Science.gov

Sample records for 3r multipurpose

  1. Multipurpose Spaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan

    This paper examines the emerging trend of multipurpose class spaces, including educational trends influencing multipurpose classroom use, and key issues when using these spaces. Issues discussed include room location, technology integration, food services, acoustics, lighting, outdoor space, capacity, and storage. Design principles emphasized

  2. Multipurpose Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

  3. Multipurpose anthropometric facial anglemeter.

    PubMed

    Venkatadri, G; Farkas, L G; Kooiman, J

    1992-09-01

    We have developed a multipurpose anglemeter for measuring the face that enables us to determine accurately the size of six profile angles by both direct and indirect anthropometry in markedly reduced time. PMID:1513900

  4. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  5. Multipurpose Compact Spectrometric Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo?arov, Viktor; ?ermk, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; tekl, Ivan

    2009-11-01

    A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is multipurpose device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.

  6. Multipurpose Compact Spectrometric Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Bocarov, Viktor; Cermak, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; Stekl, Ivan

    2009-11-09

    A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is multipurpose device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.

  7. Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

  8. Multipurpose hardened spacecraft insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steimer, Carlos H.

    1990-01-01

    A Multipurpose Hardened Spacecraft Multilayer Insulation (MLI) system was developed and implemented to meet diverse survivability and performance requirements. Within the definition and confines of a MLI assembly (blanket), the design: (1) provides environmental protection from natural and induced nuclear, thermal, and electromagnetic radiation; (2) provides adequate electrostatic discharge protection for a geosynchronous satellite; (3) provides adequate shielding to meet radiated emission needs; and (4) will survive ascent differential pressure loads between enclosed volume and space. The MLI design is described which meets these requirements and design evolution and verification is discussed. The application is for MLI blankets which closeout the area between the laser crosslink subsystem (LCS) equipment and the DSP spacecraft cabin. Ancillary needs were implemented to ease installation at launch facility and to survive ascent acoustic and vibration loads. Directional venting accommodations were also incorporated to avoid contamination of LCS telescope, spacecraft sensors, and second surface mirrors (SSMs).

  9. Novel multipurpose timer for laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisler, W. J.; Klein, P. D.

    1969-01-01

    Multipurpose digital delay timer simultaneously controls both a buffer pump and a fraction-collector. Timing and control may be in 30-second increments for up to 15 hours. Use of glassware and scintillation vials make it economical.

  10. An inexpensive, multipurpose physical pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David

    2012-10-01

    The pendulum is a highly versatile tool for teaching physics. Many special purpose pendula for student experiments have been described.1-4 In this paper, I describe an inexpensive, multipurpose physical pendulum that can function as both a variable gravity and ballistic pendulum. I designed the apparatus for use in a rotational dynamics unit of the AP Physics C mechanics course. The use of a bike wheel hub pivot allows for low-friction, rugged operation that yields results commensurate with those obtained with much more expensive pendula available on the market (typically 500 per unit5), placing these types of experiments within reach of the teacher on a restricted budget.

  11. A Closer Look at SQ3R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jennifer A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1940s, teachers in upper grade classrooms have been asking students to "survey, question, read, recite, and review" chapters in their content area textbooks. Known as SQ3R, many teachers have long believed that this study strategy helps students make sense of unfamiliar informational text, or that it at least provides a structured

  12. 7 CFR 2902.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Multipurpose cleaners. 2902.50 Section 2902.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items 2902.50 Multipurpose cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to clean dirt, grease, and...

  13. 7 CFR 2902.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multipurpose cleaners. 2902.50 Section 2902.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.50 Multipurpose cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to clean dirt, grease, and...

  14. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  15. Multipurpose Thermal Insulation Test Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A multi-purpose thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials, or other components. The test apparatus is a fluid boil-off calorimeter system for calibrated measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) of a specimen material at a fixed vacuum level. The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a fluid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the inner vessel and thermal guards, is suspended from the top of the vacuum chamber. Handling tools attach to the cold mass assembly for convenient manipulation of the assembly and for the installation or wrapping of insulation test materials. Liquid nitrogen is typically supplied to the inner vessel using a fill tube with funnel. A single port through the top of the vacuum chamber facilitates both filling and venting. Aerogel composite stacks with reflective films are fastened to the top and the bottom of the inner vessel as thermal guards. The comparative k-value of the insulation material is determined by measuring the boil-off flow rate of gas, the temperature differential across the insulation thickness, and the dimensions (length and diameters) of the test specimen.

  16. Multi-purpose canister project

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.R.; Clark, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has investigated various container systems for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in its Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The primary goal of DOE`s investigations was to select a container technology that could integrate and standardize the handling of the vast majority of commercial SNF at a reasonable cost, while providing flexibility and ensuring the safety of the public and protecting the environment. Several alternative cask and canister concepts were evaluated for SNF assembly packaging to determine the most suitable concept. Of these alternative, the multi-purpose canister (MPC)-based subsystem, as depicted in Figure 1, was determined to be the most suitable. Based on the results of these evaluations, the decision was made to proceed with design and certification of the MPC subsystem. A decision whether to fabricate and deploy MPCs will be made after further studies and the preparation of an environmental impact statement. This presentation summarizes the status of the MPC Project and related activities that have occurred since the 1994 IHLWM.

  17. Metamodels for Planar 3R Workspace Optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    Robotic workspace optimization is a central element of robot system design. To formulate the optimization problem, the complex relationships between design variables, tuning parameters, and performance indices need to be accurately and efficiently represented. The nature of the relationships suggests that metamodels, or models of the models, should be used to derive suitable objective functions. A comparison of two metamodeling techniques for robotic workspace optimization problems for several trial cases suggests that non-uniform rational B-spline models, derived from computer graphics and computer-aided design techniques, are as suitable as response surface models to solve planar 3R workspace optimization problems. Promising nonlinear modeling results with B-spline models suggest future work is justified and performance gains can be realized.

  18. Multipurpose top for liquid helium Dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, R. S.; Anderholm, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multipurpose top was fabricated for liquid helium Dewar flask which guards against flash vaporization of liquid helium and allows boiling temperature of liquid helium to be lowered by reduction of ambient pressure in Dewar flask. Device is rugged and simple, and does not require frequent calibrations or adjustments.

  19. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Multipurpose lubricants. 3201.57 Section 3201.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items 3201.57...

  20. Engineered Serratia marcescens for efficient (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fangmin; Dai, Lu; Fan, Jiying; Truong, Ngoctu; Rao, Ben; Zhang, Liaoyuan; Shen, Yaling

    2015-05-01

    (3R)-Acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol are important pharmaceutical intermediates. However, until now, the quantity of natural microorganisms with the ability to produce single configuration of optically pure (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol is rare. In this study, a meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by the slaC gene from Serratia marcescens MG1 was identified for meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. Inactivation of the slaC gene could significantly decrease meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol and result in a large quantity of (3R)-acetoin accumulation. Furthermore, a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by the bdhA gene from Bacillus subtilis 168 was introduced into the slaC mutant strain of Serratia marcescens MG1. Excess (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase could accelerate the reaction from (3R)-acetoin to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and lead to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol accumulation. In fed-batch fermentation, the excess (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase expression strain could produce 89.81 g/l (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol with a productivity of 1.91 g/l/h at 48 h. These results provided potential applications for (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol production. PMID:25663525

  1. The 3R polymorph of CaSi{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Nedumkandathil, Reji; Benson, Daryn E.; Grins, Jekabs; Spektor, Kristina; Hussermann, Ulrich

    2015-02-15

    The Zintl phase CaSi{sub 2} commonly occurs in the 6R structure where puckered hexagon layers of Si atoms are stacked in an AA?BB?CC? fashion. In this study we show that sintering of CaSi{sub 2} in a hydrogen atmosphere (30 bar) at temperatures between 200 and 700 C transforms 6R-CaSi{sub 2} quantitatively into 3R-CaSi{sub 2}. In the 3R polymorph (space group R-3m (no. 166), a=3.8284(1), c=15.8966(4), Z=3) puckered hexagon layers are stacked in an ABC fashion. The volume per formula unit is about 3% larger compared to 6R-CaSi{sub 2}. First principles density functional calculations reveal that 6R and 3R-CaSi{sub 2} are energetically degenerate at zero Kelvin. With increasing temperature 6R-CaSi{sub 2} stabilizes over 3R because of its higher entropy. This suggests that 3R-CaSi{sub 2} should revert to 6R at elevated temperatures, which however is not observed up to 800 C. 3R-CaSi{sub 2} may be stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects. - Graphical abstract: The common 6R form of CaSi{sub 2} can be transformed quantitatively into 3R-CaSi{sub 2} upon sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere. - Highlights: Quantitative and reproducible bulk synthesis of the rare 3R polymorph of CaSi{sub 2}. Clarification of the energetic relation between 3R and conventional 6R form. 3R-CaSi{sub 2} is presumably stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects.

  2. Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System was developed to provide remote, interactive information retrieval capability for various types of data bases to be processed on different types of small and medium size computers. Use of the system for three different data bases is decribed: (1) LANDSAT photo look-up, (2) land use, and (3) census/socioeconomic. Each of the data base elements is shown together with other detailed information that a user would require to contact the system remotely, to transmit inquiries on commands, and to receive the results of the queries or commands.

  3. The 3R polymorph of CaSi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedumkandathil, Reji; Benson, Daryn E.; Grins, Jekabs; Spektor, Kristina; Hussermann, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    The Zintl phase CaSi2 commonly occurs in the 6R structure where puckered hexagon layers of Si atoms are stacked in an AA?BB?CC? fashion. In this study we show that sintering of CaSi2 in a hydrogen atmosphere (30 bar) at temperatures between 200 and 700 C transforms 6R-CaSi2 quantitatively into 3R-CaSi2. In the 3R polymorph (space group R-3m (no. 166), a=3.8284(1), c=15.8966(4), Z=3) puckered hexagon layers are stacked in an ABC fashion. The volume per formula unit is about 3% larger compared to 6R-CaSi2. First principles density functional calculations reveal that 6R and 3R-CaSi2 are energetically degenerate at zero Kelvin. With increasing temperature 6R-CaSi2 stabilizes over 3R because of its higher entropy. This suggests that 3R-CaSi2 should revert to 6R at elevated temperatures, which however is not observed up to 800 C. 3R-CaSi2 may be stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects.

  4. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose...

  5. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose...

  6. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose...

  7. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose...

  8. Buck-Buck- Boost Regulatr (B3R)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourra, Olivier; Fernandez, Arturo; Landstroem, Sven; Tonicello, Ferdinando

    2011-10-01

    In a satellite, the main function of a Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) is to manage the energy coming from several power sources (usually solar arrays and battery) and to deliver it continuously to the users in an appropriate form during the overall mission. The objective of this paper is to present an electronic switching DC-DC converter called Buck-Buck-Boost Regulator (B3R) that could be used as a modular and recurrent solution in a PCU for regulated or un- regulated 28Vsatellite power bus classes. The power conversion stages of the B3R topology are first described. Then theoretical equations and practical tests illustrate how the converter operates in term of power conversion, control loops performances and efficiency. The paper finally provides some examples of single point failure tolerant implementation using the B3R.

  9. MINIS: Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS) was developed in response to the need for a data management system capable of operation on several different minicomputer systems. The desired system had to be capable of performing the functions of a LANDSAT photo descriptive data retrieval system while remaining general in terms of other acceptable user definable data bases. The system also had to be capable of performing data base updates and providing user-formatted output reports. The resultant MINI System provides all of these capabilities and several other features to complement the data management system. The MINI System is currently implemented on two minicomputer systems and is in the process of being installed on another minicomputer system. The MINIS is operational on four different data bases.

  10. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank. 9 figs.

  11. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank.

  12. Small multipurpose stored data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, G.C.; Ryerson, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories Telemetry Department has designed and is fielding a small, inexpensive multipurpose stored data acquisition system in tests ranging from 6000 meters below the ocean surface in seafloor penetrators to 40,000 meters above sea level in gamma ray telescope balloons. The systems consists of a simple microprocessor-controlled unit which digitizes analog data stores the data in memory for readout after the test by a portable personal compute. The system has been used in over ninety tests consisting of parachute drops, water entry test, vehicle environmental monitoring, and seafloor penetration tests. Data typically recorded with the system are acceleration, strain, temperature, pressure, and angular velocity. The system is also capable of generating control functions such as parachute release. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  13. A new multipurpose gamma-irradiation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, G.

    In the past 3 yr much work has been done in the G.D.R. on food irradiation. The experiments have shown that this treatment gives favourable results in many products such as spices, onions, potatoes, chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. Economic aspects of food irradiation require the effective use of an irradiation plant and cobalt-60. Therefore, a new multipurpose irradiation facility was developed, applicable as an onion irradiator with a capacity of about 15 ton/h and for the simultaneous irradiation of different products (spices, animal feed, chicken, etc.) in closed product ☐es with a size of 1.2 m x 1.0 m x 1.2 m. A microcomputer controls the transport of product ☐es around the gamma sources.

  14. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pantea, Cristian

    2012-05-04

    The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

  15. Multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kleckner, E.W.; Michalsky, J.J.; Smith, L.L.; Schmelzer, J.R.; Severtsen, R.H.; Berndt, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    This paper presents a design for a multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer capable of measuring optical radiation ranging in intensity from the subvisual light levels associated with night sky airglow emissions to the intense flux levels of direct sunlight. The instrument has twelve interference filters for wavelength selection, a 2.5/sup 0/ field of view for nighttime observations, and a 1.5/sup 0/ field of view for daytime observations. A photomultiplier tube is used as the low light-level detector, and a silicon-PIN photodiode serves as the insolation detector. A particular measurement sequence is programmed into the instrument and can be modified by reading a cassette tape in the field. Normal operation is fully automatic.

  16. MYRRHA: A multipurpose nuclear research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeten, P.; Schyns, M.; Fernandez, Rafaël; De Bruyn, Didier; Van den Eynde, Gert

    2014-12-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a multipurpose research facility currently being developed at SCK•CEN. MYRRHA is based on the ADS (Accelerator Driven System) concept where a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical reactor are coupled. MYRRHA will demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling these three components at a reasonable power level to allow operation feedback. As a flexible irradiation facility, the MYRRHA research facility will be able to work in both critical as subcritical modes. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for GEN IV and fusion reactors, and radioisotope production for medical and industrial applications. MYRRHA will be cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic and will play an important role in the development of the Pb-alloys technology needed for the LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) GEN IV concept. MYRRHA will also contribute to the study of partitioning and transmutation of high-level waste. Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) can be completed in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, so both critical reactors and subcritical ADS are potential candidates as dedicated transmutation systems. However critical reactors heavily loaded with fuel containing large amounts of MA pose reactivity control problems, and thus safety problems. A subcritical ADS operates in a flexible and safe manner, even with a core loading containing a high amount of MA leading to a high transmutation rate. In this paper, the most recent developments in the design of the MYRRHA facility are presented.

  17. Multipurpose prevention technologies: products in development.

    PubMed

    Friend, David R; Clark, Justin T; Kiser, Patrick F; Clark, Meredith R

    2013-12-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) are broadly defined as products capable of simultaneously addressing multiple sexual and reproductive health needs including unintended pregnancy, STIs including HIV-1, and other reproductive tract infections. MPTs have been discussed for a few decades but little product development has occurred. With the recent proof-of-concept that a topically applied antiretroviral (ARV) can effectively reduce sexual transmission of HIV-1 (tenofovir 1% gel) the impetus to develop MPTs is gaining momentum. Products currently in development are broadly categorized as either long-acting or on-demand. Long-acting MPTs include intravaginal rings (IVRs) and long-acting injectable products. Several IVR MPTs are under development including one designed to release tenofovir to prevent transmission of HIV-1 and levonorgestrel (LNG) to prevent unintended pregnancy over a 90-day period. Another MPT IVR under development is designed to release the ARV dapivirine and LNG for 2 months. Long-acting injectable pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) formulations of rilpivirine (TMC278) and GSK1265744 have entered clinical evaluation and could form the basis of long-acting injectable products for HIV-1 prevention and prevention of unintended pregnancy. On-demand products include TFV 1% gel (HIV-1/HSV-2 prevention), a zinc/carrageenan zinc gel (HIV-1/HSV-2 prevention), and the SILCS diaphragm administered with TFV 1% gel. Significant technical, funding, and regulatory hurdles must be overcome to develop most MPTs; however, the significant reproductive health benefits to many women around the world should provide motivation to overcome these hurdles. This article is based on a presentation at the "Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies", held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188708

  18. 48. Second floor, looking southwest (possibly former multipurpose room) with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Second floor, looking southwest (possibly former multi-purpose room) with fire stair in center - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  19. Somatic Mutations of PIK3R1 Promote Gliomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Quayle, Steven N.; Lee, Jennifer Y.; Cheung, Lydia W T.; Ding, Li; Wiedemeyer, Ruprecht; Dewan, Robert W.; Huang-Hobbs, Emmet; Zhuang, Li; Wilson, Richard K.; Ligon, Keith L.; Mills, Gordon B.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Chin, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is targeted for frequent alteration in glioblastoma (GBM) and is one of the core GBM pathways defined by The Cancer Genome Atlas. Somatic mutations of PIK3R1 are observed in multiple tumor types, but the tumorigenic activity of these mutations has not been demonstrated in GBM. We show here that somatic mutations in the iSH2 domain of PIK3R1 act as oncogenic driver events. Specifically, introduction of a subset of the mutations identified in human GBM, in the nSH2 and iSH2 domains, increases signaling through the PI3K pathway and promotes tumorigenesis of primary normal human astrocytes in an orthotopic xenograft model. Furthermore, we show that cells that are dependent on mutant P85α-mediated PI3K signaling exhibit increased sensitivity to a small molecule inhibitor of AKT. Together, these results suggest that GBM patients whose tumors carry mutant PIK3R1 alleles may benefit from treatment with inhibitors of AKT. PMID:23166678

  20. Coupling Algorithm for Sp(3 , R) Irreducible Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Germaine-Fuller, James F.; McCoy, Anna E.; Caprio, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    The nuclear symplectic model based on Sp(3 , R) - the smallest algebra that contains both the shell model Hamiltonian and the rotor algebra - connects the microscopic shell model to collective rotational behavior and naturally extends the Elliot SU(3) model to multiple shells. However, Sp(3 , R) is only an approximate symmetry of the nucleus which can be broken by spin-orbit interactions, tensor force interactions, and pairing. The Hamiltonians in most physical situations will break Sp(3 , R) symmetry, causing their eigenstates to become linear combinations of symplectic irreducible representations (irreps). Calculations with those eigenstates will then involve multiple irreps. We report a computer algorithm for enumerating the irreps that arise from the coupling of two symplectice irreps and evaluating their multiplicities in the product. This should assist in performing such multi-irrep calculations and facilitate computing symplectic coupling coefficients. Supported by the US NSF under Grant NSF-PHY05-52843, the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-95ER-40934, and the Research Corporation for Science Advancement under a Cottrell Scholar Award.

  1. Multipurpose simulation systems for regional development forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Kostina, N.I.

    1995-09-01

    We examine the development of automaton-modeling multipurpose simulation systems as an efficient form of simulation software for MIS. Such systems constitute a single problem-oriented package of applications based on a general simulation model, which is equipped with a task source language, interaction tools, file management tools, and an output document editor. The simulation models are described by the method of probabilistic-automaton modeling, which ensures standard representation of models and standardization of the modeling algorithm. Examples of such systems include the demographic forecasting system DEPROG, the VOKON system for assessing the quality of consumer services in terms of free time, and the SONET system for servicing partially accessible customers. The development of computer-aided systems for production and economic control is now moving to the second state, namely operationalization of optimization and forecasting problems, whose solution may account for the main economic effect of MIS. Computation and information problems, which were the main focus of the first stage of MIS development, are thus acquiring the role of a source of information for optimization and forecasting problems in addition to their direct contribution to preparation and analysis of current production and economic information.

  2. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar-powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is, therefore, beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multipurpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of using solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year-long effort by a group of eight students, divided into four teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a lightweight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structural design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion were governed by weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is an MPRPV weighing 35 N that cruises at 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 12.5 percent-efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were researched and tested during the design process.

  3. Functional group interactions of a 5-HT3R antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Padmavati; Joshi, Prasad; Venkatachalan, Srinivasan P; Muthalagi, Mani; Parihar, Harish S; Kirschbaum, Karen S; Schulte, Marvin K

    2002-01-01

    Background Lerisetron, a competitive serotonin type 3 receptor (5-HT3R) antagonist, contains five functional groups capable of interacting with amino acids in the 5-HT3R binding site. Site directed mutagenesis studies of the 5-HT3AR have revealed several amino acids that are thought to form part of the binding domain of this receptor. The specific functional groups on the ligand that interact with these amino acids are, however, unknown. Using synthetic analogs of lerisetron as molecular probes in combination with site directed mutagenesis, we have identified some of these interactions and have proposed a model of the lerisetron binding site. Results Two analogs of lerisetron were synthesized to probe 5-HT3R functional group interactions with this compound. Analog 1 lacks the N1 benzyl group of lerisetron and analog 2 contains oxygen in place of the distal piperazine nitrogen. Both analogs show significantly decreased binding affinity to wildtype 5-HT3ASRs. Mutations at W89, R91, Y142 and Y152 produced significant decreases in binding compared to wildtype receptors. Binding affinities of analogs 1 and 2 were altered only by mutations at W89, and Y152. Conclusions Based on the data obtained for lerisetron and analogs 1 and 2, we have proposed a tentative model of the lerisetron binding pocket of the 5-HT3ASR. According to this model, The N-benzyl group interacts in a weak interaction with R91 while the benzimidazole group interacts with W89. Our data support an interaction of the distal amino nitrogen with Y142 and Y152. PMID:12079499

  4. CARM1 Preferentially Methylates H3R17 over H3R26 through a Random Kinetic Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Suzanne L; Aquino, Katrina P; Gureasko, Jodi; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Porter Scott, Margaret; Copeland, Robert A; Riera, Thomas V

    2016-03-22

    CARM1 is a type I arginine methyltransferase involved in the regulation of transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, cell cycle progression, and the DNA damage response. CARM1 overexpression has been implicated in breast, prostate, and liver cancers and therefore is an attractive target for cancer therapy. To date, little about the kinetic properties of CARM1 is known. In this study, substrate specificity and the kinetic mechanism of the human enzyme were determined. Substrate specificity was examined by testing CARM1 activity with several histone H3-based peptides in a radiometric assay. Comparison of kcat/KM values reveals that methylation of H3R17 is preferred over that of H3R26. These effects are KM-driven as kcat values remain relatively constant for the peptides tested. Shortening the peptide at the C-terminus by five amino acid residues greatly reduced binding affinity, indicating distal residues may contribute to substrate binding. CARM1 appears to bind monomethylated peptides with an affinity similar to that of unmethylated peptides. Monitoring of the CARM1-dependent production of monomethylated and dimethylated peptides over time by self-assembled monolayer and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry revealed that methylation by CARM1 is distributive. Additionally, dead-end and product inhibition studies suggest CARM1 conforms to a random sequential kinetic mechanism. By defining the kinetic properties and mechanism of CARM1, these studies may aid in the development of small molecule CARM1 inhibitors. PMID:26848779

  5. Antibody-based concepts for multipurpose prevention technologies

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Because of the versatility and specificity of monoclonal antibodies, they are candidates for multipurpose prevention technologies when formulated as topical (gels, films, rings) or injectable drugs and as vaccines. This review focuses on antibody-based proof of concept studies for the human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus and sperm. Opportunities and challenges in antibody evasion/resistance, manufacturing, regulatory, and pharmacoeconomics are discussed. This article is based on a presentation at the Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies, held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188703

  6. Connections to Career Opportunities. A Multi-Purpose Career Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammers, Gale; Gregory, B. J., Ed.

    This publication provides a description of the Phillips Community College (Arkansas) multipurpose career fair as well as a step-by-step planning and implementation guide for putting on a career fair. The Phillips career fair provides an exchange of information and interaction for persons seeking employment, career awareness and employment, and

  7. MULTIPURPOSE GELLING AGENT AND ITS APPLICATION TO SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, a blend of materials was formulated that would spontaneously gel a wide variety of hazardous liquids. This blend, known as the Multipurpose Gelling Agent (MGA), has been optimized to obtain a balanced formulation that will effectively gel and immobilize most spilled h...

  8. Efficacy of multipurpose solutions for rigid gas permeable lenses.

    PubMed

    Boost, Maureen; Cho, Pauline; Lai, Sindy

    2006-09-01

    The use of multipurpose solutions for cleaning and disinfecting rigid gas permeable lenses has replaced single purpose solutions, but there are no reports of the efficacy of these multipurpose solutions, or of the effects of storage conditions on their disinfecting capacities. This study investigated activity against four bacterial and two fungal species, and the effects of storage in a refrigerator, at room temperature, at elevated temperature in both dry and humid conditions and with exposure to sunlight. The disinfecting solutions were challenged with the micro-organisms initially upon opening and then at 2-weekly intervals up to 12 weeks after being stored under the different conditions. Solutions were opened daily to simulate use. One solution failed to meet Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria to reduce numbers of bacteria by three log dilutions and of fungi by one log dilution. Storage reduced activity of all solutions over the 12-week period, but not below the requirements of the FDA. Storage in the refrigerator tended to reduce disinfecting capacity more quickly. Multipurpose solutions for rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses lose activity over the 3 months recommended time of use but remain satisfactory for use over this time in the conditions tested. Practitioners need to remind patients to replace their solutions regularly and should advise against storage in the refrigerator. Multipurpose solutions for RGP lenses have simplified cleaning and disinfecting processes and the current formulations have improved disinfecting capacity compared to former disinfecting solutions, which is particularly important for wearers of orthokeratology lenses. PMID:16918771

  9. Garrett Multipurpose Small Power Unit (MPSPU) - Program status 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, J. R.

    1989-09-01

    The Multipurpose Small Power Unit (MPSPU) Advanced Development Program is structured to provide advanced technology for current and future U.S. Army or other DOD auxiliary power unit/secondary power systems applications. Development has proceeded through initial design, component development and initial power unit development.

  10. OCRWM Bulletin: Westinghouse begins designing multi-purpose canister

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This publication consists of two parts: OCRWM (Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management) Bulletin; and Of Mountains & Science which has articles on the Yucca Mountain project. The OCRWM provides information about OCRWM activities and in this issue has articles on multi-purpose canister design, and transportation cask trailer.

  11. rhCSF3 accelerates the proliferation of human melanocytes in culture through binding CSF3R and the expression of CSF3R transcripts.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Guo, Ze; Zhou, Mei-Hua; Li, Xue; Sun, Jie; Gong, Qing-Li; Zhu, Wen-Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Melanogenic paracrine and autocrine cytokine networks have recently been discovered in vitro between melanocytes and other types of skin cells. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (CSF3R) controls the survival, proliferation and differentiation of many kinds of cells, including neutrophils. To understand the function of CSF3R and recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhCSF3) on melanocyte proliferation, this study compared the expression of CSF3R and the effects of rhCSF3 in primary human melanocytes, neutrophils and HEL 92.1.7 cells. The results show that CSF3R is localized in the cytoplasm and on cell membranes of melanocytes and neutrophils. The percentage of CSF3R(+) melanocytes was higher than CSF3R(+) HEL 92.1.7 cells, but was lower than CSF3R(+) neutrophils. Both CSF3R mRNA and CSF3R protein levels in melanocytes were higher than in HEL 92.1.7 cells, but were lower than in neutrophils. Treatment with rhCSF3 increased the proliferation of human melanocytes, but not their tyrosinase activity. Transcripts of CSF3R in human melanocytes, M14, A375 melanoma and A431 squamous cell carcinoma cells were also detected. Expression of the CSF3R V3 transcript was lower in melanocytes than in M14, A375 melanoma and A431 squamous cell carcinoma cells. In conclusion, rhCSF3 can promote melanocyte proliferation through CSF3R without affecting tyrosinase activity. PMID:25666388

  12. Inherited biallelic CSF3R mutations in severe congenital neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Triot, Alexa; Jrvinen, Pivi M.; Arostegui, Juan I.; Murugan, Dhaarini; Kohistani, Naschla; Dapena Daz, Jos Luis; Racek, Tomas; Pucha?ka, Jacek; Gertz, E. Michael; Schffer, Alejandro A.; Kotlarz, Daniel; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Daz de Heredia Rubio, Cristina; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Patiroglu, Turkan; Karakukcu, Musa; Snchez de Toledo Codina, Jos; Yage, Jordi; Touw, Ivo P.; Unal, Ekrem

    2014-01-01

    Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is characterized by low numbers of peripheral neutrophil granulocytes and a predisposition to life-threatening bacterial infections. We describe a novel genetic SCN type in 2 unrelated families associated with recessively inherited loss-of-function mutations in CSF3R, encoding the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor. Family A, with 3 affected children, carried a homozygous missense mutation (NM_000760.3:c.922C>T, NP_000751.1:p.Arg308Cys), which resulted in perturbed N-glycosylation and aberrant localization to the cell surface. Family B, with 1 affected infant, carried compound heterozygous deletions provoking frameshifts and premature stop codons (NM_000760.3:c.948_963del, NP_000751.1:p.Gly316fsTer322 and NM_000760.3:c.1245del, NP_000751.1:p.Gly415fsTer432). Despite peripheral SCN, all patients had morphologic evidence of full myeloid cell maturation in bone marrow. None of the patients responded to treatment with recombinant human G-CSF. Our study highlights the genetic and morphologic SCN variability and provides evidence both for functional importance and redundancy of G-CSF receptor-mediated signaling in human granulopoiesis. PMID:24753537

  13. New routes to old places: PIK3R1 and PIK3R2 join PIK3CA and PTEN as endometrial cancer genes.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Gonzalez, Sandra; Di Cristofano, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    Cheung and colleagues identify PIK3R1 and PIK3R2, the genes encoding the ? and ? isoforms of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85 regulatory subunit, as additional mutation targets in endometrial cancer, and describe a novel mechanism leading to PTEN loss. PMID:22586352

  14. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification....

  16. [The development and clinical application of a multipurpose neuroendoscope].

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Wan, C; Liu, S; Chen, M; Song, J; Yao, S; Gao, F

    1999-01-01

    The multipurpose rigid neuroendoscope MGE-4 has been developed with the application of the self-focussing lens technology. We have been using it to examine and treat 10 neurosurgical patients who suffered from tumours, hydrocephalus, intracerebral haematomas of head injury and hypertensive cerebral haemorrhage. The short-term effect was satisfactory and there was no operative complications. It is considered that Model MGE-4 with the accessories can be used safely for the brain functional subcortical lesion or the deep-seated cystic lesions and haematomas. PMID:12583033

  17. Programmable Thermostat Module Upgrade for the Multipurpose Logistics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. W.; Glasgow, S. d.; Reagan, S. E.; Presson, K. H.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    The STS-121/ULF 1.1 mission was the maiden flight of the programmable thermostat module (PTM) system used to control the 28 V shell heaters on the multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM). These PTMs, in conjunction with a data recorder module (DRM), provide continuous closed loop temperature control and data recording of MPLM on-orbit heater operations. This Technical Memorandum discusses the hardware design, development, test, and verification (DDT&V) activities performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as well as the operational implementation and mission performance.

  18. SLC9A3R1 stimulates autophagy via BECN1 stabilization in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Ma, Yan; He, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jia-Ping; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Shao, Rong-Guang

    2015-11-01

    Autophagy, a self-catabolic process, has been found to be involved in abrogating the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer. SLC9A3R1 (solute carrier family 9, subfamily A [NHE3, cation proton antiporter 3], member 3 regulator 1), a multifunctional scaffold protein, is involved in suppressing breast cancer cells proliferation and the SLC9A3R1-related signaling pathway regulates the activation of autophagy processes. However, the precise regulatory mechanism and signaling pathway of SLC9A3R1 in the regulation of autophagy processes in breast cancer cells remains unknown. Here, we report that the stability of BECN1, the major component of the autophagic core lipid kinase complex, is augmented in SLC9A3R1-overexpressing breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, subsequently stimulating autophagy by attenuating the interaction between BECN1 and BCL2. Initially, we found that SLC9A3R1 partially stimulated autophagy through the PTEN-PI3K-AKT1 signaling cascade in MDA-MB-231 cells. SLC9A3R1 then attenuated the interaction between BECN1 and BCL2 to stimulate the autophagic core lipid kinase complex. Further findings revealed that SLC9A3R1 bound to BECN1 and subsequently blocked ubiquitin-dependent BECN1 degradation. And the deletion of the C-terminal domain of SLC9A3R1 resulted in significantly reduced binding to BECN1. Moreover, the lack of C-terminal of SLC9A3R1 neither reduced the ubiquitination of BECN1 nor induced autophagy in breast cancer cells. The decrease in BECN1 degradation induced by SLC9A3R1 resulted in the activity of autophagy stimulation in breast cancer cells. These findings indicate that the SLC9A3R1-BECN1 signaling pathway participates in the activation of autophagy processes in breast cancer cells. PMID:26218645

  19. 47 CFR 14.5 - Waivers-Multipurpose Services and Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Waivers-Multipurpose Services and Equipment. 14.5 Section 14.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Scope 14.5 WaiversMultipurpose Services...

  20. 47 CFR 14.5 - Waivers-Multipurpose Services and Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Waivers-Multipurpose Services and Equipment. 14.5 Section 14.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Scope 14.5 WaiversMultipurpose Services...

  1. 47 CFR 14.5 - Waivers-Multipurpose Services and Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Waivers-Multipurpose Services and Equipment. 14.5 Section 14.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Scope § 14.5 Waivers—Multipurpose Services and Equipment. (a) Waiver. (1) On its...

  2. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for multi-purpose lighters. 1212.3 Section 1212.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance §...

  3. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for multi-purpose lighters. 1212.3 Section 1212.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance §...

  4. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for multi-purpose lighters. 1212.3 Section 1212.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance §...

  5. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for multi-purpose lighters. 1212.3 Section 1212.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance §...

  6. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for multi-purpose lighters. 1212.3 Section 1212.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance §...

  7. System Engineering Strategy for Distributed Multi-Purpose Simulation Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhula, Dlilpkumar; Kurt, Cindy Marie; Luty, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the system engineering approach used to develop distributed multi-purpose simulations. The multi-purpose simulation architecture focuses on user needs, operations, flexibility, cost and maintenance. This approach was used to develop an International Space Station (ISS) simulator, which is called the International Space Station Integrated Simulation (ISIS)1. The ISIS runs unmodified ISS flight software, system models, and the astronaut command and control interface in an open system design that allows for rapid integration of multiple ISS models. The initial intent of ISIS was to provide a distributed system that allows access to ISS flight software and models for the creation, test, and validation of crew and ground controller procedures. This capability reduces the cost and scheduling issues associated with utilizing standalone simulators in fixed locations, and facilitates discovering unknowns and errors earlier in the development lifecycle. Since its inception, the flexible architecture of the ISIS has allowed its purpose to evolve to include ground operator system and display training, flight software modification testing, and as a realistic test bed for Exploration automation technology research and development.

  8. Multipurpose image watermarking algorithm based on multistage vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Xu, Dian-Guo; Sun, Sheng-He

    2005-06-01

    The rapid growth of digital multimedia and Internet technologies has made copyright protection, copy protection, and integrity verification three important issues in the digital world. To solve these problems, the digital watermarking technique has been presented and widely researched. Traditional watermarking algorithms are mostly based on discrete transform domains, such as the discrete cosine transform, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Most of these algorithms are good for only one purpose. Recently, some multipurpose digital watermarking methods have been presented, which can achieve the goal of content authentication and copyright protection simultaneously. However, they are based on DWT or DFT. Lately, several robust watermarking schemes based on vector quantization (VQ) have been presented, but they can only be used for copyright protection. In this paper, we present a novel multipurpose digital image watermarking method based on the multistage vector quantizer structure, which can be applied to image authentication and copyright protection. In the proposed method, the semi-fragile watermark and the robust watermark are embedded in different VQ stages using different techniques, and both of them can be extracted without the original image. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in terms of robustness and fragility. PMID:15971780

  9. Designing a multipurpose technology for acceptability and adherence

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Elizabeth E.; Morrow, Kathleen M.; Owen, Derek H.

    2015-01-01

    Multipurpose Prevention Technologies (MPTs) are new tools aimed at reducing or preventing multiple and overlapping sexual and reproductive health risks faced by women and couples around the globe. While MPTs could prove more acceptable and easier to adhere to than single-purpose prevention products, continuing high rates of HIV and unintended pregnancy remind us that these new products will need to be efficacious, acceptable and effectively used to achieve a public health impact. In this paper, we describe how a range of research methods can be applied during the pre-clinical phase of product development to inform decisions related to formulation and vehicle or product delivery mechanisms, and consider how choices in product-related characteristics may influence future demand for, delivery and use of future products. We draw on examples from the development of new single-purpose HIV and contraceptive products and then extend our discussion to the development of MPTs, including vaginal rings and injections. This article is based on a presentation at the Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies, held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188706

  10. Development of Cyclic ?-MSH Analogues with Selective hMC3R Agonist and hMC3R/hMC5R Antagonist Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mayorov, Alexander V.; Cai, Minying; Chandler, Kevin B.; Petrov, Ravil R.; Van Scoy, April R.; Yu, Zerui; Tanaka, Dustin K.; Trivedi, Dev; Hruby, Victor J.

    2006-01-01

    A series of cyclic lactam analogues of ?-MSH (H-Tyr1-Val2-Met3-Gly4-His5-Phe6-Arg7-Trp8-Asp9-Arg10-Phe11-Gly12-OH) with a bulky hydrophobic residue in the direct proximity to the pharmacophore (Xaa-d-Phe/d-Nal(2?)-Arg-Trp) were designed and synthesized by solid-phase methods. A variety of amino acids with a broad range of hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties was introduced in position 5 to further explore their complementary role in receptor selectivity. Biological evaluation of these peptides revealed several analogues with potent hMC3R agonist and hMC3R/hMC5R antagonist activities, and good receptor selectivity. Analogue 4, c[Nle-Arg-d-Phe-Arg-Trp-Glu]-NH2, was found to be a very potent and selective hMC3R agonist (EC50 = 1.2 nM, 112% act). In addition, analogue 13, c[Nle-Val-d-Nal(2?)-Arg-Trp-Glu]-NH2, was identified as an hMC3R/hMC5R antagonist with the best selectivity against the hMC4R in this series (pA2(hMC3R) = 8.4; pA2(hMC5R) = 8.7). These results indicate the significance of steric factors in melanocortin receptor selectivity and suggest that introduction of bulky residues in the direct proximity to the melanocortin pharmacophore is an effective approach to design of novel hMC3R and hMC5R selective ligands. PMID:16539382

  11. CSF3R and CALR mutations in paediatric myeloid disorders and the association of CSF3R mutations with translocations, including t(8; 21).

    PubMed

    Sano, Hitoshi; Ohki, Kentaro; Park, Myoung-Ja; Shiba, Norio; Hara, Yusuke; Sotomatsu, Manabu; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Taga, Takashi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Tawa, Akio; Horibe, Keizo; Adachi, Souichi; Hayashi, Yasuhide

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) and calreticulin (CALR) genes have been reported in a proportion of adults with myeloproliferative disease. However, little is known about CSF3R or CALR mutations in paediatric myeloid disorders. We analysed CSF3R exons 14 and 17, and CALR exon 9, using direct sequencing in samples of paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML; n = 521), juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML; n = 40), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 20) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET; n = 21). CSF3R mutations were found in 10 (1.2%) of 521 patients with AML; two in exon 14 (both missense mutations resulting in p.T618I) and eight in exon 17 (three frameshift mutations: p.S715X, p.Q774R, and p.S783Q; and five novel missense mutations: p.Q754K, p.R769H, p.L777F, p.T781I, and S795R). All of the patients with mutations in CSF3R exon 17 had chromosomal translocations, including four with t(8;21). At the time of reporting, seven of these ten patients are alive; three have died, due to side effects of chemotherapy. No CSF3R mutations were found in cases of MDS, JMML or ET. The only mutation found in the CALR gene was a frameshift (p.L367 fs) in one ET patient. We discuss the potential impact of these findings for the leukaemogenesis and clinical features of paediatric myeloid disorders. PMID:25858548

  12. The structural analysis of Cu(111)-Te ?{3}?{3}R30 and 2?{3}2?{3}R30 surface phases by quantitative LEED and DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, M.; Chaudhuri, A.; Pussi, K.; Hesp, D.; McLeod, I. M.; Dhanak, V. R.; King, M. O.; Kadodwala, M.; MacLaren, D. A.

    2014-04-01

    The chemisorption of tellurium on atomically clean Cu(111) surface has been studied under ultra-high vacuum conditions. At room temperature, the initial stage of growth was an ordered 2?{3}2?{3}R30 phase (0.08 ML). An ordered ?{3}?{3}R30 phase is formed at 0.33 ML coverage of Te. The adsorption sites of the Te atoms on the Cu(111) surface at 0.08 ML and 0.33 ML coverages are explored by quantitative low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and density functional theory (DFT). Our results indicate that substitutional surface alloy formation starts at very low coverages.

  13. First- and second-order PMD mitigation using 3R regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shilong; Huo, Li; Yang, Yanfu; Lou, Caiyun; Gao, Yizhi

    2005-11-01

    We experimentally studied the PMD mitigation schemes using two different optical 3R regenerators. One is based on synchronous modulation and the other using an optical decision gate based on an electroabsorption modulator. The experimental results show that both schemes are useful to mitigate the signal quality degeneration induced by both first and second order PMD. System performance without and with 3R regeneration was separately studied by eye analysis and BER measurements. The signal quality was significantly improved by 3R regeneration under serious 1st-order PMD (up to 40% of the bit interval) combined with 2nd-order PMD (up to ~520ps2). We compared the performance between the two different 3R regenerators. The results show that 3R regenerator using an optical decision gate has a superior performance in synchronously mitigating 1st-order and 2nd-order PMD. Moreover, 3R based on EAM performs wavelength conversion simultaneously, which can be used to avoid wavelength blocking at nodes of the optical networks. Further studies indicate that 3R regenerators have the potential to combat with the effects of PMD combined with PDL and PHB. The limitation of the two schemes is also discussed.

  14. High frequency of PIK3R1 and PIK3R2 mutations in endometrial cancer elucidates a novel mechanism for regulation of PTEN protein stability.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Lydia W T; Hennessy, Bryan T; Li, Jie; Yu, Shuangxing; Myers, Andrea P; Djordjevic, Bojana; Lu, Yiling; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Dyer, Mary D; Zhang, Fan; Ju, Zhenlin; Cantley, Lewis C; Scherer, Steven E; Liang, Han; Lu, Karen H; Broaddus, Russell R; Mills, Gordon B

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway aberrations occur in >80% of endometrioid endometrial cancers, with coordinate mutations of multiple PI3K pathway members being more common than predicted by chance. PIK3R1 (p85?) mutations occur at a higher rate in endometrial cancer than in any other tumor lineage, and PIK3R2 (p85?), not previously demonstrated to be a cancer gene, is also frequently mutated. The dominant activation event in the PI3K pathway appears to be PTEN protein loss. However, in tumors with retained PTEN protein, PI3K pathway mutations phenocopy PTEN loss, resulting in pathway activation. KRAS mutations are common in endometrioid tumors activating independent events from PI3K pathway aberrations. Multiple PIK3R1 and PIK3R2 mutations demonstrate gain of function, including disruption of a novel mechanism of pathway regulation wherein p85? dimers bind and stabilize PTEN. Taken together, the PI3K pathway represents a critical driver of endometrial cancer pathogenesis and a novel therapeutic target. PMID:21984976

  15. Development of a multipurpose smart recorder for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. H.; Finger, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    An intelligent flight recorder, called the Smart Recorder, was fabricated and installed on a King Air aircraft used in standard commercial charter service. This recorder was used for collection of data toward two objectives: (1) the characterization of the typical environment encountered by the aircraft; and (2) research in the area of trend monitoring. Data processing routines and data presentation formats were defined that are applicable to commuter size aircraft. The feasibility of a cost-effective, multipurpose recorder for general aviation aircraft was successfully demonstrated. Implementation of on-board environmental data processing increased the number of flight hours that could be stored on a single data cartridge and simplified the data management problem by reducing the volume of data to be processed in the laboratory. Trend monitoring algorithms showed less variability in the trend plots when compared against plots of manual data.

  16. Multipurpose flying laboratory based on IL76MD aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Moussiniants, T.

    1996-11-01

    The Scientific and Research Institute of Precision Instruments (SRI PI) and the Gromov Flight Research Institute (FRI) have designed and built a multipurpose flying laboratory (FL) based on IL76MD aircraft. The FL is intended for testing SAR systems designed by SRI PI, for multispectral monitoring of the Earth surface with the aid of SAR, infrared (IR) radiometers, and airborne photo cameras, as well as for testing aircraft navigation systems. On board the FL are all the necessary navigation and recording equipment and power supplies, allowing it to serve as a test bed or carrier platform also for other types of sensors based on various physical principles. The experience in designing and operating the FL allows SRI PI to offer its services for creating similar FL for other organizations, including those participating in international projects. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Multi-purpose canister system evaluation: A systems engineering approach

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to investigate various container systems for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The primary goal of DOE`s investigations was to select a container technology that could handle the vast majority of commercial SNF at a reasonable cost, while ensuring the safety of the public and protecting the environment. Several alternative cask and canister concepts were evaluated for SNF assembly packaging to determine the most suitable concept. Of these alternatives, the multi-purpose canister (MPC) system was determined to be the most suitable. Based on the results of these evaluations, the decision was made to proceed with design and certification of the MPC system. A decision to fabricate and deploy MPCs will be made after further studies and preparation of an environmental impact statement.

  18. A Multipurpose LED Light Source for Optics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Se-yuen

    2004-12-01

    The traditional light source for studying lenses and mirrors is either a bare white light bulb, or one encased inside a lamphouse.2, 3 A simple pattern like an arrow, mounted on an optical bench or printed on the window of a lamphouse, serves as the object. Ironically, the image captured on a translucent screen is often the shadow of the pattern with no light falling on it. Although LEDs have been used in commercial display boards for decades, the advantage of using LEDs as a multipurpose light source in the physics laboratory has been overlooked by many physics teachers. In this paper, we remind readers of a few examples of how LEDs can be used to replace the incandescent lamp for geometrical optics, physical optics, and fiber optics experiments.

  19. Multipurpose Panel Display Device Investigation. [technology assessment and product development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, R.

    1977-01-01

    A multipurpose panel was developed to provide a flexible control and a LED display panel with easily changeable nomenclature for use in applications where panel space is limited, but where a number of similar subsystems must be controlled, or where basic panel nomenclature and functions must be changed rapidly, as in the case of between mission changes of space shuttle payloads. In the first application, panel area limitations are overcome by time sharing a central control panel among several subsystems. In the latter case, entire control panel changes are effected by simply replacing a memory module, thereby reducing the extent of installation and checkout procedures between missions. Several types of control technologies (other than LED's) which show potential in meeting criteria for overcoming limitations of the panel are assessed.

  20. Design of Multilayer Insulation for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlow, Weston A.

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is a critical component for future, long term space missions. These missions will require the storage of cryogenic fuels for extended periods of time with little to no boil-off and MLI is vital due to its exceptional radiation shielding properties. Several MLI test articles were designed and fabricated which explored methods of assembling and connecting blankets, yielding results for evaluation. Insight gained, along with previous design experience, will be used in the design of the replacement blanket for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is slated for upcoming tests. Future design considerations are discussed which include mechanical testing to determine robustness of such a system, as well as cryostat testing of samples to give insight to the loss of thermal performance of sewn panels in comparison to the highly efficient, albeit laborious application of the original MHTB blanket.

  1. Multipurpose prevention technologies for reproductive and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Stone, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Global statistics on unplanned pregnancies, abortions and STIs show that unprotected sex is still widely practised. More needs to be done to provide women and men with a wider choice of convenient protective options. To address this need, international efforts are focusing on developing multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that address two or more indications simultaneously. These technologies would have significant advantages over single-indication products. They include inter alia novel barrier devices, drugs administered either as oral tablets or vaginal/rectal gels, drugs used in combination with medical devices, and genetically engineered organisms which secrete antimicrobial substances. As an example of progress in the MPT field, this paper describes an on-demand contraceptive/antimicrobial vaginal gel, Amphora (previously known as Acidform), now in an advanced stage of development. Clinical trials are currently being planned to find out whether this product's promising antimicrobial profile translates into protective and preventive choices. PMID:25555778

  2. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification.

  3. Reactive schedule modification in multipurpose batch chemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kanakamedala, K.B.; Reklaitis, G.V.; Venkatasubramanian, V. . School of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    A new scheme is described for reactive schedule modification in the face of unexpected deviations in processing times and unit availabilities of a multipurpose batch plant (MBP). Schedule modification is done using at least impact heuristic beam search which proceeds in two levels: creation of a decision tree which makes use of possible reroutings of the product that is causing a conflict, and heuristic pruning of the search space to contain the combinatorial complexity. The heuristic chooses a path among all possible reroutings for a product such that the impact of each decision on the rest of the schedule is kept as small as possible. This approach has been implemented and tested on a number of simulated deviations in a MBP case study with three products. The proposed least impact heuristic was found to perform better than the earliest finishing unit heuristic in all the cases considered.

  4. Multi Epoch Multi-purpose Exoplanet Simulation System (MESS2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannier, Justine

    2015-08-01

    For 2 decades, surveys for giant planets have produced the acquisition data of various kind (via transits, direct imaging (DI) or radial velocity technic (RV)). Also, some stars have been observed several times using at least one detection method. The final purpose of these surveys (RV and DI) is to better understand the formation of giant planets (GPs) at short and long separations, for different stellar spectral type, and various initial conditions. Statistical studies are then primordial to bring constraints on the planetary formation scenarios. Combining all the available data (RV and/or DI) represents a more robust approach to bring these constraints since it considers the overall available data. Multi Epoch Multi-purpose Exoplanet Simulation System (MESS2, an advanced version of MESS (Bonavita et al. 2012)) is a powerful statistical tool used for multiple epochs of DI and RV observations. It is a Monte Carlo code based on Bayesian methods.

  5. PMD mitigation using 3R regeneration based on EAM with wavelength conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Li; Pan, Shilong; Yang, Yanfu; Lou, Caiyun; Gao, Yizhi

    2006-03-01

    Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) mitigation is performed using an optical 3R (re-amplification, re-shaping, re-timing) regenerator based on electro-absorption modulator (EAM) with wavelength conversion. System performance without and with 3R regeneration was separately studied by eye analysis and bit-error rate (BER) measurements. The signal quality was significantly improved by 3R regeneration under serious first order PMD (up to 40% of the bit interval) combined with second order PMD (up to about 520 ps2). The PMD mitigation margin of the proposed method is also investigated by measuring the sensitivity at BER 10^(-10). Further studies indicate that 3R regenerators have the potential to combat with the effects of PMD combined with polarization dependent loss (PDL) and polarization hole-burning (PHB).

  6. Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990). Appendix A3-R

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    Techniques in use at the Hanford Reservation as of March, 1990 for the analysis of liquids and radioactive effluents are described. Limitations and applications of the techniques are included. This report is Appendix A3-R.

  7. Genetic ablation and chemical inhibition of IP3R1 reduce mutant huntingtin aggregation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Peter O; Hudec, Roman; Ozaki, Shoichiro; Okuno, Misako; Ebisui, Etsuko; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Nukina, Nobuyuki

    2011-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by an expansion of the polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch in huntingtin (htt). Previously, it has been shown that inhibition of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1) activity reduced aggregation of pathogenic polyQ proteins. Experimentally, this effect was achieved by modification of the intracellular IP3 levels or by application of IP3R1 inhibitors, such as 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB). Unfortunately, there are certain concerns about the 2-APB specificity and cytotoxicity. Moreover, a direct link between IP3R1 and polyQ aggregation has not been shown yet. In this study we show, that down-regulation of the IP3R1 levels by shRNA reduced the aggregation of mutant htt. We tested 2-APB analogs in an attempt to identify less toxic and more IP3R1-specific compounds and found that the effect of these analogs on the reduction of the mutant htt aggregation did weakly correlate with their inhibitory action toward the IP3-induced Ca(2+) release (IICR). Their effect on aggregation was not correlated with the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), which is another target of the 2-APB related compounds. Our findings suggest that besides functional contribution of the IP3R inhibition on the mutant htt aggregation there are additional mechanisms for the anti-aggregation effect of the 2-APB related compounds. PMID:22056561

  8. A potent antibrowning agent from pine needles of Cedrus deodara: 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue; Wu, Yan-Ping; Qiu, Jing-Hong; Zhong, Kai; Gao, Hong

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on finding the novel antibrowning agents from the pine needles of Cedrus deodara and studying its antibrowning effect. By bioassay guide of tyrosinase inhibitory activity, the main active compound was isolated and purified from 50% methanol extract of pine needles of C. deodara through macroporous resin Diaion HP-20 column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on mass and nuclear magnetic resonance data, the active compound was identified as 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin, which showed the potent monophenolase and diphenolase inhibitory activities. Moreover, 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin exhibited a strong ABTS radical scavenging activity with a dose-dependent manner. The antibrowning efficacy of 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin was evaluated by monitoring the changes of L*, a*, and b* values and total color difference (△E) on fresh-cut apple slices. It was found that 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin was effective in inhibiting the browning of apple slices treated with a concentration as low as 0.05% at 25 °C for 24 h. Its antibrowning effect was significantly better than ascorbic acid (0.5%) alone. Furthermore, 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin showed a good synergistic antibrowning effect with ascorbic acid. This is the first report that 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin from pine needles of C. deodara may be used as a potential antibrowning agent in protecting against food browning. PMID:25163933

  9. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification....

  10. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification....

  11. A mouse model for a partially inactive obesity-associated human MC3R variant

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bonggi; Koo, Jashin; Yun Jun, Joo; Gavrilova, Oksana; Lee, Yongjun; Seo, Arnold Y.; Taylor-Douglas, Dezmond C.; Adler-Wailes, Diane C.; Chen, Faye; Gardner, Ryan; Koutzoumis, Dimitri; Sherafat Kazemzadeh, Roya; Roberson, Robin B.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported children homozygous for two MC3R sequence variants (C17A+G241A) have greater fat mass than controls. Here we show, using homozygous knock-in mouse models in which we replace murine Mc3r with wild-type human (MC3RhWT/hWT) and double-mutant (C17A+G241A) human (MC3RhDM/hDM) MC3R, that MC3RhDM/hDM have greater weight and fat mass, increased energy intake and feeding efficiency, but reduced length and fat-free mass compared with MC3RhWT/hWT. MC3RhDM/hDM mice do not have increased adipose tissue inflammatory cell infiltration or greater expression of inflammatory markers despite their greater fat mass. Serum adiponectin levels are increased in MC3RhDM/hDM mice and MC3RhDM/hDM human subjects. MC3RhDM/hDM bone- and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into adipocytes that accumulate more triglyceride than MC3RhWT/hWT MSCs. MC3RhDM/hDM impacts nutrient partitioning to generate increased adipose tissue that appears metabolically healthy. These data confirm the importance of MC3R signalling in human metabolism and suggest a previously-unrecognized role for the MC3R in adipose tissue development. PMID:26818770

  12. Abolished InsP3R2 function inhibits sweat secretion in both humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Klar, Joakim; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Baig, Shahid M.; Tariq, Muhammad; Johansson, Anna C.V.; Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Naveed Altaf; Ameur, Adam; Sugiura, Kotomi; Feuk, Lars; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Dahl, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    There are 3 major sweat-producing glands present in skin; eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands. Due to the high rate of secretion, eccrine sweating is a vital regulator of body temperature in response to thermal stress in humans; therefore, an inability to sweat (anhidrosis) results in heat intolerance that may cause impaired consciousness and death. Here, we have reported 5 members of a consanguineous family with generalized, isolated anhidrosis, but morphologically normal eccrine sweat glands. Whole-genome analysis identified the presence of a homozygous missense mutation in ITPR2, which encodes the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2), that was present in all affected family members. We determined that the mutation is localized within the pore forming region of InsP3R2 and abrogates Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ release by InsP3R2 in clear cells of the sweat glands is important for eccrine sweat production. Itpr2/ mice exhibited a marked reduction in sweat secretion, and evaluation of sweat glands from Itpr2/ animals revealed a decrease in Ca2+ response compared with controls. Together, our data indicate that loss of InsP3R2-mediated Ca2+ release causes isolated anhidrosis in humans and suggest that specific InsP3R inhibitors have the potential to reduce sweat production in hyperhidrosis. PMID:25329695

  13. Transcriptional repression by MYB3R proteins regulates plant organ growth.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Toshiya; Iwata, Eriko; Nakamichi, Norihito; Suzuki, Takamasa; Chen, Poyu; Ohtani, Misato; Ishida, Takashi; Hosoya, Hanako; Mller, Sabine; Leviczky, Tnde; Pettk-Szandtner, Aladr; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Iwamoto, Akitoshi; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Demura, Taku; Doonan, John H; Hauser, Marie-Theres; Sugimoto, Keiko; Umeda, Masaaki; Magyar, Zoltn; Bgre, Lszl; Ito, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    In multicellular organisms, temporal and spatial regulation of cell proliferation is central for generating organs with defined sizes and morphologies. For establishing and maintaining the post-mitotic quiescent state during cell differentiation, it is important to repress genes with mitotic functions. We found that three of the Arabidopsis MYB3R transcription factors synergistically maintain G2/M-specific genes repressed in post-mitotic cells and restrict the time window of mitotic gene expression in proliferating cells. The combined mutants of the three repressor-type MYB3R genes displayed long roots, enlarged leaves, embryos, and seeds. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that MYB3R3 binds to the promoters of G2/M-specific genes and to E2F target genes. MYB3R3 associates with the repressor-type E2F, E2FC, and the RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED proteins. In contrast, the activator MYB3R4 was in complex with E2FB in proliferating cells. With mass spectrometry and pairwise interaction assays, we identified some of the other conserved components of the multiprotein complexes, known as DREAM/dREAM in human and flies. In plants, these repressor complexes are important for periodic expression during cell cycle and to establish a post-mitotic quiescent state determining organ size. PMID:26069325

  14. Go3R - semantic Internet search engine for alternative methods to animal testing.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Wchter, Thomas; Grune, Barbara; Doms, Andreas; Alvers, Michael R; Spielmann, Horst; Schroeder, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consideration and incorporation of all available scientific information is an important part of the planning of any scientific project. As regards research with sentient animals, EU Directive 86/609/EEC for the protection of laboratory animals requires scientists to consider whether any planned animal experiment can be substituted by other scientifically satisfactory methods not entailing the use of animals or entailing less animals or less animal suffering, before performing the experiment. Thus, collection of relevant information is indispensable in order to meet this legal obligation. However, no standard procedures or services exist to provide convenient access to the information required to reliably determine whether it is possible to replace, reduce or refine a planned animal experiment in accordance with the 3Rs principle. The search engine Go3R, which is available free of charge under http://Go3R.org, runs up to become such a standard service. Go3R is the world-wide first search engine on alternative methods building on new semantic technologies that use an expert-knowledge based ontology to identify relevant documents. Due to Go3R's concept and design, the search engine can be used without lengthy instructions. It enables all those involved in the planning, authorisation and performance of animal experiments to determine the availability of non-animal methodologies in a fast, comprehensive and transparent manner. Thereby, Go3R strives to significantly contribute to the avoidance and replacement of animal experiments. PMID:19326030

  15. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscle power in male Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi; Min, Seok-ki; Ueda, Dai; Igawa, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscular power in Japanese collegiate athletes by analyzing the mean and peak power results of a 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) with respect to the ACTN3 R577X genotype in 253 Japanese athletes (144 men and 109 women). Each athlete performed a 30-second WAnT with a resistance equal to 7.5% of his or her body weight. Genotyping for the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan approach. The ACTN3 R577X genotypes exhibited a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution in our population. The relative and absolute mean power results of the 30-second WAnT did not differ significantly among the genotypes. However, the relative peak power result of the WAnT was significantly higher in the R-allele-dominant model groups than in the XX group in male but not female athletes. These results suggest that the ACTN3 R allele is associated with the relative peak power during the WAnT in male Japanese collegiate athletes. PMID:24343324

  16. Abolished InsP3R2 function inhibits sweat secretion in both humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Klar, Joakim; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Baig, Shahid M; Tariq, Muhammad; Johansson, Anna C V; Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Naveed Altaf; Ameur, Adam; Sugiura, Kotomi; Feuk, Lars; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Dahl, Niklas

    2014-11-01

    There are 3 major sweat-producing glands present in skin; eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands. Due to the high rate of secretion, eccrine sweating is a vital regulator of body temperature in response to thermal stress in humans; therefore, an inability to sweat (anhidrosis) results in heat intolerance that may cause impaired consciousness and death. Here, we have reported 5 members of a consanguineous family with generalized, isolated anhidrosis, but morphologically normal eccrine sweat glands. Whole-genome analysis identified the presence of a homozygous missense mutation in ITPR2, which encodes the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2), that was present in all affected family members. We determined that the mutation is localized within the pore forming region of InsP3R2 and abrogates Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ release by InsP3R2 in clear cells of the sweat glands is important for eccrine sweat production. Itpr2-/- mice exhibited a marked reduction in sweat secretion, and evaluation of sweat glands from Itpr2-/- animals revealed a decrease in Ca2+ response compared with controls. Together, our data indicate that loss of InsP3R2-mediated Ca2+ release causes isolated anhidrosis in humans and suggest that specific InsP3R inhibitors have the potential to reduce sweat production in hyperhidrosis. PMID:25329695

  17. Human resources for maternal health: multi-purpose or specialists?

    PubMed Central

    Fauveau, Vincent; Sherratt, Della R; de Bernis, Luc

    2008-01-01

    A crucial question in the aim to attain MDG5 is whether it can be achieved faster with the scaling up of multi-purpose health workers operating in the community or with the scaling up of professional skilled birth attendants working in health facilities. Most advisers concerned with maternal mortality reduction concur to promote births in facilities with professional attendants as the ultimate strategy. The evidence, however, is scarce on what it takes to progress in this path, and on the 'interim solutions' for situations where the majority of women still deliver at home. These questions are particularly relevant as we have reached the twentieth anniversary of the safe motherhood initiative without much progress made. In this paper we review the current situation of human resources for maternal health as well as the problems that they face. We propose seven key areas of work that must be addressed when planning for scaling up human resources for maternal health in light of MDG5, and finally we indicate some advances recently made in selected countries and the lessons learned from these experiences. Whilst the focus of this paper is on maternal health, it is acknowledged that the interventions to reduce maternal mortality will also contribute to significantly reducing newborn mortality. Addressing each of the seven key areas of work – recommended by the first International Forum on 'Midwifery in the Community', Tunis, December 2006 – is essential for the success of any MDG5 programme. We hypothesize that a great deal of the stagnation of maternal health programmes has been the result of confusion and careless choices in scaling up between a limited number of truly skilled birth attendants and large quantities of multi-purpose workers with short training, fewer skills, limited authority and no career pathways. We conclude from the lessons learnt that no significant progress in maternal mortality reduction can be achieved without a strong political decision to empower midwives and others with midwifery skills, and a substantial strengthening of health systems with a focus on quality of care rather than on numbers, to give them the means to respond to the challenge. PMID:18826600

  18. Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a crew will be living and working in microgravity, interfacing with their physical environment. Without optimum restraints and mobility aids (R&MA' s), the crewmembers may be handicapped for perfonning some of the on-orbit tasks. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity area and may cause prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Thus, determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment are crucial to astronauts' well-being and productivity. The purpose of this project is to develop requirements and guidelines, and conceptual designs, for an ergonomically designed multi-purpose crew restraint. In order to achieve this goal, the project would involve development of functional and human factors requirements, design concept prototype development, analytical and computer modeling evaluations of concepts, two sets of micro gravity evaluations and preparation of an implementation plan. It is anticipated that developing functional and design requirements for a multi-purpose restraint would facilitate development of ergonomically designed restraints to accommodate the off-nominal but repetitive tasks, and minimize the performance degradation due to lack of optimum setup for onboard task performance. In addition, development of an ergonomically designed restraint concept prototype would allow verification and validation of the requirements defined. To date, we have identified "unique" tasks and areas of need, determine characteristics of "ideal" restraints, and solicit ideas for restraint and mobility aid concepts. Focus group meetings with representatives from training, safety, crew, human factors, engineering, payload developers, and analog environment representatives were key to assist in the development of a restraint concept based on previous flight experiences, the needs of future tasks, and crewmembers' preferences. Also, a catalog with existing IVA/EVA restraint and mobility aids has been developed. Other efforts included the ISS crew debrief data on restraints, compilation of data from MIR, Skylab and ISS on restraints, and investigating possibility of an in-flight evaluation of current restraint systems. Preliminary restraint concepts were developed and presented to long duration crewmembers and focus groups for feedback. Currently, a selection criterion is being refined for prioritizing the candidate concepts. Next steps include analytical and computer modeling evaluations of the selected candidate concepts, prototype development, and microgravity evaluations.

  19. Human resources for maternal health: multi-purpose or specialists?

    PubMed

    Fauveau, Vincent; Sherratt, Della R; de Bernis, Luc

    2008-01-01

    A crucial question in the aim to attain MDG5 is whether it can be achieved faster with the scaling up of multi-purpose health workers operating in the community or with the scaling up of professional skilled birth attendants working in health facilities. Most advisers concerned with maternal mortality reduction concur to promote births in facilities with professional attendants as the ultimate strategy. The evidence, however, is scarce on what it takes to progress in this path, and on the 'interim solutions' for situations where the majority of women still deliver at home. These questions are particularly relevant as we have reached the twentieth anniversary of the safe motherhood initiative without much progress made. In this paper we review the current situation of human resources for maternal health as well as the problems that they face. We propose seven key areas of work that must be addressed when planning for scaling up human resources for maternal health in light of MDG5, and finally we indicate some advances recently made in selected countries and the lessons learned from these experiences. Whilst the focus of this paper is on maternal health, it is acknowledged that the interventions to reduce maternal mortality will also contribute to significantly reducing newborn mortality. Addressing each of the seven key areas of work--recommended by the first International Forum on 'Midwifery in the Community', Tunis, December 2006--is essential for the success of any MDG5 programme. We hypothesize that a great deal of the stagnation of maternal health programmes has been the result of confusion and careless choices in scaling up between a limited number of truly skilled birth attendants and large quantities of multi-purpose workers with short training, fewer skills, limited authority and no career pathways. We conclude from the lessons learnt that no significant progress in maternal mortality reduction can be achieved without a strong political decision to empower midwives and others with midwifery skills, and a substantial strengthening of health systems with a focus on quality of care rather than on numbers, to give them the means to respond to the challenge. PMID:18826600

  20. The acetyllysine reader BRD3R promotes human nuclear reprogramming and regulates mitosis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhicheng; Zhang, Ruowen; Khodadadi-Jamayran, Alireza; Chen, Bo; Crowley, Michael R; Festok, Muhamad A; Crossman, David K; Townes, Tim M; Hu, Kejin

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that both recipient cells and donor nuclei demonstrate a mitotic advantage as observed in the traditional reprogramming with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, it is not known whether a specific mitotic factor plays a critical role in reprogramming. Here we identify an isoform of human bromodomain-containing 3 (BRD3), BRD3R (BRD3 with Reprogramming activity), as a reprogramming factor. BRD3R positively regulates mitosis during reprogramming, upregulates a large set of mitotic genes at early stages of reprogramming, and associates with mitotic chromatin. Interestingly, a set of the mitotic genes upregulated by BRD3R constitutes a pluripotent molecular signature. The two BRD3 isoforms display differential binding to acetylated histones. Our results suggest a molecular interpretation for the mitotic advantage in reprogramming and show that mitosis may be a driving force of reprogramming. PMID:26947130

  1. The acetyllysine reader BRD3R promotes human nuclear reprogramming and regulates mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhicheng; Zhang, Ruowen; Khodadadi-Jamayran, Alireza; Chen, Bo; Crowley, Michael R.; Festok, Muhamad A.; Crossman, David K.; Townes, Tim M.; Hu, Kejin

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that both recipient cells and donor nuclei demonstrate a mitotic advantage as observed in the traditional reprogramming with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, it is not known whether a specific mitotic factor plays a critical role in reprogramming. Here we identify an isoform of human bromodomain-containing 3 (BRD3), BRD3R (BRD3 with Reprogramming activity), as a reprogramming factor. BRD3R positively regulates mitosis during reprogramming, upregulates a large set of mitotic genes at early stages of reprogramming, and associates with mitotic chromatin. Interestingly, a set of the mitotic genes upregulated by BRD3R constitutes a pluripotent molecular signature. The two BRD3 isoforms display differential binding to acetylated histones. Our results suggest a molecular interpretation for the mitotic advantage in reprogramming and show that mitosis may be a driving force of reprogramming. PMID:26947130

  2. Superior thermoelectric response in the 3R phases of hydrated NaxRhO2

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Y.; Singh, N.; Schwingenschlgl, U.

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory is used to investigate the thermoelectric properties of the 3R phases of NaxRhO2 for different Na vacancy configurations and concentrations. As compared to the analogous 2H phases, the modified stacking of the atomic layers in the 3R phases reduces the interlayer coupling. As a consequence, the 3R phases are found to be superior in the technologically relevant temperature range. The Rh orbitals still govern the valence band maxima and therefore determine the transport properties. A high figure of merit of 0.35 is achieved in hydrated Na0.83RhO2 at 580?K by water intercalation, which is 34% higher than in the non-hydrated phase. PMID:24633155

  3. Multipurpose explosive (MPX) drum-shaped packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    In fiscal year 1993, the Transportation Management Division of the US Department of Energy sponsored an engineering study, completed by Westinghouse Hanford Company, to examine the viability of a generic packaging design able to satisfy multiple explosives packaging needs. Engineering study results indicated that a box-shaped and drum-shaped (allowable outer packaging shapes) multipurpose explosive (MPX) packaging would mitigate the impact of US Department of Transportation (DOT) Docket HM-181. The MPX packaging concept was for a multi-modal, reusable outer packaging to facilitate the transport of prepackaged solid explosives, most of which are in obsolete pre-HM-181 specification packagings, inside of the MPX packaging. This document sets forth the design criteria for the drum-shaped MPX packaging. These design criteria delineate minimum functional and regulation mandated requirements for the MPX drum-shaped packaging. Functional requirements are derived from US Department of Energy site personnel involved in explosives manufacturing and shipping. Regulatory requirements are derived from DOT and International Air Transport Association transport regulations, enabling the MPX packaging to be used by commercial carriers in either highway or air transportation modes.

  4. Multipurpose water heater. Final technical report, October 1995--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Guyer, E.C.; Coumou, K.G.

    1999-03-01

    This final report describes SBIR Phase 2 project for the development of a multi-purpose water heater for use in Army Food sanitation centers. The objective of the project was to develop a water heater--powered only by an M2 burner and requiring no external supply of electricity--capable of supplying a continuous flow of pressurized hot water to a faucet at the sanitation sink. In the course of the research, two developments took place that have had an impact on the final design. First, the Multifuel Burner Unit (MBU) became available as a potential replacement for the M2. The MBU runs on JP-8 or diesel fuel and requires an external 24-volt VDC power supply. Thus, in anticipation of eventual conversion from M2 to MBU, a DC-Powered Water Heater was also delivered. Second, a new method for heating water in the sanitation sinks was developed allowing three sinks to be heated by a single M2 or MBU.

  5. Developing Multipurpose Reproductive Health Technologies: An Integrated Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P. F.; Hemmerling, A.; Romano, J.; Whaley, K. J.; Young Holt, B.

    2013-01-01

    Women worldwide confront two frequently concurrent reproductive health challenges: the need for contraception and for protection from sexually transmitted infections, importantly HIV/AIDS. While conception and infection share the same anatomical site and mode of transmission, there are no reproductive health technologies to date that simultaneously address that reality. Relevant available technologies are either contraceptive or anti-infective, are limited in number, and require different modes of administration and management. These single-indication technologies do not therefore fully respond to what is a substantial reproductive health need intimately linked to pivotal events in many women's lives. This paper reviews an integrated attempt to develop multipurpose prevention technologiesMPTsproducts explicitly designed to simultaneously address the need for both contraception and protection from sexually transmitted infections. It describes an innovative and iterative MPT product development strategy with the following components: identifying different needs for such technologies and global variations in reproductive health priorities, defining Target Product Profiles as the framework for a research and development roadmap, collating an integrated MPT pipeline and characterizing significant pipeline gaps, exploring anticipated regulatory requirements, prioritizing candidates for problem-solving and resource investments, and implementing an ancillary advocacy agenda to support this breadth of effort. PMID:23533733

  6. Analysis of polyhexamethylene biguanide in multipurpose contact lens solutions.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Anne D; Gordon, Edward A; Stratmeyer, Melvin E

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this study was to establish a reasonably simple and reliable method to measure very low concentrations of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) in multipurpose contact lens solutions (MPSs). By using a weak cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge to extract the PHMB from MPS, followed by HPLC analysis using an evaporative light scattering detector, low levels (0.1 ppm) of PHMB were detected. Application of this method to a series of off-the-shelf MPS with PHMB as the active ingredient demonstrated these solutions contain 1 ppm. The contact lens solution with hydrogen peroxide as the active ingredient gave no peak where the PHMB peak eluted. The Polyquad contact lens solution generated a peak close to the retention time of PHMB. Recovery of PHMB from fortified hydrogen peroxide contact lens solution was good at 0.25 ppm and above; 105% with a RSD of 17% or less. The repeatability of the HPLC system ranged from 4 to 11% RSD; the reproducibility of the entire method was less than 17.5% RSD. Storage and stability studies indicated that storage of MPS with PHMB for chemical analysis are not temperature dependent, but are affected by the composition of the container in which the contact lens solution is stored. PMID:19836589

  7. A Multi-purpose Brain-Computer Interface Output Device

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, David E; Huggins, Jane E

    2012-01-01

    While brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising alternative access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments, many BCI systems are designed as standalone communication and control systems, rather than as interfaces to existing systems built for these purposes. While an individual communication and control system may be powerful or flexible, no single system can compete with the variety of options available in the commercial assistive technology (AT) market. BCIs could instead be used as an interface to these existing AT devices and products, which are designed for improving access and agency of people with disabilities and are highly configurable to individual user needs. However, interfacing with each AT device and program requires significant time and effort on the part of researchers and clinicians. This work presents the Multi-Purpose BCI Output Device (MBOD), a tool to help researchers and clinicians provide BCI control of many forms of AT in a plug-and-play fashion, i.e. without the installation of drivers or software on the AT device, and a proof-of-concept of the practicality of such an approach. The MBOD was designed to meet the goals of target device compatibility, BCI input device compatibility, convenience, and intuitive command structure. The MBOD was successfully used to interface a BCI with multiple AT devices (including two wheelchair seating systems), as well as computers running Windows (XP and 7), Mac and Ubuntu Linux operating systems. PMID:22208120

  8. MYRRHA: A multipurpose accelerator driven system for research & development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abderrahim, H. Aı̈t; Kupschus, P.; Malambu, E.; Benoit, Ph; Van Tichelen, K.; Arien, B.; Vermeersch, F.; D'hondt, P.; Jongen, Y.; Ternier, S.; Vandeplassche, D.

    2001-05-01

    SCK·CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, in partnership with IBA s.a., Ion Beam Applications, is designing an ADS prototype, MYRRHA, and is conducting an associated R&D programme. The project focuses primarily on research on structural materials, nuclear fuel, liquid metals and associated aspects, on subcritical reactor physics and subsequently on applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, radioisotope production and safety research on sub-critical systems. The MYRRHA system is intended to be a multipurpose R&D facility and is expected to become a new major research infrastructure for the European partners presently involved in the ADS Demo development. Ion Beam Applications is performing the accelerator development. Currently the preliminary conceptual design of the MYRRHA system is under way and an intensive R&D programme is assessing the points of greatest risk in the present design. This work will define the final choice of characteristics of the facility. In this paper, we will report on the status of the pre-design study as of June 2000 as well as on the methods and results of the R&D programme.

  9. Curcumin: a multipurpose matrix for MALDI mass spectrometry imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Francese, S; Bradshaw, R; Flinders, B; Mitchell, C; Bleay, S; Cicero, L; Clench, M R

    2013-05-21

    Curcumin, 1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione, is a polyphenolic compound naturally present in the Curcuma longa plant, also known as tumeric. Used primarily as a coloring agent and additive in food, curcumin has also long been used for its therapeutic properties in a number of medical scenarios. Here, we report on an entirely novel use of curcumin; its extended structure of conjugated double bonds suggested the potential of this compound to be a good matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) matrix candidate. In the quest for novel and more efficient MALDI MS matrices, curcumin is revealed to be a versatile and multipurpose matrix. It has been applied successfully for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and drugs, for imaging lipids in skin and lung tissues, and for the analysis of a number of compound classes in fingermarks. In each case, the use of curcumin is shown to promote analyte ionization very efficiently as well as provide excellent mass spectral image quality. PMID:23621442

  10. Multipurpose Logistics Module, Leonardo, Rests in Discovery's Payload Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This in-orbit close up shows the Italian Space Agency-built multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), Leonardo, the primary cargo of the STS-102 mission, resting in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth station assembly flight and NASA's 103rd overall flight, STS-102 launched March 8, 2001 for an almost 13 day mission.

  11. Multipurpose Power Converter for Non-Grid-Connected Microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovos, Panagis N.; Georgakas, Konstantinos G.

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a multipurpose converter, appropriate for non-grid-connected microsystems, which are prone to harmonic distortion. The converter suppresses harmonics by injecting mirror harmonics in the modulation stage. An important property is that it continuously monitors and significantly reduces the harmonic content without the use of active or passive low-frequency filters. This is under constant switching frequency, no matter if the harmonics are mainly created by the source, the loads or even its own operation. The converter is regulating output voltage using typical fuzzy control. The two types of control (harmonic and voltage) do not seem to affect each other during operation. Furthermore, it can supply either dc or ac loads from a dc source. The versatility of the converter is a useful property for remote or mobile micropower systems, where neither sources nor loads are of a single type. The converter has been tested successfully for a combination of harmonic-injecting electric appliances and various load step changes.

  12. A novel multipurpose modular mini-endoscope for otology.

    PubMed

    Bozzato, Alessandro; Bozzato, Victoria; Al Kadah, Basel; Schick, Bernhard

    2014-12-01

    Transtympanic access to the round window membrane (RWM) for drug delivery is in the focus of otology and has stimulated development of various endoscopes. These endoscopes are tasked to enable best visualization at a low diameter and to offer a working channel for various instruments. The specific aspect of sterilization is a major issue especially in regard to the diameter of the endoscope with its integrated working channel. We evaluated a new multi-purpose modular semi-rigid optical fiber endoscope (10,000 pixel resolution) for minimal invasive middle ear endoscopy focusing on access to the RWM and micro instruments in 12 cadaver specimens. Microscopic visualization was compared to endoscopy. With the modular mini ear endoscope (MMEE) we were able to visualize the RWM in 3 specimens directly and in 8 specimens after removal of a mucous membrane using micro instruments. A bony overhang prevented visualization of the RWM in one case. The endoscope enabled minimal invasive RWM access initially in a higher number of cases compared to microscope investigation. The designed MMEE is suited to access transtympanic the round window membrane even in situations of an obstructed round window niche. The modular concept of the endoscope is attractive for different types of indications, various instruments and with regard to the aspects of sterilization. Experiences in humans are the next necessary step to define the possible role of this endoscope in otology. PMID:25318687

  13. Multi-purpose hydrogen isotopes separation plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Boniface, H.A.; Gnanapragasam, N.V.; Ryland, D.K.; Suppiah, S.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    There is a potential interest at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories to remove tritium from moderately tritiated light water and to reclaim tritiated, downgraded heavy water. With only a few limitations, a single CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process configuration can be designed to remove tritium from heavy water or light water and upgrade heavy water. Such a design would have some restrictions on the nature of the feed-stock and tritium product, but could produce essentially tritium-free light or heavy water that is chemically pure. The extracted tritium is produced as a small quantity of tritiated heavy water. The overall plant capacity is fixed by the total amount of electrolysis and volume of catalyst. In this proposal, with 60 kA of electrolysis a throughput of 15 kg*h{sup -1} light water for detritiation, about 4 kg*h{sup -1} of heavy water for detritiation and about 27 kg*h{sup -1} of 98% heavy water for upgrading can be processed. Such a plant requires about 1,000 liters of AECL isotope exchange catalyst. The general design features and details of this multi-purpose CECE process are described in this paper, based on some practical choices of design criteria. In addition, we outline the small differences that must be accommodated and some compromises that must be made to make the plant capable of such flexible operation. (authors)

  14. An investigation of models of the IP3R channel in Xenopus oocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, J. W.; Yang, D. P.; Pearson, J. E.; Rdiger, S.

    2009-09-01

    We consider different models of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) channels in order to fit nuclear membrane patch clamp data of the stationary open probability, mean open time, and mean close time of channels in the Xenopus oocyte. Our results indicate that rather than to treat the tetrameric IP3R as four independent and identical subunits, one should assume sequential binding-unbinding processes of Ca2+ ions and IP3 messengers. Our simulations also favor the assumption that a channel opens through a conformational transition from a close state to an active state.

  15. A kinetic model for type I and II IP3R accounting for mode changes.

    PubMed

    Siekmann, Ivo; Wagner, Larry E; Yule, David; Crampin, Edmund J; Sneyd, James

    2012-08-22

    Based upon an extensive single-channel data set, a Markov model for types I and II inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)R) is developed. The model aims to represent accurately the kinetics of both receptor types of IP(3)R depending on the concentrations of inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)), adenosine trisphosphate (ATP), and intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)). In particular, the model takes into account that for some combinations of ligands the IP(3)R switches between extended periods of inactivity alternating with intervals of bursting activity (mode changes). In a first step, the inactive and active modes are modeled separately. It is found that, within modes, both receptor types are ligand-independent. In a second step, the submodels are connected by transition rates. Ligand-dependent regulation of the channel activity is achieved by modulating these transitions between active and inactive modes. As a result, a compact representation of the IP(3)R is obtained that accurately captures stochastic single-channel dynamics including mode changes in a model with six states and 10 rate constants, only two of which are ligand-dependent. PMID:22947927

  16. IP3R deficit underlies loss of salivary fluid secretion in Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Teos, Leyla Y; Zhang, Yu; Cotrim, Ana P; Swaim, William; Won, Jon H; Ambrus, Julian; Shen, Long; Bebris, Lolita; Grisius, Margaret; Jang, Shyh-Ing; Yule, David I; Ambudkar, Indu S; Alevizos, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    The autoimmune exocrinopathy, Sjögren's syndrome (SS), is associated with secretory defects in patients, including individuals with mild lymphocytic infiltration and minimal glandular damage. The mechanism(s) underlying the secretory dysfunction is not known. We have used minor salivary gland biopsies from SS patients and healthy individuals to assess acinar cell function in morphologically intact glandular areas. We report that agonist-regulated intracellular Ca(2+) release, critically required for Ca(2+) entry and fluid secretion, is defective in acini from SS patients. Importantly, these acini displayed reduction in IP3R2 and IP3R3, but not AQP5 or STIM1. Similar decreases in IP3R and carbachol (CCh)-stimulated [Ca(2+)]i elevation were detected in acinar cells from lymphotoxin-alpha (LTα) transgenic (TG) mice, a model for (SS). Treatment of salivary glands from healthy individuals with LT α, a cytokine linked to disease progression in SS and IL14α mice, reduced Ca(2+) signaling. Together, our findings reveal novel IP3R deficits in acinar cells that underlie secretory dysfunction in SS patients. PMID:26365984

  17. A Kinetic Model for Type I and II IP3R Accounting for Mode Changes

    PubMed Central

    Siekmann, Ivo; Wagner, Larry E.; Yule, David; Crampin, Edmund J.; Sneyd, James

    2012-01-01

    Based upon an extensive single-channel data set, a Markov model for types I and II inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) is developed. The model aims to represent accurately the kinetics of both receptor types of IP3R depending on the concentrations of inositol trisphosphate (IP3), adenosine trisphosphate (ATP), and intracellular calcium (Ca2+). In particular, the model takes into account that for some combinations of ligands the IP3R switches between extended periods of inactivity alternating with intervals of bursting activity (mode changes). In a first step, the inactive and active modes are modeled separately. It is found that, within modes, both receptor types are ligand-independent. In a second step, the submodels are connected by transition rates. Ligand-dependent regulation of the channel activity is achieved by modulating these transitions between active and inactive modes. As a result, a compact representation of the IP3R is obtained that accurately captures stochastic single-channel dynamics including mode changes in a model with six states and 10 rate constants, only two of which are ligand-dependent. PMID:22947927

  18. A Counterpart of the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa Soliton Hierarchy Associated with so(3,R)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wen-Xiu; Manukure, Solomon; Zheng, Hong-Chan

    2014-09-01

    A counterpart of the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa (WKI) soliton hierarchy, associated with so(3;R), is presented through the zero curvature formulation. Its spectral matrix is defined by the same linear combination of basis vectors as the WKI one, and its Hamiltonian structures yielding Liouville integrability are furnished by the trace identity

  19. Benefits of Student-Generated Note Packets: A Preliminary Investigation of SQ3R Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlston, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Minimal research to date has evaluated the impact of Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review (SQ3R) implementation (i.e., surveying prior to reading, generating questions, reading to answer said questions, reciting, and reviewing information) on content retention and student performance. Existing research is anecdotal or lacks ecological validity. The…

  20. SOAR versus SQ3R: A Test of Two Study Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairam, Dharma; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Rogers-Kasson, Sarah; Patterson-Hazley, Melissa; Marxhausen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Although researchers have long investigated ways to improve study habits and raise achievement, few studies compare study strategy systems with one another. No study to date has compared the long popular SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) system with the more modern SOAR (Select, Organize, Associate, Regulate) system. This study

  1. Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models: a multilevel perspective.

    PubMed

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Bakker, Wieger E

    2012-01-01

    The importance placed on risk avoidance in our society has resulted in a broad range of regulations intended to guarantee safety of products such as pharmaceuticals and chemicals. Many of these regulations rely on animal tests. As a result, about 25% of the animal experiments in Europe are done for regulatory purposes. There are many initiatives that aim to replace, reduce, or refine laboratory animal use, but the regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models lags behind. The central question of this study is: "Which variables influence the regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models and in what way?" Regulatory acceptance is seen as one of the biggest hurdles 3R models face, but the rationale behind this is still underexplored. This study is an approach to filling that gap by combining opinions from experts in the field with literature on technology acceptance and risk regulation, resulting in a model of the variables that determine the process of the regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models. PMID:22847256

  2. SOAR versus SQ3R: A Test of Two Study Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairam, Dharma; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Rogers-Kasson, Sarah; Patterson-Hazley, Melissa; Marxhausen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Although researchers have long investigated ways to improve study habits and raise achievement, few studies compare study strategy systems with one another. No study to date has compared the long popular SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) system with the more modern SOAR (Select, Organize, Associate, Regulate) system. This study…

  3. Comparison of ICD-10 and DC: 0-3R Diagnoses in Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equit, Monika; Paulus, Frank; Fuhrmann, Pia; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare diagnoses of patients from a special outpatient department for infants, toddlers and preschoolers. Specifically, overlap, age and gender differences according to the two classification systems DC: 0-3R and ICD-10 were examined. 299 consecutive children aged 0-5;11 years received both ICD-10 and

  4. Comparison of ICD-10 and DC: 0-3R Diagnoses in Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equit, Monika; Paulus, Frank; Fuhrmann, Pia; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare diagnoses of patients from a special outpatient department for infants, toddlers and preschoolers. Specifically, overlap, age and gender differences according to the two classification systems DC: 0-3R and ICD-10 were examined. 299 consecutive children aged 0-5;11 years received both ICD-10 and…

  5. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  7. SQ3R: A Must for Teaching Science Concepts to Sixth Graders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paporello, Ann Gale

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the SQ3R study skill technique in the science education of sixth grade students. Subjects, 30 students in a control group and 19 students in the experimental group comprising two separate classrooms in a culturally mixed urban elementary school, used the science text "Gateways to Science" and completed

  8. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623Surety Bond (DA Form...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623Surety Bond (DA Form...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623Surety Bond (DA Form...

  11. Benefits of Student-Generated Note Packets: A Preliminary Investigation of SQ3R Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlston, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Minimal research to date has evaluated the impact of Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review (SQ3R) implementation (i.e., surveying prior to reading, generating questions, reading to answer said questions, reciting, and reviewing information) on content retention and student performance. Existing research is anecdotal or lacks ecological validity. The

  12. Comparative evaluation of multi-purpose solutions in the stabilization of tear lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Barniak, Vicki L; Burke, Susan E; Venkatesh, Srini

    2010-12-01

    The range and extent of tear proteins removed by various multi-purpose solutions has been investigated, but there is little information in the literature about their ability to prevent denaturation of tear proteins, particularly lysozyme. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of Bausch+Lomb Biotrue multi-purpose solution and other care solutions to affect denaturation of lysozyme using a lysozyme activity assay. The test solutions used were: Biotrue multi-purpose solution, Bausch+Lomb renu() fresh, formerly ReNu MultiPlus(), Alcon OPTI-FREE RepleniSH, Alcon OPTI-FREE EXPRESS, CIBA VISION AQuify, and AMO COMPLETE Multi-Purpose Solution Easy Rub Formula. A phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution served as a control. The test and control solutions containing lysozyme were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a known denaturant of the enzyme. The assay was based on digestion of the cell wall of Micrococcus luteus in a suspension, a substrate sensitive to active lysozyme. Enzymatic activity against M. luteus was used to assess activity of lysozyme. The decrease in the turbidity of the cell wall suspension, a measure of relative enzyme activity, was determined by following the decrease in absorbance (at 450nm) over time using a spectrophotometer. Statistically significant greater stabilization of lysozyme was observed with Biotrue multi-purpose solution and renu fresh than with OPTI-FREE RepleniSH, OPTI-FREE EXPRESS, AQuify, COMPLETE Multi-Purpose Solution Easy Rub Formula, and a PBS control. The lysozyme activity assay revealed that Biotrue multi-purpose solution and renu fresh have the ability to stabilize lysozyme under conditions that typically denature the protein. PMID:21071258

  13. No Contribution of IP3-R(2) to Disease Phenotype in Models of Dilated Cardiomyopathy or Pressure Overload Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Nicola; Ouyang, Kunfu; McMullen, Julie R.; Kiriazis, Helen; Sheikh, Farah; Wu, Wei; Mu, Yongxin; Du, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Ju; Woodcock, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the contribution of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3, IP3) receptors (IP3-R) to disease progression in mouse models of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and pressure overload hypertrophy. Mice expressing mammalian sterile 20 like kinase and dominant negative phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in heart (Mst1 x dn-PI3K-2Tg; DCM-2Tg) develop severe DCM and conduction block, associated with increased expression of IP3-R(2) and heightened generation of Ins(1,4,5)P3. Similar increases in Ins(1,4,5)P3 and IP3-R(2) are caused by thoracic aortic constriction (TAC). Methods and Results To evaluate the contribution of IP3-R(2) to disease progression, the DCM-2Tg mice were further crossed with mice in which the type 2 IP3-R (IP3-R(2)?/?) had been deleted (DCM-2Tg x IP3-R(2) ?/?) and TAC was performed on IP3-R(2) ?/?mice. Hearts from DCM-2Tg mice and DCM-2Tg x IP3-R(2) ?/? were similar in terms of chamber dilatation, atrial enlargement and ventricular wall thinning. Electrophysiological changes were also similar in the DCM-2Tg mice, with and without IP3-R(2). Deletion of IP3-R(2) did not alter the progression of heart failure, as DCM-2Tg mice with and without IP3-R(2) had similarly reduced contractility, increased lung congestion, atrial thrombus and both strains died between 10 and 12 weeks of age. Loss of IP3-R(2) did not alter the progression of hypertrophy following TAC. Conclusions We conclude that IP3-R(2) do not contribute to the progression of DCM or pressure overload hypertrophy despite increased expression and heightened generation of the ligand, Ins(1,4,5)P3. PMID:23258573

  14. Reinvestigation of the electrochemical lithium intercalation in 2H- and 3R-NbS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Youhao; Park, Kyu-Sung; Singh, Preetam; Li, Weishan; Goodenough, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Layered sulfides, 2H-Li0.7NbS2 (s.g.: P63/mmc) and 3R-NbS2 (s.g: R3m) were synthesized and characterized as electrode materials for a lithium-ion battery. 2H-NbS2 has been known as a poor electrode material for Li+-intercalation. However, both 2H-Li0.7NbS2 and 3R-NbS2 show reversible charge/discharge reactions based on the Nb(IV)/Nb(III) redox couple. They present distinctive differences in the voltage curves as a result of local structural differences. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests between 1.0 and 3.0 V versus Li showed that discharge capacities were 169.5 mAh g-1 for 2H-LixNbS2 and 169.0 mAh g-1 for 3R-LixNbS2 at 0.05 C rate and room temperature. At 10 C rate, 2H-LixNbS2 delivered a discharge capacity of 84.0 mAh g-1 while 3R-LixNbS2 kept 74.9 mAh g-1. After 200 cycles at 1 C, 9% of capacity fade was observed for 2H-LixNbS2 (from 141.5 to 129.4 mAh g-1) and 3R-LixNbS2 showed 14% fade from 139.4 to 120.1 mAh g-1. The key to improvement of the electrochemical performance of the 2H-LixNbS2 electrode is an initial synthesis of Li0.7NbS2.

  15. Emergy evaluation perspectives of a multipurpose dam proposal in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daeseok; Park, Seok Soon

    2002-11-01

    The 'emergy' concept was used to evaluate the economy of Korea and the contributions of a multipurpose dam proposal to the real wealth of the Korean economy. Emergy is defined as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a product or service. The indices for Korea calculated from the emergy evaluation were close to those of developed countries. Even though its monetary balance of payments was negative in 1997, the economy of Korea showed positive balance in trade when exports and imports were expressed in emergy. The emergy evaluation showed that the Korean economy places a large stress on its environment. Water supply and generation of electricity were the most important contributions of the proposed dam in terms of emergy; 46.5 and 45.1% of the total benefit, respectively. Flood control contributed 8.4% of the total benefit. Major costs associated with the proposed dam were from sediments (33.2% of the total cost), construction services (22.8%), and social disruption of the region (21.6%). In terms of emergy, the ratio of benefits to costs of the proposed dam was 2.78 if sediments are not included, and 1.86 if sediments are included, which result in more benefits than costs in both cases. The benefit to cost ratio of the dam was larger than that of the current system (1.42) without the dam whether sediments are included in the total cost or not. The environmental stress of the proposed dam was considerably lower than that of the Korean economy, but the dam might increase stress on local environment. PMID:12448407

  16. [Adaptive "3R" De-Noising Algorithm Based on Near Infrared Bi-Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-yu; Fang, Yi-ming; Tan, Feng; Wang, Zhi-gang; Tong, Liang

    2015-04-01

    Adaptive de-noising algorithm is proposed based on transmission spectrum and absorption spectrum of near infrared. Near infrared transmission spectrum and absorption spectrum collected synchronously are decomposed into intrinsic mode functions by ensemble empirical mode decomposition; the intrinsic mode function is a single frequency component. Correlations between intrinsic mode functions and transmission spectrum, absorption spectrum were calculated, and the correlation between intrinsic mode functions of transmission spectrum and absorption spectrum was also computed. The results show that the intrinsic mode function with minimum correlation coefficient should be noise component. The self-correlation of this intrinsic mode function was analyzed to judge whether the intrinsic mode function is noise. IF the self-correlation is very large at the midpoint and is zero or very small at the other point of the spectrum, then the intrinsic mode function is noise component for judgment, based on which "3R" algorithm is named to judge whether the intrinsic mode function is noise component. Removing noise component, constructing spectral signal and circulating the previous decomposition was conducted, and the noise reduction process was ended until it did not meet the "3R" rule. To do experiment on the simulated spectrum with noise, the effect of de-noising with "3R" algorithm is better than EMD and EEMD low pass filter, and it is not so good as wavelet decomposition. In the real spectrum testing, the model was established between spectra treated by above methods with chlorophyll on three layers. BP neural network, and the model de-noised by "3R" method has the biggest correlation coefficient and prediction coefficient, but the smallest correction standard error and prediction standard error. "3R" method's effects on the peak position and peak intensity of spectrum are the smallest among the four kinds of de-noising methods. Experiments show that the "3R" algorithm based on bi-spectrum can be used for near infrared spectra de-nosing without presetting the number of iterations, there is no need to consider layers of decomposition, also no need of basis function, and the adaptability is very strong. PMID:26197620

  17. 3'-R/S-hydroxyvoacamine, a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from Tabernaemontana divaricata.

    PubMed

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Schripsema, Jan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2013-04-15

    Guided by the acetylcholinesterase inhibiting activity, the bisindole alkaloid 3'-R/S-hydroxyvoacamine was isolated from a stem extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata, a plant used in Thailand in traditional rejuvenation remedies for improving the memory. The structure of the alkaloid was elucidated by extensive use of NMR spectroscopy and the complete assignment of the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra is reported. The alkaloid acted as a non-competitive inhibitor against AChE with an IC50 value of 7.00±1.99 μM. An HPLC method was developed for the quantitative analysis of the AChE inhibitor. It suggested that there was 12.4% (w/w) of 3'-R/S-hydroxyvoacamine in the alkaloid enriched fraction of T. divaricata stem. PMID:23375813

  18. Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

  19. Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration scheme with improved scalability using TOAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Shankar, Raji; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2006-10-01

    A novel re-timing, re-amplifying, and re-shaping (3R) regeneration system is proposed to process multiple WDM (wavelengthdivision-multiplexing) channels simultaneously. Its re-timing capability is investigated by both simulation and experiment with polarizationscrambling method at 10 Gb/s bit rate. Jitter tolerance up to 0.8 UIpp is demonstrated with BER improvement and floor breaking ability.

  20. ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprinting in elite Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Mikami, E; Fuku, N; Murakami, H; Tsuchie, H; Takahashi, H; Ohiwa, N; Tanaka, H; Pitsiladis, Y P; Higuchi, M; Miyachi, M; Kawahara, T; Tanaka, M

    2014-02-01

    The ACTN3 R577X genotype has been found to associate with sprint/power phenotypes in all elite athlete cohorts investigated. This association has not been extensively studied in elite Asian athletes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association between the ACTN3 R577X genotype and elite Japanese track and field athlete status. 299 elite Japanese track and field athletes (134 sprint/power athletes; 165 endurance/middle-power athletes) and 649 Japanese controls were genotyped for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism. All athletes were of national or international level. Sprint/power athletes showed a higher frequency of RR + RX genotype than controls (111/134 [82.8%] vs. 478/649 [73.7%], P = 0.025 under the R-dominant model), while there was no significant difference between endurance/middle-power athletes and controls (126/165 [76.4%] vs. 478/649 [73.7%], P = 0.48 under the R-dominant model). Sprinters with the RR + RX genotype had significantly faster personal best times for the 100 m than those with XX genotype (10.42 ± 0.05 s vs. 10.64 ± 0.09 s, P = 0.042); no such association was found in the 400 m sprinters (47.02 ± 0.36 s vs. 47.56 ± 0.99 s, P = 0.62). ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprint/power performance in elite Japanese track and field athletes, especially short sprint performance. PMID:23868678

  1. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING PHASE 3 RESTRUCTURED (3R)

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-03-17

    This scope document defines the work scope for accomplishing the design of the GE MS7001H and MS9001H (7H and 9H) combined-cycle power systems under the original ATS Phase 3 DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-95MC31176, and incorporates changes in scope required to convert Phase 3 to the ''restructured'' Phase 3R as defined in Amendment A012 to the Cooperative Agreement.

  2. The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism across Three Groups of Elite Male European Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Femia, Pedro; Pushkarev, Vladimir P.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Dyatlov, Dmitry A.; Lekontsev, Evgeny V.; Kulikov, Leonid M.; Birk, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) is a strong candidate to influence elite athletic performance. Yet, controversy exists in the literature owing to between-studies differences in the ethnic background and sample size of the cohorts, the latter being usually low, which makes comparisons difficult. In this case:control genetic study we determined the association between elite athletic status and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism within three cohorts of European Caucasian men, i.e. Spanish, Polish and Russian [633 cases (278 elite endurance and 355 power athletes), and 808 non-athletic controls]. The odds ratio (OR) of a power athlete harbouring the XX versus the RR genotype compared with sedentary controls was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.340.48; P?=?0.006]. We also observed that the OR of an endurance athlete having the XX versus the RR genotype compared with power athletes was 1.88 (95%CI: 1.073.31; P?=?0.028). In endurance athletes, the OR of a world-class competitor having the XX genotype versus the RR+RX genotype was 3.74 (95%CI: 1.0812.94; P?=?0.038) compared with those of a lower (national) competition level. No association (P>0.1) was noted between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and competition level (world-class versus national-level) in power athletes. Our data provide comprehensive support for the influence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on elite athletic performance. PMID:22916217

  3. Two dimensional valley electrons and excitons in the noncentrosymmetric 3R MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Ryosuke; Ochi, Masayuki; Bordacs, Sandor; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokura, Yoshinori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Arita, Ryotaro

    2015-03-01

    Possible control of the valley-dependent spin polarization in transition-metal dichalcogenides has been a hot topic as the valleytronics. Through the recent great progress based on the monolayer systems, people's interest is shifting to multilayered polytypes. The centrosymmetric 2H-stacked systems have been much studied for switching of the valley-dependent spin polarization. On the other hand, some of the authors [Suzuki et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 611 (2014)] have successfully fabricated the noncentrosymmetric 3R-stacked MoS2 multilayer and demonstrated the valley polarization independent of the number of layers. On the basis of this success, we further examined the valley electronic states in the 3R-MoS2 and found their novel two-dimensional properties utilizable for the valleytronics [Akashi et al., submitted.]. Namely, interlayer hopping of the valley electrons was proved to be zero as a consequence of a quantum-interference effect caused by the 3R-stacking geometry. In the talk, we report the results of the reflectivity measurement and analysis with an anisotropic hydrogen atomic model and show that the zero hopping causes 2D-hydrogen-like spectral series and confinement of the wave function within a single layer of the valley exciton. Present address: The University of Tokyo.

  4. Metabolism of (Z)-(1R,3R)-Profluthrin in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abe, Jun; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Omori, Rie; Mikata, Kazuki; Kurosawa, Motohiro; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Isobe, Naohiko

    2015-10-01

    When [benzyl-?-(14)C]-labeled (Z)-(1R,3R)-profluthrin (2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-methylbenzyl (Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl) cyclopropanecarboxylate, a newly developed pyrethroid) was administered orally to rats at 1 mg/kg, around 70% was absorbed, metabolized, and mainly excreted into urine within 48 h. Radioactivity in plasma reached Cmax at 6-8 h, and decreased (half-life; 37-52 h). A similar tendency was observed also in tissues. Absorption rate was slightly lower at high dose, while kinetics and distribution did not change. Eight metabolites were detected in urine and one in feces. Most of the (14)C in feces was unabsorbed (Z)-(1R,3R)-profluthrin. The main metabolic reactions were ester cleavage, hydroxylation of the methyl group on the C4-position of the benzene ring, and its glucuronidation or oxidation to carboxylic acid. Oxidation of the geminal dimethyl on the cyclopropane-C2 to carboxylic acid, oxidation followed by hydration of the propenyl double bond, and ?-oxidation to carboxylic acid and mercapturic acid conjugation of the benzyl alcohol were observed as minor reactions. PMID:26357989

  5. TACR3 mutations disrupt NK3R function through distinct mechanisms in GnRH-deficient patients

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Sekoni D.; Abreu, Ana Paula; Xu, Shuyun; Muyide, Titilayo; Gianetti, Elena; Tusset, Cintia; Carroll, Jessica; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Carroll, Rona S.; Kaiser, Ursula B.

    2014-01-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) and its G-protein-coupled receptor, NK3R, have been implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH release; however, little is known about the structure-function relationship of this ligand-receptor pair. Moreover, loss-of-function NK3R mutations cause GnRH deficiency in humans. Using missense mutations in NK3R we previously identified in patients with GnRH deficiency, we demonstrate that Y256H and Y315C NK3R mutations in the fifth and sixth transmembrane domains (TM5 and TM6), resulted in reduced whole-cell (79.37.2%) or plasma membrane (67.37.3%) levels, respectively, compared with wild-type (WT) NK3R, with near complete loss of inositol phosphate (IP) signaling, implicating these domains in receptor trafficking, processing, and/or stability. We further demonstrate in a FRET-based assay that R295S NK3R, in the third intracellular loop (IL3), bound NKB but impaired dissociation of Gq-protein subunits from the receptor compared with WT NK3R, which showed a 10.0 1.3% reduction in FRET ratios following ligand binding, indicating activation of Gq-protein signaling. Interestingly, R295S NK3R, identified in the heterozygous state in a GnRH-deficient patient, also interfered with dissociation of G proteins and IP signaling from wild-type NK3R, indicative of dominant-negative effects. Collectively, our data illustrate roles for TM5 and TM6 in NK3R trafficking and ligand binding and for IL3 in NK3R signaling.Noel, S. D., Abreu, A. P., Xu, S., Muyide, T., Gianetti, E., Tusset, C., Carroll, J., Latronico, A. C., Seminara, S. B., Carroll, R. S., Kaiser, U. B. TACR3 mutations disrupt NK3R function through distinct mechanisms in GnRH-deficient patients. PMID:24376026

  6. IP3R2 levels dictate the apoptotic sensitivity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells to an IP3R-derived peptide targeting the BH4 domain of Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Akl, H; Monaco, G; La Rovere, R; Welkenhuyzen, K; Kiviluoto, S; Vervliet, T; Molgó, J; Distelhorst, C W; Missiaen, L; Mikoshiba, K; Parys, J B; De Smedt, H; Bultynck, G

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R)/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) complexes using a cell-permeable peptide (stabilized TAT-fused IP3R-derived peptide (TAT-IDP(S))) that selectively targets the BH4 domain of Bcl-2 but not that of B-cell lymphoma 2-extra large (Bcl-Xl) potentiated pro-apoptotic Ca(2+) signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. However, the molecular mechanisms rendering cancer cells but not normal cells particularly sensitive to disrupting IP3R/Bcl-2 complexes are poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the effect of TAT-IDP(S) in a more heterogeneous Bcl-2-dependent cancer model using a set of 'primed to death' diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DL-BCL) cell lines containing elevated Bcl-2 levels. We discovered a large heterogeneity in the apoptotic responses of these cells to TAT-IDP(S) with SU-DHL-4 being most sensitive and OCI-LY-1 being most resistant. This sensitivity strongly correlated with the ability of TAT-IDP(S) to promote IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release. Although total IP3R-expression levels were very similar among SU-DHL-4 and OCI-LY-1, we discovered that the IP3R2-protein level was the highest for SU-DHL-4 and the lowest for OCI-LY-1. Strikingly, TAT-IDP(S)-induced Ca(2+) rise and apoptosis in the different DL-BCL cell lines strongly correlated with their IP3R2-protein level, but not with IP3R1-, IP3R3- or total IP3R-expression levels. Inhibiting or knocking down IP3R2 activity in SU-DHL-4-reduced TAT-IDP(S)-induced apoptosis, which is compatible with its ability to dissociate Bcl-2 from IP3R2 and to promote IP3-induced pro-apoptotic Ca(2+) signaling. Thus, certain chronically activated B-cell lymphoma cells are addicted to high Bcl-2 levels for their survival not only to neutralize pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family members but also to suppress IP3R hyperactivity. In particular, cancer cells expressing high levels of IP3R2 are addicted to IP3R/Bcl-2 complex formation and disruption of these complexes using peptide tools results in pro-apoptotic Ca(2+) signaling and cell death. PMID:23681227

  7. kVp estimate intercomparison between Unfors XI, Radcal 4075 and a new CDTN multipurpose instrument.

    PubMed

    Baptista Neto, A T; Oliveira, B B; Faria, L O

    2015-06-01

    In this work we compare the kVp estimate between CDTN multipurpose instrument, UnforsXI and Radcal 4075 meters under different combinations of voltage and filtration. The non-invasively measurements made using x-ray diagnostic and interventional radiology devices show similar tendencies to increase the kVp estimate when aluminum filters are placed in the path of the x-ray beam. The results reveal that the kVp estimate made by the CDTN multipurpose instrument is always satisfactory for highly filtered beam intensities. PMID:25481523

  8. Skylab M512 Materials Processing Facility (MPF) with the M518 Multipurpose Electric Facility (MEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The M512 Materials Processing Facility (MPF) with the M518 Multipurpose Electric Facility (MEF) tested and demonstrated a facility approach for materials process experimentation in space. It also provided a basic apparatus and a common interface for a group of metallic and nonmetallic materials experiments. The MPF consisted of a vacuum work chamber and associated mechanical and electrical controls. The M518 Multipurpose Electric Furnace (MEF) was an electric furnace system in which solidification, crystal growth, and other experiments involving phase changes were performed.

  9. Multipurpose Pressure Vessel Scanner and Photon Doppler Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Tayera

    2015-01-01

    Critical flight hardware typically undergoes a series of nondestructive evaluation methods to screen for defects before it is integrated into the flight system. Conventionally, pressure vessels have been inspected for flaws using a technique known as fluorescent dye penetrant, which is biased to inspector interpretation. An alternate method known as eddy current is automated and can detect small cracks better than dye penetrant. A new multipurpose pressure vessel scanner has been developed to perform internal and external eddy current scanning, laser profilometry, and thickness mapping on pressure vessels. Before this system can be implemented throughout industry, a probability of detection (POD) study needs to be performed to validate the system’s eddy current crack/flaw capabilities. The POD sample set will consist of 6 flight-like metal pressure vessel liners with defects of known size. Preparation for the POD includes sample set fabrication, system operation, procedure development, and eddy current settings optimization. For this, collaborating with subject matter experts was required. This technical paper details the preparation activities leading up to the POD study currently scheduled for winter 2015/2016. Once validated, this system will be a proven innovation for increasing the safety and reliability of necessary flight hardware.Additionally, testing of frangible joint requires Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) and Digital Image Correlation instrumentation. There is often noise associated with PDV data, which necessitates a frequency modulation (FM) signal-to-noise pre-test. Generally, FM radio works by varying the carrier frequency and mixing it with a fixed frequency source, creating a beat frequency which is represented by audio frequency that can be heard between about 20 to 20,000 Hz. Similarly, PDV reflects a shifted frequency (a phenomenon known as the Doppler Effect) from a moving source and mixes it with a fixed source frequency, which results in a beat frequency. However, for PDV, discerning the signal from the noise is difficult without a moving source to induce the modulation. A rotating wheel is currently being used as the moving source but its configuration is impractical and has cumbersome placement inside the current frangible joint test cell. As a way to combat this problem and verify a satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio, a reflective moving crystal piezo will be used to modulate a beat frequency, and an absorptive target will be used to block the signal in order to determine any back reflection coming from the probe and discern the true signal-to noise ratio. The piezo will be mounted and inserted onto the test table on an extendable telescopic antenna grounded by a magnetic base in the test zone. This piezo configuration will be more compatible within the test zone and allow for easy removal of the disk following acceptable signal verification and prior to frangible joint tests.Additionally, topics of what was learned and smaller tasks given at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) will be discussed. All statements in this paper are newly gained knowledge of what I have learned, observed, and have done while at WSTF.

  10. Multipurpose Pressure Vessel Scanner and Photon Doppler Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Tayera

    2015-01-01

    Critical flight hardware typically undergoes a series of nondestructive evaluation methods to screen for defects before it is integrated into the flight system. Conventionally, pressure vessels have been inspected for flaws using a technique known as fluorescent dye penetrant, which is biased to inspector interpretation. An alternate method known as eddy current is automated and can detect small cracks better than dye penetrant. A new multipurpose pressure vessel scanner has been developed to perform internal and external eddy current scanning, laser profilometry, and thickness mapping on pressure vessels. Before this system can be implemented throughout industry, a probability of detection (POD) study needs to be performed to validate the system's eddy current crack/flaw capabilities. The POD sample set will consist of 6 flight-like metal pressure vessel liners with defects of known size. Preparation for the POD includes sample set fabrication, system operation, procedure development, and eddy current settings optimization. For this, collaborating with subject matter experts was required. This technical paper details the preparation activities leading up to the POD study currently scheduled for winter 2015/2016. Once validated, this system will be a proven innovation for increasing the safety and reliability of necessary flight hardware. Additionally, testing of frangible joint requires Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) and Digital Image Correlation instrumentation. There is often noise associated with PDV data, which necessitates a frequency modulation (FM) signal-to-noise pre-test. Generally, FM radio works by varying the carrier frequency and mixing it with a fixed frequency source, creating a beat frequency which is represented by audio frequency that can be heard between about 20 to 20,000 Hz. Similarly, PDV reflects a shifted frequency (a phenomenon known as the Doppler Effect) from a moving source and mixes it with a fixed source frequency, which results in a beat frequency. However, for PDV, discerning the signal from the noise is difficult without a moving source to induce the modulation. A rotating wheel is currently being used as the moving source but its configuration is impractical and has cumbersome placement inside the current frangible joint test cell. As a way to combat this problem and verify a satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio, a reflective moving crystal piezo will be used to modulate a beat frequency, and an absorptive target will be used to block the signal in order to determine any back reflection coming from the probe and discern the true signal-to-noise ratio. The piezo will be mounted and inserted onto the test table on an extendable telescopic antenna grounded by a magnetic base in the test zone. This piezo configuration will be more compatible within the test zone and allow for easy removal of the disk following acceptable signal verification and prior to frangible joint tests.

  11. Naturally occurring neomorphic PIK3R1 mutations activate the MAPK pathway dictating therapeutic response to MAPK pathway inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Lydia W.T.; Yu, Shuangxing; Zhang, Dong; Li, Jie; Ng, Patrick K.S.; Panupinthu, Nattapon; Mitra, Shreya; Ju, Zhenlin; Yu, Qinghua; Liang, Han; Hawke, David H.; Lu, Yiling; Broaddus, Russell R.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary PIK3R1 (p85? regulatory subunit of PI3K) is frequently mutated across cancer lineages. Herein, we demonstrate that the most common recurrent PIK3R1 mutation PIK3R1R348* and a nearby mutation PIK3R1L370fs, in contrast to wild-type and mutations in other regions of PIK3R1, confers an unexpected sensitivity to MEK and JNK inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with the response to inhibitors, PIK3R1R348* and PIK3R1L370fs unexpectedly increase JNK and ERK phosphorylation. Surprisingly, p85? R348* and L370fs localize to the nucleus where the mutants provide a scaffold for multiple JNK pathway components facilitating nuclear JNK pathway activation. Our findings uncover an unexpected neomorphic role for PIK3R1R348* and neighboring truncation mutations in cellular signaling providing a rationale for therapeutic targeting of these mutant tumors. PMID:25284480

  12. KCNC3R420H, a K+ Channel Mutation Causative in Spinocerebellar Ataxia 13 Displays Aberrant Intracellular Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Iradi, Carolina; Bickford, Justin S.; Khare, Swati; Hall, Alexis; Nick, Jerelyn A.; Salmasinia, Donya; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Bannykh, Serguei; Huynh, Duong P.; Rincon-Limas, Diego E.; Pulst, Stefan M.; Nick, Harry S.; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro; Waters, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 13 (SCA13) is an autosomal dominant disease resulting from mutations in KCNC3 (Kv3.3), a voltage-gated potassium channel. The KCNC3R420H mutation was first identified as causative for SCA13 in a four-generation Filipino kindred with over 20 affected individuals. Electrophysiological analyses in oocytes previously showed that this mutation did not lead to a functional channel and displayed a dominant negative phenotype. In an effort to identify the molecular basis of this allelic form of SCA13, we first determined that human KCNC3WT and KCNC3R420H display disparate posttranslational modifications, and the mutant protein has reduced complex glycan adducts. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that KCNC3R420H was not properly trafficking to the plasma membrane and surface biotinylation demonstrated that KCNC3R420H exhibited only 24% as much surface expression as KCNC3WT. KCNC3R420H trafficked through the ER but was retained in the Golgi. KCNC3R420H expression results in altered Golgi and cellular morphology. Electron microscopy of KCNC3R420H localization further supports retention in the Golgi. These results are specific to the KCNC3R420H allele and provide new insight into the molecular basis of disease manifestation in SCA13. PMID:25152487

  13. KCNC3(R420H), a K(+) channel mutation causative in spinocerebellar ataxia 13 displays aberrant intracellular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Iradi, Carolina; Bickford, Justin S; Khare, Swati; Hall, Alexis; Nick, Jerelyn A; Salmasinia, Donya; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Bannykh, Serguei; Huynh, Duong P; Rincon-Limas, Diego E; Pulst, Stefan M; Nick, Harry S; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro; Waters, Michael F

    2014-11-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 13 (SCA13) is an autosomal dominant disease resulting from mutations in KCNC3 (Kv3.3), a voltage-gated potassium channel. The KCNC3(R420H) mutation was first identified as causative for SCA13 in a four-generation Filipino kindred with over 20 affected individuals. Electrophysiological analyses in oocytes previously showed that this mutation did not lead to a functional channel and displayed a dominant negative phenotype. In an effort to identify the molecular basis of this allelic form of SCA13, we first determined that human KCNC3(WT) and KCNC3(R420H) display disparate post-translational modifications, and the mutant protein has reduced complex glycan adducts. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that KCNC3(R420H) was not properly trafficking to the plasma membrane and surface biotinylation demonstrated that KCNC3(R420H) exhibited only 24% as much surface expression as KCNC3(WT). KCNC3(R420H) trafficked through the ER but was retained in the Golgi. KCNC3(R420H) expression results in altered Golgi and cellular morphology. Electron microscopy of KCNC3(R420H) localization further supports retention in the Golgi. These results are specific to the KCNC3(R420H) allele and provide new insight into the molecular basis of disease manifestation in SCA13. PMID:25152487

  14. Association of the ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism in Polish Power-Orientated Athletes.

    PubMed

    Cięszczyk, Paweł; Eider, Jerzy; Ostanek, Magdalena; Arczewska, Aleksandra; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Sawczyn, Stanisław; Ficek, Krzysztof; Krupecki, Krzysztof

    2011-06-01

    Alpha-actinins are an ancient family of actin-binding proteins that play structural and regulatory roles in cytoskeletal organization. In skeletal muscle, α-actinin-3 protein is an important structural component of the Z disc, where it anchors actin thin filaments, helping to maintain the myofibrillar array. A common nonsense polymorphism in codon 577 of the ACTN3 gene (R577X) results in α-actinin-3 deficiency in XX homozygotes. Based on knowledge about the role of ACTN3 R557X polymorphism in skeletal muscle function, we postulated that the genetic polymorphism of ACTN3 could also improve sprint and power ability. We compared genotypic and allelic frequencies of the ACTN3 R557X polymorphism in two groups of men of the same Caucasian descent: 158 power-orientated athletes and 254 volunteers not involved in competitive sport. The genotype distribution in the group of power-oriented athletes showed significant differences (P=0.008) compared to controls. However, among the investigated subgroups of athletes, only the difference of ACTN3 R577X genotype between sprinters and controls reached statistical significance (P=0.041). The frequencies of the ACTN3 577X allele (30.69% vs. 40.35%; P=0.005) were significantly different in all athletes compared to controls. Our results support the hypothesis that the ACTN3 577XX allele may have some beneficial effect on sprint-power performance, because the ACTN3 XX genotype is significantly reduced in Polish power-oriented athletes compared to controls. This finding seems to be in agreement with previously reported case-control studies. However, ACTN3 polymorphism as a genetic marker for sport talent identification should be interpreted with great caution. PMID:23486986

  15. Synchronous Rectified, Single Diode Sequential Shunt Switching Reglator (S3R)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonicello, Ferdinando; Llavona, Leticia Busto; Keller, Sylvain

    2011-10-01

    The present paper regards an improvement to the power system based on Sequential Shunt Switching Regulator (S3R) and derived topologies, in order to minimise the relevant power dissipation and finally allow an extreme miniaturisation of the relevant power cells, with reduction of the temperature stress and consequent advantages. The idea begins in the removal of one of the two serial diodes that are normally introduced on the power line to avoid that a failure in short circuit of a single diode would result in the short circuit of the main bus through the shunt device (Figure 1).

  16. C(0001)-(?3 ?3)R30-Cs structure determination: R-factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. P.; Jia Li; Wu, N. J.; Ignatiev, A.

    1989-08-01

    A dynamical LEED analysis is applied to study the atomic structure of the Cs/C(0001)-(?3?3)R30 surface. The - r-factor for every diffraction beam as well as the trend of the - r( d) function are used to search for the right surface model and to determine the correct geometric parameters. A model incorporating (Cs?A?ABAB) stacking with Cs atoms chemisorbed in hollow sites 2.7 above the top graphite plane, and the two top graphite layers shear-shifted to AA stacking and expanded to a separation of 3.85 , is the most probable structure.

  17. 25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 Section 36.103 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA...

  18. 25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 Section 36.103 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA...

  19. 25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 Section 36.103 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA...

  20. 25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 Section 36.103 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA...

  1. 25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 Section 36.103 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA...

  2. Engineering a Multi-Purpose Test Collection for Web Retrieval Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Peter; Craswell, Nick; Hawking, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes a test collection that was developed as a multi-purpose testbed for experiments on the Web in distributed information retrieval, hyperlink algorithms, and conventional ad hoc retrieval. Discusses inter-server connectivity, integrity of server holdings, inclusion of documents related to a wide spread of likely queries, and distribution of

  3. APPLICATION OF A MULTIPURPOSE UNEQUAL-PROBABILITY STREAM SURVEY IN THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified random sample with unequal-probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for data from the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of un...

  4. Multipurpose electric furnace system. [for use in Apollo-Soyuz Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazelsky, R.; Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Johnson, R. A.; Mchugh, J. P.; Foust, H. C.; Piotrowski, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    A multipurpose electric furnace system of advanced design for space applications was developed and tested. This system is intended for use in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program. It consists of the furnace, control package and a helium package for rapid cooldown.

  5. Multipurpose panel, phase 1, study report. [display utilizing multiplexing and digital techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkin, W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a multipurpose panel which provides a programmable electronic display for changeable panel nomenclature, multiplexes similar indicator display signals to the signal display, and demultiplexes command signals is examined. Topics discussed include: electronic display technology, miniaturized electronic and memory devices, and data management systems which employ digital address and multiplexing.

  6. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL NUMBER DENSITIES FOR MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER CRITICALITY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Thomas

    1996-01-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the number densities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be used in criticality evaluations of the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) waste packages. The objective of this analysis is to provide material number density information which will be referenced by future MPC criticality design analyses, such as for those supporting the Conceptual Design Report.

  7. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants

  8. Breeding status of tung tree (Vernicia sp.) in China, a multipurpose oilseed crop with industrial uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a developing country with the world’s largest population, China faces a serious challenge in satisfying its continuously increasing energy demands. Tung trees (Vernicia sp., especially V. fordii and V. montana), are multipurpose, perennial plants belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The unique ...

  9. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. 864.5425 Section 864.5425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and...

  10. Development of a bottle-free multipurpose incubator for generating various bacterial culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nam Woong; Lim, Yong

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a multipurpose incubator, without the gas cylinders (bottles) which are required for H2 and CO2 supplementation. In our bottle-free multipurpose incubator, the H2 and CO2 were generated by chemical reactions induced within the chamber. The reaction between sodium borohydride and acetic acid at a molar ratio of 1:1 was used to generate H2, according to the following formula: 4NaBH4 + 2CH3COOH + 7H2O --> 2CH3COONa + Na2B4(O7) + 16H2, whereas the other reaction, citric acid and sodium bicarbonate at a 1:1 molar ratio, was used to generate CO2, according to the following formula: C6H8(O7) + 3NaHCO3 --> Na3(C6H5(O7)) + 3H2O + 3CO2. Five species of obligate anaerobic bacteria, one strain of capnophilic bacterium, and one strain of microaerophilic bacterium were successfully cultured in the presence of their respective suitable conditions, all of which were successfully generated by our bottle-free multipurpose incubator. We conclude that, due to its greater safety, versatility, and significantly lower operating costs, this bottle-free multipurpose incubator can be used for the production of fastidious bacterial cultures, and constitutes a favorable step above existing anaerobic incubators. PMID:15765054

  11. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80.64 Section 80.64 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE...

  12. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80.64 Section 80.64 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE...

  13. HOTAIR Promotes Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Ovarian Cancer SKOV3 Cells Through Regulating PIK3R3.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lijun; Hui, Lina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the effect on proliferation, migration, and invasion after silencing HOTAIR in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells, and to elucidate the potential mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the mRNA expression level of HOTAIR and PIK3R3 in ovarian cancer SKOV3, OVCAR3, and A2780 cell lines. We analyzed the mRNA expression level of HOTAIR and PIK3R3 in ovarian SKOV3 after transection with miR-214 or miR-217. We analyzed the mRNA and protein expression level of PIK3R3 when silencing HOTAIR. We analyzed the expression of HOTAIR when silencing PIK3R3. We analyzed the proliferation, migration and invasion in ovarian cancer SKOV3 after silencing HOTAIR or PIK3R3. RESULTS The expression of HOTAIR and PIK3R3 in ovarian SKOV3 and OVCAR3 was increased compared with A2780 cells (P<0.05). The mRNA level of HOTAIR and PIK3R3 in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells was decreased when transected with miR-214 or miR-217 compared to negative control (p<0.05). The mRNA and protein level of PIK3R3 was decreased when HOTAIR was silenced and the mRNA level of HOTAIR was decreased when PIK3R3 was silenced (p<0.05). The proliferation, migration and invasion was decreased in ovarian SKOV3 when HOTAIR or PIK3R3 was silenced (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS HOTAIR can promote proliferation, migration, and invasion in ovarian SKOV3 cells as a competing endogenous RNA. PMID:26826873

  14. HOTAIR Promotes Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Ovarian Cancer SKOV3 Cells Through Regulating PIK3R3

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lijun; Hu, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the effect on proliferation, migration, and invasion after silencing HOTAIR in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells, and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Material/Methods We analyzed the mRNA expression level of HOTAIR and PIK3R3 in ovarian cancer SKOV3, OVCAR3, and A2780 cell lines. We analyzed the mRNA expression level of HOTAIR and PIK3R3 in ovarian SKOV3 after transection with miR-214 or miR-217. We analyzed the mRNA and protein expression level of PIK3R3 when silencing HOTAIR. We analyzed the expression of HOTAIR when silencing PIK3R3. We analyzed the proliferation, migration and invasion in ovarian cancer SKOV3 after silencing HOTAIR or PIK3R3. Results The expression of HOTAIR and PIK3R3 in ovarian SKOV3 and OVCAR3 was increased compared with A2780 cells (P<0.05). The mRNA level of HOTAIR and PIK3R3 in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells was decreased when transected with miR-214 or miR-217 compared to negative control (p<0.05). The mRNA and protein level of PIK3R3 was decreased when HOTAIR was silenced and the mRNA level of HOTAIR was decreased when PIK3R3 was silenced (p<0.05). The proliferation, migration and invasion was decreased in ovarian SKOV3 when HOTAIR or PIK3R3 was silenced (p<0.05). Conclusions HOTAIR can promote proliferation, migration, and invasion in ovarian SKOV3 cells as a competing endogenous RNA. PMID:26826873

  15. Mutations in MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 cause pleiotropic developmental defects and preferential down-regulation of multiple G2/M-specific genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Haga, Nozomi; Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Takamasa; Maeo, Kenichiro; Kubo, Minoru; Ohtani, Misato; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Demura, Taku; Nakamura, Kenzo; Jrgens, Gerd; Ito, Masaki

    2011-10-01

    R1R2R3-Myb proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved class of Myb family proteins important for cell cycle regulation and differentiation in eukaryotic cells. In plants, this class of Myb proteins are believed to regulate the transcription of G2/M phase-specific genes by binding to common cis-elements, called mitosis-specific activator (MSA) elements. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 act as transcriptional activators and positively regulate cytokinesis by activating the transcription of KNOLLE, which encodes a cytokinesis-specific syntaxin. Here, we show that the double mutation myb3r1 myb3r4 causes pleiotropic developmental defects, some of which are due to deficiency of KNOLLE whereas other are not, suggesting that multiple target genes are involved. Consistently, microarray analysis of the double mutant revealed altered expression of many genes, among which G2/M-specific genes showed significant overrepresentation of the MSA motif and a strong tendency to be down-regulated by the double mutation. Our results demonstrate, on a genome-wide level, the importance of the MYB3R-MSA pathway for regulating G2/M-specific transcription. In addition, MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 may have diverse roles during plant development by regulating G2/M-specific genes with various functions as well as genes possibly unrelated to the cell cycle. PMID:21862669

  16. Deficiency Analysis of the Tip of Chromosome 3R in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Merriam, John R.

    1986-01-01

    Region 98EF-100F in chromosome 3 is interesting for genetic analysis because it contains a number of genes of developmental importance. Although there are no preexisting simple deficiency stocks, this region is amenable to genetic manipulation using other types of rearrangements. In the present investigation we obtained deficiencies by combining the terminal deficiencies formed by segregation of Y;3 translocations with a series of duplications of the tip of 3R, both from Y;3 translocations with different breakpoints and from 3;1 duplications in which the 3R tip is carried as a second arm on the X chromosome. Analysis of such synthetic deficiencies reveals five haplo-abnormal loci in the 98A-100F interval. These include a haplolethal site, a newly described Minute and three previously reported Minute mutations. The newly discovered Minute has been designated M(3)99D and is localized cytologically to bands 99D1-9. The three previously reported Minute loci in the region have been localized more precisely: M(3)1 to bands 99B5-9, M(3)f to bands 99E4-F1 and M(3)g to region 100C-F. In addition, we have been able to obtain synthetic deficiencies uncovering all of the intervals from 99B5 to 100B. These deficiencies will be useful for future genetic and molecular analyses of the genes that map within the right tip of chromosome 3. PMID:17246317

  17. Chlorophenoxy aminoalkyl derivatives as histamine H3R ligands and antiseizure agents.

    PubMed

    Kuder, Kamil; ?a?ewska, Dorota; Latacz, Gniewomir; Schwed, Johannes Stephan; Karcz, Tadeusz; Stark, Holger; Karolak-Wojciechowska, Janina; Kie?-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-15

    A series of twenty new chlorophenoxyalkylamine derivatives (9-28) was synthesized and evaluated on their binding properties at the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R). The spacer alkyl chain contained five to seven carbon atoms. The highest affinities have shown the 4-chloro substituted derivatives 10 and 25 (Ki=133 and 128nM, respectively) classified as antagonists in cAMP accumulation assay (EC50=72 and 75nM, respectively). Synthesized compounds were also evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in Antiepileptic Screening Program (ASP) at National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (USA). Two compounds (4-chloro substituted derivatives: 20 and 26) were the most promising and showed in the MES seizure model in rats (after ip administration) ED50 values of 14mg/kg and 13.18mg/kg, respectively. Protective indexes (PI=TD50/ED50) were 3.2 for 20 and 3.8 for 26. Moreover, molecular modeling and docking studies were undertaken to explain affinity at hH3R of target compounds, and the experimentally and in silico estimation of properties like lipophilicity and metabolism was performed. Antiproliferative effects have been also investigated in vitro for selected compounds (10 and 25). These compounds neither possessed significant antiproliferative and antitumor activity, nor modulated CYP3A4 activity up to concentration of 10?M. PMID:26690914

  18. Effect of IP3R3 and NPY on age-related declines in olfactory stem cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Cuihong; Hegg, Colleen C

    2015-02-01

    Losing the sense of smell because of aging compromises health and quality of life. In the mouse olfactory epithelium, aging reduces the capacity for tissue homeostasis and regeneration. The microvillous cell subtype that expresses both inositol trisphosphate receptor type 3 (IP3R3) and the neuroproliferative factor neuropeptide Y (NPY) is critical for regulation of homeostasis, yet its role in aging is undefined. We hypothesized that an age-related decline in IP3R3 expression and NPY signaling underlie age-related homeostatic changes and olfactory dysfunction. We found a decrease in IP3R3(+) and NPY(+) microvillous cell numbers and NPY protein and a reduced sensitivity to NPY-mediated proliferation over 24 months. However, in IP3R3-deficient mice, there was no further age-related reduction in cell numbers, proliferation, or olfactory function compared with wild type. The proliferative response was impaired in aged IP3R3-deficient mice when injury was caused by satratoxin G, which induces IP3R3-mediated NPY release, but not by bulbectomy, which does not evoke NPY release. These data identify IP3R3 and NPY signaling as targets for improving recovery following olfactotoxicant exposure. PMID:25482245

  19. Effect of IP3R3 and NPY on age-related declines in olfactory stem cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cuihong; Hegg, Colleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Losing the sense of smell due to aging compromises health and quality of life. In the mouse olfactory epithelium (OE) aging reduces the capacity for tissue homeostasis and regeneration. The microvillous cell subtype that expresses both inositol trisphosphate receptor type 3 (IP3R3) and the neuroproliferative factor neuropeptide Y (NPY) is critical for regulation of homeostasis, yet its role in aging is undefined. We hypothesized that an age-related decline in IP3R3 expression and NPY signaling underlie age-related homeostatic changes and olfactory dysfunction. We found a decrease in IP3R3+ and NPY+ microvillous cell numbers and NPY protein, and a reduced sensitivity to NPY-mediated proliferation over 24 months. However, in IP3R3-deficient mice, there was no further age-related reduction in cell numbers, proliferation, or olfactory function compared to wild-type. The proliferative response was impaired in aged IP3R3-deficient mice when injury was caused by satratoxin-G, which induces IP3R3-mediated NPY release, but not by bulbectomy, which does not evoke NPY release. These data identify IP3R3 and NPY signaling as targets for improving recovery following olfactotoxicant exposure. PMID:25482245

  20. Determination of the pozzolanic activity of fluid catalytic cracking residue. Thermogravimetric analysis studies on FC3R-lime pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Paya, J.; Monzo, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Velazquez, S.; Bonilla, M

    2003-07-01

    Spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R) from a petrol refinery played a pozzolanic role in portland cement system as revealed by previous experimental data. In the present study, the pozzolanic activity of FC3R was investigated by means thermogravimetry (TG) of cured lime-FC3R pastes. The influence of pozzolan/lime ratio on the pozzolanic activity was investigated. Due to the chemical composition of FC3R is similar to metakaolin (MK), and knowing that MK has a high pozzolanic activity, the latter was used as a material of comparison in this study. The scope of the study is the determination of the pozzolanic activity of FC3R and the evaluation of amount and nature of pozzolanic products. The products obtained from the reaction between FC3R components (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and calcium hydroxide (CH) have been characterized, finding that the main pozzolanic reaction product was similar to hydrated gehlenite (calcium aluminosilicate hydrate) CSH and CAH were also formed in the reaction. FC3R showed higher pozzolanic reactivity than metakaolin, for low-lime content pastes and early curing age. Thermogravimetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) became very useful techniques for evaluation of reactivity.

  1. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and its regulators: sometimes good and sometimes bad teamwork.

    PubMed

    Choe, Chi-Un; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2006-11-28

    In both nonexcitable and excitable cells, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) is the primary cytosolic target responsible for the initiation of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling. To fulfill this function, the IP(3)R depends on interaction with accessory subunits and regulatory proteins. These include proteins that reside in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), such as chromogranin A and B and ERp44, and cytosolic proteins, such as neuronal Ca(2+) sensor 1, huntingtin, cytochrome c, IP(3)R-binding protein released with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, Homer, and 4.1N. Specific interactions between these modulatory proteins and the IP(3)R have been described, making it clear that the controlled modulation of the IP(3)R by its binding partners is necessary for physiological cell regulation. The functional coupling of these modulators with the IP(3)R can control apoptosis, intracellular pH, the initiation and regulation of neuronal Ca(2+) signaling, exocytosis, and gene expression. The pathophysiological relevance of IP(3)R modulation is apparent when the functional interaction of these proteins is enhanced or abolished by mutation or overexpression. The subsequent deregulation of the IP(3)R leads to pathological changes in Ca(2+) signaling, signal initiation, the amplitude and frequency of Ca(2+) signals, and the duration of the Ca(2+) elevation. Consequences of this deregulation include abnormal growth and apoptosis. Complex regulation of Ca(2+) signaling is required for the cell to live and function, and this difficult task can only be managed when the IP(3)R teams up and acts properly with its numerous binding partners. PMID:17132820

  2. Site-directed Mutagenesis Reveals Regions Implicated in the Stability and Fiber Formation of Human λ3r Light Chains*

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Miryam I.; Canul-Tec, Juan C.; Luna-Martínez, Oscar D.; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Rojas, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Fernández-Velasco, Daniel A.; Becerril, Baltazar

    2015-01-01

    Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a disease that affects vital organs by the fibrillar aggregation of monoclonal light chains. λ3r germ line is significantly implicated in this disease. In this work, we contrasted the thermodynamic stability and aggregation propensity of 3mJL2 (nonamyloidogenic) and 3rJL2 (amyloidogenic) λ3 germ lines. Because of an inherent limitation (extremely low expression), Cys at position 34 of the 3r germ line was replaced by Tyr reaching a good expression yield. A second substitution (W91A) was introduced in 3r to obtain a better template to incorporate additional mutations. Although the single mutant (C34Y) was not fibrillogenic, the second mutation located at CDR3 (W91A) induced fibrillogenesis. We propose, for the first time, that CDR3 (position 91) affects the stability and fiber formation of human λ3r light chains. Using the double mutant (3rJL2/YA) as template, other variants were constructed to evaluate the importance of those substitutions into the stability and aggregation propensity of λ3 light chains. A change in position 7 (P7D) boosted 3rJL2/YA fibrillogenic properties. Modification of position 48 (I48M) partially reverted 3rJL2/YA fibril aggregation. Finally, changes at positions 8 (P8S) or 40 (P40S) completely reverted fibril formation. These results confirm the influential roles of N-terminal region (positions 7 and 8) and the loop 40–60 (positions 40 and 48) on AL. X-ray crystallography revealed that the three-dimensional topology of the single and double λ3r mutants was not significantly altered. This mutagenic approach helped to identify key regions implicated in λ3 AL. PMID:25505244

  3. Magnetochromic effect in multiferroic R In1 -xMnxO3 (R =Tb , Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.; Holinsworth, B. S.; O'Neal, K. R.; Brinzari, T. V.; Mazumdar, D.; Topping, C. V.; Luo, X.; Cheong, S.-W.; Singleton, J.; McGill, S.; Musfeldt, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    We combined high field magnetization and magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate spin-charge coupling in Mn-substituted rare-earth indium oxides of chemical formula R In1 -xMnxO3 (R =Tb , Dy). The edge states, on-site Mn3 +d to d excitations, and rare-earth f -manifold excitations all track the magnetization energy due to dominant Zeeman interactions. The field-induced modifications to the rare-earth excitations are quite large because spin-orbit coupling naturally mixes spin and charge, suggesting that the next logical step in the design strategy should be to bring spin-orbit coupling onto the trigonal bipyramidal chromophore site with a 4 or 5 d center.

  4. LEED investigations on Co(0001): the ( 3 3) R30- CO overlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, J.; Vaari, J.; Kauraala, K.; Soares, E. A.; Van Hove, M. A.

    2000-03-01

    The local adsorption structure of CO on Co(0001) has been determined at 160 K using dynamical low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The CO molecules in the ( 3 3) R30- CO overlayer adopt the on-top site with the CO axis perpendicular to the surface and induce buckling in the top Co layer pulling the Co atom beneath the CO by 0.040.04 outwards. The optimum length for the CO bond is 1.170.06 and that for the C?Co distance 1.780.06 . The first-layer Co?Co distance is 2.04 and thus only slightly expanded from the bulk value. The structure obtained is compared with other known CO structures on transition metals.

  5. The Economic Benefits Of Multipurpose Reservoirs In The United States- Federal Hydropower Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Witt, Adam M.; Stewart, Kevin M.; Bonnet Acosta, Marisol; Mobley, Miles

    2015-09-01

    The United States is home to over 80,000 dams, of which approximately 3% are equipped with hydroelectric generating capabilities. When a dam serves as a hydropower facility, it provides a variety of energy services that range from clean, reliable power generation to load balancing that supports grid stability. In most cases, the benefits of dams and their associated reservoirs go far beyond supporting the nation s energy demand. As evidenced by the substantial presence of non-powered dams with the ability to store water in large capacities, the primary purpose of a dam may not be hydropower, but rather one of many other purposes. A dam and reservoir may support navigation, recreation, flood control, irrigation, and water supply, with each multipurpose benefit providing significant social and economic impacts on a local, regional, and national level. When hydropower is one of the services provided by a multipurpose reservoir, it is then part of an integrated system of competing uses. Operating rules, management practices, consumer demands, and environmental constraints must all be balanced to meet the multipurpose project s objectives. When federal dams are built, they are authorized by Congress to serve one or more functions. Legislation such as the Water Resources Development Act regulates the operation of the facility in order to coordinate the authorized uses and ensure the dam s intended objectives are being met. While multipurpose reservoirs account for billions of dollars in contributions to National Economic Development (NED) every year, no attempt has been made to evaluate their benefits on a national scale. This study is an on-going work conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to estimate the economic benefits of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs in the United States. Given the important role that federal hydropower plays in the U.S., the first focus of this research will target the three main federal hydropower owners Tennessee Valley Authority, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Together these three agencies own and operate 157 powered dams which account for almost half of the total installed hydropower capacity in the U.S. Future work will include engaging publicly-owned utilities and the private sector in order to quantify the benefits of all multipurpose hydropower reservoirs in the U.S.

  6. The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Fitness in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Chelsea L.; Connors, Kimberly E.; Klein, Matthias S.; Johnsen, Virginia L.; Shearer, Jane; Vogel, Hans J.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Many, Gina M.; Barfield, Whitney; Hoffman, Eric P.; Kraus, William E.; Hittel, Dustin S.

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity for a premature stop codon (X) in the ACTN3 “sprinter” gene is common in humans despite the fact that it reduces muscle size, strength and power. Because of the close relationship between skeletal muscle function and cardiometabolic health we examined the influence of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism over cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young adults (n = 98 males, n = 102 females; 23 ± 4.2 years) from our Assessing Inherent Markers for Metabolic syndrome in the Young (AIMMY) study. Both males and females with the RR vs XX genotype achieved higher mean VO2 peak scores (47.8 ± 1.5 vs 43.2 ±1.8 ml/O2/min, p = 0.002) and exhibited higher resting systolic (115 ± 2 vs 105 ± mmHg, p = 0.027) and diastolic (69 ± 3 vs 59 ± 3 mmHg, p = 0.005) blood pressure suggesting a role for ACTN3 in the maintenance of vascular tone. We subsequently identified the expression of alpha-actinin 3 protein in pulmonary artery smooth muscle, which may explain the genotype-specific differences in cardiovascular adaptation to acute exercise. In addition, we utilized targeted serum metabolomics to distinguish between RR and XX genotypes, suggesting an additional role for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in human metabolism. Taken together, these results identify significant cardiometabolic effects associated with possessing one or more functional copies of the ACTN3 gene. PMID:26107372

  7. Magnetic anisotropy and reduced neodymium magnetic moments in N d3R u4A l12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, D. I.; Henriques, M. S.; Andreev, A. V.; Eigner, V.; Gukasov, A.; Fabrges, X.; Skourski, Y.; Pet??ek, V.; Wosnitza, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the electronic properties of N d3R u4A l12 (hexagonal crystal structure) with focus on its magnetic anisotropy that allows a comparison between single-ion and two-ion mechanisms when comparing to U3R u4A l12 . We performed magnetization measurements on a single crystal in static and pulsed magnetic fields as well as neutron-diffraction experiments. N d3R u4A l12 is a strongly anisotropic uniaxial ferromagnet with a Curie temperature of 39 K. The magnetic moments are aligned collinearly along the [001] axis. The magnetic structure of N d3R u4A l12 has orthorhombic symmetry for which the crystallographic Nd site is split into two magnetically inequivalent positions, Nd1 and Nd2. The Nd1 and Nd2 atoms exhibit reduced magnetic moments, 0.95 and 2.66 ?B , as compared to the free N d3 + -ion value (3.28 ?B ). We discuss this finding in terms of crystal-field effects and competing exchange and anisotropy interactions. Since the single-ion mechanism in N d3R u4A l12 leads to uniaxial anisotropy and the two-ion mechanism of the actinide analog U3R u4A l12 is known to lead to planar anisotropy, this paper demonstrates the decisive influence of these different mechanisms on the magnetic anisotropy.

  8. Study of the role of Mce3R on the transcription of mce genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, Mara P; Blanco, Federico C; Bianco, Mara V; Klepp, Laura I; Zabal, Osvaldo; Cataldi, Angel A; Bigi, Fabiana

    2008-01-01

    Background mce3 is one of the four virulence-related mce operons of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In a previous work we showed that the overexpression of Mce3R in Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis abolishes the expression of lacZ fused to the mce3 promoter, indicating that Mce3R represses mce3 transcription. Results We obtained a knockout mutant strain of M. tuberculosis H37Rv by inserting a hygromycin cassette into the mce3R gene. The mutation results in a significant increase in the expression of mce3 genes either in vitro or in a murine cell macrophages line as it was determined using promoter-lacZ fusions in M. tuberculosis. The abundance of mce1, mce2 and mce4 mRNAs was not affected by this mutation as it was demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR. The mce3R promoter activity in the presence of Mce3R was significantly reduced compared with that in the absence of the regulator, during the in vitro culture of M. tuberculosis. Conclusion Mce3R repress the transcription of mce3 operon and self regulates its own expression but does not affect the transcription of mce1, mce2 and mce4 operons of M. tuberculosis. PMID:18304349

  9. Disabled access to information technology--a portable adaptable, multipurpose device.

    PubMed

    Thornett, C E; Langner, M C; Brown, A W

    1990-05-01

    The technology exists to allow severely physically disabled people to have a far more independent lifestyle than many handicapped people enjoy today. To use an ever increasing range of sophisticated domestic equipment, without special modifications, an individually tailored control system and a universal accessing device are required. A portable multipurpose device allows multiply handicapped, non-speaking people a means of operating a variety of general-purpose or specialized pieces of electronic equipment at home and elsewhere, safely and independently. The device also provides a means of communication through the medium of computer-computer communication over telephone lines and will interface to a powered chair for independent mobility. Various features are provided which are not available from conventional environmental control systems. Through a specialized adjustable multipurpose switch system and a universal control device the handicapped person should be able to enjoy the independence afforded by the intelligent home of the future. PMID:2140870

  10. Multipurpose Wetlands Phase II/III: final design and ongoing research investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Babbitt, Bruce; Beard, Daniel P.; Hancock, Lawrence F.

    1994-01-01

    The Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD), the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and the National Biological Survey (NBS), in consultation with other governmental agencies, the academic community, and environmental groups, are involved in a cooperative wetlands research and demonstration effort. This report reflects progress through the first 3 years of a 5-year program. The goal of the Multipurpose Wetlands Research and Demonstration Project is to evaluate and expand the use of reclaimed water and contaminated ground water through the incorporation of multipurpose constructed wetlands into EMWD's total water resources management program. The focus of the wetlands is the development of design, construction, and operation criteria that will provide a cost-effective and innovative alternative for managing water resources and provide other public benefits in arid areas. The program also recognizes the fact that naturally-occurring wetlands, both coastal and inland, have been disappearing at an alarming rate.

  11. The Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board`s views on the multipurpose canister

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This article presents the view of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board on the Multipurpose Canister (MPC). The Board believes that if developed properly the MPC has the potential for enhancing safety in the waste management system by substantially reducing handling, fostering a systems approach to the management of the nation`s spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste, and introducing a level of standardization into the system.

  12. Multi-Purpose, Application-Centric, Scalable I/O Proxy Application

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-06-15

    MACSio is a Multi-purpose, Application-Centric, Scalable I/O proxy application. It is designed to support a number of goals with respect to parallel I/O performance testing and benchmarking including the ability to test and compare various I/O libraries and I/O paradigms, to predict scalable performance of real applications and to help identify where improvements in I/O performance can be made within the HPC I/O software stack.

  13. A method for making preparations from nondecalcified articular cartilage with sublying subchondral bone for multipurpose studies.

    PubMed

    Stupina, T A; Shchudlo, M M

    2014-07-01

    A method for making preparations from nondecalcified articular cartilage and subchondral bone for multipurpose studies is developed. Semithin and ultrathin sections of nondecalcified articular cartilage and subchondral bone prepared by this method are used for light and transmission electron microscopy. The method can also be used for studies of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the articular cartilage, scanning electron microscopy, and microanalysis of chemical elements in the articular cartilage and subchondral bone. PMID:25065324

  14. Zone Management of Multi-Purpose Use of Groundwater Via Spatial Variability Analysis of Water Quality and Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C. P.; Chen, C. F.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is comprehensively used for irrigation, aquaculture and public water supply in Pingtung plain. Establishing a sound management plan of multi-purpose groundwater utilization in Pingtung plain is imperial for water resources sustainability. When extracting groundwater for such multi-purpose use, the major concerns are to assure the meets for the different water quality standards for various water use sectors demand and minimizing the pumping impacts on aquifers. The groundwater quality and hydrogeological conditions play important roles in multi-purpose groundwater utilization. Management and effective use of groundwater typically face great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study combines the variability of groundwater quality and hydrological condition to propose zonal management of multi-purpose use of groundwater in Pingtung plain. Based on the water quality standards for various groundwater utilization sectors, the integration of hydrochemical parameters are used to delineate most appropriate zones of various groundwater utilization sectors. For evaluation of hydrogeological condition, transmissivity which represents the ability of water transmitted in aquifer is adopted to determine the most suitable zones of groundwater extraction. Based on the analytical results of the water quality parameters and transmissivity in combination with actual groundwater utilization, a zonal management plan of multi-purpose groundwater utilization is established. The framework in this project can provide an effective tool for government administrator establishing a zonal management of multi-purpose groundwater utilization in Pingtung plain.

  15. Conceptual design for a waste-management system that uses multipurpose canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating the use of multipurpose canisters in the system being developed for the management and disposal of spent fuel from commercial nuclear reactors. This system will consist of a transportation system, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a repository for permanent disposal. The repository will also accept high-level waste, but multipurpose canisters will be used only for commercial spent fuel. Spent-fuel assemblies are metal rods filled with uranium pellets. Most spent fuel is stored under water, in specially designed pools, at the site of the reactor. At many commercial reactor sites, however, the storage capacities of the pools have been exhausted, and the utilities are procuring dry-storage systems from various vendors. Several dry-storage systems are available: concrete casks, metal casks, modular vertical vaults, and modular horizontal vaults. To provide a basis for the decision about using multipurpose canisters, the Department of Energy has recently completed a conceptual design. This paper summarizes the use, operation, design, licensing, and cost of the system.

  16. Gating machinery of InsP3R channels revealed by electron cryomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guizhen; Baker, Matthew L; Wang, Zhao; Baker, Mariah R; Sinyagovskiy, Pavel A; Chiu, Wah; Ludtke, Steven J; Serysheva, Irina I

    2015-11-19

    Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) are ubiquitous ion channels responsible for cytosolic Ca(2+) signalling and essential for a broad array of cellular processes ranging from contraction to secretion, and from proliferation to cell death. Despite decades of research on InsP3Rs, a mechanistic understanding of their structure-function relationship is lacking. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, near-atomic (4.7 ) resolution electron cryomicroscopy structure of the tetrameric mammalian type 1 InsP3R channel in its apo-state. At this resolution, we are able to trace unambiguously ?85% of the protein backbone, allowing us to identify the structural elements involved in gating and modulation of this 1.3-megadalton channel. Although the central Ca(2+)-conduction pathway is similar to other ion channels, including the closely related ryanodine receptor, the cytosolic carboxy termini are uniquely arranged in a left-handed ?-helical bundle, directly interacting with the amino-terminal domains of adjacent subunits. This configuration suggests a molecular mechanism for allosteric regulation of channel gating by intracellular signals. PMID:26458101

  17. Electronic properties of 3R-CuAlO2 under pressure: Three theoretical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.; Laskowski, R.; Palanivel, B.; Modak, P.; Chantis, A. N.; van Schilfgaarde, M.; Kotani, T.

    2010-01-01

    The pressure variation in the structural parameters, u and c/a , of the delafossite CuAlO2 is calculated within the local-density approximation (LDA). Further, the electronic structures as obtained by different approximations are compared: LDA, LDA+U , and a recently developed quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QSGW) approximation. The structural parameters obtained by the LDA agree very well with experiments but, as expected, gaps in the formal band structure are underestimated as compared to optical experiments. The (in LDA too high lying) Cu3d states can be down shifted by LDA+U . The magnitude of the electric field gradient (EFG) as obtained within the LDA is far too small. It can be fitted to experiments in LDA+U but a simultaneous adjustment of the EFG and the gap cannot be obtained with a single U value. QSGW yields reasonable values for both quantities. LDA and QSGW yield significantly different values for some of the band-gap deformation potentials but calculations within both approximations predict that 3R-CuAlO2 remains an indirect-gap semiconductor at all pressures in its stability range 0-36 GPa, although the smallest direct gap has a negative pressure coefficient.

  18. Magnetism in ?-R2S3 (R = Pr and Nd) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisu, S.; Nagata, T.; Fuji, K.; Shibayama, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility, ?, and specific heat, C, of the isostructural rare-earth sesquisulfides ?-R2S3 (R = Pr and Nd) have been investigated on single crystals. The ?(T) of ?-Nd2S3 shows a broad peak around 3.5 K when a magnetic field of 100 Oe is applied along the b-axis of the orthorhombic crystal structure. A Neel temperature TN above 2 K has been determined as 2.75 K by an inflection point in the ?(T) and a sharp peak in the C(T). Furthermore, the C(T) indicates another peak at around 0.65 K. The ground states of Nd3+ on both the two Nd sites are concluded as Kramers doublets. The ?(T) of ?-Pr2S3 shows a broad peak around 3.8 K only in the case of H//b. The ? for H?b is almost constant below 5 K, which suggests existence of Van Vleck paramagnetic contribution. An inflection point in the ?(T) (H//b) exists at TN = 2.95 K which is consistent with the temperature of a sharp peak observed in the C(T). A Schottky-type anomaly around 8 K in the C(T) has also been found. The ground states of Pr3+ on two Pr sites are considered as a pseudo-doublet and a singlet.

  19. Relationship Between ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism and Physical Abilities in Polish Athletes.

    PubMed

    Orysiak, Joanna; Busko, Krzysztof; Mazur-RóŻycka, Joanna; Michalski, Radoslaw; Gajewski, Jan; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga; Sitkowski, Dariusz

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between α-actinin 3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism and physical abilities of male athletes performing various sports (volleyball, ice hockey, canoeing, swimming). One hundred eighty-five subjects were recruited for the study. The following measurements were taken: height of jump and power output in countermovement jump and spike jump (SPJ) and muscle strength of 10 muscle groups. The R577X polymorphism of ACTN3 was typed using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results showed that RR genotype carriers develop greater power output in SPJ than RX and XX individuals (44.6 ± 11.1, 42.6 ± 11.0, and 38.4 ± 7.9 W·kg(-1) for RR, RX, and XX genotypes, respectively) and height of jump in SPJ (0.537 ± 0.075, 0.523 ± 0.072, and 0.498 ± 0.053 m for RR, RX, and XX genotypes, respectively). Muscle strength did not differ between genotype groups. This suggests that the ACTN3 gene has a greater impact on determining dynamic movements than influencing static muscle strength. PMID:25734782

  20. Refinement of the Pd(111)+( 3 3) R30-CO structure using automated tensor LEED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasada, I.; Van Hove, M. A.

    2000-06-01

    The structure of Pd(111)+( 3 3) R30-CO has been refined using automated tensor LEED, especially to optimize adsorbate-induced relaxations in the substrate. The re-analysis considerably improves the best fit to experiment, while retaining most of the detailed features, compared with the last structural analysis performed on this system by 'conventional' quantitative low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). In particular, this study confirms that CO occupies face-centered cubic hollow sites. Relative to the ideal bulk structure, it finds an expansion of the top Pd?Pd interlayer spacing by 0.050.04 , a negligible expansion of the second Pd?Pd interlayer spacing by 0.010.06 , and a possible lateral enlargement by 0.10.1 of the triangle of palladium atoms around the adsorption site. A somewhat small C?O interlayer spacing of 1.110.04 is observed, and no unambiguous CO tilt from the surface normal is detected.

  1. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING: PHASE 3R

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished in 2Q99.

  2. Optimization and validation of a neutralizing antibody assay for HIV-1 in A3R5 cells.

    PubMed

    Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Daniell, Xiaoju; Todd, Christopher A; Bilska, Miroslawa; Martelli, Amanda; LaBranche, Celia; Perez, Lautaro G; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C; Rountree, Wes; Denny, Thomas N; Montefiori, David C

    2014-07-01

    A3R5 is a human CD4(+) lymphoblastoid cell line that was engineered to express CCR5 and is useful for the detection of weak neutralizing antibody responses against tier 2 strains of HIV-1. Here we describe the optimization and validation of the HIV-1 neutralizing antibody assay that utilizes A3R5 cells, performed in compliance with Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines. The assay utilizes Renilla luciferase-expressing replication competent infectious molecular clones (IMC) encoding heterologous env genes from different HIV-1 clades. Key assay validation parameters tested included specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and quantitation, specificity, linearity and range, and robustness. Plasma samples demonstrated higher non-specific activity than serum samples in the A3R5 assay. This assay can tolerate a wide range of virus input but is more sensitive to cell concentration. The higher sensitivity of the A3R5 assay in neutralization responses to tier 2 strains of HIV-1 makes it complementary to, but not a substitute for the TZM-bl assay. The validated A3R5 assay is employed as an endpoint immunogenicity test for vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies against tier 2 strains of HIV-1, and to identify correlates of protection in HIV-1 vaccine trials conducted globally. PMID:24607608

  3. Attenuated Pik3r1 expression prevents insulin resistance and adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Carrie E; Schenk, Simon; Holliday, Michael J; Philp, Andrew; Houck, Julie A; Patsouris, David; MacLean, Paul S; Majka, Susan M; Klemm, Dwight J; Friedman, Jacob E

    2012-10-01

    Obese white adipose tissue (AT) is characterized by large-scale infiltration of proinflammatory macrophages, in parallel with systemic insulin resistance; however, the cellular stimulus that initiates this signaling cascade and chemokine release is still unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunits on AT macrophage (ATM) infiltration in obesity. Here, we find that the Pik3r1 regulatory subunits (i.e., p85?/p55?/p50?) are highly induced in AT from high-fat diet-fed obese mice, concurrent with insulin resistance. Global heterozygous deletion of the Pik3r1 regulatory subunits (?HZ), but not knockout of Pik3r2 (p85?), preserves whole-body, AT, and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, despite severe obesity. Moreover, ATM accumulation, proinflammatory gene expression, and ex vivo chemokine secretion in obese ?HZ mice are markedly reduced despite endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hypoxia, adipocyte hypertrophy, and Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation. Furthermore, bone marrow transplant studies reveal that these improvements in obese ?HZ mice are independent of reduced Pik3r1 expression in the hematopoietic compartment. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that Pik3r1 expression plays a critical role in mediating AT insulin sensitivity and, more so, suggest that reduced PI3K activity is a key step in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response in obese AT. PMID:22698915

  4. Optimization and Validation of a Neutralizing Antibody Assay for HIV-1 in A3R5 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Daniell, Xiaoju; Todd, Christopher A.; Bilska, Miroslawa; Martelli, Amanda; LaBranche, Celia; Perez, Lautaro G.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C.; Rountree, Wes; Denny, Thomas N.; Montefiori, David C.

    2014-01-01

    A3R5 is a human CD4+ lymphoblastoid cell line that was engineered to express CCR5 and is useful for the detection of weak neutralizing antibody responses against tier 2 strains of HIV-1. Here we describe the optimization and validation of the HIV-1 neutralizing antibody assay that utilizes A3R5 cells, performed in compliance with Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines. The assay utilizes Renilla luciferase-expressing replication competent infectious molecular clones (IMC) encoding heterologous env genes from different HIV-1 clades. Key assay validation parameters tested included specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and quantitation, specificity, linearity and range, and robustness. Plasma samples demonstrated higher non-specific activity than serum samples in the A3R5 assay. This assay can tolerate a wide range of virus input but is more sensitive to cell concentration. The higher sensitivity of the A3R5 assay in neutralization responses to tier 2 strains of HIV-1 makes it complementary to, but not a substitute for the TZM-bl assay. The validated A3R5 assay is employed as an endpoint immunogenicity test for vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies against tier 2 strains of HIV-1, and to identify correlates of protection in HIV-1 vaccine trials conducted globally. PMID:24607608

  5. Production of 3R-hydroxy-polyenoic fatty acids by the yeast Dipodascopsis uninucleata.

    PubMed

    Venter, P; Kock, J L; Kumar, G S; Botha, A; Coetzee, D J; Botes, P J; Bhatt, R K; Falck, J R; Schewe, T; Nigam, S

    1997-12-01

    Various fatty acids were fed to the yeast Dipodascopsis uninucleata UOFS Y 128, and the extracted samples were analyzed for the accumulation of 3-hydroxy metabolites with the help of electron impact gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids containing of 5Z,8Z-diene system (5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic, 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic, and 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z-eicosapentaenoic acids) yielded the corresponding 3-hydroxy-all-Z-eicosapolyenoic acids. Moreover, linoleic acid (9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid) and 11Z,14Z,17Z-eicosatrienoic acid were converted to the 3-hydorxylated metabolites of shorter chain length, e,g., 3-hydroxy-5Z,8Z-tetradecadienoic acid and 3-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z-tetradecatrienoic acid, respectively. In contrast, no accumulation of a 3-hydroxy metabolite was observed with oleic acid (9Z-octadecenoic acid), linolelaidic acid (9E,12E-octadecadienoic acid), gamma-linolenic acid (6Z,9Z,12Z-octadecatrienoic acid), and eicosanoic acid as substrate. These findings pinpoint that the 3-hydroxylation of a fatty acid in Dipodascopsis uninucleata requires a 5Z,8Z-diene system either directly or following initial incomplete beta-oxidation. Following analysis of the enantiomer composition, the arachidonic acid metabolite was identified as 3R-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid, which rules out a normal beta-oxidation as biosynthetic route to this new class of oxylipins. PMID:9438238

  6. Characterization of a (2R,3R)-2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis WZ010.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meilan; Huang, Meijuan; Song, Qingqing; Shao, Jianzhong; Ying, Xiangxian

    2015-01-01

    The gene encoding a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis WZ010 (ReBDH) was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and the resulting recombinant ReBDH was successfully purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified ReBDH in the native form was found to exist as a monomer with a calculated subunit size of 37180, belonging to the family of the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases. The enzyme was NAD(H)-specific and its optimal activity for acetoin reduction was observed at pH 6.5 and 55 °C. The optimal pH and temperature for 2,3-butanediol oxidation were pH 10 and 45 °C, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or metal ions Al3+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Cu2+ and Ag+, while the addition of 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the reaction mixture increased the activity by 161.2%. Kinetic parameters of the enzyme showed lower Km values and higher catalytic efficiency for diacetyl and NADH in comparison to those for (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and NAD+. The activity of acetoin reduction was 7.7 times higher than that of (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol oxidation when ReBDH was assayed at pH 7.0, suggesting that ReBDH-catalyzed reaction in vivo might favor (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol formation rather than (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol oxidation. The enzyme displayed absolute stereospecificity in the reduction of diacetyl to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol via (R)-acetoin, demonstrating its potential application on the synthesis of (R)-chiral alcohols. PMID:25903366

  7. Astrocyte IP3R2-dependent Ca2+ signaling is not a major modulator of neuronal pathways governing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Petravicz, Jeremy; Boyt, Kristen M.; McCarthy, Ken D.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-dependent release of gliotransmitters by astrocytes is reported to play a critical role in synaptic transmission and be necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and other forms of synaptic modulation that are correlates of learning and memory. Further, physiological processes reported to be dependent on Ca2+ fluxes in astrocytes include functional hyperemia, sleep, and regulation of breathing. The preponderance of findings indicate that most, if not all, receptor dependent Ca2+ fluxes within astrocytes are due to release of Ca2+ through IP3 receptor/channels in the endoplasmic reticulum. Findings from several laboratories indicate that astrocytes only express IP3 receptor type 2 (IP3R2) and that a knockout of IP3R2 obliterates the GPCR-dependent astrocytic Ca2+ responses. Assuming that astrocytic Ca2+ fluxes play a critical role in synaptic physiology, it would be predicted that elimination of astrocytic Ca2+ fluxes would lead to marked changes in behavioral tests. Here, we tested this hypothesis by conducting a broad series of behavioral tests that recruited multiple brain regions, on an IP3R2 conditional knockout mouse model. We present the novel finding that behavioral processes are unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signals. IP3R2 cKO animals display no change in anxiety or depressive behaviors, and no alteration to motor and sensory function. Morris water maze testing, a behavioral correlate of learning and memory, was unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R2-mediated Ca2+-signaling. Therefore, in contrast to the prevailing literature, we find that neither receptor-driven astrocyte Ca2+ fluxes nor, by extension, gliotransmission is likely to be a major modulating force on the physiological processes underlying behavior. PMID:25429263

  8. Tyms double (2R) and triple repeat (3R) confers risk for human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Alexandre Medeiros; Sant'Ana, Thalita Arajo; Gomes, Adriana Vieira; de Lacerda Vidal, Aurora Karla; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo

    2014-12-01

    The oral cancer is responsible for approximately 3 % of cases of cancer in Brazil. Epidemiological studies have associated low folate intake with an increased risk of epithelial cancers, including oral cancer. Folic acid has a key role in DNA synthesis, repair, methylation and this is the basis of explanations for a putative role for folic acid in cancer prevention. The role of folic acid in carcinogenesis may be modulated by polymorphism C677T in MTHFR and tandem repeats 2R/3R in the promoter site of TYMS gene that are related to decreased enzymatic activity and quantity and availability of the enzyme, respectively. These events cause a decrease in the synthesis, repair and DNA methylation, which can lead to a disruption in the expression of tumor suppressor genes as TP53. The objective of this study was investigate the distribution of polymorphisms C677T and tandem repeats 2R/3R associated with the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). 53 paraffin-embedded samples from patients who underwent surgery but are no longer at the institution and 43 samples collected by method of oral exfoliation by cytobrush were selected. 132 healthy subjects were selected by specialists at the dental clinics of the Faculdade de Odontologia de Pernambuco-FOP. The MTHFR genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP, and the TYMS genotyping was performed by conventional PCR. Fisher's Exact test at significant level of 5 %. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure the strength of association between genotype frequency and OSCC development. The results were statistically significant for the tandem repeats of the TYMS gene (p = 0.015). The TYMS 2R3R genotype was significantly associated with the development of OSCC (OR = 3.582; 95 % CI 1.240-10.348; p = 0.0262) and also the genotype 3R3R (OR = 3.553; 95 % CI 1.293-9.760; p = 0.0345). When analyzed together, the TYMS 2R3R + 3R3R genotypes also showed association (OR = 3.518; 95 % CI 11.188-10.348; p = 0.0177). No differences for the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms distribution were found between the oral cancer patients and controls subjects in our study (p = 0.499). Therefore, these data suggest that determination of TYMS tandem repeats could provide information on the comprehension of the risk factors and prevention of the OSCC. PMID:25341694

  9. Restoring Natural Streamflow Variability by Modifying Multi-purpose Reservoir Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Multi-purpose reservoirs typically provide benefits of water supply, hydroelectric power, and flood mitigation. Hydroelectric power generations generally do not consume water. However, temporal distribution of downstream flows is highly changed due to hydro-peaking effects. Associated with offstream diversion of water supplies for municipal, industrial, and agricultural requirements, natural streamflow characteristics of magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change is significantly altered by multi-purpose reservoir operation. Natural flow regime has long been recognized a master factor for ecosystem health and biodiversity. Restoration of altered flow regime caused by multi-purpose reservoir operation is the main objective of this study. This study presents an optimization framework that modifying reservoir operation to seeking balance between human and environmental needs. The methodology presented in this study is applied to the Feitsui Reservoir, located in northern Taiwan, with main purpose of providing stable water-supply and auxiliary purpose of electricity generation and flood-peak attenuation. Reservoir releases are dominated by two decision variables, i.e., duration of water releases for each day and percentage of daily required releases within the duration. The current releasing policy of the Feitsui Reservoir releases water for water-supply and hydropower purposes during 8:00 am to 16:00 pm each day and no environmental flows releases. Although greater power generation is obtained by 100% releases distributed within 8-hour period, severe temporal alteration of streamflow is observed downstream of the reservoir. Modifying reservoir operation by relaxing these two variables and reserve certain ratio of streamflow as environmental flow to maintain downstream natural variability. The optimal reservoir releasing policy is searched by the multi-criterion decision making technique for considering reservoir performance in terms of shortage ratio and power generation and downstream hydrologic alterations in terms of ecological relevant indicators. The results show that the proposed methodology can mitigate hydro-peaking effects on natural variability, while maintains efficient reservoir operation.

  10. The Multi-Purpose Detector for NICA heavy-Ion Collider at JINR

    SciTech Connect

    Rogachevsky, O. V.

    2012-05-15

    The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is designed to study heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna. Its main components located inside a superconducting solenoid are a tracking system composed of a silicon microstrip vertex detector followed by a large volume time-projection chamber, a time-of-flight system for particle identification and a barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. A zero degree hadron calorimeter is designed specifically to measure the energy of spectators. In this paper, all parts of the apparatus are described and their tracking and particle identification parameters are discussed in some detail.

  11. Work continues on Leonardo, the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, in the Space Station Processing Faci

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility work on Leonardo, the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) built by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). The MPLM, a reusable logistics carrier, will be the primary delivery system used to resupply and return International Space Station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Leonardo is the first of three MPLM carriers for the International Space Station. It is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Mission STS-102, targeted for June 2000. Leonardo shares space in the SSPF with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), targeted for launch in September 1999, and Destiny, the U.S. Lab module, targeted for mission STS-98 in late April 2000.

  12. Ethical issues for late-stage trials of multipurpose prevention technologies for HIV and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jessica A.; Mastroianni, Anna C.; Macklin, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) designed to simultaneously prevent pregnancy and HIV could provide urgently needed tools to address unmet sexual and reproductive health needs of women worldwide. Late-stage clinical trials will be complex given the need to demonstrate efficacy for HIV and contraceptive indications simultaneously from a single product. Currently, HIV and pregnancy prevention trials have distinctive design features that will need to be reconciled in MPT trials. This article identifies several ethical issues uniquely associated with this research that will benefit from future deliberation and guidance to ensure that this globally important research can proceed efficiently and expeditiously. PMID:25113651

  13. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

  14. Multi-purpose canister closure and welding: Potential automation and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Stringer, J.B.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the simulation of robotic closure and welding of multi-purpose canisters (MPCs) loaded with spent fuels. IGRIP simulation software was used to model the dimensional and kinematic characteristics of the robot, equipment, and MPC. A cost/benefit analysis was prepared, comparing manual and remote practices. Simulation of robotic closure and welding indicated the technical feasibility of automation. Benefit/cost analysis indicated the possibility of dose reductions of 6100 Rem and savings up to $274 million over a 30-year operational period with remote methods.

  15. Programmable Thermostat Module Upgrade for the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Dallas; Glasgow, Shaun; Reagan, Shawn; Presson, Keith; Howard, David; Smith, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The STS-121/ULF1.1 mission was the maiden flight of the Programmable Thermostat Module (PTM) system used to control the 28 V shell heaters on the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). These PTMs, in conjunction with a Data Recorder Module (DRM), provide continuous closed loop temperature control and data recording of MPLM on-orbit heater operations. This paper will discuss the hardware design, development, test and verification (DDT&V) activities performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as well as the operational implementation and mission performance.

  16. Washout of tritium from 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-L-aspartate in the aspartase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, B.M.; Cook, P.F.

    1987-05-01

    Bacterial aspartase catalyzes the reversible conversion of L-aspartate to fumarate and ammonia. Recent studies that made use of deuterium and /sup 15/N isotope effects suggested a carbanion intermediate mechanism in which C-N bond cleavage is rate determining. This could result in removal of a proton from the 3R position of aspartate at a rate of faster than the elimination of ammonia. 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-Aspartate was prepared enzymatically using aspartase from fumarate, ammonia and /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and aspartate isolated via chromatography on Dowex 50W x 8 at pH 1, eluting with 2N pyridine. The rate of /sup 3/H washout from this aspartate was then measured as a function of aspartate concentration and compared to the rate of production of fumarate. Tritium does washout of aspartate at a rate faster than fumarate is formed but the proton is apparently not rapidly equilibrated with solvent. The tritium washout experiments were supplemented using 3R-3(/sup 2/H)-aspartate prepared as above with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O replacing /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and monitoring the appearance of 3R-3(/sup 1/H)-aspartate via /sup 1/H-NMR. Results confirm the tritium washout results. Data are discussed in terms of the carbanion mechanism.

  17. Enhanced fullereneAu(111) coupling in (2?3 2?3)R30 superstructures with intermolecular interactions

    PubMed Central

    Paens, Michael; Waser, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Summary Disordered and uniform (2?3 2?3)R30 superstructures of fullerenes on the Au(111) surface have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. It is shown that the deposition and growth process of a fullerene monolayer on the Au(111) surface determine the resulting superstructure. The supply of thermal energy is of importance for the activation of a Au vacancy forming process and thus, one criterion for the selection of the respective superstructure. However, here it is depicted that a vacancyadatom pair can be formed even at room temperature. This latter process results in C60 molecules that appear slightly more bright in scanning tunnelling microscopy images and are identified in disordered (2?3 x 2?3)R30 superstructures based on a detailed structure analysis. In addition, these slightly more bright C60 molecules form uniform (2?3 x 2?3)R30 superstructures, which exhibit intermolecular interactions, likely mediated by Au adatoms. Thus, vacancyadatom pairs forming at room temperature directly affect the resulting C60 superstructure. Differential conductivity spectra reveal a lifting of the degeneracy of the LUMO and LUMO+1 orbitals in the uniform (2?3 x 2?3)R30 superstructure and in addition, hybrid fullereneAu(111) surface states suggest partly covalent interactions. PMID:26199846

  18. The Effects of Keyword Cues and 3R Strategy on Children's e-Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, T.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that electronic books (e-books) promote learning, but few works have examined the use of e-books along with an adaptive reading strategy for children. The current study implemented a method to extract keyword cues from e-books to support e-book reading with the read, recite and review (3R) strategy, and then examined the

  19. IP3R deficit underlies loss of salivary fluid secretion in Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Teos, Leyla Y.; Zhang, Yu; Cotrim, Ana P.; Swaim, William; Won, Jon H.; Ambrus, Julian; Shen, Long; Bebris, Lolita; Grisius, Margaret; Jang, Shyh-Ing; Yule, David I.; Ambudkar, Indu S.; Alevizos, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    The autoimmune exocrinopathy, Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), is associated with secretory defects in patients, including individuals with mild lymphocytic infiltration and minimal glandular damage. The mechanism(s) underlying the secretory dysfunction is not known. We have used minor salivary gland biopsies from SS patients and healthy individuals to assess acinar cell function in morphologically intact glandular areas. We report that agonist-regulated intracellular Ca2+ release, critically required for Ca2+ entry and fluid secretion, is defective in acini from SS patients. Importantly, these acini displayed reduction in IP3R2 and IP3R3, but not AQP5 or STIM1. Similar decreases in IP3R and carbachol (CCh)-stimulated [Ca2+]i elevation were detected in acinar cells from lymphotoxin-alpha (LTα) transgenic (TG) mice, a model for (SS). Treatment of salivary glands from healthy individuals with LT α, a cytokine linked to disease progression in SS and IL14α mice, reduced Ca2+ signaling. Together, our findings reveal novel IP3R deficits in acinar cells that underlie secretory dysfunction in SS patients. PMID:26365984

  20. R3-R4 deletion in the PRNP gene is associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

    SciTech Connect

    Cervenakova, L.; Brown, P.; Nagle, J.

    1994-09-01

    There are conflicting reports on the association of deletions in the PRNP gene on chromosome 20 with CJD, a rapidly progressive fatal spongiform encephalopathy. We accumulated data suggesting that a deletion of R3-R4 type (parts of the third and fourth repeats are deleted from the area of four repeating 24 bp sequences in the 5{prime} region of the gene) is causing CJD. Screening of 129 unaffected control individuals demonstrated presence of a deletion of R2 type in four (1.55% of the studied chromosomes), but none of them had the R3-R4 type. Of 181 screened patients with spongiform encephalopathies, two had a deletion of R3-R4 type with no other mutations in the coding sequence. Both patients had a classical rapidly progressive dementing disease and diffuse spongiform degeneration, and both cases were apparently sporadic. The same R3-R4 type of deletion was detected in three additional neuropathologically confirmed spongiform encephalopathy patients, of which two had other known pathogenic mutations in the PRNP gene: at codon 178 on the methionine allele exhibiting the phenotype of fatal familial insomnia, and codon 200 causing CJD with severe dementia; the third was a patient with iatrogenic CJD who developed the disease after treatment with growth hormone extracted from cadaveric human pituitary glands. In all cases the deletion coincided with a variant sequence at position 129 coding for methionine.

  1. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. E.; Sion, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined.

  2. The Effects of Keyword Cues and 3R Strategy on Children's e-Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, T.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that electronic books (e-books) promote learning, but few works have examined the use of e-books along with an adaptive reading strategy for children. The current study implemented a method to extract keyword cues from e-books to support e-book reading with the read, recite and review (3R) strategy, and then examined the…

  3. Interaction Between ACE I/D and ACTN3 R557X Polymorphisms in Polish Competitive Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Grenda, Agata; Leo?ska-Duniec, Agata; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Ficek, Krzysztof; Krl, Pawe?; Ci?szczyk, Pawe?; ?mijewski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ACE ID / ACTN3 R577X genotype combination was associated with sprint and endurance performance. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the interaction between both ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and sprint and endurance performance in swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit (Sigma, Germany). All samples were genotyped using a real-time poly- merase chain reaction. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X genotype frequencies met Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both swimmers and controls. When the two swimmer groups, long distance swimmers (LDS) and short distance swimmers (SDS), were compared with control subjects in a single test, a significant association was found only for the ACE polymorphism, but not for ACTN3. Additionally, four ACE/ACTN3 combined genotypes (ID/RX, ID/XX, II/RX and II/XX) were statistically significant for the LDS versus Control comparison, but none for the SDS versus Control comparison. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms did not show any association with sprint swimming, taken individually or in combination. In spite of numerous previous reports of associations with athletic status or sprint performance in other sports, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism, in contrast to ACE I/D, was not significantly associated with elite swimming status when considered individually. However, the combined analysis of the two loci suggests that the co-occurrence of the ACE I and ACTN3 X alleles may be beneficial to swimmers who compete in long distance races. PMID:25414746

  4. Interaction Between ACE I/D and ACTN3 R557X Polymorphisms in Polish Competitive Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Grenda, Agata; Leo?ska-Duniec, Agata; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Ficek, Krzysztof; Krl, Pawe?; Ci?szczyk, Pawe?; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2014-09-29

    We hypothesized that the ACE ID / ACTN3 R577X genotype combination was associated with sprint and endurance performance. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the interaction between both ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and sprint and endurance performance in swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit (Sigma, Germany). All samples were genotyped using a real-time poly- merase chain reaction. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X genotype frequencies met Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both swimmers and controls. When the two swimmer groups, long distance swimmers (LDS) and short distance swimmers (SDS), were compared with control subjects in a single test, a significant association was found only for the ACE polymorphism, but not for ACTN3. Additionally, four ACE/ACTN3 combined genotypes (ID/RX, ID/XX, II/RX and II/XX) were statistically significant for the LDS versus Control comparison, but none for the SDS versus Control comparison. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms did not show any association with sprint swimming, taken individually or in combination. In spite of numerous previous reports of associations with athletic status or sprint performance in other sports, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism, in contrast to ACE I/D, was not significantly associated with elite swimming status when considered individually. However, the combined analysis of the two loci suggests that the co-occurrence of the ACE I and ACTN3 X alleles may be beneficial to swimmers who compete in long distance races. PMID:25414746

  5. Cooperativity of RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations in severe congenital neutropenia: a unique pathway in myeloid leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Skokowa, Julia; Steinemann, Doris; Katsman-Kuipers, Jenny E; Zeidler, Cornelia; Klimenkova, Olga; Klimiankou, Maksim; Unalan, Murat; Kandabarau, Siarhei; Makaryan, Vahagn; Beekman, Renee; Behrens, Kira; Stocking, Carol; Obenauer, Julia; Schnittger, Susanne; Kohlmann, Alexander; Valkhof, Marijke G; Hoogenboezem, Remco; Ghring, Gudrun; Reinhardt, Dirk; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Stanulla, Martin; Vandenberghe, Peter; Donadieu, Jean; Zwaan, C Michel; Touw, Ivo P; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Dale, David C; Welte, Karl

    2014-04-01

    Severe congenital neutropenia (CN) is a preleukemic bone marrow failure syndrome with a 20% risk of evolving into leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patterns of acquisition of leukemia-associated mutations were investigated using next-generation deep-sequencing in 31 CN patients who developed leukemia or MDS. Twenty (64.5%) of the 31 patients had mutations in RUNX1. A majority of patients with RUNX1 mutations (80.5%) also had acquired CSF3R mutations. In contrast to their high frequency in CN patients who developed leukemia or MDS, RUNX1 mutations were found in only 9 of 307 (2.9%) patients with de novo pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. A sequential analysis at stages prior to overt leukemia revealed RUNX1 mutations to be late events in leukemic transformation. Single-cell analyses in 2 patients showed that RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations were present in the same malignant clone. Functional studies demonstrated elevated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced proliferation with diminished myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic CD34(+) cells coexpressing mutated forms of RUNX1 and CSF3R. The high frequency of cooperating RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations in CN patients suggests a novel molecular pathway of leukemogenesis: mutations in the hematopoietic cytokine receptor (G-CSFR) in combination with the second mutations in the downstream hematopoietic transcription fator (RUNX1). The detection of both RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations could be used as a marker for identifying CN patients with a high risk of progressing to leukemia or MDS. PMID:24523240

  6. A self-timed multipurpose delay sensor for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs).

    PubMed

    Osuna, Carlos Gmez; Ituero, Pablo; Lpez-Vallejo, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel self-timed multi-purpose sensor especially conceived for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The aim of the sensor is to measure performance variations during the life-cycle of the device, such as process variability, critical path timing and temperature variations. The proposed topology, through the use of both combinational and sequential FPGA elements, amplifies the time of a signal traversing a delay chain to produce a pulse whose width is the sensor's measurement. The sensor is fully self-timed, avoiding the need for clock distribution networks and eliminating the limitations imposed by the system clock. One single off- or on-chip time-to-digital converter is able to perform digitization of several sensors in a single operation. These features allow for a simplified approach for designers wanting to intertwine a multi-purpose sensor network with their application logic. Employed as a temperature sensor, it has been measured to have an error of 0.67 C, over the range of 20-100 C, employing 20 logic elements with a 2-point calibration. PMID:24361927

  7. Evaluation of water quality of the Qaraaoun Reservoir, Lebanon: suitability for multipurpose usage.

    PubMed

    Jurdi, Mey; Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Karahagopian, Yester; Davies, Brian E

    2002-07-01

    The increased demand on water resources in Lebanon as a result of: progressive urbanization, socio-economic growth, agricultural activities and development of industries is, according to the national authorities, a major critical factor by the year 2010. Political difficulties in earlier years imply a dearth of pertinent data. The objective of this study was to evaluate water quality of the Qaraaoun Reservoir of the Litani River and assess its feasibility for multi-purpose usage as one of the solutions to the aggravated water problems in Lebanon. Samples were collected from 18 sampling sites at several dates during the dry season. Parameters analysed were, pH, electrical conductivity, TDS, turbidity, alkalinity, Ca, Mg, TH, Cl-, SO4(2-), NH3, NO3(-), PO4(3-), Fe, Al, Na, Zn, Cr, Cu and As. The reported data were in compliance with WHO guidelines, USEPA regulation and EEC directives. Statistical analysis of the data defined three distinct environmental zones and water quality in the central, main zone satisfied most criteria. It is concluded that the reservoir water is fit for multipurpose uses, namely, drinking, domestic, recreational activities, irrigation, fisheries, livestock and industrial, and should be properly managed accordingly. PMID:12139073

  8. Development of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) coatings for multipurpose mechanical pump seals.

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalchenko, A. M.; Elam, J. W.; Erdemir, A.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Libera, J. A.; Pellin, M. J.; Gruen, D. M.; Hryn, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and performance of silicon carbide (SiC) shaft seals on multipurpose mechanical pumps are improved by applying a protective coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). UNCD exhibits extreme hardness (97 GPa), low friction (0.1 in air) and outstanding chemical resistance. Consequently, the application of UNCD coatings to multipurpose mechanical pump seals can reduce frictional energy losses and eliminate the downtime and hazardous emissions from seal failure and leakage. In this study, UNCD films were prepared by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition utilizing an argon/methane gas mixture. Prior to coating, the SiC seals were subjected to mechanical polishing using different grades of micron-sized diamond powder to produce different starting surfaces with well-controlled surface roughnesses. Following this roughening process, the seals were seeded by mechanical abrasion with diamond nanopowder, and subsequently coated with UNCD. The coated seals were subjected to dynamic wear testing performed at 3600 RPM and 100 psi for up to 10 days during which the seals were periodically removed and inspected. The UNCD-coated seals were examined using Raman microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and adhesion testing before and after the wear testing. These analyses revealed that delamination of the UNCD films was prevented when the initial SiC seal surface had an initial roughness >0.1 {micro}m. In addition, the UNCD surfaces showed no measurable wear as compared to approximately 0.2 {micro}m of wear for the untreated SiC surfaces.

  9. Basic evaluation of cast joining for electroformed coping using multi-purpose alloys.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Shiota, Makoto; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bonding interface and bonding strength of electroformed coping when cast joining was used with a multi-purpose alloy. The multi-purpose alloy was cast at a mold temperature of 700, 750 or 800 degrees C. A high noble alloy tab was also soldered onto an electroformed coping as a control. Sectioned surfaces of cast joining and soldered specimens were observed using a scanning electron microscope and analyzed using an electron probe micro analyzer. Shear bonding strength of specimens cast at 750 degrees C and that of soldered specimens were determined. The edge of the cast joining alloy was round, but this improved as temperature increased. Diffusion of elements from the cast joining alloy and electroformed coping was detected at the interface, which contributed to a significantly higher bonding strength in the cast joining specimen than in the soldered specimen. These results suggested that the cast joining could be potentially employed for electroformed copings. PMID:16281324

  10. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  11. Role of Caspase-3 Cleaved IP3R1 on Ca2+ Homeostasis and Developmental Competence of Mouse Oocytes and Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Fissore, Rafael. A.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis in most cell types is accompanied by altered Ca2+ homeostasis. During apoptosis, caspase-3 mediated cleavage of the type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) generates a 95-kDa C-terminal fragment (C-IP3R1), which represents the channel domain of the receptor. Aged mouse eggs display abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis and express C-IP3R1, although whether or not C-IP3R1 expression contributes to Ca2+ misregulation or a decrease in developmental competency is unknown. We sought to answer these questions by injecting in mouse oocytes and eggs cRNAs encoding CIP3R1. We found that: 1) expression of C-IP3R1 in eggs lowered the Ca2+ content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), although, as C-IP3R1 is quickly degraded at this stage, its expression did not impair pre-implantation embryo development; 2) expression of CIP3R1 in eggs enhanced fragmentation associated with aging; 3) endogenous IP3R1 is required for aging associated apoptosis, as its down-regulation prevented fragmentation, and expression of C-IP3R1 in eggs with downregulated IP3R1 partly restored fragmentation; 4) C-IP3R1 expression in GV oocytes resulted in persistent levels of protein, which abolished the increase in the ER releasable Ca2+ pool that occurs during maturation, undermined the Ca2+ oscillatory ability of matured eggs and their activation potential. Collectively, this study supports a role for IP3R1 and C-IP3R1 in regulating Ca2+ homeostasis and the ER Ca2+ content during oocyte maturation. Nevertheless, the role of C-IP3R1 on Ca2+ homeostasis in aged eggs seems minor, as in MII eggs the majority of endogenous IP3R1 remains intact and C-IP3R1 undergoes rapid turnover. PMID:24692207

  12. Effective utilization of genetic information for athletes and coaches: focus on ACTN3 R577X polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Training variants (type, intensity, and duration of exercise) can be selected according to individual aims and fitness assessment. Recently, various methods of resistance and endurance training have been used for muscle hypertrophy and VO2max improvement. Although several genetic variants are associated with elite athletic performance and muscle phenotypes, genetic background has not been used as variant for physical training. ACTN3 R577X is a well-studied genetic polymorphism. It is the only genotype associated with elite athletic performance in multiple cohorts. This association is strongly supported by mechanistic data from an Actn3-knockout mouse model. In this review, possible guidelines are discussed for effective utilization of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism for physical training. PMID:26526670

  13. Chronic neutrophilic leukemia with overexpression of EVI-1, and concurrent CSF3R and SETBP1 mutations: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ALTANGEREL, OTGONBAT; CAO, SHANNAN; MENG, JUANXIA; LIU, PENG; HAIYAN, GONG; XU, YUANFU; ZHAO, MINGFENG

    2015-01-01

    Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare type of myeloproliferative neoplasm, characterized by sustained neutrophilia, splenomegaly, bone marrow granulocytic hyperplasia (without evidence of dysplasia) and an absence of the Philadelphia chromosome. Thus far, ~150 cases of CNL have been described in the literature; however, none have demonstrated overexpression of the ecotropic viral integration site-1 (EVI-1, also known as MECOM) gene. The present study describes a case that fulfilled the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for CNL, and was associated with overexpression of EVI-1, as well as novel concurrent mutations of colony stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) and SET binding protein-1 (SETBP1). In addition, the current study briefly reviewed the relevant literature regarding novel genetic findings associated with the diagnosis and treatment of CNL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of CNL with associated EVI-1 overexpression, and concurrent CSF3R and SETBP1 mutations. PMID:26622734

  14. Stereospecific enzymatic transformation of alpha-ketoglutarate to (2S,3R)-3-methyl glutamate during acidic lipopeptide biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mahlert, Christoph; Kopp, Florian; Thirlway, Jenny; Micklefield, Jason; Marahiel, Mohamed A

    2007-10-01

    The acidic lipopeptides, including the calcium-dependent antibiotics (CDA), daptomycin, and A54145, are important macrocyclic peptide natural products produced by Streptomyces species. All three compounds contain a 3-methyl glutamate (3-MeGlu) as the penultimate C-terminal residue, which is important for bioactivity. Here, biochemical in vitro reconstitution of the 3-MeGlu biosynthetic pathway is presented, using exclusively enzymes from the CDA producer Streptomyces coelicolor. It is shown that the predicted 3-MeGlu methyltransferase GlmT and its homologues DptI from the daptomycin producer Streptomyces roseosporus and LptI from the A54145 producer Streptomyces fradiae do not methylate free glutamic acid, PCP-bound glutamate, or Glu-containing CDA in vitro. Instead, GlmT, DptI, and LptI are S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent alpha-ketoglutarate methyltransferases that catalyze the stereospecific methylation of alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG) leading to (3R)-3-methyl-2-oxoglutarate. Subsequent enzyme screening identified the branched chain amino acid transaminase IlvE (SCO5523) as an efficient catalyst for the transformation of (3R)-3-methyl-2-oxoglutarate into (2S,3R)-3-MeGlu. Comparison of reversed-phase HPLC retention time of dabsylated 3-MeGlu generated by the coupled enzymatic reaction with dabsylated synthetic standards confirmed complete stereocontrol during enzymatic catalysis. This stereospecific two-step conversion of alphaKG to (2S,3R)-3-MeGlu completes our understanding of the biosynthesis and incorporation of beta-methylated amino acids into the nonribosomal lipopeptides. Finally, understanding this pathway may provide new possibilities for the production of modified peptides in engineered microbes. PMID:17784761

  15. Adsorbate induced relaxations of S/Ru(0001): p(2 2) and p(?3 ?3)R30 structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jrgens, D.; Held, G.; Pfnr, H.

    1994-02-01

    LEED- IV analyses were carried out for S/Ru(0001) ordered in p(2 2) and p(?3 ?3) R30 structures using 8 non-equivalent orders of diffraction and a total energy range between 1520 eV ( p(?3 ?3) R30) and 1700 eV. Top, bridge and the 2 threefold sites (fcc and hcp site) were tested. The calculated IV-curves for the hcp site show by far the best agreement with the experimental data already for the unrelaxed Ru surface so that top, bridge and fcc sites can be safely ruled out for both structures. For the p(2 2) structure small, but significant relaxations ( ?0.07 ) of first and second Ru surface layers in both lateral and vertical directions were found which, however, maintain the full point symmetry of the substrate surface. Especially rotations of groups of atoms within the layers were tested and found to be very unlikely. No significant buckling or lateral shifts were detectable for the p(?3 ?3) R30 phase. Only slight contractions by 0.02 of first and second Ru layers were found. The S-Ru bond length of 2.28 is virtually identical in both structures. The determined site agrees with that found recently by us with STM and is also in agreement with the symmetry requirements of continuous order-disorder phase transitions found for these two structures. Identical geometries as for the pure phases were found in the coexistence region of the p(2 2) and p(?3 ?3) R30 phases.

  16. Impaired TNF-α Control of IP3R-mediated Ca2+ Release in Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Park, Keigan M.; Yule, David I.; Bowers, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The misguided control of inflammatory signaling has been previously implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a central mediator of neuroinflammation, occurs commensurate with the onset of early disease in 3xTg-AD mice, which develop both amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangle pathologies in an age- and region-dependent pattern. Herein, we describe regulation inherent to 3xTg-AD neurons, which results in the loss of TNF-α mediated enhancement of inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3R)-mediated Ca2+ release. This modulation also leads to significant down regulation of IP3R signaling following protracted cytokine exposure. Through the experimental isolation of each AD-related transgene, it was determined that expression of the PS1M146V transgene product is responsible for the loss of the TNF-α effect on IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release. Furthermore, it was determined that the suppression of TNF-α receptor expression occurred in the presence of the presenilin transgene. Our findings attribute this familial AD mutation to suppressing a Ca2+-regulated signal cascade potentially intended to “inform” neurons of proximal neuroinflammatory events and trigger compensatory responses for protection of neural transmission. PMID:19922794

  17. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    E Rajakumara; Z Wang; H Ma; L Hu; H Chen; Y Lin; R Guo; F Wu; H Li; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  18. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Honghui; Hu, Lulu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wu, Feizhen; Li, Haitao; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Xu, Yanhui; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Shi, Yang

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHDUHRF1), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHDUHRF1 bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHDUHRF1 binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function. PMID:21777816

  19. Modulation of behavior by the histaminergic system: lessons from HDC-, H3R- and H4R-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Erich H; Neumann, Detlef; Seifert, Roland

    2014-11-01

    Histamine, which is synthesized by histidine decarboxylase (HDC), does not only modulate the immune system, but is also acting as a neurotransmitter. Histaminergic neurons project from the tuberomamillary nucleus to numerous brain regions. Activation of presynaptic H3R inhibits the release of histamine and of non-histaminergic neurotransmitters. The phenotypes of Hdc(-/-)- and Hrh3(-/-) mice comprise behaviors related to locomotor activity, memory, cognition, anxiety, circadian rhythm, pain perception, food intake and addiction. We critically discuss these phenotypes that are probably caused by global changes of the histaminergic tone rather than by an altered stimulation of a single histamine receptor subtype. Constitutive H3R activity may add another layer of complexity by causing "histamine-independent histaminergic" processes, e.g. in Hdc(-/-) mice. We also discuss the clinical relevance of H3R- and HDC-deficient mice, e.g. the role of HDC in Tourette's syndrome. Finally, this review summarizes current knowledge on possible central H4R functions. Neuronal expression of H4R, however, is discussed controversially and a systematic behavioral characterization of Hrh4(-/-) mice is still missing. PMID:25102165

  20. Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytes from Ip3r2(-/-) mice in brain slices and during startle responses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Rahul; Huang, Ben S; Venugopal, Sharmila; Johnston, April D; Chai, Hua; Zeng, Hongkui; Golshani, Peyman; Khakh, Baljit S

    2015-05-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) signaling is considered to be important for multiple astrocyte functions in neural circuits. However, mice devoid of inositol triphosphate type 2 receptors (IP3R2) reportedly lack all astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling, but display no neuronal or neurovascular deficits, implying that astrocyte Ca(2+) fluctuations are not involved in these functions. An assumption has been that the loss of somatic Ca(2+) fluctuations also reflects a similar loss in astrocyte processes. We tested this assumption and found diverse types of Ca(2+) fluctuations in astrocytes, with most occurring in processes rather than in somata. These fluctuations were preserved in Ip3r2(-/-) (also known as Itpr2(-/-)) mice in brain slices and in vivo, occurred in end feet, and were increased by G protein-coupled receptor activation and by startle-induced neuromodulatory responses. Our data reveal previously unknown Ca(2+) fluctuations in astrocytes and highlight limitations of studies that used Ip3r2(-/-) mice to evaluate astrocyte contributions to neural circuit function and mouse behavior. PMID:25894291

  1. Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes from IP3R2?/? mice in brain slices and during startle responses in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Rahul; Huang, Ben S.; Venugopal, Sharmila; Johnston, April D.; Chai, Hua; Zeng, Hongkui; Golshani, Peyman; Khakh, Baljit S.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ signaling is considered important for multiple astrocyte functions in neural circuits. However, mice devoid of inositol triphosphate type 2 receptors (IP3R2) reportedly lack all astrocyte Ca2+ signaling, but display no neuronal or neurovascular deficits, implying that astrocyte Ca2+ fluctuations play no role(s) in these functions. An assumption has been that loss of somatic Ca2+ fluctuations also reflects similar loss within astrocyte processes. Here, we tested this assumption and found diverse types of Ca2+ fluctuations within astrocytes, with most occurring within processes rather than in somata. These fluctuations were preserved in IP3R2?/? mice in brain slices and in vivo, occurred in endfeet, were increased by G-protein coupled receptor activation and by startle-induced neuromodulatory responses. Our data reveal novel Ca2+ fluctuations within astrocytes and highlight limitations of studies that used IP3R2?/? mice to evaluate astrocyte contributions to neural circuit function and mouse behavior. PMID:25894291

  2. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rajakumara, Eerappa; Wang, Zhentian; Ma, Honghui; Hu, Lulu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wu, Feizhen; Li, Haitao; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Xu, Yanhui; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Shi, Yang

    2011-08-29

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  3. 78 FR 20388 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2007 Ford Escape Multi-Purpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...This document announces receipt by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of a petition for a decision that nonconforming 2007 Ford Escape Multi-Purpose Passenger Vehicles that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS), are eligible for importation into the United States because they are substantially......

  4. 78 FR 13755 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2003 Jeep Wrangler Multi-Purpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ...This document announces receipt by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of a petition for a decision that 2003 Jeep Wrangler multi-purpose passenger vehicles manufactured for sale in the Mexican market that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS), are eligible for importation into the United States......

  5. The Design of Multi-Purpose Science Laboratories for Lower Second Level Schools in Asia. Study No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderberg, B. H.

    The small size of many schools in the Asian Region would cause separate laboratories for chemistry and biology to be underutilized. In many larger schools the curricula include "general science," with contents from biology, physics, and chemistry. This paper describes multipurpose spaces for science activities sufficient for science teaching and

  6. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury. 1145.17 Section 1145.17 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REGULATION OF PRODUCTS SUBJECT TO OTHER ACTS UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT...

  7. Controlling levonorgestrel binding and release in a multi-purpose prevention technology vaginal ring device.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Diarmaid J; Boyd, Peter; McCoy, Clare F; Kumar, Sandeep; Holt, Jonathon D S; Blanda, Wendy; Brimer, Andrew N; Malcolm, R Karl

    2016-03-28

    Despite a long history of incorporating steroids into silicone elastomers for drug delivery applications, little is presently known about the propensity for irreversible drug binding in these systems. In this study, the ability of the contraceptive progestin levonorgestrel to bind chemically with hydrosilane groups in addition-cure silicone elastomers has been thoroughly investigated. Cure time, cure temperature, levonorgestrel particle size, initial levonorgestrel loading and silicone elastomer type were demonstrated to be key parameters impacting the extent of levonorgestrel binding, each through their influence on the solubility of levonorgestrel in the silicone elastomer. Understanding and overcoming this levonorgestrel binding phenomenon is critical for the ongoing development of a number of drug delivery products, including a multi-purpose technology vaginal ring device offering simultaneous release of levonorgestrel and dapivirine - a lead candidate antiretroviral microbicide - for combination HIV prevention and hormonal contraception. PMID:26878974

  8. Multi-Purpose Avionic Architecture for Vision Based Navigation Systems for EDL and Surface Mobility Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutola, A.; Paltro, D.; Cabalo Perucha, M. P.; Paar, G.; Steiner, J.; Barrio, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Vision Based Navigation (VBNAV) has been identified as a valid technology to support space exploration because it can improve autonomy and safety of space missions. Several mission scenarios can benefit from the VBNAV: Rendezvous & Docking, Fly-Bys, Interplanetary cruise, Entry Descent and Landing (EDL) and Planetary Surface exploration. For some of them VBNAV can improve the accuracy in state estimation as additional relative navigation sensor or as absolute navigation sensor. For some others, like surface mobility and terrain exploration for path identification and planning, VBNAV is mandatory. This paper presents the general avionic architecture of a Vision Based System as defined in the frame of the ESA R&T study Multi-purpose Vision-based Navigation System Engineering Model - part 1 (VisNav-EM-1) with special focus on the surface mobility application.

  9. MATISSE: Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Antonelli, L. A.

    2013-09-01

    In planetary sciences, design, assemble and launch onboard instruments are only preliminary steps toward the final aim of converting data into scientific knowledge, as the real challenge is the data analysis and interpretation. Up to now data have been generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e. common ftp servers where the user can manually search for data browsing directories organized in a time order manner. However, as datasets to be stored and searched become particularly large, this latter task absorb a great part of the time, subtracting time to the real scientific work. In order to reduce the time spent to search and analyze data MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), a new set of software tools developed together with the scientific teams of the instruments involved, is under development at ASDC (ASI Science Data Center), whose experience in space missions data management is well known (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4]).

  10. Design and Development of Multi-Purpose CCD Camera System with Thermoelectric Cooling: Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Y.-W.; Byun, Y. I.; Rhee, J. H.; Oh, S. H.; Kim, D. K.

    2007-12-01

    We designed and developed a multi-purpose CCD camera system for three kinds of CCDs; KAF-0401E(768×512), KAF-1602E(1536×1024), KAF-3200E(2184×1472) made by KODAK Co.. The system supports fast USB port as well as parallel port for data I/O and control signal. The packing is based on two stage circuit boards for size reduction and contains built-in filter wheel. Basic hardware components include clock pattern circuit, A/D conversion circuit, CCD data flow control circuit, and CCD temperature control unit. The CCD temperature can be controlled with accuracy of approximately 0.4° C in the max. range of temperature, Δ 33° C. This CCD camera system has with readout noise 6 e^{-}, and system gain 5 e^{-}/ADU. A total of 10 CCD camera systems were produced and our tests show that all of them show passable performance.

  11. Design and fabrication of a multipurpose thyroid phantom for medical dosimetry and calibration.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh Naderi, Simin; Sina, Sedigheh; Karimipoorfard, Mehrnoosh; Lotfalizadeh, Fatemeh; Entezarmahdi, Mohammad; Moradi, Hamed; Faghihi, Reza

    2016-03-01

    A multipurpose anthropomorphic neck phantom was designed and fabricated for use in medical applications. The designed neck phantom is composed of seven elliptic cylindrical slices with a semi-major axis of 14 cm and a semi-minor axis of 12.5 cm, each having the thickness of 2 cm. The thyroid gland, bony part of the neck, and the windpipe were also built inside the neck phantom. For the purpose of medical dosimetry, some holes were drilled inside the phantom to accommodate the thermoluminescence dosemeters with different shapes and dimensions. For testing the quality of images in nuclear medicine, the thyroid gland was built separately to accommodate the radioactive iodine. Finally, the nuclear medicine images were obtained by inserting (131)I in both male and female thyroid parts. PMID:26124260

  12. Aquatic toxicity of the decontamination agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination solution. Final report, May-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, M.V.; Kurnas, C.W.; Chester, N.A.; Muse, W.T.

    1994-05-01

    A new formulation, Decontaminating Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution, is being considered as a replacement to the DS-2 decontaminating solution. The new formulation is composed of calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone. Since this is a new formulation little environmental data exists. To estimate potential impact to an aquatic environment, Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum (a luminescent marine bacterium) were exposed to the DAM solution and to the individual components (Calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone). The toxicity of the DAM solution to D. magna and P. phosphoreum was 5000 and 0.00053, respectively (highly toxic). The toxicity of calcium hypochlorite' and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone to daphnia was 0.04 mg/L (highly toxic) and 107 mg/L (moderately toxic), respectively.

  13. Source test of the prototype neutron detector for the large-acceptance multipurpose spectrometer at RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Mulilo, Benard; Hong, Byungsik

    2013-05-01

    A neutron detector array will be essential for the study of the nuclear symmetry energy in the large-acceptance multipurpose spectrometer (LAMPS) at the planned rare-isotope beam facility RAON in Korea. We have built the prototype neutron detector for LAMPS and examined its performance by using radiation sources. For data taking, we tested the voltage-threshold discriminator (VTD) and the constant-fraction discriminator (CFD) modules for the pulse process. The intrinsic time resolution of the prototype detector is estimated to be 723 ps for VTD and 488 ps for CFD. The fission neutrons and gammas emitted from 252Cf can be clearly separated in the time distribution. We reconstruct the energy spectrum of the spontaneous fission neutrons from 252Cf, which can be described well by using the empirical Watt spectrum.

  14. Multipurpose Small Size Fast Reactor: Its Basic Concept and Application to Nuclear Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, H.; Sawada, T.; Ninokata, H.

    2002-07-01

    Here we propose a basic concept of a multipurpose small-sized fast reactor and its applicability to produce nuclear hydrogen for near future mass use of hydrogen industrial and public use. The modular-type fast reactor of 150 MW thermal output does not require fuel exchange nor decommissioning on the site, and can be transported from the factory in a fabricated form. For the hydrogen production, we propose to use the sorption enhanced reforming process (SERP), in which the steam-methane reforming can take place around 450 - 550. Since this temperature range is rather low compared to the ongoing steam reforming method (> 800 ), the SERP system combined with an adequate nuclear reactor system should be a promising one to cope with the coming age of hydrogen civilization. (authors)

  15. Transportation system benefits of early deployment of a 75-ton multipurpose canister system

    SciTech Connect

    Wankerl, M.W.; Schmid, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    In 1993 the US Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) began developing two multipurpose canister (MPC) systems to provide a standardized method for interim storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at commercial nuclear power plants. One is a 75-ton concept with an estimated payload of about 6 metric tons (t) of SNF, and the other is a 125-ton concept with an estimated payload of nearly 11 t of SNF. These payloads are two to three times the payloads of the largest currently certified US rail transport casks, the IF-300. Although is it recognized that a fully developed 125-ton MPC system is likely to provide a greater cost benefit, and radiation exposure benefit than the lower-capacity 75-ton MPC, the authors of this paper suggest that development and deployment of the 75-ton MPC prior to developing and deploying a 125-ton MPC is a desirable strategy. Reasons that support this are discussed in this paper.

  16. Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

  17. Elaborate control over the morphology and structure of mercapto-functionalized mesoporous silicas as multipurpose carriers.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin; He, Junhui

    2010-10-14

    In this article, mercapto-functionalized helical mesoporous silica nanorods have been synthesized by a one-step co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. Process parameters, including MPTS concentration, stirring time and added volume of ethanol as co-solvent, were both carefully and accurately regulated, and obtained results showed that these parameters all had large effects on the morphology and structure of products. Furthermore, the helical mesoporous silica nanorods were successfully employed as multipurpose carriers for Au nanoparticles (NPs) and CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) by in situ formation and post-loading, respectively. In a preliminary catalytic test, Au NPs as small as ca. 0.6 nm in the helical mesoporous silica nanorods after calcination showed much enhanced catalytic activity for reduction of methylene blue (MB(+)). PMID:20730188

  18. Multipurpose nonlinear optical imaging system for in vivo and ex vivo multimodal histology

    PubMed Central

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada; Knig, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We report on a flexible multipurpose nonlinear microscopic imaging system based on a femtosecond excitation source and a photonic crystal fiber with multiple miniaturized time-correlated single-photon counting detectors. The system provides the simultaneous acquisition of e.g., two-photon autofluorescence, second-harmonic generation, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images. Its flexible scan head permits ex vivo biological imaging with subcellular resolution such as rapid biopsy examination during surgery as well as imaging on small as well as large animals. Above all, such an arrangement perfectly matches the needs for the clinical investigation of human skin in vivo where knowledge about the distribution of endogenous fluorophores, second-harmonic generationactive collagen as well as nonfluorescent lipids is of high interest. PMID:26158089

  19. Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  20. Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  1. NASA AND ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, NASA and ESA made a decision to partially offset the European obligations deriving from the extension of the ISS Program until the end of 2020 with different means than ATVs, following the ATV-5 mission foreseen in mid-2014. NASA and ESA considered a number of barter options, and concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module and Spacecraft Adaptor for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter element with the most interest. A joint ESA - NASA working group was established to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage. The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin. This paper gives an overview of the results of the on-going study as well as its projected utilization for the global space exploration endeavour.

  2. Delivery of multipurpose prevention drug combinations from electrospun nanofibers using composite microarchitectures

    PubMed Central

    Blakney, Anna K; Krogstad, Emily A; Jiang, Yonghou H; Woodrow, Kim A

    2014-01-01

    Background Electrospun drug-eluting fabrics have enormous potential for the delivery of physicochemically diverse drugs in combination by controlling the underlying material chemistry and fabric microarchitecture. However, the rationale for formulating drugs at high drug loading in the same or separate fibers is unknown but has important implications for product development and clinical applications. Methods Using a production-scale free-surface electrospinning instrument, we produced electrospun nanofibers with different microscale geometries for the co-delivery of tenofovir (TFV) and levonorgestrel (LNG) two lead drug candidates for multipurpose prevention of HIV acquisition and unintended pregnancy. We investigated the in vitro drug release of TFV and LNG combinations from composites that deliver the two drugs from the same fiber (combined fibers) or from separate fibers in a stacked or interwoven architecture. For stacked composites, we also examined the role that fabric thickness has on drug-release kinetics. We also measured the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the drugs delivered alone and in combination. Results Herein, we report on the solution and processing parameters for the free-surface electrospinning of medical fabrics with controlled microarchitecture and high drug loading (up to 20 wt%). We observed that in vitro release of the highly water-soluble TFV, but not the water-insoluble LNG, was affected by composite microarchitecture, fabric thickness, and drug content. Finally, we showed that the drug-loaded nanofibers are noncytotoxic and that the antiviral activity of TFV is preserved through the electrospinning process and when combined with LNG. Conclusion Electrospun fabrics with high drug loading create multicomponent systems that benefit from the independent control of the nanofibrous microarchitecture. Our findings are significant because they will inform the design and production of composite electrospun fabrics for the co-delivery of physicochemically diverse drugs that may be useful for multipurpose prevention. PMID:24971008

  3. Strategic Focus on 3R Principles Reveals Major Reductions in the Use of Animals in Pharmaceutical Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Trnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; berg, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

  4. Strategic focus on 3R principles reveals major reductions in the use of animals in pharmaceutical toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Trnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; berg, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

  5. The fate of the 2?3 2?3R(30) silicene phase on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Long; Wang, Mei-Xiao; Liu, Canhua; Jia, Jin-Feng; Vogt, Patrick; Quaresima, Claudio; Ottaviani, Carlo; Olivieri, Bruno; De Padova, Paola; Lay, Guy Le

    2014-09-01

    Silicon atoms deposited on Ag(111) produce various single layer silicene sheets with different buckling patterns and periodicities. Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that one of the silicene sheets, the hypothetical ?7 ?7 silicene structure, on 2?3 2?3 Ag(111), is inherently highly defective and displays no long-range order. Moreover, Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal its sudden death, to end, in a dynamic fating process at 300 C. This result clarifies the real nature of the 2?3 2?3R(30) silicene phase and thus helps to understand the diversity of the silicene sheets grown on Ag(111).

  6. Phase and structural behavior of SmAlO{sub 3}RAlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ohon, N.; Vasylechko, L.; Prots, Yu.; Schmidt, M.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: Continuous solid solutions exist in the SmAlO{sub 3}RAlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd) systems. Lattice parameter crossover was found in solid solutions Sm{sub 1?x}R{sub x}AlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd). Thermally induced lattice crossovers occur in Sm{sub 0.9}R{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3} at elevated temperatures. First-order structural phase transition Pbnm?R3{sup }c was found in Sm{sub 1?x}R{sub x}AlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd). Phase diagram of the systems SmAlO{sub 3}EuAlO{sub 3} and SmAlO{sub 3}GdAlO{sub 3} has been constructed. - Abstract: Phase and structural behavior in the SmAlO{sub 3}RAlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd) systems has been studied in a whole concentration range by means of laboratory X-ray diffraction, in situ synchrotron powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis techniques. Continuous solid solutions with orthorhombic perovskite structure have been found in both systems. Peculiarity of the solid solutions of Sm{sub 1?x}Eu{sub x}AlO{sub 3} and Sm{sub 1?x}Gd{sub x}AlO{sub 3} is the existence of two lattice parameter crossovers in each system occurred at x{sub Eu} = 0.07 and 0.62 and at x{sub Gd} = 0.04 and 0.33, respectively. The temperature induced lattice crossovers in the Sm{sub 0.9}Eu{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3} and Sm{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3} samples have been found at 387 and 922 K and at 501 and 894 K. First-order reversible structural phase transformations Pbnm?R3{sup }c have been detected in both systems at the elevated temperatures. The temperatures of these transitions increase linearly with the decreasing of the samarium content. Phase diagrams of the pseudo-binary systems SmAlO{sub 3}EuAlO{sub 3} and SmAlO{sub 3}GdAlO{sub 3} have been constructed.

  7. Phosphorylation of IP3R1 and the regulation of [Ca2+]i responses at fertilization: a role for the MAP kinase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Vermassen, Elke; Yoon, Sook-Young; Vanderheyden, Veerle; Ito, Junya; Alfandari, Dominique; De Smedt, Humbert; Parys, Jan B.; Fissore, Rafael A.

    2010-01-01

    A sperm-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal ([Ca2+]i) underlies the initiation of embryo development in most species studied to date. The inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1) in mammals, or its homologue in other species, is thought to mediate the majority of this Ca2+ release. IP3R1-mediated Ca2+ release is regulated during oocyte maturation such that it reaches maximal effectiveness at the time of fertilization, which, in mammalian eggs, occurs at the metaphase stage of the second meiosis (MII). Consistent with this, the [Ca2+]i oscillations associated with fertilization in these species occur most prominently during the MII stage. In this study, we have examined the molecular underpinnings of IP3R1 function in eggs. Using mouse and Xenopus eggs, we show that IP3R1 is phosphorylated during both maturation and the first cell cycle at a MPM2-detectable epitope(s), which is known to be a target of kinases controlling the cell cycle. In vitro phosphorylation studies reveal that MAPK/ERK2, one of the M-phase kinases, phosphorylates IP3R1 at at least one highly conserved site, and that its mutation abrogates IP3R1 phosphorylation in this domain. Our studies also found that activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway is required for the IP3R1 MPM2 reactivity observed in mouse eggs, and that eggs deprived of the MAPK/ERK pathway during maturation fail to mount normal [Ca2+]i oscillations in response to agonists and show compromised IP3R1 function. These findings identify IP3R1 phosphorylation by M-phase kinases as a regulatory mechanism of IP3R1 function in eggs that serves to optimize [Ca2+]i release at fertilization. PMID:17038520

  8. The PLC/IP3R/PKC Pathway is Required for Ethanol-enhanced GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Kelm, M. Katherine; Weinberg, Richard J.; Criswell, Hugh E.; Breese, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Research on the actions of ethanol at the GABAergic synapse has traditionally focused on postsynaptic mechanisms, but recent data demonstrate that ethanol also increases both evoked and spontaneous GABA release in many brain regions. Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings, we previously showed that ethanol increases spontaneous GABA release at the rat interneuron-Purkinje cell synapse. This presynaptic ethanol effect is dependent on calcium release from internal stores, possibly through activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs). After confirming that ethanol targets vesicular GABA release, in the present study we used electron microscopic immunohistochemistry to demonstrate that IP3Rs are located in presynaptic terminals of cerebellar interneurons. Activation of IP3Rs requires binding of IP3, generated through activation of phospholipase C (PLC). We find that the PLC antagonist edelfosine prevents ethanol from increasing spontaneous GABA release. Diacylglycerol generated by PLC and calcium released by activation of the IP3R activate protein kinase C (PKC). Ethanol-enhanced GABA release was blocked by two PKC antagonists, chelerythrine and calphostin C. When a membrane impermeable PKC antagonist, PKC (19-36), was delivered intracellularly to the postsynaptic neuron, ethanol continued to increase spontaneous GABA release. Overall, these results suggest that activation of the PLC/IP3R/PKC pathway is necessary for ethanol to increase spontaneous GABA release from presynaptic terminals onto Purkinje cells. PMID:20206640

  9. Ordering and stabilization of C 60 films on the ( 3 3)R30 Sn/Pt(111) surface alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swami, Nathan; He, Hong; Koel, Bruce E.

    1999-04-01

    The deposition and growth of C 60 on the ( 3 3)R30 Sn/Pt(111) surface alloy is compared with that on the Pt(111) surface at submonolayer, monolayer and multilayer coverages. We find that alloying Pt(111) with Sn arrests the charge transfer from Pt to adsorbed C 60, as seen from the absence of a shift in the T 1u(1) vibrational levels of C 60 probed by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). From low energy electron diffraction (LEED) observations it is determined that whereas ordering and graphitization of C 60 on Pt(111) take place at 900 K, graphitization of C 60 is inhibited by Sn alloyed into Pt(111). The rotated hexagonal LEED pattern of the ordered C 60 monolayer is stabilized by the presence of Sn on Pt(111) until 1100 K, which is close to the fragmentation temperature of solid C 60. Upon heating C 60 films on the ( 3 3)R30 Sn/Pt(111) surface alloy, Sn is dealloyed at about 500 K, and this dealloyed Sn reacts with C 60 at 450-700 K, possibly resulting in polymerization. Auger electron spectroscopy annealing studies and the rise in intensity of the unpolarized Raman-active A g(2) mode at 1467 cm -1 support this conclusion. High temperature fragmentation of C 60 in the presence of Sn leads to HREELS peaks at 250 and 740 cm -1, prior to the formation of graphite.

  10. Inhibition of spinal 5-HT3R reverted diabetes-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in a GABAAR-mediated neurotransmission-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Martins, D; Tavares, I; Morgado, C

    2015-09-24

    Spinal 5-HT3 receptor (5-HT3R) has been implicated in chronic pain development. The extent to which 5-HT3R contributes to spinal sensitization and diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) remains elusive and the mechanisms subserving the effects of 5-HT3R activation on spinal pain processing during chronic pain are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of spinal 5-HT3R to pain facilitation and spinal sensitization during DNP, exploiting the role of GABAAR-mediated neurotransmission and glial activation in the effects elicited by intrathecal administration of a 5-HT3R antagonist. Mechanical nociception was evaluated by paw pressure test in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic and control rats after intrathecal (i.t.) administration of a 5-HT3R antagonist (Y25130). The spinal activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) pathway and the expression of 5-HT3R, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; marker of astroglia activation) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1; marker of microglia activation) were evaluated at the peak maximum effect of Y25130. The involvement of GABAAR-mediated neurotransmission in the behavioral pain effect of Y25130, was assessed in STZ-diabetic animals receiving i.t. administrations of muscimol (GABAAR agonist). Intrathecal administration of Y25130 reverted mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased the activation of ERKs in STZ-diabetic rats, while no effects were observed in control animals. The spinal activation of GABAAR by i.t. administration of muscimol abolished Y25130-driven antinociception. The expression of IBA-1, GFAP and 5-HT3R was unaltered by treatment. These findings point to a GABA-mediated pronociceptive role of spinal 5-HT3R during DNP. PMID:26210577

  11. Differing Evolutionary Histories of the ACTN3*R577X Polymorphism among the Major Human Geographic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Carlos Eduardo G.; Acua-Alonzo, Victor; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria Ctira; Hnemeier, Tbita

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that the functional ACTN3*R577X polymorphism might have evolved due to selection in Eurasian human populations. To test this possibility we surveyed all available population-based data for this polymorphism and performed a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of its genetic diversity, in order to assess the action of adaptive and random mechanisms on its variation across human geographical distribution. The derived 577X allele increases in frequency with distance from Africa, reaching the highest frequencies on the American continent. Positive selection, detected by an extended haplotype homozygosisty test, was consistent only with the Eurasian data, but simulations with neutral models could not fully explain the results found in the American continent. It is possible that particularities of Native American population structure could be responsible for the observed allele frequencies, which would have resulted from a complex interaction between selective and random factors. PMID:25706920

  12. Study of structural, electronic and elastic properties of RPd{sub 3} (R = Lu and Sc) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Veena Pagare, Gitanjali Chouhan, S. S.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2014-04-24

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of nonmagnetic RPd{sub 3} (R = Lu and Sc) compounds, which crystallize in AuCu{sub 3}-type structure, are studied using first principles density functional theory based on full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The calculations are carried out within the PBE-GGA and WC-GGA for the exchange correlation potential. Our calculated ground state properties such as lattice constant (a0), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B’) are in good agreement with the experimental results. We first time predict the elastic constants for these compounds using different approximations of GGA. These RPd{sup 3} compounds are found to be ductile in nature in accordance with Pugh’s criteria. The computed electronic band structures and density of states show metallic character of these compounds.

  13. Dimorphism of RF3 ( R = La-Nd) crystals based on the data of X-ray diffraction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotina, N. B.; Chernaya, T. S.; Verin, I. A.; Khrykina, O. N.; Sobolev, B. P.

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of two forms of tysonite in nominally pure single crystals of RF3 ( R = La-Nd) obtained from melts under identical conditions (the as-grown state) is studied for the first time by X-ray diffraction. Crystals of RF3 with R = La-Nd belong to the ?-LaF3 structural type (space group Pbar 3c1, Z = 6) and form twins. Samples 0.2-0.4 in diameter contain inclusions of the high-temperature a form (space group P63/ mmc, Z = 2). It is shown that twinning and dimorphism of the RF3 crystals ( R = La-Nd) have a common structural basis.

  14. The fate of the 2√3 × 2√3R(30°) silicene phase on Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhi-Long; Wang, Mei-Xiao; Liu, Canhua E-mail: depadova@ism.cnr.it Jia, Jin-Feng; Vogt, Patrick; Quaresima, Claudio; Ottaviani, Carlo; De Padova, Paola E-mail: depadova@ism.cnr.it; Olivieri, Bruno; Lay, Guy Le E-mail: depadova@ism.cnr.it

    2014-09-01

    Silicon atoms deposited on Ag(111) produce various single layer silicene sheets with different buckling patterns and periodicities. Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that one of the silicene sheets, the hypothetical √7 × √7 silicene structure, on 2√3 × 2√3 Ag(111), is inherently highly defective and displays no long-range order. Moreover, Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal its sudden death, to end, in a dynamic fating process at ∼300 °C. This result clarifies the real nature of the 2√3 × 2√3R(30°) silicene phase and thus helps to understand the diversity of the silicene sheets grown on Ag(111)

  15. Boar spermatozoa successfully predict mitochondrial modes of toxicity: implications for drug toxicity testing and the 3R principles.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Carrillo, A; Edebert, I; Garside, H; Cotgreave, I; Rigler, R; Loitto, V; Magnusson, K E; Rodrguez-Martnez, H

    2015-04-01

    Replacement of animal testing by in vitro methods (3-R principles) requires validation of suitable cell models, preferably obtained non-invasively, defying traditional use of explants. Ejaculated spermatozoa are highly dependent on mitochondrial production and consumption of ATP for their metabolism, including motility display, thus becoming a suitable model for capturing multiple modes of action of drugs and other chemicals acting via mitochondrial disturbance. In this study, a hypothesis was tested that the boar spermatozoon is a suitable cell type for toxicity assessment, providing a protocol for 3R-replacement of animals for research and drug-testing. Boar sperm kinetics was challenged with a wide variety of known frank mito-toxic chemicals with previously shown mitochondrial effects, using a semi-automated motility analyser allied with real-time fluorescent probing of mitochondrial potential (MitoTracker & JC-1). Output of this sperm assay (obtained after 30 min) was compared to cell viability (ATP-content, data obtained after 24-48 h) of a hepatome-cell line (HepG2). Results of compound effects significantly correlated (P<0.01) for all sperm variables and for most variables in (HepG2). Dose-dependent decreases of relative ATP content in HepG2 cells correlated to sperm speed (r=0.559) and proportions of motile (r=0.55) or progressively motile (r=0.53) spermatozoa. The significance of the study relies on the objectivity of computerized testing of sperm motility inhibition which is comparable albeit of faster output than somatic cell culture models. Sperm suspensions, easily and painlessly obtained from breeding boars, are confirmed as suitable biosensors for preclinical toxicology screening and ranking of lead compounds in the drug development processes. PMID:25624015

  16. A novel splicing mutation in the SLC9A3R1 gene in tumors from ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    KREIMANN, ERICA LORENA; RATAJSKA, MAGDALENA; KUZNIACKA, ALINA; DEMACOPULO, BRENDA; STUKAN, MACIEJ; LIMON, JANUSZ

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate novel molecular markers that could improve the diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients or be of predictive value. The sequence of the sodium-hydrogen antiporter 3 regulator 1 (SLC9A3R1) gene that codes for the PDZ2 motif of the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) protein was analyzed. Changes in migration and cell transformation, and alterations of growth factor signaling pathways have been described in cells lacking endogenous NHERF1 or expressing an isoform lacking the function of the PDZ2 domain. Exons 2 and 3, together with flanking intronic sequences of the SLC9A3R1 gene, were amplified and bi-directionally sequenced in 31 primary tumor samples from epithelial ovarian cancer patients. In total, 3 different previously undescribed mutations were detected in 8 out of 31 serous adenocarcinoma tumor samples (25.8%). Bioinformatics analysis predicted a significant effect in the splicing process as a result of the mutations that could disrupt the NHERF1 PDZ2 domain. Point mutations in consensus splicing recognition are a major cause of the splicing defects that are found in several diseases, including cancer. It has previously been shown that a lack of exon 2 and disruption of the PDZ2 domain contribute to cell transformation and leads to modifications in the physiological regulation of the conformational state of NHERF1. Further studies in bigger groups of ovarian cancer patients will determine the importance of this mutation in disease progression and patient survival.

  17. Effects of an H3R antagonist on the animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Baronio, Diego; Castro, Kamila; Gonchoroski, Taylor; de Melo, Gabriela Mueller; Nunes, Gustavo Della Flora; Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Gottfried, Carmem; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders primarily characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted repetitive behaviors and interests. Ligands of histamine receptor 3 (H3R) are considered potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of different brain disorders and cognitive impairments. Considering this, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the actions of ciproxifan (CPX), an H3R antagonist, on the animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). Swiss mice were prenatally exposed to VPA on embryonic day 11 and assessed for social behavior, nociceptive threshold and repetitive behavior at 50 days of life. The treatment with CPX (3 mg/kg) or saline was administered 30 minutes before each behavioral test. The VPA group presented lower sociability index compared to VPA animals that were treated with CPX. Compared to the Control group, VPA animals presented a significantly higher nociceptive threshold, and treatment with CPX was not able to modify this parameter. In the marble burying test, the number of marbles buried by VPA animals was consistent with markedly repetitive behavior. VPA animals that received CPX buried a reduced amount of marbles. In summary, we report that an acute dose of CPX is able to attenuate sociability deficits and stereotypies present in the VPA model of autism. Our findings have the potential to help the investigations of both the molecular underpinnings of ASD and of possible treatments to ameliorate the ASD symptomatology, although more research is still necessary to corroborate and expand this initial data. PMID:25560049

  18. A multipurpose camera system for monitoring Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim R.; Lee, Lopaka; Moniz, Cyril J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low-cost, compact multipurpose camera system designed for field deployment at active volcanoes that can be used either as a webcam (transmitting images back to an observatory in real-time) or as a time-lapse camera system (storing images onto the camera system for periodic retrieval during field visits). The system also has the capability to acquire high-definition video. The camera system uses a Raspberry Pi single-board computer and a 5-megapixel low-light (near-infrared sensitive) camera, as well as a small Global Positioning System (GPS) module to ensure accurate time-stamping of images. Custom Python scripts control the webcam and GPS unit and handle data management. The inexpensive nature of the system allows it to be installed at hazardous sites where it might be lost. Another major advantage of this camera system is that it provides accurate internal timing (independent of network connection) and, because a full Linux operating system and the Python programming language are available on the camera system itself, it has the versatility to be configured for the specific needs of the user. We describe example deployments of the camera at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, to monitor ongoing summit lava lake activity. 

  19. DISMANTLING OF THE UPPER RPV COMPONENTS OF THE KARLSRUHE MULTI-PURPOSE RESEARCH REACTOR (MZFR), GERMANY

    SciTech Connect

    Prechtl, E.; Suessdorf, W.

    2003-02-27

    The Multi-purpose Research Reactor was a pressurized-water reactor cooled and moderated with heavy water. It was built from 1961 to 1966 and went critical for the first time on 29 September 1965. After nineteen years of successful operation, the reactor was de-activated on 3 May 1984. The reactor had a thermal output of 200 MW and an electrical output of 50 MW. The MZFR not only served to supply electrical power, but also as a test bed for: - research into various materials for reactor building (e. g. zirkaloy), - the manufacturing and operating industry to gain experience in erection and operation, - training scientific and technical reactor staff, and - power supply (first nuclear combined-heat-and-power system, 1979-1984). The experience gained in operating the MZFR was very helpful for the development and operation of power reactors. At first, safe containment and enclosure of the plant was planned, but then it was decided to dismantle the plant completely, step by step, in view o f the clear advantages of this approach. The decommissioning concept for the complete elimination of the plant down to a green-field site provides for eight steps. A separate decommissioning license is required for each step. As part of the dismantling, about 72,000 Mg [metric tons] of concrete and 7,200 Mg of metal (400 Mg RPV) must be removed. About 700 Mg of concrete (500 Mg biological shield) and 1300 Mg of metal must be classified as radioactive waste.

  20. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruytenberg, T.; Webb, A. G.; Beenakker, J. W. M.

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points.

  1. MATISSE: Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Antonelli, L. A.

    In planetary sciences, design, assemble and launch onboard instruments are only preliminary steps toward the final aim of converting data into scientific knowledge, as the real challenge is the data analysis and interpretation. Up to now data have been generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e. common ftp servers where the user can manually search for data browsing directories organized in a time order manner. However, as datasets to be stored and searched become particularly large, this latter task absorbs a great part of the time, subtracting time to the real scientific work. In order to reduce the time spent to search and analyze data MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), a new set of software tools developed together with the scientific teams of the instruments involved, is under development at ASDC (ASI Science Data Center), whose experience in space missions data management is well known (e.g., \\citealt{verrecchia07,pittori09,giommi09,massaro11}) and its features and aims will be presented here.

  2. Development of JSTAMP-Works/NV and HYSTAMP for Multipurpose Multistage Sheet Metal Forming Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu

    2005-08-01

    Since 1996, Japan Research Institute Limited (JRI) has been providing a sheet metal forming simulation system called JSTAMP-Works packaged the FEM solvers of LS-DYNA and JOH/NIKE, which might be the first multistage system at that time and has been enjoying good reputation among users in Japan. To match the recent needs, "faster, more accurate and easier", of process designers and CAE engineers, a new metal forming simulation system JSTAMP-Works/NV is developed. The JSTAMP-Works/NV packaged the automatic healing function of CAD and had much more new capabilities such as prediction of 3D trimming lines for flanging or hemming, remote control of solver execution for multi-stage forming processes and shape evaluation between FEM and CAD. On the other way, a multi-stage multi-purpose inverse FEM solver HYSTAMP is developed and will be soon put into market, which is approved to be very fast, quite accurate and robust. Lastly, authors will give some application examples of user defined ductile damage subroutine in LS-DYNA for the estimation of material failure and springback in metal forming simulation.

  3. Providing public information for the multi-purpose canister (MPC) environmental impact statement (EIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.B. Jr.; Macaluso, C.J.; Napoli, L.J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is proposing to fabricate and deploy a multi-purpose canister (MPC) system for the management of civilian spent nuclear fuel. If implemented, the MPC system could be used for temporary storage and transportation, and eventual disposal of spent nuclear fuel from commercial nuclear power plants. With the MPC system, multiple spent fuel assemblies would be placed inside a metal canister and sealed at the nuclear power plant. The canister would be placed inside other casks or containers designed for the specific purposes of transportation, temporary storage, and disposal. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared to evaluate the environmental effects of the MPC system technology and several other technologies for managing spent nuclear fuel pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). NEPA directs Federal agencies to perform environmental evaluations of proposed major projects and emphasizes public involvement during the entire EIS process. Through an initial process called scoping, other Federal and State agencies and the public are given an opportunity to provide comments on environmental issues and recommend alternatives to be addressed in the EIS. This paper describes the approached used by OCRWM to maximize public input on the MPC EIS.

  4. Development of flaw acceptance criteria for aging management of spent nuclear fuel multi-purpose canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Poh -Sang; Sindelar, Robert L.

    2015-03-09

    A typical multipurpose canister (MPC) is made of austenitic stainless steel and is loaded with spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation when it is exposed to aggressive atmospheric environments during a possibly long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Because heat treatment for stress relief is not required for the construction of an MPC, stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic in-service Inspection. The first-order instability flaw sizes has been determined with bounding flaw configurations, that is, through-wall axial or circumferential cracks, and part-through-wall long axial flaw or 360° circumferential crack. The procedure recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service code (Second Edition) is used to estimate the instability crack length or depth by implementing the failure assessment diagram (FAD) methodology. The welding residual stresses are mostly unknown and are therefore estimated with the API 579 procedure. It is demonstrated in this paper that the residual stress has significant impact on the instability length or depth of the crack. The findings will limit the applicability of the flaw tolerance obtained from limit load approach where residual stress is ignored and only ligament yielding is considered.

  5. Assessing marginal water values in multipurpose multireservoir systems via stochastic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Pinte, D.; Goor, Q.

    2008-12-01

    The International Conference on Water and the Environment held in Dublin in 1992 emphasized the need to consider water as an economic good. Since water markets are usually absent or ineffective, the value of water cannot be directly derived from market activities but must rather be assessed through shadow prices. Economists have developed various valuation techniques to determine the economic value of water, especially to handle allocation issues involving environmental water uses. Most of the nonmarket valuation studies reported in the literature focus on long-run policy problems, such as permanent (re)allocations of water, and assume that the water availability is given. When dealing with short-run allocation problems, water managers are facing complex spatial and temporal trade-offs and must therefore be able to track site and time changes in water values across different hydrologic conditions, especially in arid and semiarid areas where the availability of water is a limiting and stochastic factor. This paper presents a stochastic programming approach for assessing the statistical distribution of marginal water values in multipurpose multireservoir systems where hydropower generation and irrigation crop production are the main economic activities depending on water. In the absence of a water market, the Lagrange multipliers correspond to shadow prices, and the marginal water values are the Lagrange multipliers associated with the mass balance equations of the reservoirs. The methodology is illustrated with a cascade of hydroelectric-irrigation reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin in Turkey and Syria.

  6. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  7. A Design and Development of Multi-Purpose CCD Camera System with Thermoelectric Cooling: Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, S. H.; Kang, Y. W.; Byun, Y. I.

    2007-12-01

    We present a software which we developed for the multi-purpose CCD camera. This software can be used on the all 3 types of CCD - KAF-0401E (768×512), KAF-1602E (15367times;1024), KAF-3200E (2184×1472) made in KODAK Co.. For the efficient CCD camera control, the software is operated with two independent processes of the CCD control program and the temperature/shutter operation program. This software is designed to fully automatic operation as well as manually operation under LINUX system, and is controled by LINUX user signal procedure. We plan to use this software for all sky survey system and also night sky monitoring and sky observation. As our results, the read-out time of each CCD are about 15sec, 64sec, 134sec for KAF-0401E, KAF-1602E, KAF-3200E., because these time are limited by the data transmission speed of parallel port. For larger format CCD, the data transmission is required more high speed. we are considering this control software to one using USB port for high speed data transmission.

  8. Wave-atoms-based multipurpose scheme via perceptual image hashing and watermarking.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Fu, Qi-Kai; Cheng, Lee-Ming

    2012-09-20

    This paper presents a novel multipurpose scheme for content-based image authentication and copyright protection using a perceptual image hashing and watermarking strategy based on a wave atom transform. The wave atom transform is expected to outperform other transforms because it gains sparser expansion and better representation for texture than other traditional transforms, such as wavelet and curvelet transforms. Images are decomposed into multiscale bands with a number of tilings using the wave atom transform. Perceptual hashes are then extracted from the features of tiling in the third scale band for the purpose of content-based authentication; simultaneously, part of the selected hashes are designed as watermarks, which are embedded into the original images for the purpose of copyright protection. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme shows great performance in content-based authentication by distinguishing the maliciously attacked images from the nonmaliciously attacked images. Moreover, watermarks extracted from the proposed scheme also achieve high robustness against common malicious and nonmalicious image-processing attacks, which provides excellent copyright protection for images. PMID:23033026

  9. WND-CHARM: Multi-purpose image classification using compound image transforms

    PubMed Central

    Orlov, Nikita; Shamir, Lior; Macura, Tomasz; Johnston, Josiah; Eckley, D. Mark; Goldberg, Ilya G.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a multi-purpose image classifier that can be applied to a wide variety of image classification tasks without modifications or fine-tuning, and yet provide classification accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art task-specific image classifiers. The proposed image classifier first extracts a large set of 1025 image features including polynomial decompositions, high contrast features, pixel statistics, and textures. These features are computed on the raw image, transforms of the image, and transforms of transforms of the image. The feature values are then used to classify test images into a set of pre-defined image classes. This classifier was tested on several different problems including biological image classification and face recognition. Although we cannot make a claim of universality, our experimental results show that this classifier performs as well or better than classifiers developed specifically for these image classification tasks. Our classifiers high performance on a variety of classification problems is attributed to (i) a large set of features extracted from images; and (ii) an effective feature selection and weighting algorithm sensitive to specific image classification problems. The algorithms are available for free download from openmicroscopy.org. PMID:18958301

  10. MYRRHA a multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abderrahim, H. A.; Baeten, P.

    2012-07-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator driven system (ADS) in development at SCK-CEN. MYRRHA is able to work both in subcritical (ADS) as in critical mode. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for generation IV (GEN IV) systems, material developments for fusion reactors, radioisotope production and industrial applications, such as Si-doping. MYRRHA will also demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling the three components (accelerator, spallation target and subcritical reactor) at reasonable power level to allow operation feedback, scalable to an industrial demonstrator and allow the study of efficient transmutation of high-level nuclear waste. MYRRHA is based on the heavy liquid metal technology and so it will contribute to the development of lead fast reactor (LFR) technology and in critical mode, MYRRHA will play the role of European technology pilot plant in the roadmap for LFR. In this paper the historical evolution of MYRRHA and the rationale behind the design choices is presented and the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system is described. (authors)

  11. Performance of Three Multipurpose Disinfecting Solutions with a Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens

    PubMed Central

    Garca-Porta, Nery; Rico-del-Viejo, Laura; Ferreira-Neves, Helena; Peixoto-de-Matos, Sofia C.; Queirs, Antonio; Gonzlez-Mijome, Jos M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the clinical performance of a silicone hydrogel (Si-Hy) soft contact lens (CL) in combination with three different multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDSs). Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, single-masked, crossover, and comparative study in which 31 habitual soft CL wearers were randomly assigned to one of the three MPDSs (Synergi, COMPLETE RevitaLens, and OPTI-FREE PureMoist) for 1 month with a 1-week wash-out period between each exposure. All subjects were successfully refitted with a Si-Hy CL (Biofinity). Subjects were then scheduled for follow-up visits after 1 month of lens wear, being evaluated at 2 and 8 hours after lens insertion. Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) were used to gauge comfort rating. Results. The tarsal conjunctiva showed a significantly different degree of lid redness between the MPDSs at the 2-hour visit (P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test), being lower for COMPLETE RevitaLens compared to the other two MPDSs (Mann-Whitney U test). Furthermore, a significantly different degree of lid roughness at the 8-hour visit was seen (P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test), being higher for Synergi (Mann-Whitney U test). The subjective comfort was similar with the three MPDSs. Conclusion. Tarsal conjunctival response should be also considered in the context of the clinical performance of MPDs at the ocular surface. PMID:25918703

  12. Earthscape, a Multi-Purpose Interactive 3d Globe Viewer for Hybrid Data Visualization and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarthou, A.; Mas, S.; Jacquin, M.; Moreno, N.; Salamon, A.

    2015-08-01

    The hybrid visualization and interaction tool EarthScape is presented here. The software is able to display simultaneously LiDAR point clouds, draped videos with moving footprint, volume scientific data (using volume rendering, isosurface and slice plane), raster data such as still satellite images, vector data and 3D models such as buildings or vehicles. The application runs on touch screen devices such as tablets. The software is based on open source libraries, such as OpenSceneGraph, osgEarth and OpenCV, and shader programming is used to implement volume rendering of scientific data. The next goal of EarthScape is to perform data analysis using ENVI Services Engine, a cloud data analysis solution. EarthScape is also designed to be a client of Jagwire which provides multisource geo-referenced video fluxes. When all these components will be included, EarthScape will be a multi-purpose platform that will provide at the same time data analysis, hybrid visualization and complex interactions. The software is available on demand for free at france@exelisvis.com.

  13. Multipurpose ultra and superhydrophobic surfaces based on oligodimethylsiloxane-modified nanosilica.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Raquel; Tiemblo, Pilar; Hoyos, Mario; Gonzlez-Arellano, Camino; Garca, Nuria; Berglund, Lars; Synytska, Alla

    2014-11-12

    Nonfluorinated hydrophobic surfaces are of interest for reduced cost, toxicity, and environmental problems. Searching for such surfaces together with versatile processing, A200 silica nanoparticles are modified with an oligodimethylsiloxane and used by themselves or with a polymer matrix. The goal of the surface modification is controlled aggregate size and stable suspensions. Characterization is done by NMR, microanalysis, nitrogen adsorption, and dynamic light scattering. The feasibility of the concept is then demonstrated. The silica aggregates are sprayed in a scalable process to form ultrahydrophobic and imperceptible coatings with surface topographies of controlled nanoscale roughness onto different supports, including nanofibrillated cellulose. To improve adhesion and wear properties, the organosilica was mixed with polymers. The resulting composite coatings are characterized by FE-SEM, AFM, and contact angle measurements. Depending on the nature of the polymer, different functionalities can be developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate) leads to almost superhydrophobic and highly transparent coatings. Composites based on commercial acrylic car paint show "pearl-bouncing" droplet behavior. A light-emitting polyfluorene is synthesized to prepare luminescent and water repellent coatings on different supports. The interactions between polymers and the organosilica influence coating roughness and are critical for wetting behavior. In summary, the feasibility of a facile, rapid, and fluorine-free hydrophobization concept was successfully demonstrated in multipurpose antiwetting applications. PMID:25275966

  14. Long-term Surgical Outcomes of the Multi-purpose Conical Porous Synthetic Orbital Implant

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Ji; Jung, Su-Kyung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Paik, Ji-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We present clinical results of the use of the multipurpose conical porous synthetic orbital implant (MCOI) in surgical procedures of evisceration, enucleation, and secondary enucleation in ophthalmology patients. Methods A retrospective review was performed of 59 eyes in which conical implants were used, including 36 cases of eviscerations, 11 enucleations, and 9 secondary enucleations. In all of the cases, the follow-up period was greater than six months between 2004 and 2013. The results focus on documenting surgical findings, as well as postoperative complications among patients. Results Superior sulcus deformities were found in six eyes (10.2% of conical implant patients), and two eyes received additional surgical interventions to correct the deformities (3.4%). Blepharoptosis was found in four eyes (6.8%), two of which received upper eyelid blepharoplasty (3.4%). Fornix shortening was reported in only one eye (1.7%). Forty-one eyes had a satisfactory cosmetic appearance after the final prosthetic fitting of conical implants (69.5%). The most frequent postoperative complication was orbital implant exposure, which seemed to occur when the preoperative status of the conjunctiva, Tenon's capsule, and sclera preservation were poor in the eyes of the patients. Conclusions There was a lower incidence of blepharoptosis and fornix shortening with the MCOI in comparison to spherical implants, while the incidence of orbital implant exposure was similar with the MCOI in comparison to other types of orbital implants. In addition, the MCOI may have advantages with respect to postoperative cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26457034

  15. Study of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.; Raman, A.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    1994-01-01

    There has been a critical need for analyzing various aspects of atmospheric corrosion and for the development of atmospheric corrosion microsensors. The project work has involved the following activities: (1) making of multielectrode corrosion monitors on dielectric substrates; (2) testing them in the laboratory for functional characteristics; (3) preparing a report on the state of the art of atmospheric corrosion sensor development around the world; and (4) corrosion testing of electrochemical changes of sensor specimens and related fog testing. The study included work on the subject of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor and this report is the annual report on work carried out on this research project. This has included studies on the development of sensors of two designs, stage 1 and stage 2, and with glass and alumina substrate, experimentation and development and characterization of the coating uniformity, aspects of corrosion monitoring, literature search on the corrosion sensors and their development. A state of the art report on atmospheric corrosion sensor development was prepared and submitted.

  16. INITIAL WASTE PACKAGE PROBABILISTIC CRITICALITY ANALYSIS: MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER WITH DISPOSAL CONTAINER (TBV)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Massari

    1995-10-06

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide an assessment of the present waste package design from a criticality risk standpoint. The specific objectives of this initial analysis are to: (1) Establish a process for determining the probability of waste package criticality as a function of time (in terms of a cumulative distribution function, probability distribution function, or expected number of criticalities in a specified time interval) for various waste package concepts; (2) Demonstrate the established process by estimating the probability of criticality as a function of time since emplacement for an intact multi-purpose canister waste package (MPC-WP) configuration; (3) Identify the dominant sequences leading to waste package criticality for subsequent detailed analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to document and demonstrate the developed process as it has been applied to the MPC-WP. This revision is performed to correct deficiencies in the previous revision and provide further detail on the calculations performed. This analysis is similar to that performed for the uncanistered fuel waste package (UCF-WP, B00000000-01717-2200-00079).

  17. Software-programmable continuous-flow multi-purpose lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmed M; Thakur, Raviraj; Madren, Seth; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Thottethodi, Mithuna; Vijaykumar, T N; Wereley, Steven T; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2013-11-01

    Current lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices are assay-specific and are custom-built for each single experiment. Performing an experiment requires scientists or engineers to go through the time-consuming process of designing, fabricating, and testing a chip before conducting the actual experiment. This prolonged cycle can take months to complete, increasing effort and cost and reducing productivity. Similarly, minor modifications to an assay protocol re-incur the overheads of the design cycle. In this paper, we develop a multi-purpose, software-programmableLab-on-a-Chip (SPLoC), where the user simply writes or downloads a program for each experiment. We describe the components necessary to realize the SPLoC, which include a high-level programming language, an abstract instruction set, a runtime and control system, and a microfluidic device. We describe two key features of our high-level language compiler, and describe a novel variable-volume variable-ratio mixer. Finally, we demonstrate our SPLoC on four diverse, real-world assays. PMID:24436691

  18. Software-programmable continuous-flow multi-purpose lab-on-a-chip

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Ahmed M.; Thakur, Raviraj; Madren, Seth; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Thottethodi, Mithuna; Vijaykumar, T. N.; Wereley, Steven T.; Jacobson, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Current lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices are assay-specific and are custom-built for each single experiment. Performing an experiment requires scientists or engineers to go through the time-consuming process of designing, fabricating, and testing a chip before conducting the actual experiment. This prolonged cycle can take months to complete, increasing effort and cost and reducing productivity. Similarly, minor modifications to an assay protocol re-incur the overheads of the design cycle. In this paper, we develop a multi-purpose, software-programmableLab-on-a-Chip (SPLoC), where the user simply writes or downloads a program for each experiment. We describe the components necessary to realize the SPLoC, which include a high-level programming language, an abstract instruction set, a runtime and control system, and a microfluidic device. We describe two key features of our high-level language compiler, and describe a novel variable-volume variable-ratio mixer. Finally, we demonstrate our SPLoC on four diverse, real-world assays. PMID:24436691

  19. Evaluation of Suited and Unsuited Human Functional Strength Using Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazadeh, Fred

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the planned summer research was to develop a procedure to determine the isokinetic functional strength of suited and unsuited participants in order to estimate the coefficient of micro-gravity suit on human strength. To accomplish this objective, the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility's Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic dynamometer (MMID) was used. Development of procedure involved selection and testing of seven routines to be tested on MMID. We conducted the related experiments and collected the data for 12 participants. In addition to the above objective, we developed a procedure to assess the fatiguing characteristics of suited and unsuited participants using EMG technique. We collected EMG data on 10 participants while performing a programmed routing on MMID. EMG data along with information on the exerted forces, effector speed, number of repetitions, and duration of each routine were recorded for further analysis. Finally, gathering and tabulation Of data for various human strengths for updating of MSIS (HSIS) strength requirement, which started in summer 2003, also continued.

  20. Risk Analysis of Multipurpose Reservoir Real-time Operation based on Probabilistic Hydrologic Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of the risk for reservoir real-time operation is a hard task owing to the difficulty of accurate description of inflow uncertainties. The ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, which outputs a lot of inflow scenarios or traces, does well in depicting the inflow not only the marginal distribution but also their corrections. This motivates us to analyze the reservoir operating risk by inputting probabilistic hydrologic forecasting into reservoir real-time operation. The proposed procedure involves: (1) based upon the Bayesian inference, two alternative techniques, the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), are implemented for producing probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, respectively, (2) the reservoir risk is defined as the ratio of the number of traces that excessive (or below) the critical value to the total number of traces, and (3) a multipurpose reservoir operation model is build to produce Pareto solutions for trade-offs between risks and profits with the inputted probabilistic hydrologic forecasting. With a case study of the China's Three Gorges Reservoir, it is found that the reservoir real-time operation risks can be estimated and minimized based on the proposed methods, and this is great potential benefit in decision and choosing the most realistic one.

  1. Application of probabilistic hydrologic forecasting for risk analysis of multipurpose reservoir real-time operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of the risk for reservoir real-time operation is a hard task owing to the difficulty of accurate description of inflow uncertainties. The ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting depicts the inflow not only the marginal distributions but also their corrections by producing inflow scenarios. This motivates us to analyze the reservoir real-time operating risk with ensemble-based hydrologic forecasting inputs. The proposed procedure involves: (1) based upon the Bayesian inference, the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is implemented to produce ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, (2) the reservoir risk is defined as the ratio of the number of scenarios that excessive the critical value to the total number of scenarios, (3) a multipurpose reservoir operation model is built and solved using scenario optimization to produce Pareto solutions for trade-offs between risks and profits. With a case study of the China's Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) for the 2010 and 2012 floods, it is found that the reservoir real-time operation risks can be estimated directly and minimized based on the proposed methods, and is easy of implementation by the reservoir operators.

  2. A case study: Transforming a vaudeville theatre into a 21st century multi-purpose hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaske, Richard H.; Hoffman, Ian B.; Laney, Jonathan P.

    2002-05-01

    Originally constructed in 1927 as an atmospheric, vaudeville theatre, the Coronado enjoyed 50 years as host to a true variety of events. In the 1970s, functional and space limitations became a catalyst for touring events to avoid the Coronado, and the theatre fell into disrepair. In the mid-1990s, a renovation was planned (completed January 2001) to restore the glory of the original theatre and upgrade it to be a viable multi-purpose hall for the 21st century. By annexing two neighboring buildings, many of the space limitations could be overcome in both the front- and back-of-house. The scope included a significantly enlarged stage and stagehouse, performer support spaces, expanded lobby spaces, quiet ventilation systems, and a new music rehearsal room. Acoustically, a primary goal was to upgrade the hall for both reinforced music/theatre performances and unreinforced, orchestral performances. However, historical regulations prevented modification to the room shape and configuration. In order to make the room suitable for unreinforced music, two primary acoustic features were instituted-a semi-custom concert enclosure for the stage and an acoustic enhancement system for the audience chamber. For theatrical and popular music events, a new performance audio system was designed and integrated into the hall.

  3. Myrrha, a Multipurpose Accelerator Driven System for R&d - Present Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, P.; Aït Abderrahim, H.; Kupschus, P.; Benoit, P.; Malambu, E.; Sobolev, V.; Aoust, T.; van Tichelen, K.; Arien, B.; Vermeersch, F.; de Bruyn, D.; Maes, D.; Haeck, W.; Jongen, Y.; Vandeplassche, D.

    2004-02-01

    Since 1998, SCK•CEN in partnership with IBA s.a., is designing a multipurpose ADS for R&D applications -MYRRHA - and is conducting an associated R&D support programme. MYRRHA is an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) under development at Mol in Belgium and aiming to serve as a basis for the European experimental ADS to provide protons and neutrons for various R&D applications. It consists of a proton accelerator delivering a 350 MeV*5 mA proton beam to a liquid Pb-Bi spallation target that in turn couples to a Pb-Bi cooled, subcritical fast core. In a first stage, the project focuses mainly on demonstration of the ADS concept, safety research on sub-critical systems and nuclear waste transmutation studies. In a later stage, the device will also be dedicated to research on structural materials, nuclear fuel, liquid metal technology and associated aspects and on sub-critical reactor physics. Subsequently, it will be used for research on applications such as radioisotope production. The MYRRHA system is expected to become a major research infrastructure for the European partners involved in the P&T and ADS Demo development.

  4. Feasibility study for a DOE research and production fuel multipurpose canister

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, D.A.; Abbott, D.G.

    1994-02-01

    This is a report of the feasibility of multipurpose canisters for transporting, storing, and sing of Department of Energy research and production spent nuclear fuel. Six representative Department of Energy fuel assemblies were selected, and preconceptual canister designs were developed to accommodate these assemblies. The study considered physical interface, structural adequacy, criticality safety, shielding capability, thermal performance of the canisters, and fuel storage site infrastructure. The external envelope of the canisters was designed to fit within the overpack casks for commercial canisters being developed for the Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The budgetary cost of canisters to handle all fuel considered is estimated at $170.8M. One large conceptual boiling water reactor canister design, developed for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, and two new canister designs can accommodate at least 85% of the volume of the Department of Energy fuel considered. Canister use minimizes public radiation exposure and is cost effective compared with bare fuel handling. Results suggest the need for additional study of issues affecting canister use and for conceptual design development of the three canisters.

  5. Study of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.; Raman, A.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    1994-12-01

    There has been a critical need for analyzing various aspects of atmospheric corrosion and for the development of atmospheric corrosion microsensors. The project work has involved the following activities: (1) making of multielectrode corrosion monitors on dielectric substrates; (2) testing them in the laboratory for functional characteristics; (3) preparing a report on the state of the art of atmospheric corrosion sensor development around the world; and (4) corrosion testing of electrochemical changes of sensor specimens and related fog testing. The study included work on the subject of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor and this report is the annual report on work carried out on this research project. This has included studies on the development of sensors of two designs, stage 1 and stage 2, and with glass and alumina substrate, experimentation and development and characterization of the coating uniformity, aspects of corrosion monitoring, literature search on the corrosion sensors and their development. A state of the art report on atmospheric corrosion sensor development was prepared and submitted.

  6. Design and characterization of specMACS, a multipurpose hyperspectral cloud and sky imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewald, F.; Klling, T.; Baumgartner, A.; Zinner, T.; Mayer, B.

    2015-09-01

    The new spectrometer of the Munich Aerosol Cloud Scanner (specMACS) is a multipurpose hyperspectral cloud and sky imager designated, but not limited to investigations of cloud-aerosol interactions in Earth's atmosphere. Equipped with a high spectral and spatial resolution, the instrument is designed to measure solar radiation in the visible and short-wave infrared region that is reflected from, or transmitted through clouds and aerosol layers. It is based on two hyperspectral line cameras that measure in the solar spectral range between 400-2500 nm with a spectral bandwidth between 2.5-12.0 nm. The instrument was already operated in ground-based campaigns as well as aboard the German High Altitude LOng Range (HALO) research aircraft, e.g. during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign in Brazil during summer 2014. This paper describes the specMACS instrument hardware and software design and characterizes the instrument performance. During the laboratory characterization of the instrument the radiometric response as well as the spatial and spectral performance was assessed. Since the instrument is primarily intended for retrievals of atmospheric quantities by inversion of radiative models using measured radiances, a focus is placed on the determination of its radiometric response. Radiometric characterization was possible for both spectrometers with an absolute accuracy of 3 % at their respective central wavelength regions. First measurements are presented which demonstrate the application possibilities and show that the key demands on radiometric and spectral accuracy as posed by the intended remote sensing techniques are fulfilled.

  7. Honeycomblike large area LaB6 plasma source for Multi-Purpose Plasma facility.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Kyu-Sun; You, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Lho, Taihyeop; Choh, Kwon Kook; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Yong Ho; Lee, Bongju; Yoo, Suk Jae; Kwon, Myeon

    2007-10-01

    A Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP(2)) facility has been renovated from Hanbit mirror device [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 686 (2003)] by adopting the same philosophy of diversified plasma simulator (DiPS) [Chung et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46, 354 (2006)] by installing two plasma sources: LaB(6) (dc) and helicon (rf) plasma sources; and making three distinct simulators: divertor plasma simulator, space propulsion simulator, and astrophysics simulator. During the first renovation stage, a honeycomblike large area LaB(6) (HLA-LaB(6)) cathode was developed for the divertor plasma simulator to improve the resistance against the thermal shock fragility for large and high density plasma generation. A HLA-LaB(6) cathode is composed of the one inner cathode with 4 in. diameter and the six outer cathodes with 2 in. diameter along with separate graphite heaters. The first plasma is generated with Ar gas and its properties are measured by the electric probes with various discharge currents and magnetic field configurations. Plasma density at the middle of central cell reaches up to 2.6 x 10(12) cm(-3), while the electron temperature remains around 3-3.5 eV at the low discharge current of less than 45 A, and the magnetic field intensity of 870 G. Unique features of electric property of heaters, plasma density profiles, is explained comparing with those of single LaB(6) cathode with 4 in. diameter in DiPS. PMID:17979417

  8. Cultural Resource Investigations for a Multipurpose Haul Road on the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Cameron Brizzee; Hollie Gilbert; Clayton Marler; Julie Braun Williams

    2010-08-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a multipurpose haul road to transport materials and wastes between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and other Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site facilities. The proposed road will be closed to the public and designed for limited year-round use. Two primary options are under consideration: a new route south of the existing T-25 power line road and an upgrade to road T-24. In the Spring of 2010, archaeological field surveys and initial coordination and field reconnaissance with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes were completed to identify any resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed road construction and to develop recommendations to protect any listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The investigations showed that 24 archaeological resources and one historic marker are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation south of the T-25 powerline road and 27archaeological resources are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation along road T-24. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both road corridors. This report outlines recommendations for additional investigations and protective measures that can be implemented to minimize adverse impacts to the identified resources.

  9. Evaluation of Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and Multi-Purpose Crew Restraint Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of the Multi-purpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Spaceflights project, funded by Code U, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations on the ground and on the KC-135 to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as the design of crew restraints. The usability of multiple crew restraints was evaluated for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and for performing general purpose tasks. The purpose of the KC-135 microgravity evaluation was to: (1) to investigate the usability and effectiveness of the concepts developed, (2) to gather recommendations for further development of the concepts, and (3) to verify the validity of the existing requirements. Some designs had already been tested during a March KC-135 evaluation, and testing revealed the need for modifications/enhancements. This flight was designed to test the new iterations, as well as some new concepts. This flight also involved higher fidelity tasks in the LSG, and the addition of load cells on the gloveports.

  10. Application of a multipurpose unequal probability stream survey in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, S.W.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.; Denver, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A stratified, spatially balanced sample with unequal probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of unusual but significant environmental settings to support empirical modeling of the factors affecting those conditions. The design and field application of the survey are discussed in light of these multiple objectives. A probability (random) sample of 175 first-order nontidal streams was selected for synoptic sampling of water chemistry and benthic and riparian ecology during late winter and spring 2000. Twenty-five streams were selected within each of seven hydrogeologic subregions (strata) that were delineated on the basis of physiography and surficial geology. In each subregion, unequal inclusion probabilities were used to provide an approximately even distribution of streams along a gradient of forested to developed (agricultural or urban) land in the contributing watershed. Alternate streams were also selected. Alternates were included in groups of five in each subregion when field reconnaissance demonstrated that primary streams were inaccessible or otherwise unusable. Despite the rejection and replacement of a considerable number of primary streams during reconnaissance (up to 40 percent in one subregion), the desired land use distribution was maintained within each hydrogeologic subregion without sacrificing the probabilistic design.

  11. The multipurpose time-of-flight neutron reflectometer Platypus at Australia's OPAL reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; Saerbeck, T.; Hamilton, W. A.; Klose, F.

    2011-03-01

    In this manuscript we describe the major components of the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer at the 20 MW OPAL reactor in Sydney, Australia. Platypus is a multipurpose spectrometer for the characterisation of solid thin films, materials adsorbed at the solid-liquid interface and free-liquid surfaces. It also has the capacity to study magnetic thin films using spin-polarised neutrons. Platypus utilises a white neutron beam ( ?=2-20 ) that is pulsed using boron-coated disc chopper pairs; thus providing the capacity to tailor the wavelength resolution of the pulses to suit the system under investigation. Supermirror optical components are used to focus, deflect or spin-polarise the broad bandwidth neutron beams, and typical incident spectra are presented for each configuration. A series of neutron reflectivity datasets are presented, indicating the quality and flexibility of this spectrometer. Minimum reflectivity values of <10 -7 are observed; while maximum thickness values of 325 nm have been measured for single-component films and 483 nm for a multilayer system. Off-specular measurements have also been made to investigate in-plane features as opposed to those normal to the sample surface. Finally, the first published studies conducted using the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer are presented.

  12. A compact light-weighted and multi-purpose calibration unit for LINC-NIRVANA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bonis, Fulvio; Bertram, Thomas; Labadie, Lucas; Egner, Sebastian; Bizenberger, Peter; Hofferbert, Ralph; Eckart, Andreas; Kuerster, Martin; Herbst, Tom

    2010-07-01

    Laboratory and on-sky experience suggests that the integration of big astronomical instruments, specially of a complex interferometric system, is a challenging process. LINC-NIRVANA is the Fizeau interferometric imager for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Simulating the final operating environment of every system component has shown how critical is the presence of flexures, vibrations and thermal expansion. Assembling and aligning the opto-mechanical sub-systems will require an absolute reference which is not affected by static displacements or positioning errors. A multi-purpose calibration unit has been designed to ensure the quality of the alignment of optics and detectors and the reliability of the mechanical setup. This new compact and light-weighted unit is characterized by sophisticated kinematics, simple mechanical design and composite materials. In addition, the reduced number of motorized axis improves the stiffness and lowers the angular displacements due to moving parts. The modular concept integrates several light sources to provide the proper calibration reference for the different sub-systems of LINC-NIRVANA. For the standard alignment of the optics an absolute reference fiber will be used. For flatfielding of the detectors the unit provides an integrating sphere, and a special rotating multi-fiber plate (infrared and visible) is used to calibrate the advanced adaptive optics and the fringe-tracking systems. A module to control non-common path aberrations (Flattening of Deformable Mirrors) is also provided.

  13. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Ruytenberg, T; Webb, A G; Beenakker, J W M

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points. PMID:25222861

  14. Newly Elaborated Multipurpose Polymer Electrolyte Encompassing RTILs for Smart Energy-Efficient Devices.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jijeesh R; Porcarelli, Luca; Bella, Federico; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2015-06-17

    Profoundly ion-conducting, self-standing, and tack-free ethylene oxide-based polymer electrolytes encompassing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) with specific amounts of lithium salt are successfully prepared via a rapid and easily upscalable process including a UV irradiation step. All prepared materials are thoroughly characterized in terms of their physical, chemical, and morphological properties and eventually galvanostatically cycled in lab-scale lithium batteries (LIBs) exploiting a novel direct polymerization procedure to get intimate electrode/electrolyte interfacial characteristics. The promising multipurpose characteristics of the newly elaborated materials are demonstrated by testing them in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), where the introduction of the iodine/iodide-based redox mediator in the polymer matrix assured the functioning of a lab-scale test cell with conversion efficiency exceeding 6% at 1 sun. The reported results enlighten the promising prospects of the material to be successfully implemented as stable, durable, and efficient electrolyte in next-generation energy conversion and storage devices. PMID:26020809

  15. Amoebicidal efficacy of a novel multi-purpose disinfecting solution: first findings.

    PubMed

    Ustntrk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

    2014-11-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause a sight-threatening corneal infection, Acanthamoeba keratitis, mostly in contact lens wearers. The use of ineffective contact lens disinfecting solutions is one of the most important risk factors for this infection. This study concerns a new multi-purpose contact lens disinfecting solution, OPTI-FREE PureMoist, tested for its efficacy against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts by using the most probable number technique for amoebic enumeration. Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 50373 and an environmental strain of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 isolated from tap water in Istanbul were used during the experiments. OPTI-FREE PureMoist achieved total kill (more than a 3-log reduction) of trophozoites of both strains before the manufacturer-recommended disinfection time (6h). In contrast, this solution had limited cysticidal activity against the ATCC strain but more against the environmental strain, with log reductions of 0.75 and 2.20, respectively, after 6h of exposure. PMID:24858922

  16. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the Air Revitalization System, especially in terms of moisture and temperature control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air saturated with moisture) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine metabolic moisture and heat production for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  17. NASA and ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen E.; Grantier, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    (1) ESA decided in its Council Meeting in March 2011 to partially offset the European ISS obligations after 2015 with different means than ATVs; (2) The envisioned approach is based on a barter element(s) that would generate cost avoidance on the NASA side; (3) NASA and ESA considered a number of Barter options, NASA concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter with the most interest;. (4) A joint ESA - NASA working group was established in May 2011 to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage; (5)The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin; and (6) The project is currently in phase B1 with the objective to prepare a technical and programmatic proposal for an ESA MPCV-SM development. This proposal will be one element of the package that ESA plans submit to go forward for approval by European Ministers in November 2012.

  18. Development of JSTAMP-Works/NV and HYSTAMP for Multipurpose Multistage Sheet Metal Forming Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu

    2005-08-05

    Since 1996, Japan Research Institute Limited (JRI) has been providing a sheet metal forming simulation system called JSTAMP-Works packaged the FEM solvers of LS-DYNA and JOH/NIKE, which might be the first multistage system at that time and has been enjoying good reputation among users in Japan. To match the recent needs, 'faster, more accurate and easier', of process designers and CAE engineers, a new metal forming simulation system JSTAMP-Works/NV is developed. The JSTAMP-Works/NV packaged the automatic healing function of CAD and had much more new capabilities such as prediction of 3D trimming lines for flanging or hemming, remote control of solver execution for multi-stage forming processes and shape evaluation between FEM and CAD.On the other way, a multi-stage multi-purpose inverse FEM solver HYSTAMP is developed and will be soon put into market, which is approved to be very fast, quite accurate and robust.Lastly, authors will give some application examples of user defined ductile damage subroutine in LS-DYNA for the estimation of material failure and springback in metal forming simulation.

  19. Autoantibodies against the Second Extracellular Loop of M3R Do neither Induce nor Indicate Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zheng, Junfeng; Huang, Qiaoniang; Deng, Fengyuan; Huang, Renliang; Zhao, Wenjie; Yin, Junping; Song, Lina; Chen, Juan; Gao, Xing; Liu, Zuguo; Petersen, Frank; Yu, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Anti-muscarinic acetylcholine type-3 receptor (anti-M3R) autoantibodies have been suggested to be pathogenic for primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS), and the second extracellular loop of M3R is suspected to carry a disease-promoting epitope. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of autoantibodies against peptides derived from the second extracellular loop of M3R in mice and to determine whether those autoantibodies could be used as biomarker for pSS. Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with modified linear or cyclic peptides of the second extracellular loop of M3R. The function of exocrine glands was evaluated by measuring the secretion of saliva and tears. The histological evaluations were performed by using H&E staining or direct immunofluorescence staining. Autoantibodies against linear or cyclic peptides of the second extracellular loop of M3R in human and mice were determined using ELISA. Results Immunization induced mice to produce autoantibodies against the linear or cyclic peptides of the second extracellular loop of M3R, and those autoantibodies could bind onto salivary glands. However, those mice showed neither impairment in the secretion of tears or saliva nor histological abnormality in the exocrine glands. Furthermore, passive transfer of the IgG isolated from the immunized mice into healthy mice did not induced the dysfunction of the exocrine glands. The prevalence of autoantibodies against the peptides of the second extracellular loop of M3R was low in pSS patients, and it did not differ significantly from that in healthy controls. Conclusions Our results suggest that the autoantibodies against peptides of the second extracellular loop of M3R are not pathogenic in vivo and they are not suitable as biomarkers for pSS diagnosis. PMID:26901532

  20. Dual histamine H3R/serotonin 5-HT4R ligands with antiamnesic properties: pharmacophore-based virtual screening and polypharmacology.

    PubMed

    Lepailleur, Alban; Freret, Thomas; Lemaître, Stéphane; Boulouard, Michel; Dauphin, François; Hinschberger, Antoine; Dulin, Fabienne; Lesnard, Aurélien; Bureau, Ronan; Rault, Sylvain

    2014-06-23

    In recent years, preclinical and clinical studies have generated considerable interest in the development of histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonists as novel treatment for degenerative disorders associated with impaired cholinergic function. To identify novel scaffolds for H3R antagonism, a common feature-based pharmacophore model was developed and used to screen the 17,194 compounds of the CERMN (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur le Médicament de Normandie) chemical library. Out of 268 virtual hits which have been gathered in 34 clusters, we were particularly interested in tricyclic derivatives also exhibiting a potent 5HT4R affinity. Benzo[h][1,6]naphthyridine derivatives showed the highest H3R affinity, and compound 17 (H3R Ki = 41.6 nM; 5-HT4R Ki = 208 nM) completely reversed the amnesiant effect of scopolamine at 3 mg/kg in a spatial working memory experiment. For the first time we demonstrated the feasibility to combine H3R and 5-HT4R activities in a single molecule, raising the exciting possibility that dual H3R antagonist/5HT4R agonist have potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24857631

  1. Tumor-specific delivery of BSH-3R for boron neutron capture therapy and positron emission tomography imaging in a mouse brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Yoshiya; Michiue, Hiroyuki; Kitamatsu, Mizuki; Hayashi, Yuri; Takenaka, Fumiaki; Nishiki, Tei-Ichi; Matsui, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    Glioblastoma, a malignant brain tumor with poor disease outcomes, is managed in modern medicine by multimodality therapy. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an encouraging treatment under clinical investigation. In malignant cells, BNCT consists of two major factors: neutron radiation and boron uptake. To increase boron uptake in cells, we created a mercapto-closo-undecahydrododecaborate ([B12HnSH](2-)2Na(+), BSH) fused with a short arginine peptide (1R, 2R, 3R) and checked cellular uptake invitro and invivo. In a mouse brain tumor model, only BSH with at least three arginine domains could penetrate cell membranes of glioma cells invitro and invivo. Furthermore, to monitor the pharmacokinetic properties of these agents invivo, we fused BSH and BSH-3R with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA); DOTA is a metal chelating agent for labeling positron emission tomography (PET) probe with (64)Cu. We administered BSH-DOTA-(64)Cu and BSH-3R-DOTA-(64)Cu to the tumor model through a mouse tail vein and determined the drugs' pharmacokinetics by PET imaging. BSH-3R showed a high uptake in the tumor area on PET imaging. We concluded that BSH-3R is the ideal boron compound for clinical use during BNCT and that in developing this compound for clinical use, the BSH-3R PET probe is essential for pharmacokinetic imaging. PMID:25934274

  2. The CaV2.3 R-Type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channel in Mouse Sleep Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Siwek, Magdalena Elisabeth; Müller, Ralf; Henseler, Christina; Broich, Karl; Papazoglou, Anna; Weiergräber, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are key elements in mediating thalamocortical rhythmicity. Low-voltage activated (LVA) CaV 3 T-type Ca2+ channels have been related to thalamic rebound burst firing and to generation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. High-voltage activated (HVA) CaV 1 L-type Ca2+ channels, on the opposite, favor the tonic mode of action associated with higher levels of vigilance. However, the role of the HVA Non-L-type CaV2.3 Ca2+ channels, which are predominantly expressed in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN), still remains unclear. Recently, CaV2.3−/− mice were reported to exhibit altered spike-wave discharge (SWD)/absence seizure susceptibility supported by the observation that CaV2.3 mediated Ca2+ influx into RTN neurons can trigger small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+-channel type 2 (SK2) currents capable of maintaining thalamic burst activity. Based on these studies we investigated the role of CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels in rodent sleep. Methods: The role of CaV2.3 Ca2+ channels was analyzed in CaV2.3−/− mice and controls in both spontaneous and artificial urethane-induced sleep, using implantable video-EEG radiotelemetry. Data were analyzed for alterations in sleep architecture using sleep staging software and time-frequency analysis. Results: CaV2.3 deficient mice exhibited reduced wake duration and increased slow-wave sleep (SWS). Whereas mean sleep stage durations remained unchanged, the total number of SWS epochs was increased in CaV2.3−/− mice. Additional changes were observed for sleep stage transitions and EEG amplitudes. Furthermore, urethane-induced SWS mimicked spontaneous sleep results obtained from CaV2.3 deficient mice. Quantitative Real-time PCR did not reveal changes in thalamic CaV3 T-type Ca2+ channel expression. The detailed mechanisms of SWS increase in CaV2.3−/− mice remain to be determined. Conclusions: Low-voltage activated CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels in the thalamocortical loop and extra-thalamocortical circuitries substantially regulate rodent sleep architecture thus representing a novel potential target for pharmacological treatment of sleep disorders in the future. Citation: Siwek ME, Müller R, Henseler C, Broich K, Papazoglou A, Weiergräber M. The CaV2.3 R-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel in mouse sleep architecture. SLEEP 2014;37(5):881-892. PMID:24790266

  3. Design for multipurpose use: an application of DfE concept in a developing economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunmade, Israel

    2004-12-01

    Design for Environment (DfE) has been defined as the systematic integration of environmental considerations into product and process design. And it has been discovered that material and space can be saved when several functions are integrated into a single product by taking advantage of common components. In this design and development project, a multipurpose thresher was designed based on an integrated concept of design for modularity, disassembly, demanufacturing and remanufacturing. The machine can be used to thresh various types of farm produce such as rice, sorghum, cowpea and rye by changing the concave and the cylinder (threshing drum). The configuration of the machine enables access to most of the component parts without changing the tools needed for disassembly because the same type of fasteners was used. Furthermore, the functional units (the shelling unit, the separation unit and the grading unit) were assembled into modules such that only the faulty part needs to be replaced if necessary. The design was so simplified that the operator can make the changes for different uses without any difficulty. The machine has been successfully tested with a number of these products and it is scheduled for tests with other produce like corn and peanuts. The modularity of the functional unit will facilitate multi-lifecycle use of machine and/or its component parts. The uniformity of the liaisons and simplification of the configuration will reduce both the disassembly times and maintenance cost. By this integration, the material requirements for four different machines are conserved, environmental emissions that would be associated with the manufacture, transportation and disposal of four machines are eliminated while the capital requirements by farmers for machinery are reduced to about a quarter. Consequently the total lifecycle cost is kept minimum while the eco-efficiency is maximized.

  4. Development of a new contact lens multipurpose solution: Comparative analysis of microbiological, biological and clinical performance

    PubMed Central

    Kilvington, Simon; Huang, Ling; Kao, Eugenia; Powell, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and clinical performance of a new soft contact lens multi-purpose solution (COMPLETE® RevitaLens) based on polyquaternium-1 and alexidine dihydrochloride (NuMPS) was evaluated. Methods Antimicrobial efficacy was assessed according to ISO 14729 for both biocidal and regimen performance against bacteria and fungi. Acanthamoeba efficacy was tested along with ability to retain antimicrobial activity on partial evaporation. In vitro cytotoxicity of NuMPS and OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® MPS (MPS-3) was assessed based on ISO 10993-5 and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) methods. In addition, a 3 month, double-masked, parallel group clinical trial comparing safety and acceptability with respect to MPS-3 was conducted with 4 silicone hydrogel (SiHy) and FDA Group IV lens types. Results NuMPS showed broad antimicrobial efficacy, including Acanthamoeba, giving a 3–4 log10 reduction in viability after 6 hours contact time. NuMPS also passed ISO 14729 regimens with SiHy and etafilcon lenses for bacteria, fungi and also Acanthamoeba. The cytotoxicity of NuMPS was equivalent or better compared to MPS-3. In the clinical trial, there was no statistically significant between-group difference in corneal staining (p > 0.05). Patients using MPS-3 had more adverse events than patients using NuMPS: 11.8 % (11/93) versus 2.8 % (5/177), respectively, (p < 0.05). There were no differences noted in cleanliness or wearing comfort (p > 0.05). Conclusion Taken together, the results of these studies indicate that the NuMPS is a novel and effective soft contact lens care solution.

  5. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Hemant; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S. Erik; Wattjes, Alix C.; Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan

    2009-12-15

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 degree sign C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degree sign in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10{sup -5} mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degree sign C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 deg. C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 deg. C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

  6. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of a new multipurpose disinfecting solution on silicone hydrogel contact lenses?

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Fraga, Jos; Blzquez Arauzo, Francisco; Urbano Rodrguez, Rubn; Gonzlez-Garca, Mara J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new multipurpose disinfecting solution (MPDS) with a formulation that includes aloe vera on its composition. Methods This is a prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical trial with a crossover design that included seven examinations. Two different MPDSs, Avizor Alvera (study solution) and All Clean Soft (control solution), each were used for 1 month. Comfilcon A silicone hydrogel contact lenses were used during the trial. The main outcome variables were corneal staining and deposits on the surfaces of the contact lenses. Other parameters including ocular surface response, contact lens wettability, user satisfaction, and adverse events, were analyzed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 11980:2010 guidance for clinical investigation. Results Twenty subjects (10 women, 10 men) (mean age, 27.75.6 years; range, 2041) were included. No differences between both MPDSs were found in the percentage of subjects with corneal staining >0 at day 30 (study: 35%, control: 50%; p=0.46); neither in the percentage of subjects with deposits on the surface of the contact lens >0 at day 30 (study: 26.32%, control: 52.63%; p=0.18). The study MPDS received higher rates in comfort (study: 8.141.09, control: 7.940.92; p=0.56) and satisfaction at day 30 (study: 8.630.91, control: 8.290.80; p=0.19), however the scores were not significantly different with the control MPDS. Conclusions The clinical trial showed that the study MPDS is safe, efficient, and has acceptable physiologic tolerance, according to the ISO 11980:2010 guidance for clinical investigation. PMID:25649640

  7. Multipurpose bedrock surficial, and environmental geologic maps, New River valley, southwest Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, A. ); Collins, T. )

    1994-03-01

    Multipurpose bedrock, surficial, and environmental geologic maps have recently been completed for portions of the Valley and Ridge province of southwest VA. The maps, at both 1:100,000 and 1:24,000 scales, show generalized and detailed bedrock geology grouped by lithology and environmental hazard associations. Also shown are a variety of alluvial, colluvial, debris flow, and landslide deposits, as well as karst features. Multidisciplinary research topics addressed during the mapping included slope evolution and geomorphology, drainage history and terrace distribution, ancient large-scale landsliding, and sinkhole development. The maps have been used by land-use planners and engineering firms in an evaluation of Appalachian paleoseismicity and to assess potential groundwater contamination and subsidence in karst areas. The maps are being used for environmental hazard assessment and site selection of a proposed large electric powerline that crosses the Jefferson National Forest. Also, the maps are proving useful in planning for a public access interpretive geologic enter focused on large-scale slope failures. Some of the largest known landslides in eastern North America took place within the map area. Field comparisons and detailed structure mapping of similar features along the Front Range of the Colorado Rockies indicate that the landslides were probably emplaced during a single catastrophic event of short duration. Although the giles County seismic zone is nearby, stability analyses of slopes in the map area have shown that failure need not have been initiated by a seismic event. Several distinct colluvial units mapped within the area of landslides document a period of extensive weathering that postdates slide emplacement. Radiocarbon dates from landslide sag ponds indicate a minimum age of 9,860 B.P. for emplacement of some of the landslides. These results indicate that pre-slide colluvial and debris flow deposits are at least Pleistocene in age.

  8. HyBIS - a low cost, multi-purpose, modular vehicle for detailed ocean mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huehnerbach, V.; Murton, B.; Berndt, C.; Garrard, J.; Wollatz-Vogt, M.; Wetzel, G.; Matthiessen, T.

    2013-12-01

    HyBIS is a low-cost, multi-purpose, highly maneuverable, fibre-optic controlled survey and sampling robotic underwater vehicle (RUV) capable of diving to 6000m. Built in the UK by Hydro-Lek Ltd. in collaboration with the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, it has proven itself during recent discoveries of the deepest hydrothermal vents in the world, at 5100m deep in the Cayman Trough in the Caribbean and habitat mapping of seamounts in the Atlantic and Indian oceans . The vehicle has a modular design, with the top module being a command and power system that comprises power management, cameras, lights, hydraulics, thrusters and telemetry. The lower module can alternatively be a clam-shell sampling grab, a manipulator-arm and tool sled, a winch for instrument recovery, or an ocean bottom seismometer deployment module. Unlike a conventional ROV, HyBIS does not have any floatation, rather it is suspended by its umbilical cable directly from the ship. The advantage of direct suspension is that HyBIS can recover or deploy a payload of up to 700kg, although this comes at the price of reduced maneuverability compared to a 'normal' ROV. During its four years of service, HyBIS has, so far, accumulated an impressive list of achievements: recording over 450 hours of HD video footage, thousands of HD still images, collected geological, biological samples, as well as fluids and gas from over 40 different sites. It has also recovered two different seabed landers containing scientific equipment worth over £300k, and placed Ocean Bottom Seismometers onto the seafloor.

  9. Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R; Hurlburt, Jennifer A; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs). IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of women's health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not disrupt intercourse or have high rates of expulsion. Herein, we reviewed the microbicide and MPT IVRs currently in development, with a focus on the clinical aspects of IVR assessment and the challenges facing microbicide and MPT IVR product development, clinical testing, and implementation. The information in this review was drawn from PubMed searches and a recent microbicide/MPT product development workshop organized by CONRAD. PMID:24174884

  10. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hemant; Wattjes, Alix C; Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S Erik

    2009-12-01

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 degrees C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degrees in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10(-5) mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degrees C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 degrees C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 degrees C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation. PMID:20059134

  11. Honeycomblike large area LaB{sub 6} plasma source for Multi-Purpose Plasma facility

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Kyu-Sun; You, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Lho, Taihyeop; Choh, Kwon Kook; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Yong Ho; Lee, Bongju; Yoo, Suk Jae; Kwon, Myeon

    2007-10-15

    A Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP{sup 2}) facility has been renovated from Hanbit mirror device [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 686 (2003)] by adopting the same philosophy of diversified plasma simulator (DiPS) [Chung et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46, 354 (2006)] by installing two plasma sources: LaB{sub 6} (dc) and helicon (rf) plasma sources; and making three distinct simulators: divertor plasma simulator, space propulsion simulator, and astrophysics simulator. During the first renovation stage, a honeycomblike large area LaB{sub 6} (HLA-LaB{sub 6}) cathode was developed for the divertor plasma simulator to improve the resistance against the thermal shock fragility for large and high density plasma generation. A HLA-LaB{sub 6} cathode is composed of the one inner cathode with 4 in. diameter and the six outer cathodes with 2 in. diameter along with separate graphite heaters. The first plasma is generated with Ar gas and its properties are measured by the electric probes with various discharge currents and magnetic field configurations. Plasma density at the middle of central cell reaches up to 2.6x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, while the electron temperature remains around 3-3.5 eV at the low discharge current of less than 45 A, and the magnetic field intensity of 870 G. Unique features of electric property of heaters, plasma density profiles, is explained comparing with those of single LaB{sub 6} cathode with 4 in. diameter in DiPS.

  12. Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Yasmin; Radke, Tara; Chuhta, Jesse; Hughes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics model and to verify no recontact. NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) teams examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute parameters, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1, but more testing is required to support human certification, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust but affordable human spacecraft capability.

  13. Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Yasmin; Chuhta, Jesse D.; Hughes, Michael P.; Radke, Tara S.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics models used to verify no re-contact. The NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) architecture includes a highly-integrated Forward Bay Cover (FBC) jettison assembly design that combines parachutes and piston thrusters to separate the FBC from the Crew Module (CM) and avoid re-contact. A multi-disciplinary team across numerous organizations examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the FBC separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute elements, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1. Additional testing will be required to support human certification of this separation event, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust human-rated FBC separation event.

  14. Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R; Hurlburt, Jennifer A; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs). IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of womens health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not disrupt intercourse or have high rates of expulsion. Herein, we reviewed the microbicide and MPT IVRs currently in development, with a focus on the clinical aspects of IVR assessment and the challenges facing microbicide and MPT IVR product development, clinical testing, and implementation. The information in this review was drawn from PubMed searches and a recent microbicide/MPT product development workshop organized by CONRAD. PMID:24174884

  15. GALEN: a third generation terminology tool to support a multipurpose national coding system for surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Trombert-Paviot, B; Rodrigues, J M; Rogers, J E; Baud, R; van der Haring, E; Rassinoux, A M; Abrial, V; Clavel, L; Idir, H

    2000-09-01

    Generalised architecture for languages, encyclopedia and nomenclatures in medicine (GALEN) has developed a new generation of terminology tools based on a language independent model describing the semantics and allowing computer processing and multiple reuses as well as natural language understanding systems applications to facilitate the sharing and maintaining of consistent medical knowledge. During the European Union 4 Th. framework program project GALEN-IN-USE and later on within two contracts with the national health authorities we applied the modelling and the tools to the development of a new multipurpose coding system for surgical procedures named CCAM in a minority language country, France. On one hand, we contributed to a language independent knowledge repository and multilingual semantic dictionaries for multicultural Europe. On the other hand, we support the traditional process for creating a new coding system in medicine which is very much labour consuming by artificial intelligence tools using a medically oriented recursive ontology and natural language processing. We used an integrated software named CLAW (for classification workbench) to process French professional medical language rubrics produced by the national colleges of surgeons domain experts into intermediate dissections and to the Grail reference ontology model representation. From this language independent concept model representation, on one hand, we generate with the LNAT natural language generator controlled French natural language to support the finalization of the linguistic labels (first generation) in relation with the meanings of the conceptual system structure. On the other hand, the Claw classification manager proves to be very powerful to retrieve the initial domain experts rubrics list with different categories of concepts (second generation) within a semantic structured representation (third generation) bridge to the electronic patient record detailed terminology. PMID:10978911

  16. Structure of the modulation hole doped (2 ?3x2 ?3)R30? Sn double layer on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snijders, Paul C.; Huang, Ying-Tzu; Ming, Fangfei; Mulugeta, Daniel; Tu, Weisong; Kent, Paul R. C.; Diehl, Renee D.; Weitering, Hanno H.

    2015-03-01

    Over the years, a large collection of temperature dependent phase transitions has been identified in atomically thin metal overlayers on semiconductor surfaces. However, studying their doping dependence remains difficult due to the symmetry breaking nature of dopant atoms located on top of these structures, and the associated local lattice deformations localizing the doped carriers. Here we have used a subsurface modulation doping approach using B on Si(111) to hole-dope an overlaying Sn double layer. STM, LEED-I(E), and XPS were used to characterize the structure of a (2 ?3x2 ?3)R30 Sn double layer on a Si(111) (?3x ?3)-B surface. STM images 4 atoms in the top Sn layer. Using the tip to remove this top layer, a second layer consisting of 3 triangular structures becomes visible, resulting in a total of 13 Sn atoms per unit cell, consistent with an XPS core level intensity analysis. An extensive LEED-I(E) analysis using 20 independent beams with an energy range of 7126 eV points to a structural model consistent with the STM and XPS data and having a Pendry R-factor of 0.34. Research sponsored by NSF DMR-1005488 (FM, DM, WT, HHW), and by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division (PCS,PRCK).

  17. Adsorption study of copper phthalocyanine on Si(111)(√3 × √3)R30°Ag surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzli, S.; Ben Hamada, B.; Arbi, I.; Souissi, A.; Laribi, A.; Akremi, A.; Chefi, C.

    2016-04-01

    The adsorption of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules on Si(111)(√3 × √3)R30°Ag surface is studied at room temperature under ultra high vacuum. Crystallographic, chemical and electronic properties of the interface are investigated by low energy electron diffraction (LEED), ultraviolet and X-ray photoemission spectroscopies (UPS, XPS) and X-ray photoemission diffraction (XPD). LEED and XPD results indicate that after one monolayer deposition the molecular layer is highly ordered with a flat lying adsorption configuration. The corresponding pattern reveals the coexistence of three symmetrically equivalent orientations of molecules with respect to the substrate. XPS core level spectra of the substrate reveal that there is no discernible chemical interaction between molecules and substrate; however there is evidence of Fermi level movement. During the growth, the work function was found to decrease from 4.90 eV for the clean substrate to 4.35 eV for the highest coverage (60 monolayers). Within a thickness of two monolayer deposition an interface dipole of 0.35 eV and a band bending of 0.2 eV have been found. UPS spectra indicate the existence of a band bending of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of 0.55 eV. The changes in the work function, in the Fermi level position and in the HOMO state have been used to determine the energy level alignment at the interface.

  18. High-pressure Structural Stability of Multiferroic Hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Y Ho Lu)

    SciTech Connect

    P Gao; Z Chen; T Tyson; T Wu; K Ahn; Z Liu; R Tappero; S Kim; S Cheong

    2011-12-31

    Structural changes in RMnO{sub 3} (R = Y, Ho, Lu) under high pressure were examined by synchrotron x-ray diffraction methods at room temperature. Compression occurs more readily in the ab plane than along the c axis. With increased pressure, a pressure-induced hexagonal to orthorhombic phase transition was observed starting at {approx}22 GPa for Lu(Y)MnO{sub 3}. When the pressure is increased to 35 GPa, a small volume fraction of Lu(Y)MnO{sub 3} is converted to the orthorhombic phase and the orthorhombic phase is maintained on pressure release. High-pressure infrared absorption spectroscopy and Mn K-edge near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy confirm that the hexagonal P6{sub 3}cm structure is stable below {approx}20 GPa and the environment around the Mn ion is not changed. Shifts in the unoccupied p-band density of states with pressure are observed in the Mn K-edge spectra. A schematic pressure-temperature phase diagram is given for the small ion RMnO{sub 3} system.

  19. How omics technologies can contribute to the '3R' principles by introducing new strategies in animal testing.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Michaela

    2006-08-01

    In Europe, in light of ethical, political and commercial pressure, every effort should be made to replace animals with alternatives (e.g. in vitro models), to reduce the number of animals used in experiments to a minimum and to refine current testing strategies in a way that ensures animals undergo minimum pain and distress. Methods currently used in toxicology for mandatory safety tests rely heavily on the dosing of animals, followed by the detection and pathological evaluation of manifested toxic lesions. Through the integration of so-called 'omics' technologies, a global analysis of treatment-related changes on the molecular level becomes feasible and therefore might provide a means for predicting toxicity before classical toxicological endpoints. This Opinion article summarizes the key features of pushing the '3R' principles in animal testing, discusses the possible impact on safety testing in toxicology and describes the potential of using omics technologies for improved toxicity prediction to meet ethical, political and commercial expectations. PMID:16782220

  20. Dielectric properties of PVDF thin films doped with 3 wt.% of RCl3 (R = Gd or Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, S.; Abdel-Baset, T. A.; Hassen, A.

    2014-03-01

    The dielectric permittivity (?'), electric modulus (M?), and ac conductivity (?ac) of pure polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and PVDF containing 3 wt.% RCl3 (R = Er or Gd) were measured. The incorporation of 3 wt.% of ErCl3 or GdCl3 within the PVDF matrix is found significantly to increase its ?' and ?ac. All investigated samples show different relaxation processes within the studied temperature and frequency ranges. The first process is ?a-relaxation, which occurs around the glass transition temperature, Tg. The second process is ?c-relaxation, which is associated with the molecular motions in the crystalline region of the main polymer chain. Third is the ?-relaxation which observed for pure PVDF at low temperatures and high frequencies. The frequency dependence of ?ac shows that the conduction mechanism for pure PVDF and PVDF containing 3 wt.% of RCl3 is correlated barrier hopping (CBH). The binding energy of the carriers was calculated based on the CBH model. Finally, the results obtained in this work are discussed and compared with those for 3 wt.% LaCl3-doped PVDF and similar materials.

  1. Magnetic properties of the tetragonal RCuGa3 (R=Pr, Nd and Gd) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagalakshmi, R.; Kulkarni, Ruta; Dhar, S. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Krishnakumar, V.; Reiffers, Marian; Čurlík, Ivan; Hagemann, Hans; Lovy, Dominique; Nallamuthu, S.

    2015-07-01

    Single crystals of tetragonal RCuGa3 (R=La, Pr, Nd and Gd), with BaNiSn3 type structure (space group I4 mm), have been grown by high temperature solution growth technique using Ga as flux. Their magnetic properties were determined by heat capacity and the measurement of magnetization and electrical resistivity along [100] and [001] directions. Except LaCuGa3, the compounds order magnetically. PrCuGa3 undergoes a ferromagnetic transition with Curie temperature of 4.6 K. NdCuGa3 shows a bulk magnetic transition at 3.3 K. The data on GdCuGa3 indicate combined characteristics of spin glass and antiferromagnetic behavior at low temperatures. From the Schottky heat capacity data the crystal electric field level energy spectra have been determined. Further we have performed temperature dependent measurements of electron spin resonance (ESR) on GdCuGa3 between 11 K and room temperature. The ESR data indicate an enhancement of magnetic fluctuations associated with spin reorientation and both homogeneous and inhomogeneous thermal broadening of the linewidth.

  2. Determination of Amoebicidal Activities of Multipurpose Contact Lens Solutions by Using a Most Probable Number Enumeration Technique

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Tara K.; Seal, David V.; Tomlinson, Alan; McFadyen, Angus K.; Grimason, Anthony M.

    2003-01-01

    Six multipurpose contact lens solutions [All-in-One, All-in-One (Light), ReNu MultiPlus, Optifree Express, Complete, and Solo-care soft] were tested for their efficacies against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts by using a most probable number (MPN) technique for amoebic enumeration. Against trophozoites, All-in-One, ReNu Multiplus, and Optifree Express achieved total kill (log reduction of >3) after the manufacturer's minimum recommended disinfection time (MMRDT), with the remaining solutions failing to reach a log reduction of 1. After 24 h of exposure, all solutions proved trophozoiticidal, achieving, with the exception of Complete (log reduction of 3.13), total kill. Against cysts, All-in-One gave a log reduction of >3 within the MMRDT, with all other solutions failing to achieve a log reduction of 1. After 24 h of exposure, All-in-One achieved total kill of cysts (log reduction of 3.74), ReNu MultiPlus gave a log reduction of 3.15, and the remaining solutions reached log reductions of between 1.09 and 2.27. The MPN technique provides a simple, reliable, and reproducible method of amoebic enumeration that depends on simply establishing the presence or absence of growth on culture plates inoculated with a series of dilutions and determining the MPN of amoebae present from statistical tables. By use of this technique, two of the multipurpose solutions tested, ReNu MultiPlus and Optifree Express, demonstrated effective trophozoiticidal activities within the recommended disinfection times; however, only All-in-One proved effective against both trophozoites and cysts over the same time period. This MPN technique, which uses axenically produced trophozoites and mature, double-walled cysts, has the potential to form the basis of a national standard for amoebicidal efficacy testing of multipurpose contact lens disinfecting solutions. PMID:12843032

  3. Automatic sorting of toxicological information into the IUCLID (International Uniform Chemical Information Database) endpoint-categories making use of the semantic search engine Go3R.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Wchter, Thomas; Hareng, Lars; Wareing, Britta; Langsch, Angelika; Zschunke, Matthias; Alvers, Michael R; Landsiedel, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge-based search engine Go3R, www.Go3R.org, has been developed to assist scientists from industry and regulatory authorities in collecting comprehensive toxicological information with a special focus on identifying available alternatives to animal testing. The semantic search paradigm of Go3R makes use of expert knowledge on 3Rs methods and regulatory toxicology, laid down in the ontology, a network of concepts, terms, and synonyms, to recognize the contents of documents. Search results are automatically sorted into a dynamic table of contents presented alongside the list of documents retrieved. This table of contents allows the user to quickly filter the set of documents by topics of interest. Documents containing hazard information are automatically assigned to a user interface following the endpoint-specific IUCLID5 categorization scheme required, e.g. for REACH registration dossiers. For this purpose, complex endpoint-specific search queries were compiled and integrated into the search engine (based upon a gold standard of 310 references that had been assigned manually to the different endpoint categories). Go3R sorts 87% of the references concordantly into the respective IUCLID5 categories. Currently, Go3R searches in the 22 million documents available in the PubMed and TOXNET databases. However, it can be customized to search in other databases including in-house databanks. PMID:24389116

  4. Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide Production are Involved in Systemic Drought Tolerance Induced by 2R,3R-Butanediol in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Song-Mi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Anderson, Anne J.; Kim, Young Cheol

    2013-01-01

    2R,3R-Butanediol, a volatile compound produced by certain rhizobacteria, is involved in induced drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana through mechanisms involving stomatal closure. In this study, we examined the involvement of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide in induced drought tolerance, because these are signaling agents in drought stress responses mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). Fluorescence-based assays showed that systemic nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production was induced by 2R,3R-butanediol and correlated with expression of genes encoding nitrate reductase and nitric oxide synthase. Co-treatment of 2R,3R-butanediol with an inhibitor of nitrate reductase or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase lowered nitric oxide production and lessened induced drought tolerance. Increases in hydrogen peroxide were negated by co-treatment of 2R,3R-butanediol with inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, or peroxidase. These findings support the volatile 2R,3R-butanediol synthesized by certain rhizobacteria is an active player in induction of drought tolerance through mechanisms involving nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production. PMID:25288971

  5. IP3R1 deficiency in the cerebellum/brainstem causes basal ganglia-independent dystonia by triggering tonic Purkinje cell firings in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hisatsune, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Hirono, Moritoshi; Yamaguchi, Naohide; Sugawara, Takeyuki; Ogawa, Naoko; Ebisui, Etsuko; Ohshima, Toshio; Yamada, Masahisa; Hensch, Takao K.; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The type 1 inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) is a Ca2+ channel on the endoplasmic reticulum and is a predominant isoform in the brain among the three types of IP3Rs. Mice lacking IP3R1 show seizure-like behavior; however the cellular and neural circuit mechanism by which IP3R1 deletion causes the abnormal movements is unknown. Here, we found that the conditional knockout mice lacking IP3R1 specifically in the cerebellum and brainstem experience dystonia and show that cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) firing patterns were coupled to specific dystonic movements. Recordings in freely behaving mice revealed epochs of low and high frequency PC complex spikes linked to body extension and rigidity, respectively. Remarkably, dystonic symptoms were independent of the basal ganglia, and could be rescued by inactivation of the cerebellum, inferior olive or in the absence of PCs. These findings implicate IP3R1-dependent PC firing patterns in cerebellum in motor coordination and the expression of dystonia through the olivo-cerebellar pathway. PMID:24109434

  6. MUST - An integrated system of support tools for research flight software engineering. [Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.; Foudriat, E. C.; Will, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's MUST (Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology) program at Langley Research Center are to cut the cost of producing software which effectively utilizes digital systems for flight research. These objectives will be accomplished by providing an integrated system of support software tools for use throughout the research flight software development process. A description of the overall MUST program and its progress toward the release of a first MUST system will be presented. This release includes: a special interactive user interface, a library of subroutines, assemblers, a compiler, automatic documentation tools, and a test and simulation system.

  7. Multipurpose modular experimental station for the DiProI beamline of Fermi-Elettra free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersoli, Emanuele; Capotondi, Flavio; Cocco, Daniele; Kaulich, Burkhard; Menk, Ralf H.; Locatelli, Andrea; Mentes, Tevfik O.; Spezzani, Carlo; Sandrin, Gilio; Bacescu, Daniel M.; Kiskinova, Maya; Zangrando, Marco; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars; Chapman, Henry N.; Nelson, A. J.; Frank, Matthias; and others

    2011-04-15

    We present a compact modular apparatus with a flexible design that will be operated at the DiProI beamline of the Fermi-Elettra free electron laser (FEL) for performing static and time-resolved coherent diffraction imaging experiments, taking advantage of the full coherence and variable polarization of the short seeded FEL pulses. The apparatus has been assembled and the potential of the experimental setup is demonstrated by commissioning tests with coherent synchrotron radiation. This multipurpose experimental station will be open to general users after installation at the Fermi-Elettra free electron laser in 2011.

  8. Design and fabrication of a multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Hun; Chai, Kil Byoung; Jang, Siwon; Choe, Wonho; Ko, Won-Ha; Kim, Junghee; Seo, Dongcheol; Lee, Jongha; Bogatu, I. N.; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2012-10-15

    A multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system was developed for measuring two-dimensional x-ray emissivity profile, electron temperature, Ar impurity transport, and total radiation power. A remotely controlled filter wheel was designed with three different choices of filters. The electron temperature profile can be determined from the ratio of two channels having different thickness of Be layer, and the Ar impurity concentration transport can be determined from a pair of Ar Ross filters (CaF{sub 2} and NaCl thin films). Without any filters, this diagnostic system can also be used as a bolometer.

  9. Apamin Boosting of Synaptic Potentials in CaV2.3 R-Type Ca2+ Channel Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kang; Kelley, Melissa H.; Wu, Wendy W.; Adelman, John P.; Maylie, James

    2015-01-01

    SK2- and KV4.2-containing K+ channels modulate evoked synaptic potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Each is coupled to a distinct Ca2+ source that provides Ca2+-dependent feedback regulation to limit AMPA receptor (AMPAR)- and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated postsynaptic depolarization. SK2-containing channels are activated by Ca2+ entry through NMDARs, whereas KV4.2-containing channel availability is increased by Ca2+ entry through SNX-482 (SNX) sensitive CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels. Recent studies have challenged the functional coupling between NMDARs and SK2-containing channels, suggesting that synaptic SK2-containing channels are instead activated by Ca2+ entry through R-type Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, SNX has been implicated to have off target affects, which would challenge the proposed coupling between R-type Ca2+ channels and KV4.2-containing K+ channels. To reconcile these conflicting results, we evaluated the effect of SK channel blocker apamin and R-type Ca2+ channel blocker SNX on evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons from CaV2.3 null mice. The results show that in the absence of CaV2.3 channels, apamin application still boosted EPSPs. The boosting effect of CaV2.3 channel blockers on EPSPs observed in neurons from wild type mice was not observed in neurons from CaV2.3 null mice. These data are consistent with a model in which SK2-containing channels are functionally coupled to NMDARs and KV4.2-containing channels to CaV2.3 channels to provide negative feedback regulation of EPSPs in the spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:26418566

  10. Comparative analysis of a putative tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, MC3R, and pseudogene sequences in cattle, African buffalo, hyena, rhinoceros and other African bovids and ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Möller, M; Adams, L A; Warren, R M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2012-01-01

    Studies in humans have suggested the possible involvement of melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and other components of the central melanocortin system in host defense against mycobacteria. We report a genomic DNA nucleotide sequence highly homologous to human MC3R in several bovids and non-bovid African wildlife species. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the orthologous genes of cattle and buffalo are highly homologous (89.4 and 90%, respectively) to the human MC3R gene. Sequence results also identified a typical non-functional, duplicated pseudogene, MC3RP, in 7 species from the family Bovidae. No pseudogene was found in animals outside Bovidae. The presence of the pseudogene in tuberculosis-susceptible species could have possible immunomodulatory effects on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection, as well as a considerable influence on energy metabolism and food conversion efficiency. PMID:22286663

  11. NASA Planning for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Orion Ground Processing Team was originally formed by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Constellation (Cx) Project Office's Orion Division to define, refine and mature pre-launch and post-landing ground operations for the Orion human spacecraft. The multidisciplined KSC Orion team consisted of KSC civil servant, SAIC, Productivity Apex, Inc. and Boeing-CAPPS engineers, project managers and safety engineers, as well as engineers from Constellation's Orion Project and Lockheed Martin Orion Prime contractor. The team evaluated the Orion design configurations as the spacecraft concept matured between Systems Design Review (SDR), Systems Requirement Review (SRR) and Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The team functionally decomposed prelaunch and post-landing steps at three levels' of detail, or tiers, beginning with functional flow block diagrams (FFBDs). The third tier FFBDs were used to build logic networks and nominal timelines. Orion ground support equipment (GSE) was identified and mapped to each step. This information was subsequently used in developing lower level operations steps in a Ground Operations Planning Document PDR product. Subject matter experts for each spacecraft and GSE subsystem were used to define 5th - 95th percentile processing times for each FFBD step, using the Delphi Method. Discrete event simulations used this information and the logic network to provide processing timeline confidence intervals for launch rate assessments. The team also used the capabilities of the KSC Visualization Lab, the FFBDs and knowledge of the spacecraft, GSE and facilities to build visualizations of Orion pre-launch and postlanding processing at KSC. Visualizations were a powerful tool for communicating planned operations within the KSC community (i.e., Ground Systems design team), and externally to the Orion Project, Lockheed Martin spacecraft designers and other Constellation Program stakeholders during the SRR to PDR timeframe. Other operations planning tools included Kaizen/Lean events, mockups and human factors analysis. The majority of products developed by this team are applicable as KSC prepares 21st Century Ground Systems for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Launch System.

  12. Effect of contact lens material on cytotoxicity potential of multipurpose solutions using human corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tanti, N.C.; Crockett, B.; Mansour, L.; Jones, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Multipurpose solutions (MPS) are used daily to clean and disinfect silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lenses. This in vitro study was undertaken to identify the potential for interaction between MPS, SiHy surface treatments, and lens materials, which may lead to changes in the response of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) to MPS-soaked lenses. Methods The MPS tested were renu fresh (formerly known as ReNu MultiPlus; ReNu), OptiFree Express (OFX), OptiFree RepleniSH, SoloCare Aqua, and Complete Moisture Plus. The SiHy materials evaluated were lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, comfilcon A, galyfilcon A, and balafilcon A (BA). MPS-soaked lenses were placed on top of adherent HCEC. The effect of MPS dilutions (0.1 to 10% final concentration in medium) was also characterized. Cell viability, adhesion phenotype and caspase activation were studied after 24-h cell exposure. OFX released from lenses was determined using UV absorbance. Results A significant reduction in viability (between 30 to 50%) was observed with cells exposed to lenses soaked in ReNu and OFX. A significant downregulation of α3 and β1 integrins, with integrin expression ranging from 60% to 75% of control (cells with no lens), was also observed with OFX and ReNu-soaked lenses. With the exception of BA, all other lenses soaked in OFX resulted in significant caspase activation, whereby over 18% of cells stained positive for caspases. Minimal caspase activation was observed in cells exposed to ReNu and Solo soaked lenses. For both OFX and ReNu, exposing cells to at least a 5% dilution had a significant effect on viability and integrin expression. While Complete and Solo did not lead to reduction in viability, cells exposed to a 10% dilution showed reduced integrin expression down to less than 70% of control value. Comparing cell response to diluted MPS solutions and various MPS-soaked lenses showed that it is not possible to reliably use cell response to MPS dilution alone to assess MPS biocompatibility. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the reaction of HCEC to MPS are affected by the type of lenses the MPS is released from and may potentially be influenced by the surface treatment (or lack of it) of SiHy materials. PMID:22219641

  13. Friction Stir Weld Application and Tooling Design for the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcorn, John

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), commonly known as the Orion capsule, is planned to be the United States' next manned spacecraft for missions beyond low earth orbit. Following the cancellation of the Constellation program and creation of SLS (Space Launch System), the need arose for the MPCV to utilize the Delta IV Heavy rocket for a test launch scheduled for 2014 instead of the previously planned Ares I rocket. As a result, an adapter (MSA) must be used in conjunction with the MPCV to account for the variation in diameter of the launch vehicles; 5.5 meters down to 5.0 meters. Prior to ight article fabrication, a path nder (test article) will be fabricated to ne tune the associated manufacturing processes. The adapter will be comprised of an aluminum frustum (partial cone) that employs isogrid technology and circumferential rings on each end. The frustum will be fabricated by friction stir welding (FSW) three individual panels together on a Vertical Weld Tool (VWT) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Subsequently, each circumferential ring will be friction stir welded to the frustum using a Robotic Weld Tool (RWT). The irregular geometry and large mass of the MSA require that extensive tooling preparation be put into support structures for the friction stir weld. The tooling on the VWT will be comprised of a set of conveyors mounted on pre-existing stanchions so that the MSA will have the ability to be rotated after each of the three friction stir welds. The tooling requirements to friction stir weld the rings with the RWT are somewhat more demanding. To support the mass of the MSA and resist the load of the weld tool, a system of mandrels will be mounted to stanchions and assembled in a circle. The goal of the paper will be to explain the design, fabrication, and assembly of the tooling, to explain the use of friction stir welding on the MSA path nder, and also to discuss the lessons learned and modi cations made in preparation for ight article fabrication in support of the 2014 launch of the Orion MPCV.

  14. A Modern Explorer's Journey - using events for innovative multipurpose educational outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2014-05-01

    Earth observations are important across the specter of geo-sciences. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. The lack of dedicated funding to support specific Science &Technology activities in support of GEOSS is one of the most important obstacles to engaging the Science &Technology communities in its implementation. Finding resources to outreach and capacity building is likewise a challenge. The continuation of GEO and GEOSS rely on political support which again is influenced by public opinions. The GEO Ministerial Summit in 2014 was an event that both needed visibility and represented an opportunity to mobilize the GEO community in producing outreach and educational material. Through the combined resources from two of GEO tasks in the GEO work plan, a multipurpose educational outreach project was planned and executed. This project addressed the following issues: How can the GEO community mobilize resources for its work plan projects in the Societal Benefit Area Water? How can we produce more educational and capacity building material? How can the GEO community support the GEO secretariat related to public relations (material and otherwise) Based on activities described in the GEO work plan, a showcase video and online campaign consisting on a series of webinars were developed and produced. The video and webinars were linked through a common reference: the water cycle. Various aspects of the water cycle ranging from general to more technical and scientific education were covered in the webinars, while the video called A Modern Explorer's Journey focused on story telling with a more emotional appeal. The video was presented to the Ministers at the GEO Ministerial Summit and distributed widely to the GEO community and through social media and articles (as embedded YouTube and more). A discussion of challenges and successes of this event-based educational outreach project will be presented. Continued use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community. Lessons learned need to be provided continuously and this project add to this material.

  15. S2P3-R (v1.0): a framework for efficient regional modelling of physical and biological structures and processes in shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, R.; Hickman, A. E.; Sharples, J.

    2015-10-01

    An established one-dimensional (1-D) model of Shelf Sea Physics and Primary Production (S2P3) is adapted for flexible use in selected regional settings over selected periods of time. This Regional adaptation of S2P3, the S2P3-R framework (v1.0), can be efficiently used to investigate physical and biological phenomena in shelf seas that are strongly controlled by vertical processes. These include spring blooms that follow the onset of stratification, tidal mixing fronts that seasonally develop at boundaries between mixed and stratified water, and sub-surface chlorophyll maxima that persist throughout summer. While not representing 3-D processes, S2P3-R reveals the horizontal variation of the key 1-D (vertical) processes. S2P3-R should therefore only be used in regions where horizontal processes - including mean flows, eddy fluxes and internal tides - are known to exert a weak influence in comparison with vertical processes. In such cases, S2P3-R may be used as a highly versatile research tool, alongside more complex and computationally expensive models. In undergraduate oceanography modules and research projects, the model serves as an effective practical tool for linking theory and field observations. Three different regional configurations of S2P3-R are described, illustrating a range of diagnostics, evaluated where practical with observations. The model can be forced with daily meteorological variables for any selected year in the reanalysis era (1948 onwards). Example simulations illustrate the considerable extent of synoptic-to-interannual variability in the physics and biology of shelf seas. In discussion, the present limitations of S2P3-R are emphasised, and future developments are outlined.

  16. Assessing interactions between Ghsr and Mc3r reveals a role for AgRP in the expression of food anticipatory activity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Girardet, Clemence; Mavrikaki, Maria; Southern, Mark R; Smith, Roy G; Butler, Andrew A

    2014-12-01

    The stomach hormone ghrelin and hypothalamic melanocortin neurons belong to a gut-brain circuit controlling appetite and metabolic homeostasis. Mice lacking melanocortin-3 receptor (Mc3rKO) or growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GhsrKO) genes exhibit attenuated food anticipatory activity (FAA), a rise in locomotor activity anticipating mealtime, suggesting common circuitry regulating anticipatory responses to nutrient loading. To investigate the interaction between Ghsrs and Mc3rs, we compared food anticipatory responses in GhsrKO, Mc3rKO, and double Ghsr;Mc3r knockout (DKO) mice subjected to a hypocaloric restricted feeding (RF) protocol in constant dark or 12-hour light, 12-hour dark settings. DKO are viable, exhibiting no overt behavioral or metabolic phenotypes in ad libitum or fasting conditions. FAA was initially attenuated in all mutant strains in constant darkness. However, GhsrKO eventually exhibited a robust food anticipatory response, suggesting compensation. Mc3rKO and DKO did not compensate, indicating a continued requirement for Mc3rs in maintaining the expression of FAA in situations of RF. Abnormal regulation of hypothalamic agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/Npy) neurons previously observed during fasting may contribute to attenuated FAA in Mc3rKO. AgRP and Npy expression measured 1 hour before food presentation correlated positively with FAA. Absence of Mc3rs (but not Ghsrs) was associated with lower AgRP/Npy expression, suggesting attenuated responses to signals of negative energy balance. These observations support the importance of Mc3rs as modulators of anticipatory responses to feeding, with mice able to compensate for loss of Ghsrs. The behavioral deficits of Mc3rKO displayed during RF may be partially explained by reduced hunger sensations owing to abnormal regulation of orexigenic AgRP/Npy neurons. PMID:25211592

  17. Assessing Interactions Between Ghsr and Mc3r Reveals a Role for AgRP in the Expression of Food Anticipatory Activity in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Girardet, Clemence; Mavrikaki, Maria; Southern, Mark R.; Smith, Roy G.

    2014-01-01

    The stomach hormone ghrelin and hypothalamic melanocortin neurons belong to a gut-brain circuit controlling appetite and metabolic homeostasis. Mice lacking melanocortin-3 receptor (Mc3rKO) or growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GhsrKO) genes exhibit attenuated food anticipatory activity (FAA), a rise in locomotor activity anticipating mealtime, suggesting common circuitry regulating anticipatory responses to nutrient loading. To investigate the interaction between Ghsrs and Mc3rs, we compared food anticipatory responses in GhsrKO, Mc3rKO, and double Ghsr;Mc3r knockout (DKO) mice subjected to a hypocaloric restricted feeding (RF) protocol in constant dark or 12-hour light, 12-hour dark settings. DKO are viable, exhibiting no overt behavioral or metabolic phenotypes in ad libitum or fasting conditions. FAA was initially attenuated in all mutant strains in constant darkness. However, GhsrKO eventually exhibited a robust food anticipatory response, suggesting compensation. Mc3rKO and DKO did not compensate, indicating a continued requirement for Mc3rs in maintaining the expression of FAA in situations of RF. Abnormal regulation of hypothalamic agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/Npy) neurons previously observed during fasting may contribute to attenuated FAA in Mc3rKO. AgRP and Npy expression measured 1 hour before food presentation correlated positively with FAA. Absence of Mc3rs (but not Ghsrs) was associated with lower AgRP/Npy expression, suggesting attenuated responses to signals of negative energy balance. These observations support the importance of Mc3rs as modulators of anticipatory responses to feeding, with mice able to compensate for loss of Ghsrs. The behavioral deficits of Mc3rKO displayed during RF may be partially explained by reduced hunger sensations owing to abnormal regulation of orexigenic AgRP/Npy neurons. PMID:25211592

  18. Neomorphic Mutations in PIK3R1 Confer Sensitivity to MAPK Inhibitors due to Activation of ERK and JNK Pathways | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    In a recent publication in Cancer Cell, CTD2 investigators discovered that a known cancer-associated gain-of-function alteration in phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 (PIK3R1) results in novel protein activity that confers sensitivity to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. The PIK3R1 gene encodes the p85α regulatory subunit of PIK3. Under normal conditions, p85α suppresses PIK3 mediated activation of downstream pathways that promote cell growth and survival.

  19. Phase transformation of Cu-rich precipitates from 9R to 3R variant via ledges mechanism in ferritic steel containing copper.

    PubMed

    Chen, B L; Wang, W; Xie, H; Ge, R R; Zhang, Z Y; Li, Z W; Zhou, X Y; Zhou, B X

    2016-04-01

    Precipitates and solute enrich in aged ferritic steel containing copper were examined using high-resolution electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Two ledges with one-atom and two-atom layers height in the 9R/3R interface were observed. The enrichment of copper into two successive closed-packed planes with an interval of Fe-rich close-packed plane was detected. The passage of the Shockley partial, or the shearing, changes the stacking sequence of closed-packed planes. Finally, 9R Cu variant transformed into 3R Cu variant. PMID:26599818

  20. Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run.

  1. Interaction transfer of silicon atoms forming Co silicide for Co/ ?{ 3 } ?{ 3 } R 30 -Ag/Si(111) and related magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Fu, Tsu-Yi; Tsay, Jyh-Shen

    2015-05-01

    Combined scanning tunneling microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and surface magneto-optic Kerr effect studies were employed to study the microscopic structures and magnetic properties for ultrathin Co/ ?{ 3 } ?{ 3 } R 30 -Ag/Si(111). As the annealing temperature increases, the upward diffusion of Si atoms and formation of Co silicides occurs at temperature above 400 K. Below 600 K, the ?{ 3 } ?{ 3 } R 30 -Ag/Si(111) surface structure persists. We propose an interaction transferring mechanism of Si atoms across the ?{ 3 } ?{ 3 } R 30 -Ag layer. The upward transferred Si atoms react with Co atoms to form Co silicide. The step height across the edge of the island, a separation of 0.75 nm from the analysis of the 2 2 structure, and the calculations of the normalized Auger signal serve as strong evidences for the formation of CoSi2 at the interface. The interaction transferring mechanism for Si atoms enhances the possibility of interactions between Co and Si atoms. The smoothness of the surface is advantage for that the easy axis of magnetization for Co/ ?{ 3 } ?{ 3 } R 30 -Ag/Si(111) is in the surface plane. This provides a possible way of growing flat magnetic layers on silicon substrate with controllable silicide formation and shows potential applications in spintronics devices.

  2. THE ALPHA-ACTININ-3 (ACTN3) R577X POLYMORPHISM INFLUENCES KNEE EXTENSOR PEAK POWER RESPONSE TO STRENGTH TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism has been associated with muscle power performance in cross-sectional studies. We examined baseline knee extensor concentric peak power (PP) and PP change with 10 weeks of unilateral knee extensor strength training (ST) using pneumatic resistance machines in 71 older men...

  3. Interaction transfer of silicon atoms forming Co silicide for Co/√(3)×√(3)R30°-Ag/Si(111) and related magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Fu, Tsu-Yi; Tsay, Jyh-Shen

    2015-05-07

    Combined scanning tunneling microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and surface magneto-optic Kerr effect studies were employed to study the microscopic structures and magnetic properties for ultrathin Co/√(3)×√(3)R30°-Ag/Si(111). As the annealing temperature increases, the upward diffusion of Si atoms and formation of Co silicides occurs at temperature above 400 K. Below 600 K, the √(3)×√(3)R30°-Ag/Si(111) surface structure persists. We propose an interaction transferring mechanism of Si atoms across the √(3)×√(3)R30°-Ag layer. The upward transferred Si atoms react with Co atoms to form Co silicide. The step height across the edge of the island, a separation of 0.75 nm from the analysis of the 2 × 2 structure, and the calculations of the normalized Auger signal serve as strong evidences for the formation of CoSi{sub 2} at the interface. The interaction transferring mechanism for Si atoms enhances the possibility of interactions between Co and Si atoms. The smoothness of the surface is advantage for that the easy axis of magnetization for Co/√(3)×√(3)R30°-Ag/Si(111) is in the surface plane. This provides a possible way of growing flat magnetic layers on silicon substrate with controllable silicide formation and shows potential applications in spintronics devices.

  4. Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models for pharmaceuticals and chemicals: expert opinions on the state of affairs and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bakker, Wieger E; Beken, Sonja; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Koter, Herman B W M; Krul, Cyrille

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and chemicals are subjected to regulatory safety testing accounting for approximately 25% of laboratory animal use in Europe. This testing meets various objections and has led to the development of a range of 3R models to Replace, Reduce or Refine the animal models. However, these models must overcome many barriers before being accepted for regulatory risk management purposes. This paper describes the barriers and drivers and options to optimize this acceptance process as identified by two expert panels, one on pharmaceuticals and one on chemicals. To untangle the complex acceptance process, the multilevel perspective on technology transitions is applied. This perspective defines influences at the micro-, meso- and macro level which need alignment to induce regulatory acceptance of a 3R model. This paper displays that there are many similar mechanisms within both sectors that prevent 3R models from becoming accepted for regulatory risk assessment and management. Shared barriers include the uncertainty about the value of the new 3R models (micro level), the lack of harmonization of regulatory requirements and acceptance criteria (meso level) and the high levels of risk aversion (macro level). In optimizing the process commitment, communication, cooperation and coordination are identified as critical drivers. PMID:24534000

  5. De novo PIK3R1 gain-of-function with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, long-lasting chronic CMV-lymphadenitis and microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen, Michaela; Hnscheid, Andrea; Loizou, Loizos; Nabhani, Schafiq; Fischer, Ute; Stepensky, Polina; Schaper, Jrg; Klapper, Wolfram; Siepermann, Meinolf; Schuster, Friedhelm; Meisel, Roland; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    PIK3R1 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1) gain-of-function has recently been described in patients with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, chronic CMV-/EBV-infections, lymphoproliferation, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Here we report a 15-year-old boy with treatment refractory CMV lymphadenitis, severe combined immunodeficiency, microcephaly and a severe developmental defect of Th17 cells. To avoid poor outcome, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed. Subsequently, whole exome sequencing revealed a de novo heterozygous G-to-C mutation (chr5: 5:67,589,663: G>C) at the splice donor site of the PIK3R1 gene. Our data suggest that PIK3R1 gain-of-function leads to developmental defects in helper and regulatory T-cell subsets, the latter expanding the immunological features of PIK3R1 gain-of-function. T-cell subsets play a critical role in the regulation of immune response against infectious agents and of autoimmunity and thus may be particularly accountable for the clinical phenotype of affected patients. PMID:26529633

  6. Evolutionary sequenomics: The utility of comparative chromosomal synteny searches in revealing homologous DNA blocks derived from fish-specific 3R- and 4R-genome duplications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most Actinopterygian fishes are believed to have arisen from a whole genome duplication approximately 275-350 MYA (3R duplication). Within the teleosts, several orders possess additional species that have undergone either an additional whole genome autopolyploid duplication (4R duplication), or are...

  7. Astrocytic Gq-GPCR-Linked IP3R-Dependent Ca2+ Signaling Does Not Mediate Neurovascular Coupling in Mouse Visual Cortex In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bonder, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Local blood flow is modulated in response to changing patterns of neuronal activity (Roy and Sherrington, 1890), a process termed neurovascular coupling. It has been proposed that the central cellular pathway driving this process is astrocytic Gq-GPCR-linked IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signaling, though in vivo tests of this hypothesis are largely lacking. We examined the impact of astrocytic Gq-GPCR and IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signaling on cortical blood flow in awake, lightly sedated, responsive mice using multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy and novel genetic tools that enable the selective manipulation of astrocytic signaling pathways in vivo. Selective stimulation of astrocytic Gq-GPCR cascades and downstream Ca2+ signaling with the hM3Dq DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) designer receptor system was insufficient to modulate basal cortical blood flow. We found no evidence of observable astrocyte endfeet Ca2+ elevations following physiological visual stimulation despite robust dilations of adjacent arterioles using cyto-GCaMP3 and Lck-GCaMP6s, the most sensitive Ca2+ indicator available. Astrocytic Ca2+ elevations could be evoked when inducing the startle response with unexpected air puffs. However, startle-induced astrocytic Ca2+ signals did not precede corresponding startle-induced hemodynamic changes. Further, neurovascular coupling was intact in lightly sedated, responsive mice genetically lacking astrocytic IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signaling (IP3R2 KO). These data demonstrate that astrocytic Gq-GPCR-linked IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signaling does not mediate neurovascular coupling in visual cortex of awake, lightly sedated, responsive mice. PMID:25253859

  8. A Multipurpose Apparatus to Measure Viscosity and Surface Tension of Solutions: The Measurement of the Molecular Cross-Sectional Area of N-Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin Zhang; Shouxin Liu; Booxin Li; Na An; Fan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    A multipurpose apparatus that can be used to measure the viscosity of solution by the Ostwald method and the surface tension of solution by the drop-weight method or by the capillary-rise method is developed. The apparatus is convenient for in-situ preparation of solutions of different concentrations and avoids the error that frothing of the…

  9. A Multipurpose Apparatus to Measure Viscosity and Surface Tension of Solutions: The Measurement of the Molecular Cross-Sectional Area of N-Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin Zhang; Shouxin Liu; Booxin Li; Na An; Fan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    A multipurpose apparatus that can be used to measure the viscosity of solution by the Ostwald method and the surface tension of solution by the drop-weight method or by the capillary-rise method is developed. The apparatus is convenient for in-situ preparation of solutions of different concentrations and avoids the error that frothing of the

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 752 - Instructions for Completing Form BIS-748P, Multipurpose Application for Requests for Special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-748P, Multipurpose Application for Requests for Special Comprehensive Licenses No. Supplement No. 1 to... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE Pt. 752, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 752—Instructions for Completing Form BIS-748P... instructions in Supplement No. 1 to part 748 of the EAR. Block 5: Type of Application. Enter an “x” in...

  11. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 752 - Instructions for Completing Form BIS-748P, Multipurpose Application for Requests for Special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-748P, Multipurpose Application for Requests for Special Comprehensive Licenses No. Supplement No. 1 to... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE Pt. 752, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 752—Instructions for Completing Form BIS-748P... instructions in Supplement No. 1 to part 748 of the EAR. Block 5: Type of Application. Enter an “x” in...

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 752 - Instructions for Completing Form BIS-748P, Multipurpose Application for Requests for Special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-748P, Multipurpose Application for Requests for Special Comprehensive Licenses No. Supplement No. 1 to... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE Pt. 752, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 752—Instructions for Completing Form BIS-748P... instructions in Supplement No. 1 to part 748 of the EAR. Block 5: Type of Application. Enter an “x” in...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 752 - Instructions for Completing Form BIS-748P, Multipurpose Application for Requests for Special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-748P, Multipurpose Application for Requests for Special Comprehensive Licenses No. Supplement No. 1 to... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE Pt. 752, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 752—Instructions for Completing Form BIS-748P... instructions in supplement No. 1 to part 748 of the EAR. Block 5: Type of Application. Enter an “x” in...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 752 - Instructions for Completing Form BIS-748P, Multipurpose Application for Requests for Special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-748P, Multipurpose Application for Requests for Special Comprehensive Licenses No. Supplement No. 1 to... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE Pt. 752, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 752—Instructions for Completing Form BIS-748P... instructions in Supplement No. 1 to part 748 of the EAR. Block 5: Type of Application. Enter an “x” in...

  15. THE FEASIBILITY OF A COOPERATIVELY OWNED MULTIPURPOSE, MULTICHANNEL, CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION SYSTEM FOR INSTRUCTION, MATERIALS DISTRIBUTION, AND ADMINISTRATIVE DATA HANDLING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCLUER, V.C.; AND OTHERS

    A FEASIBILITY STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DESIGN AND EVALUATE A MULTIPURPOSE TELEVISION SYSTEM FOR (1) DIRECT INSTRUCTION, (2) TRANSMISSION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS, AND (3) ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS OF A GROUP OF NEIGHBORING PUBLIC SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN A LARGE URBAN-SUBURBAN AREA. THE STUDY INCLUDED A DETAILED INVESTIGATION OF EQUIPMENT. THE SYSTEM…

  16. Increased Cortical Inhibition in Autism-Linked Neuroligin-3R451C Mice Is Due in Part to Loss of Endocannabinoid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Haley E.; Masiulis, Irene; Gibson, Jay R.; Powell, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    A single, maternally inherited, X-linked point mutation leading to an arginine to cysteine substitution at amino acid 451 (R451C) of Neuroligin 3 (NLGN3R451C) is a likely cause of autism in two brothers. Knockin mice expressing the Nlgn3R451C mutation in place of wild-type Nlgn3 demonstrate increased inhibitory synaptic strength in somatosensory cortex, resulting in an excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) imbalance that is potentially relevant for autism-associated behavioral deficits characteristic of these mice. We have replicated the increase in evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs) onto layer II/III cortical pyramidal neurons. We also find that increased frequency of spontaneous mIPSCs in Nlgn3R451C mice occurs in the absence of action potential-driven transmission. This suggests the E/I imbalance is due to changes at the synapse level, as opposed to the network level. Next, we use paired whole-cell recordings in an attempt to identify specific interneuron subtypes affected by the Nlgn3R451C mutation. Curiously, we observe no change in the amplitude of cell-to-cell, unitary IPSCs (uIPSCs) from parvalbumin-positive (PV) or somatostatin-positive (SOM) interneurons onto pyramidal neurons. We also observe no change in the number or density of PV and SOM interneurons in LII/III of somatosensory cortex. This effectively rules out a role for these particular interneurons in the increased inhibitory synaptic transmission, pointing to perhaps alternative interneuron subtypes. Lastly, impaired endocannabinoid signaling has been implicated in hippocampal synaptic dysfunction in Nlgn3R451C mice, but has not been investigated at cortical synapses. We find that bath application of the CB1 antagonist, AM 251 in WT mice eliminates the Nlgn3R451C increase in eIPSC amplitude and mIPSC frequency, indicating that increased inhibitory transmission in mutant mice is due, at least in part, to a loss of endocannabinoid signaling through CB1 receptors likely acting at interneurons other than PV or SOM. PMID:26469287

  17. Design of a Si-CsI detector for cluster measurements in the large-acceptance multipurpose spectrometer at RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Suhyun; Lee, Songkyo; Hong, Byungsik; Lee, Kyong Sei

    2013-03-01

    We have designed a Si-CsI detector for measuring clusters from nuclear collisions in the forward region of the large-acceptance multipurpose spectrometer at RAON. The detector consists of two inclined annular rings, and covers the pseudorapidity from 1.6 to 2.1. Each ring comprises eight modules, and each module has three silicon layers and one CsI crystal bar. A realistic simulation demonstrates that the current design can identify isotopes at least up to Z = 9. The maximum measurable kinetic-energy range is distributed from 100 MeV to 1 GeV depending on the mass and Z. The Si-CsI detector will be useful for the study of the nuclear symmetry energy at RAON.

  18. Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Active Thermal Control and Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in 2014. The development of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the completing the components which are on EFT1. Additional development work has been done to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation for a flight tests in of EM1 in 2017 and in and EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2012 to April 2013.

  19. Development of a multipurpose vacuum chamber for serial optical and diffraction experiments with free electron laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Rajkovic, I; Hallmann, J; Grbel, S; More, R; Quevedo, W; Petri, M; Techert, S

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we present a development of a multipurpose vacuum chamber which primal function is to be used in pump/probe experiments with free electron laser (FEL) radiation. The chamber is constructed for serial diffraction and serial spectroscopy allowing a fast exchange of samples during the measurement process. For the fast exchange of samples, liquid jet systems are used. Both applications, utilizing soft x-ray FEL pulses as pump and optical laser pulses as probe and vice versa are documented. Experiments with solid samples as well as the liquid jet samples are presented. When working with liquid jets, a system of automatically refilled liquid traps for capturing liquids has been developed in order to ensure stable vacuum conditions. Differential pumping stages are placed in between the FEL beamline and the experimental chamber so that working pressure in the chamber can be up to four orders of magnitude higher than the pressure in the FEL beamline. PMID:20441366

  20. Environmental assessment for the reuse of TNX as a multi-purpose pilot plant campus at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental and safety impacts of DOE planning to allow asset reuse of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include providing for a location for the Centers of Excellence at or adjacent to SRS and entering into a cooperative agreement with a non-profit management and operations (management firm) contractor to operate and market the TNX facilities and equipment. The area (formerly TNX) would be called a Multi-Purpose Pilot Plant Campus (MPPC) and would be used: (1) as location for technology research, development, demonstration, and commercial operations; (2) to establish partnerships with industry to develop applied technologies for commercialization; and (3) serve as administrative headquarters for Centers of Excellence in the program areas of soil remediation, radioecology, groundwater contamination, and municipal solid waste minimization.

  1. A comprehensive study of the (2?3????2?3)R30 structure of silicene on Ag(1?1?1).

    PubMed

    Jamgotchian, H; Ealet, B; Colignon, Y; Maradj, H; Hoarau, J-Y; Biberian, J-P; Aufray, B

    2015-10-01

    The deposition of one silicon monolayer on Ag(1?1?1) gives rise to a set of superstructures depending on growth conditions. These superstructures are correlated to the epitaxy between the honeycomb structure of silicon (so called silicene) and the silver substrate. In this paper, from a detailed re-analysis of experimental results, obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy and by low energy electron diffraction on the (2?3????2?3)R30 structure, we propose a new atomic model of the silicene layer based on periodic arrangements of perfect areas of (2?3????2?3)R30 surrounded by defect areas. A generalization of this model explains the main experimental observations: deviation of the average direction, Moir patterns and apparent global disorder. In the frame of the proposed model, the apparent disorders observed on the STM images, would be topological effects, i.e. the silicene would keep a quasi-perfect honeycomb structure. PMID:26381052

  2. Upregulation of MicroRNA-126 Contributes to Endothelial Progenitor Cell Function in Deep Vein Thrombosis via Its Target PIK3R2.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyou; Wang, Wenbin; Yu, Xiaobin; Li, Wendong; Kong, Lingshang; Qian, Aimin; Li, Chenglong; Li, Xiaoqiang

    2015-08-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common complication of surgery. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are recruited into resolving venous thrombi. In this report, we investigated the effects of miR-126 on EPCs function and venous thrombus resolution. We demonstrated that overexpression of miR-126 enhanced EPCs' migration and tubulogenic activity in vitro, and promoted EPCs' homing and thrombus resolving in vivo. Moreover, we identified that miR-126 directly targeted PIK3R2 and affected PI3K/Akt signaling axis. Overall, our findings demonstrated that miR-126 promoted EPCs function through suppressing PIK3R2 expression and modulation of miR-126 may represent a potential therapeutic intervention for treating DVT. PMID:25652288

  3. A comprehensive study of the (2?3????2?3)R30 structure of silicene on Ag(1?1?1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamgotchian, H.; Ealet, B.; Colignon, Y.; Maradj, H.; Hoarau, J.-Y.; Biberian, J.-P.; Aufray, B.

    2015-10-01

    The deposition of one silicon monolayer on Ag(1?1?1) gives rise to a set of superstructures depending on growth conditions. These superstructures are correlated to the epitaxy between the honeycomb structure of silicon (so called silicene) and the silver substrate. In this paper, from a detailed re-analysis of experimental results, obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy and by low energy electron diffraction on the (2?3????2?3)R30 structure, we propose a new atomic model of the silicene layer based on periodic arrangements of perfect areas of (2?3????2?3)R30 surrounded by defect areas. A generalization of this model explains the main experimental observations: deviation of the average direction, Moir patterns and apparent global disorder. In the frame of the proposed model, the apparent disorders observed on the STM images, would be topological effects, i.e. the silicene would keep a quasi-perfect honeycomb structure.

  4. ESCRT Machinery Potentiates HIV-1 Utilization of the PI(4,5)P2-PLC-IP3R-Ca2+ Signaling Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Lorna S.; Medina, Gisselle N.; Carter, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 release efficiency is directed by late (L) domain motifs in the viral structural precursor polyprotein, Gag, which serve as links to the ESCRT (endocytic sorting complex required for transport) machinery. Linkage is normally through binding of Tsg101, an ESCRT-1 component, to the P7TAP motif in the p6 region of Gag. In its absence, budding is directed by binding of Alix, an ESCRT adaptor protein, to the LY36PXnL motif in Gag. We recently showed that budding requires activation of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R), a protein that “gates” Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, triggers Ca2+ cell influx and thereby functions as a major regulator of Ca2+ signaling. In the present study, we determined whether the L domain links Gag to Ca2+ signaling machinery. Depletion of IP3R and inactivation of phospholipase C (PLC) inhibited budding whether or not Tsg101 was bound to Gag. PLC hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 generates IP3, the ligand that activates IP3R. However, with Tsg101 bound, Gag release was independent of Gq-mediated activation of PLC and budding was readily enhanced by pharmacological stimulation of PLC. Moreover, IP3R was redistributed to the cell periphery and cytosolic Ca2+ was elevated, events indicative of induction of Ca2+ signaling. The results suggest that L domain function, ESCRT machinery, and Ca2+signaling are linked events in Gag release. PMID:21875593

  5. Asymmetric synthesis of (2S,3R)-(-)-epi-CP-99,994 using sulfinimine-derived anti-2,3-diamino esters

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Franklin A.; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2009-01-01

    A differentially protected C-3 N-sulfinyl, C-2 N,N-(diphenylmethylene) 2,3-diamino ester was employed in the synthesis of the amino piperidine (2S,3R)-(-)-epi-CP-99,994. Key steps in the synthesis included the chemoselective hydrolysis of the C-2 N,N-(diphenylmethylene) group and its reprotection as a dibenzylamino group PMID:20161386

  6. Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}: Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and thermal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Fomina, Irina; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna; Aleksandrov, Grygory; Emelina, Anna; Bykov, Mikhail; Bogomyakov, Artem; Puntus, Lada; Novotortsev, Vladimir; Eremenko, Igor

    2012-01-15

    The new 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} (1), where Piv=OOCBu{sup t-}, was synthesized in high yield (>95%) by the reaction of thulium acetate with pivalic acid in air at 100 Degree-Sign S. According to the X-ray diffraction data, the metal atoms in compound 1 are in an octahedral ligand environment unusual for lanthanides. The magnetic and luminescence properties of polymer 1, it's the solid-phase thermal decomposition in air and under argon, and the thermal behavior in the temperature range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S were investigated. The vaporization process of complex 1 was studied by the Knudsen effusion method combined with mass-spectrometric analysis of the gas-phase composition in the temperature range of 570-680 K. - Graphical Abstract: Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic, luminescence properties, the thermal behavior and the volatility for the compound {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} were investigated. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized the coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tm atoms in polymer have the coordination number 6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer exhibits blue-color emission at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer shows high thermal stability and volatility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer has no phase transitions in the range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S.

  7. Basal adenosine modulates the functional properties of AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons through the activation of A1R A2AR and A3R

    PubMed Central

    Di Angelantonio, Silvia; Bertollini, Cristina; Piccinin, Sonia; Rosito, Maria; Trettel, Flavia; Pagani, Francesca; Limatola, Cristina; Ragozzino, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a widespread neuromodulator within the CNS and its extracellular level is increased during hypoxia or intense synaptic activity, modulating pre- and postsynaptic sites. We studied the neuromodulatory action of adenosine on glutamatergic currents in the hippocampus, showing that activation of multiple adenosine receptors (ARs) by basal adenosine impacts postsynaptic site. Specifically, the stimulation of both A1R and A3R reduces AMPA currents, while A2AR has an opposite potentiating effect. The effect of ARs stimulation on glutamatergic currents in hippocampal cultures was investigated using pharmacological and genetic approaches. A3R inhibition by MRS1523 increased GluR1-Ser845 phosphorylation and potentiated AMPA current amplitude, increasing the apparent affinity for the agonist. A similar effect was observed blocking A1R with DPCPX or by genetic deletion of either A3R or A1R. Conversely, impairment of A2AR reduced AMPA currents, and decreased agonist sensitivity. Consistently, in hippocampal slices, ARs activation by AR agonist NECA modulated glutamatergic current amplitude evoked by AMPA application or afferent fiber stimulation. Opposite effects of AR subtypes stimulation are likely associated to changes in GluR1 phosphorylation and represent a novel mechanism of physiological modulation of glutamatergic transmission by adenosine, likely acting in normal conditions in the brain, depending on the level of extracellular adenosine and the distribution of AR subtypes. PMID:26528137

  8. A novel model for the (?3 ?3)R30 alkanethiolate-Au(111) phase based on alkanethiolate-Au adatom complexes.

    PubMed

    Carro, P; Torrelles, X; Salvarezza, R C

    2014-09-21

    Self-assembled monolayers of thiols on Au(111) have attracted considerable interest from the theoretical and experimental points of view as model systems for understanding the organization of molecules on metallic surfaces, and also as key elements in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Today, there is strong theoretical and experimental evidence indicating that the surface chemistry of these monolayers at high coverage involves dithiolate-adatom (RS-Auad-SR) species, showing the existence of the (3 4) and c(4 2) lattices usually observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. However, concealing the existence of dithiolate-Au adatom species with the presence of the paradigmatic (?3 ?3)R30 lattice, which dominates the structure of long alkanethiols, still remains a challenge. Here, we propose a novel (3?3 3?3)R30 structural model containing RS-Auad-SR moieties based on DFT calculations which reconciles most of the experimental data observed for the (?3 ?3)R30 lattice. Our results provide a unified picture of the surface chemistry of the thiol-Au(111) system. PMID:25093279

  9. Thermal evolution of Fe on Ge(1 1 1)-c(2 8) surface and the effect of (?{ 3} ?{ 3})R30 Ag-Ge buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Chang; Jhou, Ming-Kuan; Lin, Wen-Chin; Fu, Tsu-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy, two systems of Fe deposition on clean Ge(1 1 1)-c(2 8) surface and surfaces with a (?{ 3} ?{ 3})R30 Ag-Ge buffer layer were compared. Complex surface alloy structures were easily formed on Fe/Ge systems through annealing at 300-650 K. On clean Ge(1 1 1) surfaces, similar surface morphology evolution was observed when two different amounts of Fe were deposited. To reduce the complexity, (?{ 3} ?{ 3})R30 Ag-Ge interfaces were used as buffer layers. The growth morphologies differed in the presence and absence of the buffer layers. During annealing at 570 K, (2 2) reconstruction platform islands were formed in the Fe-Ge system, which transformed to three-dimensional (3D) islands at 640 K. With Ag buffer layer, only nanoparticle growth occurred and 3D islands were formed early at 570 K. Generally, ?{ 19} ring clusters increased to break the order c(2 8) reconstruction by increasing the temperature and disappeared at 640 K in a Fe-Ge system, but only ?{ 7} ring clusters appeared at 390 K with (?{ 3} ?{ 3})R30 Ag-Ge buffer layer.

  10. Insights into mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis from the structure of heterotetrameric 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase/3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Rajaram; Sah-Teli, Shiv K; Awoniyi, Luqman O; Jiang, Guangyu; Prus, Piotr; Kastaniotis, Alexander J; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Wierenga, Rik K; Chen, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) is essential for respiratory growth in yeast and mammalian embryonic survival. The human 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (KAR) of mtFAS is a heterotetrameric ?2?2-assembly composed of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-8 (HSD17B8, ?-subunit) and carbonyl reductase type-4 (CBR4, ?-subunit). Here we provide a structural explanation for the stability of the heterotetramer from the crystal structure with NAD(+) and NADP(+) bound to the HSD17B8 and CBR4 subunits, respectively, and show that the catalytic activity of the NADPH- and ACP-dependent CBR4 subunit is crucial for a functional HsKAR. Therefore, mtFAS is NADPH- and ACP dependent, employing the 3R-hydroxyacyl-ACP intermediate. HSD17B8 assists in the formation of the competent HsKAR assembly. The intrinsic NAD(+)- and CoA-dependent activity of the HSD17B8 subunit on the 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA intermediates may indicate a role for this subunit in routing 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA esters, potentially arising from the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids, into the mitochondrial ?-oxidation pathway. PMID:25203508

  11. The PI3K regulatory subunit gene PIK3R1 is under direct control of androgens and repressed in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Munkley, Jennifer; Livermore, Karen E.; McClurg, Urszula L.; Kalna, Gabriela; Knight, Bridget; McCullagh, Paul; McGrath, John; Crundwell, Malcolm; Leung, Hing Y.; Robson, Craig N.; Harries, Lorna W.; Rajan, Prabhakar; Elliott, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signalling and the PI3K pathway mediate survival signals in prostate cancer, and have been shown to regulate each other by reciprocal negative feedback, such that inhibition of one activates the other. Understanding the reciprocal regulation of these pathways is important for disease management as tumour cells can adapt and survive when either single pathway is inhibited pharmacologically. We recently carried out genome-wide exon-specific profiling of prostate cancer cells to identify novel androgen-regulated transcriptional events. Here we interrogated this dataset for novel androgen-regulated genes associated with the PI3K pathway. We find that the PI3K regulatory subunits PIK3R1 (p85α) and PIK3R3 (p55γ) are direct targets of the AR which are rapidly repressed by androgens in LNCaP cells. Further characterisation revealed that the PIK3CA p110α catalytic subunit is also indirectly regulated by androgens at the protein level. We show that PIK3R1 mRNA is significantly under-expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) tissue, and provide data to suggest a context-dependent regulatory mechanism whereby repression of the p85α protein by the AR results in destabilisation of the PI3K p110α catalytic subunit and downstream PI3K pathway inhibition that functionally affects the properties of prostate cancer cells. PMID:26501081

  12. Allelic Variants of Melanocortin 3 Receptor Gene (MC3R) and Weight Loss in Obesity: A Randomised Trial of Hypo-Energetic High- versus Low-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Santos, José L.; De la Cruz, Rolando; Holst, Claus; Grau, Katrine; Naranjo, Carolina; Maiz, Alberto; Astrup, Arne; Saris, Wim H. M.; MacDonald, Ian; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R) have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets. Subjects and Methods This research is based on the NUGENOB study, a trial conducted to assess weight loss during a 10-week dietary intervention involving two different hypo-energetic (high-fat and low-fat) diets. A total of 760 obese patients were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the single exon of MC3R gene and its flanking regions, including the missense variants Thr6Lys and Val81Ile. Linear mixed models and haplotype-based analysis were carried out to assess the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and differential weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. Results No differences in drop-out rate were found by MC3R genotypes. The rs6014646 polymorphism was significantly associated with weight loss using co-dominant (p = 0.04) and dominant models (p = 0.03). These p-values were not statistically significant after strict control for multiple testing. Haplotype-based multivariate analysis using permutations showed that rs3827103–rs1543873 (p = 0.06), rs6014646–rs6024730 (p = 0.05) and rs3746619–rs3827103 (p = 0.10) displayed near-statistical significant results in relation to weight loss. No other significant associations or gene*diet interactions were detected for weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. Conclusion The study provided overall sufficient evidence to support that there is no major effect of genetic variants of MC3R and differential weight loss after a 10-week dietary intervention with hypo-energetic diets in obese Europeans. PMID:21695122

  13. Synthesis and in vitro opioid receptor functional antagonism of methyl-substituted analogues of (3R)-7-hydroxy-N-[(1S)-1-{[(3R,4R)-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl]methyl}-2-methylpropyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide (JDTic).

    PubMed

    Cueva, Juan Pablo; Cai, Tingwei Bill; Mascarella, S Wayne; Thomas, James B; Navarro, Hernn A; Carroll, F Ivy

    2009-12-10

    In previous structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, (3R)-7-hydroxy-N-[(1S)-1-{[(3R,4R)-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl]methyl}-2-methylpropyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide (JDTic, 3) was identified as the first potent and selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist from the trans-3,4-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidine class of opioid antagonists. In the present study, we report the synthesis of analogues 8a-p of 3 and present their in vitro opioid receptor functional antagonism using a [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assay. Compounds 8a-p are analogues of 3 containing one, two, or three methyl groups connected to the JDTic structure at five different positions. All the analogues with one and two added methyl groups with the exception of 8k had subnanomolar K(e) values at the kappa receptor. The three most potent analogues were the monomethylated (3R)-7-hydroxy-N-[(1S,2S)-1-{[(3R,4R)-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethylpiperidine-1-yl]methyl}-2-methylbutyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide (8a) and (3R)-7-hydroxy-N-[(1S)-1-{[(3R,4R)-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl]methyl}-(2-methylpropyl)]-3-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide (8e) with K(e) values of 0.03 nM at the kappa receptor and (3R)-7-hydroxy-N-[(1S)-1-{[(3R,4R)-4-(3-methoxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl]methyl}-2-methylpropyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide (8d) with K(e) = 0.037 nM at the kappa receptor. All three compounds were selective for the kappa receptor relative to the micro and delta receptors. Overall, the results from this study highlight those areas that are tolerant to substitution on 3. PMID:19954245

  14. Atomic distribution, local structure and cation size effect in o-R1-xCaxMnO3 (R?=?Dy, Y, and Ho).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ning; Zhang, X; Yu, Yi

    2013-11-27

    We propose new interatomic potentials for the small rare-earth-based orthorhombic RMnO3 (R?=?Dy, Y, Ho), which accurately model the structural properties of these extreme cases of lanthanide manganate series. They are further employed to investigate the intrinsic defects in o-RMnO3 and the cation distribution and local structure in o-R1-xCaxMnO3 (R?=?Dy, Y, Ho). Schottky disorders are found to be the dominant structural defects, and the possibility of a small degree of anti-site disorder of R and Mn ions over A and B sites is found. The introduced Ca dopants tend to form chemically and structurally like CaMnO3 clusters in the lightly doped system, which can be regarded as representations of microscopic phase separation. The local structural disorder is reduced with increasing doping density. For o-R0.5Ca0.5MnO3 (R?=?Dy, Y, Ho), the charge ordering state is intrinsically favored, and the layer stripe model is shown to be energetically more favorable and structurally more reasonable. Moreover, the tendency to form charge ordered stripes increases with the decrease of R size. The local structure in the layer stripe pattern deviates largely from the average structure: RMnO3-like and CaMnO3-like layers are formed. The size of R ion has a significant influence on the doping effect on Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion and a manganate with a larger R will experience a larger reduction on the anisotropy of Mn-O bonds in Mn(3+)O6 octahedra. However, the change of octahedral tilting upon doping does not vary much with R radii. PMID:24172853

  15. Marine geodesy a multipurpose approach to solve oceanic problems. [including submersible navigation under iced seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep ocean, tsunamis, and ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, N.

    1974-01-01

    Various current and future problem areas of marine geodesy are identified. These oceanic problem areas are highly diversified and include submersible navigation under ice seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep ocean, tsunamis, ecology, etc., etc. Their achieved as well as desired positional accuracy estimates, based upon publications and discussions, are also given. A multipurpose approach to solve these problems is described. An optimum configuration of an ocean-bottom control-net unit is provided.

  16. Controlling stereoselectivity by enzymatic and chemical means to access enantiomerically pure (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives☆

    PubMed Central

    Orden, Alejandro A.; Schrittwieser, Joerg H.; Resch, Verena; Mutti, Francesco G.; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    A chemoenzymatic strategy for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure novel alkaloids (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines is presented. The key steps are the biocatalytic stereoselective reductive amination of substituted 1-phenylpropan-2-one derivatives to yield chiral amines employing microbial ω-transaminases, and the diastereoselective reduction of a Bischler–Napieralski imine intermediate by catalytic hydrogenation in the presence of palladium on charcoal, leading exclusively to the desired cis-isomer. PMID:24503964

  17. Rapid synthesis of ?-Fe2O3/rGO nanocomposites by microwave autoclave as superior anodes for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jia; Wang, Yun-Xiao; Chou, Shu-Lei; Li, Hui-Jun; Liu, Hua-Kun; Wang, Jia-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    ?-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized within 15 min through a facile, environmentally friendly microwave hydrothermal method. From field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, it can be determined that the ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, around 50 nm in diameter, are uniformly anchored on the graphene nanosheets. The as-obtained ?-Fe2O3/rGO nanocomposites were applied as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries, which could deliver capacity of ?310 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles at 100 mA g-1.

  18. Effects of BmKIT 3 R gene transfer on pupal development of Bombyx mori Linnaeus using a Gal4/UAS binary transgenic system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Kun; Cao, Guang-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Xue, Ren-Yu; Gong, Cheng-Liang

    2012-03-28

    The pupal stage of the silkworm Bombyx mori Linnaeus lasts for approximately two weeks. However, prolongation of pupal duration would reduce the labor required to process and dry fresh cocoons. This study investigated the effects of BmKIT(3)(R) gene (from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch) transfer on the pupal development of B. mori using a Gal4/UAS binary transgenic system. Gal4 driven by a pupa-specific promoter BmWCP4 (from a B. mori wing-cuticle protein gene) or PDP (from a B. mori cocoonase gene), and BmKIT(3)(R) driven by a UAS cis-acting element were used to construct novel piggyBac-derived plasmids containing a neomycin-resistance gene (neo) controlled by the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) ie-1 (immediate-early gene) promoter and a green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) under the control of the B. mori actin 3 (A3) promoter. The vector was transferred into silkworm eggs by sperm-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic silkworms were produced after screening for neo and gfp genes, and gene transfer was verified by polymerase chain reaction and dot-blot hybridization. The larval development of the hybrid progeny of Gal4- and UAS-transgenic silkworms was similar to that of normal silkworms, but some pupae failed to metamorphose into moths, and the development of surviving pupae was arrested as a result of BmKIT(3)(R) expression. Moreover, Gal4 driven by the BmWCP4 promoter delayed pupal development more effectively than that driven by the PDP promoter in the Gal4/UAS binary transgenic system. Pupal durations of hybrid transgenic silkworm progeny with BmWCP4 and PDP promoters were approximately 5, 2, and 4 days longer, respectively, compared to corresponding normal silkworms, BmWCP4/Gal4, and UAS/BmKIT(3)(R) transgenic silkworms, respectively. These results suggest new avenues of research for prolonging the pupal duration of silkworms. PMID:22429285

  19. Viability of Acanthamoeba after exposure to a multipurpose disinfecting contact lens solution and two hydrogen peroxide systems

    PubMed Central

    Hiti, K; Walochnik, J; Haller-Schober, E M; Faschinger, C; Aspck, H

    2002-01-01

    Background/aim: Contact lens cases contaminated with Acanthamoeba are a major risk factor for an infection of the eye. In this study the anti-Acanthamoeba activity of three different contact lens storage solutions was tested. Methods: A new multipurpose contact lens storage solution (Meni Care Plus) and a two step (Titmus H2O2) and one step (Oxysept Comfort) hydrogen peroxide system were tested for their effects on trophozoites and cysts of three different Acanthamoeba species: A castellanii, A hatchetti, and A lenticulata. Results: After a soaking time of 8 hours (overnight soaking of contact lenses) the Titmus H2O2 0.6% solution showed very good amoebicidal effects, while Oxysept Comfort 3% H2O2 could not effectively destroy the cysts of any of the three tested species. Viable cysts of the species A lenticulata and A hatchetti were still present after exposure to Meni Care Plus (0.0005% PHMB) for 8 hours. Conclusion: Not all of the three tested contact lens storage solutions have sufficient amoebicidal effects. The two step peroxide system Titmus H2O2 is a very effective disinfectant contact lens solution in order to avoid a possible Acanthamoeba infection of the eye. PMID:11815336

  20. Genetic algorithms optimization of hedging rules for operation of the multi-purpose Ubonratana Reservoir in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiamsathit, C.; Adeloye, A. J.; Soudharajan, B.

    2014-09-01

    This study has developed optimal hedging policies for the multi-purpose Ubonratana Reservoir in northeastern Thailand based on its existing rule curves. The hedging policy was applied whenever the reservoir storage falls below a critical level for each month of the year. The decision variables, i.e. the set of monthly storages defining the critical rule curve that triggers rationing and the rationing ratio, were optimized by genetic algorithm (GA). Both single stage (i.e. with one critical rule curve and one rationing ratio) and two-stage (with two critical rule curves and ratios) of the hedging policy were considered in the optimization. To test the effect of the optimized hedging policies on reservoir performance, simulations were carried out, forced alternatively with the existing rule curves (i.e. without hedging) and the two optimized hedging policies. Performance was summarized in terms of reliability (time- and volume-based) and vulnerability. The results showed that the vulnerability was significantly reduced by using the optimized hedging rules. However, the number of water shortages increased with the optimized rules, causing the time-based reliability to worsen significantly. This should not be of concern since, although the number of shortages increased, the associated shortage quantities on most of these additional occasions were small, leaving the volumetric reliability largely unchanged.

  1. Iodine Tagging Velocimetry and Mechanism in the Hypersonic Near Wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balla, R. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a new molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) method for velocity measurements of high speed flow. It demonstrates offbody Iodine Tagging Velocimetry (ITV) in the hypersonic near wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) model. Experiments are performed in the NASA-Langley 31-inch Mach 10 air wind tunnel. A 0.5% I2 / N2 mixture is seeded on the leeward backshell of the model using a pressure tap. I2 laser-induced fluorescence is excited along a 5.5 mm line using an ArF excimer laser near 193 nm. Results indicate I2 absorbs at least 2 photons to produce iodine ions and electrons. These recombine as the tagged region is displaced downstream to produce I (2P3/2) whose emission is monitored at 206 nm. Results at P0 = 2.41 MPa (350 psi), T0 = 990K, and 10 micro-sec transit times produce velocities from 630-820 m/sec across the I2 seeded jet at a distance of 38.2 mm (25.5 jet diameters) downstream from the jet orifice. Maximum wake jet velocities near the shear layer are 59% of freestream velocity.

  2. An enzyme-free strategy for ultrasensitive detection of adenosine using a multipurpose aptamer probe and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Tang, Xian; Zhou, Bin; Xue, Jin-Hua; Liu, Hui; Liu, Shan-Du; Cao, Jin-Xiu; Li, Ming-Hui; Chen, Si-Han

    2015-08-01

    We report on an enzyme-free and label-free strategy for the ultrasensitive determination of adenosine. A novel multipurpose adenosine aptamer (MAAP) is designed, which serves as an effective target recognition probe and a capture probe for malachite green. In the presence of adenosine, the conformation of the MAAP is converted from a hairpin structure to a G-quadruplex. Upon addition of malachite green into this solution, a noticeable enhancement of resonance light scattering was observed. The signal response is directly proportional to the concentration of adenosine ranging from 75 pM to 2.2 nM with a detection limit of 23 pM, which was 100-10,000 folds lower than those obtained by previous reported methods. Moreover, this strategy has been applied successfully for detecting adenosine in human urine and blood samples, further proving its reliability. The mechanism of adenosine inducing MAAP to form a G-quadruplex was demonstrated by a series of control experiments. Such a MAAP probe can also be used to other strategies such as fluorescence or spectrophotometric ones. We suppose that this strategy can be expanded to develop a universal analytical platform for various target molecules in the biomedical field and clinical diagnosis. PMID:26320800

  3. Novel multipurpose methodology for detection of mycobacteria in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens by smear microscopy, culture, and PCR.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2005-06-01

    A novel, robust, reproducible, and multipurpose universal sample processing (USP) methodology for highly sensitive smear microscopy, culturing on solid and liquid media, and inhibition-free PCR which is suitable for the laboratory diagnosis of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has been developed. This method exploits the chaotropic properties of guanidinium hydrochloride for sample processing and involves incubating the specimen with USP solution, concentrating bacilli by centrifugation, and using the processed specimen for smear microscopy, culture, and PCR. The detection limit for acid-fast bacilli in spiked sputum by smear microscopy is approximately 300 bacilli per ml of specimen. USP solution-treated specimens are fully compatible with culturing on solid and liquid media. High-quality, PCR-amplifiable mycobacterial DNA can be isolated from all types of clinical specimens processed with USP solution. The method has been extensively validated with both pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens. Furthermore, the USP method is also compatible with smear microscopy, culture, and PCR of mycobacteria other than tubercle bacilli. In summary, the USP method provides smear microscopy, culture, and nucleic acid amplification technologies with a single sample-processing platform and, to the best of our knowledge, is the only method of its kind described to date. It is expected to be useful for the laboratory diagnosis of TB and other mycobacterial diseases by conventional and modern methods. PMID:15956385

  4. Tractable synthesis of multipurpose screening compounds with under-represented molecular features for an open access screening platform.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Felix; Specker, Edgar; Neuenschwander, Martin; Nazaré, Marc; Bodtke, Anja; Link, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The layout of multipurpose screening libraries must address criteria for the compounds such as novelty, diversity potential, innovative design, and last but not least synthetic tractability. While academic compound collections are often innovative, novel, and highly divers, synthesis of analogs or larger substance quantities is often hampered by complex multistep syntheses with low overall yields. In addition, covalently binding compounds and interaction motifs designed to bind metal ions were discriminated against by the paradigm that these interaction types must almost inevitably lead to toxic effects. We would like to challenge this hypothesis. The lack of such interactions could be a reason for frequent failure in the disclosure of hits for hitherto undruggable target proteins using commercially available screening collections. Thus, easily synthesizable screening candidates equipped to bind covalently to nucleophiles or to metalloenzymes by chelation are under-represented in public access screening libraries. Within this work, we present the synthesis and deposition of 88 compounds with five distinct functional classes, each of which features under-represented screening motifs, for example, metal ion complexation, reversible covalent binding, or halogen bonding. The collection includes acetohydrazides, acylhydrazones, propylene glycol ethers, 2-cyanoacetamides, and 2-cyanoacrylamides. The rational for the synthesis of most of the compounds was recently published by our group and is now supplemented by additional compounds reported here for the first time. The public access disposition enables academic research groups to collectively expand the druggable space and interdisciplinary collaborate within the scientific field. PMID:24687389

  5. Environmental factors influencing survival of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a multipurpose constructed treatment wetland in southern California.

    PubMed

    Walton, William E; Wirth, Margaret C; Workman, Parker D

    2007-06-01

    Survival of the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, differed among marshes in a demonstration 9.9-ha multipurpose constructed treatment wetland designed to improve the quality of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in southern California. At a mean loading rate of 3.3 kg NH4-N ha(-1) d(-1) (6 kg total N ha(-1) d(-1)), the suitability of the wetland to support a population of sticklebacks was estimated to be low. The development of potentially toxic levels of un-ionized ammonia, particularly during periods when pH increased concomitantly with oxygen generation by phytoplankton biomass > 300 mg chlorophyll a liter(-1), and disinfection by-products were associated with lowered survivorship of sentinel fish. Moreover, the high oxygen demand from nitrification of NH4-N created daily periods of low dissolved oxygen concentration (6-16 h at < 2 mg liter(-1)) in the open water areas of the shallow marshes. Low dissolved oxygen concentration in open water zones of the seven marshes during a part of each day and persistent anaerobic conditions in the emergent vegetation rendered the majority of the wetland's substrate surface unavailable for successful reproduction by sticklebacks. The potential sites for Gasterosteus to replace mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki, as a biological control agent against mosquitoes are probably limited to comparatively cool-water habitats with high water quality, such as riverine wetlands. PMID:17633430

  6. Association of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I/D and ?-actinin-3 R577X Genotypes with Growth Factors and Physical Fitness in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Cheun, Wookwang; Byun, Jayoung; Joo, Youngsik

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the differences in aerobic and anaerobic exercise ability and growth-related indicators, depending on the polymorphism of the ACE and the ACTN3 genes, to understand the genetic influence of exercise ability in the growth process of children. The subjects of the study consisted of elementary school students (n=856, age 10.320.07 yr). The anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors were compared among groups of the ACE I/D or the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms. There were no significant differences between the anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors for the ACE gene ID or the ACTN3 gene R577X polymorphism. However, the DD type of ACE gene was highest in the side step test (p<0.05), and the DD type was significantly higher than the II+ID type (p<0.05) in the early bone age. The combined group of the ACE gene II+ID and the ACTN3 gene XX type significantly showed lower early bone age (p< 0.05). This study did not find any individual or compounding effects of the polymorphism in the ACE I/D or the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on the anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors of Korean children. However, the exercise experience and the DD type of the ACE gene may affect the early maturity of the bones. PMID:25729275

  7. (1S,3R,4S,5R)5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid: isolation, stereo-structure characterization and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Forino, Martino; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Tartaglione, Luciana; Carmela, Dell'Aversano; Novellino, Ettore; Ciminiello, Patrizia

    2015-07-01

    Sorbus domestica fruits (sorbs) are commonly harvested and consumed for their nutritious qualities and have long been used as natural remedy against diabetes in the popular medicine. Recently, sorbs have been described as sources of antioxidant compounds including polyphenols. Chemical analyses carried out on sorbs collected in Southern Italy have led to the isolation of a chlorogenic acid isomer as the main antioxidant compound contained in the fruit butanol extract. NMR studies have identified the isolated compound as (1S,3R,4S,5R)5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid. In comparison to chlorogenic acid, the isolated isomer features an inverted configuration at C4. Such configurational inversion causes the chlorogenic acid stereoisomer acid to assume a preferential conformation remarkably different from that of chlorogenic acid. This seems to account for the enhanced potency of (1S,3R,4S,5R)5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid to reduce both the glucose and cholesterol uptakes by the cell line HepG2 when compared to chlorogenic acid. PMID:25704716

  8. Reduced inhibitory gate in the barrel cortex of Neuroligin3R451C knock?in mice, an animal model of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that interacting with presynaptic neurexins ensure the cross?talk between pre? and postsynaptic specializations. Rare mutations in neurexinneuroligin genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One of these, the R451C mutation of the gene encoding for Neuroligin3 (Nlgn3), has been found in patients with familial forms of ASDs. Animals carrying this mutation (NL3R451C knock?in mice) exhibit impaired social behaviors, reminiscent of those observed in ASD patients, associated with major alterations in both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission, which vary among different brain regions and at different developmental stages. Here, pair recordings from parvalbumin? (PV) expressing basket cells and spiny neurons were used to study GABAergic synaptic signaling in layer IV barrel cortex of NL3R451C mutant mice. We found that the R451C mutation severely affects the probability of GABA release from PV?expressing basket cells, responsible for controlling via thalamo?cortical inputs the feed?forward inhibition. No changes in excitatory inputs to parvalbumin?positive basket cells or spiny neurons were detected. These data clearly show that primary targets of the NL3 mutation are PV?expressing basket cells, independently of the brain region where they are localized. Changes in the inhibitory gate of layer IV somatosensory cortex may alter sensory processing in ASD patients leading to misleading sensory representations with difficulties to combine pieces of information into a unified perceptual whole. PMID:25347860

  9. Association of MC3R gene polymorphisms with body weight in the red fox and comparative gene organization in four canids.

    PubMed

    Skorczyk, A; Flisikowski, K; Szydlowski, M; Cieslak, J; Fries, R; Switonski, M

    2011-02-01

    There are five genes encoding melanocortin receptors. Among canids, the genes have mainly been studied in the dog (MC1R, MC2R and MC4R). The MC4R gene has also been analysed in the red fox. In this report, we present a study of chromosome localization, comparative sequence analysis and polymorphism of the MC3R gene in the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog. The gene was localized by FISH to the following chromosome: 24q24-25 in the dog, 14p16 in the red fox, 18q13 in the arctic fox and NPP4p15 in the Chinese raccoon dog. A high identity level of the MC3R gene sequences was observed among the species, ranging from 96.0% (red fox--Chinese raccoon dog) to 99.5% (red fox--arctic fox). Altogether, eight polymorphic sites were found in the red fox, six in the Chinese raccoon dog and two in the dog, while the arctic fox appeared to be monomorphic. In addition, association of several polymorphisms with body weight was analysed in red foxes (the number of genotyped animals ranged from 319 to 379). Two polymorphisms in the red fox, i.e. a silent substitution c.957A>C and c.*185C>T in the 3'-flanking sequence, showed a significant association (P < 0.01) with body weight. PMID:20477806

  10. Heterozygous splice mutation in PIK3R1 causes human immunodeficiency with lymphoproliferation due to dominant activation of PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Carrie L.; Zhang, Yu; Venida, Anthony; Wang, Ying; Hughes, Jason; McElwee, Joshua; Butrick, Morgan; Matthews, Helen; Price, Susan; Biancalana, Matthew; Wang, Xiaochuan; Richards, Michael; Pozos, Tamara; Barlan, Isil; Ozen, Ahmet; Rao, V. Koneti; Su, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), which generate PIP3 as a signal for cell growth and proliferation, exist as an intracellular complex of a catalytic subunit bound to a regulatory subunit. We and others have previously reported that heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD encoding the p110? catalytic PI3K subunit cause a unique disorder termed p110?-activating mutations causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency (PASLI) disease. We report four patients from three families with a similar disease who harbor a recently reported heterozygous splice site mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the p85?, p55?, and p50? regulatory PI3K subunits. These patients suffer from recurrent sinopulmonary infections and lymphoproliferation, exhibit hyperactive PI3K signaling, and have prominent expansion and skewing of peripheral blood CD8+ T cells toward terminally differentiated senescent effector cells with short telomeres. The PIK3R1 splice site mutation causes skipping of an exon, corresponding to loss of amino acid residues 434475 in the inter-SH2 domain. The mutant p85? protein is expressed at low levels in patient cells and activates PI3K signaling when overexpressed in T cells from healthy subjects due to qualitative and quantitative binding changes in the p85?p110? complex and failure of the C-terminal region to properly inhibit p110? catalytic activity. PMID:25488983

  11. Heterozygous splice mutation in PIK3R1 causes human immunodeficiency with lymphoproliferation due to dominant activation of PI3K.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Carrie L; Zhang, Yu; Venida, Anthony; Wang, Ying; Hughes, Jason; McElwee, Joshua; Butrick, Morgan; Matthews, Helen; Price, Susan; Biancalana, Matthew; Wang, Xiaochuan; Richards, Michael; Pozos, Tamara; Barlan, Isil; Ozen, Ahmet; Rao, V Koneti; Su, Helen C; Lenardo, Michael J

    2014-12-15

    Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), which generate PIP3 as a signal for cell growth and proliferation, exist as an intracellular complex of a catalytic subunit bound to a regulatory subunit. We and others have previously reported that heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD encoding the p110? catalytic PI3K subunit cause a unique disorder termed p110?-activating mutations causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency (PASLI) disease. We report four patients from three families with a similar disease who harbor a recently reported heterozygous splice site mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the p85?, p55?, and p50? regulatory PI3K subunits. These patients suffer from recurrent sinopulmonary infections and lymphoproliferation, exhibit hyperactive PI3K signaling, and have prominent expansion and skewing of peripheral blood CD8(+) T cells toward terminally differentiated senescent effector cells with short telomeres. The PIK3R1 splice site mutation causes skipping of an exon, corresponding to loss of amino acid residues 434-475 in the inter-SH2 domain. The mutant p85? protein is expressed at low levels in patient cells and activates PI3K signaling when overexpressed in T cells from healthy subjects due to qualitative and quantitative binding changes in the p85?-p110? complex and failure of the C-terminal region to properly inhibit p110? catalytic activity. PMID:25488983

  12. THE EVOLUTION OF PLASMA PARAMETERS ON A CORONAL SOURCE SURFACE AT 2.3 R{sub Sun} DURING SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, L.; Panasyuk, A. V.; Kohl, J. L.; Lamy, P.

    2012-01-20

    We analyze data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory to produce global maps of coronal outflow velocities and densities in the regions where the solar wind is undergoing acceleration. The maps use UV and white light coronal data obtained from the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer and the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph, respectively, and a Doppler dimming analysis to determine the mean outflow velocities. The outflow velocities are defined on a sphere at 2.3 R{sub Sun} from Sun-center and are organized by Carrington Rotations during the solar minimum period at the start of solar cycle 23. We use the outflow velocity and density maps to show that while the solar minimum corona is relatively stable during its early stages, the shrinkage of the north polar hole in the later stages leads to changes in both the global areal expansion of the coronal hole and the derived internal flux tube expansion factors of the solar wind. The polar hole areal expansion factor and the flux tube expansion factors (between the coronal base and 2.3 R{sub Sun }) start out as super-radial but then they become more nearly radial as the corona progresses away from solar minimum. The results also support the idea that the largest flux tube expansion factors are located near the coronal hole/streamer interface, at least during the deepest part of the solar minimum period.

  13. Electronic structures of hexagonal RMnO3 ( R=Gd , Tb, Dy, and Ho) thin films: Optical spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo Seok; Kim, Dong Geun; Seo, Sung Seok A.; Moon, Soon Jae; Lee, Daesu; Lee, Jung Hyuk; Lee, Ho Sik; Cho, Deok-Yong; Lee, Yun Sang; Murugavel, Pattukkannu; Yu, Jaejun; Noh, Tae W.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the electronic structure of multiferroic hexagonal RMnO3 ( R=Gd , Tb, Dy, and Ho) thin films using both optical spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. One of the difficulties in explaining the electronic structures of hexagonal RMnO3 is that they exist in nature with limited rare earth ions (i.e., R=Sc , Y, and Ho-Lu), so a systematic study in terms of the different R ions has been lacking. Recently, our group succeeded in fabricating hexagonal RMnO3 ( R=Gd , Tb, and Dy) using the epitaxial stabilization technique [Adv. Mater. (Weinheim Ger.) 18, 3125 (2006)]. Using artificially stabilized hexagonal RMnO3 , we extended the optical spectroscopic studies on the hexagonal multiferroic manganite system. We observed two optical transitions located near 1.7 and 2.3eV , in addition to the predominant absorption above 5eV . With the help of first-principles calculations, we attributed the low-lying optical absorption peaks to interband transitions from the oxygen states hybridized strongly with different Mn orbital symmetries to the Mn3d3z2-r2 state. As the ionic radius of the rare earth ion increased, we observed a systematic increase of the lowest peak position, which became more evident when compared with previously reported results. We explained this systematic change in terms of a flattening of the MnO5 triangular bipyramid.

  14. Diastereomeric complex of ( R/ S)-piperidine-3-carboxylic acid with (2 R,3 R)-tartaric acid: Structural, spectroscopic and computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoszak-Adamska, E.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Jasklski, M.; Szafran, M.

    2011-07-01

    2:2 Complex of ( R) and ( S)-piperidine-3-carboxylic acids (P3C) with (2 R,3 R) -tartaric acid (TA), 1, has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopies, and by DFT calculations. The crystals of 1 are monoclinic, space group P2 1. The crystal structure is formed by two distinct P3CH +TA - components, A and B, linked by an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond of 2.603(2) . The A and B components differ in the absolute configuration of the C(3) atom of P3CH +; ( S) in A and ( R) in B. The piperidinium-3-carboxylic acid and (2 R,3 R)-semi-tartrate anion moieties of the components A and B are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds of 2.517(1) and 2.535(1) , respectively. In A and B the piperidinium rings adopt the chair conformation with the carboxyl group in the equatorial position. The structures of the monomers of P3CH +TA -, 3A and 3B, as well as of a dimer 2, have been optimized by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach. The chemical shift assignments were based on two-dimensional 1H- 1H and 1H- 13C experiments.

  15. First principles study of Cu on Zn(0001): Resolution of the (?3x?3)-R30^o -- Cu/ZnO(0001) surface phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuasiripattana, Katawut; Warschkow, Oliver; Delley, Bernard; Stampfl, Cathy

    2009-03-01

    The Cu/ZnO system is a well known catalyst for methanol synthesis as well as hydrogen production from methanol by the reverse water gas-shift reaction. Despite many years of effort to clarify the characterization and the synergetic mechanisms between Cu and ZnO, there still exists considerable controversy such as the active phase of this combination catalyst. Recently, a (?3x?3)-R30^o phase has been reported on the Cu/ZnO(0001) surface (Dulub et. al., Topics in Catalysis, 36, 65 (2005)). This reconstruction appears in the LEED pattern after annealing the pre-deposited Cu-clusters on the ZnO(0001) surface at 350 ^oC in a 10-6 mbar O2 environment for 10 minutes. In this work, we perform first-principles total- energy calculations within the framework of ab initio atomistic thermodynamics to investigate the atomic geometry and relative stability of this structure. We have extensively surveyed many possible atomic geometries, from which we are able to we propose the atomic structure of this (?3x?3)-R30^ o phase. To provide an overall understanding of this system, we also construct a two-dimensional phase diagram as a function of the Cu and O chemical potential, thus displaying the most stable surface structures.

  16. Molecular cloning of isoflavone reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.): evidence for a 3R-isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Paiva, N L; Sun, Y; Dixon, R A; VanEtten, H D; Hrazdina, G

    1994-08-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) reduces achiral isoflavones to chiral isoflavanones during the biosynthesis of chiral pterocarpan phytoalexins. A cDNA clone for IFR from pea (Pisum sativum) was isolated using the polymerase chain reaction and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the reduction product sophorol obtained using the recombinant enzyme indicated that the isoflavanone possessed the 3R stereochemistry, in contrast to previous reports indicating a 3S-isoflavanone as the product of the pea IFR. Analysis of CD spectra of sophorol produced using enzyme extracts of CuCl2-treated pea seedlings confirmed the 3R stereochemistry. Thus, the stereochemistry of the isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis in pea is the same as that in (-)-medicarpin biosynthesis in alfalfa, although the final pterocarpans have the opposite stereochemistry. At the amino acid level the pea IFR cDNA was 91.8 and 85.2% identical to the IFRs from alfalfa and chickpea, respectively. IFR appears to be encoded by a single gene in pea. Its transcripts are highly induced in CuCl2-treated seedlings, consistent with the appearance of IFR enzyme activity and pisatin accumulation. PMID:8037464

  17. InsP3R-associated cGMP Kinase Substrate Determines Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Susceptibility to Phosphoregulation by Cyclic Nucleotide-dependent Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Wataru; Betzenhauser, Matthew J.; Yule, David I.

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+ release through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3R) can be modulated by numerous factors, including input from other signal transduction cascades. These events shape the spatio-temporal characteristics of the Ca2+ signal and provide fidelity essential for the appropriate activation of effectors. In this study, we investigate the regulation of Ca2+ release via InsP3R following activation of cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases in the presence and absence of expression of a binding partner InsP3R-associated cGMP kinase substrate (IRAG). cGMP-dependent kinase (PKG) phosphorylation of only the S2+ InsP3R-1 subtype resulted in enhanced Ca2+ release in the absence of IRAG expression. In contrast, IRAG bound to each InsP3R subtype, and phosphorylation of IRAG by PKG attenuated Ca2+ release through all InsP3R subtypes. Surprisingly, simply the expression of IRAG attenuated phosphorylation and inhibited the enhanced Ca2+ release through InsP3R-1 following cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activation. In contrast, IRAG expression did not influence the PKA-enhanced activity of the InsP3R-2. Phosphorylation of IRAG resulted in reduced Ca2+ release through all InsP3R subtypes during concurrent activation of PKA and PKG, indicating that IRAG modulation is dominant under these conditions. These studies yield mechanistic insight into how cells with various complements of proteins integrate and prioritize signals from ubiquitous signaling pathways. PMID:20876535

  18. Managing runoff and flow pathways in a small rural catchment to reduce flood risk with other multi-purpose benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Welton, Phil; Kerr, Peter; Quinn, Paul; Jonczyk, Jennine

    2010-05-01

    From 2000 to 2009 there have been a high number of flood events throughout Northern Europe. Meanwhile, there is a demand for land in which to construct homes and businesses on, which is encroaching on land which is prone to flooding. Nevertheless, flood defences usually protect us from this hazard. However, the severity of floods and this demand for land has increased the number of homes which have been flooded in the past ten years. Public spending on flood defences can only go so far which targets the large populations first. Small villages and communities, where in many cases normal flood defences are not cost effective, tend to wait longer for flood mitigation strategies. The Belford Burn (Northumberland, UK) catchment is a small rural catchment that drains an area of 6 km2. It flows through the village of Belford. There is a history of flooding in Belford, with records of flood events dating back to 1877. Normal flood defences are not suitable for this catchment as it failed the Environment Agency (EA) cost benefit criteria for support. There was a desire by the local EA Flood Levy Team and the Northumbria Regional Flood Defence Committee at the Environment Agency to deliver an alternative catchment-based solution to the problem. The EA North East Flood Levy team and Newcastle University have created a partnership to address the flood problem using soft engineered runoff management features. Farm Integrated Runoff Management (FIRM) plans manage flow paths directly by storing slowing and filtering runoff at source on farms. The features are multipurpose addressing water quality, trapping sediment, creating new habitats and storing and attenuating flood flow. Background rainfall and stream stage data have been collected since November 2007. Work on the first mitigation features commenced in July 2008. Since that date five flood events have occurred in the catchment. Two of these flood events caused widespread damage in other areas of the county. However, in Belford only two houses were flooded. Data from the catchment and mitigation features showed that the defence measures resulted in an increase in travel time of the peak and attenuated high flows which would have usually travelled quickly down the channel to the village. For example, the pilot feature appears to have increased the travel time of a flood peak at the top of the catchment from 20 minutes to 35 minutes over a 1 km stretch of channel. There are currently ten active mitigation features present in the catchment. More features are planned for construction this year. Early data from the catchment indicates that the runoff attenuation features are having an impact on reducing flood flows in the channel and also slowing down the flood peak. At the same time the multi-purpose aspects of the features are apparent.

  19. Structure determination of the ({radical} (3) {times}{radical} (3) )R30{degree} boron phase on the Si(111) surface using photoelectron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertel, P.; Paggel, J.J.; Hasselblatt, M.; Horn, K.; Fernandez, V.; Schaff, O.; Weaver, J.H.; Bradshaw, A.M.; Woodruff, D.P.; Rotenberg, E.; Denlinger, J.

    1999-05-01

    A quantitative structural analysis of the system Si(111)({radical} (3) {times}{radical} (3) )R30{degree}-B has been performed using photoelectron diffraction in the scanned energy mode. We confirm that the substitutional S{sub 5} adsorption site is occupied and show that the interatomic separations to the three nearest-neighbor Si atoms are 1.98({plus_minus}0.04) {Angstrom}thinsp, 2.14({plus_minus}0.13) {Angstrom}thinsp, and 2.21({plus_minus}0.12) {Angstrom}thinsp. These correspond to the silicon atom immediately below the boron atom, the adatom immediately above, and the three atoms to which it is coordinated symmetrically in the first layer. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Evaluation of ischemia and myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kropp, J.; Joergens, M.; Glaenzer, K.P.; Luederitz, B.; Biersack, H.J.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    Twenty patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) controlled by coronary arteriography (CA) and biplane left ventricular cineventriculography (LVCV) were investigated with the 15- (p[I-123]iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue. During maximal symptom limited exercise 5 mCi (200 MBq) of BMIPP were injected followed by two SPECT studies within three hours. After another 30 min, with the patient at rest a third SPECT was performed after reinjection of 3 mCi (100 MBq) BMIPP. Visual inspection of the short and long axis slices and quantitative comparison of the short axis slices of the tomograms were performed to grade BMIPP uptake and refill and detect turnover abnormalities. These were addressed either as scar or as ischemia and compared to CA and a graded score of regional wall motion by LVCV which provided values for sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) to detect CAD. Fifteen infarctions had corresponded clinical, angiographic and scintigraphic findings in 93%.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Bacillus coagulans 2-6.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiangzhi; Huang, Xianhui; Zhang, Guofang; Zhao, Xiufang; Zhu, Xianming; Dong, Hui

    2013-10-01

    (2R,3R)-2,3-Butanediol dehydrogenase (R,R-BDH) from Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is a zinc-dependent medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase. Recombinant R,R-BDH with a His6 tag at the C-terminus was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and purified by Ni2+-chelating affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289?K. The crystallization condition consisted of 8%(v/v) Tacsimate pH 4.6, 18%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350. The crystal diffracted to 2.8? resolution in the orthorhombic space group P2?2?2?, with unit-cell parameters a=88.35, b=128.73, c=131.03?. PMID:24100567

  2. Synthesis of (2R,5S)-dihydroxymethyl-(3R,4R)-dihydroxypyrrolidine (DGDP) via stereoselective amination using chlorosulfonyl isocyanate.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Su; Kim, Sin Jung; Lee, Jae Koo; Li, Qing Ri; Jung, Young Hoon

    2007-08-13

    A stereoselective approach for synthesizing (2R,5S)-dihydroxymethyl-(3R,4R)-dihydroxypyrrolidine 1 (2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-d-glucitol, DGDP) was achieved using a seven-step approach starting from 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-d-mannose (7). Key steps for the preparation of the title compound 1 involved the regioselective and diastereoselective amination of the cinnamyl anti-1,2-polybenzyl ethers 5 and 6 using chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) and ring cyclization to form the pyrrolidine ring. The reaction between anti-1,2-polybenzyl ether 5 and CSI in toluene at 0 degrees C afforded the corresponding anti-1,2-amino alcohol 4 as a major product with a diastereoselectivity of 16:1 in 76% yield. The mechanism underlying these reactions may be explained by the neighboring-group effect leading to the retention of stereochemistry. PMID:17509544

  3. Computational analysis of mRNA expression profiles identifies the ITG family and PIK3R3 as crucial genes for regulating triple negative breast cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Klahan, Sukhontip; Wu, Mei-Shin; Hsi, Edward; Huang, Chi-Cheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2014-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu). TNBC has worse clinical outcomes than other breast cancer subtypes. However, the key molecules and mechanisms of TNBC migration remain unclear. In this study, we compared two normalized microarray datasets from GEO database between Asian (GSE33926) and non-Asian populations (GSE46581) to determine the molecules and common pathways in TNBC migration. We demonstrated that 16 genes in non-Asian samples and 9 genes in Asian samples are related to TNBC migration. In addition, our analytic results showed that 4 genes, PIK3R3, ITGB1, ITGAL, and ITGA6, were involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Our results indicated potential genes that link to TNBC migration. This study may help identify novel therapeutic targets for drug development in cancer therapy. PMID:24982892

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of gamma-ray space telescopes: a BoGEMMS multi-purpose application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioretti, Valentina; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Tavani, Marco; Marisaldi, Martino; Sabatini, Sabina; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Trifoglio, Massimo; Gianotti, Fulvio

    2014-07-01

    After the development of a BoGEMMS (Bologna Geant4 Multi-Mission Simulator) template for the background study of X-ray telescopes, a new extension is built for the simulation of a Gamma-ray space mission (e.g. AGILE, Fermi), conceived to work as a common, multi-purpose framework for the present and future electron tracking gamma-ray space telescopes. The Gamma-ray extension involves the Geant4 mass model, the physics list and, more important, the production and treatment of the simulation output. From the user point of view, the simulation set-up follows a tree structure, with the main level being the selection of the simulation framework (the general, X-ray or gamma-ray application) and the secondary levels being the detailed configuration of the geometry and the output format. The BoGEMMS application to Gamma-ray missions has been used to evaluate the instrument performances of a new generation of Gamma-ray telescopes (e.g. Gamma-Light), and a full simulation of the AGILE mission is currently under construction, to scientifically validate and calibrate the simulator with real in-space data sets. A complete description of the BoGEMMS Gamma-ray framework is presented here, with an overview of the achieved results for the potential application to present and future experiments (e.g., GAMMA-400 and Gamma-Light). The evaluation of the photon conversion efficiency to beta particle pairs and the comparison to tabulated data allows the preliminary physical validation of the overall architecture. The Gamma-ray module application for the study of the Gamma-Light instrument performances is reported as reference test case.

  5. Investigating a multi-purpose target for electron linac based photoneutron sources for BNCT of deep-seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudi, S. Farhad; Rasouli, Fatemeh S.

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies in BNCT have focused on investigating appropriate neutron sources as alternatives for nuclear reactors. As the most prominent facilities, the electron linac based photoneutron sources benefit from two consecutive reactions, (e, γ) and (γ, n). The photoneutron sources designed so far are composed of bipartite targets which involve practical problems and are far from the objective of achieving an optimized neutron source. This simulation study deals with designing a compact, optimized, and geometrically simple target for a photoneutron source based on an electron linac. Based on a set of MCNPX simulations, tungsten is found to have the potential of utilizing as both photon converter and photoneutron target. Besides, it is shown that an optimized dimension for such a target slows-down the produced neutrons toward the desired energy range while keeping them economy, which makes achieving the recommended criteria for BNCT of deep-tumors more available. This multi-purpose target does not involve complicated designing, and can be considered as a significant step toward finding application of photoneutron sources for in-hospital treatments. In order to shape the neutron beam emitted from such a target, the beam is planned to pass through an optimized arrangement of materials composed of moderators, filters, reflector, and collimator. By assessment with the recommended in-air parameters, it is shown that the designed beam provides high intensity of desired neutrons, as well as low background contamination. The last section of this study is devoted to investigate the performance of the resultant beam in deep tissue. A typical simulated liver tumor, located within a phantom of human body, was subjected to the irradiation of the designed spectrum. The dosimetric results, including evaluated depth-dose curves and carried out in-phantom parameters show that the proposed configuration establishes acceptable agreement between the appropriate neutron intensity, and penetrating deep in tissue in a reasonable treatment time.

  6. Overexpression of microRNA-634 suppresses survival and matrix synthesis of human osteoarthritis chondrocytes by targeting PIK3R1

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xu; Wang, Shaojie; Cai, Heguo; Lin, Yuan; Zheng, Xinpeng; Zhang, Bing; Xia, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of some microRNAs in cartilage damage. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the expression of microRNA-634 (miR-634) in normal and OA chondrocytes, and to determine its role in OA pathogenesis. Human normal and OA chondrocytes obtained from patients were cultured in vitro. Transfection with miR-634 mimic or inhibitor was employed to investigate the effect of miR-634 on chondrocyte survival and matrix synthesis, and to identify miR-634 target. The results indicated that miR-634 was expressed at lower level in high grade OA chondrocyte compared with normal chondrocytes. Overexpression of miR-634 could inhibit cell survival and matrix synthesis in high grade OA chondrocytes. Furthermore, miR-634 targeted PIK3R1 gene that encodes the regulatory subunit 1 of class I PI3K (p85α) and exerted its inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, and S6 signal molecules in high grade OA chondrocytes. Therefore, the data suggested that miR-634 could suppress survival and matrix synthesis of high grade OA chondrocytes through targeting PIK3R1 gene to modulate the PI3K/Akt/S6 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6 axes, with important implication for validating miR-634 as a potential target for OA therapy. PMID:26972586

  7. Tissue-Specific Differences in the Spatial Interposition of X-Chromosome and 3R Chromosome Regions in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles messeae Fall.

    PubMed Central

    Artemov, Gleb; Bondarenko, Semen; Sapunov, Gleb; Stegniy, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Spatial organization of a chromosome in a nucleus is very important in biology but many aspects of it are still generally unresolved. We focused on tissue-specific features of chromosome architecture in closely related malaria mosquitoes, which have essential inter-specific differences in polytene chromosome attachments in nurse cells. We showed that the region responsible for X-chromosome attachment interacts with nuclear lamina stronger in nurse cells, then in salivary glands cells in Anopheles messeae Fall. The inter-tissue differences were demonstrated more convincingly in an experiment of two distinct chromosomes interposition in the nucleus space of cells from four tissues. Microdissected DNA-probes from nurse cells X-chromosome (2BC) and 3R chromosomes (32D) attachment regions were hybridized with intact nuclei of nurse cells, salivary gland cells, follicle epithelium cells and imaginal dis?s cells in 3D-FISH experiments. We showed that only salivary gland cells and follicle epithelium cells have no statistical differences in the interposition of 2BC and 32D. Generally, the X-chromosome and 3R chromosome are located closer to each other in cells of the somatic system in comparison with nurse cells on average. The imaginal dis?s cell nuclei have an intermediate arrangement of chromosome interposition, similar to other somatic cells and nurse cells. In spite of species-specific chromosome attachments there are no differences in interposition of nurse cells chromosomes in An. messeae and An. atroparvus Thiel. Nurse cells have an unusual chromosome arrangement without a chromocenter, which could be due to the special mission of generative system cells in ontogenesis and evolution. PMID:25671311

  8. Association of the ACTN3 R557X polymorphism with glucose tolerance and gene expression of sarcomeric proteins in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E; Benziane, Boubacar; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2015-01-01

    A common polymorphism (R577X) in the ?-actinin (ACTN) 3 gene, which leads to complete deficiency of a functional protein in skeletal muscle, could directly influence metabolism in the context of health and disease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that states of glucose tolerance are associated with the ACTN3 R577X genotype. We analyzed the prevalence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in people with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and measured muscle-specific ?-actinin 2 and 3 mRNA and protein abundance in skeletal muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we investigated the protein abundance of the myosin heavy chain isoforms and the components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in skeletal muscle from people with NGT or T2D. mRNA of selected sarcomeric z-disk proteins was also assessed. Although the prevalence of the ACTN3 577XX genotype was higher in T2D patients, genotype distribution was unrelated to metabolic control or obesity. ACTN2 and ACTN3 mRNA expression and protein abundance was unchanged between NGT and T2D participants. Protein abundance of mitochondrial complexes II and IV was related to genotype and glucose tolerance status. Gene expression of sarcomeric z-disk proteins was increased in skeletal muscle from NGT participants with the ACTN3 577XX genotype. While genetic variation in ACTN3 does not influence metabolic control, genotype does appear to influence gene expression of other sarcomeric proteins, which could contribute to the functional properties of skeletal muscle and the fatigue-resistant phenotype associated with the R577X polymorphism. PMID:25780092

  9. Tissue-specific differences in the spatial interposition of X-chromosome and 3R chromosome regions in the malaria mosquito Anopheles messeae Fall.

    PubMed

    Artemov, Gleb; Bondarenko, Semen; Sapunov, Gleb; Stegniy, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Spatial organization of a chromosome in a nucleus is very important in biology but many aspects of it are still generally unresolved. We focused on tissue-specific features of chromosome architecture in closely related malaria mosquitoes, which have essential inter-specific differences in polytene chromosome attachments in nurse cells. We showed that the region responsible for X-chromosome attachment interacts with nuclear lamina stronger in nurse cells, then in salivary glands cells in Anopheles messeae Fall. The inter-tissue differences were demonstrated more convincingly in an experiment of two distinct chromosomes interposition in the nucleus space of cells from four tissues. Microdissected DNA-probes from nurse cells X-chromosome (2BC) and 3R chromosomes (32D) attachment regions were hybridized with intact nuclei of nurse cells, salivary gland cells, follicle epithelium cells and imaginal dis?s cells in 3D-FISH experiments. We showed that only salivary gland cells and follicle epithelium cells have no statistical differences in the interposition of 2BC and 32D. Generally, the X-chromosome and 3R chromosome are located closer to each other in cells of the somatic system in comparison with nurse cells on average. The imaginal dis?s cell nuclei have an intermediate arrangement of chromosome interposition, similar to other somatic cells and nurse cells. In spite of species-specific chromosome attachments there are no differences in interposition of nurse cells chromosomes in An. messeae and An. atroparvus Thiel. Nurse cells have an unusual chromosome arrangement without a chromocenter, which could be due to the special mission of generative system cells in ontogenesis and evolution. PMID:25671311

  10. Thermal and fluid flow analyses of sounding rocket experiment 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R. [low gravity crystallization of a 27.8 percent ammonium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, S. J.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal convective velocities during the 4-21/2R and 74-21/3R flight tests were calculated. The 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R ground tests were analyzed using a convection formula. Thermal convection velocities of 0.1 to 0.5 cm/sec were calculated for the 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R ground tests which were two to four orders of magnitude greater than for the flight tests. For the 74-21/2R flight test, solutal effects do not produce any convective motion. For the 74-21/3R flight test closed form convection equations estimated the solutal convective velocities on the order of 1/0.003 cm/sec.

  11. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER (MPC) WITH ACD DISPOSAL CONTAINER (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Lotz

    1995-11-13

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24,5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Subsystem Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude MPC compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual MPC design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded MPC performance is similar to an MPC loaded with commercial BWR SNF. Future design efforts will focus on specific MPC vendor designs and BWR MOX SNF designs when they become available.

  12. Spin Forming of an Aluminum 2219-T6 Aft Bulkhead for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle: Phase II Supplemental Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Squire, Michael D.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hoffman, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the aft bulkhead of the pressure vessel. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) 2219 aft bulkhead which will eliminate the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design that will reduce vehicle weight by eliminating welds. Phase I of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece forward pressure vessel bulkhead from aluminum-lithium 2195.

  13. The Role of Combination Techniques in Maximizing the Utility of Precipitation Estimates from Several Multi-Purpose Remote-Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-purpose remote-sensing products from various satellites have proved crucial in developing global estimates of precipitation. Examples of these products include low-earth-orbit and geosynchronous-orbit infrared (leo- and geo-IR), Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Television Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data, and passive microwave data such as that from the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I). Each of these datasets has served as the basis for at least one useful quasi-global precipitation estimation algorithm; however, the quality of estimates varies tremendously among the algorithms for the different climatic regions around the globe.

  14. Participation of IP3R, RyR and L-type Ca2+ channel in the nuclear maturation of Rhinella arenarum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Toranzo, G Snchez; Bhler, M C Gramajo; Bhler, M I

    2014-05-01

    During meiosis resumption, oocytes undergo a series of nuclear and cytosolic changes that prepare them for fertilization and that are referred to as oocyte maturation. These events are characterized by germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), chromatin condensation and spindle formation and, among cytosolic changes, organelle redistribution and maturation of Ca2+-release mechanisms. The progression of the meiotic cell cycle is regulated by M phase/maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Changes in the levels of intracellular free Ca2+ ion have also been implicated strongly in the triggering of the initiation of the M phase. Ca2+ signals can be generated by Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores (endoplasmic reticulum; ER) or by Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space. In this sense, the L-type Ca2+ channel plays an important role in the incorporation of Ca2+ from the extracellular space. Two types of intracellular Ca2+ receptor/channels are known to mediate the intracellular Ca2+ release from the ER lumen. The most abundant, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), and the other Ca2+ channel, the ryanodine receptor (RyR), have also been reported to mediate Ca2+ release in several oocytes. In amphibians, MPF and MAPK play a central role during oocyte maturation, controlling several events. However, no definitive relationships have been identified between Ca2+ and MPF or MAPK. We investigated the participation of Ca2+ in the spontaneous and progesterone-induced nuclear maturation in Rhinella arenarum oocytes and the effect of different pharmacological agents known to produce modifications in the Ca2+ channels. We demonstrated that loading competent and incompetent oocytes with the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA/AM produced suppression of spontaneous and progesterone-induced GVBD. In our results, the capacity of progesterone to trigger meiosis reinitiation in Rhinella in the presence of L-type Ca2+ channel blockers (nifedipine and lanthane) indicated that spontaneous and progesterone-induced maturation would be independent of extracellular calcium influx, but would be sensitive to intracellular Ca2+ deprivation. As demonstrated by the effect of thimerosal and heparin in Rhinella arenarum, the intracellular increase in Ca2+ during maturation is also mediated mainly by IP3R. In addition, our results using caffeine, an agonist of the RyR, could suggest that Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive stores is not essential for oocyte maturation in Rhinella. The decrease in MPF activity with NaVO3 negatively affected the percentage of thimerosal-induced GVBD. This finding suggests that Ca2+ release through the IP3R could be involved in the signalling pathway that induces MPF activation. However, the inhibition of MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) by PD98128 or P90 by geldanamycin produced a significant decrease in the percentages of GVBD induced by thimerosal. This finding suggests that Ca2+ release per se cannot bypass the inhibition of the MAPK activity. PMID:22805181

  15. The influence of ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We studied the influence of the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms (single or combined) on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training. Methods One hundred and thirty-nine healthy older Caucasian women participated in this study (age: 65.5??8.2years, body mass: 67.0??10.0kg and height: 1.57??0.06m). Walking speed (S10) performance and functional capacity assessed by the get-up and go (GUG) mobility test were measured at baseline (T1) and after a consecutive 12-week period of high-speed power training (40-75% of one repetition maximum in arm and leg extensor exercises; 3 sets 412 reps, and two power exercises for upper and lower extremity). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples, and genotyping analyses were performed by PCR methods. Genotype distributions between groups were compared by Chi-Square test and the gains in physical performance were analyzed by two-way, repeated-measures ANOVA. Results There were no significant differences between genotype groups in men or women for adjusted baseline phenotypes (P?>?0.05). ACE I/D and ACTN3 polymorphisms showed a significant interaction genotype-training only in S10 (P?=?0.012 and P?=?0.044, respectively) and not in the GUG test (P?=?0.311 and P?=?0.477, respectively). Analyses of the combined effects between genotypes showed no other significant differences in all phenotypes (P?3 R577X polymorphisms are likely candidates in the modulation of exercise-related gait speed phenotype in older women but not a significant influence in mobility traits. PMID:24313907

  16. Endothelial-specific intron-derived miR-126 is down-regulated in human breast cancer and targets both VEGFA and PIK3R2.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ni; Zhang, Dongze; Xie, Haoping; Zhou, Zhe; Chen, Huyan; Hu, Tiantian; Bai, Yuan; Shen, Yuan; Yuan, Wenjun; Jing, Qing; Qin, Yongwen

    2011-05-01

    Endothelial cells are the key components of vascular intima and play pivotal roles in vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth. Using Northern blot and real-time PCR, we confirmed that miR-126 and its host gene EGF-like domain 7 (EGFL7) were widely expressed in rat tissues but strictly expressed in endothelial cells. In mammals, miR-126 gene is embedded in intron7 of EGFL7. To explore the biogenesis of miR-126, plasmid EGFL7(126)-pEGFPc1 containing segment of exon7-intron7-exon8 of EGFL7 was constructed and expressed in 293T. Expression of spliced exon7-8 and excised mature miR-126 was detected by PCR and Northern blot. Knocking-down of endothelial endogenous miR-126 did not affect EGFL7 expression at mRNA or protein level. To investigate the possible roles of miR-126, PicTar, miRBase, miRanda, Bibiserv, and Targetscan were used to screen the targets. VEGFA and PIK3R2 were confirmed as the targets of miR-126 by luciferase reporter assay and Western blot. Interestingly, Northern blot and western blot showed that miR-126 was down-regulated in breast tumors where the VEGF/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was activated. Introduction of miR-126 mimics into MCF-7 could effectively decrease VEGF/PI3K/AKT signaling activity. In summary, miR-126 was strictly expressed in endothelial cells and excised from EGFL7 pre-mRNA without affecting splicing and expression of its host gene. In addition, miR-126 could target both VEGFA and PIK3R2, and its expression was decreased in human breast cancer, implying that miR-126 may play a role in tumor genesis and growth by regulating the VEGF/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:21249429

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

    Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or health problems for humans. Other identified components from the MPLM are quite similar to those found from off gassing of construction material and laboratory reagents characterized in ground based studies with closed plant growth chambers.

  18. Ligand Independence of the T618I Mutation in the Colony-stimulating Factor 3 Receptor (CSF3R) Protein Results from Loss of O-Linked Glycosylation and Increased Receptor Dimerization*

    PubMed Central

    Maxson, Julia E.; Luty, Samuel B.; MacManiman, Jason D.; Abel, Melissa L.; Druker, Brian J.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the CSF3 granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor CSF3R have recently been found in a large percentage of patients with chronic neutrophilic leukemia and, more rarely, in other types of leukemia. These CSF3R mutations fall into two distinct categories: membrane-proximal mutations and truncation mutations. Although both classes of mutation have exhibited the capacity for cellular transformation, several aspects of this transformation, including the kinetics, the requirement for ligand, and the dysregulation of downstream signaling pathways, have all been shown to be discrepant between the mutation types, suggesting distinct mechanisms of activation. CSF3R truncation mutations induce overexpression and ligand hypersensitivity of the receptor, likely because of the removal of motifs necessary for endocytosis and degradation. In contrast, little is known about the mechanism of activation of membrane-proximal mutations, which are much more commonly observed in chronic neutrophilic leukemia. In contrast with CSF3R truncation mutations, membrane-proximal mutations do not exhibit overexpression and are capable of signaling in the absence of ligand. We show that the Thr-615 and Thr-618 sites of membrane-proximal mutations are part of an O-linked glycosylation cluster. Mutation at these sites prevents O-glycosylation of CSF3R and increases receptor dimerization. This increased dimerization explains the ligand-independent activation of CSF3R membrane-proximal mutations. Cytokine receptor activation through loss of O-glycosylation represents a novel avenue of aberrant signaling. Finally, the combination of the CSF3R membrane proximal and truncation mutations, as has been reported in some patients, leads to enhanced cellular transformation when compared with either mutation alone, underscoring their distinct mechanisms of action. PMID:24403076

  19. Raman spectra of R2O3 (Rrare earth) sesquioxides with C-type bixbyite crystal structure: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrashev, M. V.; Todorov, N. D.; Geshev, J.

    2014-09-01

    Raman spectra of R2O3 (RSc, Er, Y, Ho, Gd, Eu, and Sm) powders with C-type bixbyite crystal structure are measured. With the help of these data and ones, previously published for other oxides from the same structural family, general dependencies of the frequencies of the Raman peaks on the cubic crystal unit cell parameter are constructed. Using these dependencies and knowing the symmetry of the peaks for one of the oxides, determined from previous single-crystal measurements, it is possible to find out the symmetry of the peaks from the spectra of all compounds. It was found that the frequency of the six lowest frequency peaks scales with the square root of the mass of the rare earth showing that mainly R ions take part in these vibrations. These results agree with performed here lattice dynamical calculations. The anomalous softening of the frequency of some peaks in the spectra of Eu2O3 is discussed.

  20. Quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for high-bit-rate signal processing up to 160 Gb s-1 and a new scheme of 3R regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, M.; Akiyama, T.; Hatori, N.; Nakata, Y.; Ebe, H.; Ishikawa, H.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents a theory and simulation of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) for high-bit-rate optical signal processing. The theory includes spatial isolation of quantum dots, carrier relaxation and excitation among the discrete energy states and the wetting layer, grouping of dots by their optical resonant frequency under the inhomogeneous broadening, and the homogeneous broadening of the single-dot gain, which are all essential to the amplifier performance. We show that high-speed gain saturation occurs due to spectral hole burning under the optical pulse trains up to at least 160 Gb s-1 with negligible pattern effect, and that the self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot SOAs have about two to three orders faster response speed than bulk InGaAsP SOAs, with one order larger gain saturation for the 160 Gb s-1 signals. We also show that switching functions can be realized by the cross gain modulation between the two wavelength channels when the channel separation is within the homogeneous broadening. These results indicate great potential of quantum-dot SOAs for all-optical high-speed switches. As one of their possible applications, we propose a new signal-processing scheme of a `quantum-dot 3R regenerator'.

  1. Isotopologue profiling of triterpene formation under physiological conditions. Biosynthesis of lupeol-3-(3'-R-hydroxy)-stearate in Pentalinon andrieuxii.

    PubMed

    Pea-Rodrguez, Luis M; Yam-Puc, Alejandro; Knispel, Nihat; Schramek, Nicholas; Huber, Claudia; Graberger, Christoph; Ramrez-Torres, Fabiola G; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Garca-Sosa, Karlina; Hiebert-Giesbrecht, Mickel R; Chan-Bacab, Manuel J; Godoy-Hernndez, Gregorio; Bacher, Adelbert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    The biosynthesis of lupeol-3-(3'R-hydroxy)-stearate (procrim b, 1) was investigated in the Mexican medicinal plant Pentalinon andrieuxii by (13)CO2 pulse-chase experiments. NMR analyses revealed positional enrichments of (13)C2-isotopologues in both the triterpenoid and the hydroxystearate moieties of 1. Five of the six isoprene units reflected a pattern with [1,2-(13)C2]- and [3,5-(13)C2]-isotopologues from the respective C5-precursors, IPP and DMAPP, whereas one isoprene unit in the ring E of 1 showed only the [3,5-(13)C2]-connectivity of the original C5-precursor, due to rearrangement of the dammarenyl cation intermediate during the cyclization process. The presence of (13)C2-isotopologues was indicative of [(13)C2]acetyl-CoA being the precursor units in the formation of the fatty acid moiety and of the triterpene via the mevalonate route. The observed labeling pattern was in agreement with a chair-chair-chair-boat conformation of the (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene precursor during the cyclization process, suggesting that the lupeol synthase from P. andrieuxii is of the same type as that from Olea europea and Taraxacum officinale, but different from that of Arabidopsis thaliana. The study shows that (13)CO2 pulse-chase experiments are powerful in elucidating, under in vivo conditions and in a single experiment, the biosynthesis of complex plant products including higher terpenes. PMID:24606167

  2. Scintillation properties and electronic structure of the intrinsic and extrinsic mixed elpasolites Cs2 Na REBr3I3 (R = La, Y)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wei, Hua; Du, Mao -Hua; Stand, Luis; Zhao, Zhao; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Melcher, Charles L.; Shi, Hongliang

    2016-02-19

    Scintillators attract wide research interest for their distinct applications in radiation detection. Elpasolite halides are among the most promising scintillators due to their high structural symmetry and good scintillation performance. A better understanding of their underlying scintillation mechanism opens up possibilities in scintillator development. In this work, we employ a variety of experimental techniques to study the two mixed-anion elpasolites Cs2 Na REBr3I3 (R = La, Y). The emission of intrinsic Cs2Na RBr3I3 with a light yield ranging from 20 000 to 40 000 ph / MeV is dominant by self-trapped exciton emission. Partial substitution of R with Ce introducesmore » a competing emission, the Ce3+ 5d-to-4f radiative transition. Ab initio calculations are performed to investigate the electronic structures as well as the binding energies of polarons in Cs2 Na RBr6. The calculated large self-trapped exciton binding energies are consistent with the observed high light yield due to self-trapped exciton (STE) emission. The unique electronic structure of halide elpasolites as calculated enhances the STE stability and the STE emission. The highly tunable scintillation properties of mixed-anion elpasolites underscore the role of their complex scintillation mechanism. Furthermore, our study provides guidance for the design of elpasolite scintillators with exceptional energy resolution and light yield desirable for applications.« less

  3. De novo germline and postzygotic mutations in AKT3, PIK3R2 and PIK3CA cause a spectrum of related megalencephaly syndromes.

    PubMed

    Rivire, Jean-Baptiste; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; O'Roak, Brian J; Beddaoui, Margaret; Alcantara, Diana; Conway, Robert L; St-Onge, Judith; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A; Gripp, Karen W; Nikkel, Sarah M; Worthylake, Thea; Sullivan, Christopher T; Ward, Thomas R; Butler, Hailly E; Kramer, Nancy A; Albrecht, Beate; Armour, Christine M; Armstrong, Linlea; Caluseriu, Oana; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Drolet, Beth A; Innes, A Micheil; Lauzon, Julie L; Lin, Angela E; Mancini, Grazia M S; Meschino, Wendy S; Reggin, James D; Saggar, Anand K; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Uyanik, Gkhan; Weksberg, Rosanna; Zirn, Birgit; Beaulieu, Chandree L; Majewski, Jacek; Bulman, Dennis E; O'Driscoll, Mark; Shendure, Jay; Graham, John M; Boycott, Kym M; Dobyns, William B

    2012-08-01

    Megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) and megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus (MPPH) syndromes are sporadic overgrowth disorders associated with markedly enlarged brain size and other recognizable features. We performed exome sequencing in 3 families with MCAP or MPPH, and our initial observations were confirmed in exomes from 7 individuals with MCAP and 174 control individuals, as well as in 40 additional subjects with megalencephaly, using a combination of Sanger sequencing, restriction enzyme assays and targeted deep sequencing. We identified de novo germline or postzygotic mutations in three core components of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway. These include 2 mutations in AKT3, 1 recurrent mutation in PIK3R2 in 11 unrelated families with MPPH and 15 mostly postzygotic mutations in PIK3CA in 23 individuals with MCAP and 1 with MPPH. Our data highlight the central role of PI3K-AKT signaling in vascular, limb and brain development and emphasize the power of massively parallel sequencing in a challenging context of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity combined with postzygotic mosaicism. PMID:22729224

  4. Scintillation Properties and Electronic Structures of the Intrinsic and Extrinsic Mixed Elpasolites Cs2Na R Br3I3 (R =La , Y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hua; Du, Mao-Hua; Stand, Luis; Zhao, Zhao; Shi, Hongliang; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Melcher, Charles L.

    2016-02-01

    Scintillators attract wide research interest for their distinct applications in radiation detection. Elpasolite halides are among the most promising scintillators due to their high structural symmetry and good scintillation performance. A better understanding of their underlying scintillation mechanism opens up possibilities in scintillator development. In this work, we employ a variety of experimental techniques to study the two mixed-anion elpasolites Cs2Na R Br3I3 (R =La , Y). The emission of intrinsic Cs2Na R Br3I3 with a light yield ranging from 20 000 to 40 000 ph /MeV is dominant by self-trapped exciton emission. Partial substitution of R with Ce introduces a competing emission, the Ce3 + 5 d -to-4 f radiative transition. Ab initio calculations are performed to investigate the electronic structures as well as the binding energies of polarons in Cs2Na R Br6 . The calculated large self-trapped exciton binding energies are consistent with the observed high light yield due to self-trapped exciton (STE) emission. The unique electronic structure of halide elpasolites as calculated enhances the STE stability and the STE emission. The highly tunable scintillation properties of mixed-anion elpasolites underscore the role of their complex scintillation mechanism. Our study provides guidance for the design of elpasolite scintillators with exceptional energy resolution and light yield desirable for applications.

  5. Discovery of a New Class of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor Antagonists by the Rational Design of (2S,3R)-3-(3-Carboxyphenyl)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The kainic acid (KA) receptors belong to the class of glutamate (Glu) receptors in the brain and constitute a promising target for the treatment of neurological and/or psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, major depression, and epilepsy. Five KA subtypes have been identified and named GluK1−5. In this article, we present the discovery of (2S,3R)-3-(3-carboxyphenyl)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (1) based on a rational design process. Target compound 1 was synthesized by a stereoselective strategy in 10 steps from commercially available starting materials. Binding affinities of 1 at native ionotropic Glu receptors were determined to be in the micromolar range (AMPA, 51 μM; KA, 22 μM; NMDA 6 μM), with the highest affinity for cloned homomeric KA receptor subtypes GluK1,3 (3.0 and 8.1 μM, respectively). Functional characterization of 1 by two electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) electrophysiology at a nondesensitizing mutant of GluK1 showed full competitive antagonistic behavior with a Kb of 11.4 μM. PMID:22778860

  6. Inhibition of human pyridoxal kinase by 2-acetyl-4-((1R,2S,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI).

    PubMed

    Elsinghorst, Paul W; di Salvo, Martino L; Parroni, Alessia; Contestabile, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    2-Acetyl-4-((1R,2S,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI) is observed as a minor contaminant in caramel food colourings (E?150c). Feeding experiments with rodents have revealed a significant lymphopenic effect that has been linked to the presence of THI in these food colourings. Pyridoxal kinase inhibition by THI has been suggested, but not demonstrated, as a mode of action as it leads to lowered levels of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, which are known to cause lymphopenia. Recently, THI was also shown to inhibit sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase causing comparable immunosuppressive effects and derivatives of THI are being developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in humans. Interestingly, sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase activity depends on pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, which in turn is provided by pyridoxal kinase. This report shows that THI does inhibit pyridoxal kinase with competitive and mixed-type non-competitive behaviour towards its two substrates, pyridoxal and ATP, respectively. The corresponding inhibition constants are in the low millimolar range. PMID:24899377

  7. Nucleation and growth of Ag islands on the (.sqroot.3 × .sqroot.3)R30° phase of Ag on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Belianinov, A.; Unal, B.; Ho, K.-M.; Wang, C.-Z.; Evans, J. W.; Tringides, M. C.; Thiel, P. A.

    2011-06-06

    We use scanning tunneling microscopy to measure densities and characteristics of Ag islands that form on the ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{sup o}-Ag phase on Si(111), as a function of deposition temperature. Nucleation theory predicts that the logarithm of island density varies linearly with inverse deposition temperature. The data show two linear regimes. At 50-125 K, islands are relatively small, and island density decreases only slightly with increasing temperature. At 180-250 K, islands are larger and polycrystalline, and island density decreases strongly with increasing temperature. At 300 K, Ag atoms can travel for distances of the order of 1 {micro}m. Assuming that Ag diffusion occurs via thermally activated motion of single atoms between adjacent sites, the data can be explained as follows. At 50-125 K, the island density does not follow conventional Arrhenius scaling due to limited mobility and a consequent breakdown of the steady-state condition for the adatom density. At {approx} 115-125 K, a transition to conventional Arrhenius scaling with critical nucleus size (i = 1) begins, and at 180-250 K, i > 1 prevails. The transition points indicate a diffusion barrier of 0.20-0.23 eV and a pairwise Ag-Ag bond strength of 0.14 eV. These energy values lead to an estimate of i {approx} 3-4 in the regime 180-250 K, where island density varies strongly with temperature.

  8. Raman spectra of R{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Rrare earth) sesquioxides with C-type bixbyite crystal structure: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Abrashev, M. V.; Todorov, N. D.; Geshev, J.

    2014-09-14

    Raman spectra of R{sub 2}O{sub 3} (RSc, Er, Y, Ho, Gd, Eu, and Sm) powders with C-type bixbyite crystal structure are measured. With the help of these data and ones, previously published for other oxides from the same structural family, general dependencies of the frequencies of the Raman peaks on the cubic crystal unit cell parameter are constructed. Using these dependencies and knowing the symmetry of the peaks for one of the oxides, determined from previous single-crystal measurements, it is possible to find out the symmetry of the peaks from the spectra of all compounds. It was found that the frequency of the six lowest frequency peaks scales with the square root of the mass of the rare earth showing that mainly R ions take part in these vibrations. These results agree with performed here lattice dynamical calculations. The anomalous softening of the frequency of some peaks in the spectra of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} is discussed.

  9. De novo germline and postzygotic mutations in AKT3, PIK3R2 and PIK3CA cause a spectrum of related megalencephaly syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; O’Roak, Brian J.; Beddaoui, Margaret; Alcantara, Diana; Conway, Robert L.; St-Onge, Judith; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A.; Gripp, Karen W.; Nikkel, Sarah M.; Worthylake, Thea; Sullivan, Christopher T.; Ward, Thomas R.; Butler, Hailly E.; Kramer, Nancy A.; Albrecht, Beate; Armour, Christine M.; Armstrong, Linlea; Caluseriu, Oana; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Drolet, Beth A.; Innes, A. Micheil; Lauzon, Julie L.; Lin, Angela E.; Mancini, Grazia M. S.; Meschino, Wendy S.; Reggin, James D.; Saggar, Anand K.; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Uyanik, Gökhan; Weksberg, Rosanna; Zirn, Birgit; Beaulieu, Chandree L.; Majewski, Jacek; Bulman, Dennis E.; O’Driscoll, Mark; Shendure, Jay; Graham, John M.; Boycott, Kym M.; Dobyns, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) and megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus (MPPH) syndromes are sporadic overgrowth disorders associated with markedly enlarged brain size and other recognizable features1-5. We performed exome sequencing in three families with MCAP or MPPH and confirmed our initial observations in exomes from 7 MCAP and 174 control individuals, as well as in 40 additional megalencephaly subjects using a combination of Sanger sequencing, restriction-enzyme assays, and targeted deep sequencing. We identified de novo germline or postzygotic mutations in three core components of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. These include two mutations of AKT3, one recurrent mutation of PIK3R2 in 11 unrelated MPPH families, and 15 mostly postzygotic mutations of PIK3CA in 23 MCAP and one MPPH patients. Our data highlight the central role of PI3K/AKT signaling in vascular, limb and brain development, and emphasize the power of massively parallel sequencing in a challenging context of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity combined with postzygotic mosaicism. PMID:22729224

  10. Metabolic engineering of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain capable of simultaneously utilizing glucose and galactose to produce enantiopure (2R,3R)-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiazhang; Chao, Ran; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-05-01

    2,3-Butanediol (BDO) is an important chemical with broad industrial applications and can be naturally produced by many bacteria at high levels. However, the pathogenicity of these native producers is a major obstacle for large scale production. Here we report the engineering of an industrially friendly host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce BDO at high titer and yield. By inactivation of pyruvate decarboxylases (PDCs) followed by overexpression of MTH1 and adaptive evolution, the resultant yeast grew on glucose as the sole carbon source with ethanol production completely eliminated. Moreover, the pdc- strain consumed glucose and galactose simultaneously, which to our knowledge is unprecedented in S. cerevisiae strains. Subsequent introduction of a BDO biosynthetic pathway consisting of the cytosolic acetolactate synthase (cytoILV2), Bacillus subtilis acetolactate decarboxylase (BsAlsD), and the endogenous butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH1) resulted in the production of enantiopure (2R,3R)-butanediol (R-BDO). In shake flask fermentation, a yield over 70% of the theoretical value was achieved. Using fed-batch fermentation, more than 100g/L R-BDO (1100mM) was synthesized from a mixture of glucose and galactose, two major carbohydrate components in red algae. The high titer and yield of the enantiopure R-BDO produced as well as the ability to co-ferment glucose and galactose make our engineered yeast strain a superior host for cost-effective production of bio-based BDO from renewable resources. PMID:24525332

  11. Environmental, Health and Safety Assessment: ATS 7H Program (Phase 3R) Test Activities at the GE Power Systems Gas Turbine Manufacturing Facility, Greenville, SC

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-17

    International Technology Corporation (IT) was contracted by General Electric Company (GE) to assist in the preparation of an Environmental, Health and Safety (HI&3) assessment of the implementation of Phase 3R of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) 7H program at the GE Gas Turbines facility located in Greenville, South Carolina. The assessment was prepared in accordance with GE's contractual agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (GE/DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-95MC3 1176) and supports compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. This report provides a summary of the EH&S review and includes the following: General description of current site operations and EH&S status, Description of proposed ATS 7H-related activities and discussion of the resulting environmental, health, safety and other impacts to the site and surrounding area. Listing of permits and/or licenses required to comply with federal, state and local regulations for proposed 7H-related activities. Assessment of adequacy of current and required permits, licenses, programs and/or plans.

  12. Multipurpose assessment for the quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria in fish and seawater using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yeun; Lee, Jung-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes the first multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay developed, as a multipurpose assessment, for the simultaneous quantification of total bacteria and three Vibrio spp. (V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. anguillarum) in fish and seawater. The consumption of raw finfish as sushi or sashimi has been increasing the chance of Vibrio outbreaks in consumers. Freshness and quality of fishery products also depend on the total bacterial populations present. Results The detection sensitivity of the specific targets for the multiplex assay was 1 CFU mL−1 in pure culture and seawater, and 10 CFU g−1 in fish. While total bacterial counts by the multiplex assay were similar to those obtained by cultural methods, the levels of Vibrio detected by the multiplex assay were generally higher than by cultural methods of the same populations. Among the natural samples without Vibrio spp. inoculation, eight out of 10 seawater and three out of 20 fish samples were determined to contain Vibrio spp. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that this multiplex assay could be useful for the rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria as a multipurpose tool for surveillance of fish and water quality as well as diagnostic method. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24752974

  13. Multipurpose aqueous foamer

    SciTech Connect

    Scherubel, G.A.

    1989-01-10

    An aqueous composition is described containing from about 0.025 to about 1.0 percent by weight of a composition comprising from about 5 to about 20 percent by weight zwitterionic surfactant, from about 10 to about 50 percent by weight cationic surfactant and from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight nonionic surfactant. This patent also describes a foam resulting from incorporation of a gas into the composition and a method of fracturing a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formation comprising injecting a foam into the formation.

  14. Multipurpose spectral imager.

    PubMed

    Sigernes, F; Lorentzen, D A; Heia, K; Svene, T

    2000-06-20

    A small spectral imaging system is presented that images static or moving objects simultaneously as a function of wavelength. The main physical principle is outlined and demonstrated. The instrument is capable of resolving both spectral and spatial information from targets throughout the entire visible region. The spectral domain has a bandpass of 12 A. One can achieve the spatial domain by rotating the system's front mirror with a high-resolution stepper motor. The spatial resolution range from millimeters to several meters depends mainly on the front optics used and whether the target is fixed (static) or movable relative to the instrument. Different applications and examples are explored, including outdoor landscapes, industrial fish-related targets, and ground-level objects observed in the more traditional way from an airborne carrier (remote sensing). Through the examples, we found that the instrument correctly classifies whether a shrimp is peeled and whether it can disclose the spectral and spatial microcharacteristics of targets such as a fish nematode (parasite). In the macroregime, we were able to distinguish a marine vessel from the surrounding sea and sky. A study of the directional spectral albedo from clouds, mountains, snow cover, and vegetation has also been included. With the airborne experiment, the imager successfully classified snow cover, leads, and new and rafted ice, as seen from 10.000 ft (3.048 m). PMID:18345245

  15. A multipurpose digital modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz; Sumida, Joe T.

    1989-01-01

    The theoretical basis and hardware implementation of a versatile device which uses digital signal-processing methods to achieve signal modulation are reported. The carrier-modulation process is formulated as a simple quadrature equation; a generalized description of the signal constellation to be processed is derived; the pulse-shaping scheme is explained; and the system architecture is described in detail and illustrated with diagrams. Experimental results obtained with a breadboard transmitter based on this modulation technique are presented in extensive graphs. The power spectra and eye diagrams generated for different QPSK, 8PSK, and MSK modulation schemes are shown to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. It is suggested that this modulator could be readily implemented in VLSI and mass produced.

  16. Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

  17. Multipurpose composite flywheel

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, B.R.

    1984-11-01

    The twin disk composite flywheel shows that the techniques that were developed at Rocketdyne to successfully design, fabricate, and test high-speed rotating machinery (turbopumps) for rocket engines could be used to develop advanced flywheels. This flywheel not only demonstrates that successful mating of metal flywheel characteristics (high torque and ruggedness) and composite flywheel characteristics (lightweight and high energy density) can be achieved, but the unique design lends itself to easy adaptation to other configurations.

  18. Multipurpose smart hydrogel systems.

    PubMed

    Samchenko, Yu; Ulberg, Z; Korotych, O

    2011-10-14

    This paper represents the review of the last investigations in the field of smart polymeric hydrogels and our contribution to this matter. New hydrogel systems and nanocomposites based on acrylic monomers (acrylamide, acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, N-isopropylacrylamide etc.) with incorporated nanosized colloidal silver, hydroxyapatite and carbon nanotubes with a new set of properties have been obtained and examined. These systems can sharply change their characteristics when minor external physical (electric and magnetic fields, temperature etc.) or chemical (pH, ionic strength) stimuli are applied. Such stimulus-responsive polymeric systems are very promising from the standpoint of different medical applications, especially for the development of intelligent drug delivery systems. On the base of designed hydrogel iontophoretic transdermal therapeutic systems, endoprosthesis for the replacement of bone tissue and hydrogel burns coatings with immobilized mesenchymal cells were obtained and tested. PMID:21782148

  19. Multipurpose hyperspectral imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral i...

  20. Multipurpose Hyperspectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye; Smith, David; Lanoue, Mark A.; Poole, Gavin H.; Heitschmidt, Jerry; Martinez, Luis; Windham, William A.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon

    2005-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral imaging with or without relative movement of the imaging system, and it can be used to scan a target of any size as long as the target can be imaged at the focal plane; for example, automated inspection of food items and identification of single-celled organisms. The spectral resolution of this system is greater than that of prior terrestrial multispectral imaging systems. Moreover, unlike prior high-spectral resolution airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral imaging systems, this system does not rely on relative movement of the target and the imaging system to sweep an imaging line across a scene. This compact system (see figure) consists of a front objective mounted at a translation stage with a motorized actuator, and a line-slit imaging spectrograph mounted within a rotary assembly with a rear adaptor to a charged-coupled-device (CCD) camera. Push-broom scanning is carried out by the motorized actuator which can be controlled either manually by an operator or automatically by a computer to drive the line-slit across an image at a focal plane of the front objective. To reduce the cost, the system has been designed to integrate as many as possible off-the-shelf components including the CCD camera and spectrograph. The system has achieved high spectral and spatial resolutions by using a high-quality CCD camera, spectrograph, and front objective lens. Fixtures for attachment of the system to a microscope (U.S. Patent 6,495,818 B1) make it possible to acquire multispectral images of single cells and other microscopic objects.

  1. GacS-dependent production of 2R, 3R-butanediol by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 is a major determinant for eliciting systemic resistance against Erwinia carotovora but not against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Han, Song Hee; Lee, Seung Je; Moon, Jae Hak; Park, Keun Hyung; Yang, Kwang Yeol; Cho, Balk Ho; Kim, Kil Yong; Kim, Yong Whan; Lee, Myung Chul; Anderson, Anne J; Kim, Young Cheol

    2006-08-01

    Root colonization by a plant-beneficial rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, induces disease resistance in tobacco against leaf pathogens Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora SCC1, causing soft-rot, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, causing wildfire. In order to identify the bacterial determinants involved in induced systemic resistance against plant diseases, extracellular components produced by the bacterium were fractionated and purified. Factors in the culture filtrate inducing systemic resistance were retained in the aqueous fraction rather than being partitioned into ethyl acetate. Fractionation on high-performance liquid chromatography followed by nuclear magnetic resonance mass spectrometry analysis identified the active compound as 2R, 3R-butanediol. 2R, 3R butanediol induced systemic resistance in tobacco to E. carotovora subsp. carotovora SCC1, but not to P. syringae pv. tabaci. Treatment of tobacco with the volatile 2R, 3R-butanediol enhanced aerial growth, a phenomenon also seen in plants colonized by P. chlororaphis O6. The isomeric form of the butanediol was important because 2S, 3S-butandiol did not affect the plant. The global sensor kinase, GacS, of P. chlororaphis O6 was a key regulator for induced systemic resistance against E. carotovora through regulation of 2R, 3R-butanediol production. This is the first report of the production of these assumed fermentation products by a pseudomonad and the role of the sensor kinase GacS in production of 2R, 3R-butanediol. PMID:16903358

  2. Divergent enhancer haplotype of ebony on inversion In(3R)Payne associated with pigmentation variation in a tropical population of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Aya; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    The pattern and intensity of pigmentation have direct impact on individual fitness through various ecological factors. In a Drosophila melanogaster population from southern Japan, thoracic trident pigmentation intensity of most of the strains could be classified into Dark or Light-type. The expression level variation of the ebony gene correlated well with this phenotype and the allelic differences in expression indicated that the variation is partly due to cis-regulatory changes. In the ?13?kb gene region, we identified 17 nucleotide sites and 2 indels that were in complete association with the thoracic trident pigmentation intensity. Interestingly, 11 out of 19 sites located within ?0.5?kb of the core epidermis enhancer. These sites had no obvious association with the abdominal pigmentation intensity in the previously analysed African populations from Uganda and Kenya, which suggested that multiple potential mutational pathways in the cis-regulatory control region of a single gene could lead to similar phenotypic variation within this species. We also found that the Light-type enhancer haplotype is strongly linked to a cosmopolitan inversion, In(3R)Payne, which is predominant in warmer climatic regions in both hemispheres. The sequence pattern suggested that the strong linkage may be due to selective forces related to thermal adaptation. The inferred selection for lighter pigmentation in the Japanese population is in the opposite direction of the previously reported case of selection for darker individuals in African populations. Nevertheless, both adaptive changes involved cis-regulatory changes of ebony, which shows that this gene is likely to be a common target of natural selection. PMID:21914015

  3. Vertebrate Vitellogenin Gene Duplication in Relation to the “3R Hypothesis”: Correlation to the Pelagic Egg and the Oceanic Radiation of Teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Roderick Nigel; Kristoffersen, Børge A.

    2007-01-01

    The spiny ray-finned teleost fishes (Acanthomorpha) are the most successful group of vertebrates in terms of species diversity. Their meteoric radiation and speciation in the oceans during the late Cretaceous and Eocene epoch is unprecedented in vertebrate history, occurring in one third of the time for similar diversity to appear in the birds and mammals. The success of marine teleosts is even more remarkable considering their long freshwater ancestry, since it implies solving major physiological challenges when freely broadcasting their eggs in the hyper-osmotic conditions of seawater. Most extant marine teleosts spawn highly hydrated pelagic eggs, due to differential proteolysis of vitellogenin (Vtg)-derived yolk proteins. The maturational degradation of Vtg involves depolymerization of mainly the lipovitellin heavy chain (LvH) of one form of Vtg to generate a large pool of free amino acids (FAA 150–200 mM). This organic osmolyte pool drives hydration of the ooctye while still protected within the maternal ovary. In the present contribution, we have used Bayesian analysis to examine the evolution of vertebrate Vtg genes in relation to the “3R hypothesis” of whole genome duplication (WGD) and the functional end points of LvH degradation during oocyte maturation. We find that teleost Vtgs have experienced a post-R3 lineage-specific gene duplication to form paralogous clusters that correlate to the pelagic and benthic character of the eggs. Neo-functionalization allowed one paralogue to be proteolyzed to FAA driving hydration of the maturing oocytes, which pre-adapts them to the marine environment and causes them to float. The timing of these events matches the appearance of the Acanthomorpha in the fossil record. We discuss the significance of these adaptations in relation to ancestral physiological features, and propose that the neo-functionalization of duplicated Vtg genes was a key event in the evolution and success of the teleosts in the oceanic environment. PMID:17245445

  4. Ultrafast electron dynamics and recombination at the Ge(1 1 1):Sn(√{3}×√{3})R30° surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Månsson, M.; Tjernberg, O.; Göthelid, M.; Grishin, M. A.; Claesson, T.; Karlsson, U. O.

    2008-03-01

    We present the first study revealing the electronic structure and electron dynamics of the excited adatom state at the Ge(1 1 1):Sn(√{3}×√{3})R30° surface. By the use of time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, the normally unoccupied electronic structure of the partly empty Sn adatom can be probed. From the angle-resolved data we conclude that the adatom electrons at the Ge:Sn surface are more delocalized than at the clean Ge(1 1 1)c(2×8) surface. A unique pump-and-probe technique, based on a pulsed femtosecond laser-system, has also allowed us to study the recombination process of the excited state. We connect the recombination process of the excited electrons to the coherent fluctuations of the Sn adatoms. As a result we present an estimate for the time between each collective and coherent adatom flip Δt=9 ps, i.e. an adatom switching frequency ν≈0.1 THz. We find that our results, contrary to scanning tunneling microscopy measurements [F. Ronci, S. Colonna, S.D. Thorpe, A. Cricenti, G. Le Lay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 156101], agree very well with values extracted from molecular dynamics simulations found in the literature [J. Avila, A. Mascaraque, E.G. Michel, M.C. Asensio, G. Le Lay, J. Ortega, R. Pérez, F. Flores, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 442; D. Farias, W. Kaminski, J. Lobo, J. Ortega, E. Hulpke, R. Perez, F. Flores, E.G. Michel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 16103].

  5. Charge disproportionation in RNiO3 (R= Tm, Yb) perovskites observed in situ by neutron diffraction and 57Fe probe Mssbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, J. A.; Martnez-Lope, M. J.; Presniakov, I. A.; Sobolev, A. V.; Rusakov, V. S.; Gapochka, A. M.; Demazeau, G.; Fernndez-Daz, M. T.

    2013-05-01

    An in-situ investigation from high-resolution neutron powder diffraction data on the structural evolution of TmNiO3 and YbNiO3 perovskites across the metal-insulator transition, with TMI = 596 K and 598 K, respectively, allowed the charge disproportionation effect that these perovskites experience upon electronic localization below TMI to be followed. In the insulating (semiconducting) regime, the perovskites are monoclinic, space group P21/n, containing two inequivalent Ni1(3+?)+ and Ni2(3-?)+ cations; above TMI, the samples become orthorhombic, space group Pbnm, with a single site for Ni3+. The 57Fe Mssbauer spectra of iron-doped (at 1.5%) RNiO3 (R = Tm, Yb) samples recorded below TMI exhibit for Fe1 and Fe2 (replacing Ni1 and Ni2 sites) hyperfine parameters corresponding to large (Ni1O6) and small (Ni2O6) octahedra. The remarkable difference between the quadrupole splittings (?1 ? 0.3 mm/s and ?2 ? 0.07 mm/s) of Fe1 and Fe2 sites in RNi0.985Fe0.015O3 is analyzed. We calculate the lattice contribution to the electric field gradient (EFG) at 57Fe ions, and estimate, by using the experimental ?1 and ?2 values, the contributions of the 3d, 3p, and 2p electrons (overlap distortion and covalence effects). Above TMI, a unique state for iron atoms is observed, upon metallization of the sample.

  6. A novel photoelectrochemical sensor based on PPIX-functionalized WO3-rGO nanohybrid-decorated ITO electrode for detecting cysteine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Zhang, Kun; Chen, Lijian; Guo, Lintong; Ai, Shiyun

    2013-06-15

    A universal photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing platform was fabricated based on the composition of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), tungsten trioxide (WO3) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode for detecting cysteine in aqueous solution. The rGO layer was not only providing bridges for the ITO electrode to anchor tightly with the WO3 nanostructures, but behaved as an electron transfer medium to enhance the electron transport from the conduction band (CB) of WO3. Furthermore, the strong absorption coefficient of porphyrin adsorbed onto WO3 nanoplates by bidentate binding could significantly improve the photocurrent density and slow charge recombination kinetics through the ultrafast electron injection. The SEM, XRD, and DRS were employed to characterize the prepared nanomaterials and modified-ITO electrodes. The results showed that the PPIX-WO3-rGO/ITO electrode could render the capability of absorbing a broad UV-vis light and displayed excellent photocurrent response in 0.1M pH 7.0 PBS with excitation wavelength at 380 nm, which could be notably improved upon addition of cysteine at 0.3 V. Based on the enhanced photocurrent signal, a novel method for PEC detection of cysteine was developed with a linear range of 0.1 to 100 ?M in 0.1M PBS (pH 7.0). The detection limit was 25 nM (3?). And higher stability and selectivity were obtained. The novel strategy could provide a fast and sensitive method for cysteine analysis. PMID:23391706

  7. Association between Genetic Polymorphisms in Cav2.3 (R-type) Ca2+ Channels and Fentanyl Sensitivity in Patients Undergoing Painful Cosmetic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Ken-ichi; Kasai, Shinya; Hasegawa, Junko; Hayashida, Masakazu; Minami, Masabumi; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences in the sensitivity to fentanyl, a widely used opioid analgesic, lead to different proper doses of fentanyl, which can hamper effective pain treatment. Voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (VACCs) play a crucial role in the nervous system by controlling membrane excitability and calcium signaling. Cav2.3 (R-type) VACCs have been especially thought to play critical roles in pain pathways and the analgesic effects of opioids. However, unknown is whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human CACNA1E (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit) gene that encodes Cav2.3 VACCs influence the analgesic effects of opioids. Thus, the present study examined associations between fentanyl sensitivity and SNPs in the human CACNA1E gene in 355 Japanese patients who underwent painful orofacial cosmetic surgery, including bone dissection. We first conducted linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses of 223 SNPs in a region that contains the CACNA1E gene using genomic samples from 100 patients, and a total of 13 LD blocks with 42 Tag SNPs were observed within and around the CACNA1E gene region. In the preliminary study using the same 100 genomic samples, only the rs3845446 A/G SNP was significantly associated with perioperative fentanyl use among these 42 Tag SNPs. In a confirmatory study using the other 255 genomic samples, this SNP was also significantly associated with perioperative fentanyl use. Thus, we further analyzed associations between genotypes of this SNP and all of the clinical data using a total of 355 samples. The rs3845446 A/G SNP was associated with intraoperative fentanyl use, 24 h postoperative fentanyl requirements, and perioperative fentanyl use. Subjects who carried the minor G allele required significantly less fentanyl for pain control compared with subjects who did not carry this allele. Although further validation is needed, the present findings show the possibility of the involvement of CACNA1E gene polymorphisms in fentanyl sensitivity. PMID:23940630

  8. Belford proactive flood solutions: scientific evidence to influence local and national policy by multi-purpose runoff management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, M.; Quinn, P. F.; Jonczyk, J.

    2010-12-01

    The increased risk from flooding continues to be of concern to governments all around the world and flood protection is becoming more of a challenge. In the UK, climate change projections indicate more extremes within the weather systems. In addition, there is an increased demand for using land in urban areas beside channels. These developments both put pressure on our flood defences and there is a need for new solutions to managing flood risk. There is currently support within the England and Wales Environment Agency for sustainable flood management solutions such as storage ponds, wetlands, beaver dams and willow riparian features (referred to here as Runoff Attenuation Features, or RAFs). However the effectiveness of RAFs are not known at the catchment scale since they have only really been trailed at the plot scale. These types of mitigation measure can offer benefits to water quality and create ecological habitats. The village of Belford, situated in the Belford Burn catchment (6km2), northern England, has suffered from numerous flood events. In addition, the catchment suffers from water quality issues within the channel and high sediment loads are having an impact on the ecology of the nearby estuary. There was a desire by the Local Environment Agency Flood Levy team to deliver an alternative catchment-based solution to the problem. With funding from the Northumbria Regional Flood Defence Committee, the Environment Agency North East Local Levy team and Newcastle University have created a partnership to address the flood problem trailing soft engineered RAFs at the catchment scale. The partnership project, Belford proactive flood solutions is testing novel techniques in reducing flood risk in small sub-catchments for the Environment Agency. The project provides the information needed to understand whether the multi-functional mitigation measures are working at the sub-catchment scale. Data suggest that the mitigation measures present have delayed the overall travel time of the flood peak in the catchment by 33%. The current maximum flood storage capacity of all the features stands at around 15,000 m3. The evidence also suggests that a dam like in-stream mitigation measure can significantly reduce sediment load. Other benefits of some mitigation features include large increase in the population of water voles over the past two years. The scheme also acts as a demonstration site for interested stakeholders where they can learn about this approach to flood risk management and see the multipurpose benefits. As the project has progressed and lessons have been learnt, it has been possible to develop a runoff management toolkit for implementing these mitigation measures in other catchments of similar size. Already, the local Environment Agency has utilised the tools and recently applied similar mitigation measures to other catchments. On-going modelling exercises in the project are using the data to explore the up-scaling of the features to larger catchments.

  9. PIK3R1 negatively regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem-like phenotype of renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Youcheng; Yang, Zhao; Xu, Abai; Dong, Pei; Huang, Yi; Liu, Huan; Li, Feida; Wang, Haifeng; Xu, Qian; Wang, Yongqiang; Sun, Da; Zou, Yong; Zou, Xiaowen; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Duo; Liu, Hongjie; Wu, Xun; Zhang, Meng; Fu, Yu; Cai, Zhiming; Liu, Chunxiao; Wu, Song

    2015-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway has been identified as an important pathway in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We have reported a nonsense mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the regulatory subunit of PI3K, in a metastatic RCC (mRCC), while the mutation was absent in the corresponding primary RCC (pRCC). To identify the function of PIK3R1 in RCC, we examined its expression in normal kidney, pRCC and mRCC by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of PIK3R1 significantly decreased in pRCC and was further reduced in mRCC compared with normal tissue. Besides, its expression levels were negatively correlated with T-category of tumor stage. Additionally, 786-O and A-704 cells with PIK3R1 depletion introduced by CRISPR/Cas9 system displayed enhanced proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and acquired a stem-like phenotype. Moreover, the PIK3R1 depletion promoted the phosphorylation of AKT in the cells. The knockdown of AKT by shRNA reduced p-GSK3? and CTNNB1 expression in the cells, while the depletion of CTNNB1 impaired stem-like phenotype of the cells. Overall, PIK3R1 down-regulation in RCC promotes propagation, migration, EMT and stem-like phenotype in renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 pathway, and may contribute to progression and metastasis of RCC. PMID:25757764

  10. PIK3R1 negatively regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem-like phenotype of renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Youcheng; Yang, Zhao; Xu, Abai; Dong, Pei; Huang, Yi; Liu, Huan; Li, Feida; Wang, Haifeng; Xu, Qian; Wang, Yongqiang; Sun, Da; Zou, Yong; Zou, Xiaowen; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Duo; Liu, Hongjie; Wu, Xun; Zhang, Meng; Fu, Yu; Cai, Zhiming; Liu, Chunxiao; Wu, Song

    2015-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway has been identified as an important pathway in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We have reported a nonsense mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the regulatory subunit of PI3K, in a metastatic RCC (mRCC), while the mutation was absent in the corresponding primary RCC (pRCC). To identify the function of PIK3R1 in RCC, we examined its expression in normal kidney, pRCC and mRCC by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of PIK3R1 significantly decreased in pRCC and was further reduced in mRCC compared with normal tissue. Besides, its expression levels were negatively correlated with T-category of tumor stage. Additionally, 786-O and A-704 cells with PIK3R1 depletion introduced by CRISPR/Cas9 system displayed enhanced proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and acquired a stem-like phenotype. Moreover, the PIK3R1 depletion promoted the phosphorylation of AKT in the cells. The knockdown of AKT by shRNA reduced p-GSK3? and CTNNB1 expression in the cells, while the depletion of CTNNB1 impaired stem-like phenotype of the cells. Overall, PIK3R1 down-regulation in RCC promotes propagation, migration, EMT and stem-like phenotype in renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 pathway, and may contribute to progression and metastasis of RCC. PMID:25757764

  11. Combined first-principles and model Hamiltonian study of the perovskite series R MnO 3 (R =La ,Pr ,Nd ,Sm ,Eu , and Gd )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováčik, Roman; Murthy, Sowmya Sathyanarayana; Quiroga, Carmen E.; Ederer, Claude; Franchini, Cesare

    2016-02-01

    We merge advanced ab initio schemes (standard density functional theory, hybrid functionals, and the G W approximation) with model Hamiltonian approaches (tight-binding and Heisenberg Hamiltonian) to study the evolution of the electronic, magnetic, and dielectric properties of the manganite family R MnO3 (R =La,Pr,Nd,Sm,Eu, and Gd) . The link between first principles and tight binding is established by downfolding the physically relevant subset of 3 d bands with eg character by means of maximally localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) using the VASP2WANNIER90 interface. The MLWFs are then used to construct a general tight-binding Hamiltonian written as a sum of the kinetic term, the Hund's rule coupling, the JT coupling, and the electron-electron interaction. The dispersion of the tight-binding (TB) eg bands at all levels are found to match closely the MLWFs. We provide a complete set of TB parameters which can serve as guidance for the interpretation of future studies based on many-body Hamiltonian approaches. In particular, we find that the Hund's rule coupling strength, the Jahn-Teller coupling strength, and the Hubbard interaction parameter U remain nearly constant for all the members of the R MnO3 series, whereas the nearest-neighbor hopping amplitudes show a monotonic attenuation as expected from the trend of the tolerance factor. Magnetic exchange interactions, computed by mapping a large set of hybrid functional total energies onto an Heisenberg Hamiltonian, clarify the origin of the A-type magnetic ordering observed in the early rare-earth manganite series as arising from a net negative out-of-plane interaction energy. The obtained exchange parameters are used to estimate the Néel temperature by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting data capture well the monotonic decrease of the ordering temperature down the series from R =La to Gd, in agreement with experiments. This trend correlates well with the modulation of structural properties, in particular with the progressive reduction of the Mn-O-Mn bond angle which is associated with the quenching of the volume and the decrease of the tolerance factor due to the shrinkage of the ionic radii of R going from La to Gd.

  12. TH-A-19A-08: Intel Xeon Phi Implementation of a Fast Multi-Purpose Monte Carlo Simulation for Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Souris, K; Lee, J; Sterpin, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of graphics processing units (GPUs) to compute dose distributions using Monte Carlo (MC) methods within clinical time constraints. However, GPUs have a rigid vectorial architecture that favors the implementation of simplified particle transport algorithms, adapted to specific tasks. Our new, fast, and multipurpose MC code, named MCsquare, runs on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. This technology offers 60 independent cores, and therefore more flexibility to implement fast and yet generic MC functionalities, such as prompt gamma simulations. Methods: MCsquare implements several models and hence allows users to make their own tradeoff between speed and accuracy. A 200 MeV proton beam is simulated in a heterogeneous phantom using Geant4 and two configurations of MCsquare. The first one is the most conservative and accurate. The method of fictitious interactions handles the interfaces and secondary charged particles emitted in nuclear interactions are fully simulated. The second, faster configuration simplifies interface crossings and simulates only secondary protons after nuclear interaction events. Integral depth-dose and transversal profiles are compared to those of Geant4. Moreover, the production profile of prompt gammas is compared to PENH results. Results: Integral depth dose and transversal profiles computed by MCsquare and Geant4 are within 3%. The production of secondaries from nuclear interactions is slightly inaccurate at interfaces for the fastest configuration of MCsquare but this is unlikely to have any clinical impact. The computation time varies between 90 seconds for the most conservative settings to merely 59 seconds in the fastest configuration. Finally prompt gamma profiles are also in very good agreement with PENH results. Conclusion: Our new, fast, and multi-purpose Monte Carlo code simulates prompt gammas and calculates dose distributions in less than a minute, which complies with clinical time constraints. It has been successfully validated with Geant4. This work has been financialy supported by InVivoIGT, a public/private partnership between UCL and IBA.

  13. Operation and maintenance of a new hazardous waste multi-purpose rotary kiln incinerator (system) in compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency and Louisiana (US) regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fontenot, M.M. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The proper management of hazardous and non-hazardous waste generated by modern society will continue to be a challenge for the world. Waste minimization and recycling practices will play a significant role in reducing the amount of waste to be managed. Total elimination of all waste in present day society is unlikely to occur in the future. Therefore, generators must take a proactive and responsible care approach to manage their wastes. An effective treatment operation to manage combustible waste is incineration. Properly designed, high efficiency waste incineration systems are very effective treatment solutions for waste management, particularly when compared to land disposal alternatives. High temperature incineration provides a permanent solution for destroying combustible waste and eliminate harmful or toxic organic constituents in the waste. The Novartis Crop Protection, Inc., St. Gabriel Facility, top environmental priority in the management of waste is to minimize waste at the source. The remaining wastes are recycled, detoxified, and/or incinerated. Land disposal of waste is the last resort for waste management. To achieve the St. Gabriel Facility waste management priorities, a new multi-purpose rotary kiln incinerator was constructed in 1992--93. The incinerator is the first of its kind constructed and permitted in the State of Louisiana since the promulgation of RCRA. The final operating conditions under RCRA were obtained from the regulatory agencies in 1996. This paper will discuss the operating and maintenance programs that were implemented for the new multi-purpose rotary kiln incinerator system to meet the RCRA permit conditions. A review of the preventative maintenance programs (i.e., equipment, monitors, analyzers), computer control, waste analysis, tracking of key parameters, operational cost and equipment reliability of the incinerator system will be presented.

  14. Synthesis of New 6-{[?-(Dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones and Evaluation of their Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Berest, Galina G.; Voskoboynik, Olexiy Y.; Kovalenko, Sergiy I.; Nosulenko, Inna S.; Antypenko, Lyudmyla M.; Antypenko, Olexii M.; Shvets, Volodymyr M.; Katsev, Andriy M.

    2012-01-01

    Several novel 6-thio-3-R-2-oxo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-based compounds containing an ?-(dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)]alkyl fragment were synthesized to examine their anticancer activity. Some of the 6-{[?-(hetero-cyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (3.13.10) were obtained by the nucleophilic substitution of 6-[?-halogenalkyl]thio-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (2.12.8) with azaheterocycles. Alternatively, compounds 3.13.22 were synthesized by alkylation of 3-R-6-thio-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones potassium salts (1.11.4) with (2-chloroethyl)-N,N-dialkylamine hydrochlorides or 1-(2-chloroethyl)heterocycle hydrochlorides. The structures of compounds were elucidated by 1H, 13C NMR, LCMS and EI-MS analysis. Then anticancer and antibacterial, bioluminescence inhibition of Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 activities of the substances were tested in vitro. It was found that compound 3.18 possessed a wide range of anticancer activity against 27 cell lines of cancer: non-small cell lung, colon, CNS, ovarian, renal, prostate, breast, melanoma and leukemia (log GI50 < ?5.65). The structure-activity relationship was discussed. COMPARE analysis for synthesized anticancer active compounds was performed. PMID:22396903

  15. PIK3R1 targeting by miR-21 suppresses tumor cell migration and invasion by reducing PI3K/AKT signaling and reversing EMT, and predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    YAN, LI-XU; LIU, YAN-HUI; XIANG, JIAN-WEN; WU, QI-NIAN; XU, LEI-BO; LUO, XIN-LAN; ZHU, XIAO-LAN; LIU, CHAO; XU, FANG-PING; LUO, DONG-LAN; MEI, PING; XU, JIE; ZHANG, KE-PING; CHEN, JIE

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that dysregulation of miR-21 functioned as an oncomiR in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which miR-21 regulate breast tumor migration and invasion. We applied pathway analysis on genome microarray data and target-predicting algorithms for miR-21 target screening, and used luciferase reporting assay to confirm the direct target. Thereafter, we investigated the function of the target gene phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (α) (PIK3R1), and detected PIK3R1 coding protein (p85α) by immunohistochemistry and miR-21 by RT-qPCR on 320 archival paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer to evaluate the correlation of their expression with prognosis. First, we found that PIK3R1 suppressed growth, invasiveness, and metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. Next, we identified the PIK3R1 as a direct target of miR-21 and showed that it was negatively regulated by miR-21. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p85α overexpression phenocopied the suppression effects of antimiR-21 on breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, indicating its tumor suppressor role in breast cancer. On the contrary, PIK3R1 knockdown abrogated antimiR-21-induced effect on breast cancer cells. Notably, antimiR-21 induction increased p85α, accompanied by decreased p-AKT level. Besides, antimiR-21/PIK3R1-induced suppression of invasiveness in breast cancer cells was mediated by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). p85α downregulation was found in 25 (7.8%) of the 320 breast cancer patients, and was associated with inferior 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Taken together, we provide novel evidence that miR-21 knockdown suppresses cell growth, migration and invasion partly by inhibiting PI3K/AKT activation via direct targeting PIK3R1 and reversing EMT in breast cancer. p85α downregulation defined a specific subgroup of breast cancer with shorter 5-year DFS and OS, which may require more aggressive treatment. PMID:26676464

  16. PIK3R1 targeting by miR-21 suppresses tumor cell migration and invasion by reducing PI3K/AKT signaling and reversing EMT, and predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Xu; Liu, Yan-Hui; Xiang, Jian-Wen; Wu, Qi-Nian; Xu, Lei-Bo; Luo, Xin-Lan; Zhu, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Chao; Xu, Fang-Ping; Luo, Dong-Lan; Mei, Ping; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Ke-Ping; Chen, Jie

    2016-02-01

    We have previously shown that dysregulation of miR-21 functioned as an oncomiR in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which miR-21 regulate breast tumor migration and invasion. We applied pathway analysis on genome microarray data and target-predicting algorithms for miR-21 target screening, and used luciferase reporting assay to confirm the direct target. Thereafter, we investigated the function of the target gene phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit1(?) (PIK3R1), and detected PIK3R1 coding protein (p85?) by immunohistochemistry and miR-21 by RT-qPCR on 320 archival paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer to evaluate the correlation of their expression with prognosis. First, we found that PIK3R1 suppressed growth, invasiveness, and metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. Next, we identified the PIK3R1 as a direct target of miR-21 and showed that it was negatively regulated by miR-21. Furthermore, we demonstrated thatp85? overexpression phenocopied the suppression effects of antimiR-21 on breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, indicating its tumor suppressor role in breast cancer. On the contrary, PIK3R1 knockdown abrogated antimiR?21-induced effect on breast cancer cells. Notably, antimiR-21 induction increased p85?, accompanied by decreased p-AKT level. Besides, antimiR-21/PIK3R1-induced suppression of invasiveness in breast cancer cells was mediated by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). p85? downregulation was found in 25 (7.8%) of the 320 breast cancer patients, and was associated with inferior 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Taken together, we provide novel evidence that miR-21 knockdown suppresses cell growth, migration and invasion partly by inhibiting PI3K/AKT activation via direct targeting PIK3R1 and reversing EMT in breast cancer. p85? downregulation defined a specific subgroup of breast cancer with shorter 5-year DFS and OS, which may require more aggressive treatment. PMID:26676464

  17. Genetic variant screening of MC3R and MC4R genes in early-onset obese children and their relatives among a Thai population: family-based study.

    PubMed

    Wannaiampikul, S; Phonrat, B; Tungtrongchitr, A; Limwongse, C; Chongviriyaphan, N; Santiprabhob, J; Tungtrongchitr, R

    2015-01-01

    MC3R (melanocortin-3 receptor) and MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor) play important roles in energy homeostasis. Severe early-onset obesity, known as monogenic obesity when it is the consequence of a mutation in a single-gene product, may result when energy homeostasis is disrupted. The purpose of our study was to screen for variations of the MC3R and MC4R genes and observe the mode of inheritance of variations in affected families. We used polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing to analyze the 11 early-onset obese children (probands) with their 71 family members, together with DNA from 100 healthy subjects used as controls. No novel mutations were found in the MC3R gene. Two previously described polymorphisms, rs3746619 and rs3827103, were detected in the MC3R gene. It was not associated with any obesity-related phenotypes. Three heterozygous variations of the MC4R gene were detected in 3 of 11 probands. The rs34114122 and rs61741819 variations have previously been reported, but rs182455344 was novel. Moreover, each MC4R variant was also found in a number of family members, indicating that this molecular analysis of a family-based study showed an autosomal dominant pattern. Our study indicated that MC4R variations in early-onset obese Thai children were found, and transmission of these variations in each family is in the dominant pattern. These variants could possibly contribute to a genetic influence of early-onset obesity in Thais. There is no evidence of any association between MC3R variations and obesity. PMID:26782456

  18. (3R,5S,7as)-(3,5-bis(4-Fluorophenyl)tetrahydro-1H-oxazolo[3,4-c]oxazol-7a-yl)methanol: A Novel Neuroprotective Agent

    PubMed Central

    Desino, Kelly E.; Ansar, Sabah; Georg, Gunda I.; Himes, Richard H.; Michaelis, Mary Lou; Powell, Douglas R.; Reiff, Emily A.; Telikepalli, Hanumaiah; Audus, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Compounds that interact with microtubules, such as paclitaxel, have been shown to possess protective properties against ?-amyloid (A?)-induced neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease. In this work, the novel agent (3R,5S,7as)-(3,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)tetrahydro-1H-oxazolo[3,4-c]oxazol-7a-yl)methanol was investigated for effectiveness in protecting neurons against several toxic stimuli and its interaction with the microtubule network. Exposure of neuronal cultures to A? peptide in the presence of 5 nM (3R,5S,7as)-(3,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)tetrahydro-1H-oxazolo[3,4-c]oxazol-7a-yl)methanol resulted in a 50% increase in survival. Neuronal cultures treated with other toxic stimuli such as staurosporine, thapsigargin, paraquat and H2O2 showed significantly enhanced survival in the presence of (3R,5S,7as)-(3,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)tetrahydro-1H-oxazolo[3,4-c]oxazol-7a-yl)methanol. Microtubule binding and tubulin assembly studies revealed differences compared to paclitaxel, but confirmed the interaction of (3R,5S,7as)-(3,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)tetrahydro-1H-oxazolo[3,4-c]oxazol-7a-yl)methanol with microtubules. Furthermore, in vitro studies using bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells experiments suggest that (3R,5S,7as)-(3,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)tetrahydro-1H-oxazolo[3,4-c]oxazol-7a-yl)methanol can readily cross the blood-brain barrier in a passive manner. PMID:19728715

  19. [ret/PtC1 and ret/PTC3r1 rearrangement in thyroid cancer cells, arising in residents of Belorus in the period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant].

    PubMed

    Pisarchik, A V; Iarmolinskiĭ, D G; Demidchik, Iu E; Ermak, G Z; Kartel', N A; Figge, J

    2000-07-01

    After the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, a considerable increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children in Belarus was observed. In the present study, the frequency of the c-ret protooncogene rearrangements in samples of thyroid carcinomas resected and diagnosed in 1998 from individuals in Belarus was investigated. The ret/PTC1 oncogene was detected in 19% of the samples, and the ret/PTC3r1 oncogene, in 14%. The number of ret/PTC1 rearrangements observed in tumor cells from the patients whose age at the time of the accident was from 1 to 10 years, was greater compared to those whose age at the time was from 10 to 20 years, irrespective of the year of surgery (1996 or 1998). The majority of the patients with ret/PTC3r1 rearrangements lived in Gomel oblast, which was contaminated by the Chernobyl meltdown. PMID:10994501

  20. The wavy Mutation Maps to the Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate 3-Kinase 2 (IP3K2) Gene of Drosophila and Interacts with IP3R to Affect Wing Development

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Derek M.; Maroja, Luana S.; Cottrill, Sarah; Bomkamp, Brent E.; Westervelt, Kathleen A.; Deitcher, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) regulates a host of biological processes from egg activation to cell death. When IP3-specific receptors (IP3Rs) bind to IP3, they release calcium from the ER into the cytoplasm, triggering a variety of cell type- and developmental stage-specific responses. Alternatively, inositol polyphosphate kinases can phosphorylate IP3; this limits IP3R activation by reducing IP3 levels, and also generates new signaling molecules altogether. These divergent pathways draw from the same IP3 pool yet cause very different cellular responses. Therefore, controlling the relative rates of IP3R activation vs. phosphorylation of IP3 is essential for proper cell functioning. Establishing a model system that sensitively reports the net output of IP3 signaling is crucial for identifying the controlling genes. Here we report that mutant alleles of wavy (wy), a classic locus of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, map to IP3 3-kinase 2 (IP3K2), a member of the inositol polyphosphate kinase gene family. Mutations in wy disrupt wing structure in a highly specific pattern. RNAi experiments using GAL4 and GAL80ts indicated that IP3K2 function is required in the wing discs of early pupae for normal wing development. Gradations in the severity of the wy phenotype provide high-resolution readouts of IP3K2 function and of overall IP3 signaling, giving this system strong potential as a model for further study of the IP3 signaling network. In proof of concept, a dominant modifier screen revealed that mutations in IP3R strongly suppress the wy phenotype, suggesting that the wy phenotype results from reduced IP4 levels, and/or excessive IP3R signaling. PMID:26613949

  1. The wavy Mutation Maps to the Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate 3-Kinase 2 (IP3K2) Gene of Drosophila and Interacts with IP3R to Affect Wing Development.

    PubMed

    Dean, Derek M; Maroja, Luana S; Cottrill, Sarah; Bomkamp, Brent E; Westervelt, Kathleen A; Deitcher, David L

    2015-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) regulates a host of biological processes from egg activation to cell death. When IP3-specific receptors (IP3Rs) bind to IP3, they release calcium from the ER into the cytoplasm, triggering a variety of cell type- and developmental stage-specific responses. Alternatively, inositol polyphosphate kinases can phosphorylate IP3; this limits IP3R activation by reducing IP3 levels, and also generates new signaling molecules altogether. These divergent pathways draw from the same IP3 pool yet cause very different cellular responses. Therefore, controlling the relative rates of IP3R activation vs. phosphorylation of IP3 is essential for proper cell functioning. Establishing a model system that sensitively reports the net output of IP3 signaling is crucial for identifying the controlling genes. Here we report that mutant alleles of wavy (wy), a classic locus of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, map to IP3 3-kinase 2 (IP3K2), a member of the inositol polyphosphate kinase gene family. Mutations in wy disrupt wing structure in a highly specific pattern. RNAi experiments using GAL4 and GAL80(ts) indicated that IP3K2 function is required in the wing discs of early pupae for normal wing development. Gradations in the severity of the wy phenotype provide high-resolution readouts of IP3K2 function and of overall IP3 signaling, giving this system strong potential as a model for further study of the IP3 signaling network. In proof of concept, a dominant modifier screen revealed that mutations in IP3R strongly suppress the wy phenotype, suggesting that the wy phenotype results from reduced IP4 levels, and/or excessive IP3R signaling. PMID:26613949

  2. 78 FR 56921 - South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), in coordination with the California State Coastal Conservancy, are preparing a joint environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the proposed restoration of ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19, A20, and A21 at the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in Alameda, Santa Clara and San Mateo Counties,......

  3. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) blocks the effects of asthma by negatively regulating NF-κB signaling through IGFBP-3R-mediated activation of caspases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Chul; Jogie-Brahim, Sherryline; Lee, Dae-Yeol; Han, Jinfeng; Harada, Aki; Murphy, Liam J; Oh, Youngman

    2011-05-20

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is a multifunctional protein known for modulating mitogenic and metabolic actions of IGFs as well as exerting a variety of biological actions not involving IGFs. Here, we show that IGFBP-3 blocks specific physiological consequences of asthma in an IGF-independent manner in vitro and in vivo. IGFBP-3 treatment effectively reduced all physiological manifestations of asthma examined in vivo (airway hyper-responsiveness, cellular and pathological changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue, and expression of numerous proinflammatory molecules). These unique IGFBP-3 effects were further confirmed in IGFBP-3-transgenic mice, thus strengthening the notion of IGFBP-3 actions within the respiratory system. Using human epithelial cells, we demonstrated the following: 1) IGFBP-3 blocks TNF-α-induced expression of proinflammatory molecules; 2) IGFBP-3 attenuates the TNF-α-induced migratory response of eosinophils; and 3) IGFBP-3 negatively regulates TNF-α-induced expression of the key NF-κB regulatory molecules IκBα and p65-NF-κB at the post-translational level. We identified that IGFBP-3 degrades IκBα and p65-NF-κB proteins through IGFBP-3 receptor (IGFBP-3R)-mediated activation of caspases thereby inhibiting TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB signaling cascades. This unique IGFBP-3/IGFBP-3R action was further confirmed by demonstrating complete inhibition of IGFBP-3 action in the presence of caspase inhibitors as well as IGFBP-3R siRNAs. Non-IGF-binding IGFBP-3 mutants further proved the IGF-independent action of IGFBP-3. Our findings indicate that IGFBP-3 inhibits airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness via an IGF-independent mechanism that involves activation of IGFBP-3R signaling and cross-talk with NF-κB signaling. The IGFBP-3/IGFBP-3R system therefore plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of asthma and can serve as a newly identified potential therapeutic target for this debilitating disease. PMID:21383009

  4. Multipurpose Radiation Resistant Semiconductor Detectors for Alpha, Neutron & Low Energy Gamma Ray Measurements at High Temperatures in High-Intensity Gamma Ray

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, Frank H.

    2005-06-01

    Work scheduled under year two of DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER63734 is on schedule and all year-two milestones have or will be met. Results to date demonstrate that unprecedented silicon carbide (SiC) energy resolution has been obtained, and that SiC detectors may achieve energy resolution that exceeds that obtainable with the best silicon alpha spectrometers. Fast-neutron energy spectrometry measurements indicate that recoil-ion energy spectrometry should be possible with SiC detectors. Furthermore, SiC detectors have been demonstrated to perform well even after gamma-ray exposures of 1.E09 Rad. This result and the previously demonstrated capability of SiC detectors to operate in elevated-temperature environments are very promising for potential DOE EMSP applications. A new class of multipurpose, radiation-resistant semiconductor detectors that can be used in elevated-temperature and high-radiation environments is being developed under this grant. These detectors, based on silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor are designed to have larger active volumes than previously available SiC detectors, and are being tested for their response to alpha particles, X-rays and low energy gamma rays, and fast neutrons.

  5. The Source, Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil from the Pearl River Delta Based on the National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingyan; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The data on the heavy metal content at different soil depths derived from a multi-purpose regional geochemical survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0. By comparing their spatial distributions and areas, the sources of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As and Pb) were quantitatively identified and explored. Netted measuring points at 25 25 km were set over the entire PRD according to the geochemical maps. Based on the calculation data obtained from different soil depths, the concentrations of As and Cd in a large area of the PRD exceeded the National Second-class Standard. The spatial disparity of the geometric centers in the surface soil and deep soil showed that As in the surface soil mainly came from parent materials, while Cd had high consistency in different soil profiles because of deposition in the soil forming process. The migration of Cd also resulted in a considerable ecological risk to the Beijiang and Xijiang River watershed. The potential ecological risk index followed the order Cd ? Hg > Pb > As. According to the sources, the distribution trends and the characteristics of heavy metals in the soil from the perspective of the whole area, the Cd pollution should be repaired, especially in the upper reaches of the Xijiang and Beijiang watershed to prevent risk explosion while the pollution of Hg and Pb should be controlled in areas with intense human activity, and supervision during production should be strengthened to maintain the ecological balance of As. PMID:26230506

  6. Multipurpose Radiation Resistant Semiconductor Detectors for Alpha, Neutron & Low Energy Gamma Ray Measurements at High Temperatures in High-Intensity Gamma Ray

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, Frank H

    2005-06-01

    Work scheduled under year two of DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER63734 is on schedule and all year-two milestones have or will be met. Results to date demonstrate that unprecedented silicon carbide (SiC) energy resolution has been obtained, and that SiC detectors may achieve energy resolution that exceeds that obtainable with the best silicon alpha spectrometers. Fast-neutron energy spectrometry measurements indicate that recoil-ion energy spectrometry should be possible with SiC detectors. Furthermore, SiC detectors have been demonstrated to perform well even after gamma-ray exposures of 1.E09 Rad. This result and the previously demonstrated capability of SiC detectors to operate in elevated-temperature environments are very promising for potential DOE EMSP applications. A new class of multipurpose, radiation-resistant semiconductor detectors that can be used in elevated-temperature and high-radiation environments is being developed under this grant.

  7. Effects of species and season on chemical composition and ruminal crude protein and organic matter degradability of some multi-purpose tree species by West African dwarf rams.

    PubMed

    Arigbede, O M; Anele, U Y; Sdekum, K-H; Hummel, J; Oni, A O; Olanite, J A; Isah, A O

    2012-04-01

    Seasonal chemical composition and ruminal organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) degradabilities were determined in four tropical multi-purpose tree species (MPTS) namely; Pterocarpus santalinoides, Grewia pubescens, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Leucaena leucocephala. Three West African dwarf (WAD) rams fitted with permanent rumen cannula were used for the degradability trials. Foliage samples were collected four times to represent seasonal variations as follows: January--mid dry; April--late dry; July--mid rainy and October--late rainy seasons. Leaf samples were randomly collected from the trees for estimation of dry matter (DM) and chemical composition. Ruminal in sacco OM and CP degradabilities were estimated from residues in nylon bags. All samples had high CP (161-259 g/kg DM) and moderate fibre concentrations [neutral detergent fibre (without residual ash], 300-501 g/kg DM; acid detergent fibre (without residual ash), 225-409 g/kg DM and acid detergent lignin, 87-179 g/kg DM across seasons. Interaction effects of species and season on chemical composition were highly significant (p = 0.001) except for trypsin inhibitor (p = 0.614). The MPTS recorded more than 60% OM and CP degradability at 24 h, which implied that they were all highly degradable in the rumen. Their incorporation into ruminant feeding systems as dry season forage supplements is therefore recommended. PMID:21535229

  8. High-Performance Si/SiOx Nanosphere Anode Material by Multipurpose Interfacial Engineering with Black TiO2-x.

    PubMed

    Bae, Juhye; Kim, Dae Sik; Yoo, Hyundong; Park, Eunjun; Lim, Young-Geun; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2016-02-24

    Silicon oxides (SiOx) have attracted recent attention for their great potential as promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries as a result of their high energy density and excellent cycle performance. Despite these advantages, the commercial use of these materials is still impeded by low initial Coulombic efficiency and high production cost associated with a complicated synthesis process. Here, we demonstrate that Si/SiOx nanosphere anode materials show much improved performance enabled by electroconductive black TiO2-x coating in terms of reversible capacity, Coulombic efficiency, and thermal reliability. The resulting anode material exhibits a high reversible capacity of 1200 mAh g(-1) with an excellent cycle performance of up to 100 cycles. The introduction of a TiO2-x layer induces further reduction of the Si species in the SiOx matrix phase, thereby increasing the reversible capacity and initial Coulombic efficiency. Besides the improved electrochemical performance, the TiO2-x coating layer plays a key role in improving the thermal reliability of the Si/SiOx nanosphere anode material at the same time. We believe that this multipurpose interfacial engineering approach provides another route toward high-performance Si-based anode materials on a commercial scale. PMID:26820496

  9. Simulation of the effects of operating lakes Mendota, Monona, and Waubesa, south-central Wisconsin, as multipurpose reservoirs to maintain dry-weather flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krug, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    A digital reservoir routing model was used to simulate the operation of Lakes Mendota, Monona, and Waubesa, south-central Wisconsin for various levels of minimum release. Twenty-five years of record (1970?94) were used in model simulation. The amount of water available to maintain streamflow and lake levels during dry periods has declined because of extensive pumping of ground water for municipal use and diversion of the effluent around the lakes. The goal of the simulation was to determine whether using the lakes as multipurpose reservoirs to maintain flow during periods of low flow would appreciably lower the lake levels. The model results indicated that it would be possible to maintain a minimum flow of 36 cubic feet per second in all but the driest years simulated (1970, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1989, and 1991) without lowering the lake levels more than they have been lowered from 1970 to 1994 under current operating conditions. Maintaining minimum flow would require detailed computations to guide the operation of the dams during the year.

  10. The AMeX method: a multipurpose tissue-processing and paraffin-embedding method. II. Extraction of spooled DNA and its application to Southern blot hybridization analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Y.; Mukai, K.; Matsuno, Y.; Furuya, S.; Kagami, Y.; Miwa, M.; Shimosato, Y.

    1990-01-01

    In our previous report, we described a new fixation and paraffin-embedding method (the AMeX method) that preserves many of the antigens that are normally destroyed by routine formalin fixation. The current study was conducted to examine the preservation of high-molecular-weight DNA in tissues processed by this method. DNA was extracted from AMeX-processed tissue sections after deparaffinization by the same method as that used to extract DNA from fresh tissues. The total amounts of DNA extracted from 10 mg each in wet weight of AMeX-processed and fresh mouse liver tissues were identical. In tissues of malignant lymphoma, the total amount of spooled DNA extracted from 50 sections, each 20 microns thick, was about 8 micrograms/mm2. The electrophoretic pattern of DNA digested with restriction endonucleases on agarose gel from AMeX-processed tissue sections did not differ from that of fresh materials. Southern blot hybridization analysis also revealed that the mobility of specific DNA fragments was identical for AMeX-processed and fresh tissues. The AMeX method was thus proved to be a versatile multipurpose tissue-processing procedure, which is expected to provide important information regarding the correlation between morphology, phenotypic expression, and gene alteration. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5A Figure 5B PMID:2407122

  11. Inhibition of Wnt signalling and breast tumour growth by the multi-purpose drug suramin through suppression of heterotrimeric G proteins and Wnt endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Koval, Alexey; Ahmed, Kamal; Katanaev, Vladimir L

    2016-02-15

    Overactivation of the Wnt signalling pathway underlies oncogenic transformation and proliferation in many cancers, including the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the deadliest form of tumour in the breast, taking about a quarter of a million lives annually worldwide. No clinically approved targeted therapies attacking Wnt signalling currently exist. Repositioning of approved drugs is a promising approach in drug discovery. In the present study we show that a multi-purpose drug suramin inhibits Wnt signalling and proliferation of TNBC cells invitro and in mouse models, inhibiting a component in the upper levels of the pathway. Through a set of investigations we identify heterotrimeric G proteins and regulation of Wnt endocytosis as the likely target of suramin in this pathway. G protein-dependent endocytosis of plasma membrane-located components of the Wnt pathway was previously shown to be important for amplification of the signal in this cascade. Our data identify endocytic regulation within Wnt signalling as a promising target for anti-Wnt and anti-cancer drug discovery. Suramin, as the first example of such drug or its analogues might pave the way for the appearance of first-in-class targeted therapies against TNBC and other Wnt-dependent cancers. PMID:26604320

  12. A FRAMEWORK TO DEVELOP FLAW ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPURPOSE CANISTERS FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.; Duncan, A.; Adams, T.

    2014-04-07

    A multipurpose canister (MPC) made of austenitic stainless steel is loaded with used nuclear fuel assemblies and is part of the transfer cask system to move the fuel from the spent fuel pool to prepare for storage, and is part of the storage cask system for on-site dry storage. This weld-sealed canister is also expected to be part of the transportation package following storage. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation especially if exposed to aggressive environments during possible very long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone because the construction of MPC does not require heat treatment for stress relief. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic Inservice Inspection. The external loading cases include thermal accident scenarios and cask drop conditions with the contribution from the welding residual stresses. The determination of acceptable flaw size is based on the procedure to evaluate flaw stability provided by American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service (Second Edition). The material mechanical and fracture properties for base and weld metals and the stress analysis results are obtained from the open literature such as NUREG-1864. Subcritical crack growth from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and its impact on inspection intervals and acceptance criteria, is not addressed.

  13. Probing static and dynamic correlations in matter under extreme conditions: Concept of multi-purpose instrument at the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhnenko, O.; Lieutenant, K.; Cussen, L. D.; Stein, W.-D.; Zendler, C.; Prokeš, K.

    2014-11-01

    Properties of neutrons, in particular high penetration depth for most materials, make them very powerful for studying matter under extreme conditions, e.g. high pressures or magnetic fields. A new generation of high power spallation neutron sources, such as the existing SNS and J-Parc and the coming ESS, brings neutron scattering in extreme environments to a completely new level. Indeed, measurements of smaller samples, use of more complex equipment and neutron instruments optimized for operation with extreme sample environment become readily available. The latter is actually one of the most important factors contributing to the field. In this paper a novel concept of an instrument for extreme environments at the ESS is presented. The main feature of the Extreme Conditions Instrument is its multi-purpose nature. It is not optimized for a single scattering technique but combines in a balanced way elastic (Diffraction and Small Angle Neutron Scattering) and inelastic capabilities. Such a concept enables effective combination of neutron scattering with a state-of-the-art sample environment independent of the complexity, dimensions and transportability of the latter. In addition, all available types of neutron experiments can be performed at the same thermodynamic conditions. The instrument concept has been verified by Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulations and the results for instrument operation modes are compared with world-class instruments.

  14. The Source, Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil from the Pearl River Delta Based on the National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lingyan; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The data on the heavy metal content at different soil depths derived from a multi-purpose regional geochemical survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0. By comparing their spatial distributions and areas, the sources of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As and Pb) were quantitatively identified and explored. Netted measuring points at 25 ×25 km were set over the entire PRD according to the geochemical maps. Based on the calculation data obtained from different soil depths, the concentrations of As and Cd in a large area of the PRD exceeded the National Second-class Standard. The spatial disparity of the geometric centers in the surface soil and deep soil showed that As in the surface soil mainly came from parent materials, while Cd had high consistency in different soil profiles because of deposition in the soil forming process. The migration of Cd also resulted in a considerable ecological risk to the Beijiang and Xijiang River watershed. The potential ecological risk index followed the order Cd ≥ Hg > Pb > As. According to the sources, the distribution trends and the characteristics of heavy metals in the soil from the perspective of the whole area, the Cd pollution should be repaired, especially in the upper reaches of the Xijiang and Beijiang watershed to prevent risk explosion while the pollution of Hg and Pb should be controlled in areas with intense human activity, and supervision during production should be strengthened to maintain the ecological balance of As. PMID:26230506

  15. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor miR-3151 contributes to Chinese chronic lymphocytic leukemia by constitutive activation of MADD/ERK and PIK3R2/AKT signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu Qian; Wong, Kwan Yeung; Rosèn, Anders; Chim, Chor Sang

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that miR-3151, localized to a GWAS-identified chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) risk locus (8q22.3), is a tumor suppressor miRNA silenced by promoter DNA methylation in CLL. The promoter of miR-3151 was methylated in 5/7 (71%) CLL cell lines, 30/98 (31%) diagnostic primary samples, but not normal controls. Methylation of miR-3151 correlated inversely with expression. Treatment with 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine led to promoter demethylation and miR-3151 re-expression. Luciferase assay confirmed MAP-kinase activating death domain (MADD) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 2 (PIK3R2) as direct targets of miR-3151. Moreover, restoration of miR-3151 resulted in inhibition of cellular proliferation and enhanced apoptosis, repression of MADD and PIK3R2, downregulation of MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling, and repression of MCL1. Lastly, miR-3151 methylation was significantly associated with methylation of miR-203 and miR-34b/c in primary CLL samples. Therefore, this study showed that miR-3151 is a tumor suppressive miRNA frequently hypermethylated and hence silenced in CLL. miR-3151 silencing by DNA methylation protected CLL cells from apoptosis through over-expression of its direct targets MADD and PIK3R2, hence constitutive activation of MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling respectively, and consequently over-expression of MCL1. PMID:26517243

  16. Multi-time scale Climate Informed Stochastic Hybrid Simulation-Optimization Model (McISH model) for Multi-Purpose Reservoir System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, M.; Lall, U.

    2013-12-01

    In order to mitigate the impacts of climate change, proactive management strategies to operate reservoirs and dams are needed. A multi-time scale climate informed stochastic model is developed to optimize the operations for a multi-purpose single reservoir by simulating decadal, interannual, seasonal and sub-seasonal variability. We apply the model to a setting motivated by the largest multi-purpose dam in N. India, the Bhakhra reservoir on the Sutlej River, a tributary of the Indus. This leads to a focus on timing and amplitude of the flows for the monsoon and snowmelt periods. The flow simulations are constrained by multiple sources of historical data and GCM future projections, that are being developed through a NSF funded project titled 'Decadal Prediction and Stochastic Simulation of Hydroclimate Over Monsoon Asia'. The model presented is a multilevel, nonlinear programming model that aims to optimize the reservoir operating policy on a decadal horizon and the operation strategy on an updated annual basis. The model is hierarchical, in terms of having a structure that two optimization models designated for different time scales are nested as a matryoshka doll. The two optimization models have similar mathematical formulations with some modifications to meet the constraints within that time frame. The first level of the model is designated to provide optimization solution for policy makers to determine contracted annual releases to different uses with a prescribed reliability; the second level is a within-the-period (e.g., year) operation optimization scheme that allocates the contracted annual releases on a subperiod (e.g. monthly) basis, with additional benefit for extra release and penalty for failure. The model maximizes the net benefit of irrigation, hydropower generation and flood control in each of the periods. The model design thus facilitates the consistent application of weather and climate forecasts to improve operations of reservoir systems. The decadal flow simulations are re-initialized every year with updated climate projections to improve the reliability of the operation rules for the next year, within which the seasonal operation strategies are nested. The multi-level structure can be repeated for monthly operation with weekly subperiods to take advantage of evolving weather forecasts and seasonal climate forecasts. As a result of the hierarchical structure, sub-seasonal even weather time scale updates and adjustment can be achieved. Given an ensemble of these scenarios, the McISH reservoir simulation-optimization model is able to derive the desired reservoir storage levels, including minimum and maximum, as a function of calendar date, and the associated release patterns. The multi-time scale approach allows adaptive management of water supplies acknowledging the changing risks, meeting both the objectives over the decade in expected value and controlling the near term and planning period risk through probabilistic reliability constraints. For the applications presented, the target season is the monsoon season from June to September. The model also includes a monthly flood volume forecast model, based on a Copula density fit to the monthly flow and the flood volume flow. This is used to guide dynamic allocation of the flood control volume given the forecasts.

  17. Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2012-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4?M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4?M BA + 0.73?M phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4?M BA + 0.73?M PAA) after every 25days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46?M Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63?M activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:23573054

  18. A high-frequency in vitro multiplication, micromorphological studies and ex vitro rooting of Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce (Bahuguni): a multipurpose endangered medicinal shrub.

    PubMed

    Lodha, Deepika; Patel, Ashok Kumar; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-07-01

    An efficient and reproducible in vitro propagation protocol has been established for Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce. Surface-sterilized nodal stem segments of mature plant were used as explants for culture establishment. Multiple shoots were optimally differentiated from the nodal stem explants through bud breaking on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium containing 3.0 mg l(-1) benzyladenine (BA). The effect of different plant growth regulators and minerals were studied on different stages of micropropagation procedure (i.e., explant establishment, shoot multiplication/growth and ex vitro rooting). Additionally, for enhancing shoot multiplication during subculture, MS medium was modified (MMS) with higher levels of magnesium, potassium and sulphate ions. Out of these, MMS3 medium containing 0.25 mg l(-1) each of BA and Kin (N6-furfuryladenine), with 0.1 mg l(-1) NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) was found the best for shoot multiplication (42.45 ± 3.82 per culture vessel). The in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted under ex vitro conditions on treating the shoot base with 500 mg l(-1) of IBA (indole-3 butyric acid) for 3 min on sterile Soilrite®. The ex vitro rooted plants were hardened in the greenhouse and transferred to the field with ≈85 % survival rate. There were not any visual differences between wild and micropropagated plants in the field, although the later underwent significant changes during acclimatization. Micromorphological changes on leaf surface characters from in vitro to acclimatized plantlets were studied in terms of development of glandular trichomes, changes in vein spacing and vein structure in order to understand the nature of plant responses towards environmental conditions. The method developed and defined can be applied for commercial cultivation, which may be important for extraction of bioactive compounds and may facilitate conservation of this multipurpose endangered medicinal shrub. PMID:26261405

  19. Induction of Ca2+ signal mediated apoptosis and alteration of IP3R1 and SERCA1 expression levels by stress hormone in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jin; Xiong, Qi; Zhang, Pengpeng; Zheng, Rong; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2010-04-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) are stress hormones, whose cytotoxicity has been shown in various cells. The imbalance of calcium homeostasis is believed to be associated with the dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic GC)-induced apoptosis. Here we show that in C2C12 myoblasts, DEX markedly up-regulated the expression of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1) and down-regulated the expression of SERCA1 (sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 1), leading to calcium overload. Furthermore, the imbalance of calcium homeostasis increased the level of BAX, decreased the level of Bcl-2, induced cytochrome c release and activated caspase-3, leading to intranucleosomal DNA fragmentation and plasma membrane damage, eventually resulting in cell apoptosis. Taken together, by using C2C12 myoblasts as a model system, we demonstrated a novel mechanism for stress hormone-induced apoptosis: it is dependent on the induction of intracellular calcium overload via the alterations of IP3R1 and SERCA1 expressions. PMID:19723525

  20. De novo assembly and characterization of leaf transcriptome for the development of functional molecular markers of the extremophile multipurpose tree species Prosopis alba

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) is an important native tree adapted to arid and semiarid regions of north-western Argentina which is of great value as multipurpose species. Despite its importance, the genomic resources currently available for the entire Prosopis genus are still limited. Here we describe the development of a leaf transcriptome and the identification of new molecular markers that could support functional genetic studies in natural and domesticated populations of this genus. Results Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to P. alba transcripts produced a total of 1,103,231 raw reads with an average length of 421 bp. De novo assembling generated a set of 15,814 isotigs and 71,101 non-assembled sequences (singletons) with an average of 991 bp and 288 bp respectively. A total of 39,000 unique singletons were identified after clustering natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads. Regarding the non-redundant sequences or unigenes, 22,095 out of 54,814 were successfully annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Moreover, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were searched, resulting in 5,992 and 6,236 markers, respectively, throughout the genome. For the validation of the the predicted SSR markers, a subset of 87 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidence was successfully amplified from six DNA samples of seedlings. From this analysis, 11 of these 87 SSRs were identified as polymorphic. Additionally, another set of 123 nuclear polymorphic SSRs were determined in silico, of which 50% have the probability of being effectively polymorphic. Conclusions This study generated a successful global analysis of the P. alba leaf transcriptome after bioinformatic and wet laboratory validations of RNA-Seq data. The limited set of molecular markers currently available will be significantly increased with the thousands of new markers that were identified in this study. This information will strongly contribute to genomics resources for P. alba functional analysis and genetics. Finally, it will also potentially contribute to the development of population-based genome studies in the genera. PMID:24125525