factors, OsMYB3R-2 has three imperfect repeats in the DNA-binding domain, the same as in animal c-MYB proteins. Expression of OsMYB3R-2 was induced by cold, drought, and salt stress. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transgenic plants overexpressing OsMYB3R-2 showed increased tolerance to cold, drought, and salt stress, and the seed germination of transgenic plants was more tolerant to abscisic acid or NaCl than that of wild type. The expression of some clod-related genes, such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 2A, COR15a, and RCI2A, was increased to a higher level in OsMYB3R-2-overexpressing plants than in wild type. These results suggest that OsMYB3R-2 acts as a master switch in stress tolerance.

Dai, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yunyuan; Ma, Qibin; Xu, Wenying; Wang, Tai; Xue, Yongbiao; Chong, Kang

2007-01-01

339

Application of a novel integrated toxicity testing strategy incorporating "3R" principles of animal research to evaluate the safety of a new agrochemical sulfoxaflor.  

PubMed

Abstract Plant protection products (PPPs) and the active substance(s) contained within them are rigorously and comprehensively tested prior to registration to ensure that human health is not impacted by their use. In recent years, there has been a widespread drive to have more relevant testing strategies (e.g., ILSI/HESI-ACSA and new EU Directives), which also take account of animal welfare, including the 3R (replacement, refinement, and reduction) principles. The toxicity potential of one such new active substance, sulfoxaflor, a sulfoximine insecticide (CAS #946578-00-3), was evaluated utilizing innovative testing strategies comprising: (1) an integrated testing scheme to optimize information obtained from as few animals as possible (i.e., 3R principles) through modifications of standard protocols, such as enhanced palatability study design, to include molecular endpoints, additional neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity parameters in a subchronic toxicity study, and combining multiple test guidelines into one study protocol; (2) generation of toxicokinetic data across dose levels, sexes, study durations, species, strains and life stages, without using satellite animals, which was a first for PPP development, and (3) addition of prospective mode of action (MoA) endpoints within repeat dose toxicity studies as well as proactive inclusion of specific MoA studies as an integral part of the development program. These novel approaches to generate key data early in the safety evaluation program facilitated informed decision-making on the need for additional studies and contributed to a more relevant human health risk assessment. This supplement also contains papers which describe in more detail the approach taken to establish the MoA and human relevance framework related to toxicities elicited by sulfoxaflor in the mammalian toxicology studies: developmental toxicity in rats mediated via the fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ( Ellis-Hutchings et al. 2014 ); liver tumors in rodents mediated via CAR/PXR ( LeBaron et al. 2014 ); and Leydig cell tumors in Fischer 344 rats ( Rasoulpour et al. 2014 ). PMID:24832550

Terry, Claire; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Saghir, Shakil; Marty, Sue; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Billington, Richard

2014-05-01

340

The influence of ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training  

PubMed Central

Background We studied the influence of the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms (single or combined) on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training. Methods One hundred and thirty-nine healthy older Caucasian women participated in this study (age: 65.5?±?8.2 years, body mass: 67.0?±?10.0 kg and height: 1.57?±?0.06 m). Walking speed (S10) performance and functional capacity assessed by the “get-up and go” (GUG) mobility test were measured at baseline (T1) and after a consecutive 12-week period of high-speed power training (40-75% of one repetition maximum in arm and leg extensor exercises; 3 sets 4–12 reps, and two power exercises for upper and lower extremity). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples, and genotyping analyses were performed by PCR methods. Genotype distributions between groups were compared by Chi-Square test and the gains in physical performance were analyzed by two-way, repeated-measures ANOVA. Results There were no significant differences between genotype groups in men or women for adjusted baseline phenotypes (P?>?0.05). ACE I/D and ACTN3 polymorphisms showed a significant interaction genotype-training only in S10 (P?=?0.012 and P?=?0.044, respectively) and not in the GUG test (P?=?0.311 and P?=?0.477, respectively). Analyses of the combined effects between genotypes showed no other significant differences in all phenotypes (P?3 R577X polymorphisms are likely candidates in the modulation of exercise-related gait speed phenotype in older women but not a significant influence in mobility traits.

2013-01-01

341

Magnetic and dielectric study of R{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} (R = Gd, Tb and Dy)  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic and dielectric properties of perovskite manganites R{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} (R = Gd, Tb and Dy) have been investigated. DC and AC magnetic measurements showed short-range glassy magnetic ordering at T{sub g} {approx} 40 K. Such ordering was observed by neutron diffraction and is ascribable to the size mismatch of R{sup 3+} and Sr{sup 3+} settled randomly at the same crystallographic site. Dielectric constants for each material were {approx}1000-10,000 between {approx}50 and {approx}300 K and showed broad maximums above T{sub g}. Dielectric dispersion showed poor coherency of the motion of polar regions, plausibly because of the size-mismatch effect; both the magnetic and dielectric properties of this system are governed by the randomness at the R/Sr site. The tan {delta} and EXAFS data suggest that the dielectric response is rooted in a transfer of the Mn-3d electrons.

Yoshii, Kenji, E-mail: yoshiike@spring8.or.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Hiramitsu, Yusuke; Okajima, Yuka; Yoneda, Yasuhiro; Nishihata, Yasuo; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nakamura, Akio; Shimojo, Yutaka; Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ikeda, Naoshi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

2010-11-15

342

Chlorine adsorption on copper. II. Photoemission from Cu(001)c(2 × 2)-C1 and Cu(111)(?3 × ?3)R30°-Cl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied high-resolution angle-resolved and photon-polarization dependent photoemission from chlorine adsorbed on Cu(OOl) and Cu(111). Chlorine forms a c(2 × 2) saturation overlayer on Cu(OO1) and adsorbs dissociatively as revealed by LEED and XPS. Several two-dimensional energy bands on Cu(001)c(2 × 2)-Cl could be iden along the ¯gG M¯ and ¯gG M¯ lines of the surface Brillouin zone, their respective mirror symmetry and their orbital character could be determined. An interpretation of these bands is given in terms of the interaction of the ordered overlayers with particular substrate bulk bands. Besides the appearance of adsorbate-induced two-dimensional bands drastic changes are resolved in the substrate d-band emission region. These can be explained almost exclusively by surface umklapp processes involving reciprocal lattice vectors of the ordered adsorbate mesh. Supplementary studies of the Cu(111) (?3 × ?3)R30°-Cl system support our ideas. We discuss some important implications of our results for the interpretation of angle-resolved photoenussion spectra from ordered adsorbate layers.

Westphal, D.; Goldmann, A.

1983-08-01

343

Isotopologue profiling of triterpene formation under physiological conditions. Biosynthesis of lupeol-3-(3'-R-hydroxy)-stearate in Pentalinon andrieuxii.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis of lupeol-3-(3'R-hydroxy)-stearate (procrim b, 1) was investigated in the Mexican medicinal plant Pentalinon andrieuxii by (13)CO2 pulse-chase experiments. NMR analyses revealed positional enrichments of (13)C2-isotopologues in both the triterpenoid and the hydroxystearate moieties of 1. Five of the six isoprene units reflected a pattern with [1,2-(13)C2]- and [3,5-(13)C2]-isotopologues from the respective C5-precursors, IPP and DMAPP, whereas one isoprene unit in the ring E of 1 showed only the [3,5-(13)C2]-connectivity of the original C5-precursor, due to rearrangement of the dammarenyl cation intermediate during the cyclization process. The presence of (13)C2-isotopologues was indicative of [(13)C2]acetyl-CoA being the precursor units in the formation of the fatty acid moiety and of the triterpene via the mevalonate route. The observed labeling pattern was in agreement with a chair-chair-chair-boat conformation of the (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene precursor during the cyclization process, suggesting that the lupeol synthase from P. andrieuxii is of the same type as that from Olea europea and Taraxacum officinale, but different from that of Arabidopsis thaliana. The study shows that (13)CO2 pulse-chase experiments are powerful in elucidating, under in vivo conditions and in a single experiment, the biosynthesis of complex plant products including higher terpenes. PMID:24606167

Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M; Yam-Puc, Alejandro; Knispel, Nihat; Schramek, Nicholas; Huber, Claudia; Graßberger, Christoph; Ramírez-Torres, Fabiola G; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Hiebert-Giesbrecht, Mickel R; Chan-Bacab, Manuel J; Godoy-Hernández, Gregorio; Bacher, Adelbert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

2014-04-01

344

Photoinduced Reflectivity and Transmission Infrared Spectra of R_0.5 Sr_0.5 MnO3 (R=La, Pr, Nd)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report photoinduced spectra of antiferromagnetic R_0.5Sr_0.5MnO3 (R=La, Pr, Nd) at 77 K illuminated with the 4880 Åline of a cw Ar^+ laser. While bending modes are not affected by irradiation the breathing symmetric stretching modes (at 526 and 594 cm-1 corresponding to Mn^3+ and Mn^4+ octahedras) are distorted by the photoinduced charge fluctuations. Extra photoinduced carriers increase the antiresonance, evidence of strong electron-phonon interaction, near longitudinal optical frequencies. This also shows as an asymmetric band, due to the mixed valence state, peaking at about 810 cm-1 in the photoinduced absorption coefficient (-?T/T). At low temperatures, as consequence of charge ordering, a remarkable photoinduced double peaked structure develops from a broad continuum between 1000 and 3000 cm-1. In addition, an absorption band active only in the antiferromagnetic phase has a dramatic change in population as it is illuminated..We conclude from the analysis of our temperature dependent optical data that the conductivity in these distorted perovskites is dominated by small polarons.

Massa, N. E.; Salva, H.; Alonso, J. A.; Martinez-Lope, M. J.; Rasines, I.

1998-03-01

345

Anomalous scaling behaviour of cobalt cluster size distributions on graphite, epitaxial graphene and carbon-rich (6?3 × 6?3)R30°  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the underlying interface on adsorption of cobalt (Co) is investigated by comparing the nucleation and growth of Co at room temperature on three carbon (C) surfaces, i.e. highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), epitaxial graphene/SiC(0001) (hereafter abbreviated as EG) and precursor of EG i.e. C-rich (6?3 × 6?3)R30°/SiC(0001) (hereafter abbreviated as 6?3). On all three surfaces, Co adopts Volmer-Weber growth mode via formation of three-dimensional dome-shaped nanoclusters. Co clusters formed on 6?3 surface are smaller but denser than Co/HOPG or Co/EG. Scaling analysis reveals a critical nucleus size, i* = 1 (atom) and the smallest stable cluster (i* + 1) would be a dimer. Co/HOPG and Co/EG have the same order of magnitude for their cluster densities and sizes. Scaling analyses however show that the i* for Co/EG (i* = 3) is larger than Co/HOPG (i* = 0) and in this respect the smallest stable cluster would be tetramer and monomer respectively. This difference is attributed to the influence of an interface situated between graphene and SiC bulk. It appears that EG is more inert than HOPG towards the adsorption of Co and may act as a better substrate to host Co clusters.

Poon, Siew Wai; Wee, Andrew T. S.; Tok, Eng Soon

2012-11-01

346

Enantioselectivity and stereoselectivity in the reactions of the enantiomers of the platinum complex [PtCl2(ahaz)] (ahaz=3(R)- or 3(S)-aminohexahydroazepine) with DNA.  

PubMed

The platinum-DNA adduct profile formed by the R- and S-enantiomers of [PtCl(2)(ahaz)] (ahaz=3(R)-aminohexahydroazepine or 3(S)-aminohexahydroazepine) on reaction with salmon sperm DNA were characterised using HPLC and GFAAS (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry) analyses. At a platinum to nucleotide ratio (R(t)) equalling 0.05, the R-enantiomer forms a substantially larger amount (approximately 60%) of monofunctional adducts than the S-enantiomer (less than 35%). Fewer intrastrand GpG adducts are formed by the R-enantiomer (approximately 21%) than the S-enantiomer (approximately 37%). For both enantiomers, two isomeric GpG adducts, corresponding to the different orientations of the primary amine of ahaz ligand with respect to the O6 atom of the 5' guanine, were observed in the ratios of 1:1.3 and 1:4.3 for the R- and S-enantiomers, respectively. The reasons for this enantioselectivity and stereoselectivity are discussed. PMID:19000939

Er, Hui Meng; Hambley, Trevor W

2009-02-01

347

Resolving lineage assignation on Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates classified by spoligotyping with a new high-throughput 3R SNPs based method.  

PubMed

We developed a new multiplexed-PCR assay to accurately classify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates at the sublineage level by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This method relies on 7 SNPs located in different genes of the MTC strains (recC, rec0, recR, ligB, ligC, alkA, and mgtC). Most of these genes are involved in replication, repair and recombination (3R) functions of M. tuberculosis strains, four of the mutations are synonymous, and thus neutral. Genes were chosen as a first empirical approach to assess the congruence between spoligotyping-based phylogeographical classification and SNP typing. This scheme efficiently classifies most of MTC phylogeographical groups: (1) confirming and identifying new sublineage-specific SNPs, (2) unraveling phylogenetical relationships between spoligotyping-defined MTC sublineages, (3) appropriately assigning sublineages to some spoligotypes and reassigning sublineages to other mis-labeled spoligotype signatures. This study opens the way to a more meaningful taxonomic, evolutionary and epidemiological classification. It also allows evaluation of spoligotype-signature significance towards a more comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus in MTC. PMID:20624486

Abadia, Edgar; Zhang, Jian; dos Vultos, Tiago; Ritacco, Viviana; Kremer, Kristin; Aktas, Elif; Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Refregier, Guislaine; van Soolingen, Dick; Gicquel, Brigitte; Sola, Christophe

2010-10-01

348

Neutron powder diffraction study of ND/sub 3/ intercalated titanium disulfide, 3R-TiS/sub 2/ND/sub 3/  

SciTech Connect

Neutron powder diffraction of rhombohedral 3R-TiS/sub 2/ND/sub 3/ (a = 3.419 /Angstrom/, c = 27.03 /Angstrom/ at 300 K, space group R/anti/3m) has shown that ND/sub 3/ molecules and ND/sub 4//sup +/ ions, present in a ratio of about 5 to 1 from chemical and physical evidence, occupy statistically the trigonal-prismatic holes between TiS/sub 2/ sandwiches. One cannot distinguish between ND/sub 3/ and ND/sub 4//sup +/. Powder intensities calculated for a model with spherically symmetric ND/sub 3/ molecules (corresponding to isotropically rotating ND/sub 3/ and ND/sub 4//sup +/) in the trigonal-prismatic holes were in reasonable agreement with the observed intensities. Attempts to obtain information on the precise orientation of ND/sub 3/ and ND/sub 4//sup +/ in the TiS/sub 2/ lattice using refinements with structure factors were not successful; the reliability R factor was 0.093 for spherical symmetric ND/sub 3/ molecules with nitrogen in the center of the trigonal-prismatic holes.

Bouwmeester, H.J.M.; Wiegers, G.A.

1988-10-01

349

De novo germline and postzygotic mutations in AKT3, PIK3R2 and PIK3CA cause a spectrum of related megalencephaly syndromes  

PubMed Central

Megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) and megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus (MPPH) syndromes are sporadic overgrowth disorders associated with markedly enlarged brain size and other recognizable features1-5. We performed exome sequencing in three families with MCAP or MPPH and confirmed our initial observations in exomes from 7 MCAP and 174 control individuals, as well as in 40 additional megalencephaly subjects using a combination of Sanger sequencing, restriction-enzyme assays, and targeted deep sequencing. We identified de novo germline or postzygotic mutations in three core components of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. These include two mutations of AKT3, one recurrent mutation of PIK3R2 in 11 unrelated MPPH families, and 15 mostly postzygotic mutations of PIK3CA in 23 MCAP and one MPPH patients. Our data highlight the central role of PI3K/AKT signaling in vascular, limb and brain development, and emphasize the power of massively parallel sequencing in a challenging context of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity combined with postzygotic mosaicism.

Riviere, Jean-Baptiste; Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; O'Roak, Brian J.; Beddaoui, Margaret; Alcantara, Diana; Conway, Robert L.; St-Onge, Judith; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A.; Gripp, Karen W.; Nikkel, Sarah M.; Worthylake, Thea; Sullivan, Christopher T.; Ward, Thomas R.; Butler, Hailly E.; Kramer, Nancy A.; Albrecht, Beate; Armour, Christine M.; Armstrong, Linlea; Caluseriu, Oana; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Drolet, Beth A.; Innes, A. Micheil; Lauzon, Julie L.; Lin, Angela E.; Mancini, Grazia M. S.; Meschino, Wendy S.; Reggin, James D.; Saggar, Anand K.; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Uyanik, Gokhan; Weksberg, Rosanna; Zirn, Birgit; Beaulieu, Chandree L.; Majewski, Jacek; Bulman, Dennis E.; O'Driscoll, Mark; Shendure, Jay; Graham, John M.; Boycott, Kym M.; Dobyns, William B.

2012-01-01

350

Metabolic engineering of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain capable of simultaneously utilizing glucose and galactose to produce enantiopure (2R,3R)-butanediol.  

PubMed

2,3-Butanediol (BDO) is an important chemical with broad industrial applications and can be naturally produced by many bacteria at high levels. However, the pathogenicity of these native producers is a major obstacle for large scale production. Here we report the engineering of an industrially friendly host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce BDO at high titer and yield. By inactivation of pyruvate decarboxylases (PDCs) followed by overexpression of MTH1 and adaptive evolution, the resultant yeast grew on glucose as the sole carbon source with ethanol production completely eliminated. Moreover, the pdc- strain consumed glucose and galactose simultaneously, which to our knowledge is unprecedented in S. cerevisiae strains. Subsequent introduction of a BDO biosynthetic pathway consisting of the cytosolic acetolactate synthase (cytoILV2), Bacillus subtilis acetolactate decarboxylase (BsAlsD), and the endogenous butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH1) resulted in the production of enantiopure (2R,3R)-butanediol (R-BDO). In shake flask fermentation, a yield over 70% of the theoretical value was achieved. Using fed-batch fermentation, more than 100g/L R-BDO (1100mM) was synthesized from a mixture of glucose and galactose, two major carbohydrate components in red algae. The high titer and yield of the enantiopure R-BDO produced as well as the ability to co-ferment glucose and galactose make our engineered yeast strain a superior host for cost-effective production of bio-based BDO from renewable resources. PMID:24525332

Lian, Jiazhang; Chao, Ran; Zhao, Huimin

2014-05-01

351

Molecular and crystal structures of 4'-hydroxy derivative of (3R,6R)-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-2-(4-phenylbenzylidene)cyclohexanone  

SciTech Connect

The molecular and crystal structures of the 4-hydroxy derivative of (3R,6R)-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-2-(4-phenylbenzylidene)cyclohexanone are determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Single crystals are orthorhombic, a = 9.147(2) A, b = 12.959(2) A, c = 15.695(5) A, V = 1860.4(7) A{sup 3}, Z = 4, and space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. The cyclohexanone ring in the crystal structure has an asymmetric chair conformation. The puckering parameters are as follows: the puckering amplitude S is 0.91, and the puckering angles {theta} and {psi} are equal to 20.2{sup o} and 10.4{sup o}, respectively. It is established that the enone fragment and the cyclohexanone ring in molecules are flattened considerably. In the crystal structure, the molecules are linked by the hydrogen bonds (bond length, 1.85 A). The structural features and the strength of the hydrogen bonds for the compound under investigation and its analogue with one benzene ring are compared using the X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopic data.

Kutulya, L. A., E-mail: kutulya@isc.kharkov.com [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Scientific and Technological Corporation 'Institute for Single Crystals' (Ukraine); Kulishov, V. I. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine); Shishkina, S. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Scientific and Technological Corporation 'Institute for Single Crystal,' (Ukraine); Tolochko, A. S. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine); Roshal', A. D.; Shishkin, O. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Scientific and Technological Corporation 'Institute for Single Crystals' (Ukraine)

2008-05-15

352

A sequence similar to tRNA 3 Lys gene is embedded in HIV-1 U3-R and promotes minus-strand transfer.  

PubMed

We identified a sequence embedded in the U3-R region of HIV-1 RNA that is highly complementary to human tRNA(3)(Lys). The free energy of annealing to tRNA(3)(Lys) is significantly lower for this sequence and the primer-binding site than for other viral sequences of similar length. The only interruption in complementarity is a 29-nucleotide segment inserted where a tRNA intron would be expected. The insert contains the TATA box for viral RNA transcription. The embedded sequence includes a 9-nucleotide segment previously reported to aid minus-strand transfer by binding the primer tRNA(3)(Lys). Reconstituting transfer in vitro, we show that including segments from the embedded sequence in the acceptor template, beyond the 9 nucleotides, further increases transfer efficiency. We propose that a gene encoding tRNA(3)(Lys) was incorporated during HIV-1 evolution and retained, largely intact, because of its roles in transcription and strand transfer. PMID:19966801

Piekna-Przybylska, Dorota; DiChiacchio, Laura; Mathews, David H; Bambara, Robert A

2010-01-01

353

MC4R dimerization in the paraventricular nucleus and GHSR/MC3R heterodimerization in the arcuate nucleus: is there relevance for body weight regulation?  

PubMed

The worldwide obesity epidemic is increasing, yet at this time, no long-acting and specific pharmaceutical therapies are available. Peripheral hormonal signals communicate metabolic status to the hypothalamus by activating their corresponding receptors in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). In this brain region, a variety of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are expressed that are potentially involved in weight regulation, but so far, the detailed function of most hypothalamic GPCRs is only partially understood. An important and underappreciated feature of GPCRs is the capacity for regulation via di- and heterodimerization. Increasing evidence implicates that heterodimerization of GPCRs results in profound functional consequences. Recently, we could demonstrate that interaction of the melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R) and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)-1a results in a modulation of function in both receptors. Although the physiological role of GPCR-GPCR interaction in the hypothalamus is yet to be elucidated, this concept promises new avenues for investigation and understanding of hypothalamic functions dependent on GPCR signaling. Since GPCRs are important targets for drugs to combat many diseases, identification of heterodimers may be a prerequisite for highly specific drugs. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms and their involvement in weight regulation is necessary. Fundamental to this understanding is the interplay of GPCR-GPCR in the hypothalamic nuclei in energy metabolism. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on melanocortin receptors and GHSR-1a in hypothalamic weight regulation, especially as they pertain to possible drug targets. Furthermore, we include available evidence for the participation and significance of GPCR dimerization. PMID:22327910

Rediger, Anne; Piechowski, Carolin Leonie; Habegger, Kirk; Grüters, Annette; Krude, Heiko; Tschöp, Matthias H; Kleinau, Gunnar; Biebermann, Heike

2012-01-01

354

Vertebrate Vitellogenin Gene Duplication in Relation to the "3R Hypothesis": Correlation to the Pelagic Egg and the Oceanic Radiation of Teleosts  

PubMed Central

The spiny ray-finned teleost fishes (Acanthomorpha) are the most successful group of vertebrates in terms of species diversity. Their meteoric radiation and speciation in the oceans during the late Cretaceous and Eocene epoch is unprecedented in vertebrate history, occurring in one third of the time for similar diversity to appear in the birds and mammals. The success of marine teleosts is even more remarkable considering their long freshwater ancestry, since it implies solving major physiological challenges when freely broadcasting their eggs in the hyper-osmotic conditions of seawater. Most extant marine teleosts spawn highly hydrated pelagic eggs, due to differential proteolysis of vitellogenin (Vtg)-derived yolk proteins. The maturational degradation of Vtg involves depolymerization of mainly the lipovitellin heavy chain (LvH) of one form of Vtg to generate a large pool of free amino acids (FAA 150–200 mM). This organic osmolyte pool drives hydration of the ooctye while still protected within the maternal ovary. In the present contribution, we have used Bayesian analysis to examine the evolution of vertebrate Vtg genes in relation to the “3R hypothesis” of whole genome duplication (WGD) and the functional end points of LvH degradation during oocyte maturation. We find that teleost Vtgs have experienced a post-R3 lineage-specific gene duplication to form paralogous clusters that correlate to the pelagic and benthic character of the eggs. Neo-functionalization allowed one paralogue to be proteolyzed to FAA driving hydration of the maturing oocytes, which pre-adapts them to the marine environment and causes them to float. The timing of these events matches the appearance of the Acanthomorpha in the fossil record. We discuss the significance of these adaptations in relation to ancestral physiological features, and propose that the neo-functionalization of duplicated Vtg genes was a key event in the evolution and success of the teleosts in the oceanic environment.

Finn, Roderick Nigel; Kristoffersen, B?rge A.

2007-01-01

355

Analysis of the therapeutic functions of novel melanocortin receptor agonists in MC3R- and MC4R-deficient C57BL/6J mice  

PubMed Central

Melanocortin receptor agonists act in the brain to regulate food intake and body weight and, independently of these actions, affect insulin sensitivity. These experiments investigated the function of novel non-selective melanocortin receptor agonists (BIM-22493, BIM-22511) that cross the blood-brain barrier when administered peripherally. Treatment of diet-induced obese C57BL/6J (B6) mice with melanocortin agonists administered peripherally improved obesity, hyperinsulinemia (?50%) and fatty liver disease. Specificity of function was determined using B6 melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptor knockout mice (MC3RKO, MC4RKO). Chow-fed MC4RKO but not MC3RKO used for these tests exhibited obesity, hyperinsulinemia and severe hepatosteatosis associated with increased expression of insulin-stimulated genes involved in lipogenesis. Reduced food intake associated with acute BIM-22493 treatment, and weight loss associated with 14d of treatment with BIM-22511, required functional MC4R but not MC3R. However, while 14d of treatment BIM-22511 did not affect body weight and even increased cumulative food intake in MC4RKO, a significant reduction (?50%) in fasting insulin was still observed. Despite lowering insulin, chronic treatment with BIM-22511 did not improve hepatosteatosis in MC4RKO, and did not affect hepatic lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results demonstrate that peripherally administered melanocortin receptor agonists regulate body weight, liver metabolism and glucose homeostasis through independent pathways. MC4R are necessary for melanocortin agonist-induced weight loss and improvements in liver metabolism, but are not required for improvements in hyperinsulinemia. Agonists with activity at MC4R improve glucose homeostasis at least partially by causing weight loss, however other melanocortin receptors may have potential for treating aberrations in glucose homeostasis associated with obesity.

Kumar, K. Ganesh; Sutton, Gregory M.; Dong, Jesse Z.; Roubert, Pierre; Plas, Pascale; Halem, Heather A.; Culler, Michael D.; Yang, Hyunwon; Dixit, Vishwa D.; Butler, Andrew A.

2009-01-01

356

Analysis of the therapeutic functions of novel melanocortin receptor agonists in MC3R- and MC4R-deficient C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

Melanocortin receptor agonists act in the brain to regulate food intake and body weight and, independently of these actions, affect insulin sensitivity. These experiments investigated the function of novel non-selective melanocortin receptor agonists (BIM-22493, BIM-22511) that cross the blood-brain barrier when administered peripherally. Treatment of diet induced obese C57BL/6J (B6) mice with melanocortin agonists administered peripherally improved obesity, hyperinsulinemia (approximately 50%) and fatty liver disease. Specificity of function was determined using B6 melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptor knockout mice (MC3RKO, MC4RKO). Chow fed MC4RKO but not MC3RKO used for these tests exhibited obesity, hyperinsulinemia and severe hepatosteatosis associated with increased expression of insulin-stimulated genes involved in lipogenesis. Reduced food intake associated with acute BIM-22493 treatment, and weight loss associated with 14 days of treatment with BIM-22511, required functional MC4R but not MC3R. However, while 14 days of treatment with BIM-22511 did not affect body weight and even increased cumulative food intake in MC4RKO, a significant reduction (approximately 50%) in fasting insulin was still observed. Despite lowering insulin, chronic treatment with BIM-22511 did not improve hepatosteatosis in MC4RKO, and did not affect hepatic lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results demonstrate that peripherally administered melanocortin receptor agonists regulate body weight, liver metabolism and glucose homeostasis through independent pathways. MC4R are necessary for melanocortin agonist-induced weight loss and improvements in liver metabolism, but are not required for improvements in hyperinsulinemia. Agonists with activity at MC4R improve glucose homeostasis at least partially by causing weight loss, however other melanocortin receptors may have potential for treating aberrations in glucose homeostasis associated with obesity. PMID:19646498

Kumar, K Ganesh; Sutton, Gregory M; Dong, Jesse Z; Roubert, Pierre; Plas, Pascale; Halem, Heather A; Culler, Michael D; Yang, Hyunwon; Dixit, Vishwa D; Butler, Andrew A

2009-10-01

357

A novel photoelectrochemical sensor based on PPIX-functionalized WO3-rGO nanohybrid-decorated ITO electrode for detecting cysteine.  

PubMed

A universal photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing platform was fabricated based on the composition of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), tungsten trioxide (WO3) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode for detecting cysteine in aqueous solution. The rGO layer was not only providing bridges for the ITO electrode to anchor tightly with the WO3 nanostructures, but behaved as an electron transfer medium to enhance the electron transport from the conduction band (CB) of WO3. Furthermore, the strong absorption coefficient of porphyrin adsorbed onto WO3 nanoplates by bidentate binding could significantly improve the photocurrent density and slow charge recombination kinetics through the ultrafast electron injection. The SEM, XRD, and DRS were employed to characterize the prepared nanomaterials and modified-ITO electrodes. The results showed that the PPIX-WO3-rGO/ITO electrode could render the capability of absorbing a broad UV-vis light and displayed excellent photocurrent response in 0.1M pH 7.0 PBS with excitation wavelength at 380 nm, which could be notably improved upon addition of cysteine at 0.3 V. Based on the enhanced photocurrent signal, a novel method for PEC detection of cysteine was developed with a linear range of 0.1 to 100 ?M in 0.1M PBS (pH 7.0). The detection limit was 25 nM (3?). And higher stability and selectivity were obtained. The novel strategy could provide a fast and sensitive method for cysteine analysis. PMID:23391706

Sun, Bing; Zhang, Kun; Chen, Lijian; Guo, Lintong; Ai, Shiyun

2013-06-15

358

Bis(arene) actinide sandwich complexes, ({eta}{sup 6}-C{sub 6}H{sub 3}R{sub 3}){sub 2}An: Linear or bent?  

SciTech Connect

The syntheses of the sandwich complexes ferrocene, ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}-Fe, in 1951 and uranocene, ({eta}{sup 8}-C{sub 8}H{sub 8}){sub 2}U, in 1968 ushered in the modern eras of organotransition metal and organoactinide chemistry, respectively. Ferrocene and uranocene are examples of linear sandwich complexes, that is, those in which the (ring centroid)-M-(ring centroid) angle (denoted {theta}) is 180{degree}. In the case of ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}M chemistry, a number of bent ({theta} < 180{degree}) complexes are known when M is a main-group or rare-earth element. The explanation for the bent structures of these complexes has been the subject of some debate concerning the relative importance of covalent, electrostatic, and steric interactions. The authors report optimized geometries of Bz{sub 2}An (An = Th-Am) and ({eta}{sup 6}-C{sub 6}H{sub 3}R{sub 3}){sub 2}An (An = Th, U, Pu; R = Me, {sup t}Bu) obtained by using local density approximation (LDA) and Perdew-Wang (PW91) gradient-corrected relativistic density functional theory (DFT) methods. These DFT methods are found to be able to reproduce the experimental geometries and vibrational frequencies of organoactinide complexes with satisfactory accuracy. The (TTB){sub 2}An calculations that are reported here are, to date, the largest full geometry optimizations to be carried out on an actinide system.

Li, J.; Bursten, B.E.

1999-11-03

359

Synchrotron X-ray imaging of the electron density in RFeO3 (R = Y, Ho) using an APD detector.  

PubMed

Structure factors for small hydrothermally grown yttrium and holmium orthoferrites, RFeO(3) (R = Y, Ho), were measured with focused synchrotron radiation at wavelengths of 0.70 and 0.84 A using both scintillation and high-speed avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors. Resulting APD Deltarho images showed striking correlations between aspherical electron densities around Fe and rare-earth metals. Approximate high symmetry in the Deltarho images indicates that cations deform the electron density far more strongly than the O atoms. The Ho-Fe magnetic interactions appear to affect the electron density distribution of the Fe atoms and the magnetic phase transitions. Space group Pnma, orthorhombic, YFeO3 (APD): Mr = 192.76, a = 5.5931 (3), b = 7.6102 (4), c = 5.2806 (3) A, V = 224.77 (2) A(3), Z = 4, Dx = 5.695 Mg m(-3), mu(0.84) = 15.56 mm(-1), F(000) = 356, T = 293 K, R = 0.045, wR = 0.073, S = 4.83 (9) for 1282 unique reflections; HoFeO3 (APD): Mr = 268.78, a = 5.5922 (3), b = 7.6157 (5), c = 5.2798 (3) A, V = 224.86 (2) A(3), Z = 4, D(x) = 7.939 Mg m(-3), mu(0.84) = 61.98 mm(-1), F(000) = 356, T = 293 K, R = 0.036, wR = 0.037, S = 3.07 (6) for 1284 unique reflections. PMID:16687839

Streltsov, V A; Ishizawa, N; Kishimoto, S

1998-09-01

360

Diastereoselective reduction of 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3(R)-[3-oxo-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-propyl]-4(S)-(4-hydroxyphenyl)azetidin-2-one to Ezetimibe by the whole cell catalyst Rhodococcus fascians MO22  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asymmetric microbial reduction of 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3(R)-[3-oxo-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-propyl]-4(S)-(4-hydroxyphenyl)azetidin-2-one to 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3(R)-[3(S)-hydroxy-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-propyl]-4(S)-(4-hydroxyphenyl)azetidin-2-one (Ezetimibe) by Rhodococcus fascians MO22 is described. The catalytic capability of the microorganism for reduction has been examined also with protected ketone, an intermediate from chemical synthesis of Ezetimibe. Various parameters of the bioreduction have been optimized: the strain converted 94.8% of ketone and 63% of protected ketone into Ezetimibe with the

Eva Kyslíková; Peter Babiak; Helena Marešová; Andrea Palyzová; Josef Hájí?ek; Pavel Kyslík

2010-01-01

361

A comparison of the antimicrobial spectra and kill rates of three contact lens care solutions: QuickCARE Starting Solution, ReNu Multi-Purpose Solution, and Opti-Free rinsing, disinfecting, and storage solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speed of cleaning and disinfection of contact lenses is a significant factor in patient compliance with lens care regimens. A solution that offers the advantage of speed, CIBA Vision QuickCARE Starting Solution, was compared with Alcon Opti-Free Rinsing, Disinfecting, and Storage Solution and Bausch & Lomb ReNu Multi-Purpose Solution for antimicrobial efficacy by the use of time course microbial

Libero Ajello; Marc Ajello

1995-01-01

362

Synthesis of New 6-{[?-(Dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones and Evaluation of their Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activities  

PubMed Central

Several novel 6-thio-3-R-2-oxo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-based compounds containing an ?-(dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)]alkyl fragment were synthesized to examine their anticancer activity. Some of the 6-{[?-(hetero-cyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (3.1–3.10) were obtained by the nucleophilic substitution of 6-[?-halogenalkyl]thio-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (2.1–2.8) with azaheterocycles. Alternatively, compounds 3.1–3.22 were synthesized by alkylation of 3-R-6-thio-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones potassium salts (1.1–1.4) with (2-chloroethyl)-N,N-dialkylamine hydrochlorides or 1-(2-chloroethyl)heterocycle hydrochlorides. The structures of compounds were elucidated by 1H, 13C NMR, LC–MS and EI-MS analysis. Then anticancer and antibacterial, bioluminescence inhibition of Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 activities of the substances were tested in vitro. It was found that compound 3.18 possessed a wide range of anticancer activity against 27 cell lines of cancer: non-small cell lung, colon, CNS, ovarian, renal, prostate, breast, melanoma and leukemia (log GI50 < ?5.65). The “structure-activity” relationship was discussed. COMPARE analysis for synthesized anticancer active compounds was performed.

Berest, Galina G.; Voskoboynik, Olexiy Y.; Kovalenko, Sergiy I.; Nosulenko, Inna S.; Antypenko, Lyudmyla M.; Antypenko, Olexii M.; Shvets, Volodymyr M.; Katsev, Andriy M.

2012-01-01

363

Synthesis of New 6-{[?-(Dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones and Evaluation of their Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activities.  

PubMed

Several novel 6-thio-3-R-2-oxo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-based compounds containing an ?-(dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)]alkyl fragment were synthesized to examine their anticancer activity. Some of the 6-{[?-(hetero-cyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (3.1-3.10) were obtained by the nucleophilic substitution of 6-[?-halogenalkyl]thio-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (2.1-2.8) with azaheterocycles. Alternatively, compounds 3.1-3.22 were synthesized by alkylation of 3-R-6-thio-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones potassium salts (1.1-1.4) with (2-chloroethyl)-N,N-dialkylamine hydrochlorides or 1-(2-chloroethyl)heterocycle hydrochlorides. The structures of compounds were elucidated by (1)H, (13)C NMR, LC-MS and EI-MS analysis. Then anticancer and antibacterial, bioluminescence inhibition of Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 activities of the substances were tested in vitro. It was found that compound 3.18 possessed a wide range of anticancer activity against 27 cell lines of cancer: non-small cell lung, colon, CNS, ovarian, renal, prostate, breast, melanoma and leukemia (log GI(50) < -5.65). The "structure-activity" relationship was discussed. COMPARE analysis for synthesized anticancer active compounds was performed. PMID:22396903

Berest, Galina G; Voskoboynik, Olexiy Y; Kovalenko, Sergiy I; Nosulenko, Inna S; Antypenko, Lyudmyla M; Antypenko, Olexii M; Shvets, Volodymyr M; Katsev, Andriy M

2012-01-01

364

The metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist 1S,3R-ACPD stimulates and modulates NMDA receptor mediated excitotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.  

PubMed

The potential toxic effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) and its interactions with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor were studied in hippocampal brain slice cultures, using densitometric measurements of the cellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI) to quantify neuronal degeneration. Cultures exposed to ACPD, showed a concentration (2-5 mM) and time (1-4 days) dependent increase in PI uptake in CA1, CA3 and dentate subfields after 24 h and 48 h of exposure, with CA1 pyramidal cells being most sensitive. The neurodegeneration induced by 2 mM ACPD was completely abolished by addition of 10 microM of the NMDA receptor antagonist (5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK-801), while 20 microM of the 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)/kainic acid receptor antagonist 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX) had no effect. Co-exposing cultures to a subtoxic dose of 300 microM ACPD together with 10 microM NMDA, which at this dose is known to induce a fairly selective degeneration of CA1 pyramidal cells, significantly increased the PI uptake in both CA1 and CA3, compared to cultures exposed to 10 microM NMDA only. Adding the 300 microM ACPD as pretreatment for 30 min followed by a 30 min wash in normal medium before the ACPD/NMDA co-exposure, eliminated the potentiation of NMDA toxicity. The potentiation was also blocked by addition of 10 or 100 microM 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) (mGluR5 antagonist) during the co-exposure, while a corresponding addition of 10 or 100 microM 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester (CPCCOEt) (mGluR1 antagonist) had no effect. We conclude that, stimulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors with ACPD at concentrations of 2 mM or higher induces a distinct subfield-related and time and concentration dependent pattern of hippocampal degeneration, and that ACPD at subtoxic concentrations modulates NMDA-induced excitotoxicity through the mGluR5 receptor in a time dependent way. PMID:11292452

Blaabjerg, M; Kristensen, B W; Bonde, C; Zimmer, J

2001-04-13

365

Simulation of the effects of operating lakes Mendota, Monona, and Waubesa, south-central Wisconsin, as multipurpose reservoirs to maintain dry-weather flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital reservoir routing model was used to simulate the operation of Lakes Mendota, Monona, and Waubesa, south-central Wisconsin for various levels of minimum release. Twenty-five years of record (1970?94) were used in model simulation. The amount of water available to maintain streamflow and lake levels during dry periods has declined because of extensive pumping of ground water for municipal use and diversion of the effluent around the lakes. The goal of the simulation was to determine whether using the lakes as multipurpose reservoirs to maintain flow during periods of low flow would appreciably lower the lake levels. The model results indicated that it would be possible to maintain a minimum flow of 36 cubic feet per second in all but the driest years simulated (1970, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1989, and 1991) without lowering the lake levels more than they have been lowered from 1970 to 1994 under current operating conditions. Maintaining minimum flow would require detailed computations to guide the operation of the dams during the year.

Krug, W. R.

1999-01-01

366

Multipurpose Radiation Resistant Semiconductor Detectors for Alpha, Neutron & Low Energy Gamma Ray Measurements at High Temperatures in High-Intensity Gamma Ray  

SciTech Connect

Work scheduled under year two of DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER63734 is on schedule and all year-two milestones have or will be met. Results to date demonstrate that unprecedented silicon carbide (SiC) energy resolution has been obtained, and that SiC detectors may achieve energy resolution that exceeds that obtainable with the best silicon alpha spectrometers. Fast-neutron energy spectrometry measurements indicate that recoil-ion energy spectrometry should be possible with SiC detectors. Furthermore, SiC detectors have been demonstrated to perform well even after gamma-ray exposures of 1.E09 Rad. This result and the previously demonstrated capability of SiC detectors to operate in elevated-temperature environments are very promising for potential DOE EMSP applications. A new class of multipurpose, radiation-resistant semiconductor detectors that can be used in elevated-temperature and high-radiation environments is being developed under this grant. These detectors, based on silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor are designed to have larger active volumes than previously available SiC detectors, and are being tested for their response to alpha particles, X-rays and low energy gamma rays, and fast neutrons.

Ruddy, Frank H.

2005-06-01

367

A theoretical study of H(2) dissociation on (sq.rt(3) x sq.rt(3))R30 degrees CO/Ru(0001).  

PubMed

We have studied the influence of preadsorbed CO on the dissociative adsorption of H(2) on Ru(0001) with density functional theory calculations. For a coverage of 1/3 ML CO, we investigated different possible reaction paths for hydrogen dissociation using nudged elastic band and adaptive nudged elastic band calculations. One reaction path was studied in detail through an energy decomposition and molecular orbital type of analysis. The minimum barrier for H(2) dissociation is found to be 0.29 eV. At the barrier the H-H bond is hardly stretched. Behind this barrier a molecular chemisorption minimum is present. Next, the molecule overcomes a second barrier, with a second local chemisorption minimum behind it. To finally dissociate to chemisorbed atoms, the molecule has to overcome a third barrier. To move along the reaction path from reactants to products, the hydrogen molecule needs to rotate, and to significantly change its center-of-mass position. The procedure of mapping out reaction paths for H(2) reacting on low-index surfaces of bare metals (computing two-dimensional elbow plots for fixed impact high-symmetry sites and H(2) orientations parallel to the surface) does not work for H(2)+CO/Ru. The first barrier in the path is recovered, but the features of the subsequent stretch to the dissociative chemisorption minimum are not captured, because the molecule is not allowed to change its center-of-mass position or to rotate. The dissociative chemisorption of H(2) on CO/Ru(0001) is endoergic, in contrast to the case of H(2) on bare Ru(0001). The zero-point energy corrected energies of molecularly and dissociatively chemisorbed H(2) are very close, suggesting that it may be possible to detect molecularly chemisorbed H(2) on (sq.rt(3) x sq.rt(3))R30 degrees CO/Ru(0001). The presence of CO on the surface increases the barrier height to dissociation compared with bare Ru(0001). Based on an energy decomposition and molecular orbital analysis we attribute the increase in the barrier height mainly to an occupied-occupied interaction between the bonding H(2) sigma(g) orbital and the (surface-hybridized) CO 1pi orbitals, i.e., to site blocking. There is a small repulsive contribution to the barrier from the interaction between the H(2) molecule and the Ru part of the CO covered Ru surface, but it is smaller than one might expect based on the calculations of H(2) interacting with a clean Ru surface, and on calculations of H(2) interacting with the CO overlayer only. Actually, the analysis suggests that the Ru surface as a subsystem is (slightly) more reactive for the reaction path studied with CO preadsorbed on it than without it. Thus, the results indicate that the influence of CO on H(2) dissociation on Ru is not only a simple site-blocking effect, the electronic structure of the underlying Ru is changed. PMID:20406007

Groot, I M N; Juanes-Marcos, J C; Olsen, R A; Kroes, G J

2010-04-14

368

Penta-fluoro-phenyl (3R,4R,5S)-5-{[(3R,4R,5S)-5-azido-methyl-3,4-dimeth-oxy-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-furan-3-carboxamido]-meth-yl}-3,4-dimeth-oxy-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-furan-3-carboxyl-ate  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C22H25F5N4O9, is a stable penta­fluoro­phenyl ester inter­mediate in the synthesis of novel homo-oligomeric structures containing branched carbon chains. The structure is epimeric to the previously characterized dimeric penta­fluoro­phenyl ester with stereochemistry (3R,4R,5R), which was synthesized using d-ribose as starting material. The crystal structure of the title mol­ecule removes any ambiguities arising from the relative stereochemistries of the six chiral centres. Two hydrogen bonds, bifurcating from the NH group, stabilize the crystal: one intra­molecular and one inter­molecular, both involving O atoms of the meth­oxy groups. The asymmetric unit contains two independent mol­ecules not related by any pseudo-symmetry operators. The major conformational differences are localized, leading to one mol­ecule being extended compared to the other. The collected crystal was twinned (twin ratio is 0.939:0.061), and the azide group is positionally disordered over two positions in one mol­ecule [occupancy ratio 0.511?(18):0.489?(18)].

Simone, Michela I.; Edwards, Alison A.; Parker, Samuel G.; Tranter, George E.; Fleet, George W. J.; Watkin, David J.

2010-01-01

369

Synthesis and biological activity of novel N-cycloalkyl-(cycloalkylaryl)-2-[(3-R-2-oxo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-6-yl)thio]acetamides.  

PubMed

In this paper the novel N-cycloalkyl-(cycloalkylaryl)-2-[(3-R-2-oxo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-6-yl)thio]acetamides synthesis by aminolysis of activated by thionyl chloride or carbonyldiimidazole [(3-R-2-oxo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazolin-6-yl)-thio]acetic acids and alkylation of the 3-R-6-thio-6,7-dihydro-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones potassium salts with N-cycloalkyl-(cycloalkylaryl)-2-chloroacetamides are proposed. The structures of compounds are determined by (1)H, (13)C NMR, LC-MS and EI-MS analysis. The in vitro anticancer, antibacterial activity and Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 bioluminescence inhibition of synthesized compounds were revealed. SAR results were discussed. Compound 4.10 was found to be the most anticancer active one, selectively influenced on the non-small cell lung and CNS cancer cell lines, especially on the HOP-92 (log GI(50) = -6.01) and U251 (log GI(50) = -6.00). PMID:22051065

Berest, Galyna G; Voskoboynik, Olexii Yu; Kovalenko, Sergiy I; Antypenko, Olexii M; Nosulenko, Inna S; Katsev, Andrii M; Shandrovskaya, Olena S

2011-12-01

370

Interaction of 2-APB, dantrolene, and TDMT with IP3R and RyR modulates ER stress-induced programmed cell death I and II in neuron-like PC12 cells: an experimental and computational investigation.  

PubMed

Ca(2+) is an essential second messenger, playing a fundamental role in maintaining cell viability and neuronal activity. Two specific endoplasmic reticulum calcium channels, ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) play an important role in Ca(2+) regulation. In the present study, we provided a 3D structure of RyR and IP3R by homology modeling, and we predicted their interactions with a known neuroprotective compound, 3-thiomethyl-5,6-(dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazine (TDMT), as well as two inhibitors, dantrolene and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). Interestingly, we found that dantrolene and 2-APB can bind to the IP3-binding domain of IP3R and RyR, while TDMT may directly block both channels by interacting with the putative resident domains in the pore. Cell culture experiments showed that these compounds could protect PC12 cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis and activate autophagic pathways. Collectively, our computational (in silico) and cell culture studies suggest that RyR and IP3R are novel and promising targets to be used against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23829337

Ansari, Niloufar; Hadi-Alijanvand, Hamid; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Kiaei, Mahmoud; Khodagholi, Fariba

2014-08-01

371

De novo assembly and characterization of leaf transcriptome for the development of functional molecular markers of the extremophile multipurpose tree species Prosopis alba  

PubMed Central

Background Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) is an important native tree adapted to arid and semiarid regions of north-western Argentina which is of great value as multipurpose species. Despite its importance, the genomic resources currently available for the entire Prosopis genus are still limited. Here we describe the development of a leaf transcriptome and the identification of new molecular markers that could support functional genetic studies in natural and domesticated populations of this genus. Results Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to P. alba transcripts produced a total of 1,103,231 raw reads with an average length of 421 bp. De novo assembling generated a set of 15,814 isotigs and 71,101 non-assembled sequences (singletons) with an average of 991 bp and 288 bp respectively. A total of 39,000 unique singletons were identified after clustering natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads. Regarding the non-redundant sequences or unigenes, 22,095 out of 54,814 were successfully annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Moreover, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were searched, resulting in 5,992 and 6,236 markers, respectively, throughout the genome. For the validation of the the predicted SSR markers, a subset of 87 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidence was successfully amplified from six DNA samples of seedlings. From this analysis, 11 of these 87 SSRs were identified as polymorphic. Additionally, another set of 123 nuclear polymorphic SSRs were determined in silico, of which 50% have the probability of being effectively polymorphic. Conclusions This study generated a successful global analysis of the P. alba leaf transcriptome after bioinformatic and wet laboratory validations of RNA-Seq data. The limited set of molecular markers currently available will be significantly increased with the thousands of new markers that were identified in this study. This information will strongly contribute to genomics resources for P. alba functional analysis and genetics. Finally, it will also potentially contribute to the development of population-based genome studies in the genera.

2013-01-01

372

ACE I/D and ACTN3 R/X polymorphisms as potential factors in modulating exercise-related phenotypes in older women in response to a muscle power training stimuli.  

PubMed

Genetic variation of the human ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms subsequent to 12 weeks of high-speed power training on maximal strength (1RM) of the arm and leg muscles, muscle power performance (counter-movement jump), and functional capacity (sit-to-stand test) was examined in older Caucasian women [n = 139; mean age 65.5 (8.2) years; 67.0 (10.0) kg and 1.57 (0.06) m]. Chelex 100 was used for DNA extraction, and genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP methods. Muscular strength, power, and functional testing were conducted at baseline (T1) and after 12 weeks (T2) of high-speed power training. At baseline, the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R/X polymorphisms were not associated with muscle function or muscularity phenotypes in older Caucasian women. After the 12-week high-speed training program, subjects significantly increased their muscular and functional capacity performance (p < 0.05). For both polymorphisms, significant genotype-training interaction (p < 0.05) was found in all muscular performance indices, except for 1RM leg extension in the ACE I/D (p = 0.187). Analyses of the combined effects between genotypes showed significant differences in all parameters (p < 0.05) in response to high-speed power training between the power (ACTN3 RR + RX & ACE DD) versus "non-power" muscularity-oriented genotypes (ACTN3 XX & ACE II + ID)]. Our data suggest that the ACE and ACTN3 genotypes (single or combined) exert a significant influence in the muscle phenotypes of older Caucasian women in response to high-speed power training. Thus, the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R/X polymorphisms are likely factors in modulating exercise-related phenotypes in older women, particularly in response to a resistance training stimuli. PMID:22855367

Pereira, Ana; Costa, Aldo M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Silva, António J; Bastos, Estela; Marques, Mário C

2013-10-01

373

Expression of poly-3-(R)-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymerase and acyl-CoA-transacylase in plastids of transgenic potato leads to the synthesis of a hydrophobic polymer, presumably medium-chain-length PHAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medium-chain-length poly-3-( R)-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) belong to the group of microbial polyesters. The minimum gene-set for the accumulation of mcl-PHAs from de novo fatty acid biosynthesis has been identified in prokaryotes [B. Rehm et al. (1998) J. Biol Chem 273:24044–24051] as consisting of the Pha-C1 polymerase and the ACP-CoA-transacylase. In this paper, the synthesis of mcl-PHAs has been attempted in transgenic

Andrea Romano; Bernard Witholt; Gerrit Eggink; Hans Mooibroek

2005-01-01

374

Gamma2-Melanocyte Stimulation Hormone (?2-MSH) Truncation Studies Results in the Cautionary Note that ?2-MSH is Not Selective for the Mouse MC3R over the Mouse MC5R  

PubMed Central

The melanocortin system has been implicated in a multitude of physiological pathways including obesity, satiety, energy homeostasis, sexual behavior, pigmentation, sodium regulation, hypertension, and many others. Based upon studies of the endogenous melanocortin receptor agonists at the cloned human melanocortin receptor proteins, it was concluded that the ?-MSH related agonist ligands are selective for the MC3 versus the MC4 and MC5 receptors. In attempts to understand and identify the specific amino acids of ?2-MSH important for MC3R selectivity, we have performed N- and C-terminal truncation studies and pharmacologically characterized twenty-eight ligands at the mouse MC1 and MC3-5 melanocortin receptors. The C-terminal Trp-Asp9-Arg10-Phe11 residues are important for nM potency at the mMC3R and the Arg7-Trp8 residues are important for mMC5R nM potency. We observed the unanticipated results that several of the C-terminal truncated analogues possessed nM agonist potency at the mMC3 and mMC5Rs which lead us to performed a comparative side-by-side study of the mouse and human MC5R. These data resulted in ?M ?2-MSH analogue potency at the hMC5R, consistent with previous reports, however at the mMC5R, nM ?2-MSH analogue potency was observed. Thus, these data support the hypothesis of important species specific differences in ?-MSH related ligand potency at the rodent versus human MC5R subtype that is critical for the interpretation of in vivo rodent physiological studies. These results prompted us to examine the affects of a peripherally administered melanocortin agonist on hypothalamic gene expression levels of the MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R. The super potent non-selective NDP-MSH agonist was administered i.p. and resulted in significantly decreased levels of mMC3R and mMC5R hypothalamic mRNA versus saline control. These data provide for the first time data demonstrating peripherally administered NDP-MSH can modify hypothalamic melanocortin receptor expression levels.

Joseph, Christine G.; Yao, Hua; Scott, Joseph W.; Sorensen, Nicholas B.; Marnane, Rebecca N.; Mountjoy, Kathleen G.; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

2010-01-01

375

Structure-activity relationships of novel cyclic alpha-MSH/beta-MSH hybrid analogues that lead to potent and selective ligands for the human MC3R and human MC5R.  

PubMed

It has been shown by extensive studies that alpha-MSH bioactivity is critically dependent on the core or central tetrapeptide sequence, His-Phe-Arg-Trp, however with poor selectivity for the human MC3R-MC5R. The structure-activity relationships study here is aimed at identifying lead structures or templates of this core sequence by the use of different conformational constraints that might impart changes in its topography and thus promote differences in potency and selectivity at these receptors. Our peptide library consists of a novel series of cyclic alpha-MSH analogues that have disulfide bridges between Cys or Cys-like residues at positions 4 and 10, giving rise to 23-membered rings fused at the C-terminal end with the C-terminal fragment of beta-MSH (Pro-Pro-Lys-Asp). While such constraints of the peptide backbone with disulfide bridges of different chirality affect potency and selectivity at these receptors, further changes in the hydrophobicity at position 7 with either a D-Phe or D-Nal(2') and replacement of a His with a Pro in position 6 cause additional effects. Thus, the most interesting lead compounds that emerged from this study are (1) compound 5, Ac-c[Cys-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-D-Cys]-Pro-Pro-Lys-Asp-NH(2) (IC(50) = 10 nM), which is the first potent and highly selective antagonist ligand for the hMC5R (560-fold vs the MC3R and 1000-fold vs the MC4R); (2) compound 7, Ac-c[Cys-Glu-Pro-D-Nal(2')-Arg-Trp-Cys]-Pro-Pro-Lys-Asp-NH(2) (IC(50) = 31 nM), which is a highly selective antagonist analogue for the MC3R (560-fold vs the hMC4R and about 3000-fold vs the hMC5R; and (3) compound 9, Ac-c[Pen-Glu-His-D-Nal(2')-Arg-Trp-Cys]-Pro-Pro-Lys-Asp-NH(2) (IC(50) = 3 nM), which is more potent than 7 at the MC3R but not as selective. PMID:12904077

Balse-Srinivasan, Preeti; Grieco, Paolo; Cai, Minying; Trivedi, Dev; Hruby, Victor J

2003-08-14

376

Theoretical investigation of conformational stabilities and 13C NMR chemical shifts of a seven-membered ring thiosugar, (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations have been performed to obtain optimized structures for fourteen conformers of (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol. These conformers are considered as the twist-chair (TC) and twist-boat (TB) conformations. Among all conformers, the TCS5 and TCS6 conformers appear to be the most energetically stable since they contain an intramolecular hydrogen bond between hydroxyl group at C(8) and S atom. Boltzmann weighting factor analysis provides valuable information on the population of the fourteen conformers, including both the TC and TB conformations. The analysis results demonstrate that the TCS2, TCS5, and TCS6 conformers provide a major population contribution with Boltzamann weighting factors larger than 7% as compared to other conformers. For these conformers of (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol, the GIAO/HF, GIAO/DFT/OPBE, GIAO/DFT/B3LYP and GIAO/DFT/mPW1PW91 calculations with the 6-311++G(d,p), 6-311+G(2d,p), cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ basis sets were used to obtain their 13C NMR chemical shifts. The calculated 13C NMR chemical shifts of the TCS2, TCS5, and TCS6 conformers show a close correlation with experimental data, within 2.4-3.0 ppm of MAE values. The experimental 13C NMR chemical shifts represent a combination of contributions from all the conformers. In our investigation, the calculated 13C NMR chemical shifts of the mixture of (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol conformers display a remarkable MAE and RMS improvement comparing to those for each individual conformer. The most appropriate calculation method and basis set to evaluate the theoretical 13C NMR chemical shifts for these conformers are OPBE/6-311+G(2d,p). Calculated results represent that the conformation of (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol can be determined by the intramolecular hydrogen bond which could be simulated by the 13C NMR chemical shift calculation.

Tai, Chin-Kuen; Yeh, Pao-Ling; Wu, Yun-Sheng; Shih, Tzenge-Lien; Wang, Bo-Cheng

2014-06-01

377

Observation of X-Ray Diffraction Spots from the (\\sqrt{3}×\\sqrt{3})R30° Bi Structure on the Si(111) Surface under the Condition of Large Incidence Angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray diffraction intensities from the (\\sqrt{3}×\\sqrt{3})R30° Bi structure on the Si(111) clean surface were measured in an experimental geometry similar to that of LEED. Two diffraction spots of 1/3, 1/3 and 2/3, 2/3 were observed at the scattering angle of 133° for X-rays with the wavelength of 1.76 Å. A silicon wafer about 5 ?m thick was used to reduce the background scattering from the bulk crystal.

Takahashi, Toshio; Takayama, Isamu; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Ohta, Toshiaki; Kikuta, Seishi

1985-09-01

378

The Multi-Purpose Astrolabe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Directions are given for construction of an astrolabe capable of yielding two celestial coordinates: altitude and azimuth. Potential uses are included for both young and older children. Quantitative measurement activities related to celestial motion and position are given. (SA)

Neie, Van E.

1979-01-01

379

Multipurpose Identity-Based Signcryption  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Identity-Based (IB) cryptography is a rapidly emerging approach to public-key cryptography that does not require principals\\u000a to pre-compute key pairs and obtain certificates for their public keys—instead, public keys can be arbitrary identifiers such\\u000a as email addresses, while private keys are derived at any time by a trusted private key generator upon request by the designated\\u000a principals. Despite the flurry

Xavier Boyen

380

PLT: A Multipurpose Plotting Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PLT is a device independent plotting package developed under the ARIES project in Department 1530. It is built on top of the Sandia Virtual Device Interface (VDI) and therefore supports many different devices. The capabilities of the package include basic...

C. B. Selleck M. P. Sears

1983-01-01

381

Manganese 3×3 and 3×3-R30? structures and structural phase transition on w-GaN(0001¯) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese deposited on the N-polar face of wurtzite gallium nitride [GaN (0001¯)] results in two unique surface reconstructions, depending on the deposition temperature. At lower temperature (less than 105?C), it is found that a metastable 3×3 structure forms. Mild annealing of this Mn 3×3 structure leads to an irreversible phase transition to a different, much more stable 3×3-R30? structure which can withstand high-temperature annealing. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction data are compared with results from first-principles theoretical calculations. Theory finds a lowest-energy model for the 3×3 structure consisting of Mn trimers bonded to the Ga adlayer atoms but not with N atoms. The lowest-energy model for the more stable 3×3-R30? structure involves Mn atoms substituting for Ga within the Ga adlayer and thus bonding with N atoms. Tersoff-Hamman simulations of the resulting lowest-energy structural models are found to be in very good agreement with the experimental STM images.

Chinchore, Abhijit V.; Wang, Kangkang; Shi, Meng; Mandru, Andrada; Liu, Yinghao; Haider, Muhammad; Smith, Arthur R.; Ferrari, Valeria; Barral, Maria Andrea; Ordejón, Pablo

2013-04-01

382

Right ventricular infarction: diagnostic accuracy of electrocardiographic right chest leads V3R to V7R investigated prospectively in 43 consecutive fatal cases from a coronary care unit.  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of ST elevation greater than or equal to 1 mm in right chest leads V3R to V7R in the diagnosis of right ventricular infarction was investigated in a clinical and necropsy study of 43 consecutive patients who died in a coronary care unit. Thirty six patients had left ventricular myocardial infarction and in 27 the right ventricle was also affected. Seven patients had normal hearts. The specificity and positive predictive value of ST elevation in V3R were 81% and 77%, respectively. These increased to 100% when combined with ST elevation in one or more leads V4R-V7R. The diagnostic accuracy was poor for anterior infarcts (sensitivity less than or equal to 27%), but high for inferior/posterior infarcts (sensitivity greater than or equal to 64%) in which the specificity and positive predictive value reached 100% in V6R and V7R. Inferior/posterior infarction affecting the right ventricle can be diagnosed reliably by examination of electrocardiograms from right chest leads V6R and V7R. Images Fig 1 Fig 2

Andersen, H R; Falk, E; Nielsen, D

1989-01-01

383

A Post-Burst Afterdepolarization Is Mediated by Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Upregulation of Cav2.3 R-Type Calcium Channels in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons  

PubMed Central

Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (subtypes mGluR1 and mGluR5) regulates neural activity in a variety of ways. In CA1 pyramidal neurons, activation of group I mGluRs eliminates the post-burst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and produces an afterdepolarization (ADP) in its place. Here we show that upregulation of Cav2.3 R-type calcium channels is responsible for a component of the ADP lasting several hundred milliseconds. This medium-duration ADP is rapidly and reversibly induced by activation of mGluR5 and requires activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and release of calcium from internal stores. Effects of mGluR activation on subthreshold membrane potential changes are negligible but are large following action potential firing. Furthermore, the medium ADP exhibits a biphasic activity dependence consisting of short-term facilitation and longer-term inhibition. These findings suggest that mGluRs may dramatically alter the firing of CA1 pyramidal neurons via a complex, activity-dependent modulation of Cav2.3 R-type channels that are activated during spiking at physiologically relevant rates and patterns.

Park, Jin-Yong; Remy, Stefan; Varela, Juan; Cooper, Donald C.; Chung, Sungkwon; Kang, Ho-Won; Lee, Jung-Ha; Spruston, Nelson

2010-01-01

384

Nucleosides and nucleotides. 147. Synthesis of DNA dodecamers containing oxetanocin A and (2 R, 3 R)-2- C-(adenin-9-yl)-1,4-anhydro-2,3-dideoxy-3-C-hydroxymethyl-D-arabitol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxetanocin A (1) and (2R,3R)-2-C-(adenin-9-yl)-1,4-anhydro-2,3-dideoxy-3-C-hydroxy-methyl-D-arabitol (2), a ring-expanded oxetanocin analogue, were incorporated into DNA dodecamers, 5?-d(CGCG1ATTCGCG)-3? (II), 5?-d(CGCGA1TTCGCG)-3? (III), 5?-d(CGCG2ATTCGCG)-3? (IV), and 5?-d(CGCGA2TTCGCG)-3? (V). Thermally induced transitions of II, III, IV, and V together with a parent dodecamer, 5?-d(CGCGAATTCGCG)-3? (I) were monitored at 260 nm in a buffer containing 0.01 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.0), 0.02 M NaCl, and 6

Akio Kakefuda; Akira Masuda; Yoshihito Ueno; Akira Ono; Akira Matsuda

1996-01-01

385

Preparation of orthogonally protected (2S, 3R)-2-amino-3-methyl-4-phosphonobutyric acid (Pmab) as a phosphatase-stable phosphothreonine mimetic and its use in the synthesis of Polo-box domain-binding peptides  

PubMed Central

Reported herein is the first stereoselective synthesis of (2S,3R)-4-[bis-(tert-butyloxy)phosphinyl]-2-[(9H-fluoren-9-ylmethoxy)carbonyl]amino-3-methylbutanoic acid [(N-Fmoc, O,O-(bis-(tert-butyl))-Pmab, 4] as a hydrolytically-stable phosphothreonine mimetic bearing orthogonal protection compatible with standard solid-phase protocols. The synthetic approach used employs Evans’ oxazolidinone for chiral induction. Also presented is the application of 4 in the solid-phase synthesis of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) polo box domain (PBD)-binding peptides. These Pmab-containing peptides retain PBD binding efficacy similar to a parent pThr containing peptide. Reagent 4 should be a highly useful reagent for the preparation of signal transduction-directed peptides.

Liu, Fa; Park, Jung-Eun; Lee, Kyung S.; Burke, Terrence R.

2014-01-01

386

A new synthetic approach to 1-[(3R,4R)-1-cyclooctylmethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-4-piperidyl]-3-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzimidazol-2-one(J-113397), the first non-peptide ORL-1 receptor antagonist..  

PubMed

An efficient approach to 1-[(3R,4R)-1-cyclooctylmethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-4-piperidyl]-3-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzimidazol-2-one (J-113397) 1, the first non-peptide ORL-1 receptor antagonist described in literature, is outlined. After construction of the piperidine framework through Dieckmann cyclization of the Michael adduct 8 of cyclooctylmethylamine to methyl acrylate, condensation with o-phenylendiamine produced the beta-enamino ester 2, which has been conveniently used to construct the benzimidazolone substituent at C-4. Catalytic hydrogenation of intermediate 11 followed by base-promoted cis--trans isomerization of the key compound 12 led to the formation of ester 13, which was converted to the racemic title compound by LiAlH(4) reduction. The pure enantiomers were obtained by chiral preparative HPLC separation using a derivatized cellulose-based stationary phase. PMID:11425589

De Risi, C; Piero Pollini, G; Trapella, C; Peretto, I; Ronzoni, S; Giardina, G A

2001-07-01

387

Myocardial accumulation of iodinated beta-methyl-branched fatty acid analogue, iodine-125-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP), in relation to ATP concentration  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the relationship between the myocardial accumulation of {sup 125}I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and intracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) content, the effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP, an electron transport uncoupler) on myocardial BMIPP accumulation was studied, in comparison with that of thallium-201-chloride ({sup 201}Tl-Cl). In the mouse myocardium, DNP decreased the intracellular ATP and ADP levels, without affecting either acyl-CoA synthetase activity or the level of CoA-SH. Following treatment with DNP, decreases in myocardial BMIPP accumulation correlated well with those of ATP, while {sup 201}Tl-Cl showed slightly increased accumulation in the myocardium. Thus, in some diseases, BMIPP may be useful in evaluating myocardial ATP levels.

Fujibayashi, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Takemura, Y.; Wada, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Tamaki, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Konishi, J.; Yokoyama, A. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

1990-11-01

388

Cooperative Learning Models for the 3 R's.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Team Assisted Individualization (TAI) in mathematics and Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) are among the best researched and most effective of all cooperative learning methods. TAI was developed to apply cooperative learning techniques to solve individualized instruction problems. Relevant research on both methods is discussed.…

Slavin, Robert E.; And Others

1990-01-01

389

Participation of the Cl-/HCO(3)- exchangers SLC26A3 and SLC26A6, the Cl- channel CFTR, and the regulatory factor SLC9A3R1 in mouse sperm capacitation.  

PubMed

Sperm capacitation is required for fertilization and involves several ion permeability changes. Although Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) are essential for capacitation, the molecular entities responsible for their transport are not fully known. During mouse sperm capacitation, the intracellular concentration of Cl(-) ([Cl(-)](i)) increases and membrane potential (Em) hyperpolarizes. As in noncapacitated sperm, the Cl(-) equilibrium potential appears to be close to the cell resting Em, opening of Cl(-) channels could not support the [Cl(-)](i) increase observed during capacitation. Alternatively, the [Cl(-)](i) increase might be mediated by anion exchangers. Among them, SLC26A3 and SLC26A6 are good candidates, since, in several cell types, they increase [Cl(-)](i) and interact with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl(-) channel present in mouse and human sperm. This interaction is known to be mediated and probably regulated by the Na(+)/H(+) regulatory factor-1 (official symbol, SLC9A3R1). Our RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, Western blot, and immunoprecipitation data indicate that SLC26A3, SLC26A6, and SLC9A3R1 are expressed in mouse sperm, localize to the midpiece, and interact between each other and with CFTR. Moreover, we present evidence indicating that CFTR and SLC26A3 are involved in the [Cl(-)](i) increase induced by db-cAMP in noncapacitated sperm. Furthermore, we found that inhibitors of SLC26A3 (Tenidap and 5099) interfere with the Em changes that accompany capacitation. Together, these findings indicate that a CFTR/SLC26A3 functional interaction is important for mouse sperm capacitation. PMID:21976599

Chávez, Julio C; Hernández-González, Enrique O; Wertheimer, Eva; Visconti, Pablo E; Darszon, Alberto; Treviño, Claudia L

2012-01-01

390

A dynamic change by 123I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methyl pentadecanoic acid myocardial single photon emission computed tomography in a 55-year-old woman.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with chest discomfort. Emergency angiography revealed no organic stenosis in the coronary artery, but there was akinesis in the apico-anteroseptal region of the left ventricle. Left ventriculography on the 5th day after admission was normal. On the 2nd day, initial imaging by 123I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) indicated a slight decrease in tracer uptake and delayed imaging revealed fill-in in the apicoanteroseptal regions in spite of akinesis in those areas. On the 4th day, initial imaging by 123I-BMIPP showed a moderate decrease in tracer uptake and delayed imaging revealed a high washout again in those areas. On the 12th day, initial imaging by 123I-BMIPP showed a severely reduced uptake in the apico-anteroseptal regions and delayed imaging disclosed a high washout, in the same areas that showed akinesis during the acute phase. On the 35th day, 123I-BMIPP identified no significant decrease in tracer uptake. It is suggested that these dynamic changes in 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT imaging may reflect the metabolic change of fatty acid in the ischemic state, the size and degree of turnover of the triacylglycerol pool. PMID:10496493

Kawasaki, T; Ito, K; Okano, A; Nagata, K; Okamoto, A; Yoneyama, S; Katoh, S

1999-09-01

391

Laser-diode-excited blue upconversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ -codoped TeO2-Ga2O3-R2O (R=Li, Na, K) glasses.  

PubMed

This paper reports on intense blue upconversion in Tm(3+)/Yb(3+) codoped TeO(2)-Ga(2)O(3)-R(2)O(R=Li, Na, K) glasses upon excitation with commercial available laser diode (LD). Effects of alkali ions on the Raman spectra, thermal stability and spectroscopic properties of the tellurite-gallium glasses have also been investigated. Energy transfer and the involved upconversion mechanisms have been discussed. Intense blue upconversion emission centered at 476 nm along with a weak red emission at 650 nm has been observed upon excitation of 977 nm LD, assigned to the transitions of 1G4-->3H6, and 1G4-->3H4 and/or 3F(2,3)-->3H6 of Tm(3+), respectively. The blue upconversion intensity has a cubelike dependence on incident pump laser power, indicating a three-photon process. However, a quadratic dependence of the 476 nm upconversion intensity on the incident pump laser power has been observed when samples under excitation of 808 nm LD due to a two-photon absorption process. Enhanced upconversion luminescence have been observed with replacing K(+) for Na(+) and Li(+). PMID:17823854

Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Qinyuan; Yang, Gangfeng; Jiang, Zhonghong

2008-01-01

392

Enantioselective Synthesis of (2R, 3S)- and (2S, 3R)-4,4,4-trifluoro-N-Fmoc-O-tert-butyl-threonine and their Racemization-free Incorporation into Oligopeptides via Solid-phase Synthesis  

PubMed Central

An efficient method for the enantioselective synthesis of (2R, 3S)- and (2S, 3R)-4,4,4-trifluoro-N-Fmoc-O-tert-butyl-threonine (tfT) on multi-gram scales was developed. Absolute configurations of the two stereoisomers were ascertained by X-ray crystallography. Racemization-free coupling conditions for the incorporation of tfT into oligopeptides were then explored. For solution-phase synthesis, tfT racemization was not an issue under conventional coupling conditions. For solid-phase synthesis, the following conditions were identified to achieve racemization-free synthesis: if tfT (3.0 eq.) was not the first amino acid to be linked to the resin (1.0 eq.), the condition is: 2.7 eq. DIC/3.0 eq. HOBt as the coupling reagent at 0 °C for 20 h; if tfT (3.0 eq.) was the first amino acid to be linked to the resin (1.0 eq.), then 1.0 eq. of CuCl2 needs to be added to the coupling reagent.

Xiao, Nu; Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Yu, Y. Bruce

2010-01-01

393

Antitumor Agents 286. Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of 3?R,4?R-Disubstituted-2?,2?-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DSP) Analogs as Potent Chemosensitizers to Overcome Multidrug Resistance  

PubMed Central

In this study, various 3?R,4?R-disubstituted-2?,2?-dimethydihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DSP) derivatives were discovered as potent chemosensitizers in the treatment of multidrug resistant cancer cells. Twenty-four DSP analogs (5–28) were synthesized and evaluated against a multi-drug resistant (MDR) cell line (KB-Vin) with and without vincristine (VCR). All DSP analogs exhibited low intrinsic cytotoxicity. However, in combination treatment, most DSPs reversed resistance to VCR and lowered the GI50 value of VCR by 12–349-fold. At a concentration of 1?g/mL, three compounds, 11, 14 and 21, fully reversed resistance to VCR in KB-Vin cancer cells, a twofold increase compared to verapamil, a first generation chemosensitizer. Detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) conclusions were established based on 3? and 4? substitutions. Moreover, a preliminary mechanism study indicated that the chemosensitizing activity of DSP analogs results from inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expressed in MDR cancer cells.1

Zhou, Ting; Shi, Qian; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

2010-01-01

394

Antitumor agents 286. Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of 3'R,4'R-disubstituted-2',2'-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DSP) analogues as potent chemosensitizers to overcome multidrug resistance.  

PubMed

In this study, various 3'R,4'R-disubstituted-2',2'-dimethydihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DSP) derivatives were discovered as potent chemosensitizers in the treatment of multidrug resistant cancer cells. Twenty-four DSP analogues (5-28) were synthesized and evaluated against a multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line (KB-Vin) with and without vincristine (VCR). All DSP analogues exhibited low intrinsic cytotoxicity. However, in combination treatment, most DSPs reversed resistance to VCR and lowered the GI?? value of VCR by 12-349-fold. At a concentration of 1 ?g/mL, three compounds, 11, 14, and 21, fully reversed resistance to VCR in KB-Vin cancer cells, a 2-fold increase compared to verapamil, a first-generation chemosensitizer. Detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) conclusions were established based on 3' and 4' substitutions. Moreover, a preliminary mechanism study indicated that the chemosensitizing activity of DSP analogues results from inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressed in MDR cancer cells. PMID:21082774

Zhou, Ting; Shi, Qian; Bastow, Kenneth F; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

2010-12-23

395

Inhibition of sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: discovery of (E)-1-(4-((1R,2S,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)ethanone oxime (LX2931) and (1R,2S,3R)-1-(2-(isoxazol-3-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)butane-1,2,3,4-tetraol (LX2932).  

PubMed

Sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) has been characterized as a novel target for the treatment of autoimmune disorders using genetic and pharmacological methods. Medicinal chemistry efforts targeting S1PL by direct in vivo evaluation of synthetic analogues of 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1(R),2(S),3(R),4-tetrahydroxybutyl)-imidazole (THI, 1) led to the discovery of 2 (LX2931) and 4 (LX2932). The immunological phenotypes observed in S1PL deficient mice were recapitulated by oral administration of 2 or 4. Oral dosing of 2 or 4 yielded a dose-dependent decrease in circulating lymphocyte numbers in multiple species and showed a therapeutic effect in rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Phase I clinical trials indicated that 2, the first clinically studied inhibitor of S1PL, produced a dose-dependent and reversible reduction of circulating lymphocytes and was well tolerated at dose levels of up to 180 mg daily. Phase II evaluation of 2 in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis is currently underway. PMID:21090716

Bagdanoff, Jeffrey T; Donoviel, Michael S; Nouraldeen, Amr; Carlsen, Marianne; Jessop, Theodore C; Tarver, James; Aleem, Saadat; Dong, Li; Zhang, Haiming; Boteju, Lakmal; Hazelwood, Jill; Yan, Jack; Bednarz, Mark; Layek, Suman; Owusu, Iris B; Gopinathan, Suma; Moran, Liam; Lai, Zhong; Kramer, Jeff; Kimball, S David; Yalamanchili, Padmaja; Heydorn, William E; Frazier, Kenny S; Brooks, Barbara; Brown, Philip; Wilson, Alan; Sonnenburg, William K; Main, Alan; Carson, Kenneth G; Oravecz, Tamas; Augeri, David J

2010-12-23

396

Effect of adenine sulphate interaction on growth and development of shoot regeneration and inhibition of shoot tip necrosis under in vitro condition in adult Syzygium cumini L.--a multipurpose tree.  

PubMed

An efficient method for cloning Syzygium cumini (above 40 years old) through mature nodal segments has been successfully developed and that could be exploited for large-scale production of this valuable multipurpose tree. Nodal segments from mature tree were taken as explants and cultured on MS basal medium with different cytokinins (BA, Kin, AdS). The application of BA proved to be the best responsive cytokinin for the induction of shoot buds and shoots, but the proliferated shoots exhibited slower and stunted growth accompanied with abscission of leaves and shoot tip necrosis (STN). The problem of leaf abscission and STN was considerably reduced by the application of an adjuvant, adenine sulphate (AdS) in the optimal medium which led to the production of a maximum of 14 shoots. Further improvement in shoot bud regeneration and improved growth pattern of the regenerating tissue was obtained on the media comprised of MS?+?BA (10 ?M)?+?GA3 (2.5 ?M). A total number of 15 shoots with mean shoot length of 5.9 cm was obtained. The healthy elongated shoots were then rooted on MS basal augmented with NAA (5 ?M). The plantlets obtained were healthy and were successfully acclimatized and transferred under field condition with 70 % survival rate. PMID:24682901

Naaz, Afshan; Shahzad, Anwar; Anis, Mohammad

2014-05-01

397

Sub-plasmalemmal [Ca2+]i upstroke in myocytes of the guinea-pig small intestine evoked by muscarinic stimulation: IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release induced by voltage-gated Ca2+ entry  

PubMed Central

Membrane depolarization triggers Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in skeletal muscles via direct interaction between the voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels (the dihydropyridine receptors; VGCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs), while in cardiac muscles Ca2+ entry through VGCCs triggers RyR-mediated Ca2+ release via a Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) mechanism. Here we demonstrate that in phasic smooth muscle of the guinea-pig small intestine, excitation evoked by muscarinic receptor activation triggers an abrupt Ca2+ release from sub-plasmalemmal (sub-PM) SR elements enriched with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and poor in RyRs. This was followed by a lesser rise, or oscillations in [Ca2+]i. The initial abrupt sub-PM [Ca2+]i upstroke was all but abolished by block of VGCCs (by 5 ?M nicardipine), depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores (with 10 ?M cyclopiazonic acid) or inhibition of IP3Rs (by 2 ?M xestospongin C or 30 ?M 2-APB), but was not affected by block of RyRs (by 50–100 ?M tetracaine or 100 ?M ryanodine). Inhibition of either IP3Rs or RyRs attenuated phasic muscarinic contraction by 73%. Thus, in contrast to cardiac muscles, excitation–contraction coupling in this phasic visceral smooth muscle occurs by Ca2+ entry through VGCCs which evokes an initial IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release activated via a CICR mechanism.

Gordienko, D.V.; Harhun, M.I.; Kustov, M.V.; Pucovsky, V.; Bolton, T.B.

2008-01-01

398

Sub-plasmalemmal [Ca2+]i upstroke in myocytes of the guinea-pig small intestine evoked by muscarinic stimulation: IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release induced by voltage-gated Ca2+ entry.  

PubMed

Membrane depolarization triggers Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in skeletal muscles via direct interaction between the voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels (the dihydropyridine receptors; VGCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs), while in cardiac muscles Ca(2+) entry through VGCCs triggers RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release via a Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) mechanism. Here we demonstrate that in phasic smooth muscle of the guinea-pig small intestine, excitation evoked by muscarinic receptor activation triggers an abrupt Ca(2+) release from sub-plasmalemmal (sub-PM) SR elements enriched with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) and poor in RyRs. This was followed by a lesser rise, or oscillations in [Ca(2+)](i). The initial abrupt sub-PM [Ca(2+)](i) upstroke was all but abolished by block of VGCCs (by 5 microM nicardipine), depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores (with 10 microM cyclopiazonic acid) or inhibition of IP(3)Rs (by 2 microM xestospongin C or 30 microM 2-APB), but was not affected by block of RyRs (by 50-100 microM tetracaine or 100 microM ryanodine). Inhibition of either IP(3)Rs or RyRs attenuated phasic muscarinic contraction by 73%. Thus, in contrast to cardiac muscles, excitation-contraction coupling in this phasic visceral smooth muscle occurs by Ca(2+) entry through VGCCs which evokes an initial IP(3)R-mediated Ca(2+) release activated via a CICR mechanism. PMID:17570487

Gordienko, D V; Harhun, M I; Kustov, M V; Pucovský, V; Bolton, T B

2008-02-01

399

Simultaneous determination of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric impurities in (1R, 3R)-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(chloroacetyl)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester a key intermediate of tadalafil by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

(1R, 3R)-1-(1, 3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(chloroacetyl)-2, 3, 4, 9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3, 4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester ((1R, 3R)-Cpe) is a key intermediate used in the synthesis of tadalafil, a highly selective phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor. In the present study, a chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric impurities in (1R, 3R)-Cpe. Separation was performed on an Ultron ES-OVM chiral column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m,) with a guard column at a column temperature of 30°C. The gradient elution used was acetonitrile (solvent A) and water (solvent B), and the following elution program was used at a flow rate of 1 ml/min: 0-5 min (80% B), 5-10 min (80-60% B), 10-12 min (60% B). The detection wavelength was 220 nm. The four isomers of Cpe were baseline separated in 12 min. The results of method validation indicated that the method was specific and sensitive and was suitable for the quality control of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric impurities in (1R, 3R)-Cpe. PMID:22344859

Yu, Lushan; Jin, Yiping; Jianzhou; Ye, Chun; Wang, Jinzhao; Hu, Gongyun; Zeng, Su

2012-04-01

400

Structure of the 1,4-Bis(2'-deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-2R,3R-butanediol Crosslink Arising from Alkylation of the Human N-ras Codon 61 by Butadiene Diepoxide†  

PubMed Central

The solution structure of the 1,4-bis(2'-deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-2R,3R-butanediol crosslink arising from N6-dA alkylation of nearest neighbor adenines by butadiene diepoxide (BDO2) was determined in the oligodeoxynucleotide 5' - d(CGGACXYGAAG)•d(CTTCTCGTCCG)-3'. This oligodeoxynucleotide contained codon 61 (underlined) of the human N-ras protooncogene. The cross link was accommodated in the major groove of duplex DNA. At the 5'-side of the crosslink there was a break in Watson-Crick base pairing at base pair X6•T17, whereas at the 3'-side of the crosslink at base pair Y7•T16, base pairing was intact. Molecular dynamics calculations carried out using a simulated annealing protocol, and restrained by a combination of 338 interproton distance restraints obtained from 1H NOESY data and 151 torsion angle restraints obtained from 1H and 31P COSY data, yielded ensembles of structures with good convergence. Helicoidal analysis indicated an increase in base pair opening at base pair X6•T17, accompanied by a shift in the phosphodiester backbone torsion angle ? P5'-O5'-C5'-C4' at nucleotide X6. The rMD calculations predicted that the DNA helix was not significantly bent by the presence of the four-carbon crosslink. This was corroborated by gel mobility assays of multimers containing non-hydroxylated four carbon N6,N6-dA crosslinks, which did not predict DNA bending. The rMD calculations suggested the presence of hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl group located on the ?-carbon of the fourcarbon crosslink, and T17 O4, which perhaps stabilized the base pair opening at X6•T17 and protected the T17 imino proton from solvent exchange. The opening of base pair X6•T17 altered base stacking patterns at the crosslink site and induced slight unwinding of the DNA duplex. The structural data are interpreted in terms of biochemical data suggesting that this crosslink is bypassed by a variety of DNA polymerases, yet is significantly mutagenic [Kanuri, M., Nechev, L. V., Tamura, P. J., Harris, C. M., Harris, T. M., and Lloyd, R. S. (2002) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 15, 1572–1580].

Merritt, W. Keither; Nechev, Lubomir V.; Scholdberg, Tandace A.; Dean, Stephen M.; Kiehna, Sarah E.; Chang, Johanna C.; Harris, Thomas M.; Harris, Constance M.; Lloyd, R. Stephen; Stone, Michael P.

2008-01-01

401

Design and pharmacology of N-[(3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium- 3-ylcarbonyl]-(1R)-1-(4-chlorobenzyl)- 2-[4-cyclohexyl-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol- 1-ylmethyl)piperidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethylamine (1), a potent, selective, melanocortin subtype-4 receptor agonist.  

PubMed

Synthetic and natural peptides that act as nonselective melanocortin receptor agonists have been found to be anorexigenic and to stimulate erectile activity. We report the design and development of 1, a potent, selective (1184-fold vs MC3R, 350-fold vs MC5R), small-molecule agonist of the MC4 receptor. Pharmacological testing confirms the food intake lowering effects of MC4R agonism and suggests another role for the receptor in the stimulation of erectile activity. PMID:12361385

Sebhat, Iyassu K; Martin, William J; Ye, Zhixiong; Barakat, Khaled; Mosley, Ralph T; Johnston, David B R; Bakshi, Raman; Palucki, Brenda; Weinberg, David H; MacNeil, Tanya; Kalyani, Rubana N; Tang, Rui; Stearns, Ralph A; Miller, Randy R; Tamvakopoulos, Constantin; Strack, Alison M; McGowan, Erin; Cashen, Doreen E; Drisko, Jennifer E; Hom, Gary J; Howard, Andrew D; MacIntyre, D Euan; van der Ploeg, Lex H T; Patchett, Arthur A; Nargund, Ravi P

2002-10-10

402

Structure-activity relationships of peptides incorporating a bioactive reverse-turn heterocycle at the melanocortin receptors: identification of a 5800-fold mouse melanocortin-3 receptor (mMC3R) selective antagonist/partial agonist versus the mouse melanocortin-4 receptor (mMC4R).  

PubMed

The melanocortin-3 (MC3) and melanocortin-4 (MC4) receptors regulate energy homeostasis, food intake, and associated physiological conditions. The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) has been studied extensively. Less is known about specific physiological roles of the melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R). A major obstacle to this lack of knowledge is attributed to a limited number of identified MC3R selective ligands. We previously reported a spatial scanning approach of a 10-membered thioether-heterocycle ring incorporated into a chimeric peptide template that identified a lead nM MC4R ligand. Upon the basis of those results, 17 compounds were designed and synthesized that focused upon modification in the pharmacophore domain. Notable results include the identification of a 0.13 nM potent 5800-fold mMC3R selective antagonist/slight partial agonist versus a 760 nM mMC4R full agonist (ligand 11). Biophysical experiments (two-dimensional (1)H NMR and computer-assisted molecular modeling) of this ligand resulted in the identification of an inverse ?-turn secondary structure in the ligand pharmacophore domain. PMID:23432160

Singh, Anamika; Dirain, Marvin; Witek, Rachel; Rocca, James R; Edison, Arthur S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

2013-04-11

403

Structure-Activity Relationships of Peptides Incorporating a Bioactive Reverse-Turn Heterocycle at the Melanocortin Receptors: Identification of a 5,800-fold Mouse Melanocortin-3 Receptor (mMC3R) Selective Antagonist/Partial Agonist versus the Mouse Melanocortin-4 Receptor (mMC4R)  

PubMed Central

The melanocortin-3 (MC3) and melanocortin-4 (MC4) receptors regulate energy homeostasis, food intake, and associated physiological conditions. The MC4R has been studied extensively. Less is known about specific physiological roles of the MC3R. A major obstacle to this lack of knowledge is attributed to a limited number of identified MC3R selective ligands. We previously reported a spatial scanning approach of a 10-membered thioether-heterocycle ring incorporated into a chimeric peptide template that identified a lead nM MC4R ligand. Based upon those results, 17 compounds were designed and synthesized that focused upon modification in the pharmacophore domain. Notable results include the identification of a 0.13 nM potent 5800-fold mMC3R selective antagonist/slight partial agonist versus a 760 nM mMC4R full agonist (ligand 11). Biophysical experiments (2D 1H NMR and computer assisted molecular modeling) of this ligand resulted in the identification of an inverse ?-turn secondary structure in the ligand pharmacophore domain.

Singh, Anamika; Dirain, Marvin; Witek, Rachel; Rocca, James R.; Edison, Arthur S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

2013-01-01

404

A multi-purpose thermoplastic polyimide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linear thermoplastic polyimide, LARC-TPI, has been characterized and developed for a variety of high-temperature applications. In its fully imidized form, this new material can be used as an adhesive for bonding metals such as titanium, aluminum, copper, brass, and stainless steel. LARC-TPI is being evaluated as a thermoplastic for bonding large pieces of polyimide film to produce flexible, 100% void-free laminates for flexible circuit applications. The further development of LARC-TPI as a potential molding powder, composite matrix resin, high-temperature film and fiber is also discussed.

Saint Clair, A. K.; Saint Clair, T. L.

1981-01-01

405

Feasibility Study on Training Infantry Multipurpose Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1-year feasibility study was conducted to train German Shepherds to detect simulated mines, trip wires, caches, tunnel openings, and ambushes while working off leash and to track and to attack on command. Selection criteria and special food reinforcemen...

E. E. Dean

1972-01-01

406

Two Multipurpose Thermochemical Experiments for General Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two experiments designed to provide concepts on the difference between heat and temperature and also bond energy. Investigates both a neutralization experiment and a ligation experiment. Notes inexpensive chemicals are used along with simple equipment. Discusses the sharing of lab results for a single class value. (MVL)

Wentworth, R. A. D.

1988-01-01

407

Multi-purpose ambio-unit  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A hand-held walking device with a lower storage compartment having a generally u-shaped forward access area within. The walking device has an upper concealed compartment. A removeable false top panel side, under which several hidden compartments and a retractable drawer/shelf are stored. The walker includes a generally u-shaped support/handle.

2008-03-11

408

Multipurpose aircraft monitoring with a smart recorder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a microprocessor-based flight recorder the 'Smart Recorder' - which was developed and installed on a King Air aircraft used for commercial charter service. The recorder is used as a research tool for developing monitoring strategies and processing algorithms to: (1) characterize the typical flight environment encountered by the host aircraft, (2) develop technology for automated engine trend monitoring, and (3) implement a crash recording capability. Initially the recorder was used as an adaptive data acquisition system, monitoring engine sensors and flight instruments and then modifying its data acquisition in response to the perceived aircraft situation. Data collected in this manner were stored in a removable bubble memory and subsequently analyzed in the laboratory. Later, on-board processing was implemented to better utilize the available storage capacity.

White, J. H.; Finger, J. F.; Alfonsi, P. J.

1986-01-01

409

Solar Powered Multipurpose Remotely Powered Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar-powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless a...

1991-01-01

410

Solar Powered Multipurpose Remotely Powered Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the f...

A. N. Alexandrou W. W. Durgin R. F. Cohn D. J. Olinger C. K. Cody

1992-01-01

411

Cost-reducing multipurpose microfilm card  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microfilm-aperture card is printed in the same format on both sides which enables the use of one card for mounting films that are ''right reading'' on both the base side and the emulsion side. This reduces the number of microfilm-card formats.

Smith, A. V.

1970-01-01

412

Multipurpose High Sensitivity Radiation Detector: Terradex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terradex project aims to realise an accurate and programmable multiparametric tool which will measure relevant physical quantities such as observation time, energy and type of all decay products of three naturally occurring decay chains of uranium and thorium series present in nature as well as the decay products of man-made radioactivity. The measurements described in this work are based on the performance tests of the first version of an instrument that is designed to provide high counting accuracy, by introducing self-triggering, delayed time-coincidence technique, of products of a given decay chain. In order to qualify the technique and to calibrate the Terradex, a 222Rn source is used. The continuous and accurate monitoring of radon concentration in air is realised by observing the alpha and beta particles produced by the decay of 222Rn and its daughters and tag each of them with a precise occurrence time. The validity of delayed coincident technique by using the state of the art electronics with application of novel data sampling and analysis methods are discussed. The flexibility of sampling protocols and the advantages of online calibration capability to achieve the highest level of precision in natural and man-made radiation measurements are also described.

Alpat, Behcet; Aisa, Damiano; Bizzarri, Marco; Blasko, Sandor; Esposito, Gennaro; Farnesini, Lucio; Fiori, Emmanuel; Papi, Andrea; Postolache, Vasile; Renzi, Francesca; Ionica, Romeo; Manolescu, Florentina; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Denizli, Haluk; Tapan, Ilhan; Pilicer, Ercan; Egidi, Felice; Moretti, Cesare; Dicola, Luca

2007-05-01

413

Multipurpose computer-based data acquisition system  

SciTech Connect

A universally applicable instrument for data acquisition and manipulation is presented. Several applications are discussed spanning a wide range of experiments and time domains. Attention is given to interfacing and programming problems.

Fasano, D.M. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln); Nogar, N.S.

1981-01-01

414

Skylab M518 multipurpose furnace convection analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was performed of the convection which existed on ground tests and during skylab processing of two experiments: vapor growth of IV-VI compounds growth of spherical crystals. A parallel analysis was also performed on Skylab experiment indium antimonide crystals because indium antimonide (InSb) was used and a free surface existed in the tellurium-doped Skylab III sample. In addition, brief analyses were also performed of the microsegregation in germanium experiment because the Skylab crystals indicated turbulent convection effects. Simple dimensional analysis calculations and a more accurate, but complex, convection computer model, were used in the analysis.

Bourgeois, S. V.; Spradley, L. W.

1975-01-01

415

Soy isoflavone: The multipurpose phytochemical (Review)  

PubMed Central

Soy isoflavones are compounds found in soybean and soybean products. They have been reported to possess numerous physiological properties, such as antitumor, anti-menopausal (female) osteoporosis and anti-aging. They have also been reported to improve learning and memory skills in menopausal women and aid in the prevention and treatment of heart disease, diabetes and Kawasaki disease (KD). In this review, the effects of soy isoflavones on various diseases were analyzed. Based on the analysis, it was hypothesized that the function of soybean isoflavones in the prevention and treatment of various diseases results from their phytoestrogen and antioxidant properties. However, due to their phytoestrogen properties, it is recommended that the risks of soy isoflavone intake as food and/or medical treatment be further evaluated.

WANG, QINGLU; GE, XIAOYUE; TIAN, XUEWEN; ZHANG, YUJUN; ZHANG, JIE; ZHANG, PINGPING

2013-01-01

416

Multipurpose Centers in a Rural County.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes services, programs, and funding for the various senior centers in Frankin County, New York, which has a predominately rural, low-income population. Services include bus transportation, nutrition programs, health and financial assistance, and social events. (MF)

Norris, Jean

1978-01-01