These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Multipurpose Spaces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the emerging trend of multipurpose class spaces, including educational trends influencing multipurpose classroom use, and key issues when using these spaces. Issues discussed include room location, technology integration, food services, acoustics, lighting, outdoor space, capacity, and storage. Design principles emphasized…

Butin, Dan

2

Multipurpose Rooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college multipurpose rooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

3

Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

2014-01-01

4

Multipurpose hardened spacecraft insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Multipurpose Hardened Spacecraft Multilayer Insulation (MLI) system was developed and implemented to meet diverse survivability and performance requirements. Within the definition and confines of a MLI assembly (blanket), the design: (1) provides environmental protection from natural and induced nuclear, thermal, and electromagnetic radiation; (2) provides adequate electrostatic discharge protection for a geosynchronous satellite; (3) provides adequate shielding to meet radiated emission needs; and (4) will survive ascent differential pressure loads between enclosed volume and space. The MLI design is described which meets these requirements and design evolution and verification is discussed. The application is for MLI blankets which closeout the area between the laser crosslink subsystem (LCS) equipment and the DSP spacecraft cabin. Ancillary needs were implemented to ease installation at launch facility and to survive ascent acoustic and vibration loads. Directional venting accommodations were also incorporated to avoid contamination of LCS telescope, spacecraft sensors, and second surface mirrors (SSMs).

Steimer, Carlos H.

1990-01-01

5

Multipurpose Compact Spectrometric Unit  

SciTech Connect

A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is multipurpose device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.

Bocarov, Viktor; Cermak, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; Stekl, Ivan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

2009-11-09

6

Novel multipurpose timer for laboratories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multipurpose digital delay timer simultaneously controls both a buffer pump and a fraction-collector. Timing and control may be in 30-second increments for up to 15 hours. Use of glassware and scintillation vials make it economical.

Eisler, W. J.; Klein, P. D.

1969-01-01

7

Multipurpose system for ecological monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moscow Research Television Institute has conducted theoretical and experimental researches concerning the integration of image sensors operating in different ranges on board of vehicles. On the base of these researches a prototype of multipurpose system for ecological monitoring is made. The scope of the system: ecological monitoring of each and water surface, control of sources of pollution and zones of ecological disasters; monitoring of oil, gaz and other pipelines; and control of forests and arable land and so on. The combination of technical means operating in visible, IR and SHF bands allows to gather of the information at any time of day, night or season in different meteorological conditions. The use of high resolution image sensors and the large coverage zone of the substrate surface (up to nine altitudes of aircraft) allows to obtain a large volume of information per one sortie of aircraft. The video information is displayed on board of aircraft together with geographical coordinates and auxiliary data. For obtaining the information in real time at the terrestrial site the wideband RF link is provided. The Multipurpose System for Ecological Monitoring may be used in different on-board complexes of various aircraft (manned or unmanned), planes and copters.

Berezansky, Vladimir M.

1997-08-01

8

50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? A...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects based on the uses...

2012-10-01

9

50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? A...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects based on the uses...

2013-10-01

10

50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? A...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects based on the uses...

2011-10-01

11

50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? A...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects based on the uses...

2014-10-01

12

Beyond HIV microbicides: multipurpose prevention technology products.  

PubMed

Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that aim to simultaneously prevent unintended pregnancy, HIV-1 infection and other sexually transmitted infections are among the most innovative and complex products currently in development within women's sexual and reproductive health care. In this review article, MPTs are placed within the wider context of combination products, combination drug products and multi-indication products. The current MPT product landscape is mapped and assessed with reference to existing products for the corresponding single indications, before identifying the gaps in the current MPT product pipeline and highlighting priority products and challenges moving forward. PMID:25335842

Malcolm, R K; Boyd, P; McCoy, C F; Murphy, D J

2014-10-01

13

A MULTIPURPOSE COHERENT INSTABILITY SIMULATION CODE  

SciTech Connect

A multipurpose coherent instability simulation code has been written, documented, and released for use. TRANFT (tran-eff-tee) uses fast Fourier transforms to model transverse wakefields, transverse detuning wakes and longitudinal wakefields in a computationally efficient way. Dual harmonic RF allows for the study of enhanced synchrotron frequency spread. When coupled with chromaticity, the theoretically challenging but highly practical post head-tail regime is open to study. Detuning wakes allow for transverse space charge forces in low energy hadron beams, and a switch allowing for radiation damping makes the code useful for electrons.

BLASKIEWICZ,M.

2007-06-25

14

Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System was developed to provide remote, interactive information retrieval capability for various types of data bases to be processed on different types of small and medium size computers. Use of the system for three different data bases is decribed: (1) LANDSAT photo look-up, (2) land use, and (3) census/socioeconomic. Each of the data base elements is shown together with other detailed information that a user would require to contact the system remotely, to transmit inquiries on commands, and to receive the results of the queries or commands.

1977-01-01

15

Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-04

16

pVHL: A Multipurpose Adaptor Protein  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene VHL occur in various inherited and sporadically occurring tumors. The protein encoded by VHL—pVHL—bears no known enzymatic activities but interacts with numerous protein partners. With the identification of distinct pVHL-containing multiprotein complexes, a refined portrait of pVHL tumor suppressor function has arisen. In general, pVHL acts as a multipurpose adaptor protein that controls a diverse array of gene expression programs, as well as extracellular matrix assembly and microtubule-based processes, by linking various target proteins to appropriate enzymatic activities. These findings provide an evermore complex but coherent view of how pVHL functions molecularly and of the consequences of dysregulation of these diverse molecular activities on tumor formation.

Ian J. Frew (Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich;Institute of Cell Biology REV); Wilhelm Krek (Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich;Institute of Cell Biology REV)

2008-06-17

17

MINIS: Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS) was developed in response to the need for a data management system capable of operation on several different minicomputer systems. The desired system had to be capable of performing the functions of a LANDSAT photo descriptive data retrieval system while remaining general in terms of other acceptable user definable data bases. The system also had to be capable of performing data base updates and providing user-formatted output reports. The resultant MINI System provides all of these capabilities and several other features to complement the data management system. The MINI System is currently implemented on two minicomputer systems and is in the process of being installed on another minicomputer system. The MINIS is operational on four different data bases.

1976-01-01

18

Partial synthesis of (3R,6'R)-alpha-cryptoxanthin and (3R)-beta-cryptoxanthin from (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein.  

PubMed

(3R,3'R,6'R)-Lutein (1), (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin (2), (3R,6'R)-alpha-cryptoxanthin (3), and (3R)-beta-cryptoxanthin (4) are among dietary hydroxycarotenoids that have been identified in human serum, milk, and ocular tissues. While 1 containing 6% of 2 is commercially available, industrial production of optically active 3 and 4 has not yet been accomplished. Several processes have been developed that transform 1 into 3, 4, and minor quantities of (3R,5'RS,6'R)-3',4'-didehydro-5',6'-dihydro-beta,beta-caroten-3-ol (5) (a regioisomer of 3). In one process, lutein (1) was cleanly deoxygenated to 3 in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and Me3N.BH3 in CH2Cl2 at ambient temperature in nearly 90% yield. Reaction of lutein (1) with a Lewis acid (AlCl3, ZnBr2, ZnI2) and a hydride donor (Me3N.BH3, Na[BH3(OCOCF3)], NaCNBH3) in solvents such as CH2Cl2, THF, and TBME produced similar results. In a two-step process, high-temperature acid-catalyzed dehydration of 1 (propanol/water/acid, 90 degrees C) gave a mixture of anhydroluteins 6, 7, and 8 in 86% yield. In the second step, these dehydration products underwent ionic hydrogenation with TFA/Me3N.BH3 in CH2Cl2 to afford a mixture of 3 and 4 in nearly 80% yield that contained only 1% of 5. PMID:17266370

Khachik, Frederick; Chang, An-Ni; Gana, Audry; Mazzola, Eugene

2007-02-01

19

Multipurpose soft contact lens care in Japan  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the use of multipurpose lens care products via an online survey conducted among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in Japan. Methods The subjects were 1000 men and women aged 15–44 years who reported that they cleaned their SCL by using multipurpose solution at least twice a week. Via the internet, they were asked questions about SCL care, the use of a rubbing step when cleaning SCL, cleaning and replacing lens cases, and recommended SCL care methods. Results Of the 1000 SCL wearers enrolled, 94.3% performed lens care every day lenses were worn, 64.2% reported rubbing the lenses every time, 57.9% rubbed the lenses for at least 10 seconds per side, and 64.7% reported they rubbed the lenses on both sides. Further, 61.2% reported that they had been given an explanation of SCL cleaning at an eye clinic or contact lens store. Only 49.8% of subjects reported that they cleaned the lens case every time and 61.7% replaced the case within 3 months. Only 19.5% had been given an explanation about lens case care. Half of the subjects reported they had been given no recommendation to use specific SCL care products or could not remember whether or not they had. The most common reason for the recommendation was good compatibility with their type of lens. Conclusion More education is needed in Japan regarding methods of SCL care to ensure correct lens cleaning with inclusion of a rubbing step, as well as sufficient cleaning and replacement of the lens case. Of particular interest is the finding that many subjects were not given an explanation about proper SCL care and lens case cleaning and replacement at the time of lens purchase or prescription. PMID:22291454

Toshida, Hiroshi; Kadota, Yoshiaki; Suto, Chikako; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

2012-01-01

20

MYRRHA: A multipurpose nuclear research facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a multipurpose research facility currently being developed at SCK•CEN. MYRRHA is based on the ADS (Accelerator Driven System) concept where a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical reactor are coupled. MYRRHA will demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling these three components at a reasonable power level to allow operation feedback. As a flexible irradiation facility, the MYRRHA research facility will be able to work in both critical as subcritical modes. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for GEN IV and fusion reactors, and radioisotope production for medical and industrial applications. MYRRHA will be cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic and will play an important role in the development of the Pb-alloys technology needed for the LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) GEN IV concept. MYRRHA will also contribute to the study of partitioning and transmutation of high-level waste. Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) can be completed in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, so both critical reactors and subcritical ADS are potential candidates as dedicated transmutation systems. However critical reactors heavily loaded with fuel containing large amounts of MA pose reactivity control problems, and thus safety problems. A subcritical ADS operates in a flexible and safe manner, even with a core loading containing a high amount of MA leading to a high transmutation rate. In this paper, the most recent developments in the design of the MYRRHA facility are presented.

Baeten, P.; Schyns, M.; Fernandez, Rafaël; De Bruyn, Didier; Van den Eynde, Gert

2014-12-01

21

21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a)...

2013-04-01

22

21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a)...

2011-04-01

23

21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a)...

2012-04-01

24

Multipurpose robot for automated cycle sequencing.  

PubMed

Paramagnetic beads have the superior advantages of easy separation and resuspension by controlling the magnetic filed. Previously, we have developed Magtration technology to automate paramagnetic bead handling and have built several automated instruments that handle 1-12 samples simultaneously. To achieve more high-throughput sample processing, two types of a 96-arrayed Integrated Magtration Unit (IMU) were developed, one installed with electromagnets and the other with thin rod-shaped magnets made of neodymium. A multipurpose robot (SX-96GC) equipped with the IMU was also developed for fully automatic processing of 96 samples in parallel. The cleanup of dye-terminator sequencing products was performed using the robot installed with the permanent magnet version of IMU. The results had quality comparable to those by the same protocol in manual handling or to those by the conventional protocols. The robot processed 96 samples in a microplate within 30 min. The protocol that can purify 384 samples within 1 h by processing two microplates concurrently was successfully designed. PMID:12661168

Sawakami-Kobayashi, K; Segawa, O; Obata, K; Hornes, E; Yohda, M; Tajima, H; Machida, M

2003-03-01

25

50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? Yes...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities. A...

2013-10-01

26

50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? Yes...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities. A...

2011-10-01

27

50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? Yes...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities. A...

2014-10-01

28

50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? Yes...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities. A...

2012-10-01

29

Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar-powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is, therefore, beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multipurpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of using solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year-long effort by a group of eight students, divided into four teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a lightweight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structural design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion were governed by weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is an MPRPV weighing 35 N that cruises at 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 12.5 percent-efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were researched and tested during the design process.

1991-01-01

30

Antibody-based concepts for multipurpose prevention technologies  

PubMed Central

Because of the versatility and specificity of monoclonal antibodies, they are candidates for multipurpose prevention technologies when formulated as topical (gels, films, rings) or injectable drugs and as vaccines. This review focuses on antibody-based proof of concept studies for the human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus and sperm. Opportunities and challenges in antibody evasion/resistance, manufacturing, regulatory, and pharmacoeconomics are discussed. This article is based on a presentation at the “Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies,” held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188703

Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry

2014-01-01

31

Multipurpose palms: the sugar palm ( Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arenga pinnata is the most important sugar palm of the humid tropics. Besides yielding sugar, it provides a great number of products and benefits to its users, and is one of the most diverse multipurpose tree species in culture.The various ways in which this palm is used are illustrated for the native population of four Indonesian provinces. Although all people

J. Mogea; B. Seibert; W. Smits

1991-01-01

32

Funding the Multipurpose Community College in an Era of Consolidation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the community college is a product of the publicly subsidized move to mass higher education during the 25 years following World War II, it now faces a more stringent fiscal environment that severely challenges its comprehensive, multipurpose character. Funding in the current era of consolidation entails an examination and reconciliation…

Palmer, James C.

33

Analysis of polyhexamethylene biguanide in multipurpose contact lens solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to establish a reasonably simple and reliable method to measure very low concentrations of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) in multipurpose contact lens solutions (MPSs). By using a weak cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge to extract the PHMB from MPS, followed by HPLC analysis using an evaporative light scattering detector, low levels (0.1ppm) of PHMB

Anne D. Lucas; Edward A. Gordon; Melvin E. Stratmeyer

2009-01-01

34

Metamodels for Planar 3R Workspace Optimization.  

SciTech Connect

Robotic workspace optimization is a central element of robot system design. To formulate the optimization problem, the complex relationships between design variables, tuning parameters, and performance indices need to be accurately and efficiently represented. The nature of the relationships suggests that metamodels, or models of the models, should be used to derive suitable objective functions. A comparison of two metamodeling techniques for robotic workspace optimization problems for several trial cases suggests that non-uniform rational B-spline models, derived from computer graphics and computer-aided design techniques, are as suitable as response surface models to solve planar 3R workspace optimization problems. Promising nonlinear modeling results with B-spline models suggest future work is justified and performance gains can be realized.

Turner, C. J. (Cameron J.)

2002-01-01

35

Multipurpose water heater. Final technical report, October 1995August 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report describes SBIR Phase 2 project for the development of a multi-purpose water heater for use in Army Food sanitation centers. The objective of the project was to develop a water heater--powered only by an M2 burner and requiring no external supply of electricity--capable of supplying a continuous flow of pressurized hot water to a faucet at the

E. C. Guyer; K. G. Coumou

1999-01-01

36

RADICAL: Multi-purpose 2-D Radiative Transfer Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RADICAL is a multi-purpose 2-D radiative transfer code for axi-symmetric circumstellar (or circum-black-hole) envelopes /disks / tori etc. It has been extensively tested and found reliable and accurate. The code has recently been supplemented with a Variable Eddington Tensor module which enables it to solve dust continuum radiative transfer problems from very low up to extremely high optical depths with only a few (about 7) iterations at most.

Dullemond, C. P.; Mokiem, R.; Turolla, R.

2011-08-01

37

Clinical performance of 'no rub' multi-purpose solutions.  

PubMed

This was a multi-site, 231-subject double-masked, bilateral crossover study to evaluate subjective comfort and satisfaction, corneal staining and lens deposits with two 'no rub' multi-purpose solutions (MPS) used with FDA Group II (alphafilcon A, SofLens 66, Bausch & Lomb) and Group IV (etafilcon A, SUREVUE, Johnson & Johnson Vision Care) soft contact lenses. Subjects used each of the two MPS, Regimen 1 (OPTI-FREE EXPRESS Multi-Purpose Disinfecting Solution No Rub Lasting Comfort Formula, Alcon Laboratories) and Regimen 2 (ReNu MultiPlus Multi-Purpose Solution, Bausch & Lomb), for 28 days. They wore the same lens type for the duration of the study and were evaluated on days 0, 14 and 28 of each treatment period. Subjective ratings of comfort and satisfaction were significantly different between regimens, with the majority of variables in favour of Regimen 1 (P < 0.05). Corneal staining was significantly greater with the Group II, Regimen 2 combination (P < 0.0001). Group IV lenses cared for with Regimen 1 had significantly less residual lysozyme on Day 28 (562 microg) than lenses cared for with Regimen 2 (1145 microg; P < 0.0001). While both products offer the convenience of a 'no rub' regimen, differences in performance should be considered when recommending these solutions to patients. PMID:16303531

Stiegemeier, Mary Jo; Cedrone, Ronald; Evans, David; Friederichs, Greg; Holle, Douglas; Jenkins, William; Lutzi, Dagmar; Roberson, Rex; Schenker, Howard; White, Eric; Zigler, Lamar

2004-06-01

38

Anatomy of a regimen: consideration of multipurpose solutions during non-compliant use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers are often non-compliant with instructions for contact lens care products. This study explores the antimicrobial capacity of multipurpose solutions using variable use conditions. Opti-Free Express (Alcon) Multi-Purpose Disinfecting Solution with Polyquad (Alcon) and Aldox (Alcon) antimicrobial system and products containing PHMB (ReNu MultiPlus, Solo-care, and Complete multipurpose solutions) were evaluated. Products were challenged with Fusarium solani, Candida albicans, Serratia

Ruth A Rosenthal; Cindy L Henry; Ralph P Stone; Barry A Schlech

2003-01-01

39

Disinfecting action of a new multi-purpose disinfection solution for contact lenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disinfection activity of a new multipurpose disinfection solution (OPTI-FREE® Express® with ALDOX™) was compared to several other contact lens disinfecting solutions. The new solution is preserved with polyquaternium-1 and myristamidopropyl dimethylamine. The other solutions included 3% hydrogen peroxide systems and multipurpose solutions (MPS) preserved with polyhexamethylene biguanide. The products were tested for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa,

Ruth A. Rosenthal; William M. Bell; Robert Abshire

1999-01-01

40

The 3R polymorph of CaSi2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zintl phase CaSi2 commonly occurs in the 6R structure where puckered hexagon layers of Si atoms are stacked in an AA?BB?CC? fashion. In this study we show that sintering of CaSi2 in a hydrogen atmosphere (30 bar) at temperatures between 200 and 700 °C transforms 6R-CaSi2 quantitatively into 3R-CaSi2. In the 3R polymorph (space group R-3m (no. 166), a=3.8284(1), c=15.8966(4), Z=3) puckered hexagon layers are stacked in an ABC fashion. The volume per formula unit is about 3% larger compared to 6R-CaSi2. First principles density functional calculations reveal that 6R and 3R-CaSi2 are energetically degenerate at zero Kelvin. With increasing temperature 6R-CaSi2 stabilizes over 3R because of its higher entropy. This suggests that 3R-CaSi2 should revert to 6R at elevated temperatures, which however is not observed up to 800 °C. 3R-CaSi2 may be stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects. Quantitative and reproducible bulk synthesis of the rare 3R polymorph of CaSi2. Clarification of the energetic relation between 3R and conventional 6R form. 3R-CaSi2 is presumably stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects.

Nedumkandathil, Reji; Benson, Daryn E.; Grins, Jekabs; Spektor, Kristina; Häussermann, Ulrich

2015-02-01

41

Susceptibility of Acanthamoeba to multipurpose lens-cleaning solutions.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the susceptibility of Acanthamoeba spp. trophozoites to two multipurpose systems for cleaning and maintenance of contact lenses. Three strains of trophozoites from the ATCC (A. castellani T4, A. castellani Neff, and A. polyphaga) and two Acanthamoeba isolates obtained from swimming pools (PT5 and PO1) were placed in monoxenic culture. To test their survival in cleaning solutions for contact lenses, the trophozoites were exposed for 4 and 24 h to two multipurpose solutions (A and B), and were then inoculated into a new monoxenic culture. Amoebic growth on the plates was observed after 72 h of incubation. Trophozoites from all three ATCC strains and one isolate from a swimming pool (PO1) grew in all plates after 4 h of exposure to solutions A and B. After 24 h, the ATCC strains and the PO1 isolate showed growth in most of the plates treated. Only the PT5 isolate showed susceptibility to both solutions over the time intervals tested. The two solutions were not completely effective against most strains and isolates over the time intervals tested. These results are important, since species of Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment and are potential agents of eye pathologies. PMID:23990426

de Aguiar, Ana Paula Costa; de Oliveira Silveira, Caroline; Todero Winck, Mari Aline; Rott, Marilise Brittes

2013-09-01

42

Multipurpose image watermarking algorithm based on multistage vector quantization.  

PubMed

The rapid growth of digital multimedia and Internet technologies has made copyright protection, copy protection, and integrity verification three important issues in the digital world. To solve these problems, the digital watermarking technique has been presented and widely researched. Traditional watermarking algorithms are mostly based on discrete transform domains, such as the discrete cosine transform, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Most of these algorithms are good for only one purpose. Recently, some multipurpose digital watermarking methods have been presented, which can achieve the goal of content authentication and copyright protection simultaneously. However, they are based on DWT or DFT. Lately, several robust watermarking schemes based on vector quantization (VQ) have been presented, but they can only be used for copyright protection. In this paper, we present a novel multipurpose digital image watermarking method based on the multistage vector quantizer structure, which can be applied to image authentication and copyright protection. In the proposed method, the semi-fragile watermark and the robust watermark are embedded in different VQ stages using different techniques, and both of them can be extracted without the original image. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in terms of robustness and fragility. PMID:15971780

Lu, Zhe-Ming; Xu, Dian-Guo; Sun, Sheng-He

2005-06-01

43

System Engineering Strategy for Distributed Multi-Purpose Simulation Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the system engineering approach used to develop distributed multi-purpose simulations. The multi-purpose simulation architecture focuses on user needs, operations, flexibility, cost and maintenance. This approach was used to develop an International Space Station (ISS) simulator, which is called the International Space Station Integrated Simulation (ISIS)1. The ISIS runs unmodified ISS flight software, system models, and the astronaut command and control interface in an open system design that allows for rapid integration of multiple ISS models. The initial intent of ISIS was to provide a distributed system that allows access to ISS flight software and models for the creation, test, and validation of crew and ground controller procedures. This capability reduces the cost and scheduling issues associated with utilizing standalone simulators in fixed locations, and facilitates discovering unknowns and errors earlier in the development lifecycle. Since its inception, the flexible architecture of the ISIS has allowed its purpose to evolve to include ground operator system and display training, flight software modification testing, and as a realistic test bed for Exploration automation technology research and development.

Bhula, Dlilpkumar; Kurt, Cindy Marie; Luty, Roger

2007-01-01

44

16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death...1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death...with the fact that multi-purpose lighters can be operated by young children,...

2011-01-01

45

16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death...1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death...with the fact that multi-purpose lighters can be operated by young children,...

2010-01-01

46

16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death...1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death...with the fact that multi-purpose lighters can be operated by young children,...

2013-01-01

47

16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death...1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death...with the fact that multi-purpose lighters can be operated by young children,...

2012-01-01

48

16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death...1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death...with the fact that multi-purpose lighters can be operated by young children,...

2014-01-01

49

Fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A “new” industrial by-product obtained from the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process in petrol refinery is studied for construction uses. This by-product, named as fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R), is composed of original spherically shape particles and fragments produced in the catalytic process (30–0.1 ?m) that present highly irregular morphologies. FC3R presented a very high specific surface area that

J Payá; J Monzó; M. V Borrachero

1999-01-01

50

Multipurpose Uninhabited Air Vehicle (UAV) design and verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multipurpose Uninhabited Air Vehicle was designed and built for the NASA University Research Center. It is capable of carrying a payload of up to 14 lbs with an estimated endurance of 3 hours. This thesis will describe the work that was completed on the aerodynamic and preliminary structural design of the air vehicle. It will be demonstrated how the size and configuration of the airframe were chosen based on the design requirements. The detailed design process will be described to achieve initial performance and mission requirements. Although the URC has successfully constructed airframes in the past, it is the intention of this thesis to also take a different approach on alternative construction methods in an effort to reduce cost and improve aircraft performance.

Barquero, Juan P.

51

Multipurpose prevention technologies for reproductive and sexual health.  

PubMed

Global statistics on unplanned pregnancies, abortions and STIs show that unprotected sex is still widely practised. More needs to be done to provide women and men with a wider choice of convenient protective options. To address this need, international efforts are focusing on developing multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that address two or more indications simultaneously. These technologies would have significant advantages over single-indication products. They include inter alia novel barrier devices, drugs administered either as oral tablets or vaginal/rectal gels, drugs used in combination with medical devices, and genetically engineered organisms which secrete antimicrobial substances. As an example of progress in the MPT field, this paper describes an on-demand contraceptive/antimicrobial vaginal gel, Amphora (previously known as Acidform), now in an advanced stage of development. Clinical trials are currently being planned to find out whether this product's promising antimicrobial profile translates into protective and preventive choices. PMID:25555778

Stone, Alan

2014-11-01

52

Development of a multipurpose smart recorder for general aviation aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intelligent flight recorder, called the Smart Recorder, was fabricated and installed on a King Air aircraft used in standard commercial charter service. This recorder was used for collection of data toward two objectives: (1) the characterization of the typical environment encountered by the aircraft; and (2) research in the area of trend monitoring. Data processing routines and data presentation formats were defined that are applicable to commuter size aircraft. The feasibility of a cost-effective, multipurpose recorder for general aviation aircraft was successfully demonstrated. Implementation of on-board environmental data processing increased the number of flight hours that could be stored on a single data cartridge and simplified the data management problem by reducing the volume of data to be processed in the laboratory. Trend monitoring algorithms showed less variability in the trend plots when compared against plots of manual data.

White, J. H.; Finger, J. F.

1988-01-01

53

Development of a multipurpose hand controller for JEMRMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype multipurpose hand controller for the JEMRMS (Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System) was developed. The hand controller (H/C) is an orthogonal type, with 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) and small size. The orthogonal type H/C is very simple for coordinate transformations and can easily control any type of manipulators. In fact, the JEMRMS is planned to have two manipulators controlled by a common H/C at this stage. The H/C was able to be used as a rate control joystick and a force reflection master arm, using an experimental 6 DOF manipulator. Good maneuverability was confirmed in the verification test. The orthogonal type H/C is suitable for use as a common H/C for the two manipulators of the JEMRMS.

Matsuhira, Nobuto; Iikura, Shoichi; Asakura, Makoto; Shinomiya, Yasuo

1990-01-01

54

Multi-purpose canister system evaluation: A systems engineering approach  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to investigate various container systems for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The primary goal of DOE`s investigations was to select a container technology that could handle the vast majority of commercial SNF at a reasonable cost, while ensuring the safety of the public and protecting the environment. Several alternative cask and canister concepts were evaluated for SNF assembly packaging to determine the most suitable concept. Of these alternatives, the multi-purpose canister (MPC) system was determined to be the most suitable. Based on the results of these evaluations, the decision was made to proceed with design and certification of the MPC system. A decision to fabricate and deploy MPCs will be made after further studies and preparation of an environmental impact statement.

Not Available

1994-09-01

55

Design of Multilayer Insulation for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multilayer insulation (MLI) is a critical component for future, long term space missions. These missions will require the storage of cryogenic fuels for extended periods of time with little to no boil-off and MLI is vital due to its exceptional radiation shielding properties. Several MLI test articles were designed and fabricated which explored methods of assembling and connecting blankets, yielding results for evaluation. Insight gained, along with previous design experience, will be used in the design of the replacement blanket for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is slated for upcoming tests. Future design considerations are discussed which include mechanical testing to determine robustness of such a system, as well as cryostat testing of samples to give insight to the loss of thermal performance of sewn panels in comparison to the highly efficient, albeit laborious application of the original MHTB blanket.

Marlow, Weston A.

2011-01-01

56

21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro...

2010-04-01

57

21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro...

2012-04-01

58

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Acacia senegal (L.) Willd., a multipurpose arid and  

E-print Network

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Acacia senegal (L.) Willd, France Abstract Acacia senegal is a multipurpose African tree that improves the soil fertility of the markers to detect genetic diversity in this species. Keywords: Acacia senegal, conservation, genetic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Whole body vibration: unsupervised training or combined with a supervised multi-purpose exercise for fitness?  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of an unsupervised whole body vibration (WBV) training and two different supervised multi-purpose exercise programmes, with and without WBV, on body composition, functional fitness and self-reported well-being in middle-aged adults. Fifty-four healthy participants (age 48.6 ± 6.7 years) were randomly assigned to a vibration group (VG), a multi-purpose exercise group (MG) and a multi-purpose exercise with vibration group (VMG) and trained 3 days a week for 4 months. VG performed a standardised unsupervised WBV protocol, MG a supervised multi-purpose exercise and VMG a multi-purpose exercise including vibration. After training, drop out was significantly higher in VG group (P = 0.016) when compared to VMG group. In both MG and VMG, body composition, sit-up, push-up, sit and reach, agility test, hopping test and self-reported general health significantly improved (P < 0.05). No additive effects were generated by the vibration stimulus. Percentage of body fat and agility test in VG had a significant opposite trend compared to VMG group (P < 0.05). In summary, an unsupervised WBV training should not be chosen for training protocol. However, positive effects on physical fitness and the best results in adherence could be achieved integrating WBV practice into a multi-purpose exercise training. PMID:24479642

Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

2014-01-01

60

General Guidelines for Sustainable Purchasing 3R's -Reduce, Reuse, Recycle  

E-print Network

......................................................... 3R's - Reduce, Reuse, Recycle In order to conserve natural resources and to protect the environment considerations o Made of recycled materials, maximizing post-consumer content. o Remanufactured products, such as laser toner cartridges, tires, furniture, equipment and automotive parts whenever practicable and cost

Jiang, Huiqiang

61

A WORKSPACE BASED CLASSIFICATION OF 3R ORTHOGONAL MANIPULATORS  

E-print Network

, 1997). A general necessary and sufficient condition for a 3-DOF manipulator to be cuspidal, in fact, only five different domains exist : two domains of noncuspidal manipulators, one domain whereA WORKSPACE BASED CLASSIFICATION OF 3R ORTHOGONAL MANIPULATORS Philippe Wenger, Maher Baili

Boyer, Edmond

62

Plant Cell Monogr (3) R. Malh: The Pollen Tube  

E-print Network

Plant Cell Monogr (3) R. Malhó: The Pollen Tube DOI 10.1007/7089_043/Published online: 26 January 2006 © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006 Ions and Pollen Tube Growth Peter K. Hepler1 (u) · Alenka Lovy-Wheeler1 · Sylvester T. McKenna2 · Joseph G. Kunkel1 1Department of Biology, University

Kunkel, Joseph G.

63

Human resources for maternal health: multi-purpose or specialists?  

PubMed Central

A crucial question in the aim to attain MDG5 is whether it can be achieved faster with the scaling up of multi-purpose health workers operating in the community or with the scaling up of professional skilled birth attendants working in health facilities. Most advisers concerned with maternal mortality reduction concur to promote births in facilities with professional attendants as the ultimate strategy. The evidence, however, is scarce on what it takes to progress in this path, and on the 'interim solutions' for situations where the majority of women still deliver at home. These questions are particularly relevant as we have reached the twentieth anniversary of the safe motherhood initiative without much progress made. In this paper we review the current situation of human resources for maternal health as well as the problems that they face. We propose seven key areas of work that must be addressed when planning for scaling up human resources for maternal health in light of MDG5, and finally we indicate some advances recently made in selected countries and the lessons learned from these experiences. Whilst the focus of this paper is on maternal health, it is acknowledged that the interventions to reduce maternal mortality will also contribute to significantly reducing newborn mortality. Addressing each of the seven key areas of work – recommended by the first International Forum on 'Midwifery in the Community', Tunis, December 2006 – is essential for the success of any MDG5 programme. We hypothesize that a great deal of the stagnation of maternal health programmes has been the result of confusion and careless choices in scaling up between a limited number of truly skilled birth attendants and large quantities of multi-purpose workers with short training, fewer skills, limited authority and no career pathways. We conclude from the lessons learnt that no significant progress in maternal mortality reduction can be achieved without a strong political decision to empower midwives and others with midwifery skills, and a substantial strengthening of health systems with a focus on quality of care rather than on numbers, to give them the means to respond to the challenge. PMID:18826600

Fauveau, Vincent; Sherratt, Della R; de Bernis, Luc

2008-01-01

64

Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a crew will be living and working in microgravity, interfacing with their physical environment. Without optimum restraints and mobility aids (R&MA' s), the crewmembers may be handicapped for perfonning some of the on-orbit tasks. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity area and may cause prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Thus, determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment are crucial to astronauts' well-being and productivity. The purpose of this project is to develop requirements and guidelines, and conceptual designs, for an ergonomically designed multi-purpose crew restraint. In order to achieve this goal, the project would involve development of functional and human factors requirements, design concept prototype development, analytical and computer modeling evaluations of concepts, two sets of micro gravity evaluations and preparation of an implementation plan. It is anticipated that developing functional and design requirements for a multi-purpose restraint would facilitate development of ergonomically designed restraints to accommodate the off-nominal but repetitive tasks, and minimize the performance degradation due to lack of optimum setup for onboard task performance. In addition, development of an ergonomically designed restraint concept prototype would allow verification and validation of the requirements defined. To date, we have identified "unique" tasks and areas of need, determine characteristics of "ideal" restraints, and solicit ideas for restraint and mobility aid concepts. Focus group meetings with representatives from training, safety, crew, human factors, engineering, payload developers, and analog environment representatives were key to assist in the development of a restraint concept based on previous flight experiences, the needs of future tasks, and crewmembers' preferences. Also, a catalog with existing IVA/EVA restraint and mobility aids has been developed. Other efforts included the ISS crew debrief data on restraints, compilation of data from MIR, Skylab and ISS on restraints, and investigating possibility of an in-flight evaluation of current restraint systems. Preliminary restraint concepts were developed and presented to long duration crewmembers and focus groups for feedback. Currently, a selection criterion is being refined for prioritizing the candidate concepts. Next steps include analytical and computer modeling evaluations of the selected candidate concepts, prototype development, and microgravity evaluations.

Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

2004-01-01

65

Curcumin: a multipurpose matrix for MALDI mass spectrometry imaging applications.  

PubMed

Curcumin, 1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione, is a polyphenolic compound naturally present in the Curcuma longa plant, also known as tumeric. Used primarily as a coloring agent and additive in food, curcumin has also long been used for its therapeutic properties in a number of medical scenarios. Here, we report on an entirely novel use of curcumin; its extended structure of conjugated double bonds suggested the potential of this compound to be a good matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) matrix candidate. In the quest for novel and more efficient MALDI MS matrices, curcumin is revealed to be a versatile and multipurpose matrix. It has been applied successfully for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and drugs, for imaging lipids in skin and lung tissues, and for the analysis of a number of compound classes in fingermarks. In each case, the use of curcumin is shown to promote analyte ionization very efficiently as well as provide excellent mass spectral image quality. PMID:23621442

Francese, S; Bradshaw, R; Flinders, B; Mitchell, C; Bleay, S; Cicero, L; Clench, M R

2013-05-21

66

A Multi-purpose Brain-Computer Interface Output Device  

PubMed Central

While brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising alternative access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments, many BCI systems are designed as standalone communication and control systems, rather than as interfaces to existing systems built for these purposes. While an individual communication and control system may be powerful or flexible, no single system can compete with the variety of options available in the commercial assistive technology (AT) market. BCIs could instead be used as an interface to these existing AT devices and products, which are designed for improving access and agency of people with disabilities and are highly configurable to individual user needs. However, interfacing with each AT device and program requires significant time and effort on the part of researchers and clinicians. This work presents the Multi-Purpose BCI Output Device (MBOD), a tool to help researchers and clinicians provide BCI control of many forms of AT in a plug-and-play fashion, i.e. without the installation of drivers or software on the AT device, and a proof-of-concept of the practicality of such an approach. The MBOD was designed to meet the goals of target device compatibility, BCI input device compatibility, convenience, and intuitive command structure. The MBOD was successfully used to interface a BCI with multiple AT devices (including two wheelchair seating systems), as well as computers running Windows (XP and 7), Mac and Ubuntu Linux operating systems. PMID:22208120

Thompson, David E; Huggins, Jane E

2012-01-01

67

A novel multipurpose modular mini-endoscope for otology.  

PubMed

Transtympanic access to the round window membrane (RWM) for drug delivery is in the focus of otology and has stimulated development of various endoscopes. These endoscopes are tasked to enable best visualization at a low diameter and to offer a working channel for various instruments. The specific aspect of sterilization is a major issue especially in regard to the diameter of the endoscope with its integrated working channel. We evaluated a new multi-purpose modular semi-rigid optical fiber endoscope (10,000 pixel resolution) for minimal invasive middle ear endoscopy focusing on access to the RWM and micro instruments in 12 cadaver specimens. Microscopic visualization was compared to endoscopy. With the modular mini ear endoscope (MMEE) we were able to visualize the RWM in 3 specimens directly and in 8 specimens after removal of a mucous membrane using micro instruments. A bony overhang prevented visualization of the RWM in one case. The endoscope enabled minimal invasive RWM access initially in a higher number of cases compared to microscope investigation. The designed MMEE is suited to access transtympanic the round window membrane even in situations of an obstructed round window niche. The modular concept of the endoscope is attractive for different types of indications, various instruments and with regard to the aspects of sterilization. Experiences in humans are the next necessary step to define the possible role of this endoscope in otology. PMID:25318687

Bozzato, Alessandro; Bozzato, Victoria; Al Kadah, Basel; Schick, Bernhard

2014-12-01

68

Engineering Design of a Multipurpose X-band Accelerating Structure  

E-print Network

Both FEL projects, SwissFEL and Fermi-Elettra each require an X-band RF accelerating structure for optimal bunch compression at the respective injectors. As the CLIC project is pursuing a program for producing and testing the X-band high-gradient RF structures, a collaboration between PSI, Elettra and CERN has been established to build a multipurpose X-band accelerating structure. This paper focuses on its engineering design, which is based on the disked cells jointed together by diffusion bonding. Vacuum brazing and laser beam welding is used for auxiliary components. The accelerating structure consists of two coupler subassemblies, 73 disks and includes a wakefield monitor and diagnostic waveguides. The engineering study includes the external cooling system, consisting of two parallel cooling circuits and an RF tuning system, which allows phase advance tuning of the cell by deforming the outer wall. The engineering solution for the installation and sealing of the wake field monitor feed-through devices that...

Gudkov, Dmitry; Samoshkin, Alexander; Zennaro, Riccardo; Dehler, Micha; Raguin, Jean-Yves

2010-01-01

69

STS-102 Onboard Photograph Inside Multipurpose Logistics Module, Leonardo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot James M. Kelly (left) and Commander James D. Wetherbee for the STS-102 mission, participate in the movement of supplies inside Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). In this particular photograph, the two are handling a film magazine for the IMAX cargo bay camera. The primary cargo of the STS-102 mission, the Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth station assembly flight, the STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

2001-01-01

70

Multipurpose Logistics Module, Leonardo, Rests in Discovery's Payload Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This in-orbit close up shows the Italian Space Agency-built multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), Leonardo, the primary cargo of the STS-102 mission, resting in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth station assembly flight and NASA's 103rd overall flight, STS-102 launched March 8, 2001 for an almost 13 day mission.

2001-01-01

71

Multipurpose water heater. Final technical report, October 1995--August 1997  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes SBIR Phase 2 project for the development of a multi-purpose water heater for use in Army Food sanitation centers. The objective of the project was to develop a water heater--powered only by an M2 burner and requiring no external supply of electricity--capable of supplying a continuous flow of pressurized hot water to a faucet at the sanitation sink. In the course of the research, two developments took place that have had an impact on the final design. First, the Multifuel Burner Unit (MBU) became available as a potential replacement for the M2. The MBU runs on JP-8 or diesel fuel and requires an external 24-volt VDC power supply. Thus, in anticipation of eventual conversion from M2 to MBU, a DC-Powered Water Heater was also delivered. Second, a new method for heating water in the sanitation sinks was developed allowing three sinks to be heated by a single M2 or MBU.

Guyer, E.C.; Coumou, K.G.

1999-03-01

72

A multi-purpose brain-computer interface output device.  

PubMed

While brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising alternative access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments, many BCI systems are designed as stand-alone communication and control systems, rather than as interfaces to existing systems built for these purposes. An individual communication and control system may be powerful or flexible, but no single system can compete with the variety of options available in the commercial assistive technology (AT) market. BCls could instead be used as an interface to these existing AT devices and products, which are designed for improving access and agency of people with disabilities and are highly configurable to individual user needs. However, interfacing with each AT device and program requires significant time and effort on the part of researchers and clinicians. This work presents the Multi-Purpose BCI Output Device (MBOD), a tool to help researchers and clinicians provide BCI control of many forms of AT in a plug-and-play fashion, i.e., without the installation of drivers or software on the AT device, and a proof-of-concept of the practicality of such an approach. The MBOD was designed to meet the goals of target device compatibility, BCI input device compatibility, convenience, and intuitive command structure. The MBOD was successfully used to interface a BCI with multiple AT devices (including two wheelchair seating systems), as well as computers running Windows (XP and 7), Mac and Ubuntu Linux operating systems. PMID:22208120

Thompson, David E; Huggins, Jane E

2011-10-01

73

Analysis of polyhexamethylene biguanide in multipurpose contact lens solutions.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to establish a reasonably simple and reliable method to measure very low concentrations of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) in multipurpose contact lens solutions (MPSs). By using a weak cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge to extract the PHMB from MPS, followed by HPLC analysis using an evaporative light scattering detector, low levels (0.1 ppm) of PHMB were detected. Application of this method to a series of off-the-shelf MPS with PHMB as the active ingredient demonstrated these solutions contain 1 ppm. The contact lens solution with hydrogen peroxide as the active ingredient gave no peak where the PHMB peak eluted. The Polyquad contact lens solution generated a peak close to the retention time of PHMB. Recovery of PHMB from fortified hydrogen peroxide contact lens solution was good at 0.25 ppm and above; 105% with a RSD of 17% or less. The repeatability of the HPLC system ranged from 4 to 11% RSD; the reproducibility of the entire method was less than 17.5% RSD. Storage and stability studies indicated that storage of MPS with PHMB for chemical analysis are not temperature dependent, but are affected by the composition of the container in which the contact lens solution is stored. PMID:19836589

Lucas, Anne D; Gordon, Edward A; Stratmeyer, Melvin E

2009-12-15

74

Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.  

PubMed

In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

2013-11-30

75

PIK3R1 mutations in SHORT syndrome.  

PubMed

SHORT syndrome (OMIM 269880) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by short stature, hyperextensibility of joints, hernias, ocular depression, ophthalmic anomalies (Rieger anomaly, posterior embryotoxon, glaucoma), teething delay, partial lipodystrophy, insulin resistance and facial dysmorphic signs. Heterozygous mutations in PIK3R1 were recently identified in 14 families with SHORT syndrome. Eight of these families had a recurrent missense mutation (c.1945C>T; p.Arg649Trp). We report on two unrelated patients with typical clinical features of SHORT syndrome and additional problems such as pulmonary stenosis and ectopic kidney. Analysis of PIK3R1 revealed the mutation c.1945C>T; p.Arg649Trp de novo in both patients. These two patients not only provide additional evidence that PIK3R1 mutations cause SHORT syndrome, but also broaden the clinical spectrum of this syndrome and further confirm that the amino acid exchange c.1945C>T; p.Arg649Trp is a hotspot mutation in this gene. PMID:23980586

Schroeder, C; Riess, A; Bonin, M; Bauer, P; Riess, O; Döbler-Neumann, M; Wieser, S; Moog, U; Tzschach, A

2014-09-01

76

Reducing dropout of contact lens wear with Biotrue multipurpose solution  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate whether the use of Biotrue multipurpose solution (MPS) could significantly reduce the likelihood with which patients drop out of using daily wear contact lenses (CLs) amongst 18–44-year-old frequent replacement CL wearers. Methods Daily wear CL subjects habitually using MPSs (other than Biotrue MPS) who reported an intent to imminently drop out of CL wear because of comfort and dryness complaints were recruited to participate in this investigation. Subjects were switched to Biotrue MPS and continued to use habitual CL types with the new MPS for 2 weeks. Subjects completed an online satisfaction questionnaire at baseline and after 2 weeks to assess the change in symptoms and the intent to drop out of CL wear. Six months after completion of the initial study, a follow-up survey was administered to a subset of the initial participants. Results A total of 153 daily wear (silicone hydrogel and hydrogel) subjects completed this 2-week study with Biotrue MPS. When measuring those with the highest propensity to drop out of lens wear (n=93) after switching to Biotrue MPS, 90% of subjects significantly reduced their likelihood of dropping out of CL wear (P<0.0001). Online interviews were conducted with 73 of the study participants 6 months after completion of the initial study. A total of 93% of participants responded that they were still wearing CLs at least once per week. Of the 7% of respondents who were not currently wearing lenses 6 months after the initial study, two had dropped out of lens wear completely, and three still wore lenses less than once per week. Conclusion Patients intending to drop out of CL wear due to discomfort and dryness significantly reduced their propensity of discontinuing lens wear following use of Biotrue MPS. Six months after completion of the study, 93% of patients were still wearing CLs at least once per week. PMID:24493920

Rah, Marjorie J; Merchea, Mohinder M; Doktor, Marianne Q

2014-01-01

77

Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees on the fur farmlands in the Jebel Marra highlands, Western Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the traditional agroforestry systems based on Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees as practised by the sedentary Fur people on the lower slopes and highlands of the Jebel Marra massif, Sudan. The basic agrosilvopastoral system consists of terraced village fields, where semipermanent rainfed cropping of staple millet and other subsistence crops takes place under stands of multipurpose

S. Miehe

1986-01-01

78

Tear cytokine response to multipurpose solutions for contact lenses  

PubMed Central

Purpose An increased risk of corneal infiltrative events has been noted with the use of certain contact lenses and multipurpose solutions (MPS). This study was designed to evaluate tear cytokine assay as a sensitive, objective, and quantitative measure of the ocular surface response to contact lens/MPS and to consider the assay’s clinical relevance in the context of other measures of ocular surface response. Methods Two MPS, ReNu® Fresh™ (RNF) and Opti-Free® RepleniSH (OFR), were used with daily wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses in a randomized, prospective crossover study involving 26 subjects. Clinical data collection (conjunctival hyperemia, ocular surface sensitivity, solution induced corneal staining (SICS) test score, and subjective responses) and tear cytokine assays were conducted masked. Responses were tracked as change from baseline throughout the experimental schedule. Results Similar response patterns for several inflammatory cytokines were seen throughout both phases: subjects who received OFR in Phase I had mean tear concentrations that were generally higher than those of the RNF Phase I group. OFR Phase I subjects had significant (P < 0.01) increases over baseline at day 1 and/or following washout for 13 cytokines (cc chemokine ligands [CCL] 3, CCL5, CCL11, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], interferon [INF]-?, interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-?). These changes were not observed in RNF Phase I subjects, even though SICS test scores increased. Phase I OFR subjects also had increased dryness, while RNF Phase I subjects had decreased bulbar hyperemia. No changes were detected with respect to limbal hyperemia or surface sensitivity thresholds. Conclusion The tear cytokine assay can detect and differentiate contact lens/MPS induced increases in inflammatory cytokines. Changes in cytokine levels were consistent with measurement of hyperemia and dryness but not with SICS scores, thereby suggesting a proinflammatory response to OFR compared to RNF that is not related to SICS test score. Tear cytokine profiles may be useful for reconciling clinical relevance of test results and in revealing signaling involved in the development of corneal infiltrative events. PMID:23847409

Kalsow, Carolyn M; Reindel, William T; Merchea, Mohinder M; Bateman, Kirk M; Barr, Joseph T

2013-01-01

79

Evaluation of the pozzolanic activity of fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R). Thermogravimetric analysis studies on FC3R-Portland cement pastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R) from a petrol refinery has shown a great pozzolanic activity in lime pastes as have been demonstrated in previous studies. Based on these results, the pozzolanic activity of the FC3R in Portland cement pastes has been investigated. This evaluation has been carried out by means of thermogravimetry (TG) of cured FC3R-Portland cement pastes. The

J Payá; J Monzó; M. V Borrachero; S Velázquez

2003-01-01

80

Multipurpose Design for Remediation of Fish Passage Barriers on University Creek Road Crossings, Townsville North Queensland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of infrastructure designs to meet multipurpose goals relating to utilitarian needs and the biophysical and socio-cultural environment is a crucial aspect to the creation of sustainable engineering solutions. Practitioners and managers involved in infrastructure design for road-stream crossings such as culverts and causeways, must now go beyond conventional design practices dealing merely with flood capacity, structure integrity and

Ross Kapitzke

81

RTN-based rolling horizon algorithms for medium term scheduling of multipurpose plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major advances in the scheduling of multipurpose plants over the past decade has been the increasing usage of rigorous mathematical programming approaches based on increasingly general problem representations such as the Resource-Task Network (RTN) framework recently proposed by Pantelides (1994). These approaches often require the solution of large optimisation problems, the size of which increases with the

A. D. Dimitriadis; N. Shah; C. C. Pantelides

1997-01-01

82

Engineering a multi-purpose test collection for Web retrieval experiments  

E-print Network

quantities of dark matter (Bailey, Craswell, & Hawking, 2000) due to Web page access restrictions, to lackEngineering a multi-purpose test collection for Web retrieval experiments Peter Bailey a,*, Nick methods for the Web has been restricted by the lack of a test collection capable of supporting experiments

Tomkins, Andrew

83

Multipurpose panel, phase 1, study report. [display utilizing multiplexing and digital techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of a multipurpose panel which provides a programmable electronic display for changeable panel nomenclature, multiplexes similar indicator display signals to the signal display, and demultiplexes command signals is examined. Topics discussed include: electronic display technology, miniaturized electronic and memory devices, and data management systems which employ digital address and multiplexing.

Parkin, W.

1975-01-01

84

Design of multipurpose production facilities: A RTN decomposition-based algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general mathematical formulation for the design of multipurpose facilities has recently been presented by Barbosa-Póvoa and Pantelides (1997). The model proposed permits a detailed consideration of the design problem taking account of trade-offs between capital costs, revenues and operational flexibility. The optimal solution involves the selection of the required processing and storage equipment items and the required levels of

Constantinos C. Pantelides

1999-01-01

85

Multipurpose electric furnace system. [for use in Apollo-Soyuz Test Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multipurpose electric furnace system of advanced design for space applications was developed and tested. This system is intended for use in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program. It consists of the furnace, control package and a helium package for rapid cooldown.

Mazelsky, R.; Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Johnson, R. A.; Mchugh, J. P.; Foust, H. C.; Piotrowski, P. A.

1974-01-01

86

DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE-STEEL CERMETS FOR SPENT-NUCLEAR-FUEL MULTIPURPOSE CASKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management system is proposed for the U.S. Department of Energy and utility SNF that uses multipurpose casks made of a depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermet. The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is designed for SNF received in transport casks. The SNF assemblies or SNF in baskets are transferred to repository waste packages that, in turn,

Charles W. Forsberg; M. Jonathan Haire

87

Breeding status of tung tree (Vernicia sp.) in China, a multipurpose oilseed crop with industrial uses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a developing country with the world’s largest population, China faces a serious challenge in satisfying its continuously increasing energy demands. Tung trees (Vernicia sp., especially V. fordii and V. montana), are multipurpose, perennial plants belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The unique ...

88

Engineering a Multi-Purpose Test Collection for Web Retrieval Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a test collection that was developed as a multi-purpose testbed for experiments on the Web in distributed information retrieval, hyperlink algorithms, and conventional ad hoc retrieval. Discusses inter-server connectivity, integrity of server holdings, inclusion of documents related to a wide spread of likely queries, and distribution of…

Bailey, Peter; Craswell, Nick; Hawking, David

2003-01-01

89

77 FR 38766 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...international organization's life-cycle with CS. CS is mandated by...International Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose Forms, previously...inclusive and flexible client life-cycle information collection. The...collection). Affected Public: Business or other for-profit...

2012-06-29

90

SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL NUMBER DENSITIES FOR MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER CRITICALITY CALCULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the number densities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be used in criticality evaluations of the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) waste packages. The objective of this analysis is to provide material number density information which will be referenced by future MPC criticality design analyses, such as for those supporting the Conceptual Design Report.

D. A. Thomas

1996-01-12

91

Integrating three representation models in fuzzy multipurpose decision making based on fuzzy preference relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to study a fuzzy multipurpose decision making problem, where the information about the alternatives provided by the experts can be of a diverse nature. the information can be represented by means of preference orderings, utility functions and fuzzy preference relations, and our objective is to establish a general model which cover all possible representations.

F. Chiclana; F. Herrera; E. Herrera-Viedma

1998-01-01

92

The effect of up-armoring of the high-mobility multi-purpose  

E-print Network

The effect of up-armoring of the high-mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) on the off-road in vehicle off-road performance caused by the up-armoring employ to improve vehicle blast and ballistic-armoring of the HMMWV on off-road vehicle performance. Keywords Road vehicles, Finite element analysis, Modelling

Grujicic, Mica

93

Testing basic performance of a very small wind turbine designed for multi-purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very small wind turbine system for multi-purposes was developed and its performance was reported in this paper. The rotor diameter of the turbine is 500mm. The tests of the energy output, turbine speed, power coefficient, and torque of turbine were carried out for a wide rage of free stream velocity. The flow around the wind turbine and the influence

Hiroyuki Hirahara; M. Zakir Hossain; Masaaki Kawahashi; Yoshitami Nonomura

2005-01-01

94

A Multi-purpose Tactile Vest for Astronauts in the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 10 day taxiflight to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2004, Dutch astronaut André Kuipers is scheduled to test a multi-purpose vibro- tactile vest. The main application of the vest is supporting the astronaut's orien- tation awareness. To this end, we employ an artificial gravity vector analogy. The location of vibration on the torso indicates the direction of

Jan B. F. van Erp; Hendrik A. H. C van Veen

2003-01-01

95

Accelerated carbonation of cement pastes partially substituted with fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerated carbonation tests have been carried out on Portland cement pastes and pastes partially substituted with a spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R) to investigate possible differences between the composition of FC3R\\/cement and plain cement matrices. Cement\\/FC3R pastes have been tested by thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction analyses. This study has revealed that the incorporation of FC3R on pastes produces a

E. Zornoza; P. Garcés; J. Monzó; M. V. Borrachero; J. Payá

2009-01-01

96

Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R) blended cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R) as a cement replacement material has been studied. Four FC3R-blended cements were prepared by the replacement of Portland cement by FC3R in the 6–20% range by mass. Chemical, physical and mechanical properties of the FC3R-blended cements were compared to those of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Chemical and mechanical tests suggested important

J Payá; J Monzó; M. V Borrachero

2001-01-01

97

Nonclinical safety evaluation of boric acid and a novel borate-buffered contact lens multi-purpose solution, Biotrue™ multi-purpose solution.  

PubMed

Multipurpose solutions (MPS) often contain low concentrations of boric acid as a buffering agent. Limited published literature has suggested that boric acid and borate-buffered MPS may alter the corneal epithelium; an effect attributed to cytotoxicity induced by boric acid. However, this claim has not been substantiated. We investigated the effect of treating cells with relevant concentrations of boric acid using two cytotoxicity assays, and also assessed the impact of boric acid on corneal epithelial barrier function by measuring TEER and immunostaining for tight junction protein ZO-1 in human corneal epithelial cells. Boric acid was also assessed in an in vivo ocular model when administered for 28 days. Additionally, we evaluated Biotrue multi-purpose solution, a novel borate-buffered MPS, alone and with contact lenses for ocular compatibility in vitro and in vivo. Boric acid passed both cytotoxicity assays and did not alter ZO-1 distribution or corneal TEER. Furthermore, boric acid was well-tolerated on-eye following repeated administration in a rabbit model. Finally, Biotrue multi-purpose solution demonstrated good ocular biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. This MPS was not cytotoxic and was compatible with the eye when administered alone and when evaluated with contact lenses. We demonstrate that boric acid and a borate-buffered MPS is compatible with the ocular environment. Our findings provide evidence that ocular effects reported for some borate-buffered MPS may be incorrectly attributed to boric acid and are more likely a function of the unique combination of ingredients in the MPS formulation tested. PMID:21115387

Lehmann, David M; Cavet, Megan E; Richardson, Mary E

2010-12-01

98

The trigeneration cycle as a way to create multipurpose stationary power plants based on conversion of aeroderivative turbofan engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A schematic cycle is considered, and thermodynamic analysis is performed to substantiate the possibility of creating multipurpose industrial power plants, operating on a trigeneration cycle, based on production-type turbofan engines.

Varaksin, A. Yu.; Arbekov, A. N.; Inozemtsev, A. A.

2014-10-01

99

Multipurpose Wetlands Phase II/III: final design and ongoing research investigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD), the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and the National Biological Survey (NBS), in consultation with other governmental agencies, the academic community, and environmental groups, are involved in a cooperative wetlands research and demonstration effort. This report reflects progress through the first 3 years of a 5-year program. The goal of the Multipurpose Wetlands Research and Demonstration Project is to evaluate and expand the use of reclaimed water and contaminated ground water through the incorporation of multipurpose constructed wetlands into EMWD's total water resources management program. The focus of the wetlands is the development of design, construction, and operation criteria that will provide a cost-effective and innovative alternative for managing water resources and provide other public benefits in arid areas. The program also recognizes the fact that naturally-occurring wetlands, both coastal and inland, have been disappearing at an alarming rate.

Babbitt, Bruce; Beard, Daniel P.; Hancock, Lawrence F.

1994-01-01

100

Engineering a multi-purpose test collection for Web retrieval experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research into text retrieval methods for the Web has been restricted by the lack of a test collection capable of supporting experiments which are both realistic and reproducible. The 1.69 million document WT10g collection is proposed as a multi-purpose testbed for experiments with these attributes, in distributed IR, hyperlink algorithms and conventional ad hoc retrieval.WT10g was constructed by selecting

Peter Bailey; Nick Craswell; David Hawking

2003-01-01

101

Performance test on PELICAN - a multi-purpose time of flight cold neutron spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pelican, a direct geometry multi-purpose cold neutron spectrometer has recently been commissioned at the Bragg Institute, ANSTO. The energy resolution and flux at the sample position as a function of neutron wavelength has been evaluated and time focusing at selected energy transfers has also been demonstrated. Several test experiments of quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scatterings have been performed and these have indicated the realisation of the design specifications and performance of the instrument.

Yu, Dehong; Mole, Richard. A.; Kearley, Gordon J.

2015-01-01

102

Volunteer biomass production between multipurpose tree hedgerows after two years of fallow in southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of multipurpose hedgerow tree species to out-compete undesired regrowth during fallow phases was examined. Biomass\\u000a and spatial distribution of grass and broad leaf volunteers was measured after two years of fallow, in two alley cropping\\u000a systems planted at six m interrow distance, at the Humid Forest Ecoregional Centre Research Station, Mbalmayo, southern Cameroon.\\u000a The two experiments had been

S. Hauser

2002-01-01

103

Comparative antimicrobial efficacy of multi-purpose hydrogel lens care solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten single-bottle multipurpose hydrogel lens care solutions commercially available in the European market were evaluated for antimicrobial efficacy using the International Organization for Standardization's (ISO) Stand-Alone Procedure. The results of this study indicate that ReNu Multi Plus ReNu Multi Purpose, Complete and DUA meet the ISO Stand-Alone primary acceptance criteria for stand-alone disinfectants against all challenge organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia

Andrea M. Lever; Roya N. Borazjani

2001-01-01

104

A high resolution multipurpose ESCA instrument with X-ray monochromator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and performance of a new high resolution multipurpose instrument are described and illustrated. The instrument comprises a high-power, fine-focusing e--gun, a high speed rotating anode, a double focusing multi-crystal X-ray monochromator, a monochromatic UV-source with a toroidal grating, a fine-focus variable energy e--source, a four-element electrostatic e--lens system, a large 36 cm hemispherical electrostatic analyzer, a 12 cm

U. Gelius; L. Asplund; E. Basilier; S. Hedman; K. Helenelund; K. Siegbahn

1984-01-01

105

Inspector2000: A DSP-based, portable, multi-purpose MCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various in-situ gamma-spectroscopy applications need a versatile, multi-purpose, portable multi-channel analyzer (MCA). Recently, Canberra has introduced the Inspector-2000 for this purpose. It uses digital signal processing (DSP) technology and weighs only about 1.2 kg. It also supports CdTe, NaI and Ge detectors. Due to its use of DSP technology, the Inspector-2000 also provides a longer battery life, a better detector

M. J. Koskelo; W. A. Sielaff; D. L. Hall; V. T. Jordanov; M. H. Kastner

2001-01-01

106

The International Space Station's Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, Thermal Performance of the First Five Flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multi-Purpose Logistics Module is the primary carrier for transport of pressurized payload to the International Space Station. Performing five missions within a thirteen month span provided a unique opportunity to gather a great deal of information toward understanding and verifying the orbital performance of the vehicle. This paper will provide a brief overview of the hardware history and design capabilities followed by a summary of the missions flown, resource requirements and possibilities for the future.

Holladay, Jon; Cho, Frank

2003-01-01

107

Susceptibility of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Clinical Isolates to Antibiotics and Contact Lens Multipurpose Disinfecting Solutions.  

PubMed

Purpose:To determine the susceptibility of S. maltophilia to various antibiotics and contact lens multipurpose disinfecting solutions. Methods:Forty S. maltophilia strains from contact lens cases, contact lenses, or eye swabs of contact lens wearers including from 27 asymptomatic wearers and 13 keratitis patients were examined for their susceptibility to different antibiotics using a disc diffusion assay, and to multipurpose disinfecting solutions using a broth microdilution method. Results: Certain strains were resistant to aztreonum (15%), imipenem (93%), chroramphenicol (13%) and cefepime (8%). Two of those strains were multi-drug resistant. All strains were sensitive to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, ceftazidime, and fluoroquinolones. Overall the MIC for all strains was significantly higher (p<0.05) for AQuify® (50% dilution) and OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® (25%) than all other MPDS (3-14%; except RepleniSH vs. Menicare™ Soft (14%)). AQuify®, OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® Menicare™ Soft had significantly higher minimum bactericidal concentrations (undiluted MPDS) than other disinfecting solutions (p <0.05). Conclusions: The Australian ocular isolates of S. maltophilia remain susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethozole, tigecycline, and most of fluoroquinolones. However, the isolates showed resistance to certain multipurpose disinfecting solutions. PMID:25468893

Watanabe, Keizo; Zhu, Hua; Willcox, Mark Dp

2014-12-01

108

Detection of DNA in Agarose Gels Using Berberine and Mordant Yellow 3R  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nontoxic and simple staining method for the detection of DNA in agarose gels is described. After eletrophoretic separation, the gels were stained with 5 ?g\\/ml of berberine (BB) prepared in distilled water and then the gels were soaked in 20 ?g\\/ml of aqueous Mordant Yellow 3R (MY3R) solution. Employment of MY3R as a counterion dye efficiently quenched unwanted background

Da-Woon Jung; Gyurng-Soo Yoo; Jung-Kap Choi

1999-01-01

109

Experimental Demonstration of Optical TTL Based Selective-3R in OLS Network Testbed with Label Rewriting  

E-print Network

Experimental Demonstration of Optical TTL Based Selective-3R in OLS Network Testbed with Label in an OLS testbed with OLS routers, which intelligently apply 3R only when necessary. The experiment-label-switching (OLS) is an attractive technology that enables seamless integration of data and optical networking

Kolner, Brian H.

110

32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department...E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) EC24OC91.021 EC24OC91.022...

2010-07-01

111

The Multi-Purpose Detector for JINR heavy-ion collider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is designed to study heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna. The detector will comprise a superconducting solenoid equipped with three dimensional tracking system composed of a silicon microstrip vertex detector followed by a large volume time-projection chamber and a particle identification system based on time-of flight measurements and calorimetry. In this paper a few parts of apparatus are described and their tracking and particle identification parameters are discussed in some detail.

Razin, Stepan

2014-07-01

112

Accumulation of spatial charge in the time projection chamber of a multipurpose detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the results of a numerical simulation of the process of spatial positive charge accumulation in the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of the multipurpose detector (MPD) at Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). Based on the spatial distribution of the charges, the problem of calculating the potential of the electrostatic field created by these charges has been solved. The radial, angular, and axial distortions in the electron motions from the point of ionization to the readout planes are calculated.

Merts, S. P.; Razin, S. V.; Rogachevskii, O. V.

2013-01-01

113

The Multi-Purpose Detector for NICA heavy-Ion Collider at JINR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is designed to study heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna. Its main components located inside a superconducting solenoid are a tracking system composed of a silicon microstrip vertex detector followed by a large volume time-projection chamber, a time-of-flight system for particle identification and a barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. A zero degree hadron calorimeter is designed specifically to measure the energy of spectators. In this paper, all parts of the apparatus are described and their tracking and particle identification parameters are discussed in some detail.

Rogachevsky, O. V.

2012-05-01

114

Work continues on Leonardo, the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, in the Space Station Processing Faci  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility work on Leonardo, the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) built by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). The MPLM, a reusable logistics carrier, will be the primary delivery system used to resupply and return International Space Station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Leonardo is the first of three MPLM carriers for the International Space Station. It is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Mission STS-102, targeted for June 2000. Leonardo shares space in the SSPF with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), targeted for launch in September 1999, and Destiny, the U.S. Lab module, targeted for mission STS-98 in late April 2000.

1999-01-01

115

Ethical issues for late-stage trials of multipurpose prevention technologies for HIV and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) designed to simultaneously prevent pregnancy and HIV could provide urgently needed tools to address unmet sexual and reproductive health needs of women worldwide. Late-stage clinical trials will be complex given the need to demonstrate efficacy for HIV and contraceptive indications simultaneously from a single product. Currently, HIV and pregnancy prevention trials have distinctive design features that will need to be reconciled in MPT trials. This article identifies several ethical issues uniquely associated with this research that will benefit from future deliberation and guidance to ensure that this globally important research can proceed efficiently and expeditiously. PMID:25113651

Cohen, Jessica A; Mastroianni, Anna C; Macklin, Ruth

2014-11-01

116

The structural analysis of Cu(111)-Te ?{3}×?{3}R30° and 2?{3}×2?{3}R30° surface phases by quantitative LEED and DFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemisorption of tellurium on atomically clean Cu(111) surface has been studied under ultra-high vacuum conditions. At room temperature, the initial stage of growth was an ordered 2?{3}×2?{3}R30° phase (0.08 ML). An ordered ?{3}×?{3}R30° phase is formed at 0.33 ML coverage of Te. The adsorption sites of the Te atoms on the Cu(111) surface at 0.08 ML and 0.33 ML coverages are explored by quantitative low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and density functional theory (DFT). Our results indicate that substitutional surface alloy formation starts at very low coverages.

Lahti, M.; Chaudhuri, A.; Pussi, K.; Hesp, D.; McLeod, I. M.; Dhanak, V. R.; King, M. O.; Kadodwala, M.; MacLaren, D. A.

2014-04-01

117

A self-timed multipurpose delay sensor for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs).  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel self-timed multi-purpose sensor especially conceived for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The aim of the sensor is to measure performance variations during the life-cycle of the device, such as process variability, critical path timing and temperature variations. The proposed topology, through the use of both combinational and sequential FPGA elements, amplifies the time of a signal traversing a delay chain to produce a pulse whose width is the sensor's measurement. The sensor is fully self-timed, avoiding the need for clock distribution networks and eliminating the limitations imposed by the system clock. One single off- or on-chip time-to-digital converter is able to perform digitization of several sensors in a single operation. These features allow for a simplified approach for designers wanting to intertwine a multi-purpose sensor network with their application logic. Employed as a temperature sensor, it has been measured to have an error of  ±0.67 °C, over the range of 20-100 °C, employing 20 logic elements with a 2-point calibration. PMID:24361927

Osuna, Carlos Gómez; Ituero, Pablo; López-Vallejo, Marisa

2013-01-01

118

A Self-Timed Multipurpose Delay Sensor for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel self-timed multi-purpose sensor especially conceived for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The aim of the sensor is to measure performance variations during the life-cycle of the device, such as process variability, critical path timing and temperature variations. The proposed topology, through the use of both combinational and sequential FPGA elements, amplifies the time of a signal traversing a delay chain to produce a pulse whose width is the sensor's measurement. The sensor is fully self-timed, avoiding the need for clock distribution networks and eliminating the limitations imposed by the system clock. One single off- or on-chip time-to-digital converter is able to perform digitization of several sensors in a single operation. These features allow for a simplified approach for designers wanting to intertwine a multi-purpose sensor network with their application logic. Employed as a temperature sensor, it has been measured to have an error of ±0.67 °C, over the range of 20–100 °C, employing 20 logic elements with a 2-point calibration. PMID:24361927

Osuna, Carlos Gómez; Ituero, Pablo; López-Vallejo, Marisa

2014-01-01

119

Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990). Appendix A3-R  

SciTech Connect

Techniques in use at the Hanford Reservation as of March, 1990 for the analysis of liquids and radioactive effluents are described. Limitations and applications of the techniques are included. This report is Appendix A3-R.

Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

1993-05-01

120

Genotypic and Phenotypic Heterogeneity in the U3R Region of HIV Type 1 Subtype C  

PubMed Central

Abstract Approximately 20% of all HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) occurs in utero (IU). In a chronic HIV infection, HIV-1 exists as a complex swarm of genetic variants, and following IU MTCT, viral genomic diversity is restricted through a mechanism that remains to be described. The 5? U3R region of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) contains multiple transcription factor (TF) binding sites and regulates viral transcription. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sequence polymorphisms in the U3R region of LTR are associated with IU MTCT. To this end, we used single template amplification to isolate 517 U3R sequences from maternal, placental, and infant plasma derived from 17 HIV-infected Malawian women: eight whose infants remained HIV uninfected (NT) and nine whose infants became HIV infected IU. U3R sequences show pairwise diversities ranging from 0.2% to 2.3%. U3R sequences from one participant contained two, three, or four putative NF-?B binding sites. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicated that U3R sequences from eight of nine IU participants were consistent with placental compartmentalization of HIV-1 while only one of eight NT cases was consistent with such compartmentalization. Specific TF sequence polymorphisms were not significantly associated with IU MTCT. To determine if replication efficiency of the U3R sequences was associated with IU MTCT, we cloned 90 U3R sequences and assayed promoter activity in multiple cell lines. Although we observed significant, yet highly variable promoter activity and TAT induction of promoter activity in the cell lines tested, there was no association between measured promoter activity and MTCT status. Thus, we were unable to detect a promoter genotype or phenotype associated with IU MTCT. PMID:23826737

Mates, Jessica M.; Kumar, Surender B.; Bazan, Jose; Mefford, Megan; Voronkin, Igor; Handelman, Samuel; Mwapasa, Victor; Ackerman, William; Janies, Daniel

2014-01-01

121

Targeted H3R26 Deimination Specifically Facilitates Estrogen Receptor Binding by Modifying Nucleosome Structure  

PubMed Central

Transcription factor binding to DNA in vivo causes the recruitment of chromatin modifiers that can cause changes in chromatin structure, including the modification of histone tails. We previously showed that estrogen receptor (ER) target gene activation is facilitated by peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2)-catalyzed histone H3R26 deimination (H3R26Cit). Here we report that the genomic distributions of ER and H3R26Cit in breast cancer cells are strikingly coincident, linearly correlated, and observed as early as 2 minutes following estradiol treatment. The H3R26Cit profile is unlike that of previously described histone modifications and is characterized by sharp, narrow peaks. Paired-end MNase ChIP-seq indicates that the charge-neutral H3R26Cit modification facilitates ER binding to DNA by altering the fine structure of the nucleosome. Clinically, we find that PAD2 and H3R26Cit levels correlate with ER expression in breast tumors and that high PAD2 expression is associated with increased survival in ER+ breast cancer patients. These findings provide insight into how transcription factors gain access to nucleosomal DNA and implicate PAD2 as a novel therapeutic target for ER+ breast cancer. PMID:25211228

Anguish, Lynne; Kim, Sohyoung; Varticovski, Lyuba; Lis, John T.; Hager, Gordon L.; Coonrod, Scott A.

2014-01-01

122

A potent antibrowning agent from pine needles of Cedrus deodara: 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin.  

PubMed

This article focuses on finding the novel antibrowning agents from the pine needles of Cedrus deodara and studying its antibrowning effect. By bioassay guide of tyrosinase inhibitory activity, the main active compound was isolated and purified from 50% methanol extract of pine needles of C. deodara through macroporous resin Diaion HP-20 column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on mass and nuclear magnetic resonance data, the active compound was identified as 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin, which showed the potent monophenolase and diphenolase inhibitory activities. Moreover, 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin exhibited a strong ABTS radical scavenging activity with a dose-dependent manner. The antibrowning efficacy of 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin was evaluated by monitoring the changes of L*, a*, and b* values and total color difference (?E) on fresh-cut apple slices. It was found that 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin was effective in inhibiting the browning of apple slices treated with a concentration as low as 0.05% at 25 °C for 24 h. Its antibrowning effect was significantly better than ascorbic acid (0.5%) alone. Furthermore, 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin showed a good synergistic antibrowning effect with ascorbic acid. This is the first report that 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin from pine needles of C. deodara may be used as a potential antibrowning agent in protecting against food browning. PMID:25163933

Liang, Xue; Wu, Yan-Ping; Qiu, Jing-Hong; Zhong, Kai; Gao, Hong

2014-09-01

123

Multipurpose Compound  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

1983-01-01

124

The T3R? gene encoding a thyroid hormone receptor is essential for post-natal development and thyroid hormone production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diverse functions of thyroid hormones are thought to be mediated by two nuclear receptors, T3R?1 and T3R?, encoded by the genes T3R? and T3R? respectively. The T3R? gene also produces a non-ligand-binding protein T3R?2. The in vivo functions of these receptors are still unclear. We describe here the homozygous inactivation of the T3R? gene which abrogates the production of

A. Fraichard; O. Chassande; M. Plateroti; J. P. Roux; J. Trouillas; C. Dehay; C. Legrand; K. Gauthier; M. Kedinger; L. Malaval; B. Rousset; J. Samarut

1997-01-01

125

Potential of nine multipurpose tree species to reduce saline groundwater tables in the lower Amu Darya River region of Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the potential of nine multipurpose tree species for afforestation of degraded land in the Khorezm region, Central Asia, particularly their suitability for biodrainage i.e., lowering the elevated groundwater table through the transpirative capacity of plantations. For this purpose water use (WU), water use efficiency (WUE) and tree physiological factors influencing transpiration were assessed during two consecutive years.

Asia Khamzina; John P. A. Lamers; Christopher Martius; Martin Worbes; Paul L. G. Vlek

2006-01-01

126

77 FR 38582 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose Forms  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...S. organization's life-cycle with CS. CS is mandated by...The Domestic Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose Forms, previously...inclusive and flexible client life-cycle information collection. The...collection). Affected Public: Business or other for-profit...

2012-06-28

127

STEPS: Going beyond the tip of the iceberg. A multi-level, multipurpose approach to common mental health problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

STEPS is a primary care mental health team that has attempted to develop a very high volume multi-level, multi-purpose service for those with mild to moderate problems. The service attempts to overcome many of the limitations of more traditional services. This paper describes the services contained within the six level model.

Jim White; A Joice; S Petrie; S Johnston; D Gilroy; P Hutton; N Hynes

2008-01-01

128

Microvillous cells expressing IP3R3 in the olfactory epithelium of mice  

PubMed Central

Microvillous cells of the main olfactory epithelium have been described variously as primary olfactory neurons, secondary chemosensory cells, or non-sensory cells. Here we generated an IP3R3tm1(tauGFP) mouse in which the coding region for a fusion protein of tau and green fluorescent protein (tauGFP) replaces the first exon of the Itpr3 gene. We provide immunohistochemical and functional characterization of the cells expressing IP3 receptor type 3 in the olfactory epithelium. Since we determined that these cells bear microvilli at their apex, we call these cells IP3R3 MV cells. The cell body of these IP3R3 MV cells lies in the upper third of the main olfactory epithelium; a long thick basal process projects towards the base of the epithelium without penetrating the basal lamina. Retrograde labeling and unilateral bulbectomy corroborated that these IP3R3 MV cells do not extend axons to the olfactory bulb and therefore are not olfactory sensory neurons. The immunohistochemical features of the IP3R3 MV cell varied suggesting either developmental stages or the existence of subsets of these cells. Thus, for example, subsets of the IP3R3 MV cells make contact with substance P fibers or express the purinergic receptor P2X3. In addition, in recordings of intracellular calcium, these cells respond to ATP and substance P as well as to a variety of odors. The characterization of IP3R3 MV cells as non-neuronal chemoresponsive cells helps explain the differing descriptions of microvillous cells in the literature. PMID:20958798

Hegg, Colleen C.; Jia, Cuihong; Chick, Wallace S.; Restrepo, Diego; Hansen, Anne

2015-01-01

129

3C3R Modified PBL Pediatric Teaching of Chinese Medical Students  

PubMed Central

A Content, Context, Connection and Researching, Reasoning, Reflecting (3C3R) model is a conceptual framework for problem-based learning (PBL) problem design. We introduced the 3C3R-PBL method into a pediatric teaching plan, and evaluated its effectiveness and feasibility. The 3C3R model was applied in a pediatric problem design teaching plan “why the lips turn purple when a baby is crying”. All students were assigned either into a traditional PBL course or into a 9-step 3C3R model PBL course (3C3R-PBL). The performance outcomes of both groups were compared. For the PBL group, the proportion of students scoring ?4 for content, context, and problem design connection, was 90.8%, 80.3%, and 64.5% respectively, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 71.4%, and 28.6%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ?4 was 81.6%, 55.3%, and 40.8%, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 100%, and 57.1%. The learning difficulty was not considered high with only 31.6% of students and 42.9% of tutors rating the task as difficult. For the 3C3R-PBL group, the proportion of students scoring content, context, and connection, ?4 was 100%, 98.4%, and 90.5%, while for tutors it was 100%, 100%, 83.3%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ?4 was 95.2%, 88.9%, and 76.2%, while for tutors it was 100% for all 3 R components. Students and tutors were convinced by the content, case context, research process and reasoning process of both teaching plans, while scores for connection and reflecting were significantly improved when the PBL plan was amended by a 3C3R model (p<0.05) and the case learning difficulty was statistically increased (p<0.05). The 3C3R model, evaluated for the first time in China, was helpful for effective and reliable problem design in a pediatric PBL teaching plan for Chinese students. PMID:23667610

Xue, Haihong; Qian, Jihong; Wang, Lianwen; Yuan, Xiaojun; Chen, Yi; Wu, Weilan; Chen, Yan; Sun, Kun

2013-01-01

130

Multipurpose Small Size Fast Reactor: Its Basic Concept and Application to Nuclear Hydrogen Production  

SciTech Connect

Here we propose a basic concept of a multipurpose small-sized fast reactor and its applicability to produce nuclear hydrogen for near future mass use of hydrogen industrial and public use. The modular-type fast reactor of 150 MW thermal output does not require fuel exchange nor decommissioning on the site, and can be transported from the factory in a fabricated form. For the hydrogen production, we propose to use the sorption enhanced reforming process (SERP), in which the steam-methane reforming can take place around 450 - 550. Since this temperature range is rather low compared to the ongoing steam reforming method (> 800 ), the SERP system combined with an adequate nuclear reactor system should be a promising one to cope with the coming age of hydrogen civilization. (authors)

Endo, H. [Toshiba Corporation (Japan); Sawada, T.; Ninokata, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2002-07-01

131

Aquatic toxicity of the decontamination agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination solution. Final report, May-December 1992  

SciTech Connect

A new formulation, Decontaminating Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution, is being considered as a replacement to the DS-2 decontaminating solution. The new formulation is composed of calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone. Since this is a new formulation little environmental data exists. To estimate potential impact to an aquatic environment, Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum (a luminescent marine bacterium) were exposed to the DAM solution and to the individual components (Calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone). The toxicity of the DAM solution to D. magna and P. phosphoreum was 5000 and 0.00053, respectively (highly toxic). The toxicity of calcium hypochlorite' and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone to daphnia was 0.04 mg/L (highly toxic) and 107 mg/L (moderately toxic), respectively.

Haley, M.V.; Kurnas, C.W.; Chester, N.A.; Muse, W.T.

1994-05-01

132

Fetal age determination through biparietal diameter: a simple method of cranial reconstruction using multipurpose silicone.  

PubMed

In forensic medicine, gestational age of fetal remains is a crucial information in several contests, but the classic methods are inadequate when early gestational age needs to be assessed. In the author's experience, the measurement of the biparietal diameter provides more accurate information for this purpose. The status of the fetal head is therefore critical. This work describes an easy technique that allows to reconstruct the cranial volume of the fetus using multipurpose silicone given both the flexibility of the fetal head structure and the inorganic nature of the silicone itself. In conclusion, the determination of the biparietal diameter achieved through the above-described technique permitted a more accurate estimation of the dating of pregnancy in judicial cases where the fetal remains were incomplete and disrupted. PMID:24761978

Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Fiore, Paola A; Cappelletti, Simone; Bottoni, Edoardo; Ciallella, Costantino

2014-09-01

133

MATISSE: Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In planetary sciences, design, assemble and launch onboard instruments are only preliminary steps toward the final aim of converting data into scientific knowledge, as the real challenge is the data analysis and interpretation. Up to now data have been generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e. common ftp servers where the user can manually search for data browsing directories organized in a time order manner. However, as datasets to be stored and searched become particularly large, this latter task absorb a great part of the time, subtracting time to the real scientific work. In order to reduce the time spent to search and analyze data MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), a new set of software tools developed together with the scientific teams of the instruments involved, is under development at ASDC (ASI Science Data Center), whose experience in space missions data management is well known (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4]).

Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Antonelli, L. A.

2013-09-01

134

Multi-purpose sulfur-sodium cell and mockup battery of twelve cells for electric car  

SciTech Connect

The report provides results of electrical tests of multipurpose cells and electric car mockup battery of twelve cells. It is shown that, sulfur-sodium accumulators, being produced at STC ISTOK, have adequate reliability in testing under electric car batteries conditions. They withstand discharge current of up to 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} density and demonstrate consistent characteristics at operating current densities of 0.1--0.3 A/cm{sup 2}. Results are represented on safety tests, including those with deliberately destroyed electrolyte. The mockup battery can operate according to the electrical car driving runs, the mockup characteristics here do not deteriorate when transmitting up to 50 A current.

Nikolaev, Yu.V.; Vybyvanets, V.I.; Suganeev, V.S.; Dzhalandinov, D.N.; Belousenko, A.P.; Fedorova, V.N. [State Research Inst. of Scientific Industrial Association, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

135

Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.

2013-01-01

136

Abolished InsP3R2 function inhibits sweat secretion in both humans and mice.  

PubMed

There are 3 major sweat-producing glands present in skin; eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands. Due to the high rate of secretion, eccrine sweating is a vital regulator of body temperature in response to thermal stress in humans; therefore, an inability to sweat (anhidrosis) results in heat intolerance that may cause impaired consciousness and death. Here, we have reported 5 members of a consanguineous family with generalized, isolated anhidrosis, but morphologically normal eccrine sweat glands. Whole-genome analysis identified the presence of a homozygous missense mutation in ITPR2, which encodes the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2), that was present in all affected family members. We determined that the mutation is localized within the pore forming region of InsP3R2 and abrogates Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ release by InsP3R2 in clear cells of the sweat glands is important for eccrine sweat production. Itpr2-/- mice exhibited a marked reduction in sweat secretion, and evaluation of sweat glands from Itpr2-/- animals revealed a decrease in Ca2+ response compared with controls. Together, our data indicate that loss of InsP3R2-mediated Ca2+ release causes isolated anhidrosis in humans and suggest that specific InsP3R inhibitors have the potential to reduce sweat production in hyperhidrosis. PMID:25329695

Klar, Joakim; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Baig, Shahid M; Tariq, Muhammad; Johansson, Anna C V; Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Naveed Altaf; Ameur, Adam; Sugiura, Kotomi; Feuk, Lars; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Dahl, Niklas

2014-11-01

137

The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscle power in male Japanese athletes.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscular power in Japanese collegiate athletes by analyzing the mean and peak power results of a 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) with respect to the ACTN3 R577X genotype in 253 Japanese athletes (144 men and 109 women). Each athlete performed a 30-second WAnT with a resistance equal to 7.5% of his or her body weight. Genotyping for the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan approach. The ACTN3 R577X genotypes exhibited a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution in our population. The relative and absolute mean power results of the 30-second WAnT did not differ significantly among the genotypes. However, the relative peak power result of the WAnT was significantly higher in the R-allele-dominant model groups than in the XX group in male but not female athletes. These results suggest that the ACTN3 R allele is associated with the relative peak power during the WAnT in male Japanese collegiate athletes. PMID:24343324

Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi; Min, Seok-ki; Ueda, Dai; Igawa, Shoji

2014-07-01

138

Delivery of multipurpose prevention drug combinations from electrospun nanofibers using composite microarchitectures  

PubMed Central

Background Electrospun drug-eluting fabrics have enormous potential for the delivery of physicochemically diverse drugs in combination by controlling the underlying material chemistry and fabric microarchitecture. However, the rationale for formulating drugs at high drug loading in the same or separate fibers is unknown but has important implications for product development and clinical applications. Methods Using a production-scale free-surface electrospinning instrument, we produced electrospun nanofibers with different microscale geometries for the co-delivery of tenofovir (TFV) and levonorgestrel (LNG) – two lead drug candidates for multipurpose prevention of HIV acquisition and unintended pregnancy. We investigated the in vitro drug release of TFV and LNG combinations from composites that deliver the two drugs from the same fiber (combined fibers) or from separate fibers in a stacked or interwoven architecture. For stacked composites, we also examined the role that fabric thickness has on drug-release kinetics. We also measured the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the drugs delivered alone and in combination. Results Herein, we report on the solution and processing parameters for the free-surface electrospinning of medical fabrics with controlled microarchitecture and high drug loading (up to 20 wt%). We observed that in vitro release of the highly water-soluble TFV, but not the water-insoluble LNG, was affected by composite microarchitecture, fabric thickness, and drug content. Finally, we showed that the drug-loaded nanofibers are noncytotoxic and that the antiviral activity of TFV is preserved through the electrospinning process and when combined with LNG. Conclusion Electrospun fabrics with high drug loading create multicomponent systems that benefit from the independent control of the nanofibrous microarchitecture. Our findings are significant because they will inform the design and production of composite electrospun fabrics for the co-delivery of physicochemically diverse drugs that may be useful for multipurpose prevention. PMID:24971008

Blakney, Anna K; Krogstad, Emily A; Jiang, Yonghou H; Woodrow, Kim A

2014-01-01

139

Comparison of ICD10 and DC: 0-3R Diagnoses in Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare diagnoses of patients from a special outpatient department for infants,\\u000a toddlers and preschoolers. Specifically, overlap, age and gender differences according to the two classification systems DC:\\u000a 0-3R and ICD-10 were examined. 299 consecutive children aged 0–5;11 years received both ICD-10 and DC: 0-3R diagnoses. All\\u000a ICD-10 diagnoses were given prospectively at

Monika EquitFrank; Frank Paulus; Pia Fuhrmann; Justine Niemczyk; Alexander von Gontard

140

Consistence of a GL(3,R) gauge formulation for topological massive gravity  

E-print Network

We include a Chern-Simons term in a GL(3,R) gauge formulation of gravity with a cosmological contribution in 2+1 dimension and we explore consistence showing that excitations must be causal and standard topological massive gravity is recovered from this type of construction at the torsionless limit.

Rolando Gaitan

2007-10-09

141

Consistence of a GL(3,R) gauge formulation for topological massive gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We include a Chern-Simons term in a GL(3,R) gauge formulation of gravity with a cosmological contribution in 2+1 dimension and we explore consistence showing that excitations must be causal and standard topological massive gravity is recovered from this type of construction at the torsionless limit.

Rolando Gaitan

2008-01-01

142

Akimotoite to perovskite phase transition in MgSiO3 R. M. Wentzcovitch,1  

E-print Network

Akimotoite to perovskite phase transition in MgSiO3 R. M. Wentzcovitch,1 L. Stixrude,2 B. B. Karki; published 25 May 2004. [1] The akimotoite to perovskite phase transition of MgSiO3 is shown by first to the larger density of states of low frequency vibrations in the perovskite phase. Such vibrations consist

Stixrude, Lars

143

Benefits of Student-Generated Note Packets: A Preliminary Investigation of SQ3R Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimal research to date has evaluated the impact of Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review (SQ3R) implementation (i.e., surveying prior to reading, generating questions, reading to answer said questions, reciting, and reviewing information) on content retention and student performance. Existing research is anecdotal or lacks ecological validity. The…

Carlston, David L.

2011-01-01

144

BRIEF NOTE. LINKAGE MAPPING OF THE MC3R GENE TO PORCINE CHROMOSOME 17  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apart from MC3R another four melanocortin receptors (MC1R, MC2R, MC4R and MC5R) that mediate diverse biological effects of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) derived peptides have been described. MC1R, MC2R, and MC5R have established roles in pigmentation in the skin, adrenal steroidogenesis and thermoregu...

145

Simplified optoelectronic 3R regenerator using nonlinear electro-optical transformation in an  

E-print Network

the nonlinear electro-optical transfer function of an electroabsorption modulator. 3R regeneration of impaired regenerators, the input and output optical waves are mixed in a non-linear medium at high power levels. Despite-linear medium may be sensitive to the polarization and wavelength of the input signal; 2) high power optical

Bowers, John

146

Comparison of ICD-10 and DC: 0-3R Diagnoses in Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare diagnoses of patients from a special outpatient department for infants, toddlers and preschoolers. Specifically, overlap, age and gender differences according to the two classification systems DC: 0-3R and ICD-10 were examined. 299 consecutive children aged 0-5;11 years received both ICD-10 and…

Equit, Monika; Paulus, Frank; Fuhrmann, Pia; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander

2011-01-01

147

New General Continuous-Time State?Task Network Formulation for Short-Term Scheduling of Multipurpose Batch Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new continuous time MILP model for the short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants is presented. The proposed model relies on the State Task Network (STN) and addresses the general problem of batch scheduling, accounting for resource (utility) constraints, variable batch sizes and processing times, various storage policies (UIS\\/FIS\\/NIS\\/ZW), batch mixing\\/splitting, and sequence- dependent changeover times. The key features of

Christos T. Maravelias; Ignacio E. Grossmann

2003-01-01

148

A new continuous-time state task network formulation for short term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new continuous-time MILP model for the short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants is presented. The proposed model relies on the idea of the State Task Network (STN) and addresses the general problem of batch scheduling, accounting for resources other than equipment (utilities), variable batch sizes and processing times, various storage policies (UIS\\/FIS\\/NIS\\/ZW) and batch splitting\\/mixing. Compared to other general

Christos T. Maravelias; Ignacio E. Grossmann

2003-01-01

149

Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

2009-01-01

150

First-principles calculations on mechanical and elastic properties of 2H- and 3R-WS2 under pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure, mechanical stability and elastic properties of 2H- and 3R-WS2 under pressure have been investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The equilibrium lattice parameters of 2H- and 3R-WS2 at 0 GPa are consistent with experimental and other theoretical values. 2H-WS2 is more stable than 3R-WS2 when pressure is less than 5.8 GPa whereas 3R-WS2 is more stable than 2H-WS2 when pressure is higher than 5.8 GPa. According to the mechanical stability criteria, both 2H- and 3R-WS2 exhibit mechanical stability under the pressure range from 0 to 20 GPa. With the increasing pressure, the elastic moduli (E, B, G), sound velocities (vs, vp, vm) and Debye temperatures of 2H- and 3R-WS2 increase monotonously whereas volume and specific heat decrease. Large elastic anisotropies in compressibility and in shear were demonstrated for 2H- and 3R-WS2 at 0 GPa. As the pressure increases, anisotropies in compressibility and in shear become weak for 2H- and 3R-WS2. Moreover, 2H- and 3R-WS2 under pressure have higher hardness and better ductility than those at 0 GPa.

Feng, Li-ping; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Zheng-tang

2014-06-01

151

Pleiotropic effects of TaMYB3R1 on plant development and response to osmotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we isolated and characterized TaMYB3R1, a MYB3R gene, from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In vitro assays showed that the TaMYB3R1 protein is localized to the nucleus, and functions as an MSA-binding transcriptional activator. Expression of TaMYB3R1 is induced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stress, which encouraged us to further investigate its function in planta. In the present study, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaMYB3R1. Compared with wild-type plants, the transgenic lines produced more rosette leaves, and thus more inflorescences, but the plants showed delayed development at the reproductive stage. The TaMYB3R1 protein also functions in the osmotic stress response. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stresses, and the tolerance phenotype was conveyed by limiting transpiration through increasing stomatal closure as well as reducing water loss. In addition, TaMYB3R1 influenced the expression of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent responsive genes, implicating TaMYB3R1 in diverse osmotic stress-response mechanisms in Arabidopsis. Our study sheds light on novel functions of a plant MYB3R protein. PMID:25560188

Cai, Hongsheng; Tian, Shan; Dong, Hansong; Guo, Changhong

2015-03-10

152

A new NASA LaRC Multi-Purpose Prepregging Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-purpose prepregging machine has been designed and built for NASA Langley Research Center. The machine has numerous advantages over existing units due to its various modular components. Each of these can be used individually or simultaneously depending on the required prepregging method. A reverse roll coater provides the ability to prepare thin films from typical hot-melt thermoset formulations. Also, if necessary, the design allows direct fiber impregnation within the reverse roll coater gap. Included in the impregnation module is a solution dip tank allowing the fabrication of thermoplastic prepregs from solution. The proceeding modules within the unit consist of four nip stations, two hot-plates, a hot-sled option and a high temperature oven. This paper describes the advantages of such a modular construction and discusses the various processing combinations available to the prepregger. A variety of high performance prepreg material systems were produced on IM7 (Hercules) carbon fiber. These included LaRC RP46, a PMR-type resin processed from methanol and two polyamide acids, LaRC IA and LaRC ITPI, prpregged from N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP). Parameters involved in the production of these prepreg materials are presented as are the mechanical properties of the resulting good quality laminates. A brief introduction into the existing prepregging science is presented. Topics relating to solution prepregging are identified with a focus on the current research effort and its future development.

Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Dixon, D.; Johnston, N. J.

1993-01-01

153

MYRRHA a multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications  

SciTech Connect

MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator driven system (ADS) in development at SCK-CEN. MYRRHA is able to work both in subcritical (ADS) as in critical mode. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for generation IV (GEN IV) systems, material developments for fusion reactors, radioisotope production and industrial applications, such as Si-doping. MYRRHA will also demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling the three components (accelerator, spallation target and subcritical reactor) at reasonable power level to allow operation feedback, scalable to an industrial demonstrator and allow the study of efficient transmutation of high-level nuclear waste. MYRRHA is based on the heavy liquid metal technology and so it will contribute to the development of lead fast reactor (LFR) technology and in critical mode, MYRRHA will play the role of European technology pilot plant in the roadmap for LFR. In this paper the historical evolution of MYRRHA and the rationale behind the design choices is presented and the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system is described. (authors)

Abderrahim, H. A.; Baeten, P. [SCK CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

2012-07-01

154

Amoebicidal efficacy of a novel multi-purpose disinfecting solution: First findings.  

PubMed

Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause a sight-threatening corneal infection, Acanthamoeba keratitis, mostly in contact lens wearers. The use of ineffective contact lens disinfecting solutions is one of the most important risk factors for this infection. This study concerns a new multi-purpose contact lens disinfecting solution, OPTI-FREE® PureMoist®, tested for its efficacy against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts by using the most probable number technique for amoebic enumeration. Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 50373 and an environmental strain of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 isolated from tap water in Istanbul were used during the experiments. OPTI-FREE® PureMoist® achieved total kill (more than a 3-log reduction) of trophozoites of both strains before the manufacturer-recommended disinfection time (6h). In contrast, this solution had limited cysticidal activity against the ATCC strain but more against the environmental strain, with log reductions of 0.75 and 2.20, respectively, after 6h of exposure. PMID:24858922

Ustüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

2014-11-01

155

Influence of foliage from African multipurpose trees on activity of rumen protozoa and bacteria.  

PubMed

Samples and extracts of foliage from African multipurpose trees were screened for their effects on rumen protozoa and bacteria with a view to predicting their safety as feed supplements and for identifying species with potential antiprotozoal activity. The species tested were Acacia aneura, Chamaecytisus palmensis, Brachychiton populneum, Flindersia maculosa, Sesbania sesban, Leucaena leucocephala and Vernonia amyedalina. Antimicrobial effects were mild except for S. sesban, which was highly toxic to rumen protozoa in vitro, and A. aneura, which was toxic to rumen bacteria. The antiprotozoal factor in S. sesban was apparently associated with the fraction of the plant containing saponins. When S. sesban was fed to sheep, protozoal numbers fell by 60% after 4 d, but the population recovered after a further 10 d. In vitro experiments demonstrated that washed protozoa from later times were no more resistant to S. sesban than on initial exposure, suggesting that other micro-organisms, probably the bacteria, adapted to detoxify the antiprotozoal agent. Thus S. sesban may be useful in suppressing protozoa and thereby improving protein flow from the rumen, but only if the bacterial metabolism of the antiprotozoal factor can be avoided. PMID:9301414

Newbold, C J; el Hassan, S M; Wang, J; Ortega, M E; Wallace, R J

1997-08-01

156

INITIAL WASTE PACKAGE PROBABILISTIC CRITICALITY ANALYSIS: MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER WITH DISPOSAL CONTAINER (TBV)  

SciTech Connect

This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide an assessment of the present waste package design from a criticality risk standpoint. The specific objectives of this initial analysis are to: (1) Establish a process for determining the probability of waste package criticality as a function of time (in terms of a cumulative distribution function, probability distribution function, or expected number of criticalities in a specified time interval) for various waste package concepts; (2) Demonstrate the established process by estimating the probability of criticality as a function of time since emplacement for an intact multi-purpose canister waste package (MPC-WP) configuration; (3) Identify the dominant sequences leading to waste package criticality for subsequent detailed analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to document and demonstrate the developed process as it has been applied to the MPC-WP. This revision is performed to correct deficiencies in the previous revision and provide further detail on the calculations performed. This analysis is similar to that performed for the uncanistered fuel waste package (UCF-WP, B00000000-01717-2200-00079).

J.R. Massari

1995-10-06

157

Study of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been a critical need for analyzing various aspects of atmospheric corrosion and for the development of atmospheric corrosion microsensors. The project work has involved the following activities: (1) making of multielectrode corrosion monitors on dielectric substrates; (2) testing them in the laboratory for functional characteristics; (3) preparing a report on the state of the art of atmospheric corrosion sensor development around the world; and (4) corrosion testing of electrochemical changes of sensor specimens and related fog testing. The study included work on the subject of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor and this report is the annual report on work carried out on this research project. This has included studies on the development of sensors of two designs, stage 1 and stage 2, and with glass and alumina substrate, experimentation and development and characterization of the coating uniformity, aspects of corrosion monitoring, literature search on the corrosion sensors and their development. A state of the art report on atmospheric corrosion sensor development was prepared and submitted.

Diwan, Ravinder M.; Raman, A.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

1994-01-01

158

Cultural Resource Investigations for a Multipurpose Haul Road on the Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a multipurpose haul road to transport materials and wastes between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and other Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site facilities. The proposed road will be closed to the public and designed for limited year-round use. Two primary options are under consideration: a new route south of the existing T-25 power line road and an upgrade to road T-24. In the Spring of 2010, archaeological field surveys and initial coordination and field reconnaissance with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes were completed to identify any resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed road construction and to develop recommendations to protect any listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The investigations showed that 24 archaeological resources and one historic marker are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation south of the T-25 powerline road and 27archaeological resources are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation along road T-24. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both road corridors. This report outlines recommendations for additional investigations and protective measures that can be implemented to minimize adverse impacts to the identified resources.

Brenda R. Pace; Cameron Brizzee; Hollie Gilbert; Clayton Marler; Julie Braun Williams

2010-08-01

159

Evaluation of Suited and Unsuited Human Functional Strength Using Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic Dynamometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the planned summer research was to develop a procedure to determine the isokinetic functional strength of suited and unsuited participants in order to estimate the coefficient of micro-gravity suit on human strength. To accomplish this objective, the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility's Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic dynamometer (MMID) was used. Development of procedure involved selection and testing of seven routines to be tested on MMID. We conducted the related experiments and collected the data for 12 participants. In addition to the above objective, we developed a procedure to assess the fatiguing characteristics of suited and unsuited participants using EMG technique. We collected EMG data on 10 participants while performing a programmed routing on MMID. EMG data along with information on the exerted forces, effector speed, number of repetitions, and duration of each routine were recorded for further analysis. Finally, gathering and tabulation Of data for various human strengths for updating of MSIS (HSIS) strength requirement, which started in summer 2003, also continued.

Aghazadeh, Fred

2005-01-01

160

Software-programmable continuous-flow multi-purpose lab-on-a-chip  

PubMed Central

Current lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices are assay-specific and are custom-built for each single experiment. Performing an experiment requires scientists or engineers to go through the time-consuming process of designing, fabricating, and testing a chip before conducting the actual experiment. This prolonged cycle can take months to complete, increasing effort and cost and reducing productivity. Similarly, minor modifications to an assay protocol re-incur the overheads of the design cycle. In this paper, we develop a multi-purpose, software-programmableLab-on-a-Chip (SPLoC), where the user simply writes or downloads a program for each experiment. We describe the components necessary to realize the SPLoC, which include a high-level programming language, an abstract instruction set, a runtime and control system, and a microfluidic device. We describe two key features of our high-level language compiler, and describe a novel variable-volume variable-ratio mixer. Finally, we demonstrate our SPLoC on four diverse, real-world assays. PMID:24436691

Amin, Ahmed M.; Thakur, Raviraj; Madren, Seth; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Thottethodi, Mithuna; Vijaykumar, T. N.; Wereley, Steven T.; Jacobson, Stephen C.

2013-01-01

161

Neural network predictions of acoustical parameters in multi-purpose performance halls.  

PubMed

A detailed binaural sound measurement was carried out in two multi-purpose performance halls of different seating capacities and designs in Hong Kong in the present study. The effectiveness of using neural network in the predictions of the acoustical properties using a limited number of measurement points was examined. The root-mean-square deviation from measurements, statistical parameter distribution matching, and the results of a t-test for vanishing mean difference between simulations and measurements were adopted as the evaluation criteria for the neural network performance. The audience locations relative to the sound source were used as the inputs to the neural network. Results show that the neural network training scheme using nine uniformly located measurement points in each specific hall area is the best choice regardless of the hall setting and design. It is also found that the neural network prediction of hall spaciousness does not require a large amount of training data, but the accuracy of the reverberance related parameter predictions increases with increasing volume of training data. PMID:23967937

Cheung, L Y; Tang, S K

2013-09-01

162

MATISSE: Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In planetary sciences, design, assemble and launch onboard instruments are only preliminary steps toward the final aim of converting data into scientific knowledge, as the real challenge is the data analysis and interpretation. Up to now data have been generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e. common ftp servers where the user can manually search for data browsing directories organized in a time order manner. However, as datasets to be stored and searched become particularly large, this latter task absorbs a great part of the time, subtracting time to the real scientific work. In order to reduce the time spent to search and analyze data MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), a new set of software tools developed together with the scientific teams of the instruments involved, is under development at ASDC (ASI Science Data Center), whose experience in space missions data management is well known (e.g., \\citealt{verrecchia07,pittori09,giommi09,massaro11}) and its features and aims will be presented here.

Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Antonelli, L. A.

163

A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points. PMID:25222861

Ruytenberg, T; Webb, A G; Beenakker, J W M

2014-10-01

164

A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points.

Ruytenberg, T.; Webb, A. G.; Beenakker, J. W. M.

2014-10-01

165

The multipurpose time-of-flight neutron reflectometer “Platypus” at Australia's OPAL reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this manuscript we describe the major components of the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer at the 20 MW OPAL reactor in Sydney, Australia. Platypus is a multipurpose spectrometer for the characterisation of solid thin films, materials adsorbed at the solid-liquid interface and free-liquid surfaces. It also has the capacity to study magnetic thin films using spin-polarised neutrons. Platypus utilises a white neutron beam ( ?=2-20 Å) that is pulsed using boron-coated disc chopper pairs; thus providing the capacity to tailor the wavelength resolution of the pulses to suit the system under investigation. Supermirror optical components are used to focus, deflect or spin-polarise the broad bandwidth neutron beams, and typical incident spectra are presented for each configuration. A series of neutron reflectivity datasets are presented, indicating the quality and flexibility of this spectrometer. Minimum reflectivity values of <10 -7 are observed; while maximum thickness values of 325 nm have been measured for single-component films and 483 nm for a multilayer system. Off-specular measurements have also been made to investigate in-plane features as opposed to those normal to the sample surface. Finally, the first published studies conducted using the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer are presented.

James, M.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; Saerbeck, T.; Hamilton, W. A.; Klose, F.

2011-03-01

166

Effects of multipurpose, universal adhesives on resin bonding to zirconia ceramic.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This study evaluated the effects of single-bottle, multipurpose, universal adhesives on the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic. Polished zirconia ceramic (Cercon base) discs were randomly divided into four groups (n=40) according to the applied surface-conditioning agent: Single Bond 2, Single Bond Universal, All-Bond Universal, and Alloy Primer. Cured composite cylinders (Ø 0.8 mm × 1 mm) were cemented to the conditioned zirconia specimens with resin cement (RelyX ARC). The bonded specimens were subjected to a microshear bond-strength test after 24 hours of water storage and after 10,000 cycles of thermocycling. The surface-conditioning agent significantly influenced the bond strength (p<0.05). Single Bond Universal showed the highest initial bond strength (37.7 ± 5.1 MPa), followed by All-Bond Universal (31.3 ± 5.6 MPa), Alloy Primer (26.9 ± 5.1 MPa), and Single Bond 2 (8.5 ± 4.6 MPa). Artificial aging significantly reduced the bond strengths of all the test groups (p<0.05). After 10,000 cycles of thermocycling, All-Bond Universal showed the highest bond-strength value (26.9 ± 6.4 MPa). Regardless of artificial aging, Single Bond Universal and All-Bond Universal showed significantly higher bond strengths than Alloy Primer, a conventional metal primer. PMID:25084107

Kim, J-H; Chae, S-Y; Lee, Y; Han, G-J; Cho, B-H

2015-01-01

167

Multipurpose ultra and superhydrophobic surfaces based on oligodimethylsiloxane-modified nanosilica.  

PubMed

Nonfluorinated hydrophobic surfaces are of interest for reduced cost, toxicity, and environmental problems. Searching for such surfaces together with versatile processing, A200 silica nanoparticles are modified with an oligodimethylsiloxane and used by themselves or with a polymer matrix. The goal of the surface modification is controlled aggregate size and stable suspensions. Characterization is done by NMR, microanalysis, nitrogen adsorption, and dynamic light scattering. The feasibility of the concept is then demonstrated. The silica aggregates are sprayed in a scalable process to form ultrahydrophobic and imperceptible coatings with surface topographies of controlled nanoscale roughness onto different supports, including nanofibrillated cellulose. To improve adhesion and wear properties, the organosilica was mixed with polymers. The resulting composite coatings are characterized by FE-SEM, AFM, and contact angle measurements. Depending on the nature of the polymer, different functionalities can be developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate) leads to almost superhydrophobic and highly transparent coatings. Composites based on commercial acrylic car paint show "pearl-bouncing" droplet behavior. A light-emitting polyfluorene is synthesized to prepare luminescent and water repellent coatings on different supports. The interactions between polymers and the organosilica influence coating roughness and are critical for wetting behavior. In summary, the feasibility of a facile, rapid, and fluorine-free hydrophobization concept was successfully demonstrated in multipurpose antiwetting applications. PMID:25275966

de Francisco, Raquel; Tiemblo, Pilar; Hoyos, Mario; González-Arellano, Camino; García, Nuria; Berglund, Lars; Synytska, Alla

2014-11-12

168

Assessing marginal water values in multipurpose multireservoir systems via stochastic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Conference on Water and the Environment held in Dublin in 1992 emphasized the need to consider water as an economic good. Since water markets are usually absent or ineffective, the value of water cannot be directly derived from market activities but must rather be assessed through shadow prices. Economists have developed various valuation techniques to determine the economic value of water, especially to handle allocation issues involving environmental water uses. Most of the nonmarket valuation studies reported in the literature focus on long-run policy problems, such as permanent (re)allocations of water, and assume that the water availability is given. When dealing with short-run allocation problems, water managers are facing complex spatial and temporal trade-offs and must therefore be able to track site and time changes in water values across different hydrologic conditions, especially in arid and semiarid areas where the availability of water is a limiting and stochastic factor. This paper presents a stochastic programming approach for assessing the statistical distribution of marginal water values in multipurpose multireservoir systems where hydropower generation and irrigation crop production are the main economic activities depending on water. In the absence of a water market, the Lagrange multipliers correspond to shadow prices, and the marginal water values are the Lagrange multipliers associated with the mass balance equations of the reservoirs. The methodology is illustrated with a cascade of hydroelectric-irrigation reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin in Turkey and Syria.

Tilmant, A.; Pinte, D.; Goor, Q.

2008-12-01

169

Galen: a third generation terminology tool to support a multipurpose national coding system for surgical procedures.  

PubMed

GALEN has developed a new generation of terminology tools based on a language independent concept reference model using a compositional formalism allowing computer processing and multiple reuses. During the 4th framework program project Galen-In-Use we applied the modelling and the tools to the development of a new multipurpose coding system for surgical procedures (CCAM) in France. On one hand we contributed to a language independent knowledge repository for multicultural Europe. On the other hand we support the traditional process for creating a new coding system in medicine which is very much labour consuming by artificial intelligence tools using a medically oriented recursive ontology and natural language processing. We used an integrated software named CLAW to process French professional medical language rubrics produced by the national colleges of surgeons into intermediate dissections and to the Grail reference ontology model representation. From this language independent concept model representation on one hand we generate controlled French natural language to support the finalization of the linguistic labels in relation with the meanings of the conceptual system structure. On the other hand the classification manager of third generation proves to be very powerful to retrieve the initial professional rubrics with different categories of concepts within a semantic network. PMID:10725030

Trombert-Paviot, B; Rodrigues, J M; Rogers, J E; Baud, R; van der Haring, E; Rassinoux, A M; Abrial, V; Clavel, L; Idir, H

1999-01-01

170

WND-CHARM: Multi-purpose image classification using compound image transforms  

PubMed Central

We describe a multi-purpose image classifier that can be applied to a wide variety of image classification tasks without modifications or fine-tuning, and yet provide classification accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art task-specific image classifiers. The proposed image classifier first extracts a large set of 1025 image features including polynomial decompositions, high contrast features, pixel statistics, and textures. These features are computed on the raw image, transforms of the image, and transforms of transforms of the image. The feature values are then used to classify test images into a set of pre-defined image classes. This classifier was tested on several different problems including biological image classification and face recognition. Although we cannot make a claim of universality, our experimental results show that this classifier performs as well or better than classifiers developed specifically for these image classification tasks. Our classifier’s high performance on a variety of classification problems is attributed to (i) a large set of features extracted from images; and (ii) an effective feature selection and weighting algorithm sensitive to specific image classification problems. The algorithms are available for free download from openmicroscopy.org. PMID:18958301

Orlov, Nikita; Shamir, Lior; Macura, Tomasz; Johnston, Josiah; Eckley, D. Mark; Goldberg, Ilya G.

2008-01-01

171

Multi-criteria objective based climate change impact assessment for multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resources systems with reservoirs are expected to be sensitive to climate change. Assessment studies that analyze the impact of climate change on the performance of reservoirs can be divided in two groups: (1) Studies that simulate the operation under projected inflows with the current set of operational rules. Due to non adapted operational rules the future performance of these reservoirs can be underestimated and the impact overestimated. (2) Studies that optimize the operational rules for best adaption of the system to the projected conditions before the assessment of the impact. The latter allows for estimating more realistically future performance and adaption strategies based on new operation rules are available if required. Multi-purpose reservoirs serve various, often conflicting functions. If all functions cannot be served simultaneously at a maximum level, an effective compromise between multiple objectives of the reservoir operation has to be provided. Yet under climate change the historically preferenced compromise may no longer be the most suitable compromise in the future. Therefore a multi-objective based climate change impact assessment approach for multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems is proposed in the study. Projected inflows are provided in a first step using a physically based rainfall-runoff model. In a second step, a time series model is applied to generate long-term inflow time series. Finally, the long-term inflow series are used as driving variables for a simulation-based multi-objective optimization of the reservoir system in order to derive optimal operation rules. As a result, the adapted Pareto-optimal set of diverse best compromise solutions can be presented to the decision maker in order to assist him in assessing climate change adaption measures with respect to the future performance of the multi-purpose reservoir system. The approach is tested on a multi-purpose multi-reservoir system in a mountainous catchment in Germany. A climate change assessment is performed for climate change scenarios based on the SRES emission scenarios A1B, B1 and A2 for a set of statistically downscaled meteorological data. The future performance of the multi-purpose multi-reservoir system is quantified and possible intensifications of trade-offs between management goals or reservoir utilizations are shown.

Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels

2014-05-01

172

Zeaxanthin ([3R,3'R]-beta, beta-carotene-3-3'diol) as a resonance Raman and visible absorption probe of membrane structure.  

PubMed

When zeaxanthin ([3R,3R']-beta, beta-carotene-3,3'diol) is inserted into phospholipid dispersions and the latter heated through their gel-liquid crystal phase transitions, large changes are noted in the resonance Raman and absorption spectra of the carotenoid molecule. By analogy with the data of Carey and co-workers (J. Raman Spectrosc. 6:282) who studied the aggregation of zeaxanthin in acetone-water solutions, it is suggested that the carotenoid aggregates in the phospholipid gel state while forming a monomer in liquid crystal phases. The alterations in both the visible absorption and resonance Raman data have been used to monitor phospholipid phase behavior in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and distearoylphosphatidylcholine, (DSPC) one-component systems and binary mixtures. The phase diagram obtained for the binary system, as constructed from visible absorption and resonance Raman data, is compared with that of Shimshick and McConnell (Biochemistry. 12:2351) obtained from electron spin resonance (ESR) studies. Although the agreement between absorption and ESR data is generally satisfactory, onset temperatures for phase separation at low DSPC mole fractions deduced from resonance Raman measurements are several degrees lower than those from the other methods. Nevertheless, the use of zeaxanthin as a resonance Raman and visible absorption probe behavior will be useful in some situations where ordinary Raman spectroscopic data cannot be obtained easily. The advantage of the resonance Raman approach is illustrated in a study of the phase behavior of a phospholipid extract of a cel- mutant of Neurospora crassa. A phase separation region is observed with onset and completion temperatures of -19 and -6 degrees C, respectively. PMID:162448

Mendelsohn, R; Van Holten, R W

1979-08-01

173

TACR3 mutations disrupt NK3R function through distinct mechanisms in GnRH-deficient patients.  

PubMed

Neurokinin B (NKB) and its G-protein-coupled receptor, NK3R, have been implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH release; however, little is known about the structure-function relationship of this ligand-receptor pair. Moreover, loss-of-function NK3R mutations cause GnRH deficiency in humans. Using missense mutations in NK3R we previously identified in patients with GnRH deficiency, we demonstrate that Y256H and Y315C NK3R mutations in the fifth and sixth transmembrane domains (TM5 and TM6), resulted in reduced whole-cell (79.3±7.2%) or plasma membrane (67.3±7.3%) levels, respectively, compared with wild-type (WT) NK3R, with near complete loss of inositol phosphate (IP) signaling, implicating these domains in receptor trafficking, processing, and/or stability. We further demonstrate in a FRET-based assay that R295S NK3R, in the third intracellular loop (IL3), bound NKB but impaired dissociation of Gq-protein subunits from the receptor compared with WT NK3R, which showed a 10.0 ± 1.3% reduction in FRET ratios following ligand binding, indicating activation of Gq-protein signaling. Interestingly, R295S NK3R, identified in the heterozygous state in a GnRH-deficient patient, also interfered with dissociation of G proteins and IP signaling from wild-type NK3R, indicative of dominant-negative effects. Collectively, our data illustrate roles for TM5 and TM6 in NK3R trafficking and ligand binding and for IL3 in NK3R signaling. PMID:24376026

Noel, Sekoni D; Abreu, Ana Paula; Xu, Shuyun; Muyide, Titilayo; Gianetti, Elena; Tusset, Cintia; Carroll, Jessica; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Seminara, Stephanie B; Carroll, Rona S; Kaiser, Ursula B

2014-04-01

174

On Consistence of Matter Coupling in GL(3,R) Gauge Formulation of Gravity  

E-print Network

A covariant scheme for matter coupling with a GL(3,R) gauge formulation of gravity is studied. We revisit a known Yang-Mills type construction, where quadratical power of cosmological constant have to be considered in consistence with vacuum Einstein's gravity. Then, matter coupling with gravity is introduced and some constraints on fields and background appear. Finally we elucidate that introduction of auxiliary fields decreases the number of these constraints.

Rolando Gaitan

2002-11-13

175

Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration scheme with improved scalability using TOAD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel re-timing, re-amplifying, and re-shaping (3R) regeneration system is proposed to process multiple WDM (wavelengthdivision-multiplexing) channels simultaneously. Its re-timing capability is investigated by both simulation and experiment with polarizationscrambling method at 10 Gb/s bit rate. Jitter tolerance up to 0.8 UIpp is demonstrated with BER improvement and floor breaking ability.

Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Shankar, Raji; Prucnal, Paul R.

2006-10-01

176

Electrical transport properties of RNiO3 (R= Pr, Nd, Sm) Epitaxial Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical transport properties of RNiO3 (R= Pr, Nd, Sm) thin films grown by pulse laser deposition have been studied. RNiO3 films grow in (100) direction on LaAlO3 (100) substrate. Unlike in polycrystalline solid, PrNiO3 film showed metallic behavior. The first order metal to insulator transition observed in polycrystalline solids is suppressed in RNiO3 films. The effect of lattice strain in

A. Venimadhav; I. Chaitanyalakshmi; M. S. Hegde

2000-01-01

177

Demonstration of Optical TTL Based Selective-3R in OLS Network Testbed with Label Rewriting and Fiber Transmission  

E-print Network

Demonstration of Optical TTL Based Selective-3R in OLS Network Testbed with Label Rewriting an optical-TTL-based selective-3R regeneration scheme in an OLS testbed with fiber transmission. This scheme-label-switching (OLS) is a promising technology to enable the aggregation and integration of high data rate optical

Kolner, Brian H.

178

NASA multipurpose airborne DIAL system and measurements of ozone and aerosol profiles.  

PubMed

An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed for the remote measurement of gas and aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The multipurpose DIAL system can operate from 280 to 1064 nm for measurements of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, temperature,pressure, and aerosol backscattering. The laser transmitter consists of two narrow linewidth Nd: YAG pumped dye lasers with automatic wavelength control. The DIAL wavelengths are transmitted with a 00-,usec temporal separation to reduce receiver system complexity. A coaxial receiver system is used to collect and optically separate the DIAL and aerosol lidar returns. Photomultiplier tubes detect the backscattered laser returns after optical filtering, and the analog signals from three tubes are digitized and stored on high-speed magnetic tape. Real-time gas concentration profiles or aerosol backscatter distributions are calculated and displayed for experiment control. Operational parameters for the airborne DIAL system are presented for measurements of ozone, water vapor, and aerosols in the 290-, 720-, and 600-nm wavelength regions, respectively. The first ozone profile measurements from an aircraft using the DIAL technique are discussed in this paper. Comparisons between DIAL and in situ ozone measurements show agreement to within +/-5 ppbv in the lower troposphere. Lidar aerosol data obtained simultaneously with DIAL ozone measurements are presented for a flight over Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay. DIAL system performance for profiling ozone in a tropopause folding experiment is evaluated, and the applications of the DIAL system to regional and global-scale tropospheric investigations are discussed. PMID:18195821

Browell, E V; Carter, A F; Shipley, S T; Allen, R J; Butler, C F; Mayo, M N; Siviter, J H; Hall, W M

1983-02-15

179

Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies.  

PubMed

There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs). IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of women's health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not disrupt intercourse or have high rates of expulsion. Herein, we reviewed the microbicide and MPT IVRs currently in development, with a focus on the clinical aspects of IVR assessment and the challenges facing microbicide and MPT IVR product development, clinical testing, and implementation. The information in this review was drawn from PubMed searches and a recent microbicide/MPT product development workshop organized by CONRAD. PMID:24174884

Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R; Hurlburt, Jennifer A; Doncel, Gustavo F

2013-01-01

180

Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies  

PubMed Central

There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs). IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of women’s health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not disrupt intercourse or have high rates of expulsion. Herein, we reviewed the microbicide and MPT IVRs currently in development, with a focus on the clinical aspects of IVR assessment and the challenges facing microbicide and MPT IVR product development, clinical testing, and implementation. The information in this review was drawn from PubMed searches and a recent microbicide/MPT product development workshop organized by CONRAD. PMID:24174884

Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R; Hurlburt, Jennifer A; Doncel, Gustavo F

2013-01-01

181

Meta-analysis of the ocular biocompatibility of a new multipurpose lens care system  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the biocompatibility of a novel multipurpose solution (MPS) with a dual disinfectant system containing polyaminopropyl biguanide and polyquaternium-1 (Biotrue®) by analysis of biomicroscopy signs and adverse events in six large clinical trials. Methods Data from six consecutive, prospective clinical trials conducted from February 2008 to March 2010 were combined for meta-analysis. Subjects used the new MPS daily for periods of 2 weeks to 6 months. Slit-lamp signs were graded at each follow-up visit using an ordinal scale (0, one; 1, trace; 2, mild; 3, moderate; 4, severe). Analysis for biocompatibility included tracking of greater than grade 2 slit-lamp findings and number of adverse events. Results A total of 1,567 subjects (3,134 eyes) and 81 clinical investigators participated in the six studies, with 1,499 subjects completing the studies. Based on subject days in the studies, there were 72,904 exposures to the MPS and 7,212 biomicroscopy examinations. The completion rate for the studies was 96.3%. Per observation incidence of any finding greater than grade 2 at the follow-up visits were: corneal staining 0.08%, limbal injection 0.04%, bulbar injection 0.04%, tarsal conjunctiva abnormality 0.09%, and neovascularization 0.01%. There were no other slit-lamp signs greater than grade 2 and no statistically significant difference between hydrogels and silicone hydrogels for any finding. There were no reports of adverse events during the trials. Conclusion Analysis of over 72,000 daily exposures and 7,212 eye examinations showed that the novel MPS exhibited excellent biocompatibility in subjects using daily wear hydrogel or silicone hydrogel lenses. PMID:24143073

Reindel, William; Merchea, Mohinder M; Rah, Marjorie J; Zhang, Lening

2013-01-01

182

The development of a multipurpose trap (the Nzi) for tsetse and other biting flies.  

PubMed

New trap designs for tsetse (Glossinidae), stable flies (Muscidae: Stomoxyinae), and horse flies (Tabanidae) were tested in Kenya to develop a multipurpose trap for biting flies. Many configurations and colour/fabric combinations were compared to a simplified, blue-black triangular trap to identify features of design and materials that result in equitable catches. New designs were tested against conventional traps, with a focus on Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. longipennis Corti, Stomoxys niger Macquart, and Atylotus agrestis (Wiedemann). A simple design based on minimal blue and black rectangular panels, for attraction and contrast, with a trap body consisting of an innovative configuration of netting, proved best. This 'Nzi' trap (Swahili for fly) caught as many or significantly more tsetse and biting flies than any conventional trap. The Nzi trap represents a major improvement for Stomoxyinae, including the cosmopolitan species S. calcitrans (Linnaeus), with up to eight times the catch for key African Stomoxys spp. relative to the best trap for this group (the Vavoua). Catches of many genera of Tabanidae, including species almost never caught in traps (Philoliche Wiedemann), are excellent, and are similar to those of larger traps designed for this purpose (the Canopy). Improvements in capturing biting flies were achieved without compromising efficiency for the savannah tsetse species G. pallidipes. Catches of fusca tsetse (G. longipennis and G. brevipalpis Newstead) were higher or were the same as catches in good traps for these species (NG2G, Siamese). Altogether, the objective of developing a simple, economical trap with harmonized efficiency was achieved. PMID:12241564

Mihok, S

2002-10-01

183

Design for multipurpose use: an application of DfE concept in a developing economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design for Environment (DfE) has been defined as the systematic integration of environmental considerations into product and process design. And it has been discovered that material and space can be saved when several functions are integrated into a single product by taking advantage of common components. In this design and development project, a multipurpose thresher was designed based on an integrated concept of design for modularity, disassembly, demanufacturing and remanufacturing. The machine can be used to thresh various types of farm produce such as rice, sorghum, cowpea and rye by changing the concave and the cylinder (threshing drum). The configuration of the machine enables access to most of the component parts without changing the tools needed for disassembly because the same type of fasteners was used. Furthermore, the functional units (the shelling unit, the separation unit and the grading unit) were assembled into modules such that only the faulty part needs to be replaced if necessary. The design was so simplified that the operator can make the changes for different uses without any difficulty. The machine has been successfully tested with a number of these products and it is scheduled for tests with other produce like corn and peanuts. The modularity of the functional unit will facilitate multi-lifecycle use of machine and/or its component parts. The uniformity of the liaisons and simplification of the configuration will reduce both the disassembly times and maintenance cost. By this integration, the material requirements for four different machines are conserved, environmental emissions that would be associated with the manufacture, transportation and disposal of four machines are eliminated while the capital requirements by farmers for machinery are reduced to about a quarter. Consequently the total lifecycle cost is kept minimum while the eco-efficiency is maximized.

Dunmade, Israel

2004-12-01

184

HyBIS - a low cost, multi-purpose, modular vehicle for detailed ocean mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HyBIS is a low-cost, multi-purpose, highly maneuverable, fibre-optic controlled survey and sampling robotic underwater vehicle (RUV) capable of diving to 6000m. Built in the UK by Hydro-Lek Ltd. in collaboration with the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, it has proven itself during recent discoveries of the deepest hydrothermal vents in the world, at 5100m deep in the Cayman Trough in the Caribbean and habitat mapping of seamounts in the Atlantic and Indian oceans . The vehicle has a modular design, with the top module being a command and power system that comprises power management, cameras, lights, hydraulics, thrusters and telemetry. The lower module can alternatively be a clam-shell sampling grab, a manipulator-arm and tool sled, a winch for instrument recovery, or an ocean bottom seismometer deployment module. Unlike a conventional ROV, HyBIS does not have any floatation, rather it is suspended by its umbilical cable directly from the ship. The advantage of direct suspension is that HyBIS can recover or deploy a payload of up to 700kg, although this comes at the price of reduced maneuverability compared to a 'normal' ROV. During its four years of service, HyBIS has, so far, accumulated an impressive list of achievements: recording over 450 hours of HD video footage, thousands of HD still images, collected geological, biological samples, as well as fluids and gas from over 40 different sites. It has also recovered two different seabed landers containing scientific equipment worth over £300k, and placed Ocean Bottom Seismometers onto the seafloor.

Huehnerbach, V.; Murton, B.; Berndt, C.; Garrard, J.; Wollatz-Vogt, M.; Wetzel, G.; Matthiessen, T.

2013-12-01

185

Honeycomblike large area LaB{sub 6} plasma source for Multi-Purpose Plasma facility  

SciTech Connect

A Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP{sup 2}) facility has been renovated from Hanbit mirror device [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 686 (2003)] by adopting the same philosophy of diversified plasma simulator (DiPS) [Chung et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46, 354 (2006)] by installing two plasma sources: LaB{sub 6} (dc) and helicon (rf) plasma sources; and making three distinct simulators: divertor plasma simulator, space propulsion simulator, and astrophysics simulator. During the first renovation stage, a honeycomblike large area LaB{sub 6} (HLA-LaB{sub 6}) cathode was developed for the divertor plasma simulator to improve the resistance against the thermal shock fragility for large and high density plasma generation. A HLA-LaB{sub 6} cathode is composed of the one inner cathode with 4 in. diameter and the six outer cathodes with 2 in. diameter along with separate graphite heaters. The first plasma is generated with Ar gas and its properties are measured by the electric probes with various discharge currents and magnetic field configurations. Plasma density at the middle of central cell reaches up to 2.6x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, while the electron temperature remains around 3-3.5 eV at the low discharge current of less than 45 A, and the magnetic field intensity of 870 G. Unique features of electric property of heaters, plasma density profiles, is explained comparing with those of single LaB{sub 6} cathode with 4 in. diameter in DiPS.

Woo, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Kyu-Sun; You, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Lho, Taihyeop; Choh, Kwon Kook; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Yong Ho; Lee, Bongju; Yoo, Suk Jae; Kwon, Myeon [electric Probe Applications Laboratory (ePAL), Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-10-15

186

Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics model and to verify no recontact. NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) teams examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute parameters, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1, but more testing is required to support human certification, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust but affordable human spacecraft capability.

Ali, Yasmin; Radke, Tara; Chuhta, Jesse; Hughes, Michael

2014-01-01

187

Superconducting solenoid magnet for the Multi-Purpose Detector at the NICA facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is a 4? spectrometer to be used for studying charged hadrons, electrons and photons generated in heavy ion collisions at energies provided by the NICA collider of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna). A constituent part of MPD is a solenoid magnet with superconducting NbTi coil and steel flux return yoke. The magnet is intended for providing a highly homogeneous magnetic field of 0.5 T in an aperture of 4596 mm in diameter to ensure the transverse momentum resolution within the range of 0.1–3 GeV/c at NICA. The mass of the magnet is eight hundred tons. Structurally, the MPD magnet yoke is a cylindrical barrel-like structure, which consists of 24 beams that return the magnetic flux of the coil, two support rings, two poles and two support cradles that carry the total weight of the detector. The stainless cryostat with the superconducting coil is rigidly fixed inside the yoke barrel. The structural arrangement of the yoke guarantees high rigidity of the whole magnet and will ensure the required field homogeneity and integral of the radial magnetic induction component in the TPC region after subsequent withdrawals of the poles and multiple movements of the magnet to the assembly site for updating or repair. The coil is a one-layer solenoid made of an aluminum stabilized superconductor. The conductor is wound onto inside the aluminum support cylinder. The cooling method chosen for the MPD magnet is based on the forced two-phase helium flow using a helium refrigerator. The coil conductor is cooled indirectly via the thermal contact with the aluminum cylinder and heat removal through the cylinder to the aluminum tube with circulated liquid helium. In this paper the details of the technical design and results of the magnetic and mechanical calculations are presented.

Bunzarov, Zh; Dodokhov, V.; Efremov, A.; Golovatyuk, V.; Ionaites, V.; Kekelidze, V.; Kovalchuk, O.; Koshurnikov, E.; Lobanov, Yu; Makarov, A.; Ochrimenko, V.; Vodopyanov, A.

2014-09-01

188

Coping with high reliabilities in multi-objective optimizations of multi-purpose reservoir systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoir systems responsible for potable water supply have commonly to be operated to meet the demands with an occurrence-based reliability higher than 99% (in contrast, the reliability e.g. of irrigation water supply may less than 90%). This requirement is not fully met in most studies which use single- or multi-objective optimization techniques for the optimization of reservoir operation problems. For dealing with very high reliabilities, long time series of several thousand years may be necessary for resilient calculations of those reliabilities using a Monte Carlo approach. However, unreasonable computational costs are the consequence. Thus, in many studies formulations of objective functions have so far been restricted to formulations that minimize an expected value or variance between various demands and the according deliveries. In this study we present a new approach to enable the explicit formulation of the reservoir performance by means of reliability in objective functions. A simulation based multi-objective optimization method is introduced that theoretically allows for highly efficient and robust optimization of operating rules over time periods of several thousand years. The technical framework of the approach comprises (i) a multivariate time series model, (ii) a new Monte-Carlo recombination technique that is capable of shortening the time series with little small loss of information (iii), a reservoir model coupled with an evolutionary optimization strategy using a box constraint handler and decision variable coding technique for constraint free optimization and (iv) a validation step. In a real case application, the multi-purpose multi-reservoir system Klingenberg - Lehnmühle - Rauschenbach (Germany) is optimized to meeting a reliability of supply in three levels of supply, ranging from 99% to 99,95%, as well as for minimizing pumping costs and to preserve water quality. It is shown that the new approach is capable of providing a resilient Pareto-front with a broad range of compromises between achievable reliabilities and the other two objectives.

Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels

2014-05-01

189

A high resolution multipurpose ESCA instrument with X-ray monochromator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and performance of a new high resolution multipurpose instrument are described and illustrated. The instrument comprises a high-power, fine-focusing e --gun, a high speed rotating anode, a double focusing multi-crystal X-ray monochromator, a monochromatic UV-source with a toroidal grating, a fine-focus variable energy e --source, a four-element electrostatic e --lens system, a large 36 cm hemispherical electrostatic analyzer, a 12 cm wide electron multi-detector system and a dedicated computer system. Various sample probes for gases, liquids and solids are discussed. The instrument is shown to reach an energy resolution of at least 0.23 eV with X-ray excitation at a sufficient intensity to enable the study of gases. A number of illustrative examples of the proved instrumental performance is presented. A new "line-sharpening" effect, due to post-collision interaction in Auger electron spectra, is revealed due to the high spectrometer resolution. The strongest vibrational components of the C 1s ESCA line from methane are for the first time resolved. High resolution spectra are also presented for solids, e.g. the spin-orbit split Si 2p line is well resolved into two components and new resolved structures appear in the Ag and Au valence bands. Calculated density of states are found to be in good agreement with these structure rich d-bands. Phonon excitation accompanying the photoionization process is discussed in relation to its causing additional broadening of the Si 2p lines.

Gelius, U.; Asplund, L.; Basilier, E.; Hedman, S.; Helenelund, K.; Siegbahn, K.

1984-01-01

190

GALEN: a third generation terminology tool to support a multipurpose national coding system for surgical procedures.  

PubMed

Generalised architecture for languages, encyclopedia and nomenclatures in medicine (GALEN) has developed a new generation of terminology tools based on a language independent model describing the semantics and allowing computer processing and multiple reuses as well as natural language understanding systems applications to facilitate the sharing and maintaining of consistent medical knowledge. During the European Union 4 Th. framework program project GALEN-IN-USE and later on within two contracts with the national health authorities we applied the modelling and the tools to the development of a new multipurpose coding system for surgical procedures named CCAM in a minority language country, France. On one hand, we contributed to a language independent knowledge repository and multilingual semantic dictionaries for multicultural Europe. On the other hand, we support the traditional process for creating a new coding system in medicine which is very much labour consuming by artificial intelligence tools using a medically oriented recursive ontology and natural language processing. We used an integrated software named CLAW (for classification workbench) to process French professional medical language rubrics produced by the national colleges of surgeons domain experts into intermediate dissections and to the Grail reference ontology model representation. From this language independent concept model representation, on one hand, we generate with the LNAT natural language generator controlled French natural language to support the finalization of the linguistic labels (first generation) in relation with the meanings of the conceptual system structure. On the other hand, the Claw classification manager proves to be very powerful to retrieve the initial domain experts rubrics list with different categories of concepts (second generation) within a semantic structured representation (third generation) bridge to the electronic patient record detailed terminology. PMID:10978911

Trombert-Paviot, B; Rodrigues, J M; Rogers, J E; Baud, R; van der Haring, E; Rassinoux, A M; Abrial, V; Clavel, L; Idir, H

2000-09-01

191

Multipurpose bedrock surficial, and environmental geologic maps, New River valley, southwest Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Multipurpose bedrock, surficial, and environmental geologic maps have recently been completed for portions of the Valley and Ridge province of southwest VA. The maps, at both 1:100,000 and 1:24,000 scales, show generalized and detailed bedrock geology grouped by lithology and environmental hazard associations. Also shown are a variety of alluvial, colluvial, debris flow, and landslide deposits, as well as karst features. Multidisciplinary research topics addressed during the mapping included slope evolution and geomorphology, drainage history and terrace distribution, ancient large-scale landsliding, and sinkhole development. The maps have been used by land-use planners and engineering firms in an evaluation of Appalachian paleoseismicity and to assess potential groundwater contamination and subsidence in karst areas. The maps are being used for environmental hazard assessment and site selection of a proposed large electric powerline that crosses the Jefferson National Forest. Also, the maps are proving useful in planning for a public access interpretive geologic enter focused on large-scale slope failures. Some of the largest known landslides in eastern North America took place within the map area. Field comparisons and detailed structure mapping of similar features along the Front Range of the Colorado Rockies indicate that the landslides were probably emplaced during a single catastrophic event of short duration. Although the giles County seismic zone is nearby, stability analyses of slopes in the map area have shown that failure need not have been initiated by a seismic event. Several distinct colluvial units mapped within the area of landslides document a period of extensive weathering that postdates slide emplacement. Radiocarbon dates from landslide sag ponds indicate a minimum age of 9,860 B.P. for emplacement of some of the landslides. These results indicate that pre-slide colluvial and debris flow deposits are at least Pleistocene in age.

Schultz, A. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Collins, T. (Forest Service, Roanoke, VA (United States))

1994-03-01

192

Development of a new contact lens multipurpose solution: Comparative analysis of microbiological, biological and clinical performance  

PubMed Central

Purpose Antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and clinical performance of a new soft contact lens multi-purpose solution (COMPLETE® RevitaLens) based on polyquaternium-1 and alexidine dihydrochloride (NuMPS) was evaluated. Methods Antimicrobial efficacy was assessed according to ISO 14729 for both biocidal and regimen performance against bacteria and fungi. Acanthamoeba efficacy was tested along with ability to retain antimicrobial activity on partial evaporation. In vitro cytotoxicity of NuMPS and OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® MPS (MPS-3) was assessed based on ISO 10993-5 and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) methods. In addition, a 3 month, double-masked, parallel group clinical trial comparing safety and acceptability with respect to MPS-3 was conducted with 4 silicone hydrogel (SiHy) and FDA Group IV lens types. Results NuMPS showed broad antimicrobial efficacy, including Acanthamoeba, giving a 3–4 log10 reduction in viability after 6 hours contact time. NuMPS also passed ISO 14729 regimens with SiHy and etafilcon lenses for bacteria, fungi and also Acanthamoeba. The cytotoxicity of NuMPS was equivalent or better compared to MPS-3. In the clinical trial, there was no statistically significant between-group difference in corneal staining (p > 0.05). Patients using MPS-3 had more adverse events than patients using NuMPS: 11.8 % (11/93) versus 2.8 % (5/177), respectively, (p < 0.05). There were no differences noted in cleanliness or wearing comfort (p > 0.05). Conclusion Taken together, the results of these studies indicate that the NuMPS is a novel and effective soft contact lens care solution.

Kilvington, Simon; Huang, Ling; Kao, Eugenia; Powell, Charles H.

2010-01-01

193

Effect of multipurpose solutions for contact lens care on the in vitro drug-induced spoliation of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) in simulated aqueous humour.  

PubMed

Drug-induced spoliation of hydrogels as contact lenses or as implants in the anterior eye is a frequent occurrence in clinical practice. This study explores the capacity of three commercial multipurpose solutions for contact lens care to reduce the spoliation of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) specimens exposed to a simulated aqueous humour formulation and to three topical drugs commonly administered after insertion of artificial corneas (Predsol, Optimol and Depo-Ralovera). ReNu MultiPlus (Bausch & Lomb), Complete Blink-N-Cleantrade mark Lens Drops (Allergan) and Complete Protein Remover Tablets dissolved in Complete ComfortPLUS (both from Allergan) were evaluated. All multipurpose solutions were able to dislodge passively the deposits formed on hydrogels in the simulated aqueous and in the presence of Predsol and Optimol, but none were effective against the deposits induced by Depo-Ralovera. A reduction of the calcium content in deposits caused by Predsol and Optimol was confirmed after treatment with the protein remover preparation, while the other multipurpose solutions caused the complete removal of the deposits. In experiments designed to evaluate the preventive action of the multipurpose solutions, no such effects were observed regardless of the drug involved. The prospect of using multipurpose solutions as eye drops following implantation of a hydrogel artificial cornea is a valid alternative for reducing device spoliation, however it appears to depend on the nature of the postoperative medication. PMID:16318831

Chirila, Traian V; Morrison, David A; Gridneva, Zoya; Meyrick, Danielle; Hicks, Celia R; Webb, John M

2005-03-01

194

Mutations in MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 cause pleiotropic developmental defects and preferential down-regulation of multiple G2/M-specific genes in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

R1R2R3-Myb proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved class of Myb family proteins important for cell cycle regulation and differentiation in eukaryotic cells. In plants, this class of Myb proteins are believed to regulate the transcription of G2/M phase-specific genes by binding to common cis-elements, called mitosis-specific activator (MSA) elements. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 act as transcriptional activators and positively regulate cytokinesis by activating the transcription of KNOLLE, which encodes a cytokinesis-specific syntaxin. Here, we show that the double mutation myb3r1 myb3r4 causes pleiotropic developmental defects, some of which are due to deficiency of KNOLLE whereas other are not, suggesting that multiple target genes are involved. Consistently, microarray analysis of the double mutant revealed altered expression of many genes, among which G2/M-specific genes showed significant overrepresentation of the MSA motif and a strong tendency to be down-regulated by the double mutation. Our results demonstrate, on a genome-wide level, the importance of the MYB3R-MSA pathway for regulating G2/M-specific transcription. In addition, MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 may have diverse roles during plant development by regulating G2/M-specific genes with various functions as well as genes possibly unrelated to the cell cycle. PMID:21862669

Haga, Nozomi; Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Takamasa; Maeo, Kenichiro; Kubo, Minoru; Ohtani, Misato; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Demura, Taku; Nakamura, Kenzo; Jürgens, Gerd; Ito, Masaki

2011-10-01

195

One body, many heads; the Cerberus of catalysis. A new multipurpose in-situ cell for XAS at ALBA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new multi-purpose in-situ cell and its control system have been developed for synchrotron-based techniques as are X-Ray Absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The cell is made of a stainless steel 'body' and three different exchangeable 'heads' to tackle different scientific areas that include solid-gas catalysis, solid-liquid catalysis and electrocatalysis. The different versions of the cell are herein described and their functionality is exemplified by some case studies.

Guilera, G.; Rey, F.; Hernández-Fenollosa, J.; Cortés-Vergaz, J. J.

2013-04-01

196

Design and fabrication of a multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system for KSTAR  

SciTech Connect

A multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system was developed for measuring two-dimensional x-ray emissivity profile, electron temperature, Ar impurity transport, and total radiation power. A remotely controlled filter wheel was designed with three different choices of filters. The electron temperature profile can be determined from the ratio of two channels having different thickness of Be layer, and the Ar impurity concentration transport can be determined from a pair of Ar Ross filters (CaF{sub 2} and NaCl thin films). Without any filters, this diagnostic system can also be used as a bolometer.

Lee, Seung Hun; Chai, Kil Byoung; Jang, Siwon; Choe, Wonho [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won-Ha; Kim, Junghee; Seo, Dongcheol; Lee, Jongha [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Bogatu, I. N.; Kim, Jin-Soo [FAR-TECH, Inc., 10350 Science Center Drive, Building 14, Suite 150, San Diego, California 92121-1136 (United States)

2012-10-15

197

Determination of the pozzolanic activity of fluid catalytic cracking residue. Thermogravimetric analysis studies on FC3R-lime pastes  

SciTech Connect

Spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R) from a petrol refinery played a pozzolanic role in portland cement system as revealed by previous experimental data. In the present study, the pozzolanic activity of FC3R was investigated by means thermogravimetry (TG) of cured lime-FC3R pastes. The influence of pozzolan/lime ratio on the pozzolanic activity was investigated. Due to the chemical composition of FC3R is similar to metakaolin (MK), and knowing that MK has a high pozzolanic activity, the latter was used as a material of comparison in this study. The scope of the study is the determination of the pozzolanic activity of FC3R and the evaluation of amount and nature of pozzolanic products. The products obtained from the reaction between FC3R components (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and calcium hydroxide (CH) have been characterized, finding that the main pozzolanic reaction product was similar to hydrated gehlenite (calcium aluminosilicate hydrate) CSH and CAH were also formed in the reaction. FC3R showed higher pozzolanic reactivity than metakaolin, for low-lime content pastes and early curing age. Thermogravimetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) became very useful techniques for evaluation of reactivity.

Paya, J.; Monzo, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Velazquez, S.; Bonilla, M

2003-07-01

198

Effect of IP3R3 and NPY on age-related declines in olfactory stem cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Losing the sense of smell because of aging compromises health and quality of life. In the mouse olfactory epithelium, aging reduces the capacity for tissue homeostasis and regeneration. The microvillous cell subtype that expresses both inositol trisphosphate receptor type 3 (IP3R3) and the neuroproliferative factor neuropeptide Y (NPY) is critical for regulation of homeostasis, yet its role in aging is undefined. We hypothesized that an age-related decline in IP3R3 expression and NPY signaling underlie age-related homeostatic changes and olfactory dysfunction. We found a decrease in IP3R3(+) and NPY(+) microvillous cell numbers and NPY protein and a reduced sensitivity to NPY-mediated proliferation over 24 months. However, in IP3R3-deficient mice, there was no further age-related reduction in cell numbers, proliferation, or olfactory function compared with wild type. The proliferative response was impaired in aged IP3R3-deficient mice when injury was caused by satratoxin G, which induces IP3R3-mediated NPY release, but not by bulbectomy, which does not evoke NPY release. These data identify IP3R3 and NPY signaling as targets for improving recovery following olfactotoxicant exposure. PMID:25482245

Jia, Cuihong; Hegg, Colleen C

2015-02-01

199

Variable Expression of PIK3R3 and PTEN in Ewing Sarcoma Impacts Oncogenic Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Ewing Sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue affecting children and young adults. Ewing Sarcoma is driven by EWS/Ets fusion oncoproteins, which cause widespread alterations in gene expression in the cell. Dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, particularly involving IGF-1R, also plays an important role in Ewing Sarcoma pathogenesis. However, the basis of this dysregulation, including the relative contribution of EWS/Ets-dependent and independent mechanisms, is not well understood. In the present study, we identify variable expression of two modifiers of PI3K signaling activity, PIK3R3 and PTEN, in Ewing Sarcoma, and examine the consequences of this on PI3K pathway regulation and oncogenic phenotypes. Our findings indicate that PIK3R3 plays a growth-promotional role in Ewing Sarcoma, but suggest that this role is not strictly dependent on regulation of PI3K pathway activity. We further show that expression of PTEN, a well-established, potent tumor suppressor, is lost in a subset of Ewing Sarcomas, and that this loss strongly correlates with high baseline PI3K pathway activity in cell lines. In support of functional importance of PTEN loss in Ewing Sarcoma, we show that re-introduction of PTEN into two different PTEN-negative Ewing Sarcoma cell lines results in downregulation of PI3K pathway activity, and sensitization to the IGF-1R small molecule inhibitor OSI-906. Our findings also suggest that PTEN levels may contribute to sensitivity of Ewing Sarcoma cells to the microtubule inhibitor vincristine, a relevant chemotherapeutic agent in this cancer. Our studies thus identify PIK3R3 and PTEN as modifiers of oncogenic phenotypes in Ewing Sarcoma, with potential clinical implications. PMID:25603314

Niemeyer, Brian F.; Parrish, Janet K.; Spoelstra, Nicole S.; Joyal, Teresa; Richer, Jennifer K.; Jedlicka, Paul

2015-01-01

200

Electrical transport properties of RNiO3 (R= Pr, Nd, Sm) Epitaxial Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical transport properties of RNiO3 (R= Pr, Nd, Sm) thin films grown by\\u000apulse laser deposition have been studied. RNiO3 films grow in (100) direction\\u000aon LaAlO3 (100) substrate. Unlike in polycrystalline solid, PrNiO3 film showed\\u000ametallic behavior. The first order metal to insulator transition observed in\\u000apolycrystalline solids is suppressed in RNiO3 films. The effect of lattice\\u000astrain in

A. Venimadhav; M. S. Hegde

2000-01-01

201

A Mini Review on Biological Activities of Pyridazinone Derivatives as Antiulcer, Antisecretory, antihistamine and Particularly Against Histamine H3R.  

PubMed

Pyridazinone derivatives and their related analoges were introduced for gastric antiulcer and antisecretory activities. Selected compounds were applied to ulcer models and showed their antiulcer and anti secretary activities. Some pyridazinone compounds are recently reported as H3R antagonists. Some amine analogs of pyridazinones, pyridazinone- phenethylamines and 4,5-fused pyridazinones showed histamine H3R antagonist activity with significant affinity for rat and human H3R. These pyridazinone analogs also showed excellent selectivity and metabolic stability, with adequate pharmacokinetics. PMID:25429662

Asif, Mohammad

2015-01-12

202

Rethinking Heat Injury in the SOF Multipurpose Canine: A Critical Review.  

PubMed

Heat injury is a significant concern of the Special Operations Forces Multipurpose Canine (SOF MPC). The unique athletic abilities and working environment of the SOF MPC differ from that of companion dogs or even conventional military working dogs. This should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of heat injury of the SOF MPC. A critical review of the literature on canine heat injury as it pertains to working dogs demonstrates limited scientific evidence on best practices for immediate clinical management of heat injury in SOF MPCs. A majority of management guidelines for heat injury in veterinary reference books and journals are based on review articles or professional opinion of the author vs. evidence from original research. In addition, guidelines are written primarily for companion animal populations vs. SOF MPCs and focus on measures to be undertaken in a clinical setting vs. point of injury. The phenomenon of ?circular referencing? is also prevalent in the heat injury literature. Current guidelines supported by review articles and textbooks often provide no citation or cite other review articles for clinical standards such as normal temperature ranges, treatment methods, and recurrence of heat injury. This ?circular referencing? phenomenon misrepresents anecdotal evidence and professional opinion as scientifically validated, reinforcing concepts and recommendations that are not truly supported by the evidence. Further study is needed to fully understand heat injury in SOF MPCs and how this applies to prevention, diagnosis and treatment guidelines. In order to provide SOF canine programs with best clinical advice and care, SOF Veterinarians must make clinical judgments based on evaluation of the most accurate and valid information possible. Clinical guidelines are fluid and should be reviewed regularly for relevance to the defined population in question. Clinical Guidelines should also be utilized as guiding principles in conjunction with clinical judgment vs. dictate a clinical protocol. SOF veterinarians as the veterinary support asset to SOF MPC programs should be clinically competent as well as versed in evidence based medicine practices to provide the cutting edge clinical support that is required to keep SOF MPCs operating in modern warfare environments. PMID:22707020

Baker, Janice L; Hollier, Paul J; Miller, Laura; Lacy, Ward A

2012-01-01

203

A Modern Explorer's Journey - using events for innovative multipurpose educational outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observations are important across the specter of geo-sciences. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. The lack of dedicated funding to support specific Science &Technology activities in support of GEOSS is one of the most important obstacles to engaging the Science &Technology communities in its implementation. Finding resources to outreach and capacity building is likewise a challenge. The continuation of GEO and GEOSS rely on political support which again is influenced by public opinions. The GEO Ministerial Summit in 2014 was an event that both needed visibility and represented an opportunity to mobilize the GEO community in producing outreach and educational material. Through the combined resources from two of GEO tasks in the GEO work plan, a multipurpose educational outreach project was planned and executed. This project addressed the following issues: How can the GEO community mobilize resources for its work plan projects in the Societal Benefit Area Water? How can we produce more educational and capacity building material? How can the GEO community support the GEO secretariat related to public relations (material and otherwise) Based on activities described in the GEO work plan, a showcase video and online campaign consisting on a series of webinars were developed and produced. The video and webinars were linked through a common reference: the water cycle. Various aspects of the water cycle ranging from general to more technical and scientific education were covered in the webinars, while the video called A Modern Explorer's Journey focused on story telling with a more emotional appeal. The video was presented to the Ministers at the GEO Ministerial Summit and distributed widely to the GEO community and through social media and articles (as embedded YouTube and more). A discussion of challenges and successes of this event-based educational outreach project will be presented. Continued use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community. Lessons learned need to be provided continuously and this project add to this material.

Lilja Bye, Bente

2014-05-01

204

NASA Planning for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Ground Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Orion Ground Processing Team was originally formed by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Constellation (Cx) Project Office's Orion Division to define, refine and mature pre-launch and post-landing ground operations for the Orion human spacecraft. The multidisciplined KSC Orion team consisted of KSC civil servant, SAIC, Productivity Apex, Inc. and Boeing-CAPPS engineers, project managers and safety engineers, as well as engineers from Constellation's Orion Project and Lockheed Martin Orion Prime contractor. The team evaluated the Orion design configurations as the spacecraft concept matured between Systems Design Review (SDR), Systems Requirement Review (SRR) and Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The team functionally decomposed prelaunch and post-landing steps at three levels' of detail, or tiers, beginning with functional flow block diagrams (FFBDs). The third tier FFBDs were used to build logic networks and nominal timelines. Orion ground support equipment (GSE) was identified and mapped to each step. This information was subsequently used in developing lower level operations steps in a Ground Operations Planning Document PDR product. Subject matter experts for each spacecraft and GSE subsystem were used to define 5th - 95th percentile processing times for each FFBD step, using the Delphi Method. Discrete event simulations used this information and the logic network to provide processing timeline confidence intervals for launch rate assessments. The team also used the capabilities of the KSC Visualization Lab, the FFBDs and knowledge of the spacecraft, GSE and facilities to build visualizations of Orion pre-launch and postlanding processing at KSC. Visualizations were a powerful tool for communicating planned operations within the KSC community (i.e., Ground Systems design team), and externally to the Orion Project, Lockheed Martin spacecraft designers and other Constellation Program stakeholders during the SRR to PDR timeframe. Other operations planning tools included Kaizen/Lean events, mockups and human factors analysis. The majority of products developed by this team are applicable as KSC prepares 21st Century Ground Systems for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Launch System.

Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

2011-01-01

205

Friction Stir Weld Application and Tooling Design for the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), commonly known as the Orion capsule, is planned to be the United States' next manned spacecraft for missions beyond low earth orbit. Following the cancellation of the Constellation program and creation of SLS (Space Launch System), the need arose for the MPCV to utilize the Delta IV Heavy rocket for a test launch scheduled for 2014 instead of the previously planned Ares I rocket. As a result, an adapter (MSA) must be used in conjunction with the MPCV to account for the variation in diameter of the launch vehicles; 5.5 meters down to 5.0 meters. Prior to ight article fabrication, a path nder (test article) will be fabricated to ne tune the associated manufacturing processes. The adapter will be comprised of an aluminum frustum (partial cone) that employs isogrid technology and circumferential rings on each end. The frustum will be fabricated by friction stir welding (FSW) three individual panels together on a Vertical Weld Tool (VWT) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Subsequently, each circumferential ring will be friction stir welded to the frustum using a Robotic Weld Tool (RWT). The irregular geometry and large mass of the MSA require that extensive tooling preparation be put into support structures for the friction stir weld. The tooling on the VWT will be comprised of a set of conveyors mounted on pre-existing stanchions so that the MSA will have the ability to be rotated after each of the three friction stir welds. The tooling requirements to friction stir weld the rings with the RWT are somewhat more demanding. To support the mass of the MSA and resist the load of the weld tool, a system of mandrels will be mounted to stanchions and assembled in a circle. The goal of the paper will be to explain the design, fabrication, and assembly of the tooling, to explain the use of friction stir welding on the MSA path nder, and also to discuss the lessons learned and modi cations made in preparation for ight article fabrication in support of the 2014 launch of the Orion MPCV.

Alcorn, John

2013-01-01

206

Effect of contact lens material on cytotoxicity potential of multipurpose solutions using human corneal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose Multipurpose solutions (MPS) are used daily to clean and disinfect silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lenses. This in vitro study was undertaken to identify the potential for interaction between MPS, SiHy surface treatments, and lens materials, which may lead to changes in the response of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) to MPS-soaked lenses. Methods The MPS tested were renu fresh (formerly known as ReNu MultiPlus; ReNu), OptiFree Express (OFX), OptiFree RepleniSH, SoloCare Aqua, and Complete Moisture Plus. The SiHy materials evaluated were lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, comfilcon A, galyfilcon A, and balafilcon A (BA). MPS-soaked lenses were placed on top of adherent HCEC. The effect of MPS dilutions (0.1 to 10% final concentration in medium) was also characterized. Cell viability, adhesion phenotype and caspase activation were studied after 24-h cell exposure. OFX released from lenses was determined using UV absorbance. Results A significant reduction in viability (between 30 to 50%) was observed with cells exposed to lenses soaked in ReNu and OFX. A significant downregulation of ?3 and ?1 integrins, with integrin expression ranging from 60% to 75% of control (cells with no lens), was also observed with OFX and ReNu-soaked lenses. With the exception of BA, all other lenses soaked in OFX resulted in significant caspase activation, whereby over 18% of cells stained positive for caspases. Minimal caspase activation was observed in cells exposed to ReNu and Solo soaked lenses. For both OFX and ReNu, exposing cells to at least a 5% dilution had a significant effect on viability and integrin expression. While Complete and Solo did not lead to reduction in viability, cells exposed to a 10% dilution showed reduced integrin expression down to less than 70% of control value. Comparing cell response to diluted MPS solutions and various MPS-soaked lenses showed that it is not possible to reliably use cell response to MPS dilution alone to assess MPS biocompatibility. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the reaction of HCEC to MPS are affected by the type of lenses the MPS is released from and may potentially be influenced by the surface treatment (or lack of it) of SiHy materials. PMID:22219641

Tanti, N.C.; Crockett, B.; Mansour, L.; Jones, L.

2011-01-01

207

Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run.

Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

2013-01-01

208

Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India.  

PubMed

Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run. PMID:22555388

Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

2013-01-01

209

Magnetic properties and microscopic structures of ultrathin Co/?3 × ?3 - R30°-Ag/Si(111) films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combined scanning tunneling microscopy and surface magneto-optic Kerr effect studies were employed to study the relation between magnetic properties and the microscopic interfacial structures of ultrathin Co/?3 × ?3 - R30°-Ag/Si(111) films. On the top of ?3 × ?3 - R30°-Ag/Si(111), pure Co clusters formed without disrupting the ?3 × ?3 - R30° structure of the Ag buffer layer. The great strain due to the large mismatch between Co and the substrate influenced the nucleation of Co atoms to form large clusters. No magnetic hysteresis in the polar configuration was observed for films thinner than 10 monolayers. The easy axis of magnetization was in the surface plane. Capping ?3 × ?3 - R30°-Ag on top of the Si(111) surface before the deposition of the Co overlayers can efficiently reduce the nonferromagnetic Co-Si compound to zero thickness. For Co coverage between 2.9 and 4.2 monolayers, a lower Curie temperature was observed in ultrathin films. Due to the existence of a smooth interface between Co and the ?3 × ?3 - R30°-Ag buffer, the coercivity for Co/?3 × ?3 - R30°-Ag/Si(111) is smaller than that for Co/Si(111).

Tsay, Jyh-Shen; Fu, Tsu-Yi; Kao, Chih-Kuei; Huang, Xiao-Lan; Shue, Jyh-Ron; Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yao, Yeong-Der

2013-06-01

210

Temperature-dependent coverage of the ?3 × ?3 R30° structure of Ag/Si(111)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coverage ? of the ?3 × ?3 R30° Ag/Si(111) interface has been measured by micro-Auger electron spectroscopy. With a dose of 5 monolayer (ML), we find ?~=1 ML for deposition temperature Td>=700 K and ?~=2/3 ML for Td<=620 K. Much smaller changes (~=0.05 ML) were observed during annealing. These effects are explained by a simple kinetic model in which ~2 Ag atoms are readily incorporated into the structure, but a third atom must overcome an activation energy Er to become embedded, with a gain in energy Ee. We find Er=1.90, Ee=0.60, and Ea=2.45, all +/-0.05 eV, where Ea is the adatom adsorption energy. Possible structural and microstructural models and the interpretation of the energy Er are discussed.

Raynerd, G.; Hardiman, M.; Venables, J. A.

1991-12-01

211

Impact of assay selection and study design on the outcome of cytotoxicity testing of medical devices: The case of multi-purpose vision care solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical device biocompatibility testing usually includes a cytotoxicity component. Assay selection and protocol design often depend on a specific testing standard rather than on the characteristics of the medical device. To better understand the impact of assay selection on study outcome of unstructured medical devices, we evaluated contact lens multi-purpose solutions (MPS) in the agar diffusion, direct contact and two

David M. Lehmann; Mary E. Richardson

2010-01-01

212

A Multipurpose Apparatus to Measure Viscosity and Surface Tension of Solutions: The Measurement of the Molecular Cross-Sectional Area of N-Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multipurpose apparatus that can be used to measure the viscosity of solution by the Ostwald method and the surface tension of solution by the drop-weight method or by the capillary-rise method is developed. The apparatus is convenient for in-situ preparation of solutions of different concentrations and avoids the error that frothing of the…

Xin Zhang; Shouxin Liu; Booxin Li; Na An; Fan Zhang

2004-01-01

213

Exact Stochastic Simulation of a Calcium Microdomain Reveals the Impact of Ca(2+) Fluctuations on IP3R Gating.  

PubMed

In this study, we numerically analyzed the nonlinear Ca(2+)-dependent gating dynamics of a single, nonconducting inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channel, using an exact and fully stochastic simulation algorithm that includes channel gating, Ca(2+) buffering, and Ca(2+) diffusion. The IP3R is a ubiquitous intracellular Ca(2+) release channel that plays an important role in the formation of complex spatiotemporal Ca(2+) signals such as waves and oscillations. Dynamic subfemtoliter Ca(2+) microdomains reveal low copy numbers of Ca(2+) ions, buffer molecules, and IP3Rs, and stochastic fluctuations arising from molecular interactions and diffusion do not average out. In contrast to models treating calcium dynamics deterministically, the stochastic approach accounts for this molecular noise. We varied Ca(2+) diffusion coefficients and buffer reaction rates to tune the autocorrelation properties of Ca(2+) noise and found a distinct relation between the autocorrelation time ?ac, the mean channel open and close times, and the resulting IP3R open probability PO. We observed an increased PO for shorter noise autocorrelation times, caused by increasing channel open times and decreasing close times. In a pure diffusion model the effects become apparent at elevated calcium concentrations, e.g., at [Ca(2+)] = 25 ?M, ?ac = 0.082 ms, the IP3R open probability increased by ?20% and mean open times increased by ?4 ms, compared to a zero noise model. We identified the inactivating Ca(2+) binding site of IP3R subunits as the primarily noise-susceptible element of the De Young and Keizer model. Short Ca(2+) noise autocorrelation times decrease the probability of Ca(2+) association and consequently increase IP3R activity. These results suggest a functional role of local calcium noise properties on calcium-regulated target molecules such as the ubiquitous IP3R. This finding may stimulate novel experimental approaches analyzing the role of calcium noise properties on microdomain behavior. PMID:25650923

Wieder, Nicolas; Fink, Rainer; von Wegner, Frederic

2015-02-01

214

Optimization and validation of a neutralizing antibody assay for HIV-1 in A3R5 cells.  

PubMed

A3R5 is a human CD4(+) lymphoblastoid cell line that was engineered to express CCR5 and is useful for the detection of weak neutralizing antibody responses against tier 2 strains of HIV-1. Here we describe the optimization and validation of the HIV-1 neutralizing antibody assay that utilizes A3R5 cells, performed in compliance with Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines. The assay utilizes Renilla luciferase-expressing replication competent infectious molecular clones (IMC) encoding heterologous env genes from different HIV-1 clades. Key assay validation parameters tested included specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and quantitation, specificity, linearity and range, and robustness. Plasma samples demonstrated higher non-specific activity than serum samples in the A3R5 assay. This assay can tolerate a wide range of virus input but is more sensitive to cell concentration. The higher sensitivity of the A3R5 assay in neutralization responses to tier 2 strains of HIV-1 makes it complementary to, but not a substitute for the TZM-bl assay. The validated A3R5 assay is employed as an endpoint immunogenicity test for vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies against tier 2 strains of HIV-1, and to identify correlates of protection in HIV-1 vaccine trials conducted globally. PMID:24607608

Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Daniell, Xiaoju; Todd, Christopher A; Bilska, Miroslawa; Martelli, Amanda; LaBranche, Celia; Perez, Lautaro G; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C; Rountree, Wes; Denny, Thomas N; Montefiori, David C

2014-07-01

215

Environmental assessment for the reuse of TNX as a multi-purpose pilot plant campus at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental and safety impacts of DOE planning to allow asset reuse of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include providing for a location for the Centers of Excellence at or adjacent to SRS and entering into a cooperative agreement with a non-profit management and operations (management firm) contractor to operate and market the TNX facilities and equipment. The area (formerly TNX) would be called a Multi-Purpose Pilot Plant Campus (MPPC) and would be used: (1) as location for technology research, development, demonstration, and commercial operations; (2) to establish partnerships with industry to develop applied technologies for commercialization; and (3) serve as administrative headquarters for Centers of Excellence in the program areas of soil remediation, radioecology, groundwater contamination, and municipal solid waste minimization.

NONE

1998-07-01

216

Rugged COTS 12.1-in. diagonal AMLCD multipurpose display for the U.S. Army's Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate cockpit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the Rotorcraft pilot's Associate (RPA) program is to enhance mission effectiveness of future combat helicopters through development and application of knowledge based associate systems for cognitive decision aiding. Enhanced mission capability is supported by an increase in pilot situational awareness made possible through the development of the associate and the integration of advanced sensors, controls, and displays. The crewstation display suite showcases ruggedized commercial of-the-shelf 12.1 inch diagonal, full color, 64 gray shade, XGA resolution AMLCDs. These multipurpose displays will be installed three abreast landscape style in the copilot gunner station of an AH-64D longbow apache helicopter for RPA system flight testing. The display program requirements and system architecture are outlined and discussed. The display unit subassembly details are provided with justification related to design level trade studies.

Pyles, Randall C.; Hetherington, Richard

1997-07-01

217

Astrocyte IP3R2-dependent Ca2+ signaling is not a major modulator of neuronal pathways governing behavior  

PubMed Central

Calcium-dependent release of gliotransmitters by astrocytes is reported to play a critical role in synaptic transmission and be necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and other forms of synaptic modulation that are correlates of learning and memory. Further, physiological processes reported to be dependent on Ca2+ fluxes in astrocytes include functional hyperemia, sleep, and regulation of breathing. The preponderance of findings indicate that most, if not all, receptor dependent Ca2+ fluxes within astrocytes are due to release of Ca2+ through IP3 receptor/channels in the endoplasmic reticulum. Findings from several laboratories indicate that astrocytes only express IP3 receptor type 2 (IP3R2) and that a knockout of IP3R2 obliterates the GPCR-dependent astrocytic Ca2+ responses. Assuming that astrocytic Ca2+ fluxes play a critical role in synaptic physiology, it would be predicted that elimination of astrocytic Ca2+ fluxes would lead to marked changes in behavioral tests. Here, we tested this hypothesis by conducting a broad series of behavioral tests that recruited multiple brain regions, on an IP3R2 conditional knockout mouse model. We present the novel finding that behavioral processes are unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signals. IP3R2 cKO animals display no change in anxiety or depressive behaviors, and no alteration to motor and sensory function. Morris water maze testing, a behavioral correlate of learning and memory, was unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R2-mediated Ca2+-signaling. Therefore, in contrast to the prevailing literature, we find that neither receptor-driven astrocyte Ca2+ fluxes nor, by extension, gliotransmission is likely to be a major modulating force on the physiological processes underlying behavior. PMID:25429263

Petravicz, Jeremy; Boyt, Kristen M.; McCarthy, Ken D.

2014-01-01

218

Higher frequency of the ACTN3 R allele + ACE DD genotype in Japanese elite wrestlers.  

PubMed

In this study, the authors investigated the association between the ACTN3 and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotypes and the performance of 135 Japanese elite male wrestlers. Fifty-two wrestlers had participated in world championships, including the Olympic Games, or had placed first in Japanese national championships and were classified as "international." The remaining 83 wrestlers were classified as "national." The control group consisted of 333 healthy Japanese college students majoring in physical education. In the ACTN3 genotype distribution, a significant difference between the international and control groups was observed (p < 0.05). The ACE genotype distribution and allele frequency of all wrestlers significantly differed from those of the control subjects (p < 0.001). As compared with the control group, the odds ratio of the ACTN3 R allele + ACE DD genotype being international or national was 3.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.10-7.03) or 1.37 (95% CI, 0.79-2.36), respectively. Our data suggest that the combination of ACTN3 and ACE gene polymorphisms is associated with the athletic status of Japanese elite wrestlers. PMID:22996021

Kikuchi, Naoki; Min, Seok-ki; Ueda, Dai; Igawa, Shoji; Nakazato, Koichi

2012-12-01

219

Simultaneous noncontact AFM and STM of Ag:Si(111)-(3×3)R30?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ag:Si(111)-(3×3)R30? surface structure has attracted considerable debate concerning interpretation of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and noncontact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) images. In particular, the accepted interpretation of atomic resolution images in NC-AFM has been questioned by theoretical and STM studies. In this paper, we use combined NC-AFM and STM to conclusively show that the inequivalent trimer (IET) configuration best describes the surface ground state. Thermal-averaging effects result in a honeycomb-chained-trimer (HCT) appearance at room temperature, in contrast to studies suggesting that the IET configuration remains stable at higher temperatures [Zhang, Gustafsson, and Johansson, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.74.201304 74, 201304(R) (2006) and J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.1742-658810.1088/1742-6596/61/1/264 61, 1336 (2007)]. We also comment on results obtained at an intermediate temperature that suggest an intriguing difference between the imaging mechanisms of NC-AFM and STM on structurally fluctuating samples.

Sweetman, Adam; Stannard, Andrew; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Abe, Masayuki; Morita, Seizo; Moriarty, Philip

2013-02-01

220

(2R,3R)-3-O-Benzoyl-N-benzyl­tartramide1  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C18H17NO6 [systematic name: (2R,3R)-4-benzyl­amino-2-benzo­yloxy-3-hy­droxy-4-oxobutanoic acid], is the first structurally characterized unsymmetrical monoamide–monoacyl tartaric acid derivative. The mol­ecule shows a staggered conformation around the tartramide Csp3—Csp3 bond with trans-oriented carboxyl and amide groups. The mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular N—H?O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H?O hydrogen bonds between the carboxyl and amide carbonyl groups, forming translational chains along [001]. Further O—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds as well as weaker C—H?O and C—H?? inter­molecular inter­actions extend the supra­molecular assembly into a double-layer structure parallel to (100). There are no directional inter­actions between the double layers. PMID:22719648

Madura, Izabela D.; Zachara, Janusz; Berna?, Urszula; Hajmowicz, Halina; Synoradzki, Ludwik

2012-01-01

221

Magnetism in ?-R2S3 (R = Pr and Nd) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic susceptibility, ?, and specific heat, C, of the isostructural rare-earth sesquisulfides ?-R2S3 (R = Pr and Nd) have been investigated on single crystals. The ?(T) of ?-Nd2S3 shows a broad peak around 3.5 K when a magnetic field of 100 Oe is applied along the b-axis of the orthorhombic crystal structure. A Neel temperature TN above 2 K has been determined as 2.75 K by an inflection point in the ?(T) and a sharp peak in the C(T). Furthermore, the C(T) indicates another peak at around 0.65 K. The ground states of Nd3+ on both the two Nd sites are concluded as Kramers doublets. The ?(T) of ?-Pr2S3 shows a broad peak around 3.8 K only in the case of H//b. The ? for H?b is almost constant below 5 K, which suggests existence of Van Vleck paramagnetic contribution. An inflection point in the ?(T) (H//b) exists at TN = 2.95 K which is consistent with the temperature of a sharp peak observed in the C(T). A Schottky-type anomaly around 8 K in the C(T) has also been found. The ground states of Pr3+ on two Pr sites are considered as a pseudo-doublet and a singlet.

Ebisu, S.; Nagata, T.; Fuji, K.; Shibayama, Y.

2014-12-01

222

New RMnO3+? (R=Y, Ho; ??0.35) phases with modulated structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Y, Ho-Lu) compounds are first annealed in various highly oxidizing conditions to show that for the largest R constituents, Y and Ho, it is possible to load the phases with large amounts of excess oxygen. Within the oxygen-annealed samples we identify new heavily-oxygenated phases, that is, YMnO3.35 and HoMnO3.34. The former is then thoroughly characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction. These studies evidence a hexagonal sub-cell (aS?3.578 Å (aH/?{3}), cS?11.18 Å, space group P63mc) and satellites, associated with two modulation vectors q?1*?0.41 a?S*+0.41 b?S*+1/3 c?S* and q?2*=(1/2). The results are interpreted by the formation of a modulated composite structure, resulting from the evolution of the hexagonal parent YMnO3+? structure toward a reduced pyrochlore-type structure Y2Mn2O7-x, in long- and short-range ordering.

Parkkima, Outi; Malo, Sylvie; Hervieu, Maryvonne; Rautama, Eeva-Leena; Karppinen, Maarit

2015-01-01

223

Tyms double (2R) and triple repeat (3R) confers risk for human oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The oral cancer is responsible for approximately 3 % of cases of cancer in Brazil. Epidemiological studies have associated low folate intake with an increased risk of epithelial cancers, including oral cancer. Folic acid has a key role in DNA synthesis, repair, methylation and this is the basis of explanations for a putative role for folic acid in cancer prevention. The role of folic acid in carcinogenesis may be modulated by polymorphism C677T in MTHFR and tandem repeats 2R/3R in the promoter site of TYMS gene that are related to decreased enzymatic activity and quantity and availability of the enzyme, respectively. These events cause a decrease in the synthesis, repair and DNA methylation, which can lead to a disruption in the expression of tumor suppressor genes as TP53. The objective of this study was investigate the distribution of polymorphisms C677T and tandem repeats 2R/3R associated with the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). 53 paraffin-embedded samples from patients who underwent surgery but are no longer at the institution and 43 samples collected by method of oral exfoliation by cytobrush were selected. 132 healthy subjects were selected by specialists at the dental clinics of the Faculdade de Odontologia de Pernambuco-FOP. The MTHFR genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP, and the TYMS genotyping was performed by conventional PCR. Fisher's Exact test at significant level of 5 %. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure the strength of association between genotype frequency and OSCC development. The results were statistically significant for the tandem repeats of the TYMS gene (p = 0.015). The TYMS 2R3R genotype was significantly associated with the development of OSCC (OR = 3.582; 95 % CI  1.240-10.348; p = 0.0262) and also the genotype 3R3R (OR = 3.553; 95 % CI  1.293-9.760; p = 0.0345). When analyzed together, the TYMS 2R3R + 3R3R genotypes also showed association (OR = 3.518; 95 % CI  11.188-10.348; p = 0.0177). No differences for the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms distribution were found between the oral cancer patients and controls subjects in our study (p = 0.499). Therefore, these data suggest that determination of TYMS tandem repeats could provide information on the comprehension of the risk factors and prevention of the OSCC. PMID:25341694

Bezerra, Alexandre Medeiros; Sant'Ana, Thalita Araújo; Gomes, Adriana Vieira; de Lacerda Vidal, Aurora Karla; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo

2014-10-24

224

Overexpression of IL-3R? on CD34+CD38- stem cells defines leukemia-initiating cells in Fanconi anemia AML.  

PubMed

Patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) have a high risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we attempted to identify cell-surface markers for leukemia-initiating cells in FA-AML patients. We found that the IL-3 receptor-? (IL-3R?) is a promising candidate as an leukemia-initiating cell-specific antigen for FA-AML. Whereas IL-3R? expression is undetectable on normal CD34(+)CD38(-) HSCs, it is overexpressed on CD34(+)CD38(-) cells from FA patients with AML. We examined the leukemia-initiating cell activity of IL-3R?-positive FA-AML cells in a "humanized" FA xenotransplant model in which we separated AML cells into IL-3R?-positive and IL-3R?-negative CD34 fractions and transplanted them into irradiated recipient mice. In all 3 FA-AML samples, only IL-3R?-positive cells showed significant levels of engraftment and developed leukemia in the recipient mice. The FA CD34(+)IL-3R?(+) blasts isolated from leukemic mice exhibited hypersensitivity to IL-3 deprivation and JAK2-STAT5 overactivation after IL-3 treatment. Finally, treatment of FA CD34(+)IL-3R?(+) blasts with an IL-3R?-neutralizing antibody inhibited IL-3-mediated proliferation and STAT5 activation. These results demonstrate that IL-3R? is a cell-surface marker present on FA-AML leukemia-initiating cells and may be a valuable therapeutic target. PMID:21330473

Du, Wei; Li, Xu-E; Sipple, Jared; Pang, Qishen

2011-04-21

225

Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined.

Ali, N. E.; Sion, H. C.

2014-02-01

226

ACTN3 R577X polymorphism does not influence explosive leg muscle power in elite volleyball players.  

PubMed

We examined the association of R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) in the ?-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene with "explosive" leg muscle power performance in a group of male and female elite volleyball players (n=66, 31 men, 35 women) and in a group of non-athletic male and female young adults (n=334, 243 men, 91 women). We assessed power performance by means of the vertical squat and counter-movement jump tests. We also determined whether the genotypic frequencies of the ACTN3 R577X genotypes differed between groups. We did not observe any effect of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on study phenotypes in both groups, regardless of gender (all P>0.05). Genotype frequencies were similar between volleyball and control groups (P=0.095). Moreover, we did not find an association between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and the likelihood of being an elite volleyball player using the dominant (RR vs RX+XX) and the recessive model (RR+RX vs XX). In summary, these findings suggest that the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism does not influence explosive leg muscle power in elite volleyball players. PMID:20561285

Ruiz, J R; Fernández del Valle, M; Verde, Z; Díez-Vega, I; Santiago, C; Yvert, T; Rodríguez-Romo, G; Gómez-Gallego, F; Molina, J J; Lucia, A

2011-12-01

227

F = 3R = A11R / 8D2 ...[2]. In this theory, it is assumed that  

E-print Network

F = 3R = A11R / 8D2 ...[2]. In this theory, it is assumed that mica surfaces interact directly. But it is known by closer investi- gations that thin adsorbed film(suffix 2) exists on mica surfaces in the air in the air but surfaces interact directly in the liquids. We can predict the force between mica surfaces

Matsuoka, Hiroshige

228

Abstract--A classification of a family of 3-revolute (3R) positining manipulators is established. This classification is based  

E-print Network

nonintuitive conditions [5]. A general necessary and sufficient condition for a 3-DOF manipulator to the classification of 3R orthogonal manipulators with no offset on their last joint. Five surfaces were found analyzed general kinematic properties of one representative manipulator in each cell. Only five different

Boyer, Edmond

229

R3-R4 deletion in the PRNP gene is associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)  

SciTech Connect

There are conflicting reports on the association of deletions in the PRNP gene on chromosome 20 with CJD, a rapidly progressive fatal spongiform encephalopathy. We accumulated data suggesting that a deletion of R3-R4 type (parts of the third and fourth repeats are deleted from the area of four repeating 24 bp sequences in the 5{prime} region of the gene) is causing CJD. Screening of 129 unaffected control individuals demonstrated presence of a deletion of R2 type in four (1.55% of the studied chromosomes), but none of them had the R3-R4 type. Of 181 screened patients with spongiform encephalopathies, two had a deletion of R3-R4 type with no other mutations in the coding sequence. Both patients had a classical rapidly progressive dementing disease and diffuse spongiform degeneration, and both cases were apparently sporadic. The same R3-R4 type of deletion was detected in three additional neuropathologically confirmed spongiform encephalopathy patients, of which two had other known pathogenic mutations in the PRNP gene: at codon 178 on the methionine allele exhibiting the phenotype of fatal familial insomnia, and codon 200 causing CJD with severe dementia; the third was a patient with iatrogenic CJD who developed the disease after treatment with growth hormone extracted from cadaveric human pituitary glands. In all cases the deletion coincided with a variant sequence at position 129 coding for methionine.

Cervenakova, L.; Brown, P.; Nagle, J. [and others

1994-09-01

230

Crystallographic evidence for dual coordination around zinc in the T3R3 human insulin hexamer.  

PubMed

The T3R3 human insulin hexamer (T and R referring to extended and alpha-helical conformations, respectively, of the first eight residues of the B-chain), complexed to two zinc ions, crystallizes in space group R3 with hexagonal cell constants a = 80.64 and c = 37.78 A. The structure has been refined to a residual of 0.172 using 9225 independent data to 1.6-A resolution. The asymmetric unit consists of a TR dimer, and the insulin hexamer is generated by the action of the crystallographic 3-fold axis. The conformation of one insulin trimer is nearly identical to that of the T6 hexamer, while the other trimer approximates that of the R6 hexamer, except for the three N-terminal B-chain residues that adopt an extended rather than an alpha-helical conformation. Each of the two zinc ions, which lie on the crystallographic 3-fold axis and exhibit two different, disordered coordination geometries, is coordinated by the imidazole groups of three symmetry-related B10 histidine residues. The coordination sphere of the zinc in the T3 trimer is either tetrahedral, with the fourth site filled by a chloride ion, or octahedral, completed by three water molecules. The coordination of the zinc in the 12-A narrow channel in the R3 trimer is tetrahedral, with either a second chloride ion or a water molecule completing the coordination sphere. The putative off-axial zinc binding sites that result from the T-->R transition of monomer II do not contain zinc ion, but instead are filled with clusters of ordered water molecules.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8312271

Ciszak, E; Smith, G D

1994-02-15

231

Role of caspase-3 cleaved IP3 R1 on Ca(2+) homeostasis and developmental competence of mouse oocytes and eggs.  

PubMed

Apoptosis in most cell types is accompanied by altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. During apoptosis, caspase-3 mediated cleavage of the type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3 R1) generates a 95-kDa C-terminal fragment (C-IP3 R1), which represents the channel domain of the receptor. Aged mouse eggs display abnormal Ca(2+) homeostasis and express C-IP3 R1, although whether or not C-IP3 R1 expression contributes to Ca(2+) misregulation or a decrease in developmental competency is unknown. We sought to answer these questions by injecting in mouse oocytes and eggs cRNAs encoding C-IP3 R1. We found that: (1) expression of C-IP3 R1 in eggs lowered the Ca(2+) content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), although, as C-IP3 R1 is quickly degraded at this stage, its expression did not impair pre-implantation embryo development; (2) expression of C-IP3 R1 in eggs enhanced fragmentation associated with aging; (3) endogenous IP3 R1 is required for aging associated apoptosis, as its down-regulation prevented fragmentation, and expression of C-IP3 R1 in eggs with downregulated IP3 R1 partly restored fragmentation; (4) C-IP3 R1 expression in GV oocytes resulted in persistent levels of protein, which abolished the increase in the ER releasable Ca(2+) pool that occurs during maturation, undermined the Ca(2+) oscillatory ability of matured eggs and their activation potential. Collectively, this study supports a role for IP3 R1 and C-IP3 R1 in regulating Ca(2+) homeostasis and the ER Ca(2+) content during oocyte maturation. Nevertheless, the role of C-IP3 R1 on Ca(2+) homeostasis in aged eggs seems minor, as in MII eggs the majority of endogenous IP3 R1 remains intact and C-IP3 R1 undergoes rapid turnover. PMID:24692207

Zhang, Nan; Fissore, Rafael A

2014-11-01

232

Interaction Between ACE I/D and ACTN3 R557X Polymorphisms in Polish Competitive Swimmers.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that the ACE ID / ACTN3 R577X genotype combination was associated with sprint and endurance performance. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the interaction between both ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and sprint and endurance performance in swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit (Sigma, Germany). All samples were genotyped using a real-time poly- merase chain reaction. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X genotype frequencies met Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both swimmers and controls. When the two swimmer groups, long distance swimmers (LDS) and short distance swimmers (SDS), were compared with control subjects in a single test, a significant association was found only for the ACE polymorphism, but not for ACTN3. Additionally, four ACE/ACTN3 combined genotypes (ID/RX, ID/XX, II/RX and II/XX) were statistically significant for the LDS versus Control comparison, but none for the SDS versus Control comparison. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms did not show any association with sprint swimming, taken individually or in combination. In spite of numerous previous reports of associations with athletic status or sprint performance in other sports, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism, in contrast to ACE I/D, was not significantly associated with elite swimming status when considered individually. However, the combined analysis of the two loci suggests that the co-occurrence of the ACE I and ACTN3 X alleles may be beneficial to swimmers who compete in long distance races. PMID:25414746

Grenda, Agata; Leo?ska-Duniec, Agata; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Ficek, Krzysztof; Król, Pawe?; Ci?szczyk, Pawe?; Zmijewski, Piotr

2014-09-29

233

Marine geodesy a multipurpose approach to solve oceanic problems. [including submersible navigation under iced seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep ocean, tsunamis, and ecology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various current and future problem areas of marine geodesy are identified. These oceanic problem areas are highly diversified and include submersible navigation under ice seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep ocean, tsunamis, ecology, etc., etc. Their achieved as well as desired positional accuracy estimates, based upon publications and discussions, are also given. A multipurpose approach to solve these problems is described. An optimum configuration of an ocean-bottom control-net unit is provided.

Saxena, N.

1974-01-01

234

Actions of (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (1S,3R- ACPD) in retinal ON bipolar cells indicate that it is an agonist at L- AP4 receptors  

PubMed Central

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) include receptors sensitive to L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) and 1S,3R-1-aminocyclopentane- 1,3-dicarboxylic acid (1S,3R-ACPD). To determine whether 1S,3R-ACPD is an agonist at retinal L-AP4 receptors, whole cell voltage clamp recordings were obtained from mudpuppy ON bipolar cells in a superfused retinal slice and L-AP4 and 1S,3R-ACPD were bath applied. Both compounds evoked similar outward currents which reversed near 0 mV and were accompanied by an increased input resistance. Responses to both agonists washed out in parallel suggesting they act through the same second messenger pathway(s). Inhibitors of cGMP-PDE activity suppressed responses to both L-AP4 and 1SR,3RS-ACPD, suggesting that both compounds activate cGMP-PDE. Responses to 1S,3R-ACPD were occluded by prior activation of L-AP4 receptors, but not blocked by the non-AP4, mGluR antagonists, L-aminophosphonopropionic acid (L-AP3) or 4-carboxy- 3-hydroxyphenylglycine (4C3H-PG). These results indicate that 1S,3R- ACPD is an agonist at L-AP4 receptors. 1S,3S-ACPD and 4C3H-PG evoked outward currents similar to L-AP4 suggesting they may also be L-AP4 receptor agonists. Using the b-wave of the ERG as an assay for ON bipolar cell responses, concentration/response curves were obtained for ACPD enantiomers. The rank-order potency of ACPD enantiomers at L-AP4 receptors in ON bipolar cells is similar to their rank-order potency at non-AP4, mGluRs in brain which suggests that the receptors possess similar binding sites and may be members of a common receptor family. PMID:7931135

1994-01-01

235

The carbonation of OPC mortars partially substituted with spent fluid catalytic catalyst (FC3R) and its influence on their mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerated carbonation tests have been carried out on Portland cement mortars and pastes, partially substituted with a spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R). This study has revealed that the incorporation of FC3R on mortars produces a significant reduction of the alkaline reserve. Furthermore, it has been observed that this pozzolan also produces a reduction in the mortar porosity. When FC3R\\/cement

Emilio Zornoza; Jordi Payá; José Monzó; María V. Borrachero; Pedro Garcés

2009-01-01

236

Superexchange interactions in orthorhombically distorted titanates RTiO3 (R = Y, Gd, Sm and La)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from the multiorbital Hubbard model for the t2g-bands of RTiO3 (R=Y, Gd, Sm and La), where all the parameters have been derived from the first-principles electronic structure calculations, we construct an effective superexchange (SE) spin model, by treating transfer integrals as a perturbation. We consider four approximations for the SE interactions: (i) the canonical crystal-field (CF) theory, where the form of the occupied t2g-orbitals is dictated by the CF splitting at each Ti-site and three extensions of the CF theory, namely (ii) the relativistic one, where occupied orbitals are confined within the lowest Kramers doublet obtained from the diagonalization of the CF and relativistic spin-orbit (SO) interactions; (iii) the finite-temperature extension, which considers the effect of thermal orbital fluctuations near the CF configuration on interatomic interactions between the spins; (iv) the many-electron extension, which is based on the diagonalization of the full Hamiltonian constructed in the basis of two-electron states separately for each bond of the system. The main results are summarized as follows. (i) Thermal fluctuations of the orbital degrees of freedom can substantially reduce the value of the magnetic transition temperature. (ii) The relativistic SO coupling is generally responsible for anisotropic and antisymmetric Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interactions. All interactions are rigorously derived and their implications for the magnetic properties of RTiO3 are discussed. (iii) The CF theory, although applicable for YTiO3 and high-temperature structures of GdTiO3 and SmTiO3, breaks down in the case of LaTiO3. In the latter, the CF splitting is small. Therefore, the many-electron effects in the bonds as well as the relativistic SO interaction start to play an important role. It is argued that the combination of these two effects could be responsible for the AFM character of interatomic correlations in LaTiO3. (iv) The SE interactions in YTiO3 strongly depend on the details of the crystal structure. Crystal distortions in the low-temperature structure tend to weaken the ferromagnetic interactions.

Solovyev, I. V.

2009-09-01

237

The role of multi-purpose solutions in prevention and removal of lipid depositions on contact lenses.  

PubMed

The sorption and desorption of radiolabeled dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol (CH) were measured on 5 types of commercial contact lenses. The lenses were soaked in vitro in an artificial tear fluid for 16h. The effects of borate buffered saline and two commercial multi-purpose lens-care solutions (MPSs) on reducing the lipid (DPPC and CH) sorption and increasing the lipid removal were examined. The results showed that silicone hydrogel (SiHy) lenses accumulated the most lipids, sorbing over an order of magnitude more than polymacon, a conventional hydrogel lens. Pre-soaking the SiHy lenses for 16h in MPSs reduced the DPPC sorption by up to 13% and the CH sorption by up to 11%, compared to controls that were not pre-soaked. However neither these reductions nor those on polymacon were statistically significant (p>0.05). In sorption experiments without presoaking, subsequent exposure to the MPSs removed some DPPC from the lenses (0-3.1% for SiHy lenses and 14-55% for polymacon), but CH removal was 0.0-0.8% for SiHy lenses and 0.6-28% for polymacon lenses. Some of these removals were statistically significant (p<0.05). PMID:25081521

Tam, Ngai Keung; Pitt, William G; Perez, Krystian X; Handly, Erika; Glenn, Andrew A; Hickey, John W; Larsen, Brian G

2014-12-01

238

Novel Multipurpose Methodology for Detection of Mycobacteria in Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Specimens by Smear Microscopy, Culture, and PCR†  

PubMed Central

A novel, robust, reproducible, and multipurpose universal sample processing (USP) methodology for highly sensitive smear microscopy, culturing on solid and liquid media, and inhibition-free PCR which is suitable for the laboratory diagnosis of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has been developed. This method exploits the chaotropic properties of guanidinium hydrochloride for sample processing and involves incubating the specimen with USP solution, concentrating bacilli by centrifugation, and using the processed specimen for smear microscopy, culture, and PCR. The detection limit for acid-fast bacilli in spiked sputum by smear microscopy is approximately 300 bacilli per ml of specimen. USP solution-treated specimens are fully compatible with culturing on solid and liquid media. High-quality, PCR-amplifiable mycobacterial DNA can be isolated from all types of clinical specimens processed with USP solution. The method has been extensively validated with both pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens. Furthermore, the USP method is also compatible with smear microscopy, culture, and PCR of mycobacteria other than tubercle bacilli. In summary, the USP method provides smear microscopy, culture, and nucleic acid amplification technologies with a single sample-processing platform and, to the best of our knowledge, is the only method of its kind described to date. It is expected to be useful for the laboratory diagnosis of TB and other mycobacterial diseases by conventional and modern methods. PMID:15956385

Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

2005-01-01

239

Viability of Acanthamoeba after exposure to a multipurpose disinfecting contact lens solution and two hydrogen peroxide systems  

PubMed Central

Background/aim: Contact lens cases contaminated with Acanthamoeba are a major risk factor for an infection of the eye. In this study the anti-Acanthamoeba activity of three different contact lens storage solutions was tested. Methods: A new multipurpose contact lens storage solution (Meni Care Plus) and a two step (Titmus H2O2) and one step (Oxysept Comfort) hydrogen peroxide system were tested for their effects on trophozoites and cysts of three different Acanthamoeba species: A castellanii, A hatchetti, and A lenticulata. Results: After a soaking time of 8 hours (overnight soaking of contact lenses) the Titmus H2O2 0.6% solution showed very good amoebicidal effects, while Oxysept Comfort 3% H2O2 could not effectively destroy the cysts of any of the three tested species. Viable cysts of the species A lenticulata and A hatchetti were still present after exposure to Meni Care Plus (0.0005% PHMB) for 8 hours. Conclusion: Not all of the three tested contact lens storage solutions have sufficient amoebicidal effects. The two step peroxide system Titmus H2O2 is a very effective disinfectant contact lens solution in order to avoid a possible Acanthamoeba infection of the eye. PMID:11815336

Hiti, K; Walochnik, J; Haller-Schober, E M; Faschinger, C; Aspöck, H

2002-01-01

240

Iodine Tagging Velocimetry and Mechanism in the Hypersonic Near Wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study demonstrates a new molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) method for velocity measurements of high speed flow. It demonstrates offbody Iodine Tagging Velocimetry (ITV) in the hypersonic near wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) model. Experiments are performed in the NASA-Langley 31-inch Mach 10 air wind tunnel. A 0.5% I2 / N2 mixture is seeded on the leeward backshell of the model using a pressure tap. I2 laser-induced fluorescence is excited along a 5.5 mm line using an ArF excimer laser near 193 nm. Results indicate I2 absorbs at least 2 photons to produce iodine ions and electrons. These recombine as the tagged region is displaced downstream to produce I (2P3/2) whose emission is monitored at 206 nm. Results at P0 = 2.41 MPa (350 psi), T0 = 990K, and 10 micro-sec transit times produce velocities from 630-820 m/sec across the I2 seeded jet at a distance of 38.2 mm (25.5 jet diameters) downstream from the jet orifice. Maximum wake jet velocities near the shear layer are 59% of freestream velocity.

Balla, R. Jeffrey

2013-01-01

241

Genetic algorithms optimization of hedging rules for operation of the multi-purpose Ubonratana Reservoir in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study has developed optimal hedging policies for the multi-purpose Ubonratana Reservoir in northeastern Thailand based on its existing rule curves. The hedging policy was applied whenever the reservoir storage falls below a critical level for each month of the year. The decision variables, i.e. the set of monthly storages defining the critical rule curve that triggers rationing and the rationing ratio, were optimized by genetic algorithm (GA). Both single stage (i.e. with one critical rule curve and one rationing ratio) and two-stage (with two critical rule curves and ratios) of the hedging policy were considered in the optimization. To test the effect of the optimized hedging policies on reservoir performance, simulations were carried out, forced alternatively with the existing rule curves (i.e. without hedging) and the two optimized hedging policies. Performance was summarized in terms of reliability (time- and volume-based) and vulnerability. The results showed that the vulnerability was significantly reduced by using the optimized hedging rules. However, the number of water shortages increased with the optimized rules, causing the time-based reliability to worsen significantly. This should not be of concern since, although the number of shortages increased, the associated shortage quantities on most of these additional occasions were small, leaving the volumetric reliability largely unchanged.

Chiamsathit, C.; Adeloye, A. J.; Soudharajan, B.

2014-09-01

242

An IP3R3- and NPY-Expressing Microvillous Cell Mediates Tissue Homeostasis and Regeneration in the Mouse Olfactory Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Calcium-dependent release of neurotrophic factors plays an important role in the maintenance of neurons, yet the release mechanisms are understudied. The inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor is a calcium release channel that has a physiological role in cell growth, development, sensory perception, neuronal signaling and secretion. In the olfactory system, the IP3 receptor subtype 3 (IP3R3) is expressed exclusively in a microvillous cell subtype that is the predominant cell expressing neurotrophic factor neuropeptide Y (NPY). We hypothesized that IP3R3-expressing microvillous cells secrete sufficient NPY needed for both the continual maintenance of the neuronal population and for neuroregeneration following injury. We addressed this question by assessing the release of NPY and the regenerative capabilities of wild type, IP3R3+/?, and IP3R3?/? mice. Injury, simulated using extracellular ATP, induced IP3 receptor-mediated NPY release in wild-type mice. ATP-evoked NPY release was impaired in IP3R3?/? mice, suggesting that IP3R3 contributes to NPY release following injury. Under normal physiological conditions, both IP3R3?/? mice and explants from these mice had fewer progenitor cells that proliferate and differentiate into immature neurons. Although the number of mature neurons and the in vivo rate of proliferation were not altered, the proliferative response to the olfactotoxicant satratoxin G and olfactory bulb ablation injury was compromised in the olfactory epithelium of IP3R3?/? mice. The reductions in both NPY release and number of progenitor cells in IP3R3?/? mice point to a role of the IP3R3 in tissue homeostasis and neuroregeneration. Collectively, these data suggest that IP3R3 expressing microvillous cells are actively responsive to injury and promote recovery. PMID:23516531

Jia, Cuihong; Hayoz, Sebastien; Hutch, Chelsea R.; Iqbal, Tania R.; Pooley, Apryl E.; Hegg, Colleen C.

2013-01-01

243

An IP3R3- and NPY-expressing microvillous cell mediates tissue homeostasis and regeneration in the mouse olfactory epithelium.  

PubMed

Calcium-dependent release of neurotrophic factors plays an important role in the maintenance of neurons, yet the release mechanisms are understudied. The inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor is a calcium release channel that has a physiological role in cell growth, development, sensory perception, neuronal signaling and secretion. In the olfactory system, the IP3 receptor subtype 3 (IP3R3) is expressed exclusively in a microvillous cell subtype that is the predominant cell expressing neurotrophic factor neuropeptide Y (NPY). We hypothesized that IP3R3-expressing microvillous cells secrete sufficient NPY needed for both the continual maintenance of the neuronal population and for neuroregeneration following injury. We addressed this question by assessing the release of NPY and the regenerative capabilities of wild type, IP3R3(+/-), and IP3R3(-/-) mice. Injury, simulated using extracellular ATP, induced IP3 receptor-mediated NPY release in wild-type mice. ATP-evoked NPY release was impaired in IP3R3(-/-) mice, suggesting that IP3R3 contributes to NPY release following injury. Under normal physiological conditions, both IP3R3(-/-) mice and explants from these mice had fewer progenitor cells that proliferate and differentiate into immature neurons. Although the number of mature neurons and the in vivo rate of proliferation were not altered, the proliferative response to the olfactotoxicant satratoxin G and olfactory bulb ablation injury was compromised in the olfactory epithelium of IP3R3(-/-) mice. The reductions in both NPY release and number of progenitor cells in IP3R3(-/-) mice point to a role of the IP3R3 in tissue homeostasis and neuroregeneration. Collectively, these data suggest that IP3R3 expressing microvillous cells are actively responsive to injury and promote recovery. PMID:23516531

Jia, Cuihong; Hayoz, Sebastien; Hutch, Chelsea R; Iqbal, Tania R; Pooley, Apryl E; Hegg, Colleen C

2013-01-01

244

A missense mutation in PIK3R5 gene in a family with ataxia and oculomotor apraxia.  

PubMed

Autosomal recessive ataxias are heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by cerebellar atrophy and peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy. Molecular characterization of this group of disorders identified a number of genes contributing to these overlapping phenotypes. Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is an autosomal recessive form of ataxia caused by mutations in the SETX gene. We report on a consanguineous family with autosomal recessive inheritance and clinical characteristics of AOA2, and no mutations in the SETX gene. We mapped the AOA locus in this family to chromosome 17p12-p13. Sequencing of all genes in the refined region identified a homozygous missense mutation in PIK3R5 that was absent in 477 normal controls. Our characterization of the PIK3R5 protein and findings suggest that it may play a role in the development of the cerebellum and vermis. PMID:22065524

Al Tassan, Nada; Khalil, Dania; Shinwari, Jameela; Al Sharif, Latifa; Bavi, Prashant; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Abu Dhaim, Nada; Magrashi, Amna; Bobis, Steve; Ahmed, Hala; Alahmed, Samaher; Bohlega, Saeed

2012-02-01

245

Discovery of novel quaternary ammonium derivatives of (3R)-quinuclidinyl carbamates as potent and long acting muscarinic antagonists.  

PubMed

Novel quaternary ammonium derivatives of N,N-disubstituted (3R)-quinuclidinyl carbamates have been identified as potent M(3) muscarinic antagonists with long duration of action in an in vivo model of bronchoconstriction. These compounds have also presented a high level of metabolic transformation (human liver microsomes). The synthesis, structure-activity relationships and biological evaluation of these compounds are reported. PMID:21524581

Prat, Maria; Buil, María Antonia; Fernández, Maria Dolors; Castro, Jordi; Monleón, Juan Manuel; Tort, Laia; Casals, Gaspar; Ferrer, Manuel; Huerta, Josep Maria; Espinosa, Sònia; López, Manuel; Segarra, Victor; Gavaldà, Amadeu; Miralpeix, Montserrat; Ramos, Israel; Vilella, Dolors; González, Marisa; Córdoba, Mònica; Cárdenas, Alvaro; Antón, Francisca; Beleta, Jorge; Ryder, Hamish

2011-06-01

246

Reaction of 3-oxo-3-R 1 - N -R 2 -propanethioamides with 2-amino-5-R-pyridines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direction of a reaction between 3-oxo-3-R1-N-R2-propanethioamides and 2-amino-5-R-pyridines in acetic acid depends on the structure of initial thioamides: at R1 = Me, R2 = Ar, Et 2-methyl-7-R-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]-pyrimidine-4-thiones are obtained, and at R1 = Ar, R2 = Me form 1-methyl-5-(N-methylaminothiocarbonyl)-4,6-diaryl-1,2-dihydropyridine-2-thiones.

V. N. Britsun; A. N. Borisevich; V. B. Pirozhenko; M. O. Lozinskii

2007-01-01

247

Dynamical low-energy electron diffraction study of graphite (0 0 0 1)-(?3×?3) R30°Xe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamical low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) was used to study the structures of graphite (0001) and graphite (0001)-(?3×?3)R30°-Xe. Natural single crystals of graphite were used in these studies, and their surface structure was found to be the same as the bulk structure. The adsorbed Xe was found to occupy the hollow sites of the honeycomb substrate at a distance of 3.59±0.04

K. Pussi; J. Smerdon; N. Ferralis; M. Lindroos; R. McGrath; R. D. Diehl

2004-01-01

248

The Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor (IP3R) and Its Regulators: Sometimes Good and Sometimes Bad Teamwork  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Changes in the amount of calcium inside cells initiate many cellular events, including muscle contraction, hormone secretion, and cell growth. These changes can be modulated in time and space by the cell to tailor its response to the prevailing conditions. A major pathway used for the release of calcium from intracellular stores involves opening the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), a calcium channel that is part of a signaling complex with multiple binding partners. This Review, which contains 2 tables, 6 figures, and 119 references, discusses the role of specific binding partners in regulating the function of the IP3R. These studies provide information on how these channels work and form the background for the investigation of disease-induced changes in calcium release channel function. The initiation of intracellular calcium signals can depend on factors as diverse as the nonuniform distribution of a binding partner in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum or the activation of a calcium-binding protein in the cytoplasm. Once calcium signals start, they can be transient, sustained, or oscillating; these temporal aspects of the signal are regulated by similarly diverse factors. Changes in intracellular calcium regulation occur in many diseases. As more and more new regulators of the IP3R are discovered, it will be important to understand the teamwork needed to regulate and modulate this complex system.

Chi-un Choe (Yale University; Departments of Pharmacology and Cellular and Molecular Physiology REV)

2006-11-28

249

Aluminum Tolerance Genes on the Short Arm of Chromosome 3R Are Linked to Organic Acid Release in Triticale1  

PubMed Central

Triticale, a hybrid between wheat and rye, shows a high degree of Al tolerance that is inherited from rye, but the mechanisms of high Al tolerance in both rye and triticale are unknown. We found that the short arm of chromosome 3R carries genes necessary for Al tolerance in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmark cv Currency). Detailed comparative studies with a 3DS.3RL translocation line (ST22) and a non-substitution line (ST2) were conducted. Root elongation was similarly inhibited by Al in ST2 and ST22 during the first 12 h of Al treatment, but more strongly in ST22 than in ST2 at 18 h and thereafter. The root inhibition induced by other metals (Cu, Cd, and La) was similar between ST2 and ST22, suggesting that the action of the genes for Al tolerance on the short arm of triticale chromosome 3R is highly specific to Al. A 2-fold larger amount of malate and citrate was released from the roots of ST2 than from ST22 at 12 and 18 h after Al treatment, respectively. The marked lag phase in the inhibition of root elongation and the release of organic acids implies that the expression of genes on the short arm of triticale chromosome 3R is induced by Al, and that these genes are necessary for the release of organic acids. PMID:10712531

Ma, Jian Feng; Taketa, Shin; Yang, Zhen Ming

2000-01-01

250

Managing runoff and flow pathways in a small rural catchment to reduce flood risk with other multi-purpose benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 2000 to 2009 there have been a high number of flood events throughout Northern Europe. Meanwhile, there is a demand for land in which to construct homes and businesses on, which is encroaching on land which is prone to flooding. Nevertheless, flood defences usually protect us from this hazard. However, the severity of floods and this demand for land has increased the number of homes which have been flooded in the past ten years. Public spending on flood defences can only go so far which targets the large populations first. Small villages and communities, where in many cases normal flood defences are not cost effective, tend to wait longer for flood mitigation strategies. The Belford Burn (Northumberland, UK) catchment is a small rural catchment that drains an area of 6 km2. It flows through the village of Belford. There is a history of flooding in Belford, with records of flood events dating back to 1877. Normal flood defences are not suitable for this catchment as it failed the Environment Agency (EA) cost benefit criteria for support. There was a desire by the local EA Flood Levy Team and the Northumbria Regional Flood Defence Committee at the Environment Agency to deliver an alternative catchment-based solution to the problem. The EA North East Flood Levy team and Newcastle University have created a partnership to address the flood problem using soft engineered runoff management features. Farm Integrated Runoff Management (FIRM) plans manage flow paths directly by storing slowing and filtering runoff at source on farms. The features are multipurpose addressing water quality, trapping sediment, creating new habitats and storing and attenuating flood flow. Background rainfall and stream stage data have been collected since November 2007. Work on the first mitigation features commenced in July 2008. Since that date five flood events have occurred in the catchment. Two of these flood events caused widespread damage in other areas of the county. However, in Belford only two houses were flooded. Data from the catchment and mitigation features showed that the defence measures resulted in an increase in travel time of the peak and attenuated high flows which would have usually travelled quickly down the channel to the village. For example, the pilot feature appears to have increased the travel time of a flood peak at the top of the catchment from 20 minutes to 35 minutes over a 1 km stretch of channel. There are currently ten active mitigation features present in the catchment. More features are planned for construction this year. Early data from the catchment indicates that the runoff attenuation features are having an impact on reducing flood flows in the channel and also slowing down the flood peak. At the same time the multi-purpose aspects of the features are apparent.

Wilkinson, Mark; Welton, Phil; Kerr, Peter; Quinn, Paul; Jonczyk, Jennine

2010-05-01

251

Optimal tree-based release rules for real-time flood control operations on a multipurpose multireservoir system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis study presents a methodology to establish a set of optimal operation release rules which are tree-based rules for real-time flood control on a multipurpose multireservoir system. The derived rules can be used to determine the optimal real-time releases during flood periods. Steps of the proposed methodology involve: (1) collection of data, (2) building of flood database, (3) generation of optimal input-output patterns by running the flood control optimization model, (4) classification of training and testing data, (5) extraction of tree-based release rules for designed scenarios using the decision-tree algorithm (C5.0), (6) determination of optimal tree-based rules, (7) generation of the real-time forecast data by using the hydrological forecast model, (8) processing of reservoir real-time releases by simulating the reservoir real-time flood control operation, and (9) verification of the superior release rules through comparisons of tree-based rules, regression-based rules derived from a multiple-linear regression model and existing release rules. The developed methodology is applied to the Tanshui River Reservoir System in Taiwan to extract the decision trees for each scenario and then select the best ones with highest accuracy as the optimal tree-based rules. The derived optimal tree-based rules, regression-based rules and existing rules are compared by conducting the real-time operations in three historical typhoons, including Aere, Haima and Nock-ten in 2004. Results demonstrate that the solution using the derived tree-based rules have better performance than the regression-based rules and the existing rules in terms of reducing the peak stage at downstream control points, and meeting the target reservoir storage at the end of flood.

Wei, Chih-Chiang; Hsu, Nien-Sheng

2009-02-01

252

A novel multipurpose monoclonal antibody for evaluating human c-MET expression in preclinical and clinical settings  

PubMed Central

The inappropriate expression of the c-MET cell surface receptor in many human solid tumors necessitates the development of companion diagnostics to identify those patients who could benefit from c-MET targeted therapies. Tumor tissues are formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) for histopathological evaluation, making the development of an antibody against c-MET that accurately and reproducibly detects the protein in FFPE samples an urgent need. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, designated MET4, from a panel of MET-avid monoclonal antibodies, based on its specific staining pattern in FFPE preparations of normal human prostate tissues. The accuracy of MET4 immunohistochemistry (MET4-IHC) was assessed by comparing MET4-IHC in FFPE cell pellets with immunoblotting analysis. The technical reproducibility of MET4-IHC possessed a percentage coefficient of variability (%CV) of 6.25% in intra-assay and inter-assay testing. Comparison with other commercial c-MET antibody detection reagents demonstrated equal specificity and increased sensitivity for c-MET detection in prostate tissues. In two cohorts of ovarian cancers and gliomas, MET4 reacted with ovarian cancers of all histological subtypes (strong staining in 25%) and with 63% of gliomas. In addition, MET4 bound c-Met on the surfaces of cultured human cancer cells and tumor xenografts. In summary, the MET4 monoclonal antibody accurately and reproducibly measures c-MET expression by IHC in FFPE tissues and can be used for molecular imaging in-vivo. These properties encourage further development of MET4 as a multipurpose molecular diagnostics reagent to help to guide appropriate selection of patients being considered for treatment with c-MET-antagonistic drugs. PMID:18815565

Knudsen, Beatrice S.; Zhao, Ping; Resau, James; Cottingham, Sandra; Gherardi, Ermanno; Xu, Eric; Berghuis, Bree; Daugherty, Jennifer; Grabinski, Tessa; Toro, Jose; Giambernardi, Troy; Skinner, R. Scot; Gross, Milton; Hudson, Eric; Kort, Eric; Lengyel, Ernst; Ventura, Aviva; Xie, Qian; Hay, Rick; Woude, George Vande; Cao, Brian

2010-01-01

253

Multipurpose superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source, the European roadmap to third-generation electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major infrastructures of nuclear physics in Europe adopted the technology of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources for the production of heavy-ion beams. Most of them use 14GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs), except at INFN-LNS, where an 18GHz superconducting ECRIS is in operation. In the past five years it was demonstrated, in the frame of the EU-FP5 RTD project called "Innovative ECRIS," that further enhancement of the performances requires a higher frequency (28GHz and above) and a higher magnetic field (above 2.2T) for the hexapolar field. Within the EU-FP6 a joint research activity named ISIBHI has been established to build by 2008 two different ion sources, the A-PHOENIX source at LPSC Grenoble, reported in another contribution, and the multipurpose superconducting ECRIS (MS-ECRIS), based on fully superconducting magnets, able to operate in High B mode at a frequency of 28GHz or higher. Such a development represents a significant step compared to existing devices, and an increase of typically a factor of 10 for the intensity is expected (e.g., 1emA for medium charge states of heavy ions, or hundreds of e?A of fully stripped light ions, or even 1e?A of charge states above 50+ for the heaviest species). The challenging issue is the very high level of magnetic field, never achieved by a minimum B trap magnet system; the maximum magnetic field of MS-ECRIS will be higher than 4 or 5T for the axial field and close to 2.7T for the hexapolar field. The detailed description of the MS-ECRIS project and of its major constraints will be given along with the general issues of the developments under way.

Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Torrisi, L.; Passarello, S.; Andó, L.; Cavenago, M.; Galatà, A.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Iannucci, R.; Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Hitz, D.; Seyfert, P.; Koivisto, H.; Suominen, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Beijers, H.; Brandenburg, S.; Vanrooyen, D.; Hill, C.; Kuchler, D.; Homeyer, H.; Röhrich, J.; Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.

2006-03-01

254

Multipurpose Care Solution–Induced Corneal Surface Disruption and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Internalization in the Rabbit Corneal Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate the effects of a chemically preserved multipurpose contact lens care solution (MPS) on the corneal epithelial surface and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) internalization in the rabbit corneal epithelium. Methods. Rabbits were fit in one eye with a silicone hydrogel lens (balafilcon A) soaked overnight in a borate-buffered MPS (BioTrue). The contralateral eye was fit with a lens removed directly from the blister pack containing borate-buffered saline (control). Lenses were worn for 2 hours. Upon lens removal, corneas were challenged ex vivo with invasive PA strain 6487 and assessed for PA internalization. Ultrastructural changes were assessed using scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results. Scanning electron microscopy showed frank loss of surface epithelium in MPS-exposed eyes, while control eyes exhibited occasional loss of surface membranes but retention of intact junctional borders. Transmission electron microscopy data supported and extended SEM findings, demonstrating the presence of epithelial edema in MPS-treated eyes. There was a 12-fold increase in PA uptake into the corneal epithelium following wear of the MPS-treated lens compared to control (P = 0.008). Conclusions. These data demonstrate that corneal exposure to MPS during lens wear damages the surface epithelium and are consistent with our previous clinical data showing an increase in bacterial binding to exfoliated epithelial cells following MPS use with resultant increased risk for lens-mediated infection. These findings also demonstrate that the PA invasion assay may provide a highly sensitive quantitative metric for assessing the physiological impact of lens-solution biocompatibility on the corneal epithelium. PMID:24876286

Posch, Leila C.; Zhu, Meifang; Robertson, Danielle M.

2014-01-01

255

Monte Carlo simulations of gamma-ray space telescopes: a BoGEMMS multi-purpose application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the development of a BoGEMMS (Bologna Geant4 Multi-Mission Simulator) template for the background study of X-ray telescopes, a new extension is built for the simulation of a Gamma-ray space mission (e.g. AGILE, Fermi), conceived to work as a common, multi-purpose framework for the present and future electron tracking gamma-ray space telescopes. The Gamma-ray extension involves the Geant4 mass model, the physics list and, more important, the production and treatment of the simulation output. From the user point of view, the simulation set-up follows a tree structure, with the main level being the selection of the simulation framework (the general, X-ray or gamma-ray application) and the secondary levels being the detailed configuration of the geometry and the output format. The BoGEMMS application to Gamma-ray missions has been used to evaluate the instrument performances of a new generation of Gamma-ray telescopes (e.g. Gamma-Light), and a full simulation of the AGILE mission is currently under construction, to scientifically validate and calibrate the simulator with real in-space data sets. A complete description of the BoGEMMS Gamma-ray framework is presented here, with an overview of the achieved results for the potential application to present and future experiments (e.g., GAMMA-400 and Gamma-Light). The evaluation of the photon conversion efficiency to beta particle pairs and the comparison to tabulated data allows the preliminary physical validation of the overall architecture. The Gamma-ray module application for the study of the Gamma-Light instrument performances is reported as reference test case.

Fioretti, Valentina; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Tavani, Marco; Marisaldi, Martino; Sabatini, Sabina; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Trifoglio, Massimo; Gianotti, Fulvio

2014-07-01

256

Multipurpose superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source, the European roadmap to third-generation electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The major infrastructures of nuclear physics in Europe adopted the technology of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources for the production of heavy-ion beams. Most of them use 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs), except at INFN-LNS, where an 18 GHz superconducting ECRIS is in operation. In the past five years it was demonstrated, in the frame of the EU-FP5 RTD project called ''Innovative ECRIS,'' that further enhancement of the performances requires a higher frequency (28 GHz and above) and a higher magnetic field (above 2.2 T) for the hexapolar field. Within the EU-FP6 a joint research activity named ISIBHI has been established to build by 2008 two different ion sources, the A-PHOENIX source at LPSC Grenoble, reported in another contribution, and the multipurpose superconducting ECRIS (MS-ECRIS), based on fully superconducting magnets, able to operate in High B mode at a frequency of 28 GHz or higher. Such a development represents a significant step compared to existing devices, and an increase of typically a factor of 10 for the intensity is expected (e.g., 1 emA for medium charge states of heavy ions, or hundreds of e{mu}A of fully stripped light ions, or even 1 e{mu}A of charge states above 50{sup +} for the heaviest species). The challenging issue is the very high level of magnetic field, never achieved by a minimum B trap magnet system; the maximum magnetic field of MS-ECRIS will be higher than 4 or 5 T for the axial field and close to 2.7 T for the hexapolar field. The detailed description of the MS-ECRIS project and of its major constraints will be given along with the general issues of the developments under way.

Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Torrisi, L.; Passarello, S.; Ando, L.; Cavenago, M.; Galata, A.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Iannucci, R.; Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Hitz, D.; Seyfert, P.; Koivisto, H.; Suominen, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Beijers, H. [Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS), Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy) and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL), 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14076 Caen (France); CEA-DRFMC-SBT, 38054 Grenoble (France); Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae (JYFL), 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI), 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Svedberg Laboratory (TSL), 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); CERN AB Department, CERN CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Hahn Meitner Institut Berlin GmbH (HMI), 14109 Berlin (Germany); National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)] (and others)

2006-03-15

257

The NASA Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) System For GPM Ground Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following on the successful introduction of single-frequency (Ku-Band) weather radar onboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite in 1997, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission attempts to advance further the goal of making global scale precipitation observations by deploying the next generation of satellite-borne weather radars. The GPM satellite will carry a Ka-Ku band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) that can make measurements of parameters directly related to the microphysics of precipitation (such as raindrop size distribution). The Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) is a ground validation radar, as a part of the GPM Ground Validation (GV) program, to enable both physical validation support in terms of understanding the microphysical description of the observations as well as algorithm retrieval implications. This paper provides a scientific and technical overview of the D3R system as well as major challenges. The preferred frequency bands of operation for precipitation surveillance in ground radar systems have been nearly non-attenuating frequencies (such as S-, C-band) or short-range measurements of attenuating frequencies (as in X band). However, it is not practical to use traditional ground radar frequencies for precipitation observations in space-borne radars. The GPM mission has embarked on a dual-frequency approach at Ku- and Ka-band for characterizing precipitation. Moving to higher frequencies to observe precipitation though has its own challenges namely, attenuation due to precipitation and reduced Doppler velocity Nyquist limits. Ground radar measurements enjoy the advantage of coincident microphysical observations available to interpret radar signatures but they are currently unavailable at Ku- and Ka-band. An important broader science goal of the NASA D3R is to enhance the database of dual-frequency radar observations on the ground, in conjunction with existing observations, in order to provide a dataset for physical validation basis. Another major advantage of the ground radar observations is the ability to use dual-polarization techniques to yield enhanced microphysical characterization similar to what has been done at lower frequencies. In addition, self-consistency of dual-polarization and dual-frequency observations presents an enhanced level of interpretation, while also providing independent rainfall estimates on the ground. With the ground-based D3R, an independent estimation of hydrometeor classification and drop size distribution retrievals can be done to understand the error structure of retrievals. The dual-frequency ground-based radar provides for various options, including polarimetry and Doppler capabilities. Hence, the name D3R or Dual-frequency Dual-polarized Doppler Radar. Another important engineering aspect of a dual-frequency system is the level of "integration". This can range from a design where two separate radar units operate independently to the one that employs a common reference system for dual-transmitters on a single dual-frequency aperture. The first generation version of the D3R falls somewhere in the middle, i.e., a common platform transmitter illuminating two distinct but aligned antennas. Most of the engineering challenges stem from making precipitation measurements on the ground at a highly attenuating frequency. In order to support the development, extensive numerical evaluations have been carried out to document the extinction statistics of propagation through precipitation. One of the novel aspects of this system is that it employs a solid-state transceiver which supports the deployment in different climactic locations. Thirdly, the dual-frequency dual-polarization operation at higher frequencies involves non-Rayleigh scattering mechanisms and presents different precipitation signatures compared to the conventional S- or C- band observations. The expected observations for this radar based on such scattering and precipitation models are also presented in this paper.

Chandrasekar, V.; Schwaller, Mathew; Vega, Manuel; Carswell, James; Vijay Mishra, Kumar; Nguyen, Cuong; Meneghini, Robert; Peterson, Walt

2010-05-01

258

Strategic Focus on 3R Principles Reveals Major Reductions in the Use of Animals in Pharmaceutical Toxicity Testing  

PubMed Central

The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Öberg, Mattias

2014-01-01

259

Strategic focus on 3R principles reveals major reductions in the use of animals in pharmaceutical toxicity testing.  

PubMed

The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Öberg, Mattias

2014-01-01

260

Palladium-catalyzed Kumada coupling reaction of bromoporphyrins with silylmethyl Grignard reagents: preparation of silylmethyl-substituted porphyrins as a multipurpose synthon for fabrication of porphyrin systems.  

PubMed

We have developed an efficient method for preparing silylmethyl-substituted porphyrins via the palladium-catalyzed Kumada cross-coupling reaction of bromoporphyrins with silylmethyl Grignard reagents. We demonstrated the synthetic utility of these silylmethylporphyrins as a multipurpose synthon for fabricating porphyrin derivatives through a variety of transformations of the silylmethyl groups, including the DDQ-promoted oxidative conversion to CHO, CH(2)OH, CH(2)OMe, and CH(2)F functionalities and the fluoride ion-mediated desilylative introduction of carbon-carbon single and double bonds. PMID:23167823

Sugita, Noriaki; Hayashi, Satoshi; Hino, Fumio; Takanami, Toshikatsu

2012-12-01

261

The effect of up-armoring of the high-mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) on the off-road vehicle performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – A parallel finite-element\\/multi-body-dynamics investigation is carried out of the effect of up-armoring on the off-road performance of a prototypical high-mobility multipurpose-wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The paper seeks to investigate the up-armoring effect on the vehicle performance under the following off-road maneuvers: straight-line flatland braking; straight-line off-angle downhill braking; and sharp left turn. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – For each of the above-mentioned

M. Grujicic; H. Marvi; G. Arakere; W. C. Bell; I. Haque

2010-01-01

262

The fate of the 2?3 × 2?3R(30°) silicene phase on Ag(111)  

SciTech Connect

Silicon atoms deposited on Ag(111) produce various single layer silicene sheets with different buckling patterns and periodicities. Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that one of the silicene sheets, the hypothetical ?7 × ?7 silicene structure, on 2?3 × 2?3 Ag(111), is inherently highly defective and displays no long-range order. Moreover, Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal its sudden death, to end, in a dynamic fating process at ?300?°C. This result clarifies the real nature of the 2?3 × 2?3R(30°) silicene phase and thus helps to understand the diversity of the silicene sheets grown on Ag(111)

Liu, Zhi-Long; Wang, Mei-Xiao; Liu, Canhua, E-mail: canhualiu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: depadova@ism.cnr.it, E-mail: guy.lelay@univ-amu.fr; Jia, Jin-Feng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing 210093 (China); Vogt, Patrick [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Quaresima, Claudio; Ottaviani, Carlo; De Padova, Paola, E-mail: canhualiu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: depadova@ism.cnr.it, E-mail: guy.lelay@univ-amu.fr [CNR-ISM, via Fosso del Cavaliere, Rome 00133 (Italy); Olivieri, Bruno [ISAC-CNR, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, Rome (Italy); Lay, Guy Le, E-mail: canhualiu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: depadova@ism.cnr.it, E-mail: guy.lelay@univ-amu.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM UMR 7345, 13397, Marseille (France)

2014-09-01

263

Orientationally ordered island growth of higher fullerenes on Ag/Si(111)-(3×3)R30°  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of the higher endohedral and empty fullerenes La\\@C82 and C84 on Ag/Si(111)-(3×3)R30° has been investigated using ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy. At low coverage these molecules form single-layer islands with orientational order, a consequence of the commensurability between the intermolecular separation for each species and the surface lattice constant. The preferred adsorption site for the molecules is above an Ag trimer. Several other domains are observed at higher coverage which may be understood using a simple model. Following annealing, domains with a single orientation remain and the possibilities for epitaxial and heteroepitaxial growth are discussed.

Butcher, M. J.; Nolan, J. W.; Hunt, M. R. C.; Beton, P. H.; Dunsch, L.; Kuran, P.; Georgi, P.; Dennis, T. J. S.

2001-11-01

264

Synthesis and luminescence properties of a novel red SrMoO 4:Sm 3+,R + phosphor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel red SrMoO4:Sm3+,R+ (R+ = Li+, Na+, K+) phosphor was prepared by solid state reaction method. XRD results showed that 950 °C was a suitable sintered temperature for preparation of SrMoO4:Sm3+ phosphors. The emission spectra of the SrMoO4:Sm3+ phosphors consisted of some sharp emission peaks of Sm3+ ions centred at 562 nm, 601 nm, 646 nm, 703 nm, generating bright orange–red light. Luminescence concentration quenching could

Xiang Lin; Xvsheng Qiao; Xianping Fan

2011-01-01

265

Metabolism of Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Rhesus Monkeys: Identification of (3R,6?R)- and (3R,6?S)-3?-Dehydro-lutein as Common Metabolites and Comparison to Humans  

PubMed Central

Lutein and zeaxanthin are xanthophylls that can be found highly concentrated in the macula of the retina. They are thought to protect the macula through their role as blue-light filters and because of their antioxidant and singlet oxygen quenching properties. Examination of metabolites unique to lutein and zeaxanthin such as 3?-dehydro-lutein, and of their stereochemistry may provide insight to the mechanism by which they are formed and by which they exert protection. To evaluate the formation of such metabolites, eleven monkeys were raised on a xanthophyll-free diet, and supplemented with pure lutein or pure zeaxanthin (2.2 mg/kg body weight/d). The period of supplementation ranged between 12 to 92 weeks. At study start and throughout the study, serum samples were taken and analyzed for xanthophylls using different HPLC systems. Xanthophyll metabolites were identified using UV/VIS and HR-MS detection. Lutein and zeaxanthin metabolites were found in detectable amounts with 3?-dehydro-lutein being a common metabolite of both. Using chiral-phase HPLC, two diastereomers, (3R,6?R)-3?-dehydro-lutein and (3R,6?S)-3?-dehydro-lutein, were identified and shown to be present in nearly equimolar amounts. A pathway for their formation from either lutein or zeaxanthin is proposed. These finding were comparable to results obtained with human plasma. PMID:18582588

Albert, Gesa I.; Hoeller, Ulrich; Schierle, Joseph; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Schalch, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

266

Exome sequencing identifies a novel mutation in PIK3R1 as the cause of SHORT syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background SHORT syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition whose name is the acronym of short stature, hyperextensibility of joints, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly and teething delay (MIM 269880). Additionally, the patients usually present a low birth weight and height, lipodystrophy, delayed bone age, hernias, low body mass index and a progeroid appearance. Case presentation In this study, we used whole-exome sequencing approaches in two patients with clinical features of SHORT syndrome. We report the finding of a novel mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8), as well as a recurrent mutation c.1945C > T (p.Arg649Trp) in this gene. Conclusions We found a novel frameshift mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8) which consists of a deletion right before the site of substrate recognition. As a consequence, the protein lacks the position that interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue of the substrate, resulting in the development of SHORT syndrome. PMID:24886349

2014-01-01

267

Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or health problems for humans. Other identified components from the MPLM are quite similar to those found from off gassing of construction material and laboratory reagents characterized in ground based studies with closed plant growth chambers.

Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

268

Calcineurin-NFATc regulates type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2) expression during cardiac remodeling.  

PubMed

In heart, the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (InsP3R2) is the predominant isoform expressed and is localized in the nuclear membrane of ventricular myocytes. InsP3R2-mediated Ca(2+) release regulates hypertrophy specific gene expression by modulating CaMKII?, histone deacetylase, and calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathways. InsP3R2 protein is a hypertrophy specific marker and is overexpressed in heart failure animal models and in humans. However, the regulation of InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression during cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure is not known. Here we show the transcriptional regulation of the Itpr2 gene in adult cardiomyocytes. Our data demonstrates that, InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression is activated by hypertrophic agonists and attenuated by InsP3R inhibitors 2-aminoethoxyldiphenyl borate and xestospongin-C. The Itpr2 promoter is regulated by the calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathway. NFATc1 regulates Itpr2 gene expression by directly binding to the Itpr2 promoter. The calcineurin-NFATc mediated up-regulation of the Itpr2 promoter was attenuated by cyclosporine-A. InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression was up-regulated in calcineurin-A transgenic mice and in human heart failure. Collectively, our data suggests that ITPR2 and hypertrophy specific gene expression is regulated, in part, by a positive feedback regulation between InsP3R2 and calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathways. PMID:24415751

Sankar, Natesan; deTombe, Pieter P; Mignery, Gregory A

2014-02-28

269

101-hop cascaded operation of an optical-label switching router with all-optical clock recovery and 3R regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper experimentally demonstrates the cascaded operation of an optical-label switching router for up to 101hops with 3R regeneration (reamplification, reshaping, and retiming). A semiconductor optical amplifier-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer wavelength converter performs the reshaping. A Fabry-Peacuterot filter all-optically recovers the clock from the incoming packets. Synchronous modulation by a LiNbO3 modulator using the recovered clock performs the retiming. The 3R

Zhong Pan; Zuqing Zhu; Masaki Funabashi; Haijun Yang; S. J. B. Yoo

2006-01-01

270

Multipurpose Prepregging Machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Machine designed and built for variety of uses involving coating or impregnating ("prepregging") fibers, tows, yarns, or webs or tapes made of such fibrous materials with thermoplastic or thermosetting resins. Prepreg materials produced used to make matrix/fiber composite materials. Comprises modules operated individually, sequentially, or simultaneously, depending on nature of specific prepreg material and prepregging technique used. Machine incorporates number of safety features.

Johnston, N. J.; Wilkinson, Steven; Marchello, J. M.; Dixon, D.

1995-01-01

271

Multipurpose Hyperspectral Imaging System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral imaging with or without relative movement of the imaging system, and it can be used to scan a target of any size as long as the target can be imaged at the focal plane; for example, automated inspection of food items and identification of single-celled organisms. The spectral resolution of this system is greater than that of prior terrestrial multispectral imaging systems. Moreover, unlike prior high-spectral resolution airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral imaging systems, this system does not rely on relative movement of the target and the imaging system to sweep an imaging line across a scene. This compact system (see figure) consists of a front objective mounted at a translation stage with a motorized actuator, and a line-slit imaging spectrograph mounted within a rotary assembly with a rear adaptor to a charged-coupled-device (CCD) camera. Push-broom scanning is carried out by the motorized actuator which can be controlled either manually by an operator or automatically by a computer to drive the line-slit across an image at a focal plane of the front objective. To reduce the cost, the system has been designed to integrate as many as possible off-the-shelf components including the CCD camera and spectrograph. The system has achieved high spectral and spatial resolutions by using a high-quality CCD camera, spectrograph, and front objective lens. Fixtures for attachment of the system to a microscope (U.S. Patent 6,495,818 B1) make it possible to acquire multispectral images of single cells and other microscopic objects.

Mao, Chengye; Smith, David; Lanoue, Mark A.; Poole, Gavin H.; Heitschmidt, Jerry; Martinez, Luis; Windham, William A.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon

2005-01-01

272

Multipurpose hyperspectral imaging system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral i...

273

Multipurpose microfluidic probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfluidic systems allow (bio)chemical processes to be miniaturized with the benefit of shorter time-to-result, parallelism, reduced sample consumption, laminar flow, and increased control and efficiency. However, such miniaturization inherently limits the size of the solid objects that can be processed and entails new challenges such as the interfacing of macroscopic samples with microscopic conduits. Here, we report a microfluidic probe

David Juncker; Heinz Schmid; Emmanuel Delamarche

2005-01-01

274

An Arabic dictionary of technical alchemical terms: MS Sprenger 1908 of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (fols. 3r-6r).  

PubMed

The Arabic MS Sprenger 1908 (Staatsbibliothek, Berlin) is a handbook of medieval alchemy. Among the works it preserves, we can find the only extant witness to the Arabic original of the well-known Liber de aluminibus et salibus. In this paper, I focus on a detailed alchemical dictionary preserved in this manuscript (fols. 3r-6r) whose explicit aim is to clarify the meaning of the secret language used by the alchemists to conceal the names of substances and operations. Other versions of the same alchemical lexicon are found in Syriac and karsuni in MSS Oriental 1593 and Egerton 709, both preserved in the British Library. After describing these manuscripts, I analyse the contents of this dictionary, its structure, its different versions, and the features of the alchemical language that it attests to, providing some examples to show how this kind of dictionary is still a useful tool for the contemporary researcher. PMID:19831258

Ferrario, Gabriele

2009-03-01

275

Study of structural, electronic and elastic properties of RPd{sub 3} (R = Lu and Sc) compounds  

SciTech Connect

The structural, electronic and elastic properties of nonmagnetic RPd{sub 3} (R = Lu and Sc) compounds, which crystallize in AuCu{sub 3}-type structure, are studied using first principles density functional theory based on full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The calculations are carried out within the PBE-GGA and WC-GGA for the exchange correlation potential. Our calculated ground state properties such as lattice constant (a0), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B’) are in good agreement with the experimental results. We first time predict the elastic constants for these compounds using different approximations of GGA. These RPd{sup 3} compounds are found to be ductile in nature in accordance with Pugh’s criteria. The computed electronic band structures and density of states show metallic character of these compounds.

Thakur, Veena, E-mail: gita-pagare@yahoo.co.in; Pagare, Gitanjali, E-mail: gita-pagare@yahoo.co.in; Chouhan, S. S., E-mail: gita-pagare@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Government M. L. B. Girls P. G. Autonomous College, Bhopal-462002 (India); Sanyal, S. P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026 (India)

2014-04-24

276

Effects of an H3R Antagonist on the Animal Model of Autism Induced by Prenatal Exposure to Valproic Acid  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders primarily characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted repetitive behaviors and interests. Ligands of histamine receptor 3 (H3R) are considered potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of different brain disorders and cognitive impairments. Considering this, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the actions of ciproxifan (CPX), an H3R antagonist, on the animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). Swiss mice were prenatally exposed to VPA on embryonic day 11 and assessed for social behavior, nociceptive threshold and repetitive behavior at 50 days of life. The treatment with CPX (3 mg/kg) or saline was administered 30 minutes before each behavioral test. The VPA group presented lower sociability index compared to VPA animals that were treated with CPX. Compared to the Control group, VPA animals presented a significantly higher nociceptive threshold, and treatment with CPX was not able to modify this parameter. In the marble burying test, the number of marbles buried by VPA animals was consistent with markedly repetitive behavior. VPA animals that received CPX buried a reduced amount of marbles. In summary, we report that an acute dose of CPX is able to attenuate sociability deficits and stereotypies present in the VPA model of autism. Our findings have the potential to help the investigations of both the molecular underpinnings of ASD and of possible treatments to ameliorate the ASD symptomatology, although more research is still necessary to corroborate and expand this initial data. PMID:25560049

Baronio, Diego; Castro, Kamila; Gonchoroski, Taylor; de Melo, Gabriela Mueller; Nunes, Gustavo Della Flora; Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Gottfried, Carmem; Riesgo, Rudimar

2015-01-01

277

Effects of an H3R Antagonist on the Animal Model of Autism Induced by Prenatal Exposure to Valproic Acid.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders primarily characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted repetitive behaviors and interests. Ligands of histamine receptor 3 (H3R) are considered potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of different brain disorders and cognitive impairments. Considering this, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the actions of ciproxifan (CPX), an H3R antagonist, on the animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). Swiss mice were prenatally exposed to VPA on embryonic day 11 and assessed for social behavior, nociceptive threshold and repetitive behavior at 50 days of life. The treatment with CPX (3 mg/kg) or saline was administered 30 minutes before each behavioral test. The VPA group presented lower sociability index compared to VPA animals that were treated with CPX. Compared to the Control group, VPA animals presented a significantly higher nociceptive threshold, and treatment with CPX was not able to modify this parameter. In the marble burying test, the number of marbles buried by VPA animals was consistent with markedly repetitive behavior. VPA animals that received CPX buried a reduced amount of marbles. In summary, we report that an acute dose of CPX is able to attenuate sociability deficits and stereotypies present in the VPA model of autism. Our findings have the potential to help the investigations of both the molecular underpinnings of ASD and of possible treatments to ameliorate the ASD symptomatology, although more research is still necessary to corroborate and expand this initial data. PMID:25560049

Baronio, Diego; Castro, Kamila; Gonchoroski, Taylor; de Melo, Gabriela Mueller; Nunes, Gustavo Della Flora; Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Gottfried, Carmem; Riesgo, Rudimar

2015-01-01

278

Belford proactive flood solutions: scientific evidence to influence local and national policy by multi-purpose runoff management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased risk from flooding continues to be of concern to governments all around the world and flood protection is becoming more of a challenge. In the UK, climate change projections indicate more extremes within the weather systems. In addition, there is an increased demand for using land in urban areas beside channels. These developments both put pressure on our flood defences and there is a need for new solutions to managing flood risk. There is currently support within the England and Wales Environment Agency for sustainable flood management solutions such as storage ponds, wetlands, beaver dams and willow riparian features (referred to here as Runoff Attenuation Features, or RAFs). However the effectiveness of RAFs are not known at the catchment scale since they have only really been trailed at the plot scale. These types of mitigation measure can offer benefits to water quality and create ecological habitats. The village of Belford, situated in the Belford Burn catchment (6km2), northern England, has suffered from numerous flood events. In addition, the catchment suffers from water quality issues within the channel and high sediment loads are having an impact on the ecology of the nearby estuary. There was a desire by the Local Environment Agency Flood Levy team to deliver an alternative catchment-based solution to the problem. With funding from the Northumbria Regional Flood Defence Committee, the Environment Agency North East Local Levy team and Newcastle University have created a partnership to address the flood problem trailing soft engineered RAF’s at the catchment scale. The partnership project, “Belford proactive flood solutions” is testing novel techniques in reducing flood risk in small sub-catchments for the Environment Agency. The project provides the information needed to understand whether the multi-functional mitigation measures are working at the sub-catchment scale. Data suggest that the mitigation measures present have delayed the overall travel time of the flood peak in the catchment by 33%. The current maximum flood storage capacity of all the features stands at around 15,000 m3. The evidence also suggests that a dam like in-stream mitigation measure can significantly reduce sediment load. Other benefits of some mitigation features include large increase in the population of water voles over the past two years. The scheme also acts as a demonstration site for interested stakeholders where they can learn about this approach to flood risk management and see the multipurpose benefits. As the project has progressed and lessons have been learnt, it has been possible to develop a runoff management toolkit for implementing these mitigation measures in other catchments of similar size. Already, the local Environment Agency has utilised the tools and recently applied similar mitigation measures to other catchments. On-going modelling exercises in the project are using the data to explore the up-scaling of the features to larger catchments.

Wilkinson, M.; Quinn, P. F.; Jonczyk, J.

2010-12-01

279

Automatic sorting of toxicological information into the IUCLID (International Uniform Chemical Information Database) endpoint-categories making use of the semantic search engine Go3R.  

PubMed

The knowledge-based search engine Go3R, www.Go3R.org, has been developed to assist scientists from industry and regulatory authorities in collecting comprehensive toxicological information with a special focus on identifying available alternatives to animal testing. The semantic search paradigm of Go3R makes use of expert knowledge on 3Rs methods and regulatory toxicology, laid down in the ontology, a network of concepts, terms, and synonyms, to recognize the contents of documents. Search results are automatically sorted into a dynamic table of contents presented alongside the list of documents retrieved. This table of contents allows the user to quickly filter the set of documents by topics of interest. Documents containing hazard information are automatically assigned to a user interface following the endpoint-specific IUCLID5 categorization scheme required, e.g. for REACH registration dossiers. For this purpose, complex endpoint-specific search queries were compiled and integrated into the search engine (based upon a gold standard of 310 references that had been assigned manually to the different endpoint categories). Go3R sorts 87% of the references concordantly into the respective IUCLID5 categories. Currently, Go3R searches in the 22 million documents available in the PubMed and TOXNET databases. However, it can be customized to search in other databases including in-house databanks. PMID:24389116

Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Hareng, Lars; Wareing, Britta; Langsch, Angelika; Zschunke, Matthias; Alvers, Michael R; Landsiedel, Robert

2014-06-01

280

IP3R1 deficiency in the cerebellum/brainstem causes basal ganglia-independent dystonia by triggering tonic Purkinje cell firings in mice  

PubMed Central

The type 1 inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) is a Ca2+ channel on the endoplasmic reticulum and is a predominant isoform in the brain among the three types of IP3Rs. Mice lacking IP3R1 show seizure-like behavior; however the cellular and neural circuit mechanism by which IP3R1 deletion causes the abnormal movements is unknown. Here, we found that the conditional knockout mice lacking IP3R1 specifically in the cerebellum and brainstem experience dystonia and show that cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) firing patterns were coupled to specific dystonic movements. Recordings in freely behaving mice revealed epochs of low and high frequency PC complex spikes linked to body extension and rigidity, respectively. Remarkably, dystonic symptoms were independent of the basal ganglia, and could be rescued by inactivation of the cerebellum, inferior olive or in the absence of PCs. These findings implicate IP3R1-dependent PC firing patterns in cerebellum in motor coordination and the expression of dystonia through the olivo-cerebellar pathway. PMID:24109434

Hisatsune, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Hirono, Moritoshi; Yamaguchi, Naohide; Sugawara, Takeyuki; Ogawa, Naoko; Ebisui, Etsuko; Ohshima, Toshio; Yamada, Masahisa; Hensch, Takao K.; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

2013-01-01

281

The CaV2.3 R-Type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channel in Mouse Sleep Architecture  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are key elements in mediating thalamocortical rhythmicity. Low-voltage activated (LVA) CaV 3 T-type Ca2+ channels have been related to thalamic rebound burst firing and to generation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. High-voltage activated (HVA) CaV 1 L-type Ca2+ channels, on the opposite, favor the tonic mode of action associated with higher levels of vigilance. However, the role of the HVA Non-L-type CaV2.3 Ca2+ channels, which are predominantly expressed in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN), still remains unclear. Recently, CaV2.3?/? mice were reported to exhibit altered spike-wave discharge (SWD)/absence seizure susceptibility supported by the observation that CaV2.3 mediated Ca2+ influx into RTN neurons can trigger small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+-channel type 2 (SK2) currents capable of maintaining thalamic burst activity. Based on these studies we investigated the role of CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels in rodent sleep. Methods: The role of CaV2.3 Ca2+ channels was analyzed in CaV2.3?/? mice and controls in both spontaneous and artificial urethane-induced sleep, using implantable video-EEG radiotelemetry. Data were analyzed for alterations in sleep architecture using sleep staging software and time-frequency analysis. Results: CaV2.3 deficient mice exhibited reduced wake duration and increased slow-wave sleep (SWS). Whereas mean sleep stage durations remained unchanged, the total number of SWS epochs was increased in CaV2.3?/? mice. Additional changes were observed for sleep stage transitions and EEG amplitudes. Furthermore, urethane-induced SWS mimicked spontaneous sleep results obtained from CaV2.3 deficient mice. Quantitative Real-time PCR did not reveal changes in thalamic CaV3 T-type Ca2+ channel expression. The detailed mechanisms of SWS increase in CaV2.3?/? mice remain to be determined. Conclusions: Low-voltage activated CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels in the thalamocortical loop and extra-thalamocortical circuitries substantially regulate rodent sleep architecture thus representing a novel potential target for pharmacological treatment of sleep disorders in the future. Citation: Siwek ME, Müller R, Henseler C, Broich K, Papazoglou A, Weiergräber M. The CaV2.3 R-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel in mouse sleep architecture. SLEEP 2014;37(5):881-892. PMID:24790266

Siwek, Magdalena Elisabeth; Müller, Ralf; Henseler, Christina; Broich, Karl; Papazoglou, Anna; Weiergräber, Marco

2014-01-01

282

Comparative analysis of a putative tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, MC3R, and pseudogene sequences in cattle, African buffalo, hyena, rhinoceros and other African bovids and ruminants.  

PubMed

Studies in humans have suggested the possible involvement of melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and other components of the central melanocortin system in host defense against mycobacteria. We report a genomic DNA nucleotide sequence highly homologous to human MC3R in several bovids and non-bovid African wildlife species. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the orthologous genes of cattle and buffalo are highly homologous (89.4 and 90%, respectively) to the human MC3R gene. Sequence results also identified a typical non-functional, duplicated pseudogene, MC3RP, in 7 species from the family Bovidae. No pseudogene was found in animals outside Bovidae. The presence of the pseudogene in tuberculosis-susceptible species could have possible immunomodulatory effects on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection, as well as a considerable influence on energy metabolism and food conversion efficiency. PMID:22286663

Müller, A; Möller, M; Adams, L A; Warren, R M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

2012-01-01

283

Assessing interactions between Ghsr and Mc3r reveals a role for AgRP in the expression of food anticipatory activity in male mice.  

PubMed

The stomach hormone ghrelin and hypothalamic melanocortin neurons belong to a gut-brain circuit controlling appetite and metabolic homeostasis. Mice lacking melanocortin-3 receptor (Mc3rKO) or growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GhsrKO) genes exhibit attenuated food anticipatory activity (FAA), a rise in locomotor activity anticipating mealtime, suggesting common circuitry regulating anticipatory responses to nutrient loading. To investigate the interaction between Ghsrs and Mc3rs, we compared food anticipatory responses in GhsrKO, Mc3rKO, and double Ghsr;Mc3r knockout (DKO) mice subjected to a hypocaloric restricted feeding (RF) protocol in constant dark or 12-hour light, 12-hour dark settings. DKO are viable, exhibiting no overt behavioral or metabolic phenotypes in ad libitum or fasting conditions. FAA was initially attenuated in all mutant strains in constant darkness. However, GhsrKO eventually exhibited a robust food anticipatory response, suggesting compensation. Mc3rKO and DKO did not compensate, indicating a continued requirement for Mc3rs in maintaining the expression of FAA in situations of RF. Abnormal regulation of hypothalamic agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/Npy) neurons previously observed during fasting may contribute to attenuated FAA in Mc3rKO. AgRP and Npy expression measured 1 hour before food presentation correlated positively with FAA. Absence of Mc3rs (but not Ghsrs) was associated with lower AgRP/Npy expression, suggesting attenuated responses to signals of negative energy balance. These observations support the importance of Mc3rs as modulators of anticipatory responses to feeding, with mice able to compensate for loss of Ghsrs. The behavioral deficits of Mc3rKO displayed during RF may be partially explained by reduced hunger sensations owing to abnormal regulation of orexigenic AgRP/Npy neurons. PMID:25211592

Girardet, Clemence; Mavrikaki, Maria; Southern, Mark R; Smith, Roy G; Butler, Andrew A

2014-12-01

284

The 2?{3}×2?{3}R30 surface reconstruction of alkali/Si(1 1 1):B semiconducting surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface structure of alkali doped Si(1 1 1):B ultra-thin films has been studied by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). A comparative study of K/Si(1 1 1)-3 × 1 and K/Si(1 1 1):B-2?{3}×2?{3}R30 interfaces allowed us to determine the saturation coverage to be 0.5 monolayer in the later case. The 2?{3}-surface reconstruction is shown to be a common property of pure K, Rb, Cs materials and K0.4Rb0.6 alloys but progressively disappears if Rb is replaced by Ca. Taking into account the existence of two distinct boron sites in the ratio 1/3 as seen from B-1s core levels spectra, LAPW-DFT calculations have been carried out in order to optimize the atomic structure. As a result, alkali adatoms are shown to form trimers leading to a large modulation of the Sisbnd B bonds accompanied by an inhomogeneous doping of the dangling bonds in agreement with voltage dependent STM images.

Tournier-Colletta, C.; Chaput, L.; Tejeda, A.; Cardenas, L. A.; Kierren, B.; Malterre, D.; Fagot-Revurat, Y.; Fèvre, P. Le; Bertran, F.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.

2013-02-01

285

Modulation of Elementary Calcium Release Mediates a Transition from Puffs to Waves in an IP3R Cluster Model  

PubMed Central

The oscillating concentration of intracellular calcium is one of the most important examples for collective dynamics in cell biology. Localized releases of calcium through clusters of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor channels constitute elementary signals called calcium puffs. Coupling by diffusing calcium leads to global releases and waves, but the exact mechanism of inter-cluster coupling and triggering of waves is unknown. To elucidate the relation of puffs and waves, we here model a cluster of IP3R channels using a gating scheme with variable non-equilibrium IP3 binding. Hybrid stochastic and deterministic simulations show that puffs are not stereotyped events of constant duration but are sensitive to stimulation strength and residual calcium. For increasing IP3 concentration, the release events become modulated at a timescale of minutes, with repetitive wave-like releases interspersed with several puffs. This modulation is consistent with experimental observations we present, including refractoriness and increase of puff frequency during the inter-wave interval. Our results suggest that waves are established by a random but time-modulated appearance of sustained release events, which have a high potential to trigger and synchronize activity throughout the cell. PMID:25569772

Rückl, Martin; Parker, Ian; Marchant, Jonathan S.; Nagaiah, Chamakuri; Johenning, Friedrich W.; Rüdiger, Sten

2015-01-01

286

Modulation of Elementary Calcium Release Mediates a Transition from Puffs to Waves in an IP3R Cluster Model.  

PubMed

The oscillating concentration of intracellular calcium is one of the most important examples for collective dynamics in cell biology. Localized releases of calcium through clusters of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor channels constitute elementary signals called calcium puffs. Coupling by diffusing calcium leads to global releases and waves, but the exact mechanism of inter-cluster coupling and triggering of waves is unknown. To elucidate the relation of puffs and waves, we here model a cluster of IP3R channels using a gating scheme with variable non-equilibrium IP3 binding. Hybrid stochastic and deterministic simulations show that puffs are not stereotyped events of constant duration but are sensitive to stimulation strength and residual calcium. For increasing IP3 concentration, the release events become modulated at a timescale of minutes, with repetitive wave-like releases interspersed with several puffs. This modulation is consistent with experimental observations we present, including refractoriness and increase of puff frequency during the inter-wave interval. Our results suggest that waves are established by a random but time-modulated appearance of sustained release events, which have a high potential to trigger and synchronize activity throughout the cell. PMID:25569772

Rückl, Martin; Parker, Ian; Marchant, Jonathan S; Nagaiah, Chamakuri; Johenning, Friedrich W; Rüdiger, Sten

2015-01-01

287

Novel micro3-oxo complexes prepared from Cp*Zr(B(3R)3 (R = H, CH3) and B(C6F5)3 in diethyl ether.  

PubMed

From the reactions of Cp*ZrCl(3) with 3 equiv. of LiBH(3)R (R = CH(3), Ph), the organotrihydroborate complexes, Cp*Zr(BH(3)CH(3))(3), 1, and Cp*Zr(BH(3)Ph)(3), 2, were isolated. One of the Zr-H-B bonding interactions in 2 could be described as an intermediate case between the bidentate and tridentate modes. Reactions of and Cp*Zr(BH(4))(3), 3, with Lewis acid B(C(6)F(5))(3) in diethyl ether produced the novel 14-electron ionic compounds [(micro(3)-O)(micro(2)-OC(2)H(5))(3){(Cp*Zr(OC(2)H(5)))(2)(BCH(3))}][HB(C(6)F(5))(3)], 4, and [(micro(3)-O)(micro(2)-OC(2)H(5))(3){(Cp*Zr(OC(2)H(5)))(2)(BOC(2)H(5))}][HB(C(6)F(5))(3)], 5, respectively. These two unique compounds resulted from a sequential cleavage of Zr-H-B bonds of 1 and 3 and C-O bonds of ether followed by the formation of O-B bonds. The solid state single crystal X-ray analyses revealed that both compounds have similar structures. A micro(3)-oxygen bridges two zirconiums and a boron atom. The latter three atoms are further connected by three micro(2)-bridging ethoxy groups giving rise to three four-membered metallacycles within the structure of each cation. PMID:18594709

Liu, Fu-Chen; Yang, Chien-Chan; Chen, Shou-Chon; Lee, Gene-Hsian; Peng, Shie-Ming

2008-07-21

288

76 FR 66203 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2B16 (CL-601-3A, CL-601-3R, and CL-604...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Directorate Identifier 2010-NM-241-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2B16 (CL- 601-3A, CL-601-3R, and CL-604 Variants) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),...

2011-10-26

289

Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models for pharmaceuticals and chemicals: expert opinions on the state of affairs and the way forward.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and chemicals are subjected to regulatory safety testing accounting for approximately 25% of laboratory animal use in Europe. This testing meets various objections and has led to the development of a range of 3R models to Replace, Reduce or Refine the animal models. However, these models must overcome many barriers before being accepted for regulatory risk management purposes. This paper describes the barriers and drivers and options to optimize this acceptance process as identified by two expert panels, one on pharmaceuticals and one on chemicals. To untangle the complex acceptance process, the multilevel perspective on technology transitions is applied. This perspective defines influences at the micro-, meso- and macro level which need alignment to induce regulatory acceptance of a 3R model. This paper displays that there are many similar mechanisms within both sectors that prevent 3R models from becoming accepted for regulatory risk assessment and management. Shared barriers include the uncertainty about the value of the new 3R models (micro level), the lack of harmonization of regulatory requirements and acceptance criteria (meso level) and the high levels of risk aversion (macro level). In optimizing the process commitment, communication, cooperation and coordination are identified as critical drivers. PMID:24534000

Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bakker, Wieger E; Beken, Sonja; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Koëter, Herman B W M; Krul, Cyrille

2014-06-01

290

THE ALPHA-ACTININ-3 (ACTN3) R577X POLYMORPHISM INFLUENCES KNEE EXTENSOR PEAK POWER RESPONSE TO STRENGTH TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism has been associated with muscle power performance in cross-sectional studies. We examined baseline knee extensor concentric peak power (PP) and PP change with 10 weeks of unilateral knee extensor strength training (ST) using pneumatic resistance machines in 71 older men...

291

Effect of Nourishing “Yin”-Removing “Fire” Chinese Herbal Mixture on Hypothalamic NKB/NK3R Expression in Female Precocious Rats  

PubMed Central

Aim. The present study aims to investigate the effects of nourishing “Yin”-removing “Fire” Chinese herb mixture on the hypothalamic NKB/NK3R expression in female precocious model rats. Materials and Methods. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal (N), central precocious puberty (CPP) model (M), CPP fed with Chinese herbal mixture (CHM), and CPP fed with normal saline (MS). Rats on postnatal day 5 were given a single subcutaneous injection of 300??g to establish CPP model rats. Rats of CHM and MS groups were continuously administered with nourishing “Yin”-removing “Fire” Chinese herb mixture or saline since postnatal day 15. The expressions of hypothalamic NKB/NK3R were detected by means of real-time PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence histochemistry. Results. The day of vaginal opening and establishment of two regular estrous cycles were delayed in the CHM group compared with M and MS groups. The expression of hypothalamic NKB/NK3R mRNA and protein in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and medial preoptic (MPO) area were decreased significantly in the CHM group compared with the M and MS groups on the day of onset-puberty. Conclusions. These results indicate that the NKB/NK3R signaling pathway might be involved in the effect of herbal mixture treatment on CPP. PMID:25031603

Wang, Shiran; Zhu, Liting; Yu, Jian; Tian, Zhanzhuang

2014-01-01

292

ESCRT Machinery Potentiates HIV-1 Utilization of the PI(4,5)P2-PLC-IP3R-Ca2+ Signaling Cascade  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 release efficiency is directed by late (L) domain motifs in the viral structural precursor polyprotein, Gag, which serve as links to the ESCRT (endocytic sorting complex required for transport) machinery. Linkage is normally through binding of Tsg101, an ESCRT-1 component, to the P7TAP motif in the p6 region of Gag. In its absence, budding is directed by binding of Alix, an ESCRT adaptor protein, to the LY36PXnL motif in Gag. We recently showed that budding requires activation of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R), a protein that “gates” Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, triggers Ca2+ cell influx and thereby functions as a major regulator of Ca2+ signaling. In the present study, we determined whether the L domain links Gag to Ca2+ signaling machinery. Depletion of IP3R and inactivation of phospholipase C (PLC) inhibited budding whether or not Tsg101 was bound to Gag. PLC hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 generates IP3, the ligand that activates IP3R. However, with Tsg101 bound, Gag release was independent of Gq-mediated activation of PLC and budding was readily enhanced by pharmacological stimulation of PLC. Moreover, IP3R was redistributed to the cell periphery and cytosolic Ca2+ was elevated, events indicative of induction of Ca2+ signaling. The results suggest that L domain function, ESCRT machinery, and Ca2+signaling are linked events in Gag release. PMID:21875593

Ehrlich, Lorna S.; Medina, Gisselle N.; Carter, Carol A.

2011-01-01

293

Effects of Cell Cycle Inhibitors on Tau Phosphorylation in N2aTau3R Cells  

PubMed Central

Neurofibrillary tangles are one of the pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). They are composed of paired helical filaments (PHF) containing hyperphosphorylated forms of tau. Hyperphosphorylation of certain tau sites favors its dissociation from the microtubules (MT), interfering with axonal transport and compromising the function and viability of neurons. Reappearance of cell cycle proteins have been reported in neurons exhibiting tau aggregation, suggesting that an aberrant cell cycle occurs before neurons die. Cell cycle suppression in neurons is crucial to survival, thus prevention of progression through the cell cycle may offer a therapeutic approach. Using a neuroblastoma cell line overexpressing 3-repeat (3R) tau, we investigated the effects of cell cycle inhibitors on tau phosphorylation. G2/M phase inhibitors did not alter phosphorylation of tau at Ser-202 and Ser-396/404 at the lower doses, but did at higher doses. Ser-202 and Ser-396/404 are phosphorylation sites of early and late neurofibrillary tangles, respectively, in AD. Cisplatin, a G1 phase inhibitor, did not phosphorylate tau. Cyclophosphamide and phosphoramide mustard, DNA cross-linking agents, decreased tau phosphorylation at Ser-396/404 site, but increased phosphorylation at Ser-202. These studies demonstrate that the G2/M blockers have a dose-dependent effect on tau phosphorylation. This seems to be a consequence of both the disruption of MT-organization and MT-dynamics when doses are higher, but only a disruption of MT-dynamics with lower doses. These results are also in agreement with the lack of phosphorylation seen for cisplatin, another inhibitor that produces disruption of the MT-dynamics. PMID:18278567

Townsend, Kirk; Davies, Peter

2010-01-01

294

A putative RUNX1 binding site variant between SLC9A3R1 and NAT9 is associated with susceptibility to psoriasis.  

PubMed

Psoriasis (OMIM 177900) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder of unknown pathogenesis affecting approximately 2% of the Western population. It occurs more frequently in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus, and 20-30% of individuals with psoriasis have psoriatic arthritis. Psoriasis is associated with HLA class I alleles, and previous linkage analysis by our group identified a second psoriasis locus at 17q24-q25 (PSORS2; ref. 7). Linkage to this locus was confirmed with independent family sets. Additional loci have also been proposed to be associated with psoriasis. Here we describe two peaks of strong association with psoriasis on chromosome 17q25 separated by 6 Mb. Associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the proximal peak lie in or near SLC9A3R1 (also called EBP50 and NHERF1) and NAT9, a new member of the N-acetyltransferase family. SLC9A3R1 is a PDZ domain-containing phosphoprotein that associates with members of the ezrin-radixin-moesin family and is implicated in diverse aspects of epithelial membrane biology and immune synapse formation in T cells. The distal peak of association is in RAPTOR (p150 target of rapamycin (TOR)-scaffold protein containing WD-repeats). Expression of SLC9A3R1 is highest in the uppermost stratum Malpighi of psoriatic and normal skin and in inactive versus active T cells. A disease-associated SNP lying between SLC9A3R1 and NAT9 leads to loss of RUNX1 binding. This is the second example of loss of a RUNX1 binding site associated with susceptibility to an autoimmune disease. It also suggests defective regulation of SLC9A3R1 or NAT9 by RUNX1 as a susceptibility factor for psoriasis. PMID:14608357

Helms, Cynthia; Cao, Li; Krueger, James G; Wijsman, Ellen M; Chamian, Francesca; Gordon, Derek; Heffernan, Michael; Daw, Jil A Wright; Robarge, Jason; Ott, Jurg; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Menter, Alan; Bowcock, Anne M

2003-12-01

295

A FRAMEWORK TO DEVELOP FLAW ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPURPOSE CANISTERS FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL  

SciTech Connect

A multipurpose canister (MPC) made of austenitic stainless steel is loaded with used nuclear fuel assemblies and is part of the transfer cask system to move the fuel from the spent fuel pool to prepare for storage, and is part of the storage cask system for on-site dry storage. This weld-sealed canister is also expected to be part of the transportation package following storage. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation especially if exposed to aggressive environments during possible very long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone because the construction of MPC does not require heat treatment for stress relief. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic Inservice Inspection. The external loading cases include thermal accident scenarios and cask drop conditions with the contribution from the welding residual stresses. The determination of acceptable flaw size is based on the procedure to evaluate flaw stability provided by American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service (Second Edition). The material mechanical and fracture properties for base and weld metals and the stress analysis results are obtained from the open literature such as NUREG-1864. Subcritical crack growth from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and its impact on inspection intervals and acceptance criteria, is not addressed.

Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.; Duncan, A.; Adams, T.

2014-04-07

296

Probing static and dynamic correlations in matter under extreme conditions: Concept of multi-purpose instrument at the European Spallation Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of neutrons, in particular high penetration depth for most materials, make them very powerful for studying matter under extreme conditions, e.g. high pressures or magnetic fields. A new generation of high power spallation neutron sources, such as the existing SNS and J-Parc and the coming ESS, brings neutron scattering in extreme environments to a completely new level. Indeed, measurements of smaller samples, use of more complex equipment and neutron instruments optimized for operation with extreme sample environment become readily available. The latter is actually one of the most important factors contributing to the field. In this paper a novel concept of an instrument for extreme environments at the ESS is presented. The main feature of the Extreme Conditions Instrument is its multi-purpose nature. It is not optimized for a single scattering technique but combines in a balanced way elastic (Diffraction and Small Angle Neutron Scattering) and inelastic capabilities. Such a concept enables effective combination of neutron scattering with a state-of-the-art sample environment independent of the complexity, dimensions and transportability of the latter. In addition, all available types of neutron experiments can be performed at the same thermodynamic conditions. The instrument concept has been verified by Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulations and the results for instrument operation modes are compared with world-class instruments.

Prokhnenko, O.; Lieutenant, K.; Cussen, L. D.; Stein, W.-D.; Zendler, C.; Prokeš, K.

2014-11-01

297

Willow (Salix fragilis Linn.): A multipurpose tree species under pest attack in the cold desert of Lahaul valley, northwestern Himalaya, India.  

PubMed

Salix fragilis is the most common willow species grown extensively under the indigenous agroforestry system in the cold desert of Lahaul valley located in the northwestern Himalayas, India. Presently, this tree is under severe pest attack, and other infections have made its survival in the area questionable. This deciduous multipurpose tree species provides vegetation cover to the barren landscape of Lahaul and is a significant contributor of fuel and fodder to the region. This study is a detailed profile of the plant in three villages within this region: Khoksar, Jahlma, and Hinsa. The willow provided 69.5%, 29%, and 42% of the total fuelwood requirements of Jahlma, Khoksar, and Hinsa respectively. A striking observation was that only 30.0 +/- 20.1% trees were healthy: 55.2 +/- 16.1% of the willows have dried up and 14.8 +/- 6.1% were in drying condition due to a combination of pest infestation and infection. To sustain this cultivation of willow under the existing agroforestry system in the region, we recommend that locally available wild species and other established varieties of willow growing in similar regions of the Himalayas be introduced on a trial basis. PMID:16615699

Rawat, Yashwant S; Oinam, Santaram S; Vishvakarma, Subhash C R; Kuniyal, Chandra P; Kuniyal, Jagdish C

2006-02-01

298

A SURFACE CRYSTALLOGRAPHY STUDY BY DYNAMICAL LEED OF THE (sqrt3xsqrt3)R30o CO STRUCTURE ON THE Rh(111) CRYSTAL SURFACE  

SciTech Connect

The atomic positions of the Rh(111) + ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{sup o} CO and CO{sub 2} surfaces are analyzed by dynamical LEED. The Rh(111) + ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{sup o} CO and CO{sub 2} systems produce identical I-V curves, confirming the dissociation of CO{sub 2} to CO on this surface. The adsorbed CO is found to stand perpendicular to the surface with the carbon end down at an atop site (that is, terminally bonded). The CO overlayer spacings are d{sub RhC} = 1.95 {+-} 0.1 {angstrom} and d{sub CD} = 1.07 {+-} 0.1 {angstrom}. This geometry yields a Zanazzi-Jona R-factor of 0.40 and a Pendry R-factor of 0.50.

Koestner, R.J.; Van Hove, M.A.; Somorjai, G.A.

1980-09-01

299

Theoretical study on the reactivity of Lewis pairs PR3/B(C6F5)3 (R = Me, Ph, tBu, C6F5)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactivity of PR3/B(C6F5)3 (R = Me, Ph, tBu, C6F5) Lewis pairs are investigated in detail by quantum chemical calculations. The observed reactivity difference of these pairs is interpreted in terms of the existence of a frustrated complex, the condensed Fukui functions of the Lewis centers, and the thermodynamic properties of dihydrogen cleavage reaction. The calculated results are shown to account well for the observed reactivity of these Lewis pairs.

Wu, Dongling; Jia, Dianzeng; Liu, Anjie; Liu, Lang; Guo, Jixi

2012-07-01

300

Structure determination of the p 3 × 3 R 30 ? Bi–Ag(111) surface alloy using LEED I–V and DFT analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of 1\\/3 of a monolayer of Bi on Ag(111) leads to the formation of BiAg2 surface alloy with a long range ordered 3×3R30? superstructure. A detailed analysis of this structure using LEED I–V measurements together with DFT calculations is presented. We find strong correlation between experimental and calculated LEED I–V data, with the fit between the two data

I. M. McLeod; V. R. Dhanak; A. Matilainen; M. Lahti; K. Pussi; K. H. L. Zhang

2010-01-01

301

LEED IV and DFT structure determination of the (\\\\surd 3\\\\times \\\\surd 3) {R}30^{\\\\circ } Pb-Ag(111) surface alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of 1\\/3 of a monolayer of Pb on Ag(111) leads to the formation of PbAg2 surface alloy with a long range ordered (\\\\surd 3\\\\times \\\\surd 3) {R}30^{\\\\circ } superstructure. A detailed analysis of this structure using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) I-V measurements together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations is presented. We find strong correlation between experimental and

I. M. McLeod; V. R. Dhanak; M. Lahti; A. Matilainen; K. Pussi; K. H. L. Zhang

2011-01-01

302

Structure, transport and magnetic properties of electron-doped perovskites RxCa1-xMnO3 (R = La, Y and Ce)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the transport and magnetic properties of electron-doped perovskites RxCa1-xMnO3 (R = La, Y and Ce) were investigated. As the R ion content increases, the crystal structure, resistivity, magnetoresistance, magnetization and related characteristic temperature of these systems all vary systematically. The data show that the variations in the electrical transport properties are mainly dependent on carrier concentration, whereas

Yang Wang; Yu Sui; Xianjie Wang; Wenhui Su

2009-01-01

303

Controlling stereoselectivity by enzymatic and chemical means to access enantiomerically pure (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives.  

PubMed

A chemoenzymatic strategy for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure novel alkaloids (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines is presented. The key steps are the biocatalytic stereoselective reductive amination of substituted 1-phenylpropan-2-one derivatives to yield chiral amines employing microbial ?-transaminases, and the diastereoselective reduction of a Bischler-Napieralski imine intermediate by catalytic hydrogenation in the presence of palladium on charcoal, leading exclusively to the desired cis-isomer. PMID:24503964

Orden, Alejandro A; Schrittwieser, Joerg H; Resch, Verena; Mutti, Francesco G; Kroutil, Wolfgang

2013-06-30

304

Asymmetric conjugate reductions with samarium diiodide: asymmetric synthesis of (2S,3R)- and (2S,3S)-[2-2H,3-2H]-leucine-(S)-phenylalanine dipeptides and (2S,3R)-[2-(2)H,3-2H]-phenylalanine methyl ester.  

PubMed

The highly diastereoselective samarium diiodide and D(2)O-promoted conjugate reduction of homochiral (E)- and (Z)-benzylidene and isobutylidene diketopiperazines (E)-5,7 and (Z)-6,8 has been demonstrated. This methodology allows the asymmetric synthesis of methyl (2S,3R)-dideuteriophenylalanine 27 in > or = 95% de and >98% ee, and (2S,3R)- or (2S,3S)-dideuterioleucine-(S)-phenylalanine dipeptides 37 and 38 in moderate de, 66% and 74% respectively. A mechanism is proposed to account for this process. PMID:15827639

Davies, Stephen G; Rodriguez-Solla, Humberto; Tamayo, Juan A; Cowley, Andrew R; Concellon, Carmen; Garner, A Christopher; Parkes, Alastair L; Smith, Andrew D

2005-04-21

305

Significant clinical response to JAK1/2 inhibition in a patient with CSF3R-T618I-positive atypical chronic myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Mutations in CSF3R (colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor) are frequent oncogenic drivers in chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Here we describe a 75 year old man who was diagnosed with CSF3R-T618I-positive atypical CML. He presented with leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia and developed massive splenomegaly and severe constitutional symptoms. Hydroxyurea was given over a 6 month period but failed to provide any measureable clinical benefit. Eventually, he was treated with ruxolitinib, an FDA-approved JAK1/2 inhibitor, which resulted in dramatic improvement of his blood counts. He also had significant reduction of spleen volume and constitutional symptoms. This case highlights the need for a clinical trial to interrogate JAK1/2 as a potential molecular target in CNL and aCML in patients with or without CSF3R mutation. A clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib for this patient population is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02092324). PMID:25180155

Dao, Kim-Hien T.; Solti, Magdolna B.; Maxson, Julia E.; Winton, Elliott F.; Press, Richard D.; Druker, Brian J.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.

2014-01-01

306

Transition between the 1 x 1 and ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} surface structures of GaN in the vapor-phase environment  

SciTech Connect

Out-of-plane structures of the GaN(0001) surface in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) environment have been determined using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering. The authors measured 11{bar 2}{ell} crystal truncation rod intensities at a variety of temperatures and ammonia partial pressures on both sides of the 1 x 1 to ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} surface phase transition. The out-of-plane structure of the ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} phase appears to be nearly independent of temperature below the transition, while the structure of the 1 x 1 phase changes increase rapidly as the phase transition is approached from above. A model for the structure of the 1 x 1 phase with a partially-occupied top Ga layer agrees well with the data. The observed temperature dependence is consistent with a simple model of the equilibrium between the vapor phase and the surface coverage of Ga and N. In addition, the authors present results on the kinetics of reconstruction domain coarsening following a quench into the ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} phase field.

Munkholm, A.; Thompson, C.; Stephenson, G. B.; Eastman, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Fini, P.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.

2000-01-12

307

microRNA 126 Inhibits the Transition of Endothelial Progenitor Cells to Mesenchymal Cells via the PIK3R2-PI3K/Akt Signalling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Aims Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are capable of proliferating and differentiating into mature endothelial cells, and they have been considered as potential candidates for coronary heart disease therapy. However, the transition of EPCs to mesenchymal cells is not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the role of microRNA 126 (miR-126) in the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1). Methods and Results EndMT of rat bone marrow-derived EPCs was induced by TGF?1 (5 ng/mL) for 7 days. miR-126 expression was depressed in the process of EPC EndMT. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the PI3K regulatory subunit p85 beta (PIK3R2) was a direct target of miR-126 in EPCs. Overexpression of miR-126 by a lentiviral vector (lenti-miR-126) was found to downregulate the mRNA expression of mesenchymal cell markers (?-SMA, sm22-a, and myocardin) and to maintain the mRNA expression of progenitor cell markers (CD34, CD133). In the cellular process of EndMT, there was an increase in the protein expression of PIK3R2 and the nuclear transcription factors FoxO3 and Smad4; PI3K and phosphor-Akt expression decreased, a change that was reversed markedly by overexpression of miR-126. Furthermore, knockdown of PIK3R2 gene expression level showed reversed morphological changes of the EPCs treated with TGF?1, thereby giving the evidence that PIK3R2 is the target gene of miR-126 during EndMT process. Conclusions These results show that miR-126 targets PIK3R2 to inhibit EPC EndMT and that this process involves regulation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. miR-126 has the potential to be used as a biomarker for the early diagnosis of intimal hyperplasia in cardiovascular disease and can even be a therapeutic tool for treating cardiovascular diseases mediated by the EndMT process. PMID:24349482

Zhang, David Y.; Zhu, Jianbing; Zhang, Tiantian; Wang, Changqian

2013-01-01

308

The Gene Encoding the Low-Affinity Penicillin-Binding Protein 3r in Enterococcus hirae S185R Is Borne on a Plasmid Carrying Other Antibiotic Resistance Determinants  

PubMed Central

Two plasmid-derived NcoI DNA fragments of 14 and 4.5 kb, respectively, have been isolated from the multidrug-resistant strain Enterococcus hirae S185R and analyzed. The 14-kb fragment contains two inverted (L and R) IS1216 insertion modules of the ISS1 family. These modules define a Tn5466 transposon-like structure that contains one copy of the methylase-encoding ermAM conferring erythromycin resistance and one copy of the adenylyl-transferase-encoding aadE conferring streptomycin resistance. Immediately on the left side of IS1216L there occurs a copy of pbp3r encoding the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein (PBP) PBP3r, itself preceded by a psr-like gene (psr3r) that controls the synthesis of PBP3r. ermAM, aadE, and the transposase gene (tnp) of IS1216R have the same polarities, and these are opposite those of psr3r, pbp3r, and the tnp gene of IS1216L. The 4.5-kb fragment is a copy of the 4.5-kb sequence at the 5? end of the 14-kb fragment, although it is not a restriction product of the 14-kb fragment. It contains three genes with the same polarity: psr3r, pbp3r, and tnp in an IS1216 element. Because of the very high degree of identity (99%) with the chromosomal psrfm and pbp5fm genes of Enterococcus faecium D63R, it is proposed that both the psr3r and pbp3r genes were transferred from an E. faecium strain and inserted in a plasmid of E. hirae. E. hirae is the first known bacterial species in which a low-affinity PBP-encoding gene has been found to be plasmid borne. PMID:9517928

Raze, Dominique; Dardenne, Olivier; Hallut, Séverine; Martinez-Bueno, Manuel; Coyette, Jacques; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie

1998-01-01

309

The effect of M-phase stage-dependent kinase inhibitors on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 (IP3 R1) expression and localization in pig oocytes.  

PubMed

At fertilization, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3 R1) has a crucial role in Ca(2+) release in mammals. Expression levels, localization and phosphorylation of IP3 R1 are important for its function, but it still remains unclear which molecule(s) regulates IP3 R1 behavior in pig oocytes. We examined whether there was a difference in localization of IP3 R1 after in vitro or in vivo maturation of pig oocytes. In mouse oocytes, large clusters of IP3 R1 were formed in the cortex of the oocyte except in a ring-shaped band of cortex adjacent to the spindle. However, no such clusters of IP3 R1 were observed in pig oocytes and there was no difference in its localization between in vitro and in vivo matured oocytes. We next tried to clarify which factor(s) regulates IP3 R1 localization, phosphorylation and expression using M-phase stage-dependent kinase inhibitors. Our results show that treatments with roscovitine (p34(cdc2) kinase inhibitor) or U0126 (mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor) did not affect IP3 R1 expression or localization in pig oocytes, although the latter strongly inhibited phosphorylation. However, treatment with BI-2536, an inhibitor of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), dramatically decreased the expression level of IP3 R1 in pig oocytes in a dose-dependent manner. From these results, it is suggested that Plk1 is involved in the regulation of IP3 R1 expression in pig oocytes. PMID:25187116

Sathanawongs, Anucha; Fujiwara, Katsuyoshi; Kato, Tsubasa; Hirose, Masahiko; Kamoshita, Maki; Wojcikiewicz, Richard J H; Parys, Jan B; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi

2015-02-01

310

Identification and susceptibility to multipurpose disinfectant solutions of bacteria isolated from contact lens storage cases of patients with corneal infiltrative events.  

PubMed

Corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) are being reported with increasing frequency in lens wearers and may be related to specific multipurpose disinfecting solution (MPDS), contact lens type or bacterial bio-burden. Here, the efficacy of MPDS's against bacteria from contact lens storage cases (CLSC) of patients with CIEs was investigated. Eighteen CLSC from patients with CIEs were cultured. All reported using the same MPDS based on PQ-1+Aldox+nonanoyl-EDTA prior to experiencing CIEs. Bacteria were identified and tested for sensitivity to MPDS-1 and three other MPSDs. 16/18 CLSC (89%) contained bacterial counts of ?10(4)-10(8)/mL. Achromobacter spp. was most frequently identified and was found in 11/18 cases (61%). This was followed by 4/18 (22%) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 3/18 (17%) Serratia marcescens, 3/18 (17%) Delftia spp., 2/18 (11%) Elizabethkingia spp., 2/18 (11%) Chryseobacterium indologenes and 1/18 Sphingobacterium spiritivorum. Acanthamoeba was not isolated. All of the Achromobacter strains were resistant to MPDS-1 with <1log10 kill up to 14 days exposure and the solution also showed reduced efficacy against the other isolates at the manufacturer's recommended disinfection time of 6h. Two strains of S. maltophilia and Delftia spp. grew in the solution over 14 days. Factors responsible for causing adverse events such as CIEs in contact lens wearers remain unclear. However, the presence of significant bio-burden in the contact lens storage case and lens may initiate an immunological response resulting in CIEs either directly or through the release of endotoxins (e.g. lipopolysaccharides) from the bacterial outer cell membrane. PMID:23466175

Kilvington, Simon; Shovlin, Joseph; Nikolic, Marina

2013-12-01

311

Occupancy-abundance models for predicting densities of three leaf beetles damaging the multipurpose tree Sesbania sesban in eastern and southern Africa.  

PubMed

Mesoplatys ochroptera Stål, Exosoma and Ootheca spp. seriously damage sesbania, Sesbania sesban (L.) Merril, a multipurpose leguminous tree widely used in tropical agroforestry. This is discouraging farmers from expanding the planting of sesbania in various agroforestry systems in eastern and south-central Africa. Rapid methods are needed for estimation of population densities of these beetles for decision making in pest management. A study was conducted with the objectives of determining the existence of any positive relationship between the occupancy and abundance of Mesoplatys, Exosoma and Ootheca and determining the model that best predicts abundance from occupancy for rapid estimation of population densities. The Poisson model assuming spatial randomness, the negative binomial distribution (NBD) model assuming spatial aggregation, the Nachman model without any distribution assumption, and a General model incorporating spatial variance-abundance and occupancy-abundance relationships were fitted to data on adult M. ochroptera, Exosoma and Ootheca from western Kenya, southern Malawi and eastern Zambia. Very strong variance to abundance relationships were observed in the spatial pattern of all three beetles. The occupancy-abundance relationships were also positive and strong in all beetles. The occupancy and abundance predicted by the four models were closest to the observed at lower densities compared with higher beetle densities. At higher population densities, the NBD and the General model gave better fit for M. ochroptera and Exosoma. For Ootheca populations, the Poisson and NBD models gave better fit at higher population densities. The relationships established here can be used as guide to estimate beetle densities for decision-making in pest management. PMID:16441906

Sileshi, G; Hailu, G; Mafongoya, P L

2006-02-01

312

Normal ST Segment Elevation and Electrocardiographic Patterns in the Right-Sided Precordial Leads (V3R and V4R) in Healthy Young Adult Koreans  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives It is important to analyze right-sided chest electrocardiograms (ECGs) to rule out combined right ventricular infarction in patients with inferior wall infarction. However, the patterns of right-sided chest ECGs in healthy adults have not been thoroughly investigated. This study was conducted to analyze the normal patterns of ECGs and the prevalence of ST segment elevation (STE) in the right-sided precordial leads (V3R and V4R) in healthy adult Koreans. Subjects and Methods One hundred thirty healthy male volunteers who registered at the Armed Forces Daejeon Hospital for military recruitment were enrolled between December 2006 and April 2007. Standard 12-lead ECGs and right-sided precordial ECGs were obtained. The characteristic features of the QRS complex configuration, STE, and T wave morphology from right-sided precordial ECGs were analyzed. Results The most common QRS configuration in right-sided precordial leads was the rS pattern. The Q waves were present in lead V4R in 4.6% of the study population. STEs of 0.5-1 mm were present in 25.4% of V3R recordings and 6.2% of V4R recordings. T waves were usually negative in the right-sided precordial leads. However, if there was a STE in V4R, the associated T waves were usually positive. There were statistically significant correlations between STEs in V4R and STEs in II, III, aVF, V1, V3, and V6 (p<0.01). Conclusion The STEs, Q waves, and T wave inversions in the V3R and V4R leads were relatively common findings in young, healthy, Korean adults. However, there were no cases in which there was a STE ?1 mm and a STE concurrently with a q wave. PMID:20514331

Kim, Won Young; Park, Jong Sung

2010-01-01

313

Fluoro-organic sulphur-containing compounds. IV. Haloalkylation reactions of polyfluorinated thiophenols with CHal 3R compounds in the presence of AlCl 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The haloalkylation of polyfluorothiophenols with CHal3R compounds (Hal=Cl, F; R=Cl, H, C6H5, C6F5) in the presence of AlCl3 has been investigated. The reactions of polyfluorothiophenols 4-XC6F4SH (X=F, H, CH3) with CCl4 and AlCl3 lead to dichloromethane derivatives (4-XC6F4S)2CCl2. The reaction of pentafluorothiophenol with CHCl3 in the presence of AlCl3 gave (C6F5S)2CHCl and (C6F5S)3CH (ratio by GLC 8:1). In the reaction

T. D Petrova; V. E Platonov; A. M Maksimov

1999-01-01

314

Crystal structure of 2-amino-4-methyl­pyridin-1-ium (2R,3R)-3-carb­oxy-2,3-di­hydroxy­propano­ate monohydrate  

PubMed Central

The title mol­ecular salt, C6H9N2 +·C4H5O6 ?·H2O, crystallized with two 2-amino-4-methyl­pyridin-1-ium cations, two l-(+)-tartaric acid monoanions [systematic name: (2R,3R)-3-carb­oxy-2,3-di­hydroxy­propano­ate] and two water mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, the cations, anions and water mol­ecules are linked via a number of O—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds, and a C—H?O hydrogen bond, forming a three-dimensional structure PMID:25309212

Jovita, J. V.; Sathya, S.; Usha, G.; Vasanthi, R.; Ramanand, A.

2014-01-01

315

Effect of pressure on octahedral distortions in RCrO3 (R = Lu, Tb, Gd, Eu, Sm): the role of R-ion size and its implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of rare-earth ion size on the octahedral distortions in rare-earth chromites (RCrO3, R = Lu, Tb, Gd, Eu, Sm) crystallizing in the orthorhombic structure has been studied using Raman scattering and synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction up to 20 GPa. From our studies on RCrO3 we found that the octahedral tilts (distortions) increase with pressure. This is contrary to the earlier report which suggests that in LaCrO3, the distortions decrease with pressure leading to a more ordered phase at high pressure. Here, we observe that the rate of increase in distortion decreases with the increase in R-ion radii. This occurs due to the reduction in the compression of RO12 polyhedra with a corresponding increase in the compression of the CrO6 octahedra with increasing R-ion radii. From the Raman studies, we predict a critical R-ion radii, above which we expect the distortions in RCrO3 to reduce with increasing pressure leading to what is observed in the case of LaCrO3. These Raman results are consistent with our pressure dependent structural studies on RCrO3 (R = Gd, Eu, Sm). Also, our results suggest that the pressure dependence of Néel temperature, T NCr, (where the Cr3+ spin orders) in RCrO3 is mostly affected by the compressions of Cr-O bonds rather than the alteration of octahedral tilts.

Srinu Bhadram, Venkata; Swain, Diptikanta; Dhanya, R.; Polentarutti, Maurizio; Sundaresan, A.; Narayana, Chandrabhas

2014-04-01

316

Square, hexagonal, and row phases of PTCDA and PTCDI on Ag-Si(111)square root(3) x square root(3)R30 degrees.  

PubMed

We have investigated the ordered phases of the perylene derivatives perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydride (PTCDA) and the imide analogue PTCDI on the Ag-Si(111)square root(3) x square root(3)R30 degrees surface using scanning tunneling microscopy. We find that PTCDA forms square, hexagonal, and herringbone phases, which coexist on the surface. The existence of a square phase on a hexagonal surface is of particular interest and is a result of a near commensurability between the molecular dimensions and the surface lattice. Contrast variations across the square islands arise from PTCDA molecules binding to different sites on the surface. PTCDI on Ag-Si(111)square root(3) x square root(3)R30 degrees forms extended rows, as well as two-dimensional islands, both of which are stabilized by hydrogen bonding mediated by the presence of imide groups. We present models for the molecular arrangements in all these phases and highlight the role of hydrogen bonding in controlling this order. PMID:16852501

Swarbrick, J C; Ma, J; Theobald, J A; Oxtoby, N S; O'Shea, J N; Champness, N R; Beton, P H

2005-06-23

317

Heterozygous splice mutation in PIK3R1 causes human immunodeficiency with lymphoproliferation due to dominant activation of PI3K.  

PubMed

Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), which generate PIP3 as a signal for cell growth and proliferation, exist as an intracellular complex of a catalytic subunit bound to a regulatory subunit. We and others have previously reported that heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD encoding the p110? catalytic PI3K subunit cause a unique disorder termed p110?-activating mutations causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency (PASLI) disease. We report four patients from three families with a similar disease who harbor a recently reported heterozygous splice site mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the p85?, p55?, and p50? regulatory PI3K subunits. These patients suffer from recurrent sinopulmonary infections and lymphoproliferation, exhibit hyperactive PI3K signaling, and have prominent expansion and skewing of peripheral blood CD8(+) T cells toward terminally differentiated senescent effector cells with short telomeres. The PIK3R1 splice site mutation causes skipping of an exon, corresponding to loss of amino acid residues 434-475 in the inter-SH2 domain. The mutant p85? protein is expressed at low levels in patient cells and activates PI3K signaling when overexpressed in T cells from healthy subjects due to qualitative and quantitative binding changes in the p85?-p110? complex and failure of the C-terminal region to properly inhibit p110? catalytic activity. PMID:25488983

Lucas, Carrie L; Zhang, Yu; Venida, Anthony; Wang, Ying; Hughes, Jason; McElwee, Joshua; Butrick, Morgan; Matthews, Helen; Price, Susan; Biancalana, Matthew; Wang, Xiaochuan; Richards, Michael; Pozos, Tamara; Barlan, Isil; Ozen, Ahmet; Rao, V Koneti; Su, Helen C; Lenardo, Michael J

2014-12-15

318

Luminescence properties of Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Bi3+, R+ (R+=Li+, Na+, and K+) red emission phosphor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Bi3+, Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, R+, and Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Bi3+, R+ (R+=Li+, Na+, and K+) phosphors are synthesized by solid-state reaction method in air. All phosphors show bright red emissions centered at ~617 nm upon excitation with UV light of 397 nm. Bi3+ is a sensitizer for the luminescence of Eu3+, and can improve significantly the PL intensity of Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+ phosphor due to energy transfer between Bi3+ and Eu3+ ions. The sensitization mechanism is investigated and discussed by energy level diagrams of Bi3+ and Eu3+ ions. R+ ion is used as the charge compensator to improve the luminescence intensity of Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+ and Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Bi3+ phosphors, and their PL intensities are enhanced in the sequence K+?Na+?Li+. These phosphors can be promising red emitting candidate for white LED with a ~397 nm near UV chip excitation owing to the high brightness.

Cao, Renping; Chen, Guo; Yu, Xiaoguang; Cao, Chunyan; Chen, Kangbin; Liu, Pan; Jiang, Shenhua

2014-12-01

319

Reduced inhibitory gate in the barrel cortex of Neuroligin3R451C knock?in mice, an animal model of autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Abstract Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that interacting with presynaptic neurexins ensure the cross?talk between pre? and postsynaptic specializations. Rare mutations in neurexin–neuroligin genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One of these, the R451C mutation of the gene encoding for Neuroligin3 (Nlgn3), has been found in patients with familial forms of ASDs. Animals carrying this mutation (NL3R451C knock?in mice) exhibit impaired social behaviors, reminiscent of those observed in ASD patients, associated with major alterations in both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission, which vary among different brain regions and at different developmental stages. Here, pair recordings from parvalbumin? (PV) expressing basket cells and spiny neurons were used to study GABAergic synaptic signaling in layer IV barrel cortex of NL3R451C mutant mice. We found that the R451C mutation severely affects the probability of GABA release from PV?expressing basket cells, responsible for controlling via thalamo?cortical inputs the feed?forward inhibition. No changes in excitatory inputs to parvalbumin?positive basket cells or spiny neurons were detected. These data clearly show that primary targets of the NL3 mutation are PV?expressing basket cells, independently of the brain region where they are localized. Changes in the inhibitory gate of layer IV somatosensory cortex may alter sensory processing in ASD patients leading to misleading sensory representations with difficulties to combine pieces of information into a unified perceptual whole. PMID:25347860

Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

2014-01-01

320

Discovery of novel quaternary ammonium derivatives of (3R)-quinuclidinol esters as potent and long-acting muscarinic antagonists with potential for minimal systemic exposure after inhaled administration: identification of (3R)-3-{[hydroxy(di-2-thienyl)acetyl]oxy}-1-(3-phenoxypropyl)-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide (aclidinium bromide).  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to discover a novel, long-acting muscarinic M(3) antagonist for the inhaled treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with a potentially improved risk-benefit profile compared with current antimuscarinic agents. A series of novel quaternary ammonium derivatives of (3R)-quinuclidinol esters were synthesized and evaluated. On the basis of its overall profile, (3R)-3-{[hydroxy(di-2-thienyl)acetyl]oxy}-1-(3-phenoxypropyl)-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide (aclidinium bromide) emerged as a candidate for once-daily maintenance treatment of COPD. This compound is a potent muscarinic antagonist, with long duration of action in vivo, and was found to have a rapid hydrolysis in human plasma, minimizing the potential to induce class-related systemic side effects. Aclidinium bromide is currently in phase III development for maintenance treatment of patients with COPD. PMID:19653626

Prat, María; Fernández, Dolors; Buil, M Antonia; Crespo, María I; Casals, Gaspar; Ferrer, Manuel; Tort, Laia; Castro, Jordi; Monleón, Juan M; Gavaldà, Amadeu; Miralpeix, Montserrat; Ramos, Israel; Doménech, Teresa; Vilella, Dolors; Antón, Francisca; Huerta, Josep M; Espinosa, Sonia; López, Manuel; Sentellas, Sonia; González, Marisa; Albertí, Joan; Segarra, Victor; Cárdenas, Alvaro; Beleta, Jorge; Ryder, Hamish

2009-08-27

321

Thermal and fluid flow analyses of sounding rocket experiment 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R. [low gravity crystallization of a 27.8 percent ammonium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal convective velocities during the 4-21/2R and 74-21/3R flight tests were calculated. The 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R ground tests were analyzed using a convection formula. Thermal convection velocities of 0.1 to 0.5 cm/sec were calculated for the 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R ground tests which were two to four orders of magnitude greater than for the flight tests. For the 74-21/2R flight test, solutal effects do not produce any convective motion. For the 74-21/3R flight test closed form convection equations estimated the solutal convective velocities on the order of 1/0.003 cm/sec.

Robertson, S. J.

1979-01-01

322

(1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced neuronal cell death in cortical cultures via a reduction in delayed Ca2+ accumulation.  

PubMed

The effects of (1S,3R)-ACPD, a selective metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, on NMDA-induced 45Ca2+ accumulation and delayed neuronal cell death were determined using primary cerebrocortical cultures. Exposure to (1S,3R)-ACPD alone, although causing small increases in 45Ca2+ accumulation, was not neurotoxic. The presence of (1S,3R)-ACPD during exposure to NMDA attenuated the resulting sustained accumulation of 45Ca2+ and delayed neuronal cell death. Reductions in sustained Ca2+ accumulation were associated both with Ca2+ efflux, in the absence of cell death, and inhibition of delayed intracellular Ca2+ accumulation. The protective effects of (1S,3R)-ACPD on NMDA-induced cell death were inhibited by pretreatment of cultures with pertussis toxin. These results suggest that activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors may stimulate intracellular processes capable of limiting sustained elevations in intracellular calcium and the resulting excitotoxic neuronal damage. PMID:7908723

Birrell, G J; Gordon, M P; Marcoux, F W

1993-12-01

323

Advancing radiology through informed leadership: summary of the proceedings of the Seventh Biannual Symposium of the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology (IS 3 R), 23–25 August 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology (IS3R) brings together thought leaders from academia and industry from around the world to share ideas, points of view and new\\u000a knowledge. This article summarizes the main concepts presented at the 2007 IS3R symposium, providing a window onto trends shaping the future of radiology. Topics addressed include new opportunities and\\u000a challenges in

Ada Muellner; Gary M. Glazer; Maximilian F. Reiser; William G. Bradley; Gabriel P. Krestin; Hedvig Hricak; James H. Thrall

2009-01-01

324

Configurable Multi-Purpose Processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advancements in technology have allowed the miniaturization of systems used in aerospace vehicles. This technology is driven by the need for next-generation systems that provide reliable, responsive, and cost-effective range operations while providing increased capabilities such as simultaneous mission support, increased launch trajectories, improved launch, and landing opportunities, etc. Leveraging the newest technologies, the command and telemetry processor (CTP) concept provides for a compact, flexible, and integrated solution for flight command and telemetry systems and range systems. The CTP is a relatively small circuit board that serves as a processing platform for high dynamic, high vibration environments. The CTP can be reconfigured and reprogrammed, allowing it to be adapted for many different applications. The design is centered around a configurable field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device that contains numerous logic cells that can be used to implement traditional integrated circuits. The FPGA contains two PowerPC processors running the Vx-Works real-time operating system and are used to execute software programs specific to each application. The CTP was designed and developed specifically to provide telemetry functions; namely, the command processing, telemetry processing, and GPS metric tracking of a flight vehicle. However, it can be used as a general-purpose processor board to perform numerous functions implemented in either hardware or software using the FPGA s processors and/or logic cells. Functionally, the CTP was designed for range safety applications where it would ultimately become part of a vehicle s flight termination system. Consequently, the major functions of the CTP are to perform the forward link command processing, GPS metric tracking, return link telemetry data processing, error detection and correction, data encryption/ decryption, and initiate flight termination action commands. Also, the CTP had to be designed to survive and operate in a launch environment. Additionally, the CTP was designed to interface with the WFF (Wallops Flight Facility) custom-designed transceiver board which is used in the Low Cost TDRSS Transceiver (LCT2) also developed by WFF. The LCT2 s transceiver board demodulates commands received from the ground via the forward link and sends them to the CTP, where they are processed. The CTP inputs and processes data from the inertial measurement unit (IMU) and the GPS receiver board, generates status data, and then sends the data to the transceiver board where it is modulated and sent to the ground via the return link. Overall, the CTP has combined processing with the ability to interface to a GPS receiver, an IMU, and a pulse code modulation (PCM) communication link, while providing the capability to support common interfaces including Ethernet and serial interfaces boarding a relatively small-sized, lightweight package.

Valencia, J. Emilio; Forney, Chirstopher; Morrison, Robert; Birr, Richard

2010-01-01

325

MultiPurpose University High  

E-print Network

Henke Hall Tennis Courts Cooke Field Athletic/Physical Education Complex Kahanamoku Pool Dance Building Construction Edmondson Hall Art Building Hamilton Snack Bar Building 37 Krauss Hall Annex Kuykendall Hall Addition Keller Hall Physical Science Building Pacific Ocean Science Technology Kuykendall Annex Bilger

Learned, John

326

Evaluation of ischemia and myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP)  

SciTech Connect

Twenty patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) controlled by coronary arteriography (CA) and biplane left ventricular cineventriculography (LVCV) were investigated with the 15- (p[I-123]iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue. During maximal symptom limited exercise 5 mCi (200 MBq) of BMIPP were injected followed by two SPECT studies within three hours. After another 30 min, with the patient at rest a third SPECT was performed after reinjection of 3 mCi (100 MBq) BMIPP. Visual inspection of the short and long axis slices and quantitative comparison of the short axis slices of the tomograms were performed to grade BMIPP uptake and refill and detect turnover abnormalities. These were addressed either as scar or as ischemia and compared to CA and a graded score of regional wall motion by LVCV which provided values for sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) to detect CAD. Fifteen infarctions had corresponded clinical, angiographic and scintigraphic findings in 93%.

Kropp, J.; Joergens, M.; Glaenzer, K.P.; Luederitz, B.; Biersack, H.J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-10-01

327

Computational Analysis of mRNA Expression Profiles Identifies the ITG Family and PIK3R3 as Crucial Genes for Regulating Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu). TNBC has worse clinical outcomes than other breast cancer subtypes. However, the key molecules and mechanisms of TNBC migration remain unclear. In this study, we compared two normalized microarray datasets from GEO database between Asian (GSE33926) and non-Asian populations (GSE46581) to determine the molecules and common pathways in TNBC migration. We demonstrated that 16 genes in non-Asian samples and 9 genes in Asian samples are related to TNBC migration. In addition, our analytic results showed that 4 genes, PIK3R3, ITGB1, ITGAL, and ITGA6, were involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Our results indicated potential genes that link to TNBC migration. This study may help identify novel therapeutic targets for drug development in cancer therapy. PMID:24982892

Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Wei-Chiao

2014-01-01

328

Tissue-Specific Differences in the Spatial Interposition of X-Chromosome and 3R Chromosome Regions in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles messeae Fall.  

PubMed Central

Spatial organization of a chromosome in a nucleus is very important in biology but many aspects of it are still generally unresolved. We focused on tissue-specific features of chromosome architecture in closely related malaria mosquitoes, which have essential inter-specific differences in polytene chromosome attachments in nurse cells. We showed that the region responsible for X-chromosome attachment interacts with nuclear lamina stronger in nurse cells, then in salivary glands cells in Anopheles messeae Fall. The inter-tissue differences were demonstrated more convincingly in an experiment of two distinct chromosomes interposition in the nucleus space of cells from four tissues. Microdissected DNA-probes from nurse cells X-chromosome (2BC) and 3R chromosomes (32D) attachment regions were hybridized with intact nuclei of nurse cells, salivary gland cells, follicle epithelium cells and imaginal dis?s cells in 3D-FISH experiments. We showed that only salivary gland cells and follicle epithelium cells have no statistical differences in the interposition of 2BC and 32D. Generally, the X-chromosome and 3R chromosome are located closer to each other in cells of the somatic system in comparison with nurse cells on average. The imaginal dis?s cell nuclei have an intermediate arrangement of chromosome interposition, similar to other somatic cells and nurse cells. In spite of species-specific chromosome attachments there are no differences in interposition of nurse cells chromosomes in An. messeae and An. atroparvus Thiel. Nurse cells have an unusual chromosome arrangement without a chromocenter, which could be due to the special mission of generative system cells in ontogenesis and evolution. PMID:25671311

Artemov, Gleb; Bondarenko, Semen; Sapunov, Gleb; Stegniy, Vladimir

2015-01-01

329

Application of a novel integrated toxicity testing strategy incorporating "3R" principles of animal research to evaluate the safety of a new agrochemical sulfoxaflor.  

PubMed

Plant protection products (PPPs) and the active substance(s) contained within them are rigorously and comprehensively tested prior to registration to ensure that human health is not impacted by their use. In recent years, there has been a widespread drive to have more relevant testing strategies (e.g., ILSI/HESI-ACSA and new EU Directives), which also take account of animal welfare, including the 3R (replacement, refinement, and reduction) principles. The toxicity potential of one such new active substance, sulfoxaflor, a sulfoximine insecticide (CAS #946578-00-3), was evaluated utilizing innovative testing strategies comprising: (1) an integrated testing scheme to optimize information obtained from as few animals as possible (i.e., 3R principles) through modifications of standard protocols, such as enhanced palatability study design, to include molecular endpoints, additional neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity parameters in a subchronic toxicity study, and combining multiple test guidelines into one study protocol; (2) generation of toxicokinetic data across dose levels, sexes, study durations, species, strains and life stages, without using satellite animals, which was a first for PPP development, and (3) addition of prospective mode of action (MoA) endpoints within repeat dose toxicity studies as well as proactive inclusion of specific MoA studies as an integral part of the development program. These novel approaches to generate key data early in the safety evaluation program facilitated informed decision-making on the need for additional studies and contributed to a more relevant human health risk assessment. This supplement also contains papers which describe in more detail the approach taken to establish the MoA and human relevance framework related to toxicities elicited by sulfoxaflor in the mammalian toxicology studies: developmental toxicity in rats mediated via the fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ( Ellis-Hutchings et al. 2014 ); liver tumors in rodents mediated via CAR/PXR ( LeBaron et al. 2014 ); and Leydig cell tumors in Fischer 344 rats ( Rasoulpour et al. 2014 ). PMID:24832550

Terry, Claire; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Saghir, Shakil; Marty, Sue; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Billington, Richard

2014-05-01

330

De novo germline and postzygotic mutations in AKT3, PIK3R2 and PIK3CA cause a spectrum of related megalencephaly syndromes  

PubMed Central

Megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) and megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus (MPPH) syndromes are sporadic overgrowth disorders associated with markedly enlarged brain size and other recognizable features1-5. We performed exome sequencing in three families with MCAP or MPPH and confirmed our initial observations in exomes from 7 MCAP and 174 control individuals, as well as in 40 additional megalencephaly subjects using a combination of Sanger sequencing, restriction-enzyme assays, and targeted deep sequencing. We identified de novo germline or postzygotic mutations in three core components of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. These include two mutations of AKT3, one recurrent mutation of PIK3R2 in 11 unrelated MPPH families, and 15 mostly postzygotic mutations of PIK3CA in 23 MCAP and one MPPH patients. Our data highlight the central role of PI3K/AKT signaling in vascular, limb and brain development, and emphasize the power of massively parallel sequencing in a challenging context of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity combined with postzygotic mosaicism. PMID:22729224

Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; O’Roak, Brian J.; Beddaoui, Margaret; Alcantara, Diana; Conway, Robert L.; St-Onge, Judith; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A.; Gripp, Karen W.; Nikkel, Sarah M.; Worthylake, Thea; Sullivan, Christopher T.; Ward, Thomas R.; Butler, Hailly E.; Kramer, Nancy A.; Albrecht, Beate; Armour, Christine M.; Armstrong, Linlea; Caluseriu, Oana; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Drolet, Beth A.; Innes, A. Micheil; Lauzon, Julie L.; Lin, Angela E.; Mancini, Grazia M. S.; Meschino, Wendy S.; Reggin, James D.; Saggar, Anand K.; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Uyanik, Gökhan; Weksberg, Rosanna; Zirn, Birgit; Beaulieu, Chandree L.; Majewski, Jacek; Bulman, Dennis E.; O’Driscoll, Mark; Shendure, Jay; Graham, John M.; Boycott, Kym M.; Dobyns, William B.

2012-01-01

331

Inhibition of human pyridoxal kinase by 2-acetyl-4-((1R,2S,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI).  

PubMed

Abstract 2-Acetyl-4-((1R,2S,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI) is observed as a minor contaminant in caramel food colourings (E?150c). Feeding experiments with rodents have revealed a significant lymphopenic effect that has been linked to the presence of THI in these food colourings. Pyridoxal kinase inhibition by THI has been suggested, but not demonstrated, as a mode of action as it leads to lowered levels of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, which are known to cause lymphopenia. Recently, THI was also shown to inhibit sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase causing comparable immunosuppressive effects and derivatives of THI are being developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in humans. Interestingly, sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase activity depends on pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, which in turn is provided by pyridoxal kinase. This report shows that THI does inhibit pyridoxal kinase with competitive and mixed-type non-competitive behaviour towards its two substrates, pyridoxal and ATP, respectively. The corresponding inhibition constants are in the low millimolar range. PMID:24899377

Elsinghorst, Paul W; di Salvo, Martino L; Parroni, Alessia; Contestabile, Roberto

2014-06-01

332

Raman spectra of R{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R—rare earth) sesquioxides with C-type bixbyite crystal structure: A comparative study  

SciTech Connect

Raman spectra of R{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R—Sc, Er, Y, Ho, Gd, Eu, and Sm) powders with C-type bixbyite crystal structure are measured. With the help of these data and ones, previously published for other oxides from the same structural family, general dependencies of the frequencies of the Raman peaks on the cubic crystal unit cell parameter are constructed. Using these dependencies and knowing the symmetry of the peaks for one of the oxides, determined from previous single-crystal measurements, it is possible to find out the symmetry of the peaks from the spectra of all compounds. It was found that the frequency of the six lowest frequency peaks scales with the square root of the mass of the rare earth showing that mainly R ions take part in these vibrations. These results agree with performed here lattice dynamical calculations. The anomalous softening of the frequency of some peaks in the spectra of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} is discussed.

Abrashev, M. V., E-mail: mvabr@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Todorov, N. D. [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Geshev, J. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

2014-09-14

333

A study on adatom transport through (?3 × ?3)-R30°-CH3S self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) using first principles calculations.  

PubMed

Self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) have outstanding chemical, electrical, and optical properties, and Au adatoms seem to play a key role in these properties. Still, the fundamental understanding of adatom transport inside the self-assembled structure is very thin. In this paper we use first-principles calculations to reveal new details about the migration mechanism of Au adatoms in the presence of a CH3S self-assembled structure on Au(111). We study the inclusion of Au adatoms inside a well-packed (?3 × ?3)-R30°-CH3S self-assembled lattice and present atomistic models supporting adatom migration by means of a hopping mechanism between pairs of CH3S species. Our calculations reveal that the transport of Au adatoms is slowed down inside the molecular network where the kinetic barrier for adatom migration is larger than on the clean Au surface. We attribute the hindered mobility of Au adatoms to the fact that adatom transport involves the breaking and making of Au-S bonds. Our results form a basis for further understanding the role played by defect transport in the properties of molecular assemblies. PMID:25248932

Paulius, D; Torres, D; Illas, F; Archibald, W E

2014-11-14

334

Environmental, Health and Safety Assessment: ATS 7H Program (Phase 3R) Test Activities at the GE Power Systems Gas Turbine Manufacturing Facility, Greenville, SC  

SciTech Connect

International Technology Corporation (IT) was contracted by General Electric Company (GE) to assist in the preparation of an Environmental, Health and Safety (HI&3) assessment of the implementation of Phase 3R of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) 7H program at the GE Gas Turbines facility located in Greenville, South Carolina. The assessment was prepared in accordance with GE's contractual agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (GE/DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-95MC3 1176) and supports compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. This report provides a summary of the EH&S review and includes the following: General description of current site operations and EH&S status, Description of proposed ATS 7H-related activities and discussion of the resulting environmental, health, safety and other impacts to the site and surrounding area. Listing of permits and/or licenses required to comply with federal, state and local regulations for proposed 7H-related activities. Assessment of adequacy of current and required permits, licenses, programs and/or plans.

None

1998-11-17

335

Isotopologue profiling of triterpene formation under physiological conditions. Biosynthesis of lupeol-3-(3'-R-hydroxy)-stearate in Pentalinon andrieuxii.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis of lupeol-3-(3'R-hydroxy)-stearate (procrim b, 1) was investigated in the Mexican medicinal plant Pentalinon andrieuxii by (13)CO2 pulse-chase experiments. NMR analyses revealed positional enrichments of (13)C2-isotopologues in both the triterpenoid and the hydroxystearate moieties of 1. Five of the six isoprene units reflected a pattern with [1,2-(13)C2]- and [3,5-(13)C2]-isotopologues from the respective C5-precursors, IPP and DMAPP, whereas one isoprene unit in the ring E of 1 showed only the [3,5-(13)C2]-connectivity of the original C5-precursor, due to rearrangement of the dammarenyl cation intermediate during the cyclization process. The presence of (13)C2-isotopologues was indicative of [(13)C2]acetyl-CoA being the precursor units in the formation of the fatty acid moiety and of the triterpene via the mevalonate route. The observed labeling pattern was in agreement with a chair-chair-chair-boat conformation of the (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene precursor during the cyclization process, suggesting that the lupeol synthase from P. andrieuxii is of the same type as that from Olea europea and Taraxacum officinale, but different from that of Arabidopsis thaliana. The study shows that (13)CO2 pulse-chase experiments are powerful in elucidating, under in vivo conditions and in a single experiment, the biosynthesis of complex plant products including higher terpenes. PMID:24606167

Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M; Yam-Puc, Alejandro; Knispel, Nihat; Schramek, Nicholas; Huber, Claudia; Graßberger, Christoph; Ramírez-Torres, Fabiola G; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Hiebert-Giesbrecht, Mickel R; Chan-Bacab, Manuel J; Godoy-Hernández, Gregorio; Bacher, Adelbert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

2014-04-01

336

Theoretical studies of strongly correlated rare-earth intermetallics RIn{sub 3} and RSn{sub 3} (R?=?Sm, Eu, and Gd)  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of RIn{sub 3} and RSn{sub 3} (R = Sm, Eu, Gd) compounds have been investigated using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method within the density functional theory. The structural properties are investigated using the LDA, GGA, and the band correlated LDA+U and GGA+U schemes. The lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental results and the divalent state of Eu is also verified. The spin-orbit coupling is included in order to predict the correct electronic properties and splitting of 4f states of the rare earth elements is also incorporated. We calculated Bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, anisotropic ratio, Kleinman parameters, Poisson's ratio, Lame's co-efficient, sound velocities for shear and longitudinal waves, and Debye temperature. We also predict the Cauchy pressure and B/G ratio in order to explore the ductile and brittle behaviors of these compounds.

Shafiq, M.; Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: ahma5532@gmail.com, E-mail: dr.iftikhar@uom.edu.pk [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Jalali Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Hezar Gerib Avenue, Isfahan 81744 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-09-14

337

Metabolic engineering of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain capable of simultaneously utilizing glucose and galactose to produce enantiopure (2R,3R)-butanediol.  

PubMed

2,3-Butanediol (BDO) is an important chemical with broad industrial applications and can be naturally produced by many bacteria at high levels. However, the pathogenicity of these native producers is a major obstacle for large scale production. Here we report the engineering of an industrially friendly host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce BDO at high titer and yield. By inactivation of pyruvate decarboxylases (PDCs) followed by overexpression of MTH1 and adaptive evolution, the resultant yeast grew on glucose as the sole carbon source with ethanol production completely eliminated. Moreover, the pdc- strain consumed glucose and galactose simultaneously, which to our knowledge is unprecedented in S. cerevisiae strains. Subsequent introduction of a BDO biosynthetic pathway consisting of the cytosolic acetolactate synthase (cytoILV2), Bacillus subtilis acetolactate decarboxylase (BsAlsD), and the endogenous butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH1) resulted in the production of enantiopure (2R,3R)-butanediol (R-BDO). In shake flask fermentation, a yield over 70% of the theoretical value was achieved. Using fed-batch fermentation, more than 100g/L R-BDO (1100mM) was synthesized from a mixture of glucose and galactose, two major carbohydrate components in red algae. The high titer and yield of the enantiopure R-BDO produced as well as the ability to co-ferment glucose and galactose make our engineered yeast strain a superior host for cost-effective production of bio-based BDO from renewable resources. PMID:24525332

Lian, Jiazhang; Chao, Ran; Zhao, Huimin

2014-05-01

338

LANGMUIR TURBULENCE AND SOLAR RADIO BURSTS F. B. RIZZATO1,2, A. C.-L. CHIAN2,3, M. V. ALVES3, R. ERICHSEN1, S. R. LOPES4,  

E-print Network

populations of Lagmuir waves traveling in opposite directions with different amplitudes. 2. A Theory of the Fundamental Plasma Emission of Type-III Solar Radio Bursts The nonlinear coupling of Langmuir waves (LLANGMUIR TURBULENCE AND SOLAR RADIO BURSTS F. B. RIZZATO1,2, A. C.-L. CHIAN2,3, M. V. ALVES3, R

339

Synthesis of New 6-{[?-(Dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones and Evaluation of their Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activities  

PubMed Central

Several novel 6-thio-3-R-2-oxo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-based compounds containing an ?-(dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)]alkyl fragment were synthesized to examine their anticancer activity. Some of the 6-{[?-(hetero-cyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (3.1–3.10) were obtained by the nucleophilic substitution of 6-[?-halogenalkyl]thio-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (2.1–2.8) with azaheterocycles. Alternatively, compounds 3.1–3.22 were synthesized by alkylation of 3-R-6-thio-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones potassium salts (1.1–1.4) with (2-chloroethyl)-N,N-dialkylamine hydrochlorides or 1-(2-chloroethyl)heterocycle hydrochlorides. The structures of compounds were elucidated by 1H, 13C NMR, LC–MS and EI-MS analysis. Then anticancer and antibacterial, bioluminescence inhibition of Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 activities of the substances were tested in vitro. It was found that compound 3.18 possessed a wide range of anticancer activity against 27 cell lines of cancer: non-small cell lung, colon, CNS, ovarian, renal, prostate, breast, melanoma and leukemia (log GI50 < ?5.65). The “structure-activity” relationship was discussed. COMPARE analysis for synthesized anticancer active compounds was performed. PMID:22396903

Berest, Galina G.; Voskoboynik, Olexiy Y.; Kovalenko, Sergiy I.; Nosulenko, Inna S.; Antypenko, Lyudmyla M.; Antypenko, Olexii M.; Shvets, Volodymyr M.; Katsev, Andriy M.

2012-01-01

340

Synthesis, structures and reactions of lithium complexes of [(o-RCHC6H4)PPh2=NSiMe3]-(R = H, SiMe3) ligands.  

PubMed

N-Trimethylsilyl o-methylphenyldiphenylphosphinimine, (o-MeC6H4)PPh2=NSiMe3 (1), was prepared by reaction of Ph2P(Br)=NSiMe3 with o-methylphenyllithium. Treatment of 1 with LiBun and then Me3SiCl afforded (o-Me3SiCH2C6H4)PPh2=NSiMe3 (2). Lithiations of both 1 and 2 with LiBu(n) in the presence of tmen gave crystalline lithium complexes [Li{CH(R)C6H4(PPh(2=NSiMe3)-.tmen](3, R = H; 4, R = SiMe3). From the mother liquor of 4, traces of the tmen-bridged complex [Li{CH(SiMe3)C6H4(PPh2=NSiMe3)-2}]2(mu-tmen) (5) were obtained. Reaction of 2 with LiBun in Et2O yielded complex [Li{CH(SiMe3)C6H4(PPh2=NSiMe3)-2}.OEt2] (6). Reaction of lithiated with Me2SiCl2 in a 2:1 molar ratio afforded dimethylsilyl-bridged compound Me2Si[CH2C6H4(PPh2=NSiMe3)-2]2 (7). Lithiation of 7 with two equivalents of LiBun in Et2O yielded [Li2{(CHC6H4(PPh2=NSiMe3)-2)2SiMe2}.0.5OEt2](8.0.5OEt2). Treatment of 4 with PhCN formed a lithium enamide complex [Li{N(SiMe3)C(Ph)CHC6H4(PPh2=NSiMe3)-2}.tmen] (9). Reaction of two equivalents of 5 with 1,4-dicyanobenzene gave a dilithium complex [{Li(OEt2)2}2(1,4-{C(N(SiMe3)CHC6H4(PPh2=NSiMe3)-2}2C6H4)] (10). All compounds were characterised by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analyses. The structures of compounds 2, 3, 5, 6 and 9 have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. PMID:15726156

Wang, Zhong-Xia; Qi, Chun-Yan

2005-03-01

341

Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of [3R,5S,6S]-3-Benzyloxy-5- methoxy-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane and [3R,5S,6S]-3-Methoxy-5-benzyloxy-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane.  

PubMed

The synthesis of spiroacetals [3R,5S,6S]-3-benzyloxy-5-methoxy-1,7-dioaxaspiro[5.5]undecane 3 and [3R,5S,6S]-3-methoxy-5-benzyloxy-1,7-dioaxaspiro[5.5]undecane4, where the substituents on the spiroacetal assembly are in a 1,3-diaxial orientation, is described. Epoxidation of unsaturated spiroacetal 5 using dimethyldioxirane showed greater preference for the alpha-epoxide 11 over the beta-epoxide 12. Treatment of the alpha-epoxide 11 with lithium diethylamide in tetrahydrofuran afforded both the allylic alcohol 7 and the homoallylic alcohol 13 in approximately equal amounts. Use of a nonpolar solvent (hexane) suppressed the isomerization of the allylic alcohol 7 to the homoallylic alcohol 13, affording a 21:1 ratio of 7:13. Coordination of an oxygen lone pair with the electron-deficient lithium center of the reagent sets up a transition state in which abstraction of a syn-proton and opening of the epoxide leads to stereoselective formation of allylic alcohol 7 with a pseudoaxial hydroxyl group at C-5. The hydroxyl group liberated in the epoxide rearrangement step was then used to direct a second epoxidation to the lower face of the alkene. Thus, treatment of alcohol 7 with m-CPBA buffered with sodium acetate afforded alpha-syn-epoxy alcohol 9. Subsequent epoxide opening using lithium aluminum hydride proceeded smoothly, affording syn-3,5-diaxial diol 10 and 4,5-diol 22. Epoxy alcohol 9 was then treated with sodium hydride and methyl iodide or benzyl bromide, affording methyl ether 23 or benzyl ether 24, respectively. Reduction of methoxy epoxide 23 with lithium aluminum hydride then afforded alcohol 25 together with the regioisomeric alcohol 27. Benzyloxy epoxide 24 afforded alcohols 29 and 31. Finally benzylation of alcohol 25 afforded bis-ether 3 whereas methylation of alcohol 29 afforded bis-ether 4. Spiroacetals 3 and 4were screened for herbicidal activity and exhibited significant activity against the weeds Avena fatua, Setaria viridis, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Chenopodium album when applied preemergence. Bis-ethers 3 and 4, which contain alkoxy groups anchored in a 1,3-diaxial orientation on a spiroacetal ring, represent the first examples of herbicides based on a spiroacetal ring system. PMID:11672035

Brimble, Margaret A.; Johnston, Andrew D.; Furneaux, Richard H.

1998-02-01

342

Effect of adenine sulphate interaction on growth and development of shoot regeneration and inhibition of shoot tip necrosis under in vitro condition in adult Syzygium cumini L.--a multipurpose tree.  

PubMed

An efficient method for cloning Syzygium cumini (above 40 years old) through mature nodal segments has been successfully developed and that could be exploited for large-scale production of this valuable multipurpose tree. Nodal segments from mature tree were taken as explants and cultured on MS basal medium with different cytokinins (BA, Kin, AdS). The application of BA proved to be the best responsive cytokinin for the induction of shoot buds and shoots, but the proliferated shoots exhibited slower and stunted growth accompanied with abscission of leaves and shoot tip necrosis (STN). The problem of leaf abscission and STN was considerably reduced by the application of an adjuvant, adenine sulphate (AdS) in the optimal medium which led to the production of a maximum of 14 shoots. Further improvement in shoot bud regeneration and improved growth pattern of the regenerating tissue was obtained on the media comprised of MS?+?BA (10 ?M)?+?GA3 (2.5 ?M). A total number of 15 shoots with mean shoot length of 5.9 cm was obtained. The healthy elongated shoots were then rooted on MS basal augmented with NAA (5 ?M). The plantlets obtained were healthy and were successfully acclimatized and transferred under field condition with 70 % survival rate. PMID:24682901

Naaz, Afshan; Shahzad, Anwar; Anis, Mohammad

2014-05-01

343

Interaction of 2-APB, dantrolene, and TDMT with IP3R and RyR modulates ER stress-induced programmed cell death I and II in neuron-like PC12 cells: an experimental and computational investigation.  

PubMed

Ca(2+) is an essential second messenger, playing a fundamental role in maintaining cell viability and neuronal activity. Two specific endoplasmic reticulum calcium channels, ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) play an important role in Ca(2+) regulation. In the present study, we provided a 3D structure of RyR and IP3R by homology modeling, and we predicted their interactions with a known neuroprotective compound, 3-thiomethyl-5,6-(dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazine (TDMT), as well as two inhibitors, dantrolene and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). Interestingly, we found that dantrolene and 2-APB can bind to the IP3-binding domain of IP3R and RyR, while TDMT may directly block both channels by interacting with the putative resident domains in the pore. Cell culture experiments showed that these compounds could protect PC12 cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis and activate autophagic pathways. Collectively, our computational (in silico) and cell culture studies suggest that RyR and IP3R are novel and promising targets to be used against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23829337

Ansari, Niloufar; Hadi-Alijanvand, Hamid; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Kiaei, Mahmoud; Khodagholi, Fariba

2014-01-01

344

The first protein crystal structure determined from high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction data: a variant of T3R3 human insulin-zinc complex produced by grinding.  

PubMed

X-ray diffraction analysis of protein structure is often limited by the availability of suitable crystals. However, the absence of single crystals need not present an insurmountable obstacle in protein crystallography any more than it does in materials science, where powder diffraction techniques have developed to the point where complex oxide, zeolite and small organic molecular structures can often be solved from powder data alone. Here, that fact is demonstrated with the structure solution and refinement of a new variant of the T(3)R(3) Zn-human insulin complex produced by mechanical grinding of a polycrystalline sample. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data were used to solve this crystal structure by molecular replacement adapted for Rietveld refinement. A complete Rietveld refinement of the 1630-atom protein was achieved by combining 7981 stereochemical restraints with a 4800-step (d(min) = 3.24 A) powder diffraction pattern and yielded the residuals R(wp) = 3.73%, R(p) = 2.84%, R(F)(2) = 8.25%. It was determined that the grinding-induced phase change is accompanied by 9.5 and 17.2 degrees rotations of the two T(3)R(3) complexes that comprise the crystal structure. The material reverts over 2-3 d to recover the original T(3)R(3) crystal structure. A Rietveld refinement of this 815-atom protein by combining 3886 stereochemical restraints with a 6000-step (d(min) = 3.06 A) powder diffraction pattern yielded the residuals R(wp) = 3.46%, R(p) = 2.64%, R(F)(2) = 7.10%. The demonstrated ability to solve and refine a protein crystal structure from powder diffraction data suggests that this approach can be employed, for example, to examine structural changes in a series of protein derivatives in which the structure of one member is known from a single-crystal study. PMID:11092920

Von Dreele, R B; Stephens, P W; Smith, G D; Blessing, R H

2000-12-01

345

Band-gap variation in RScO3 (R=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy): X-ray absorption and O K-edge x-ray emission spectroscopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of rare-earth scandates RScO3 (R: newly studied Pr, Nd, Eu, and Tb, compared with previously studied Sm, Gd, and Dy) was analyzed by a combined use of O K absorption and emission spectroscopies and Sc L-edge absorption spectroscopy. This permitted the estimation of band gaps by use of a method that differed from optical measurements. The band-gap variation over the series in dependence on the rare-earth ion is analyzed, and a correlation between the Sc-O mean distance and the band gap is found and discussed.

Derks, C.; Kuepper, K.; Raekers, M.; Postnikov, A. V.; Uecker, R.; Yang, W. L.; Neumann, M.

2012-10-01

346

Ruthenium-Catalyzed Asymmetric N-Demethylative Rearrangement of Isoxazolidines and Its Application in the Asymmetric Total Syntheses of (-)-(1R,3S)-HPA-12 and (+)-(1S,3R)-HPA-12.  

PubMed

An asymmetric N-demethylative rearrangement of 1,2-isoxazolidines catalyzed by ruthenium is described. Enantioenriched syn-1,3-aminoalcohols as well as cis-1,3-oxazinanes, which are useful building blocks, can be efficiently prepared stereospecifically by this reaction in good yields, via the isoxazolidine intermediates in situ generated from a nitrone bearing a chiral auxiliary and styrenes. This asymmetric reaction was also applied in the asymmetric total syntheses of both (-)-(1R,3S)-HPA-12 and (+)-(1S,3R)-HPA-12. PMID:25423582

Xiao, Zu-Feng; Yao, Chuan-Zhi; Kang, Yan-Biao

2014-12-19

347

A Post-Burst Afterdepolarization Is Mediated by Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Upregulation of Cav2.3 R-Type Calcium Channels in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons  

PubMed Central

Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (subtypes mGluR1 and mGluR5) regulates neural activity in a variety of ways. In CA1 pyramidal neurons, activation of group I mGluRs eliminates the post-burst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and produces an afterdepolarization (ADP) in its place. Here we show that upregulation of Cav2.3 R-type calcium channels is responsible for a component of the ADP lasting several hundred milliseconds. This medium-duration ADP is rapidly and reversibly induced by activation of mGluR5 and requires activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and release of calcium from internal stores. Effects of mGluR activation on subthreshold membrane potential changes are negligible but are large following action potential firing. Furthermore, the medium ADP exhibits a biphasic activity dependence consisting of short-term facilitation and longer-term inhibition. These findings suggest that mGluRs may dramatically alter the firing of CA1 pyramidal neurons via a complex, activity-dependent modulation of Cav2.3 R-type channels that are activated during spiking at physiologically relevant rates and patterns. PMID:21103408

Park, Jin-Yong; Remy, Stefan; Varela, Juan; Cooper, Donald C.; Chung, Sungkwon; Kang, Ho-Won; Lee, Jung-Ha; Spruston, Nelson

2010-01-01

348

Cost-reducing multipurpose microfilm card  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microfilm-aperture card is printed in the same format on both sides which enables the use of one card for mounting films that are ''right reading'' on both the base side and the emulsion side. This reduces the number of microfilm-card formats.

Smith, A. V.

1970-01-01

349

Stormwater management and multipurpose infrastructure networks  

E-print Network

In urban planning and design, natural systems are a key element of explorations about how to design for sustainability. As part of these efforts, academics and practitioners have also begun to explore the ways in which the ...

Vecchio, Ann-Ariel (Ann-Ariel Nichiko)

2012-01-01

350

PAG--a multipurpose transmembrane adaptor protein.  

PubMed

Phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (PAG), also known as Csk-binding protein (Cbp), is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane adaptor protein present in lipid rafts and involved in a number of signaling pathways. It helps recruit cytoplasmic C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) to lipid raft-associated Src kinases, mediates a link to actin cytoskeleton and interacts with several other important cytoplasmic and plasma membrane-associated proteins. In recent years, PAG has been implicated in various aspects of cancer cell biology. Our review covers all so far published data on this interesting protein. PMID:24213579

Hrdinka, M; Horejsi, V

2014-10-01

351

THE CIRCUMFUSION SYSTEM FOR MULTIPURPOSE CULTURE CHAMBERS  

PubMed Central

A self-contained mechanical system for circulating nutrient fluid through 12 tissue culture chambers is described in detail. This system utilizes nonperforated cellophane membranes in the chambers which separate the circulating nutrient from the tissue culture environments. The nutrient, therefore, is dialyzed through the cellophane of each chamber; some cell products are retained in the microenvironment between the closely apposed cellophane and cover slip, whereas the other cell products move from chamber to chamber in the circulating nutrient. The resultant environmental conditions directed by the circumfusion systems are highly favorable for maintaining the differentiation of chick embryo tissues over protracted periods; a number of micrographs are shown. PMID:10976203

Rose, George G.

1967-01-01

352

Spacecraft design project multipurpose satellite bus MPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thrust of this project was to design not a single spacecraft, but to design a multimission bus capable of supporting several current payloads and unnamed, unspecified future payloads. Spiraling costs of spacecraft and shrinking defense budgets necessitated a fresh look at the feasibility of a multimission spacecraft bus. The design team chose two very diverse and different payloads, and along with them two vastly different orbits, to show that multimission spacecraft buses are an area where indeed more research and effort needs to be made. Tradeoffs, of course, were made throughout the design, but optimization of subsystem components limited weight and volume penalties, performance degradation, and reliability concerns. Simplicity was chosen over more complex, sophisticated and usually more efficient designs. Cost of individual subsystem components was not a primary concern in the design phase, but every effort was made to chose flight tested and flight proven hardware. Significant cost savings could be realized if a standard spacecraft bus was indeed designed and purchased in finite quantities.

Kellman, Lyle; Riley, John; Szostak, Michael; Watkins, Joseph; Willhelm, Joseph; Yale, Gary

1990-01-01

353

A Multipurpose Four-Channel Fluid Swivel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the construction of a functional quadruple fluid swivel with low propensity to leaking and low resistance to rotation. It was obtained through the addition of a fourth channel and some modifications performed on the rotary unit of a triple channel fluid swivel recently described. Those modifications included alterations of the Touhey–Borst adapter (Becton-Dickinson), and the development of

Marco A Parada; Marina Puig de Parada; Luis Hernandez; Euro Murzi; Bartley Hoebel

1998-01-01

354

A multipurpose four-channel fluid swivel.  

PubMed

This article describes the construction of a functional quadruple fluid swivel with low propensity to leaking and low resistance to rotation. It was obtained through the addition of a fourth channel and some modifications performed on the rotary unit of a triple channel fluid swivel recently described. Those modifications included alterations of the Touhey-Borst adapter (Becton-Dickinson), and the development of a new method of fixation of the rotary tubes to the rotary unit of the swivel using nuts and screws. With those improvements the former swivel was transformed in a still more versatile device that can be used in experimental designs requiring the use of this relatively high number of channels. It can be used, for instance, in simultaneous off-line brain microdialysis of up to four different areas or on-line brain microdialysis in two areas; in push-pull perfusions of two brain regions; in studies determining the neuropharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of any compound and combining continuous drug infusion through one channel, double brain microdialysis to describe the distribution characteristics of the drug into the central nervous system as well as to monitor the neurochemical modifications induced by the drug, and continuous plasma sampling to know the plasma pharmacokinetics of the drug. These and several other methods used in neuroscience research can also be combined using the swivel described here. PMID:9434212

Parada, M A; Puig de Parada, M P; Hernandez, L; Murzi, E; Hoebel, B

1998-01-01

355

Embedding 3D into multipurpose cadastre  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubt that the cadastral map provides a useful entrance to information in a land parcel based information system. However, such information system could be made more meaningful and useful if it can be extended for multiple usages with multi data layers, and in three-dimensions (3D). Currently, many national mapping and cadastral agencies (NMCAs) and users deal with

A. A. Rahman; T. C. Hua; P. J. M. Van Oosterom

2011-01-01

356

Advanced Multipurpose Rendezvous Tracking System Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rendezvous and docking (R&D) sensors needed to support Earth orbital operations of vehicles were investigated to determine the form they should take. An R&D sensor must enable an interceptor vehicle to determine both the relative position and the relative attitude of a target vehicle. Relative position determination is fairly straightforward and places few constraints on the sensor. Relative attitude determination, however, is more difficult. The attitude is calculated based on relative position measurements of several reflectors placed in a known arrangement on the target vehicle. The constraints imposed on the sensor by the attitude determination method are severe. Narrow beamwidth, wide field of view (fov), high range accuracy, and fast random scan capability are all required to determine attitude by this method. A consideration of these constraints as well as others imposed by expected operating conditions and the available technology led to the conclusion that the sensor should be a cw optical radar employing a semiconductor laser transmitter and an image dissector receiver.

Laurie, R. J.; Sterzer, F.

1982-01-01

357

7 CFR 2902.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a...composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers or other solids, or other thickeners, are not...

2011-01-01

358

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a...composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers or other solids, or other thickeners, are not...

2014-01-01

359

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a...composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers or other solids, or other thickeners, are not...

2013-01-01

360

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a...composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers or other solids, or other thickeners, are not...

2012-01-01

361

Dual-Channel Multi-Purpose Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual-channel telescope allows for a wide-field telescope design wit h a good, narrow field channel of fewer surfaces for shorter-wavelen gth or planet-finding applications. The design starts with a Korsch three-mirror-anastigmat (TMA) telescope that meets the mission criter ia for image quality over a wide field of view. The internal image a t the Cassegrain focus is typically blurry due to the aberration bala ncing among the three mirrors. The Cassegrain focus is then re-optim ized on the axis of the system where the narrow field channel instru ment is picked off by bending the primary mirror.

Howard, Joseph M.; Content, David

2009-01-01

362

7 CFR 3201.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...items in both industrial and domestic settings. This designated item does not include products that are formulated for use as disinfectants. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a minimum biobased content of at...

2014-01-01

363

7 CFR 2902.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...items in both industrial and domestic settings. This designated item does not include products that are formulated for use as disinfectants. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a minimum biobased content of at...

2011-01-01

364

Sustainable multipurpose tree production systems for Nepal  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory is developing methods for producing reforestation plating stock, fuel, and fodder in a sustainable manner in Nepal. This project, in cooperation with the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation of Nepal, is sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID). Several production systems are being evaluated for the Mid-Hills Region of Nepal. To provide sustainable biomass production and ecological management of the fragile Mid-Hills Region, the production systems must simultaneously satisfy the physiological requirements of the plants, the symbiotic requirements of the plant and the microorganisms in its rhizosphere, the physicochemical requirements of nutrient and water cycling, and the climatic and topographic constraints.

Shen, S.Y.; Kilpatrick, K.J.

1988-03-01

365

Soy isoflavone: The multipurpose phytochemical (Review)  

PubMed Central

Soy isoflavones are compounds found in soybean and soybean products. They have been reported to possess numerous physiological properties, such as antitumor, anti-menopausal (female) osteoporosis and anti-aging. They have also been reported to improve learning and memory skills in menopausal women and aid in the prevention and treatment of heart disease, diabetes and Kawasaki disease (KD). In this review, the effects of soy isoflavones on various diseases were analyzed. Based on the analysis, it was hypothesized that the function of soybean isoflavones in the prevention and treatment of various diseases results from their phytoestrogen and antioxidant properties. However, due to their phytoestrogen properties, it is recommended that the risks of soy isoflavone intake as food and/or medical treatment be further evaluated. PMID:24649012

WANG, QINGLU; GE, XIAOYUE; TIAN, XUEWEN; ZHANG, YUJUN; ZHANG, JIE; ZHANG, PINGPING

2013-01-01

366

The solution structure of the first PHD finger of autoimmune regulator in complex with non-modified histone H3 tail reveals the antagonistic role of H3R2 methylation  

PubMed Central

Plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers are often present in chromatin-binding proteins and have been shown to bind histone H3 N-terminal tails. Mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein, which harbours two PHD fingers, cause a rare monogenic disease, autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). AIRE activates the expression of tissue-specific antigens by directly binding through its first PHD finger (AIRE-PHD1) to histone H3 tails non-methylated at K4 (H3K4me0). Here, we present the solution structure of AIRE-PHD1 in complex with H3K4me0 peptide and show that AIRE-PHD1 is a highly specialized non-modified histone H3 tail reader, as post-translational modifications of the first 10 histone H3 residues reduce binding affinity. In particular, H3R2 dimethylation abrogates AIRE-PHD1 binding in vitro and reduces the in vivo activation of AIRE target genes in HEK293 cells. The observed antagonism by R2 methylation on AIRE-PHD1 binding is unique among the H3K4me0 histone readers and represents the first case of epigenetic negative cross-talk between non-methylated H3K4 and methylated H3R2. Collectively, our results point to a very specific histone code responsible for non-modified H3 tail recognition by AIRE-PHD1 and describe at atomic level one crucial step in the molecular mechanism responsible for antigen expression in the thymus. PMID:19293276

Chignola, Francesca; Gaetani, Massimiliano; Rebane, Ana; Org, Tõnis; Mollica, Luca; Zucchelli, Chiara; Spitaleri, Andrea; Mannella, Valeria; Peterson, Pärt; Musco, Giovanna

2009-01-01

367

Modeling the combined impacts of climate and socio-economic change on water quality, availability and consumption in a multi-purpose reservoir: an application to the Xarrama basin, southern Portugal.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources sector is one of the most vulnerable to climate change. In southern Europe, an increase of water scarcity is expected, combined with a higher frequency and length of severe droughts. Water management in these regions is already a challenge, and several severe droughts occurred there during the last decades, such as the severe droughts of 2005 and 2012 in Portugal, which have highlighted existing vulnerabilities and led to the disruption of part of water supplies. Furthermore, the evolution of socio-economic conditions and even climate change could cause changes to population and land-uses, with the potential to increase pressures on existing resources. The threat of scarcer water resources highlights the need to understand these vulnerabilities and act to reduce them, adapting to the impacts of future climate and land use changes. In fact, water resources governance has been pointed as a key challenge in the present and in the future, as it builds capacity on how to deal with stress and uncertainties generated by climatic variability and global change. Project ERLAND is focused on assessing the eco-hydrological impacts of climate change in Portugal, and therefore water scarcity and droughts are an important focal point on this research. One of the study areas is the Xarrama river basin in southern Portugal, which feeds the multi-purpose Vale do Gaio reservoir used for irrigation and urban water supplies, coupled with a small hydroelectric generating capacity. Currently it experiences some water quality problems and there is already the need of water transfers from other reservoirs to maintain supplies and quality. This is combined with ongoing land-use changes, where irrigated vineyards and olive groves have started to replace traditional rainfed pastures and cereal cultivation. The exposition and vulnerability of the Xarrama basin and the Vale do Gaio reservoir is being addressed for present and future conditions. Future climate scenarios were downscaled from existing Global Circulation Model forecasts. Socioeconomic scenarios for population and land use change were downscaled from European-level forecasts based on local tendencies from recent decades. All these scenarios are being included in the SWAT eco-hydrological model; population is used as a proxy for water consumption and effluent production, while land use changes lead to different water consumptions (both before water reaches the reservoir, and from water uptakes for irrigation) and nutrient exports. The model also allows for the simplified simulation of lower water availability and nutrient inputs on water quality. This approach combines hydrologic and socioeconomic scenarios in an integrated modeling framework, which will allow an evaluation of best planning practices for land use and water management. It will present relevant data for local stakeholders and managers, while demonstrating the utility and added value of including future socioeconomic scenarios in the evaluation of global change impacts and the design of adaptation measures.

Jacinto, Rita; Nunes, João Pedro; Santos, Juliana

2014-05-01

368

C-C and C-Heteroatom Bond Dissociation Energies in CH3R?C(OH)2: Energetics for Photocatalytic Processes of Organic Diolates on TiO2 Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The bond energies of a range of gem-diols, CH3R?C(OH)2 (R? = H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO2, CF3, CH3CH2, CH3CH2CH2, CH3CH2CH2CH2, ((CH3)2)CH, (CH3)3C, ((CH3)2CH)CH2, (CH3CH2)(CH3)CH, C6H5 (CH3CH2)(CH3)CH) which serve as models for binding to a surface have been studied with density functional theory (DFT) and the molecular orbital G3(MP2) methods to provide thermodynamic data for the analysis of the photochemistry of ketones on TiO2. The ultraviolet (UV) photon-induced photodecomposition of adsorbed acetone and 3,3-dimethylbutanone on the rutile TiO2 (110) surface have been investigated with photon stimulated desorption (PSD) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The C-CH3 and C-C(R?) bond dissociation energies in CH3R?C(OH)2 were predicted, and our calculated bond dissociation energies are in excellent agreement with the available experimental values. We used a series of isodemic reactions to provide small corrections to the various bond dissociation energies. The calculated bond dissociation energies are in agreement with the observed photodissociation processes except for R? = CF3, suggesting that these processes are under thermodynamic control. For R? = CF3, reaction dynamics also play a role in determining the photodissociation mechanism. The gas phase Brönsted acidities of the gem-diols were calculated. For three molecules, R? = Cl, Br, and NO2, loss of a proton leads to the formation of a complex of acetic acid with the anion Cl-, Br-, and NO2-. The acidities of these three species are very high with the former two having acidities comparable to CF3SO3H. The ketones (R?RC(=O)) are weak Lewis acids except where addition of OH- leads to the dissociation of the complex to form an anion bonded to acetic acid, R' = NO2, Cl, and Br. The X-C bond dissociation energies for a number of X-CO2- species were calculated and these should be useful in correlating with photochemical reactivity studies.

Wang, Tsang-Hsiu; Dixon, David A.; Henderson, Michael A.

2010-08-26

369

Enantioselective Synthesis of (2R, 3S)- and (2S, 3R)-4,4,4-trifluoro-N-Fmoc-O-tert-butyl-threonine and their Racemization-free Incorporation into Oligopeptides via Solid-phase Synthesis  

PubMed Central

An efficient method for the enantioselective synthesis of (2R, 3S)- and (2S, 3R)-4,4,4-trifluoro-N-Fmoc-O-tert-butyl-threonine (tfT) on multi-gram scales was developed. Absolute configurations of the two stereoisomers were ascertained by X-ray crystallography. Racemization-free coupling conditions for the incorporation of tfT into oligopeptides were then explored. For solution-phase synthesis, tfT racemization was not an issue under conventional coupling conditions. For solid-phase synthesis, the following conditions were identified to achieve racemization-free synthesis: if tfT (3.0 eq.) was not the first amino acid to be linked to the resin (1.0 eq.), the condition is: 2.7 eq. DIC/3.0 eq. HOBt as the coupling reagent at 0 °C for 20 h; if tfT (3.0 eq.) was the first amino acid to be linked to the resin (1.0 eq.), then 1.0 eq. of CuCl2 needs to be added to the coupling reagent. PMID:17702025

Xiao, Nu; Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Yu, Y. Bruce

2010-01-01

370

Non-insulin dependent anti-diabetic activity of (2S, 3R, 4S) 4-hydroxyisoleucine of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The seeds of fenugreek, Trigonella foenum graecum, commonly used as a spice in Middle Eastern countries and widely used in south Asia and Europe, are known to have anti-diabetic properties. They contain an unusual amino acid (2S, 3R, 4S) 4-hydroxyisoleucine (4HO-Ile), so far found only in fenugreek, which has anti-diabetic properties of enhancing insulin secretion under hyperglycaemic conditions, and increasing insulin sensitivity. Here we describe for the first time the anti-diabetic activity of 4HO-Ile in a model of type I diabetes, streptozotocin-treated rats, where levels of insulin are much reduced, by 65%, compared to normal animals. Treatment of diabetic rats with daily doses of 4HO-Ile at 50 mg/kg/day for four weeks could reduce plasma glucose in the diabetic group. Moreover the high levels of lipids (cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides) and uric acid in the diabetic rats, could be restored to levels found in non-diabetic controls by the treatment with 4HO-Ile. These results demonstrate that 4HO-Ile has significant anti-diabetic activities that are independent of insulin and suggest the potential of 4HO-Ile as an adjunct to diabetes treatment and for type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes. PMID:22397995

Haeri, Mohammed R; Limaki, Hamidreza Khalatbari; White, Christopher J Branford; White, Kenneth N

2012-05-15

371

Anti-HIV Agents. Part 55: † † For part 54, see: J. Wu, S. L. Morris-Natschke and K. H. Lee, J. Chin. Chem. Soc., Submitted for publication. 3? R,4? R-Di-( O)-(?)-camphanoyl-2?,2?-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3- f]chromone (DCP), a Novel Anti-HIV agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

3?R,4?R-Di-O-(?)-camphanoyl-2?,2?-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DCP) (2) was designed and synthesized on the basis of a structure–activity relationship study of 3?R,4?R-di-O-(?)-camphanoyl-(+)-cis-khellactone DCK (1) and its analogues. DCP (2), a pyranochromone, and DCK (1), a pyranocoumarin, have different skeletons. Compound 2 showed potent in vitro inhibition of HIV-1 replication in H9 lymphocyte cells with an EC50 of 6.78×10?4 ?M and TI of 14,500. These values

Donglei Yu; Arnold Brossi; Nicole Kilgore; Carl Wild; Graham Allaway; Kuo-Hsiung Lee

2003-01-01

372

Inhibition of sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: discovery of (E)-1-(4-((1R,2S,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)ethanone oxime (LX2931) and (1R,2S,3R)-1-(2-(isoxazol-3-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)butane-1,2,3,4-tetraol (LX2932).  

PubMed

Sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) has been characterized as a novel target for the treatment of autoimmune disorders using genetic and pharmacological methods. Medicinal chemistry efforts targeting S1PL by direct in vivo evaluation of synthetic analogues of 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1(R),2(S),3(R),4-tetrahydroxybutyl)-imidazole (THI, 1) led to the discovery of 2 (LX2931) and 4 (LX2932). The immunological phenotypes observed in S1PL deficient mice were recapitulated by oral administration of 2 or 4. Oral dosing of 2 or 4 yielded a dose-dependent decrease in circulating lymphocyte numbers in multiple species and showed a therapeutic effect in rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Phase I clinical trials indicated that 2, the first clinically studied inhibitor of S1PL, produced a dose-dependent and reversible reduction of circulating lymphocytes and was well tolerated at dose levels of up to 180 mg daily. Phase II evaluation of 2 in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis is currently underway. PMID:21090716

Bagdanoff, Jeffrey T; Donoviel, Michael S; Nouraldeen, Amr; Carlsen, Marianne; Jessop, Theodore C; Tarver, James; Aleem, Saadat; Dong, Li; Zhang, Haiming; Boteju, Lakmal; Hazelwood, Jill; Yan, Jack; Bednarz, Mark; Layek, Suman; Owusu, Iris B; Gopinathan, Suma; Moran, Liam; Lai, Zhong; Kramer, Jeff; Kimball, S David; Yalamanchili, Padmaja; Heydorn, William E; Frazier, Kenny S; Brooks, Barbara; Brown, Philip; Wilson, Alan; Sonnenburg, William K; Main, Alan; Carson, Kenneth G; Oravecz, Tamas; Augeri, David J

2010-12-23

373

MicroRNA-193a-3p and -5p suppress the metastasis of human non-small-cell lung cancer by downregulating the ERBB4/PIK3R3/mTOR/S6K2 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The metastatic cascade is a complex and multistep process with many potential barriers. Recent evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, by comparing the miRNA expression profiles of SPC-A-1sci (high metastatic) and SPC-A-1 (weakly metastatic) cells, we demonstrated that the downregulation and function of miR-193a-3p and miR-193a-5p in NSCLC metastasis and the expression of these miRNAs was suppressed in NSCLC compared with corresponding non-tumorous tissues. Decreased miR-193a-3p/5p expression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, functional assays showed that the overexpression of miR-193a-3p/5p inhibited NSCLC cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and lung metastasis formation in vivo. In addition, we discovered that ERBB4 and S6K2 were the direct targets of miR-193a-3p and that PIK3R3 and mTOR were the direct targets of miR-193a-5p in NSCLC. We also observed that miR-193a-3p/5p could inactivate the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Thus, miR-193a-3p/5p functions as a tumor suppressor and has an important role in NSCLC metastasis through ERBB signaling pathway. PMID:24469061

Yu, T; Li, J; Yan, M; Liu, L; Lin, H; Zhao, F; Sun, L; Zhang, Y; Cui, Y; Zhang, F; Li, J; He, X; Yao, M

2015-01-22

374

Structure of the 1,4-Bis(2'-deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-2R,3R-butanediol Crosslink Arising from Alkylation of the Human N-ras Codon 61 by Butadiene Diepoxide†  

PubMed Central

The solution structure of the 1,4-bis(2'-deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-2R,3R-butanediol crosslink arising from N6-dA alkylation of nearest neighbor adenines by butadiene diepoxide (BDO2) was determined in the oligodeoxynucleotide 5' - d(CGGACXYGAAG)•d(CTTCTCGTCCG)-3'. This oligodeoxynucleotide contained codon 61 (underlined) of the human N-ras protooncogene. The cross link was accommodated in the major groove of duplex DNA. At the 5'-side of the crosslink there was a break in Watson-Crick base pairing at base pair X6•T17, whereas at the 3'-side of the crosslink at base pair Y7•T16, base pairing was intact. Molecular dynamics calculations carried out using a simulated annealing protocol, and restrained by a combination of 338 interproton distance restraints obtained from 1H NOESY data and 151 torsion angle restraints obtained from 1H and 31P COSY data, yielded ensembles of structures with good convergence. Helicoidal analysis indicated an increase in base pair opening at base pair X6•T17, accompanied by a shift in the phosphodiester backbone torsion angle ? P5'-O5'-C5'-C4' at nucleotide X6. The rMD calculations predicted that the DNA helix was not significantly bent by the presence of the four-carbon crosslink. This was corroborated by gel mobility assays of multimers containing non-hydroxylated four carbon N6,N6-dA crosslinks, which did not predict DNA bending. The rMD calculations suggested the presence of hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl group located on the ?-carbon of the fourcarbon crosslink, and T17 O4, which perhaps stabilized the base pair opening at X6•T17 and protected the T17 imino proton from solvent exchange. The opening of base pair X6•T17 altered base stacking patterns at the crosslink site and induced slight unwinding of the DNA duplex. The structural data are interpreted in terms of biochemical data suggesting that this crosslink is bypassed by a variety of DNA polymerases, yet is significantly mutagenic [Kanuri, M., Nechev, L. V., Tamura, P. J., Harris, C. M., Harris, T. M., and Lloyd, R. S. (2002) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 15, 1572–1580]. PMID:16042385

Merritt, W. Keither; Nechev, Lubomir V.; Scholdberg, Tandace A.; Dean, Stephen M.; Kiehna, Sarah E.; Chang, Johanna C.; Harris, Thomas M.; Harris, Constance M.; Lloyd, R. Stephen; Stone, Michael P.

2008-01-01

375

Structure of the 1,4-bis(2'-deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-2R,3R-butanediol cross-link arising from alkylation of the human N-ras codon 61 by butadiene diepoxide.  

PubMed

The solution structure of the 1,4-bis(2'-deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)-2R,3R-butanediol cross-link arising from N(6)-dA alkylation of nearest-neighbor adenines by butadiene diepoxide (BDO(2)) was determined in the oligodeoxynucleotide 5'-d(CGGACXYGAAG)-3'.5'-d(CTTCTTGTCCG)-3'. This oligodeoxynucleotide contained codon 61 (underlined) of the human N-ras protooncogene. The cross-link was accommodated in the major groove of duplex DNA. At the 5'-side of the cross-link there was a break in Watson-Crick base pairing at base pair X(6).T(17), whereas at the 3'-side of the cross-link at base pair Y(7).T(16), base pairing was intact. Molecular dynamics calculations carried out using a simulated annealing protocol, and restrained by a combination of 338 interproton distance restraints obtained from (1)H NOESY data and 151 torsion angle restraints obtained from (1)H and (31)P COSY data, yielded ensembles of structures with good convergence. Helicoidal analysis indicated an increase in base pair opening at base pair X(6).T(17), accompanied by a shift in the phosphodiester backbone torsion angle beta P5'-O5'-C5'-C4' at nucleotide X(6). The rMD calculations predicted that the DNA helix was not significantly bent by the presence of the four-carbon cross-link. This was corroborated by gel mobility assays of multimers containing nonhydroxylated four-carbon N(6),N(6)-dA cross-links, which did not predict DNA bending. The rMD calculations suggested the presence of hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl group located on the beta-carbon of the four-carbon cross-link and T(17) O(4), which perhaps stabilized the base pair opening at X(6).T(17) and protected the T(17) imino proton from solvent exchange. The opening of base pair X(6).T(17) altered base stacking patterns at the cross-link site and induced slight unwinding of the DNA duplex. The structural data are interpreted in terms of biochemical data suggesting that this cross-link is bypassed by a variety of DNA polymerases, yet is significantly mutagenic [Kanuri, M., Nechev, L. V., Tamura, P. J., Harris, C. M., Harris, T. M., and Lloyd, R. S. (2002) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 15, 1572-1580]. PMID:16042385

Merritt, W Keither; Nechev, Lubomir V; Scholdberg, Tandace A; Dean, Stephen M; Kiehna, Sarah E; Chang, Johanna C; Harris, Thomas M; Harris, Constance M; Lloyd, R Stephen; Stone, Michael P

2005-08-01

376

Theoretical study of stereoselectivity of the [1 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between (1S,3R,8S)-2,2-dichloro-3,7,7,10-tetramethyltricyclo[6,4,0,0(1.3)]dodec-9-ene and dibromocarbene using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-31G*(d).  

PubMed

In this work we used density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-31G*(d) to study the stoichiometric reaction between the product (1S,3R,8S)-2,2-dichloro-3,7,7,10-tetramethyltricyclo[6,4,0,0(1.3)]dodec-9-ene (referred to here as P1) and dibromocarbene. We have shown that P1 behaves as a nucleophile, while dibromocarbene behaves as an electrophile; that the chemical potential of dibromocarbene is superior to that of P1 in absolute terms; and that P1 reacts with an equivalent quantity of dibromocarbene to produce two products: (1S,3R,8R,9S,11R)-10,10-dibromo-2,2-dichloro-3,7,7,11-tetramethyltetracyclo[6,5,0,0(1.3),0(9.11)] tridecane (referred to here as P2) and (1S,3R,8R,9R,11S)-10,10-dibromo-2,2-dichloro-3,7,7,11-tetramethyltetracyclo[6,5,0,0(1.3),0(9.11)] tridecane (referred to here as P3). P2 and P3 are formed at the ? and ? sides, respectively, of the C2?=?C3 double bond of P1. This reaction is exothermic, stereoselective and chemospecific, and is controlled by charge transfer. Regioselectivity of the reaction was interpreted using the Lee-Yang-Parr functional. PMID:25687903

Zeroual, Abdellah; Benharref, Ahmed; El Hajbi, Abdeslam

2015-03-01

377

Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 levels in ETS emissions of a Marlboro Red cigarette in comparison to the 3R4F reference cigarette under open- and closed-door condition  

PubMed Central

Introduction Potential health damage by environmental emission of tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, ETS) has been demonstrated convincingly in numerous studies. People, especially children, are still exposed to ETS in the small space of private cars. Although major amounts of toxic compounds from ETS are likely transported into the distal lung via particulate matter (PM), few studies have quantified the amount of PM in ETS. Study aim The aim of this study was to determine the ETS-dependent concentration of PM from both a 3R4F reference cigarette (RC) as well as a Marlboro Red brand cigarette (MRC) in a small enclosed space under different conditions of ventilation to model car exposure. Method In order to create ETS reproducibly, an emitter (ETSE) was constructed and mounted on to an outdoor telephone booth with an inner volume of 1.75 m3. Cigarettes were smoked under open- and closed-door condition to imitate different ventilation scenarios. PM2.5 concentration was quantified by a laser aerosol spectrometer (Grimm; Model 1.109), and data were adjusted for baseline values. Simultaneously indoor and outdoor climate parameters were recorded. The time of smoking was divided into the ETS generation phase (subset “emission”) and a declining phase of PM concentration (subset “elimination”); measurement was terminated after 10 min. For all three time periods the average concentration of PM2.5 (Cmean-PM2.5) and the area under the PM2.5 concentration curve (AUC-PM2.5) was calculated. The maximum concentration (Cmax-PM2.5) was taken from the total interval. Results For both cigarette types open-door ventilation reduced the AUC-PM2.5 (RC: from 59 400?±?14 600 to 5 550?±?3 900 ?g*sec/m3; MRC: from 86 500?±?32 000 to 7 300?±?2 400 ?g*sec/m3; p?

2012-01-01

378

Novel trialkanolamine derivatives of tin of the type [N(CH2CMe2O)2(CH2)(n)OSnOR]m (m = 1, 2; n = 2, 3; R = t-Bu, 2,6-Me2C6H3) and related tri- and pentanuclear tin(IV) oxoclusters. Syntheses and molecular structures.  

PubMed

The syntheses of the novel alkanolamine N(CH(2)CMe(2)OH)(2)(CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)OH) (2), the novel aminotrialkoxides of tin of the type [N(CH(2)CMe(2)O)(2)(CH(2))(n)OSnOR](m) (3: m = 1, n = 2, R = t-Bu; 4: m = 2, n = 3, R = t-Bu; 5: m = n = 2, R = 2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3); 6: m = 2, n = 3, R = 2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3)) and the related trinuclear tin oxoclusters [(LSnOSnL)(LSnOR)] [L = N(CH(2)CMe(2)O)(2)(CH(2)CH(2)O), 7: R = t-Bu; 8: R = 2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3)] and the pentanuclear tin oxocluster [LSnOSn(OH)(2)OSnL·2LSnOH], [9, L = N(CH(2)CMe(2)O)(2)(CH(2)CH(2)O)] are reported. The compounds are characterized by elemental analyses, multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (119)Sn, (1)H-(1)H cosy, (1)H-(13)C HSQC) NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses (3, 4·C(7)H(8), 5, 7, 8·0.5C(7)H(8), 9·6H(2)O). PMID:23368524

Zöller, Thomas; Jurkschat, Klaus

2013-02-18

379

Examining the chirality, conformation and selective kinase inhibition of 3-((3R,4R)-4-methyl-3-(methyl(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)piperidin-1-yl)-3-oxopropanenitrile (CP-690,550).  

PubMed

Here, we examine the significance that stereochemistry plays within the clinically relevant Janus kinase 3 (Jak3) inhibitor 1 (CP-690,550). A synthesis of all four enantiopure stereoisomers of the drug was carried out and an examination of each compound revealed that only the enantiopure 3R,4R isomer was capable of blocking Stat5 phosphorylation (Jak3 dependent). Each compound was profiled across a panel of over 350 kinases, which revealed a high level of selectivity for the Jak family kinases for these related compounds. Each stereoisomer retained a degree of binding to Jak3 and Jak2 and the 3R,4S and 3S,4R stereoisomers were further revealed to have binding affinity for selected members of the STE7 and STE20 subfamily of kinases. Finally, an appraisal of the minimum energy conformation of each stereoisomer and molecular docking at Jak3 was performed in an effort to better understand each compounds selectivity and potency profiles. PMID:19053756

Jiang, Jian-kang; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Deflorian, Francesca; Chen, Zhi; Perreira, Melissa; Pesu, Marko; Smith, Jeremy; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Liu, Eric H; Leister, William; Costanzi, Stefano; O'Shea, John J; Thomas, Craig J

2008-12-25

380

Heats of Formation for the Boronic Acids R–B(OH)2 and Boroxines R3B3O3 (R=H, Li, HBe, H2B, H3C, H2N, HO, F, and Cl) Calculated at the G2, G3, and G4 Levels of Theory  

PubMed Central

Boronic acids (R–B(OH)2) and their boroxine (R3B3O3) dehydration products have emerged as important classes of compounds with a multitude of diverse applications. However, the available heats of formation for these compounds are not always as accurate as would be required for further use. In this study the heats of formation at 298.15 K of R–B(OH)2 and R3B3O3 (R = H, Li, HBe, H2B, H3C, H2N, HO, F, and Cl) have been calculated at the G2, G3[G3B3], and G4 levels of theory and used to determine the enthalpy changes for the dehydration reactions: 3 R–B(OH)2 ? R3B3O3 + 3 H2O; comparisons are made with other rigorous levels of theory, e.g. CBS-Q[CBS-QB3] and W1U, as well as with experimental values wherever possible. Enthalpy changes for the dehydration reactions have also been calculated using second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the Dunning-Woon correlation-consistent aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets, and B3LYP density functional theory with the 6-311++G(2df,2pd) basis set. With the exception of H2N-B(OH)2, the dehydration reactions are consistently predicted to be exothermic. Our results provide a cautionary note for the use of the B3LYP functional in the calculation of structures and energies of boronic acids and boroxines. Where comparisons could be made, the G4 and W1U predictions for the heats of formation of these boron compounds differ significantly. PMID:24653975

Bock, Charles W.; Larkin, Joseph D.

2014-01-01

381

Multipurpose Dissociation Cell for Enhanced ETD of Intact Protein Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe and characterize an improved implementation of ETD on a modified hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument. Instead of performing ETD in the mass-analyzing quadrupole linear ion trap (A-QLT), the instrument collision cell was modified to enable ETD. We partitioned the collision cell into a multi-section rf ion storage and transfer device to enable injection and simultaneous separate storage of precursor and reagent ions. Application of a secondary (axial) confinement voltage to the cell end lens electrodes enables charge-sign independent trapping for ion-ion reactions. The approximately 2-fold higher quadrupole field frequency of this cell relative to that of the A-QLT enables higher reagent ion densities and correspondingly faster ETD reactions, and, with the collision cell's longer axial dimensions, larger populations of precursor ions may be reacted. The higher ion capacity of the collision cell permits the accumulation and reaction of multiple full loads of precursor ions from the A-QLT followed by FT Orbitrap m/z analysis of the ETD product ions. This extends the intra-scan dynamic range by increasing the maximum number of product ions in a single MS/MS event. For analyses of large peptide/small protein precursor cations, this reduces or eliminates the need for spectral averaging to achieve acceptable ETD product ion signal-to-noise levels. Using larger ion populations, we demonstrate improvements in protein sequence coverage and aggregate protein identifications in LC-MS/MS analysis of intact protein species as compared to the standard ETD implementation.

Rose, Christopher M.; Russell, Jason D.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Westphall, Michael S.; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C.; Coon, Joshua J.; Syka, John E. P.

2013-06-01

382

RoboGlove - A Robonaut Derived Multipurpose Assistive Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The RoboGlove is an assistive device that can augment human strength, endurance or provide directed motion for use in rehabilitation. RoboGlove is a spinoff of the highly successful Robonaut 2 (R2) system developed as part of a partnership between General Motors and NASA. This extremely lightweight device employs an actuator system based on the R2 finger drive system to transfer part or the entire grasp load from human tendons to artificial ones contained in the glove. Steady state loads ranging from 15 to 20 lbs. and peaks approaching 50 lbs. are achievable. The technology holds great promise for use with space suit gloves to reduce fatigue during space walks. Tactile sensing, miniaturized electronics, and on-board processing provide sufficient flexibility for applications in many industries. The following describes the design, mechanical/electrical integration, and control features of the glove.

Diftler, Myron; Ihrke, C. A.; Bridgwater, L. B.; Davis, D. R.; Linn, D. M.; Laske, E. A.; Ensley, K. G.; Lee, J. H.

2014-01-01

383

Multi-purpose wind tunnel reaction control model block  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reaction control system nozzle block is provided for testing the response characteristics of space vehicles to a variety of reaction control thruster configurations. A pressurized air system is connected with the supply lines which lead to the individual jet nozzles. Each supply line terminates in a compact cylindrical plenum volume, axially perpendicular and adjacent to the throat of the jet nozzle. The volume of the cylindrical plenum is sized to provide uniform thrust characteristics from each jet nozzle irrespective of the angle of approach of the supply line to the plenum. Each supply line may be plugged or capped to stop the air supply to selected jet nozzles, thereby enabling a variety of nozzle configurations to be obtained from a single model nozzle block.

Dresser, H. S.; Daileda, J. J. (inventors)

1978-01-01

384

Sorghum - a versatile, multi-purpose biomass crop  

SciTech Connect

Sorghums are versatile, energy-efficient plants that exhibit excellent potentials for multi-product use. Grain sorghum, although already a major feed and food crop, offers promise as a source of starch and sugar for fermentation alcohol, as well as a number of fiber products. Sweet sorghum, a variety rich in extractable fermentable sugars, is now in limited production, but can be a major sugar, grain, forage, fuel and industrial products raw material. Sorghums can be grown in virtually every state. The need for multi-product crops to improve agricultural land productivities and to offset increasing cultural costs is detailed. Results of continuing plant breeding work to enhance sorghum varieties for multiple uses are discussed.

Clark, J.W.; Jolts, E.J.; Miller, F.R.

1981-01-01

385

A multipurpose 3-D grid of stellar models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last two decades have produced a proliferation of stellar atmosphere grids, evolutionary tracks, and isochrones which are available to the astronomical community from different internet services. However, it is not straightforward (at least for an inexperienced user) to manipulate those models to answer questions of the type: What is the spectral energy distribution of a 9000 K giant? What about its J-band magnitude for different metallicities? What can I tell about the mass of a star if I know that its unreddened B-V color is -0.05 and its luminosity in solar units is 10^5? The answers to those questions are indeed in the models but a series of transformations and combinations involving different variables and models are required to obtain them. To make the available knowledge more user friendly, I have combined a number of state-of-the-art sources to create a 3-D (effective temperature, luminosity, and metallicity) grid of stellar models for which I provide calibrated SEDs and magnitudes as well as auxiliary variables such as mass and age. Furthermore, I have generated a grid of extinguished magnitudes using the recent Maíz Apellániz et al. (2012) extinction laws and incorporated them into the Bayesian code CHORIZOS (Maíz Apellániz 2004).

Maíz Apellániz, J.

2013-05-01

386

Feasibility of seasonal multipurpose reservoir operation in Texas  

E-print Network

. Ralph A. Wurbs The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the potential for increasing the beneficial use of existing reservoirs in the state of Texas through seasonal reallocations of storage capacity between flood control... purposes are severely taxing the available storage capacity. In an analysis of historical flood data, seasonal rule curve operation reduced flood damages in three of the seven recorded flood events as compared to reservoir operating plans using a...

Tibbets, Michael N

2012-06-07

387

Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the New Shuttle Orbiter's Multi- Purpose Logistics Modulo (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger (HX) and associated MPLM cooling system. This paper presents Heat Exchanger (HX) design and performance characteristics of the system.

Zampiceni, John J.; Harper, Lon T.

2002-01-01

388

Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor  

DOEpatents

In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

Ury, Michael G. (Bethesda, MD); Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Wooten, Robert D. (Rockville, MD)

1999-01-01

389

Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services—industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006.

Alexandru, Mioara; Ene, Mihaela

2007-08-01

390

In vitro micropropagation of Gymnema sylvestre – A multipurpose medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the explant, seedling age, medium type, plant growth regulators, complex extracts (casein hydrolysate, coconut\\u000a milk, malt extract and yeast extract) and antioxidants (activated charcoal, ascorbic acid, citric acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone)\\u000a markedly influenced in vitro propagation of Gymnema sylvestre. A maximum number of shoots (57.2) were induced from 30 day old seedling axillary node explants on Murashige and

N. Komalavalli; M. V. Rao

2000-01-01

391

Multi-Purpose Reefs - A Decade of Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore submerged structures for coastal protection and artificial reefs for enhancing local marine biodiversity and/or attracting sea life have been utilized for centuries. Indeed, the first known use of artificial reef structures for habitat enhancement dates back to 2000 BC on the south west coast of India. However, it was not until the 1960's that multi- purpose reefs (MPRs) intended combine coastal protection, eco-enhancement and surfing were first proposed. Through the 1970's and 1980's the concept of MPR's was advanced through the seminal works of James 'Kimo' Walker who pioneered the area of surfing science and developed the first methods for quantification of a surfing break. Design studies for artificial reefs primarily for surfing were undertaken for the construction of the world's first artificial surfing reef built in Perth in 1998, as well as for artificial reefs in California and the Queensland Gold Coast MPR in Australia. More than a decade on, seven reefs have now been constructed at locations around the world with differing levels of success. and a great deal has been learned about the functionality of and potential applications for these structures. This poster provides a brief update on the performance of these structures, summarizing the large volume of monitoring data available for many of these projects. This includes data on shoreline protection and beach response, ecological enhancement, habitat restoration and improvement of recreational amenities. We discuss several projects with respect to the above topics as well as some of the lessons learned in the light of future MPR developments. This poster considers the performance of MPR's in three primary areas of functionality: coastal protection, ecological enhancement and surfing enhancement. We also discuss some of the lessons learned and applied as understanding of these structures has increased.

Mead, S.; Borrero, J. C.; Hearin, J.

2011-12-01

392

Electronic Mail in Academic Settings: A Multipurpose Communications Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores possible uses of electronic mail in three areas of the academic setting: instruction, research, and administration. Electronic mail is defined, the components needed to get started with electronic mail are discussed, and uses and benefits of electronic mail in diverse educational environments are suggested. (12 references) (DB)

D'Souza, Patricia Veasey

1992-01-01

393

Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor  

DOEpatents

In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

1999-02-02

394

National RF Test Facility as a multipurpose development tool  

SciTech Connect

Additions and modifications to the National RF Test Facility design have been made that (1) focus its use for technology development for future large systems in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), (2) expand its applicability to technology development in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies (ECRF) at 60 GHz, (3) provide a facility for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) 60-GHz ring physics studies, and (4) permit engineering studies of steady-state plasma systems, including superconducting magnet performance, vacuum vessel heat flux removal, and microwave protection. The facility will continue to function as a test bed for generic technology developments for ICRF and the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF). The upgraded facility is also suitable for mirror halo physics experiments.

McManamy, T.J.; Becraft, W.R.; Berry, L.A.; Blue, C.W.; Gardner, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Loring, C.M. Jr.; Moeller, F.A.; Ponte, N.S.

1983-01-01

395

Multipurpose 5-MeV linear induction accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although linear induction accelerators (LIAs) are quite reliable by most standards, they are limited in repeating rate, average power, and reliability because the final stage of energy delivery is based on spark gap performance. In addition, they have a low duty factor of operation. To provide a higher burst rate and greater reliability, new technology was used to develop a magnetic pulse compression scheme that eliminates all spark gaps and exceeds requirements. The magnetic drive system are tailored to drive induction cells from a few kA to over 10 kA at 500 kV, with average beam power levels in the megawatts. This new 5-MeV, 2.5-kA LIA under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be used for the development of high brightness sources and will provide a test bed for the new technology, which should lead to LIAs that surpass the radio frequency linacs for efficiency and reliability, as well as fit other industrial applications, such as sewage sterilization.

Birx, D. L.; Hawkins, S. A.; Poor, S. E.; Reginato, L. L.; Smith, M. W.

1984-06-01

396

Multipurpose 5-MeV linear induction accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Although linear induction accelerators (LIAs) are quite reliable by most standards, they are limited in repeating rate, average power, and reliability because the final stage of energy delivery is based on spark gap performance. In addition, they have a low duty factor of operation. To provide a higher burst rate and greater reliability, the researchers used new technology to develop a magnetic pulse compression scheme that eliminates all spark gaps and exceeds requirements. The paper describes the scheme. The magnetic drive system can be tailored to drive induction cells from a few kA to over 10 kA at 500 kV, with average beam power levels in the megawatts. This new 5-MeV, 2.5-kA LIA under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be used for the development of high brightness sources and will provide a test bed for the new technology, which should lead to LIAs that surpass the radio frequency linacs for efficiency and reliability, as well as fit other industrial applications, such as sewage sterilization.

Birx, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L. Smith, M.W.

1984-06-11

397

Multipurpose 5MeV linear induction accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although linear induction accelerators (LIAs) are quite reliable by most standards, they are limited in repeating rate, average power, and reliability because the final stage of energy delivery is based on spark gap performance. In addition, they have a low duty factor of operation. To provide a higher burst rate and greater reliability, new technology was used to develop a

D. L. Birx; S. A. Hawkins; S. E. Poor; L. L. Reginato; M. W. L. L. Smith

1984-01-01

398

One-Step Multipurpose Surface Functionalization by Adhesive Catecholamine  

E-print Network

Surface modification is one of the most important techniques in modern science and engineering. The facile introduction of a wide variety of desired properties onto virtually any material surface is an ultimate goal in ...

Kang, Sung Min

399

LARC-TPI: A multi-purpose thermoplastic polyimide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linear thermoplastic polyimide, LARC-TPI, was characterized and developed for a variety of high temperature applications. In its fully imidized form, this material can be used as an adhesive for bonding metals such as titanium, aluminum, copper, brass, and stainless steel. LARC-TPI was evaluated as a thermoplastic for bonding large pieces of polyimide film to produce flexible, 100 void-free laminates for flexible circuit applications. The development of LARC-TPI as a potential molding powder, composite matrix resin, high temperature film and fiber is also discussed.

St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

1982-01-01

400

Multipurpose Dissociation Cell for Enhanced ETD of Intact Protein Species  

PubMed Central

We describe and characterize an improved implementation of ETD on a modified hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument. Instead of performing ETD in the mass-analyzing quadrupole linear ion trap (A-QLT), the instrument collision cell was modified to enable ETD. We partitioned the collision cell into a multi-section RF ion storage and transfer device to enable injection and simultaneous separate storage of precursor and reagent ions. Application of a secondary (axial) confinement voltage to the cell end lens electrodes enables charge-sign independent trapping for ion-ion reactions. The approximately two-fold higher quadrupole field frequency of this cell relative to that of the A-QLT, enables higher reagent ion densities and correspondingly faster ETD reactions, and, with the collision cell’s longer axial dimensions, larger populations of precursor ions may be reacted. The higher ion capacity of the collision cell permits the accumulation and reaction of multiple full loads of precursor ions from the A-QLT followed by FT Orbitrap m/z analysis of the ETD product ions. This extends the intra-scan dynamic range by increasing the maximum number of product ions in a single MS/MS event. For analyses of large peptide/small protein precursor cations, this reduces or eliminates the need for spectral averaging to achieve acceptable ETD product ion signal-to-noise levels. Using larger ion populations, we demonstrate improvements in protein sequence coverage and aggregate protein identifications in LC-MS/MS analysis of intact protein species as compared to the standard ETD implementation. PMID:23609185

Rose, Christopher M.; Russell, Jason D.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Westphall, Michael S.; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C.; Coon, Joshua J.; Syka, John E.P.

2013-01-01

401

Multi-heme proteins: Nature's electronic multi-purpose tool  

PubMed Central

While iron is often a limiting nutrient to Biology, when the element is found in the form of heme cofactors (iron protoporphyrin IX), living systems have exceled at modifying and tailoring the chemistry of the metal. In the context of proteins and enzymes, heme cofactors are increasingly found in stoichiometries greater than one, where a single protein macromolecule contains more than one heme unit. When paired or coupled together, these protein associated heme groups perform a wide variety of tasks, such as redox communication, long range electron transfer and storage of reducing/oxidizing equivalents. Here, we review recent advances in the field of multi-heme proteins, focusing on emergent properties of these complex redox proteins, and strategies found in Nature where such proteins appear to be modular and essential components of larger biochemical pathways. PMID:23558243

Bewley, Kathryn D.; Ellis, Katie E.; Firer-Sherwood, Mackenzie A.; Elliott, Sean J.

2013-01-01

402

(Littoral Operation Multipurpose Auxiliary Craft) Casey Connor, John Sebastian,  

E-print Network

? Vessel Speed (VP): 40 knots ? Effective Horsepower (EHPP): 594 HP ? Shaft Horsepower (SHPP): 1188 HP #12 ? Effective Horsepower (EHPm): 0.19 HP ? Shaft Horsepower (SHPm): 0.38 HP #12;Propulsion and Maneuvering 21 20

Wood, Stephen L.

403

Multipurpose semistatic shift registers for digital programmable retinas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital programmable retina is a functional extension of a CMOS imager, in which every pixel is fitted with a tiny digital programmable processor. We actually call it a PAR, standing for Programmable Artificial Retina. From an architectural viewpoint, a PAR is a SIMD array processor with local optical input. A PAR is aimed at processing images on-site (where they are sensed) until they can be output from the array under concentrated form. The overall goal is to get compact, fast and inexpensive vision systems, e.g. for robotics applications. PAR design is subject to harsh constraints resulting from small pixel area and sensing/processing cohabitation. Meeting these constraints leads to using peculiar architectural and circuit technique solutions. In the last three generations of PARs we have designed, semi-static shift registers have played a crucial role in the maximization of computational power versus silicon area. In particular, the latter have been used to store, shift and--through some slight modifications--to perform local computations on images. Here, we show their abilities to support asynchronous propagation in order to implement `geodesic reconstruction', an extremely useful computational operator, in particular for image segmentation and then for object selection and manipulation purposes.

Bernard, Thierry M.

2000-05-01

404

One-Step Multipurpose Surface Functionalization by Adhesive Catecholamine.  

PubMed

Surface modification is one of the most important techniques in modern science and engineering. The facile introduction of a wide variety of desired properties onto virtually any material surface is an ultimate goal in surface chemistry. To achieve this goal, the incorporation of structurally diverse molecules onto any material surface is an essential capability for ideal surface modification. Here, we present a general strategy of surface modification, in which many diverse surfaces can be functionalized by immobilizing a wide variety of molecules. This strategy functionalizes surfaces by a one-step immersion of substrates in a one-pot mixture of a molecule and a catecholamine surface modification agent. This one-step procedure for surface modification represents a standard protocol to control interfacial properties. PMID:23580891

Kang, Sung Min; Hwang, Nathaniel S; Yeom, Jihyeon; Park, Sung Young; Messersmith, Phillip B; Choi, Insung S; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Lee, Haeshin

2012-07-24

405

Multipurpose Smart Cards in Transportation: Benefits and Barriers to Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart cards are the technology that allows certain functions to occur. Although the technology evolved in the 1980's, it was only used for simple functions like pay phones. In the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in the use and scope of smart cards. Smart cards have been used to hold health records, allow electronic signatures and act

Noreen McDonald

2000-01-01

406

Designing, Fabrication and Controlling Of Multipurpose3-DOF Robotic Arm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, we have successfully designed and developed a 3-DOF articulated Robotic Arm capable of performing typical industrial tasks such as painting or spraying, assembling and handling automobiles parts and etc., in resemblance to a human arm. The mechanical assembly is designed on SOLIDWORKS and aluminum grade 6061 -T6 is used for its fabrication in order to reduce the structure weight. We have applied inverse kinematics to determine the joint angles, equations are fed into an efficient microcontroller ATMEGA16 which performs all the calculations to determine the joint angles on the basis of given coordinates to actuate the joints through motorized control. Good accuracy was obtained with quadrature optical encoders installed in each joint to achieve the desired position and a LabVIEW based GUI is designed to provide human machine interface.

Nabeel, Hafiz Muhammad; Azher, Anum; Usman Ali, Syed M.; Wahab Mughal, Abdul

2013-12-01

407

Multi-purpose student card system using smart card technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart cards have been around for a while now; it has been mainly used to store some kind of monetary value. Currently smart cards can be seen in the transportation, telecommunication and retail sectors. This paper aims to design a student card system for an educational institute using smart card technology that can be usable in the transportation, retail and

S. Ornar; H. Djuhari

2004-01-01

408

Multipurpose dissociation cell for enhanced ETD of intact protein species.  

PubMed

We describe and characterize an improved implementation of ETD on a modified hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument. Instead of performing ETD in the mass-analyzing quadrupole linear ion trap (A-QLT), the instrument collision cell was modified to enable ETD. We partitioned the collision cell into a multi-section rf ion storage and transfer device to enable injection and simultaneous separate storage of precursor and reagent ions. Application of a secondary (axial) confinement voltage to the cell end lens electrodes enables charge-sign independent trapping for ion-ion reactions. The approximately 2-fold higher quadrupole field frequency of this cell relative to that of the A-QLT enables higher reagent ion densities and correspondingly faster ETD reactions, and, with the collision cell's longer axial dimensions, larger populations of precursor ions may be reacted. The higher ion capacity of the collision cell permits the accumulation and reaction of multiple full loads of precursor ions from the A-QLT followed by FT Orbitrap m/z analysis of the ETD product ions. This extends the intra-scan dynamic range by increasing the maximum number of product ions in a single MS/MS event. For analyses of large peptide/small protein precursor cations, this reduces or eliminates the need for spectral averaging to achieve acceptable ETD product ion signal-to-noise levels. Using larger ion populations, we demonstrate improvements in protein sequence coverage and aggregate protein identifications in LC-MS/MS analysis of intact protein species as compared to the standard ETD implementation. PMID:23609185

Rose, Christopher M; Russell, Jason D; Ledvina, Aaron R; McAlister, Graeme C; Westphall, Michael S; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C; Coon, Joshua J; Syka, John E P

2013-06-01

409

Multipurpose council chambers ``in the round'' poses acoustical challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The City of Aurora Council Chambers is used for both municipal and public meetings. The room is configured to provide close-in seating with good sightlines from each of the 300 stadium-style seats. Presentations can be made from the central podium location to either the audience or council dais requiring multiple loudspeaker zoning and control. The cylindrical ceiling, shaped to accommodate video projection and lighting equipment, is acoustically treated to eliminate late reflections. The City Council meetings are broadcast to public TV on a regular basis from this room requiring good room acoustics and sound isolation to reduce echo and achieve acceptably low background noise levels while satisfying the aesthetic palette of the interior designers. A case history will be presented along with photographs showing how specialty wood materials, both absorptive and diffusive, were incorporated along with absorptive plaster and cloth-covered fiberglass panels into the design of the building.

Logsdon, Edward L.

2003-10-01

410

The 3 R's of Learning Time: Rethink, Reshape, Reclaim  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learning School Alliance is a network of schools collaborating about professional practice. The network embodies Learning Forward's purpose to advance effective job-embedded professional learning that leads to student outcomes. A key component of Learning Forward's Standards for Professional Learning is a focus on collaborative learning,…

Sackey, Shera Carter

2012-01-01

411

Back to the 3 R's: Reading, Writing, Rhetoric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary understandings and practices of adult literacy and adult basic education need to reestablish a substantial connection with ancient rhetoric as at once a political tradition, a culture of language use, a storehouse of metalanguage, and as an ensemble of pedagogic strategies and exercises. Developed in ancient Greece, rhetoric was for…

McCormack, Rob

412

Noninvasive Small Rodent Imaging: Significance for the 3R Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Minimizing potential pain and distress as well as the number of animals in biomedical experimentation and in the drug discovery\\u000a and development process is not only a moral imperative but also a challenging and evolving area of research. Non-invasive\\u000a imaging can refine procedures by using alternative readouts which represent early disease state or adverse drug effects and\\u000a which allow harmful

Nicolau Beckmann; Peter Maier

413

dated 9/4/2013 Building, 3r  

E-print Network

S UN DEP STU M NIVER PART UDE MAJ Upd RSITY MENT NT F ORS Dynamics B 2015 P.O. Charlotte Phone: Fax.......................................................5 Special Studies in Sociology & University Internship Credit 5 Transfer of Credit 5 Credit)...............................................14 Prerequisites & Procedures for Admission to DMP 14 Requirements 15 The University Internship

Acton, Scott

414

(±)-(rel-3R,3'R)-1,1'-Dimethyl-3,3'-bipyrrolidine-2,2'-dithione.  

PubMed

The asymmetric unit of the racemic title compound, C(10)H(16)N(2)S(2), a C(2)-symmetric bis-(thiol-actam), contains one half-mol-ecule, the complete mol-ecule being generated by a twofold axis symmetry operation. The five-membered ring is nearly planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.025?(1)?Å. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are linked via weak C-H?S inter-actions, forming infinite chains along the b-axis direction. PMID:23284518

Madeley, Lee G; Lemmerer, Andreas; Michael, Joseph P

2012-11-01

415

Planar myocardial imaging in the baboon model with iodine-123-15-(iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) and iodine-123-15-(P-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP), using time-activity curves for evaluation of metabolism.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare by planar myocardial scintigraphy the kinetics of iodine-123-15-(iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (123I-pPPA and 123I-oPPA), and of iodine-123-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP), firstly in normal baboons, and subsequently after blocking fatty acid oxidation by a carnitine palmitoyl transferase I(CPT1) inhibitor. The induced changes in myocardial metabolism were reflected in the dynamic behaviour of the three tracers. pPPA and oPPA to a large extent, provided information on beta-oxidation changes in the myocardium: beta-oxidation participation changed from 47% and 50%, respectively to 17% and 23% after inhibition. BMIPP provided better images and reflected largely on changed tracer incorporation into the neutral lipid pools. The beta-oxidation contributed only about 10% towards the metabolic pathway of BMIPP. The information obtained in this study could help determine the tracer of choice for SPECT, whereby myocardial viability could optimally be revealed. PMID:8547881

Dormehl, I C; Hugo, N; Rossouw, D; White, A; Feinendegen, L E

1995-10-01

416

Thirteen genes (Cebpb, E2f1, Tcf4, Cyp24, Pck1, Acra4, Edn3, Kcnb1, Mc3r, Ntsr, Cd40, Plcg1 and Rcad) that probably lie in the distal imprinting region of mouse chromosome 2 are not monoallelically expressed.  

PubMed

Seven imprinted genes are currently known in the mouse but none have been identified yet in the distal imprinting region of mouse Chromosome (Chr) 2, a region which shows striking linkage conservation with human chromosome 20q13. Both maternal duplication/paternal deficiency and its reciprocal for distal Chr 2 lead to mice with abnormal body shapes and behavioural abnormalities. We have tested a number of candidate genes, that are either likely or known to lie within the distal imprinting region, for monoallelic expression. These included 3 genes (Cebpb, E2f1 and Tcf4) that express transcription factors, 2 genes (Cyp24 and Pck1) that are involved in growth, 5 genes (Acra4, Edn3, Kcnb1, Mc3r and Ntsr) where a defect could lead to neurological and probably behavioural problems, and 3 genes (Cd40, Plcg1 and Rcad) that are less obvious candidates but sequence information was available for designing primers to test their expression. On/off expression of each gene was tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of RNA extracted from tissues of mice with maternal duplication/paternal deficiency and its reciprocal for the distal region of Chr 2. None of the 13 genes is monoallelically expressed in the appropriate tissues before and shortly after birth which suggests that these genes are not imprinted later in development. This study has narrowed down the search for imprinted genes, and valuable information on which genes have been tested for on/off expression is provided. Since there is considerable evidence of conservation of imprinting between mouse and human, we would predict that the 13 genes are not imprinted in human. Five of the genes: E2f1, Tcf4, Kcnb1, Cd40 and Rcad, have not yet been mapped in human. However, because of the striking linkage conservation observed between mouse Chr 2 and human chromosome 20, we would expect these genes to map on human chromosome 20q13. PMID:7781998

Williamson, C M; Dutton, E R; Abbott, C M; Beechey, C V; Ball, S T; Peters, J

1995-04-01

417

Assessment of density functionals and paucity of non-covalent interactions in aminoylyne complexes of molybdenum and tungsten [(?(5)-C5H5)(CO)2M?EN(SiMe3)(R)] (E = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb): a dispersion-corrected DFT study.  

PubMed

Electronic, molecular structure and bonding energy analyses of the metal-aminosilylyne, -aminogermylyne, -aminostannylyne and -aminoplumbylyne complexes [(?(5)-C5H5)(CO)2M[triple bond, length as m-dash]EN(SiMe3)(Ph)] (M = Mo, W) and [(?(5)-C5H5)(CO)2Mo[triple bond, length as m-dash]GeN(SiMe3)(Mes)] have been investigated at DFT, DFT-D3 and DFT-D3(BJ) levels using BP86, PBE, PW91, RPBE, TPSS and M06-L functionals. The performance of metaGGA functionals for the geometries of aminoylyne complexes is better than GGA functionals. Significant dispersion interactions between OH, EC(O) and EH pairs appeared in the dispersion-corrected geometries. The non-covalent distances of these interactions follow the order DFT > DFT-D3(BJ) > DFT-D3. The values of Nalewajski-Mrozek bond order (1.22-1.52) and Pauling bond order (2.23-2.59) of the optimized structures at BP86/TZ2P indicate the presence of multiple bonds between metal and E atoms. The overall electronic charges transfer from transition-metal fragments to ligands. The topological analysis based on QTAIM has been performed to determine the analogy of non-covalent interactions. The strength of M[triple bond, length as m-dash]EN(SiMe3)(R) bonds has been evaluated by energy decomposition analysis. The electrostatic interactions are almost equal to orbital interactions. The M ? E ?-donation is smaller than the M ? E ?-back donation. Upon going from E = Si to E = Pb, the M-E bond orders decrease as Si > Ge > Sn > Pb, consistent with the observed geometry trends. The M-E uncorrected bond dissociation energies vary with the density functionals as RPBE < BP86 < PBE < TPSS < PW91. The largest DFT-D3 dispersion corrections to the BDEs correspond to the BP86 functional, ranging between 5.6-8.1 kcal mol(-1), which are smaller than the DFT-D3(BJ) dispersion corrections (10.1-12.0 kcal mol(-1)). The aryl substituents on nitrogen have an insignificant effect on M-E-N bending. The bending of the M-E-N bond angle has been discussed in terms of Jahn-Teller distortion. The larger noncovalent interaction and smaller absolute values of ?E(HOMO-LUMO) with the M06-L functional are responsible for lowering the M-E-N bond angle. PMID:24850167

Pandey, Krishna K; Patidar, Pankaj; Bariya, Pankaj K; Patidar, Sunil K; Vishwakarma, Ravi

2014-07-14

418

Multi-purpose modular plug and play architecture for space systems: Design, integration and testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design and integration of a modular architecture for a versatile, reconfigurable and re-adaptable space vehicle is presented with application to a small rover. To gain modularity, both at system and subsystem level, attention has been paid to the selection of interfaces and of an adequate data and power bus. A modular system, based on CAN and SpaceWire data communication bus, has been designed and a first level of distributed intelligence has been achieved using PIC micro-controllers in each subsystem. The modules have been designed with the same mechanical interface to obtain a 2D repetitive pattern. In order to test this architecture aboard a rover, some basic sub-systems, such as the power control unit, the battery control unit, the engine control unit and a PC104-based computer have been integrated and preliminarily tested.

Pitterà, T.; D'Errico, M.

2011-09-01

419

Multipurpose Identity-Based Signcryption (A Swiss Army Knife for Identity-Based Cryptography)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identity-Based (IB) cryptography is a rapidly emerging approach to public-key cryptography that does not require principals to pre-compute key pairs and obtain certificates for their public keys—instead, public keys can be arbitrary identifiers such as email addresses, while private keys are derived at any time by a trusted private key generator upon request by the designated principals. Despite the flurry

Xavier Boyen

2003-01-01

420

AlAA 92-0980 Design of Multipurpose Spacecraft BUS  

E-print Network

system consists of single-axis tracking silicon solar array and Ni2 H2 batteries. The propulsion-axis tracking in order to keep its surface always normal to sun rays or single axis solar array should have orbit. The AVHRR payload requires fine yaw control. Therefore, either the solar array needs to have two

421

Strategic Need for Multi-Purpose Thermal Hydraulic Loop for Support of Advanced Reactor Technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation needs. The experimental database will guide development of appropriate predictive methods and be available for code verification and validation (V&V) related to these systems.

James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; Su-Jong Yoon; Gregory K. Housley

2014-09-01

422

Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose stress resistant plant with a potential for ethnomedicine and renewable energy.  

PubMed

Jatropha curcas is a stress--resistant perennial plant growing on marginal soils. This plant is widespread throughout arid and semiarid tropical regions of the world and has been used as a traditional folk medicine in many countries. J.curcas is a source of several secondary metabolites of medicinal importance. The leaf, fruits, latex and bark contain glycosides, tannins, phytosterols, flavonoids and steroidal sapogenins that exhibit wide ranging medicinal properties. The plant products exhibit anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities. The paper highlights the ability of various metabolites present in the plant to act as therapeutic agents and plant protectants. The plant is designated as an energy plant and use of J.curcas oil as biodiesel is a promising and commercially viable alternative to diesel oil. The seeds of the plant are not only a source of biodiesel but also contain several metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Commercial exploitation for biopharmaceuticals and bio-energy production are some of the prospective future potential of this plant. Further reclamation of wastelands and dry lands is also possible with J.curcas cultivation. PMID:18691089

Debnath, Mousumi; Bisen, P S

2008-08-01

423

Renaissance robotics : novel applications of multipurpose robotic arms spanning design fabrication, utility, and art  

E-print Network

This work investigates, defines, and expands on the use of robotic arms in digital fabrication, design, and art through methods including 3D printing, milling, sculpting, functionally graded fabrication, construction-scale ...

Keating, Steven J. (Steven John)

2012-01-01

424

A Model for a Linked System of Multi-Purpose Reservoirs with Stochastic Inflows and Demands  

E-print Network

connected system of such reservoirs. The reservoirs are considered to be linked by a system of pumping canals and normal river reaches. The objective of the model is the optimal operation of the total system subject to certain restrictions on reservoir...

Curry, G. L.; Helm, J. C.; Clark, R. A.

425

Germination ecology of twelve indigenous and eight exotic multipurpose leguminous species from Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination requirements of seeds of 20 leguminous species were studied in three experiments. In the first experiment, seeds were subjected to mechanical scarification, sulphuric acid and boiling water treatments. In the second experiment, they were treated with dry heat at 60, 80 and 100°C. In the third experiment, seeds were placed at different temperature regimes (10, 15, 20, 25

Demel Teketay

1996-01-01

426

A Multipurpose Interactive System for Promoting and Assessing the Learning of Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an interactive system designed to facilitate the effective management of both knowledge consolidation and (self-)assessment of the progress made in the learning of physics by upper secondary school students. Via a specific multiple-choice test database, the system proposes several learning paths designed and implemented in an…

Picciarelli, Vittorio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Stella, Rosa

2013-01-01

427

The making of a multipurpose, OR-ready, angiography/interventional cath lab suite.  

PubMed

The field of clinical cardiology is now poised to benefit from recent technological advances. Potential for expanding services, increasing productivity, and controlling costs is now awaiting the clinical cardiology. At the same time, certain treatment therapies once addressed exclusively through surgery are being replaced by less invasive procedures performed by interventional cardiologists and radiologists as well as surgeons. PMID:10185103

Helfer, D

1998-01-01

428

A Multi-Purpose Modular Electronics Integration Node for Exploration Extravehicular Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA works to develop an effective integrated portable life support system design for exploration Extravehicular activity (EVA), alternatives to the current system s electrical power and control architecture are needed to support new requirements for flexibility, maintainability, reliability, and reduced mass and volume. Experience with the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has demonstrated that the current architecture, based in a central power supply, monitoring and control unit, with dedicated analog wiring harness connections to active components in the system has a significant impact on system packaging and seriously constrains design flexibility in adapting to component obsolescence and changing system needs over time. An alternative architecture based in the use of a digital data bus offers possible wiring harness and system power savings, but risks significant penalties in component complexity and cost. A hybrid architecture that relies on a set of electronic and power interface nodes serving functional models within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is proposed to minimize both packaging and component level penalties. A common interface node hardware design can further reduce penalties by reducing the nonrecurring development costs, making miniaturization more practical, maximizing opportunities for maturation and reliability growth, providing enhanced fault tolerance, and providing stable design interfaces for system components and a central control. Adaptation to varying specific module requirements can be achieved with modest changes in firmware code within the module. A preliminary design effort has developed a common set of hardware interface requirements and functional capabilities for such a node based on anticipated modules comprising an exploration PLSS, and a prototype node has been designed assembled, programmed, and tested. One instance of such a node has been adapted to support testing the swingbed carbon dioxide and humidity control element in NASA s advanced PLSS 2.0 test article. This paper will describe the common interface node design concept, results of the prototype development and test effort, and plans for use in NASA PLSS 2.0 integrated tests.

Hodgson, Edward; Papale, William; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David; Hawes, Kevin; Stankiewicz, Tom

2013-01-01