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1

Multipurpose Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

Gordon, Douglas

2010-01-01

2

Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

1991-01-01

3

Multipurpose panel display device investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multipurpose panel was developed to provide a flexible control and a LED display panel with easily changeable nomenclature for use in applications where panel space is limited, but where a number of similar subsystems must be controlled, or where basic panel nomenclature and functions must be changed rapidly, as in the case of between mission changes of space shuttle

R. Sliwa

1977-01-01

4

Multi-purpose seismic transducer  

SciTech Connect

A multi-purpose seismic transducer includes a first seismic sensor having a first transfer function. A transfer-function shaping filter is coupled to the output of the first seismic sensor. The filter is adjustable to shape the first transfer function to match a plurality of different second transfer functions.

Hall, E.M.

1981-02-24

5

Multipurpose Scribing and Drawing Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-part tool reconfigured for variety of jobs. Tool performs several functions useful in layout. Lines, curves, and angles made visible as either bright scribe marks or as dark pencil (or ink) marks. Multipurpose tool speeds up laying out of patterns on sheet metal, wood, plastic, or paper. Tool is carried in pocket, then quickly assembled for service as height gauge, pair of dividers, protractor, surface gauge, or square.

Ellis, J. M.

1986-01-01

6

Introducing DC:0-3R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the revised and updated "Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, Revised Edition (DC:0-3R)." The authors describe the impetus for developing the original diagnostic classification system for children from birth to age 3 in the 1980s. There was a need for a diagnostic…

Zero to Three, 2005

2005-01-01

7

System Engineering Strategy for Distributed Multi-Purpose Simulation Architectures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the system engineering approach used to develop distributed multi-purpose simulations. The multi-purpose simulation architecture focuses on user needs, operations, flexibility, cost and maintenance. This approach was used to develop a...

C. M. Kurt, D. Bhula, R. Luty

2007-01-01

8

How To Light a Multipurpose Facility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the questions to ask when designing or retrofitting the lighting needs for a multipurpose campus facility. Issues addressed include the tasks the facility is expected to accommodate, the benefits of available lighting sources, the facility's layout and dimensions, aesthetics and functionality, and budgetary considerations. (GR)

Ries, Jack

1998-01-01

9

Multipurpose ROV system for underwater monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents achievements of the Underwater Team at the Faculty of Maritime Technology of the Szczecin Technical University in the field of designing the equipment destined for the underwater monitoring. The multipurpose remotely operated vehicle system is described. Technical specification, some laboratory tank test results, research techniques, operational range, experience and development trends have been discussed.

Graczyk, T. [Technical Univ. of Szczecin (Poland)

1995-12-31

10

Metamodels for Planar 3R Workspace Optimization.  

SciTech Connect

Robotic workspace optimization is a central element of robot system design. To formulate the optimization problem, the complex relationships between design variables, tuning parameters, and performance indices need to be accurately and efficiently represented. The nature of the relationships suggests that metamodels, or models of the models, should be used to derive suitable objective functions. A comparison of two metamodeling techniques for robotic workspace optimization problems for several trial cases suggests that non-uniform rational B-spline models, derived from computer graphics and computer-aided design techniques, are as suitable as response surface models to solve planar 3R workspace optimization problems. Promising nonlinear modeling results with B-spline models suggest future work is justified and performance gains can be realized.

Turner, C. J. (Cameron J.)

2002-01-01

11

Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System was developed to provide remote, interactive information retrieval capability for various types of data bases to be processed on different types of small and medium size computers. Use of the system for three different data bases is decribed: (1) LANDSAT photo look-up, (2) land use, and (3) census/socioeconomic. Each of the data base elements is shown together with other detailed information that a user would require to contact the system remotely, to transmit inquiries on commands, and to receive the results of the queries or commands.

1977-01-01

12

Reactive Scheduling in Multipurpose Batch Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scheduling is an important operation in process industries for improving resource utilization resulting in direct economic benefits. It has a two-fold objective of fulfilling customer orders within the specified time as well as maximizing the plant profit. Unexpected disturbances such as machine breakdown, arrival of rush orders and cancellation of orders affect the schedule of the plant. Reactive scheduling is generation of a new schedule which has minimum deviation from the original schedule in spite of the occurrence of unexpected events in the plant operation. Recently, Shaik & Floudas (2009) proposed a novel unified model for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants using unit-specific event-based continuous time representation. In this paper, we extend the model of Shaik & Floudas (2009) to handle reactive scheduling.

Narayani, A.; Shaik, Munawar A.

2010-10-01

13

Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor  

DOEpatents

The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

14

Multi-purpose neutron radiography system  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design is given for a low cost, multipurpose radiography system suited for the needs of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The proposed neutron source is californium-252. One purpose is to provide an in-house capability for occasional, reactor quality, neutron radiography thus replacing the recently closed Omega-West Reactor. A second purpose is to provide a highly reliable standby transportable neutron radiography system. A third purpose is to provide for transportable neutron probe gamma spectroscopy techniques. The cost is minimized by shared use of an existing x-ray facility, and by use of an existing transport cask. The achievable neutron radiography and radioscopy performance characteristics have been verified. The demonstrated image qualities range from high resolution gadolinium - SR film, with L:D = 100:1, to radioscopy using a LIXI image with L:D = 30:1 and neutron fluence 3.4 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}.

Barton, J.P. [NRE Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bryant, L.E.; Berry, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-07-01

15

pVHL: A Multipurpose Adaptor Protein  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene VHL occur in various inherited and sporadically occurring tumors. The protein encoded by VHL—pVHL—bears no known enzymatic activities but interacts with numerous protein partners. With the identification of distinct pVHL-containing multiprotein complexes, a refined portrait of pVHL tumor suppressor function has arisen. In general, pVHL acts as a multipurpose adaptor protein that controls a diverse array of gene expression programs, as well as extracellular matrix assembly and microtubule-based processes, by linking various target proteins to appropriate enzymatic activities. These findings provide an evermore complex but coherent view of how pVHL functions molecularly and of the consequences of dysregulation of these diverse molecular activities on tumor formation.

Ian J. Frew (Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich;Institute of Cell Biology REV); Wilhelm Krek (Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich;Institute of Cell Biology REV)

2008-06-17

16

Multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a design for a multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer capable of measuring optical radiation ranging in intensity from the subvisual light levels associated with night sky airglow emissions to the intense flux levels of direct sunlight. The instrument has twelve interference filters for wavelength selection, a 2.5/sup 0/ field of view for nighttime observations, and a 1.5/sup 0/ field of view for daytime observations. A photomultiplier tube is used as the low light-level detector, and a silicon-PIN photodiode serves as the insolation detector. A particular measurement sequence is programmed into the instrument and can be modified by reading a cassette tape in the field. Normal operation is fully automatic.

Kleckner, E.W.; Michalsky, J.J.; Smith, L.L.; Schmelzer, J.R.; Severtsen, R.H.; Berndt, J.L.

1981-11-01

17

Multipurpose prevention technologies: products in development.  

PubMed

Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) are broadly defined as products capable of simultaneously addressing multiple sexual and reproductive health needs including unintended pregnancy, STIs including HIV-1, and other reproductive tract infections. MPTs have been discussed for a few decades but little product development has occurred. With the recent proof-of-concept that a topically applied antiretroviral (ARV) can effectively reduce sexual transmission of HIV-1 (tenofovir 1% gel) the impetus to develop MPTs is gaining momentum. Products currently in development are broadly categorized as either long-acting or on-demand. Long-acting MPTs include intravaginal rings (IVRs) and long-acting injectable products. Several IVR MPTs are under development including one designed to release tenofovir to prevent transmission of HIV-1 and levonorgestrel (LNG) to prevent unintended pregnancy over a 90-day period. Another MPT IVR under development is designed to release the ARV dapivirine and LNG for 2 months. Long-acting injectable pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) formulations of rilpivirine (TMC278) and GSK1265744 have entered clinical evaluation and could form the basis of long-acting injectable products for HIV-1 prevention and prevention of unintended pregnancy. On-demand products include TFV 1% gel (HIV-1/HSV-2 prevention), a zinc/carrageenan zinc gel (HIV-1/HSV-2 prevention), and the SILCS diaphragm administered with TFV 1% gel. Significant technical, funding, and regulatory hurdles must be overcome to develop most MPTs; however, the significant reproductive health benefits to many women around the world should provide motivation to overcome these hurdles. This article is based on a presentation at the "Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies", held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188708

Friend, David R; Clark, Justin T; Kiser, Patrick F; Clark, Meredith R

2013-12-01

18

Design and fabrication of a multipurpose compliant nanopositioning architecture  

E-print Network

This research focused on generating the knowledge required to design and fabricate a high-speed application flexible, low average cost multipurpose compliant nanopositioner architecture with high performance integrated ...

Panas, Robert M. (Robert Matthew)

2013-01-01

19

Aquatic Toxicity of the Decontamination Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new formulation, Decontaminating Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution, is being considered as a replacement to the DS-2 decontaminating solution. The new formulation is composed of calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone. Sin...

M. V. Haley, C. W. Kurnas, N. A. Chester, W. T. Muse

1994-01-01

20

Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar-powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is, therefore, beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multipurpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of using solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year-long effort by a group of eight students, divided into four teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a lightweight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structural design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion were governed by weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is an MPRPV weighing 35 N that cruises at 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 12.5 percent-efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were researched and tested during the design process.

1991-01-01

21

25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 ...STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS...What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?...

2012-04-01

22

25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 ...STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS...What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?...

2011-04-01

23

25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 ...STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS...What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?...

2013-04-01

24

25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 ...STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS...What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?...

2010-04-01

25

Multipurpose community telecenters for rural development in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to: assess the situation of rural population in Pakistan and information facilities available to them including telecommunications, computers and public libraries; document the community information initiatives in terms of objectives, institutional framework, staff, services, use, finance, technology and lessons learned; understand challenges and opportunities regarding the establishment of multipurpose community telecenters (MCTs) in rural areas

Khalid Mahmood

2005-01-01

26

MULTIPURPOSE GELLING AGENT AND ITS APPLICATION TO SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Previously, a blend of materials was formulated that would spontaneously gel a wide variety of hazardous liquids. This blend, known as the Multipurpose Gelling Agent (MGA), has been optimized to obtain a balanced formulation that will effectively gel and immobilize most spilled h...

27

Human resources for maternal health: multi-purpose or specialists?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial question in the aim to attain MDG5 is whether it can be achieved faster with the scaling up of multi-purpose health workers operating in the community or with the scaling up of professional skilled birth attendants working in health facilities. Most advisers concerned with maternal mortality reduction concur to promote births in facilities with professional attendants as the

Vincent Fauveau; Della R Sherratt; Luc de Bernis

2008-01-01

28

Emergy evaluation perspectives of a multipurpose dam proposal in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘emergy’ concept was used to evaluate the economy of Korea and the contributions of a multipurpose dam proposal to the real wealth of the Korean economy. Emergy is defined as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a product or service. The indices for Korea calculated from the emergy evaluation were close

Daeseok Kang; Seok Soon Park

2002-01-01

29

Multipurpose portable system for environmental, industrial, and medical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is about the research carried on developing an MPS (Multipurpose Portable System) which consists of an instrument and many accessories. The instrument is portable, hand-held, and rechargeable battery operated, and it measures temperature, absorbance, and concentration of samples by using optical principles. The system also performs auxiliary functions like incubation and mixing. This system can be used in

Abel Rolando Sierra

2000-01-01

30

Integrated solid waste management based on the 3R approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated solid waste management (ISWM) based on the 3R approach (reduce, reuse, and recycle) is aimed at optimizing the\\u000a management of solid waste from all the waste-generating sectors (municipal, construction and demolition, industrial, urban\\u000a agriculture, and healthcare facilities) and involving all the stakeholders (waste generators, service providers, regulators,\\u000a government, and community\\/neighborhoods). This article discusses the concept of solid waste management

Mushtaq Ahmed Memon

2010-01-01

31

Enhanced red light emission from LaBSiO5:Eu3+,R3+ (R=Bi or Sm) phosphors.  

PubMed

Polycrystalline LaBSiO5:Eu3+,R3+ (R=Bi or Sm) phosphors have been synthesized by a facile sol-gel method. The phosphors have been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis/different scanning calorimeter, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer and fluorescence measurements. It was found that the emission intensity of LaBSiO5:Eu phosphors increases clearly and reaches a maximum at 30 mol% with increasing of Eu3+ concentration. The incorporation of Bi3+ ions and/or Sm3+ ions have greatly enhanced the emission intensity of Eu3+ upon excitation with 391 nm light. The possible sensitization mechanisms of Sm3+ and/or Bi3+ on Eu3+ emission intensity have been investigated and discussed. The high brightness and short luminescence decay times make it promising red-emitting candidates for white light-emitting diodes. PMID:21212017

Xue, Y N; Xiao, F; Zhang, Q Y

2011-02-01

32

Multipurpose water heater. Final technical report, October 1995August 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report describes SBIR Phase 2 project for the development of a multi-purpose water heater for use in Army Food sanitation centers. The objective of the project was to develop a water heater--powered only by an M2 burner and requiring no external supply of electricity--capable of supplying a continuous flow of pressurized hot water to a faucet at the

E. C. Guyer; K. G. Coumou

1999-01-01

33

Evaluation of the pozzolanic activity of fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R). Thermogravimetric analysis studies on FC3R-Portland cement pastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R) from a petrol refinery has shown a great pozzolanic activity in lime pastes as have been demonstrated in previous studies. Based on these results, the pozzolanic activity of the FC3R in Portland cement pastes has been investigated. This evaluation has been carried out by means of thermogravimetry (TG) of cured FC3R-Portland cement pastes. The

J Payá; J Monzó; M. V Borrachero; S Velázquez

2003-01-01

34

Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R) blended cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R) as a cement replacement material has been studied. Four FC3R-blended cements were prepared by the replacement of Portland cement by FC3R in the 6–20% range by mass. Chemical, physical and mechanical properties of the FC3R-blended cements were compared to those of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Chemical and mechanical tests suggested important

J Payá; J Monzó; M. V Borrachero

2001-01-01

35

Reliability programing in reservoir management: 3. System of multipurpose reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reliability programing technique, which includes the concept of `reliability or risk' in an optimization, is applied to multiple multipurpose reservoir systems. The procedure can be applied to any multipurpose multiunit reservoir system with two general types of linkage: normal channel flow for reservoir releases and pipelines or pumping canals. Thus each reservoir could be connected to every other reservoir, and each could receive releases from any or all other reservoirs as dictated by a particular system configuration. A two-level solution algorithm is proposed. A solution can be obtained for a reservoir system with few purposes (flood control, power production, irrigation, water supply, and water quality enhancement) and random inflows and demands. The random inflows and demands are represented by conditional distribution functions. The objective function of economic efficiency, representing the tradeoff between benefits and risks embodied by a risk-loss function, is included in the present approach. The reliability programing model is nonlinear and can be split into two models: search model and special linear programing model. The procedure is illustrated using a portion of the Red River system in Oklahoma and Texas, a system of three multipurpose reservoirs. The three reservoirs individually satisfy purposes (flood protection, hydroelectric power generation, water supply, and water quality enhancement), and two of the reservoirs work together to satisfy additional water requirements (flood control and water quality enhancement downstream). Input data necessary for solving the optimization model are presented. Results of the operation of the system, including optimal operating policies for the reservoirs and reliabilities of the operation, illustrate the major advantages of the reliability programing approach compared with other stochastic optimization techniques.

Simonovi?, Slobodan P.; Marino, Miguel A.

1982-08-01

36

Deriving Optimal Refill Rules for Multi-Purpose Reservoir Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on deriving optimal refill rules for a multi-purpose reservoir, and aims to maximize utilization benefits\\u000a under the condition of flood control safety. The entire flood season is divided into multiple sub-seasons (i.e. pre-flood\\u000a season, main-flood season and post-flood season). By advancing the start of the refill period to the beginning of the post-flood\\u000a season, seasonal design flows

Xinyuan Liu; Shenglian Guo; Pan Liu; Lu Chen; Xiang Li

2011-01-01

37

Programmable Thermostat Module Upgrade for the Multipurpose Logistics Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-121/ULF 1.1 mission was the maiden flight of the programmable thermostat module (PTM) system used to control the 28 V shell heaters on the multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM). These PTMs, in conjunction with a data recorder module (DRM), provide continuous closed loop temperature control and data recording of MPLM on-orbit heater operations. This Technical Memorandum discusses the hardware design, development, test, and verification (DDT&V) activities performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as well as the operational implementation and mission performance.

Clark, D. W.; Glasgow, S. d.; Reagan, S. E.; Presson, K. H.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

2007-01-01

38

Experimental Demonstration of an Optical-Label-Switching Router Architecture Supporting Selective 3R Regeneration  

E-print Network

R Regeneration Zuqing Zhu, Bo Xiang, Haijun Yang, and S. J. Ben Yoo Department of Electrical architecture that utilizes selective-3R to offer regeneration in a smart and efficient way with only limited 3R integration of data and optical networking. Optical 3R regeneration re-amplifies, reshapes, and retimes

Kolner, Brian H.

39

63 FR 52397 - Multi-Purpose Lighters; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...each shipping unit of multi-purpose lighters in...rely on such tests to support the certificate of compliance...States or has a resident agent in the United States...records and the surrogate multi-purpose lighters tested...that all testing used to support the certificate of...

1998-09-30

40

EVALUATION OF SHORT TERM TRAINING IN MENTAL HEALTH FOR MULTIPURPOSE WORKERS  

PubMed Central

Training of multipurpose workers in mental health is an essential component in the implementation of the National Mental Health Program. This study examines the efficacy of a six day training program and the changes in knowledge, management skills and attitudes of multipurpose workers with regard to mental disorders. PMID:21743659

Nagarajaiah; Reddamma, K.; Chandrashekar, C.R.; Isaac, Mohan K.; Srinivasamurthy, R.

1994-01-01

41

Building flood control rule curves for multipurpose multireservoir systems using controllability conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building flood control rule curves (FCRC) for multipurpose multireservoir systems involves treating simultaneously the stochasticity of future inflows and the multivariate aspect of the problem. The study demonstrates how theoretical findings concerning flood control multireservoir systems regulation obtained by Marien (1984) (the so-called controllability conditions) can be used to build generalized FCRC in multipurpose multireservoir systems. These FCRC are generalized

J. L. Marien; J. M. Damázio; F. S. Costa

1994-01-01

42

The Visibility Skeleton: A Powerful And Efficient Multi-Purpose Global Visibility Tool  

E-print Network

The Visibility Skeleton: A Powerful And Efficient Multi-Purpose Global Visibility Tool Fr or computation. The Visibility Skeleton is a new powerful utility which can efficiently and accu- rately answer visibility queries for the entire scene. The Visibility Skeleton is a multi-purpose tool, which can solve

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?  

...2014-04-01 false What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 Section 36.103 Indians...Requirements § 36.103 What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? Homeliving programs must...

2014-04-01

44

System Engineering Strategy for Distributed Multi-Purpose Simulation Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the system engineering approach used to develop distributed multi-purpose simulations. The multi-purpose simulation architecture focuses on user needs, operations, flexibility, cost and maintenance. This approach was used to develop an International Space Station (ISS) simulator, which is called the International Space Station Integrated Simulation (ISIS)1. The ISIS runs unmodified ISS flight software, system models, and the astronaut command and control interface in an open system design that allows for rapid integration of multiple ISS models. The initial intent of ISIS was to provide a distributed system that allows access to ISS flight software and models for the creation, test, and validation of crew and ground controller procedures. This capability reduces the cost and scheduling issues associated with utilizing standalone simulators in fixed locations, and facilitates discovering unknowns and errors earlier in the development lifecycle. Since its inception, the flexible architecture of the ISIS has allowed its purpose to evolve to include ground operator system and display training, flight software modification testing, and as a realistic test bed for Exploration automation technology research and development.

Bhula, Dlilpkumar; Kurt, Cindy Marie; Luty, Roger

2007-01-01

45

Development of a multipurpose hand controller for JEMRMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype multipurpose hand controller for the JEMRMS (Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System) was developed. The hand controller (H/C) is an orthogonal type, with 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) and small size. The orthogonal type H/C is very simple for coordinate transformations and can easily control any type of manipulators. In fact, the JEMRMS is planned to have two manipulators controlled by a common H/C at this stage. The H/C was able to be used as a rate control joystick and a force reflection master arm, using an experimental 6 DOF manipulator. Good maneuverability was confirmed in the verification test. The orthogonal type H/C is suitable for use as a common H/C for the two manipulators of the JEMRMS.

Matsuhira, Nobuto; Iikura, Shoichi; Asakura, Makoto; Shinomiya, Yasuo

1990-01-01

46

Multipurpose Panel Display Device Investigation. [technology assessment and product development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multipurpose panel was developed to provide a flexible control and a LED display panel with easily changeable nomenclature for use in applications where panel space is limited, but where a number of similar subsystems must be controlled, or where basic panel nomenclature and functions must be changed rapidly, as in the case of between mission changes of space shuttle payloads. In the first application, panel area limitations are overcome by time sharing a central control panel among several subsystems. In the latter case, entire control panel changes are effected by simply replacing a memory module, thereby reducing the extent of installation and checkout procedures between missions. Several types of control technologies (other than LED's) which show potential in meeting criteria for overcoming limitations of the panel are assessed.

Sliwa, R.

1977-01-01

47

Multi-purpose canister system evaluation: A systems engineering approach  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to investigate various container systems for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The primary goal of DOE`s investigations was to select a container technology that could handle the vast majority of commercial SNF at a reasonable cost, while ensuring the safety of the public and protecting the environment. Several alternative cask and canister concepts were evaluated for SNF assembly packaging to determine the most suitable concept. Of these alternatives, the multi-purpose canister (MPC) system was determined to be the most suitable. Based on the results of these evaluations, the decision was made to proceed with design and certification of the MPC system. A decision to fabricate and deploy MPCs will be made after further studies and preparation of an environmental impact statement.

Not Available

1994-09-01

48

21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro...

2012-04-01

49

21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro...

2010-04-01

50

21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro...

2014-04-01

51

Whole body vibration: unsupervised training or combined with a supervised multi-purpose exercise for fitness?  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of an unsupervised whole body vibration (WBV) training and two different supervised multi-purpose exercise programmes, with and without WBV, on body composition, functional fitness and self-reported well-being in middle-aged adults. Fifty-four healthy participants (age 48.6 ± 6.7 years) were randomly assigned to a vibration group (VG), a multi-purpose exercise group (MG) and a multi-purpose exercise with vibration group (VMG) and trained 3 days a week for 4 months. VG performed a standardised unsupervised WBV protocol, MG a supervised multi-purpose exercise and VMG a multi-purpose exercise including vibration. After training, drop out was significantly higher in VG group (P = 0.016) when compared to VMG group. In both MG and VMG, body composition, sit-up, push-up, sit and reach, agility test, hopping test and self-reported general health significantly improved (P < 0.05). No additive effects were generated by the vibration stimulus. Percentage of body fat and agility test in VG had a significant opposite trend compared to VMG group (P < 0.05). In summary, an unsupervised WBV training should not be chosen for training protocol. However, positive effects on physical fitness and the best results in adherence could be achieved integrating WBV practice into a multi-purpose exercise training. PMID:24479642

Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

2014-01-01

52

Human resources for maternal health: multi-purpose or specialists?  

PubMed Central

A crucial question in the aim to attain MDG5 is whether it can be achieved faster with the scaling up of multi-purpose health workers operating in the community or with the scaling up of professional skilled birth attendants working in health facilities. Most advisers concerned with maternal mortality reduction concur to promote births in facilities with professional attendants as the ultimate strategy. The evidence, however, is scarce on what it takes to progress in this path, and on the 'interim solutions' for situations where the majority of women still deliver at home. These questions are particularly relevant as we have reached the twentieth anniversary of the safe motherhood initiative without much progress made. In this paper we review the current situation of human resources for maternal health as well as the problems that they face. We propose seven key areas of work that must be addressed when planning for scaling up human resources for maternal health in light of MDG5, and finally we indicate some advances recently made in selected countries and the lessons learned from these experiences. Whilst the focus of this paper is on maternal health, it is acknowledged that the interventions to reduce maternal mortality will also contribute to significantly reducing newborn mortality. Addressing each of the seven key areas of work – recommended by the first International Forum on 'Midwifery in the Community', Tunis, December 2006 – is essential for the success of any MDG5 programme. We hypothesize that a great deal of the stagnation of maternal health programmes has been the result of confusion and careless choices in scaling up between a limited number of truly skilled birth attendants and large quantities of multi-purpose workers with short training, fewer skills, limited authority and no career pathways. We conclude from the lessons learnt that no significant progress in maternal mortality reduction can be achieved without a strong political decision to empower midwives and others with midwifery skills, and a substantial strengthening of health systems with a focus on quality of care rather than on numbers, to give them the means to respond to the challenge. PMID:18826600

Fauveau, Vincent; Sherratt, Della R; de Bernis, Luc

2008-01-01

53

Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a crew will be living and working in microgravity, interfacing with their physical environment. Without optimum restraints and mobility aids (R&MA' s), the crewmembers may be handicapped for perfonning some of the on-orbit tasks. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity area and may cause prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Thus, determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment are crucial to astronauts' well-being and productivity. The purpose of this project is to develop requirements and guidelines, and conceptual designs, for an ergonomically designed multi-purpose crew restraint. In order to achieve this goal, the project would involve development of functional and human factors requirements, design concept prototype development, analytical and computer modeling evaluations of concepts, two sets of micro gravity evaluations and preparation of an implementation plan. It is anticipated that developing functional and design requirements for a multi-purpose restraint would facilitate development of ergonomically designed restraints to accommodate the off-nominal but repetitive tasks, and minimize the performance degradation due to lack of optimum setup for onboard task performance. In addition, development of an ergonomically designed restraint concept prototype would allow verification and validation of the requirements defined. To date, we have identified "unique" tasks and areas of need, determine characteristics of "ideal" restraints, and solicit ideas for restraint and mobility aid concepts. Focus group meetings with representatives from training, safety, crew, human factors, engineering, payload developers, and analog environment representatives were key to assist in the development of a restraint concept based on previous flight experiences, the needs of future tasks, and crewmembers' preferences. Also, a catalog with existing IVA/EVA restraint and mobility aids has been developed. Other efforts included the ISS crew debrief data on restraints, compilation of data from MIR, Skylab and ISS on restraints, and investigating possibility of an in-flight evaluation of current restraint systems. Preliminary restraint concepts were developed and presented to long duration crewmembers and focus groups for feedback. Currently, a selection criterion is being refined for prioritizing the candidate concepts. Next steps include analytical and computer modeling evaluations of the selected candidate concepts, prototype development, and microgravity evaluations.

Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

2004-01-01

54

Real Time Gnss-Sp Network: a Multipurpose Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

São Paulo State GNSS Network (GNSS-SP) is one of the densest networks at South Hemisphere. Most of the stations is equipped with meteorological PTU devices. Nowadays it is streaming real time GNSS data, providing support to RTK Network applications, real time TEC (Total Electron Contents) and ZTD/IWV (Zenithal Tropospheric Delay/Integrated Water Vapor) computations. Few stations also provide data to the IGS real time (IGSRT) service. Therefore, such network is characterized as a multipurpose infrastructure, having its data being used either for research in the field of Geodesy or Atmosphere, as well as to support operational applications. In the field of Geodesy it provides support for research related to positioning and reference system realization, detection of deformation, etc. Concerning the atmosphere, fields like Space Weather and Meteorology can take advantage of the derived TEC and ZTD/IWV products. In this presentation, we will show the status of the network, few results concerning the products provided by such infrastructure, besides the plans for the future of the network.

Monico, J. G.; Camargo, P. D.; Alves, D. B.; Sapucci, L. F.; Grupo de Estudos em Geodésia Espacial

2013-05-01

55

Engineering Design of a Multipurpose X-band Accelerating Structure  

E-print Network

Both FEL projects, SwissFEL and Fermi-Elettra each require an X-band RF accelerating structure for optimal bunch compression at the respective injectors. As the CLIC project is pursuing a program for producing and testing the X-band high-gradient RF structures, a collaboration between PSI, Elettra and CERN has been established to build a multipurpose X-band accelerating structure. This paper focuses on its engineering design, which is based on the disked cells jointed together by diffusion bonding. Vacuum brazing and laser beam welding is used for auxiliary components. The accelerating structure consists of two coupler subassemblies, 73 disks and includes a wakefield monitor and diagnostic waveguides. The engineering study includes the external cooling system, consisting of two parallel cooling circuits and an RF tuning system, which allows phase advance tuning of the cell by deforming the outer wall. The engineering solution for the installation and sealing of the wake field monitor feed-through devices that...

Gudkov, Dmitry; Samoshkin, Alexander; Zennaro, Riccardo; Dehler, Micha; Raguin, Jean-Yves

2010-01-01

56

Multipurpose water heater. Final technical report, October 1995--August 1997  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes SBIR Phase 2 project for the development of a multi-purpose water heater for use in Army Food sanitation centers. The objective of the project was to develop a water heater--powered only by an M2 burner and requiring no external supply of electricity--capable of supplying a continuous flow of pressurized hot water to a faucet at the sanitation sink. In the course of the research, two developments took place that have had an impact on the final design. First, the Multifuel Burner Unit (MBU) became available as a potential replacement for the M2. The MBU runs on JP-8 or diesel fuel and requires an external 24-volt VDC power supply. Thus, in anticipation of eventual conversion from M2 to MBU, a DC-Powered Water Heater was also delivered. Second, a new method for heating water in the sanitation sinks was developed allowing three sinks to be heated by a single M2 or MBU.

Guyer, E.C.; Coumou, K.G.

1999-03-01

57

A novel multipurpose modular mini-endoscope for otology.  

PubMed

Transtympanic access to the round window membrane (RWM) for drug delivery is in the focus of otology and has stimulated development of various endoscopes. These endoscopes are tasked to enable best visualization at a low diameter and to offer a working channel for various instruments. The specific aspect of sterilization is a major issue especially in regard to the diameter of the endoscope with its integrated working channel. We evaluated a new multi-purpose modular semi-rigid optical fiber endoscope (10,000 pixel resolution) for minimal invasive middle ear endoscopy focusing on access to the RWM and micro instruments in 12 cadaver specimens. Microscopic visualization was compared to endoscopy. With the modular mini ear endoscope (MMEE) we were able to visualize the RWM in 3 specimens directly and in 8 specimens after removal of a mucous membrane using micro instruments. A bony overhang prevented visualization of the RWM in one case. The endoscope enabled minimal invasive RWM access initially in a higher number of cases compared to microscope investigation. The designed MMEE is suited to access transtympanic the round window membrane even in situations of an obstructed round window niche. The modular concept of the endoscope is attractive for different types of indications, various instruments and with regard to the aspects of sterilization. Experiences in humans are the next necessary step to define the possible role of this endoscope in otology. PMID:25318687

Bozzato, Alessandro; Bozzato, Victoria; Al Kadah, Basel; Schick, Bernhard

2014-12-01

58

A Multi-purpose Brain-Computer Interface Output Device  

PubMed Central

While brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising alternative access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments, many BCI systems are designed as standalone communication and control systems, rather than as interfaces to existing systems built for these purposes. While an individual communication and control system may be powerful or flexible, no single system can compete with the variety of options available in the commercial assistive technology (AT) market. BCIs could instead be used as an interface to these existing AT devices and products, which are designed for improving access and agency of people with disabilities and are highly configurable to individual user needs. However, interfacing with each AT device and program requires significant time and effort on the part of researchers and clinicians. This work presents the Multi-Purpose BCI Output Device (MBOD), a tool to help researchers and clinicians provide BCI control of many forms of AT in a plug-and-play fashion, i.e. without the installation of drivers or software on the AT device, and a proof-of-concept of the practicality of such an approach. The MBOD was designed to meet the goals of target device compatibility, BCI input device compatibility, convenience, and intuitive command structure. The MBOD was successfully used to interface a BCI with multiple AT devices (including two wheelchair seating systems), as well as computers running Windows (XP and 7), Mac and Ubuntu Linux operating systems. PMID:22208120

Thompson, David E; Huggins, Jane E

2012-01-01

59

Developing Multipurpose Reproductive Health Technologies: An Integrated Strategy  

PubMed Central

Women worldwide confront two frequently concurrent reproductive health challenges: the need for contraception and for protection from sexually transmitted infections, importantly HIV/AIDS. While conception and infection share the same anatomical site and mode of transmission, there are no reproductive health technologies to date that simultaneously address that reality. Relevant available technologies are either contraceptive or anti-infective, are limited in number, and require different modes of administration and management. These “single-indication” technologies do not therefore fully respond to what is a substantial reproductive health need intimately linked to pivotal events in many women's lives. This paper reviews an integrated attempt to develop multipurpose prevention technologies—“MPTs”—products explicitly designed to simultaneously address the need for both contraception and protection from sexually transmitted infections. It describes an innovative and iterative MPT product development strategy with the following components: identifying different needs for such technologies and global variations in reproductive health priorities, defining “Target Product Profiles” as the framework for a research and development “roadmap,” collating an integrated MPT pipeline and characterizing significant pipeline gaps, exploring anticipated regulatory requirements, prioritizing candidates for problem-solving and resource investments, and implementing an ancillary advocacy agenda to support this breadth of effort. PMID:23533733

Harrison, P. F.; Hemmerling, A.; Romano, J.; Whaley, K. J.; Young Holt, B.

2013-01-01

60

World: A multipurpose GPS-network computer package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WORLD is a multipurpose package to compute geodetic positions in geometry and gravity space. Here undifferenced GPS carrier beat phase observations are processed in the free network mode, namely by the prototype program called PUMA. Within two alternative model formulations, the classical Gauß-Markov Model and the so-called Mixed Model, simultaneously estimated / predicted parameters are those of type (i) Cartesian ground station coordinates (geodetic positioning), (ii) Cartesian satellite coordinates (orbit determination), (iii) receiver- and satellite-specific bias terms, (iv) initial epoch ambiguities and (v) proportional tropospheric corrections. The Mixed Model parameters appear from linearization as a point of stochastic prior information. Namely the weight matrices of stochastic prior information, e.g. for orbit parameters, is assumed to be known. Estimators of type BLUE and predictors of type inhom BLIP and hom BLUP are used. Chapter four discusses in all detail the real analysis of GPS satellite networks of free type. Most notable are the estimated bias terms ?, ?, ?, in a twofold classification model. The operability of PUMA is demonstrated by the use of multistation phase observations (Wild-Magnavox WM 101-receivers) in a local Berlin network (six station network). It is documented that in spite of the advanced phase observation modelling an internal relative baseline accuracy (utmost length 30 km) of the order of 3 to 5 ppm is achievable. In addition, the influence of orbital prior information on ground station measures, point position as well as accuracy, is demonstrated.

Grafarend, Erik W.; Lindlohr, Wolfgang

61

VizieR Online Data Catalog: AGK3R mean positions and proper motions (Corbin, 1978)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AGK3R and SRS are lists of reference stars containing, respectively, 21,499 stars in the northern hemisphere and 20,500 stars in the southern hemisphere. This paper presents computations of proper motions of these two groups of stars that will permit the use of the observed positions away from the epochs of observation. Tables are presented summarizing the mean errors of AGK3R proper motions and the observational histories of AGK3R and SRS stars. (1 data file).

Corbin, T. E.

2014-11-01

62

Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.  

PubMed

In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

2013-11-30

63

GL(3,R) gauge theory of gravity coupled with an electromagnetic field  

E-print Network

Consistency of $GL(3,R)$ gauge theory of gravity coupled with an external electromagnetic field, is studied. It is shown that possible restrictions on Maxwell field can be avoided through introduction of auxiliary fields.

Rolando Gaitan; Frank Vera

2006-08-11

64

Multi-purpose greenhouse of changeable geometry (MGCG)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frames of scientific program of National Cosmic Agency of Ukraine the multipurpose greenhouse is being developed. It is destined for the performance of biological and biotechnological experiments as well as for planting of fast growing vegetable cultures for crew ration enrichment and positive psychological influence under the conditions of long-term flight in the international space station or in other cosmic flying objects. Main principle of greenhouse arrangement is the existence of unified modules. Their sets and combinations permit to form executively different space greenhouse configurations. The minimal structural greenhouse unit suitable either for construction of total configuration or for autonomous functioning, is a carrying composite platform (CCP). The experimental vegetative module (EVM) and the module, supporting microclimate needed inside EVM, are launched to CCP. The amount of these modules and their configuration depend on quantity and complexity of tasks to be solved as well as on duration of their performance. These modules form the experimental block. Four modules of much larger sizes, which form experimentally technological block, are used for further studies of objectives approved in the experimental block. The technologies developed for growing plants are used in the third, technological block, which is a one large vegetative module. All three greenhouse blocks can be changed in their sizes in three dimensions, and function either in a complete greenhouse structure, or autonomously. The control is performed from a board computer, or, if necessary, it is governed with automation devices placed on a front panel of blocks. All three blocks are pulled out along the directing base into the station passage, and this makes free access to the base modules, convenient work with them, and à good survey.

Kordium, V.; Kornejchuk, A.

65

Emergy evaluation perspectives of a multipurpose dam proposal in Korea.  

PubMed

The 'emergy' concept was used to evaluate the economy of Korea and the contributions of a multipurpose dam proposal to the real wealth of the Korean economy. Emergy is defined as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a product or service. The indices for Korea calculated from the emergy evaluation were close to those of developed countries. Even though its monetary balance of payments was negative in 1997, the economy of Korea showed positive balance in trade when exports and imports were expressed in emergy. The emergy evaluation showed that the Korean economy places a large stress on its environment. Water supply and generation of electricity were the most important contributions of the proposed dam in terms of emergy; 46.5 and 45.1% of the total benefit, respectively. Flood control contributed 8.4% of the total benefit. Major costs associated with the proposed dam were from sediments (33.2% of the total cost), construction services (22.8%), and social disruption of the region (21.6%). In terms of emergy, the ratio of benefits to costs of the proposed dam was 2.78 if sediments are not included, and 1.86 if sediments are included, which result in more benefits than costs in both cases. The benefit to cost ratio of the dam was larger than that of the current system (1.42) without the dam whether sediments are included in the total cost or not. The environmental stress of the proposed dam was considerably lower than that of the Korean economy, but the dam might increase stress on local environment. PMID:12448407

Kang, Daeseok; Park, Seok Soon

2002-11-01

66

PIK3R1 underexpression is an independent prognostic marker in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The present study focused on the prognostic roles of PIK3CA and PIK3R1 genes and additional PI3K pathway-associated genes in breast cancer. Methods The mutational and mRNA expression status of PIK3CA, PIK3R1 and AKT1, and expression status of other genes involved in the PI3K pathway (EGFR, PDK1, PTEN, AKT2, AKT3, GOLPH3, WEE1, P70S6K) were assessed in a series of 458 breast cancer samples. Results PIK3CA mutations were identified in 151 samples (33.0%) in exons 1, 2, 9 and 20. PIK3R1 mutations were found in 10 samples (2.2%) and underexpression in 283 samples (61.8%). AKT1 mutations were found in 15 samples (3.3%) and overexpression in 116 samples (25.3%). PIK3R1 underexpression tended to mutual exclusivity with PIK3CA mutations (p = 0.00097). PIK3CA mutations were associated with better metastasis-free survival and PIK3R1 underexpression was associated with poorer metastasis-free survival (p = 0.014 and p = 0.00028, respectively). By combining PIK3CA mutation and PIK3R1 expression status, four prognostic groups were identified with significantly different metastasis-free survival (p = 0.00046). On Cox multivariate regression analysis, the prognostic significance of PIK3R1 underexpression was confirmed in the total population (p = 0.0013) and in breast cancer subgroups. Conclusions PIK3CA mutations and PIK3R1 underexpression show opposite effects on patient outcome and could become useful prognostic and predictive factors in breast cancer. PMID:24229379

2013-01-01

67

Skeletal Muscle IP3R1 Receptors Amplify Physiological and Pathological Synaptic Calcium Signals  

PubMed Central

Ca2+ release from internal stores is critical for mediating both normal and pathological intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Recent studies suggest that the inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor mediates Ca2+ release from internal stores upon cholinergic activation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in both physiological and pathological conditions. Here we report that the type I IP3 receptor (IP3R1) -mediated Ca2+ release plays a crucial role in synaptic gene expression, development and neuromuscular transmission, as well as mediating degeneration during excessive cholinergic activation. We found that IP3R1-mediated Ca2+ release plays a key role in early development of the NMJ, in homeostatic regulation of neuromuscular transmission, and in synaptic gene expression. Reducing IP3R1-mediated Ca2+ release via siRNA knockdown or IP3R blockers in C2C12 cells decreased calpain activity, and prevented agonist-induced AChR cluster dispersal. In fully developed NMJ in adult muscle, IP3R1 knockdown or blockade effectively increased synaptic strength at pre- and postsynaptic sites, by increasing both quantal release and expression of AChR subunits and other NMJ-specific genes, in a pattern resembling muscle denervation. Moreover, in two mouse models of cholinergic overactivity and NMJ Ca2+ overload, anti-cholinesterase toxicity and the slow-channel myasthenic syndrome (SCS), IP3R1 knockdown eliminated NMJ Ca2+ overload, pathological activation of calpain and caspase proteases, and markers of DNA damage at subsynaptic nuclei, and improved both neuromuscular transmission and clinical measures of motor function. Thus, blockade or genetic silencing of muscle IP3R1 may be an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic strategy in SCS and other conditions of excitotoxicity or Ca2+ overload. PMID:22031873

Zhu, Haipeng; Bhattacharyya, Bula; Lin, Hong; Gomez, Christopher M.

2011-01-01

68

Dynamic versus static allocation policies in multipurpose multireservoir systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the competition for water is likely to increase in the near future due to socioeconomic development and population growth, water resources managers will face hard choices when allocating water between competing users. Because water is a vital resource used in multiple sectors, including the environment, the allocation is inherently a political and social process, which is likely to become increasingly scrutinized as the competition grows between the different sectors. Since markets are usually absent or ineffective, the allocation of water between competing demands is achieved administratively taking into account key objectives such as economic efficiency, equity and maintaining the ecological integrity. When crop irrigation is involved, water is usually allocated by a system of annual rights to use a fixed, static, volume of water. In a fully-allocated basin, moving from a static to a dynamic allocation process, whereby the policies are regularly updated according to the hydrologic status of the river basin, is the first step towards the development of river basin management strategies that increase the productivity of water. More specifically, in a multipurpose multireservoir system, continuously adjusting release and withdrawal decisions based on the latest hydrologic information will increase the benefits derived from the system. However, the extent to which such an adjustment can be achieved results from complex spatial and temporal interactions between the physical characteristics of the water resources system (storage, natural flows), the economic and social consequences of rationing and the impacts on natural ecosystems. The complexity of the decision-making process, which requires the continuous evaluation of numerous trade-offs, calls for the use of integrated hydrologic-economic models. This paper compares static and dynamic management approaches for a cascade of hydropower-irrigation reservoirs using stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) formulations. As its name indicates, SDDP is an extension of SDP that removes the curse of dimensionality found in discrete SDP and can therefore be used to analyze large-scale water resources systems. For the static approach, the multiobjective (irrigation-hydropower) optimization problem is solved using the constraint method, i.e. net benefits from hydropower generation are maximized and irrigation water withdrawals are additional constraints. In the dynamic approach, the SDDP model seeks to maximize the net benefits of both hydropower and irrigation crop production. A cascade of 8 reservoirs in the Turkish and Syrian parts of the Euphrates river basin is used as a case study.

Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.; van der Zaag, P.

2007-12-01

69

Nearest and next-nearest superexchange interactions in orthorhombic perovskite manganites RMnO3 (R=rare earth)  

E-print Network

-type magnetic orders observed in orthorhombic perovskite manganites RMnO3 R: rare-earth element , we have of orthorhombic rare-earth man- ganites RMnO3 R: rare-earths are very complicated, espe- cially for R with smallNearest and next-nearest superexchange interactions in orthorhombic perovskite manganites RMnO3 (R=rare

Min, Byung Il

70

IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 20, OCTOBER 15, 2006 2081 Cascadability of Optical 3R Regeneration for  

E-print Network

3R Regeneration for NRZ Format Investigated in Recirculating Loop Transmission Over Field Fibers, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--This letter demonstrates optical 3R regeneration in 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero field transmission. The 3R regenerator utilizes semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Mach

Kolner, Brian H.

71

2078 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 20, OCTOBER 15, 2006 Optical Clock Recovery and 3R Regeneration  

E-print Network

and 3R Regeneration for 10-Gb/s NRZ Signal to Achieve 10 000-hop Cascadability and 1 000 000-km Abstract--This letter experimentally demonstrates all-optical clock recovery and optical 3R regeneration for a 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) format. The 3R regenerator has achieved 10 000-hop cascadability

Kolner, Brian H.

72

The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscle power in male Japanese athletes.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscular power in Japanese collegiate athletes by analyzing the mean and peak power results of a 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) with respect to the ACTN3 R577X genotype in 253 Japanese athletes (144 men and 109 women). Each athlete performed a 30-second WAnT with a resistance equal to 7.5% of his or her body weight. Genotyping for the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan approach. The ACTN3 R577X genotypes exhibited a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution in our population. The relative and absolute mean power results of the 30-second WAnT did not differ significantly among the genotypes. However, the relative peak power result of the WAnT was significantly higher in the R-allele-dominant model groups than in the XX group in male but not female athletes. These results suggest that the ACTN3 R allele is associated with the relative peak power during the WAnT in male Japanese collegiate athletes. PMID:24343324

Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi; Min, Seok-ki; Ueda, Dai; Igawa, Shoji

2014-07-01

73

Abolished InsP3R2 function inhibits sweat secretion in both humans and mice.  

PubMed

There are 3 major sweat-producing glands present in skin; eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands. Due to the high rate of secretion, eccrine sweating is a vital regulator of body temperature in response to thermal stress in humans; therefore, an inability to sweat (anhidrosis) results in heat intolerance that may cause impaired consciousness and death. Here, we have reported 5 members of a consanguineous family with generalized, isolated anhidrosis, but morphologically normal eccrine sweat glands. Whole-genome analysis identified the presence of a homozygous missense mutation in ITPR2, which encodes the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2), that was present in all affected family members. We determined that the mutation is localized within the pore forming region of InsP3R2 and abrogates Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ release by InsP3R2 in clear cells of the sweat glands is important for eccrine sweat production. Itpr2-/- mice exhibited a marked reduction in sweat secretion, and evaluation of sweat glands from Itpr2-/- animals revealed a decrease in Ca2+ response compared with controls. Together, our data indicate that loss of InsP3R2-mediated Ca2+ release causes isolated anhidrosis in humans and suggest that specific InsP3R inhibitors have the potential to reduce sweat production in hyperhidrosis. PMID:25329695

Klar, Joakim; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Baig, Shahid M; Tariq, Muhammad; Johansson, Anna C V; Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Naveed Altaf; Ameur, Adam; Sugiura, Kotomi; Feuk, Lars; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Dahl, Niklas

2014-11-01

74

No association between ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and elite judo athletic status.  

PubMed

The authors compared ACTN3 R577X genotype and allele frequencies in the majority of all-time-best Spanish judo male athletes (n = 108) and 343 ethnically matched nonathletic men. No between-groups differences were found in allele (P = .077) or genotype distributions (P = .178). Thus, the R577X polymorphism was not significantly associated with the status of being an elite judo athlete, at least in the Spanish population. The contribution of genetics to sports-related phenotype traits is undeniable with some genotypes, of which ACTN3 R577X is currently the leading candidate, partly distinguishing individuals predisposed to either endurance or power sports. However, few athletic events can be categorized as purely power or endurance based. Although genetic testing (ie, for ACTN3 R577X) is already being marketed to predict sports talent and potential of young children, its usefulness is still questionable, at least in competitive judo. PMID:23348074

Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Yvert, Thomas; de Diego, Alfonso; Santiago, Catalina; Díaz de Durana, Alfonso L; Carratalá, Vicente; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro

2013-09-01

75

Autism-linked neuroligin-3 R451C mutation differentially alters hippocampal and cortical synaptic function.  

PubMed

Multiple independent mutations in neuroligin genes were identified in patients with familial autism, including the R451C substitution in neuroligin-3 (NL3). Previous studies showed that NL3(R451C) knock-in mice exhibited modestly impaired social behaviors, enhanced water maze learning abilities, and increased synaptic inhibition in the somatosensory cortex, and they suggested that the behavioral changes in these mice may be caused by a general shift of synaptic transmission to inhibition. Here, we confirm that NL3(R451C) mutant mice behaviorally exhibit social interaction deficits and electrophysiologically display increased synaptic inhibition in the somatosensory cortex. Unexpectedly, however, we find that the NL3(R451C) mutation produced a strikingly different phenotype in the hippocampus. Specifically, in the hippocampal CA1 region, the NL3(R451C) mutation caused an ?1.5-fold increase in AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission, dramatically altered the kinetics of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses, induced an approximately twofold up-regulation of NMDA receptors containing NR2B subunits, and enhanced long-term potentiation almost twofold. NL3 KO mice did not exhibit any of these changes. Quantitative light microscopy and EM revealed that the NL3(R451C) mutation increased dendritic branching and altered the structure of synapses in the stratum radiatum of the hippocampus. Thus, in NL3(R451C) mutant mice, a single point mutation in a synaptic cell adhesion molecule causes context-dependent changes in synaptic transmission; these changes are consistent with the broad impact of this mutation on murine and human behaviors, suggesting that NL3 controls excitatory and inhibitory synapse properties in a region- and circuit-specific manner. PMID:21808020

Etherton, Mark; Földy, Csaba; Sharma, Manu; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Liu, Xinran; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Malenka, Robert C; Südhof, Thomas C

2011-08-16

76

Autism-linked neuroligin-3 R451C mutation differentially alters hippocampal and cortical synaptic function  

PubMed Central

Multiple independent mutations in neuroligin genes were identified in patients with familial autism, including the R451C substitution in neuroligin-3 (NL3). Previous studies showed that NL3R451C knock-in mice exhibited modestly impaired social behaviors, enhanced water maze learning abilities, and increased synaptic inhibition in the somatosensory cortex, and they suggested that the behavioral changes in these mice may be caused by a general shift of synaptic transmission to inhibition. Here, we confirm that NL3R451C mutant mice behaviorally exhibit social interaction deficits and electrophysiologically display increased synaptic inhibition in the somatosensory cortex. Unexpectedly, however, we find that the NL3R451C mutation produced a strikingly different phenotype in the hippocampus. Specifically, in the hippocampal CA1 region, the NL3R451C mutation caused an ?1.5-fold increase in AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission, dramatically altered the kinetics of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses, induced an approximately twofold up-regulation of NMDA receptors containing NR2B subunits, and enhanced long-term potentiation almost twofold. NL3 KO mice did not exhibit any of these changes. Quantitative light microscopy and EM revealed that the NL3R451C mutation increased dendritic branching and altered the structure of synapses in the stratum radiatum of the hippocampus. Thus, in NL3R451C mutant mice, a single point mutation in a synaptic cell adhesion molecule causes context-dependent changes in synaptic transmission; these changes are consistent with the broad impact of this mutation on murine and human behaviors, suggesting that NL3 controls excitatory and inhibitory synapse properties in a region- and circuit-specific manner. PMID:21808020

Etherton, Mark; Foldy, Csaba; Sharma, Manu; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Liu, Xinran; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Malenka, Robert C.; Sudhof, Thomas C.

2011-01-01

77

A Multi-purpose Flow System Based on Multi-commutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi?purpose flow system designed with solenoid valves and micropumps is proposed. The independent control of each active device was exploited to implement dilutions, calibration with a single solution, standard additions, titrations and strategies to increase sample residence time without changing the manifold hardware. Sample dispersion coefficients between 1 and 7800 were achieved by changing the sample volume and exploiting

Fábio R. P. Rocha; Carlos M. C. Infante; Wanessa R. Melchert

2006-01-01

78

Development of a multipurpose fruit and vegetable processor for a manned mission to Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current plans for long duration space missions anticipate the need for self-sustaining habitats, which would include plants for food and atmospheric reprocessing. Growth of food, in turn, necessitates a food processing element. A multipurpose fruit and vegetable processor (MFVP) was designed and built for this purpose by comparing potential technologies using equivalent system mass (ESM) impact, a NASA metric. As

D. C. Voit; M. R. Santos; R. Paul Singh

2006-01-01

79

Nutritive evaluation of some nitrogen and non-nitrogen fixing multipurpose tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritive value of leaf materials from five each of nitrogen (NFT), namely, Acacia nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, Butea monosperma, Leucaena leucocephala, Pongamia pinnata and non-nitrogen fixing multipurpose tree (non-NFT) species, namely, Anogeissus pendula, Azadirachta indica, Ficus bengalensis, Terminalia arjuna and Syzygium cumini grown at National Research Centre for Agroforestry, were evaluated by chemical and in sacco methods. Mean organic matter

D. B. V Ramana; Sultan Singh; K. R Solanki; A. S Negi

2000-01-01

80

Restoring Natural Streamflow Variability by Modifying Multi-purpose Reservoir Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-purpose reservoirs typically provide benefits of water supply, hydroelectric power, and flood mitigation. Hydroelectric power generations generally do not consume water. However, temporal distribution of downstream flows is highly changed due to hydro-peaking effects. Associated with offstream diversion of water supplies for municipal, industrial, and agricultural requirements, natural streamflow characteristics of magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change is

J. Shiau

2010-01-01

81

A Multipurpose Fitness Playground for Individuals with Autism: Ideas for Design and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the five-step process used to design and construct a multipurpose fitness playground for students with autism. It can be followed to design school- or community-based playgrounds to meet the various needs of individuals with disabilities. This design yielded an outdoor classroom that can be used during physical education…

Menear, Kristi Sayers; Smith, Shannon C.; Lanier, Shane

2006-01-01

82

Engineering a multi-purpose test collection for Web retrieval experiments  

E-print Network

quantities of dark matter (Bailey, Craswell, & Hawking, 2000) due to Web page access restrictions, to lackEngineering a multi-purpose test collection for Web retrieval experiments Peter Bailey a,*, Nick methods for the Web has been restricted by the lack of a test collection capable of supporting experiments

Tomkins, Andrew

83

APPLICATION OF A MULTIPURPOSE UNEQUAL-PROBABILITY STREAM SURVEY IN THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A stratified random sample with unequal-probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for data from the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of un...

84

Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP2) Facility as  

E-print Network

and Development KSTARApplied Technology Research Administration Plasma PhysicsPlasma Physics related withrelatedJapan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP2) Facility as a Steady State Divertor Simulator B. J. Lee, K. Cho, A. England, T. Lho, J. Yoon, and plasma research team Div. Of Plasma

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

85

Multipurpose Control System and Mobile Robot Development, for Control Algorithms Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present papers the example of multipurpose control system and mobile robot development is presented. The mobile robot and control system are developed for control algorithms research on the basis of small scientific laboratory. In the presented project the mobile robot is developed on the basis of radio-controlled toy car by QUNXING Company. This platform is big enough to

Denis A. Olchanski; Sergey A. Levykh

86

Design of HMI for multipurpose electrocardiography using higher level language (Visual C++)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to introduce a new multipurpose human machine interface (HMI) designed using higher level language. Unlike any other software, wherein if hardware is changed; there is a need to bring subsequent change in the software; this HMI can be used as a general purpose software for ECG analysis with any kind of hardware. The same

Chandrashekhar Ghule; D. G. Wakde; G. S. Virdi

2009-01-01

87

A Model for a Linked System of Multi-Purpose Reservoirs with Stochastic Inflows and Demands  

E-print Network

In Chapter I of this report a model of a single multi-purpose reservoir with stochastic inflows is addressed. The objective of the model is the development of an optimal operating policy for given time sequence of minimum and maximum reservoir...

Curry, G. L.; Helm, J. C.; Clark, R. A.

88

Testing basic performance of a very small wind turbine designed for multi-purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very small wind turbine system for multi-purposes was developed and its performance was reported in this paper. The rotor diameter of the turbine is 500mm. The tests of the energy output, turbine speed, power coefficient, and torque of turbine were carried out for a wide rage of free stream velocity. The flow around the wind turbine and the influence

Hiroyuki Hirahara; M. Zakir Hossain; Masaaki Kawahashi; Yoshitami Nonomura

2005-01-01

89

A spectral problem based on so(3,{R}) and its associated commuting soliton equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a spectral problem, based on the three-dimensional real special orthogonal Lie algebra {so}(3,{R}), and construct a hierarchy of commuting bi-Hamiltonian soliton equations by zero curvature equations associated with the spectral problem. An illustrative example of soliton equations is computed, together with its associated bi-Hamiltonian structure.

Ma, Wen-Xiu

2013-10-01

90

Comparison of ICD-10 and DC: 0-3R Diagnoses in Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare diagnoses of patients from a special outpatient department for infants, toddlers and preschoolers. Specifically, overlap, age and gender differences according to the two classification systems DC: 0-3R and ICD-10 were examined. 299 consecutive children aged 0-5;11 years received both ICD-10 and…

Equit, Monika; Paulus, Frank; Fuhrmann, Pia; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander

2011-01-01

91

SOAR versus SQ3R: A Test of Two Study Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although researchers have long investigated ways to improve study habits and raise achievement, few studies compare study strategy systems with one another. No study to date has compared the long popular SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) system with the more modern SOAR (Select, Organize, Associate, Regulate) system. This study…

Jairam, Dharma; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Rogers-Kasson, Sarah; Patterson-Hazley, Melissa; Marxhausen, Kim

2014-01-01

92

An Organocatalyzed enantioselective synthesis of (2S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine and its stereoisomers.  

PubMed

A concise enantioselective total synthesis of (2S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine and its stereoisomers is described. A key feature of this protocol is a catalytic enantioselective mannich reaction that is either anti- or syn-selective as genesis of chirality. PMID:20307090

Kumaraswamy, Gullapalli; Jayaprakash, Neerasa; Sridhar, Balasubramanian

2010-04-16

93

The Multi-Module, Multi-Resolution (M3 R) SPECT System  

E-print Network

, two of which are shown in Figure 1(b)-(c). (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 1: (a) M3R shielding assembly. (b likelihood estimation for gamma cameras, in 14th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference, pp. 498­501, 2005. [3] J. Y

Arizona, University of

94

Stereoselective synthesis of (3R)-3-alkyl-4,1-benzoxazepine-2,5-diones.  

PubMed

Novel 3-alkyl-4,1-benzoxazepine-2,5-diones were synthesized in good ee exploiting the chiral pool methodology, an economical way of asymmetric synthesis. Various anthranilic acids are coupled with different ?-haloacids to afford N-acylated anthranilic acid intermediates which undergo cyclization to (3R)-3-alkyl-4,1-benzoxazepines-2,5-diones. PMID:24123363

Nisar, Bushra; Raza, Abdul Rauf; Black, David Stc; Kumar, Naresh; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

2013-12-01

95

Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

2009-01-01

96

Determination of the pozzolanic activity of fluid catalytic cracking residue. Thermogravimetric analysis studies on FC3R–lime pastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R) from a petrol refinery played a pozzolanic role in portland cement system as revealed by previous experimental data. In the present study, the pozzolanic activity of FC3R was investigated by means thermogravimetry (TG) of cured lime–FC3R pastes. The influence of pozzolan\\/lime ratio on the pozzolanic activity was investigated. Due to the chemical composition of

J. Payá; J. Monzó; M. V. Borrachero; S. Velázquez; M. Bonilla

2003-01-01

97

The trigeneration cycle as a way to create multipurpose stationary power plants based on conversion of aeroderivative turbofan engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A schematic cycle is considered, and thermodynamic analysis is performed to substantiate the possibility of creating multipurpose industrial power plants, operating on a trigeneration cycle, based on production-type turbofan engines.

Varaksin, A. Yu.; Arbekov, A. N.; Inozemtsev, A. A.

2014-10-01

98

The Use of Rose Multipurpose Chambers and Dialysis Membranes in the Cultivation of Exoerythrocytic Stages of Avian Malarial Parasites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of chick embryo tissues infected with exoerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium fallax were grown under sheets of cellophane dialysis membranes in Rose multipurpose chambers. The parasites thus cultivated lived for extended periods of time in an envi...

D. V. Jensen, C. G. Huff, T. Shiroishi

1964-01-01

99

3'-R/S-hydroxyvoacamine, a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from Tabernaemontana divaricata.  

PubMed

Guided by the acetylcholinesterase inhibiting activity, the bisindole alkaloid 3'-R/S-hydroxyvoacamine was isolated from a stem extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata, a plant used in Thailand in traditional rejuvenation remedies for improving the memory. The structure of the alkaloid was elucidated by extensive use of NMR spectroscopy and the complete assignment of the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra is reported. The alkaloid acted as a non-competitive inhibitor against AChE with an IC50 value of 7.00±1.99 ?M. An HPLC method was developed for the quantitative analysis of the AChE inhibitor. It suggested that there was 12.4% (w/w) of 3'-R/S-hydroxyvoacamine in the alkaloid enriched fraction of T. divaricata stem. PMID:23375813

Chaiyana, Wantida; Schripsema, Jan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Okonogi, Siriporn

2013-04-15

100

CSF3R, SETBP1 and CALR mutations in chronic neutrophilic leukemia.  

PubMed

The WHO 2008 definition of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is based on clinical and laboratory parameters but not on molecular abnormalities. Mutations in CSF3R, SETBP1 and CALR are reported in patients with chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL). However, because CNL is rare, there are few large studies of this issue. We sequenced these genes in 14 patients who met the WHO-criteria of CNL. 8 subjects had CSF3RT618I, 6 SETBP1 mutations and 1 a CALR mutation. Our data suggest mutation analysis of CSF3R, SETBP1 and CALR should be included in the diagnostic criteria for CNL. These data may also have therapy implications. PMID:25316523

Cui, Yajuan; Li, Bing; Gale, Robert Peter; Jiang, Qian; Xu, Zefeng; Qin, Tiejun; Zhang, Peihong; Zhang, Yue; Xiao, Zhijian

2014-01-01

101

Oncogenic CSF3R Mutations in Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia and Atypical CML  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The molecular causes of many hematologic cancers remain unclear. Among these cancers are chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and atypical (BCR-ABL1–negative) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), both of which are diagnosed on the basis of neoplastic expansion of granulocytic cells and exclusion of genetic drivers that are known to occur in other myeloproliferative neoplasms and myeloproliferative– myelodysplastic overlap neoplasms. METHODS To identify potential genetic drivers in these disorders, we used an integrated approach of deep sequencing coupled with the screening of primary leukemia cells obtained from patients with CNL or atypical CML against panels of tyrosine kinase–specific small interfering RNAs or small-molecule kinase inhibitors. We validated candidate oncogenes using in vitro transformation assays, and drug sensitivities were validated with the use of assays of primary-cell colonies. RESULTS We identified activating mutations in the gene encoding the receptor for colonystimulating factor 3 (CSF3R) in 16 of 27 patients (59%) with CNL or atypical CML. These mutations segregate within two distinct regions of CSF3R and lead to preferential downstream kinase signaling through SRC family–TNK2 or JAK kinases and differential sensitivity to kinase inhibitors. A patient with CNL carrying a JAK-activating CSF3R mutation had marked clinical improvement after the administration of the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. CONCLUSIONS Mutations in CSF3R are common in patients with CNL or atypical CML and represent a potentially useful criterion for diagnosing these neoplasms. (Funded by the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society and others.) PMID:23656643

Maxson, Julia E.; Gotlib, Jason; Pollyea, Daniel A.; Fleischman, Angela G.; Agarwal, Anupriya; Eide, Christopher A.; Bottomly, Daniel; Wilmot, Beth; McWeeney, Shannon K.; Tognon, Cristina E.; Pond, J. Blake; Collins, Robert H.; Goueli, Basem; Oh, Stephen T.; Deininger, Michael W.; Chang, Bill H.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Druker, Brian J.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.

2013-01-01

102

The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism across Three Groups of Elite Male European Athletes  

PubMed Central

The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) is a strong candidate to influence elite athletic performance. Yet, controversy exists in the literature owing to between-studies differences in the ethnic background and sample size of the cohorts, the latter being usually low, which makes comparisons difficult. In this case:control genetic study we determined the association between elite athletic status and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism within three cohorts of European Caucasian men, i.e. Spanish, Polish and Russian [633 cases (278 elite endurance and 355 power athletes), and 808 non-athletic controls]. The odds ratio (OR) of a power athlete harbouring the XX versus the RR genotype compared with sedentary controls was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34–0.48; P?=?0.006]. We also observed that the OR of an endurance athlete having the XX versus the RR genotype compared with power athletes was 1.88 (95%CI: 1.07–3.31; P?=?0.028). In endurance athletes, the OR of a “world-class” competitor having the XX genotype versus the RR+RX genotype was 3.74 (95%CI: 1.08–12.94; P?=?0.038) compared with those of a lower (“national”) competition level. No association (P>0.1) was noted between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and competition level (world-class versus national-level) in power athletes. Our data provide comprehensive support for the influence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on elite athletic performance. PMID:22916217

Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Femia, Pedro; Pushkarev, Vladimir P.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Dyatlov, Dmitry A.; Lekontsev, Evgeny V.; Kulikov, Leonid M.; Birk, Ruth

2012-01-01

103

Compound R2 R3 R6 ( mol/min/mg)  

E-print Network

Compound R2 R3 R6 Metabolism ( mol/min/mg) NADH oxidation (by HPLC) Metabolism by NQO1 ( mol/min/mg) (cytochrome c reduction) 1 HP460 Me H OMe 20.7 ± 3.7 342 ± 22.9 2 TF03 Cl H OMe 100 ± 32.0 420 ± 40.1 3 TF02 cytochrome c as the terminal electron acceptor. Toxicity was determined by the MTT colorimetric assay

Vonessen, Nikolaus

104

UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING PHASE 3 RESTRUCTURED (3R)  

SciTech Connect

This scope document defines the work scope for accomplishing the design of the GE MS7001H and MS9001H (7H and 9H) combined-cycle power systems under the original ATS Phase 3 DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-95MC31176, and incorporates changes in scope required to convert Phase 3 to the ''restructured'' Phase 3R as defined in Amendment A012 to the Cooperative Agreement.

Unknown

2000-03-17

105

H3R42me2a is a histone modification with positive transcriptional effects  

PubMed Central

Histone posttranslational modification leads to downstream effects indirectly by allowing or preventing docking of effector molecules, or directly by changing the intrinsic biophysical properties of local chromatin. To date, little has been done to study posttranslational modifications that lie outside of the unstructured tail domains of histones. Core residues, and in particular arginines in H3 and H4, mediate key interactions between the histone octamer and DNA in forming the nucleosomal particle. Using mass spectrometry, we find that one of these core residues, arginine 42 of histone H3 (H3R42), is dimethylated in mammalian cells by the methyltransferases coactivator arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) and protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) in vitro and in vivo, and we demonstrate that methylation of H3R42 stimulates transcription in vitro from chromatinized templates. Thus, H3R42 is a new, “nontail” histone methylation site with positive effects on transcription. We propose that methylation of basic histone residues at the DNA interface may disrupt histone:DNA interactions, with effects on downstream processes, notably transcription. PMID:23980157

Casadio, Fabio; Lu, Xiangdong; Pollock, Samuel B.; LeRoy, Gary; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Muir, Tom W.; Roeder, Robert G.; Allis, C. David

2013-01-01

106

Multipurpose Controller with EPICS integration and data logging: BPM application for ESS Bilbao  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a multipurpose configurable control system which can be integrated in an EPICS control network, this functionality being configured through a XML configuration file. The core of the system is the so-called Hardware Controller which is in charge of the control hardware management, the set up and communication with the EPICS network and the data storage. The reconfigurable nature of the controller is based on a single XML file, allowing any final user to easily modify and adjust the control system to any specific requirement. The selected Java development environment ensures a multiplatform operation and large versatility, even regarding the control hardware to be controlled. Specifically, this paper, focused on fast control based on a high performance FPGA, describes also an application approach for the ESS Bilbao's Beam Position Monitoring system. The implementation of the XML configuration file and the satisfactory performance outcome achieved are presented, as well as a general description of the Multipurpose Controller itself.

Arredondo, I.; del Campo, M.; Echevarria, P.; Jugo, J.; Etxebarria, V.

2013-10-01

107

‘Drumstick tree’ ( Moringa oleifera Lam.): a multipurpose potential species in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moringa oleifera Lam., a medium sized tree species has gained importance due to its multipurpose usage and well adaptability to dry and hot\\u000a climates of north-western plains, central India and dry regions of peninsular India. This species is reported in this paper\\u000a for distribution of diversity and genetic resources value in different parts of the country. Information on diversification\\u000a in

Anjula Pandey; K. Pradheep; Rita Gupta; E. Roshini Nayar; D. C. Bhandari

2011-01-01

108

Engineering a multi-purpose test collection for Web retrieval experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research into text retrieval methods for the Web has been restricted by the lack of a test collection capable of supporting experiments which are both realistic and reproducible. The 1.69 million document WT10g collection is proposed as a multi-purpose testbed for experiments with these attributes, in distributed IR, hyperlink algorithms and conventional ad hoc retrieval.WT10g was constructed by selecting

Peter Bailey; Nick Craswell; David Hawking

2003-01-01

109

Do multipurpose companion trees affect high value timber trees in a silvopastoral plantation system?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment of native timber trees on deforested land may contribute to the livelihood of farmers, to improved ecosystem\\u000a services and to increased greenhouse gas uptake. Here, we present a new silvopastoral planting design to assess species performance\\u000a and interspecific competition or facilitation effects among native timber and multipurpose trees in Central America. Two timber\\u000a species, Tabebuia rosea and Cedrela odorata,

Karsten Mody; Catherine Potvin; Silvia Dorn

2011-01-01

110

Down-regulating the expression of IL-3R? interfered with the proliferation, not differentiation in NB4 cells.  

PubMed

The human IL-3 receptor is composed of both ? and ? subunits. In early studies, we showed that the level of IL-3R? expression was lower in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) than healthy donors and patients in complete remission by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). With the differentiation of cells, enhanced expression of IL-3R? was also observed in all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced NB4 cells. To unravel the role of IL-3R? upregulation in NB4 cells induced with ATRA, we knocked down IL-3R? expression by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of IL-3R? resulted in decreased proliferation in NB4 cells induced with or without ATRA, observed by cell growth curves, colony formation assays and cell cycle analysis. Surface expression of CD11b antigen and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assays were also carried out at different time points. However, no significant difference was observed between the experimental and control groups treated with ATRA. Other findings suggested that IL-3R? was decreased in NB4-IL-3R? shRNA cells by western blot. Down-regulation of IL-3R? also caused a decrease in PML/RAR? expression detected with RT-qPCR. Together, these results suggest that abnormalities of IL-3R? expression were observed in APL; knockdown of IL-3R? inhibited the proliferation of NB4 cells with or without ATRA, but no effect was detected in the cellular differentiation. When NB4 cells exposed to ATAR, the up-regulation of IL-3R? expression may contribute to the maintenance of proliferation rather than cell differentiation. PMID:21207215

Li, Xin; Wu, Yong; Chen, Yuanzhong

2011-01-01

111

Multipurpose Prevention Technologies: Biomedical Tools to Prevent HIV-1, HSV-2, and Unintended Pregnancies  

PubMed Central

Statistics clearly show an unmet need for highly effective contraception, especially in less developed countries. Many of these countries are at the core of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and show very high prevalence rates for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as that caused by HSV-2. A woman at risk of unintended pregnancy due to unprotected intercourse is also at risk for HIV/STI. Owing to their causative interrelationship, combining protection against these conditions will result in enhanced prevention and health benefits. Existing multipurpose prevention modalities such as condoms and physical barriers, albeit efficacious, face cultural hurdles that have so far hindered their widespread use. Success has recently been demonstrated in large clinical trials, demonstrating proof of concept of microbicides in reducing the incidence of HIV-1 and HSV-2 among at-risk populations. The challenge heretofore is to refine these products to make them more potent, convenient, accessible, and acceptable. Potent antiviral drugs released topically in the female reproductive tract by innovative delivered systems and formulations will provide safe, effective, and acceptable multipurpose prevention tools. This paper provides an overview of existing and novel approaches to multipurpose prevention strategies. PMID:21836811

Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R.; Doncel, Gustavo F.

2011-01-01

112

Textbook Reading Systems The SQ3R is a systematic method designed for studying a textbook. Developed by  

E-print Network

Textbook Reading Systems 1. SQ3R The SQ3R is a systematic method designed for studying a textbook reading system which has been successfully used by many students. SURVEY: Glance over the headings in the chapter to see the few big points that will be developed . Also read the final summary paragraph

Romano, Raquel

113

Error-free 31-hop cascaded operation of an optical packet switching router with all-optical 3R regeneration  

E-print Network

Error-free 31-hop cascaded operation of an optical packet switching router with all-optical 3R of an optical-label switching router. The all-optical 3R regeneration enables error-free 31-hop cascaded packet for its applicability in the next generation optical Internet. OLS routers must maintain high

Kolner, Brian H.

114

KCNC3(R420H), a K(+) channel mutation causative in spinocerebellar ataxia 13 displays aberrant intracellular trafficking.  

PubMed

Spinocerebellar ataxia 13 (SCA13) is an autosomal dominant disease resulting from mutations in KCNC3 (Kv3.3), a voltage-gated potassium channel. The KCNC3(R420H) mutation was first identified as causative for SCA13 in a four-generation Filipino kindred with over 20 affected individuals. Electrophysiological analyses in oocytes previously showed that this mutation did not lead to a functional channel and displayed a dominant negative phenotype. In an effort to identify the molecular basis of this allelic form of SCA13, we first determined that human KCNC3(WT) and KCNC3(R420H) display disparate post-translational modifications, and the mutant protein has reduced complex glycan adducts. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that KCNC3(R420H) was not properly trafficking to the plasma membrane and surface biotinylation demonstrated that KCNC3(R420H) exhibited only 24% as much surface expression as KCNC3(WT). KCNC3(R420H) trafficked through the ER but was retained in the Golgi. KCNC3(R420H) expression results in altered Golgi and cellular morphology. Electron microscopy of KCNC3(R420H) localization further supports retention in the Golgi. These results are specific to the KCNC3(R420H) allele and provide new insight into the molecular basis of disease manifestation in SCA13. PMID:25152487

Gallego-Iradi, Carolina; Bickford, Justin S; Khare, Swati; Hall, Alexis; Nick, Jerelyn A; Salmasinia, Donya; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Bannykh, Serguei; Huynh, Duong P; Rincon-Limas, Diego E; Pulst, Stefan M; Nick, Harry S; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro; Waters, Michael F

2014-11-01

115

All-optical 3R regeneration in monolithic SOA-MZI to achieve 0.4 million km fiber transmission  

E-print Network

All-optical 3R regeneration in monolithic SOA-MZI to achieve 0.4 million km fiber transmission Jose, California 95134 Abstract: An all-optical 3R regenerator that combines reshaping in SOAR regeneration (Re-amplification, Re-shaping and Re-timing) is a key function in controlling

Kolner, Brian H.

116

IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 20, OCTOBER 15, 2006 2159 1000 Cascaded Stages of Optical 3R Regeneration  

E-print Network

of Optical 3R Regeneration With SOA-MZI-Based Clock Enhancement to Achieve 10-Gb/s 125 000-km Dispersion Member, IEEE Abstract--We propose an optical 3R regenerator that incor- porates a clock enhancement stage regeneration technique using a fiber recirculation loop containing 125-km dispersion uncompensated large

Kolner, Brian H.

117

PS'2006 -Photonics in Switching Conference Multi-hop Optical-label Switching Using Optical 3R Regeneration  

E-print Network

Regeneration Z. Pan1 , H. Yang1 , Z. Zhu1 , M. Funabashi1 , S. J. B. Yoo1 1: Department of Electrical clock performs retiming. The 3R regeneration maintains a good signal quality through multiple hops swapping, optical 3R regeneration 1. Introduction The rapid growth of Internet constantly demands more

Kolner, Brian H.

118

Characterization of a flatworm inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) reveals a role in reproductive physiology  

PubMed Central

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca2+channels that elevate cytoplasmic Ca2+ in response to the second messenger IP3. Here, we describe the identification and in vivo functional characterization of the planarian IP3R, the first intracellular Ca2+ channel to be defined in flatworms. A single IP3R gene in Dugesia japonica encoded a 2666 amino acid protein (Dj.IP3R) that shared well conserved structural features with vertebrate IP3R counterparts. Expression of an NH2-terminal Dj.IP3R region (amino acid residues 223–585) recovered high affinity 3H-IP3 binding (0.9 ± 0.1 nM) which was abolished by a single point mutation of an arginine residue (R495L) important for IP3 coordination. In situ hybridization revealed that Dj.IP3R mRNA was most strongly expressed in the pharynx and optical nerve system as well as the reproductive system in sexualized planarians. Consistent with this observed tissue distribution, in vivo RNAi of Dj.IP3R resulted in a decreased egg-laying behavior suggesting Dj.IP3R plays an upstream role in planarian reproductive physiology. PMID:23481272

Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaolong; Chan, John D.; Marchant, Jonathan S.

2013-01-01

119

Density functional theory study of 3R- and 2H-CuAlO2 under pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a first-principles density-functional theory based study of the impact of pressure on the structural and elastic properties of bulk 3R- and 2H-CuAlO2. The ground state properties of 3R- and 2H-CuAlO2 are obtained, which are in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical data. The analysis of enthalpy variation with pressure indicates the phase transition pressure between 3R and 2H is 15.4 GPa. The independent elastic constants of 3R- and 2H-CuAlO2 are calculated. As the applied pressure increases, the calculations show the presences of mechanical instability at 26.2 and 27.8 GPa for 3R- and 2H-CuAlO2, which are possibly related with the phase transitions.

Liu, Qi-Jun; Liu, Zheng-Tang; Feng, Li-Ping; Tian, Hao; Liu, Wen-Ting; Yan, Feng

2010-10-01

120

Association of the ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism in Polish Power-Orientated Athletes  

PubMed Central

Alpha-actinins are an ancient family of actin-binding proteins that play structural and regulatory roles in cytoskeletal organization. In skeletal muscle, ?-actinin-3 protein is an important structural component of the Z disc, where it anchors actin thin filaments, helping to maintain the myofibrillar array. A common nonsense polymorphism in codon 577 of the ACTN3 gene (R577X) results in ?-actinin-3 deficiency in XX homozygotes. Based on knowledge about the role of ACTN3 R557X polymorphism in skeletal muscle function, we postulated that the genetic polymorphism of ACTN3 could also improve sprint and power ability. We compared genotypic and allelic frequencies of the ACTN3 R557X polymorphism in two groups of men of the same Caucasian descent: 158 power-orientated athletes and 254 volunteers not involved in competitive sport. The genotype distribution in the group of power-oriented athletes showed significant differences (P=0.008) compared to controls. However, among the investigated subgroups of athletes, only the difference of ACTN3 R577X genotype between sprinters and controls reached statistical significance (P=0.041). The frequencies of the ACTN3 577X allele (30.69% vs. 40.35%; P=0.005) were significantly different in all athletes compared to controls. Our results support the hypothesis that the ACTN3 577XX allele may have some beneficial effect on sprint-power performance, because the ACTN3 XX genotype is significantly reduced in Polish power-oriented athletes compared to controls. This finding seems to be in agreement with previously reported case-control studies. However, ACTN3 polymorphism as a genetic marker for sport talent identification should be interpreted with great caution. PMID:23486986

Cieszczyk, Pawel; Eider, Jerzy; Ostanek, Magdalena; Arczewska, Aleksandra; Leonska-Duniec, Agata; Sawczyn, Stanislaw; Ficek, Krzysztof; Krupecki, Krzysztof

2011-01-01

121

The Pure Rotational Spectrum of Tis (X^{3}?_r) in all Three Spin Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pure rotational spectrum of TiS in the X^{3}?_r ground state has been measured using millimeter-wave direct absorption techniques. This species was created by the reaction of hydrogen sulfide gas with titanium vapor produced in a Broida oven which was modified to withstand the extreme temperatures required to melt this metal. Eight transitions have been recorded, each consisting of three spin components. No lambda-doubling was observed, as expected for a ? state. The data were fit with a Hund's case(a) Hamiltonian and spectroscopic constants have been determined. The results from this study, as well as a comparison to past optical data will be presented.

Pulliam, R. L.; Ziurys, L. M.

2009-06-01

122

Determination of the pozzolanic activity of fluid catalytic cracking residue. Thermogravimetric analysis studies on FC3R-lime pastes  

SciTech Connect

Spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R) from a petrol refinery played a pozzolanic role in portland cement system as revealed by previous experimental data. In the present study, the pozzolanic activity of FC3R was investigated by means thermogravimetry (TG) of cured lime-FC3R pastes. The influence of pozzolan/lime ratio on the pozzolanic activity was investigated. Due to the chemical composition of FC3R is similar to metakaolin (MK), and knowing that MK has a high pozzolanic activity, the latter was used as a material of comparison in this study. The scope of the study is the determination of the pozzolanic activity of FC3R and the evaluation of amount and nature of pozzolanic products. The products obtained from the reaction between FC3R components (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and calcium hydroxide (CH) have been characterized, finding that the main pozzolanic reaction product was similar to hydrated gehlenite (calcium aluminosilicate hydrate) CSH and CAH were also formed in the reaction. FC3R showed higher pozzolanic reactivity than metakaolin, for low-lime content pastes and early curing age. Thermogravimetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) became very useful techniques for evaluation of reactivity.

Paya, J.; Monzo, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Velazquez, S.; Bonilla, M

2003-07-01

123

Restoring Natural Streamflow Variability by Modifying Multi-purpose Reservoir Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-purpose reservoirs typically provide benefits of water supply, hydroelectric power, and flood mitigation. Hydroelectric power generations generally do not consume water. However, temporal distribution of downstream flows is highly changed due to hydro-peaking effects. Associated with offstream diversion of water supplies for municipal, industrial, and agricultural requirements, natural streamflow characteristics of magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change is significantly altered by multi-purpose reservoir operation. Natural flow regime has long been recognized a master factor for ecosystem health and biodiversity. Restoration of altered flow regime caused by multi-purpose reservoir operation is the main objective of this study. This study presents an optimization framework that modifying reservoir operation to seeking balance between human and environmental needs. The methodology presented in this study is applied to the Feitsui Reservoir, located in northern Taiwan, with main purpose of providing stable water-supply and auxiliary purpose of electricity generation and flood-peak attenuation. Reservoir releases are dominated by two decision variables, i.e., duration of water releases for each day and percentage of daily required releases within the duration. The current releasing policy of the Feitsui Reservoir releases water for water-supply and hydropower purposes during 8:00 am to 16:00 pm each day and no environmental flows releases. Although greater power generation is obtained by 100% releases distributed within 8-hour period, severe temporal alteration of streamflow is observed downstream of the reservoir. Modifying reservoir operation by relaxing these two variables and reserve certain ratio of streamflow as environmental flow to maintain downstream natural variability. The optimal reservoir releasing policy is searched by the multi-criterion decision making technique for considering reservoir performance in terms of shortage ratio and power generation and downstream hydrologic alterations in terms of ecological relevant indicators. The results show that the proposed methodology can mitigate hydro-peaking effects on natural variability, while maintains efficient reservoir operation.

Shiau, J.

2010-12-01

124

The Multi-Purpose Detector for NICA heavy-Ion Collider at JINR  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is designed to study heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna. Its main components located inside a superconducting solenoid are a tracking system composed of a silicon microstrip vertex detector followed by a large volume time-projection chamber, a time-of-flight system for particle identification and a barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. A zero degree hadron calorimeter is designed specifically to measure the energy of spectators. In this paper, all parts of the apparatus are described and their tracking and particle identification parameters are discussed in some detail.

Rogachevsky, O. V., E-mail: rogachevsky@jinr.ru [JINR, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory on High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

2012-05-15

125

Ethical issues for late-stage trials of multipurpose prevention technologies for HIV and pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) designed to simultaneously prevent pregnancy and HIV could provide urgently needed tools to address unmet sexual and reproductive health needs of women worldwide. Late-stage clinical trials will be complex given the need to demonstrate efficacy for HIV and contraceptive indications simultaneously from a single product. Currently, HIV and pregnancy prevention trials have distinctive design features that will need to be reconciled in MPT trials. This article identifies several ethical issues uniquely associated with this research that will benefit from future deliberation and guidance to ensure that this globally important research can proceed efficiently and expeditiously. PMID:25113651

Cohen, Jessica A.; Mastroianni, Anna C.; Macklin, Ruth

2014-01-01

126

Ethical issues for late-stage trials of multipurpose prevention technologies for HIV and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) designed to simultaneously prevent pregnancy and HIV could provide urgently needed tools to address unmet sexual and reproductive health needs of women worldwide. Late-stage clinical trials will be complex given the need to demonstrate efficacy for HIV and contraceptive indications simultaneously from a single product. Currently, HIV and pregnancy prevention trials have distinctive design features that will need to be reconciled in MPT trials. This article identifies several ethical issues uniquely associated with this research that will benefit from future deliberation and guidance to ensure that this globally important research can proceed efficiently and expeditiously. PMID:25113651

Cohen, Jessica A; Mastroianni, Anna C; Macklin, Ruth

2014-11-01

127

Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hoertkorn, T.R. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (United States)

1993-05-01

128

Multipurpose electroslag remelting furnace for modern energy and heavy engineering industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, a unique complex based on a multipurpose unit-type electroslag remelting (ESR) furnace is created to meet the demand for large high-quality solid and hollow billets for the products of power, atomic, petrochemical, and heavy machine engineering. This complex has modern low-frequency power supplies with a new control level that ensure a high homogeneity and quality of the billets and an increase in the engineering-and-economical performance of the production. A unique pilot ESR furnace is erected to adjust technological conditions and the main control system elements.

Dub, A. V.; Dub, V. S.; Kriger, Yu. N.; Levkov, L. Ya.; Shurygin, D. A.; Kissel'man, M. A.; Nekhamin, C. M.; Chernyak, A. I.; Bessonov, A. V.; Kamantsev, S. V.; Sokolov, S. O.

2012-12-01

129

Study of elastic moduli and thermal properties of RMnO3 (R = La, Nd) compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we develop a theoretical model for quantitative analysis of temperature-dependent heat capacity calculation of the magnetoresistance compounds RMnO3 (R = La, Nd). The results on heat capacity obtained by us are in good agreement with the measured values. An effective interionic interaction potential (EIoIP) with the long-range Coulomb, van der Waals (vdW) interaction and short-range repulsive interaction up to second neighbor ions within the Hafemeister and Flygare approach was formulated to estimate the Debye and Einstein temperature and was found to be consistent with the available experimental data. In addition, the properties studied are the cohesive energy, molecular force constant, Restrahlen frequency and Gruneisen parameter. After characterizing thermal properties, a systematic investigation of elastic behavior has been undertaken and it has been found that the elastic moduli are decreasing continuously with increasing temperature.

Varshney, Dinesh; Choudhary, Dinesh

2014-06-01

130

Study of structural, electronic and elastic properties of RPd3 (R = Lu and Sc) compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural, electronic and elastic properties of nonmagnetic RPd3 (R = Lu and Sc) compounds, which crystallize in AuCu3-type structure, are studied using first principles density functional theory based on full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The calculations are carried out within the PBE-GGA and WC-GGA for the exchange correlation potential. Our calculated ground state properties such as lattice constant (a0), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B') are in good agreement with the experimental results. We first time predict the elastic constants for these compounds using different approximations of GGA. These RPd3 compounds are found to be ductile in nature in accordance with Pugh's criteria. The computed electronic band structures and density of states show metallic character of these compounds.

Thakur, Veena; Pagare, Gitanjali; Chouhan, S. S.; Sanyal, S. P.

2014-04-01

131

A Self-Timed Multipurpose Delay Sensor for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel self-timed multi-purpose sensor especially conceived for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The aim of the sensor is to measure performance variations during the life-cycle of the device, such as process variability, critical path timing and temperature variations. The proposed topology, through the use of both combinational and sequential FPGA elements, amplifies the time of a signal traversing a delay chain to produce a pulse whose width is the sensor's measurement. The sensor is fully self-timed, avoiding the need for clock distribution networks and eliminating the limitations imposed by the system clock. One single off- or on-chip time-to-digital converter is able to perform digitization of several sensors in a single operation. These features allow for a simplified approach for designers wanting to intertwine a multi-purpose sensor network with their application logic. Employed as a temperature sensor, it has been measured to have an error of ±0.67 °C, over the range of 20–100 °C, employing 20 logic elements with a 2-point calibration. PMID:24361927

Osuna, Carlos Gomez; Ituero, Pablo; Lopez-Vallejo, Marisa

2014-01-01

132

Optimization and validation of a neutralizing antibody assay for HIV-1 in A3R5 cells.  

PubMed

A3R5 is a human CD4(+) lymphoblastoid cell line that was engineered to express CCR5 and is useful for the detection of weak neutralizing antibody responses against tier 2 strains of HIV-1. Here we describe the optimization and validation of the HIV-1 neutralizing antibody assay that utilizes A3R5 cells, performed in compliance with Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines. The assay utilizes Renilla luciferase-expressing replication competent infectious molecular clones (IMC) encoding heterologous env genes from different HIV-1 clades. Key assay validation parameters tested included specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and quantitation, specificity, linearity and range, and robustness. Plasma samples demonstrated higher non-specific activity than serum samples in the A3R5 assay. This assay can tolerate a wide range of virus input but is more sensitive to cell concentration. The higher sensitivity of the A3R5 assay in neutralization responses to tier 2 strains of HIV-1 makes it complementary to, but not a substitute for the TZM-bl assay. The validated A3R5 assay is employed as an endpoint immunogenicity test for vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies against tier 2 strains of HIV-1, and to identify correlates of protection in HIV-1 vaccine trials conducted globally. PMID:24607608

Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Daniell, Xiaoju; Todd, Christopher A; Bilska, Miroslawa; Martelli, Amanda; LaBranche, Celia; Perez, Lautaro G; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C; Rountree, Wes; Denny, Thomas N; Montefiori, David C

2014-07-01

133

Attenuated Pik3r1 Expression Prevents Insulin Resistance and Adipose Tissue Macrophage Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

Obese white adipose tissue (AT) is characterized by large-scale infiltration of proinflammatory macrophages, in parallel with systemic insulin resistance; however, the cellular stimulus that initiates this signaling cascade and chemokine release is still unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunits on AT macrophage (ATM) infiltration in obesity. Here, we find that the Pik3r1 regulatory subunits (i.e., p85?/p55?/p50?) are highly induced in AT from high-fat diet–fed obese mice, concurrent with insulin resistance. Global heterozygous deletion of the Pik3r1 regulatory subunits (?HZ), but not knockout of Pik3r2 (p85?), preserves whole-body, AT, and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, despite severe obesity. Moreover, ATM accumulation, proinflammatory gene expression, and ex vivo chemokine secretion in obese ?HZ mice are markedly reduced despite endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hypoxia, adipocyte hypertrophy, and Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Furthermore, bone marrow transplant studies reveal that these improvements in obese ?HZ mice are independent of reduced Pik3r1 expression in the hematopoietic compartment. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that Pik3r1 expression plays a critical role in mediating AT insulin sensitivity and, more so, suggest that reduced PI3K activity is a key step in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response in obese AT. PMID:22698915

McCurdy, Carrie E.; Schenk, Simon; Holliday, Michael J.; Philp, Andrew; Houck, Julie A.; Patsouris, David; MacLean, Paul S.; Majka, Susan M.; Klemm, Dwight J.; Friedman, Jacob E.

2012-01-01

134

Prevalence and impact of colony stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) mutations among Egyptian acute myeloid leukemia patients.  

PubMed

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) mutations have been implicated in the progression of severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) to leukemia. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of colony stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) mutations among Egyptian acute myeloid leukemia and their clinic-pathological impact. The study was conducted on 179 adult patients (156 de novo AML and 23 secondary AML on top of SCN). CSF3R mutations were analyzed by sequencing of the PCR products. CSF3R mutations were detected in 2 cases out of 156 de novo AML patients (1.2%) and eighteen cases out of 23 secondary AML patients (78.2%). It was noticed that most of the mutant cases are of younger age, have a high white blood cells count, high bone marrow blasts, bad performance status, and absence of extra medullary disease and with low rate induction remission. Also the overall survival of AML patient's secondary to CSF3R mutations was shorter as compared to those with wild type AML cases. In conclusion the frequency of CSF3R mutations is highly prevalent among AML patients secondary to SCN compared to de novo AML. PMID:24746896

Aref, Salah; El-Ghonemy, Mohamed; Abouzeid, Tarek; El-Sabbagh, Amr; El-Baiomy, Mohamed

2014-06-01

135

Redox-Regulated Heterogeneous Thresholds for Ligand Recruitment among InsP3R Ca2+-Release Channels  

PubMed Central

Abstract To clarify the molecular mechanisms behind quantal Ca2+ release, the graded Ca2+ release from intracellular stores through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) channels responding to incremental ligand stimulation, single-channel patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to continuously monitor the number and open probability of InsP3R channels in the same excised cytoplasmic-side-out nuclear membrane patches exposed alternately to optimal and suboptimal cytoplasmic ligand conditions. Progressively more channels were activated by more favorable conditions in patches from insect cells with only one InsP3R gene or from cells solely expressing one recombinant InsP3R isoform, demonstrating that channels with identical primary sequence have different ligand recruitment thresholds. Such heterogeneity was largely abrogated, in a fully reversible manner, by treatment of the channels with sulfhydryl reducing agents, suggesting that it was mostly regulated by different levels of posttranslational redox modifications of the channels. In contrast, sulfhydryl reduction had limited effects on channel open probability. Thus, sulfhydryl redox modification can regulate various aspects of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, including quantal Ca2+ release, by tuning ligand sensitivities of InsP3R channels. No intrinsic termination of channel activity with a timescale comparable to that for quantal Ca2+ release was observed under any steady ligand conditions, indicating that this process is unlikely to contribute. PMID:20643058

Vais, Horia; Siebert, Adam P.; Ma, Zhongming; Fernandez-Mongil, Marisabel; Foskett, J. Kevin; Mak, Don-On Daniel

2010-01-01

136

Brain abnormalities in a Neuroligin3 R451C knockin mouse model associated with autism.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used quite extensively for examining morphological changes in human and animal brains. One of the many advantages to examining mouse models of human autism is that we are able to examine single gene targets, like that of Neuroligin3 R451C knockin (NL3 KI), which has been directly implicated in human autism. The NL3 KI mouse model has marked volume differences in many different structures in the brain: gray matter structures, such as the hippocampus, the striatum, and the thalamus, were all found to be smaller in the NL3 KI. Further, many white matter structures were found to be significantly smaller, such as the cerebral peduncle, corpus callosum, fornix/fimbria, and internal capsule. Fractional anisotropy measurements in these structures were also measured, and no differences were found. The volume changes in the white matter regions, therefore, are not due to a general breakdown in the microstructure of the tissue and seem to be caused by fewer axons or less mature axons. A larger radial diffusivity was also found in localized regions of the corpus callosum and cerebellum. The corpus callosal changes are particularly interesting as the thinning (or reduced volume) of the corpus callosum is a consistent finding in autism. This suggests that the NL3 KI model may be useful for examining white matter changes associated with autism. PMID:21882360

Ellegood, Jacob; Lerch, Jason P; Henkelman, R Mark

2011-10-01

137

Electronic properties of 3R-CuAlO2 under pressure: Three theoretical approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressure variation in the structural parameters, u and c/a , of the delafossite CuAlO2 is calculated within the local-density approximation (LDA). Further, the electronic structures as obtained by different approximations are compared: LDA, LDA+U , and a recently developed “quasiparticle self-consistent GW ” (QSGW) approximation. The structural parameters obtained by the LDA agree very well with experiments but, as expected, gaps in the formal band structure are underestimated as compared to optical experiments. The (in LDA too high lying) Cu3d states can be down shifted by LDA+U . The magnitude of the electric field gradient (EFG) as obtained within the LDA is far too small. It can be “fitted” to experiments in LDA+U but a simultaneous adjustment of the EFG and the gap cannot be obtained with a single U value. QSGW yields reasonable values for both quantities. LDA and QSGW yield significantly different values for some of the band-gap deformation potentials but calculations within both approximations predict that 3R-CuAlO2 remains an indirect-gap semiconductor at all pressures in its stability range 0-36 GPa, although the smallest direct gap has a negative pressure coefficient.

Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.; Laskowski, R.; Palanivel, B.; Modak, P.; Chantis, A. N.; van Schilfgaarde, M.; Kotani, T.

2010-01-01

138

UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING: PHASE 3R  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished in 2Q99.

None

1999-09-01

139

ANALKIN(AGDC): a multipurpose computational program for the kinetic resolution of multicomponent mixtures (static and dynamic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANALKIN(AGDC) is a multipurpose computational program that uses a robust unconstrained optimization algorithm (AGDC) for the resolution of Static and Dynamic multicomponent mixtures (SMM and DMM, respectively) and for the validation of kinetic models. It can be applied for the determination of (a) concentrations of analytes in SMM mixtures, (b) concentrations of analytes and simultaneously, rate constants in SMM mixtures,

M. M. Canedo; J. L. González-Hernández

2003-01-01

140

PRODUCTION OF FERTILIZER IN A MULTIPURPOSE ATOMIC POWER REACTOR COMPLEX FOR DISTILLATION OF SEA WATER: A SURVEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 = e to determine the feasibility of producing large amounts ; of nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium fertilizers with the cheap power produced ; from a large atomic reactor. The optimum combination was a multipurpose plant to ; produce fresh water from sea water by distillation and fertilizer from the air, ; sea, and phosphate rock. No other raw materials

1963-01-01

141

16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(b) Therefore, if the Commission finds regulation to be necessary, risks of death or injury that are associated with multi-purpose lighters because the lighters can be operated by young children shall be regulated under one or more provisions of the Consumer Product Safety...

2010-01-01

142

Potential of nine multipurpose tree species to reduce saline groundwater tables in the lower Amu Darya River region of Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the potential of nine multipurpose tree species for afforestation of degraded land in the Khorezm region, Central Asia, particularly their suitability for biodrainage i.e., lowering the elevated groundwater table through the transpirative capacity of plantations. For this purpose water use (WU), water use efficiency (WUE) and tree physiological factors influencing transpiration were assessed during two consecutive years.

Asia Khamzina; John P. A. Lamers; Christopher Martius; Martin Worbes; Paul L. G. Vlek

2006-01-01

143

The T3R alpha gene encoding a thyroid hormone receptor is essential for post-natal development and thyroid hormone production.  

PubMed Central

The diverse functions of thyroid hormones are thought to be mediated by two nuclear receptors, T3R alpha1 and T3R beta, encoded by the genes T3R alpha and T3R beta respectively. The T3R alpha gene also produces a non-ligand-binding protein T3R alpha2. The in vivo functions of these receptors are still unclear. We describe here the homozygous inactivation of the T3R alpha gene which abrogates the production of both T3R alpha1 and T3R alpha2 isoforms and that leads to death in mice within 5 weeks after birth. After 2 weeks of life, the homozygous mice become progressively hypothyroidic and exhibit a growth arrest. Small intestine and bones showed a strongly delayed maturation. In contrast to the negative regulatory function of the T3R beta gene on thyroid hormone production, our data show that the T3R alpha gene products are involved in up-regulation of thyroid hormone production at weaning time. Thus, thyroid hormone production might be balanced through a positive T3R alpha and a negative T3R beta pathway. The abnormal phenotypes observed on the homozygous mutant mice strongly suggest that the T3R alpha gene is essential for the transformation of a mother-dependent pup to an 'adult' mouse. These data define crucial in vivo functions for thyroid hormones through a T3R alpha pathway during post-natal development. PMID:9250685

Fraichard, A; Chassande, O; Plateroti, M; Roux, J P; Trouillas, J; Dehay, C; Legrand, C; Gauthier, K; Kedinger, M; Malaval, L; Rousset, B; Samarut, J

1997-01-01

144

Astrocyte IP3R2-dependent Ca2+ signaling is not a major modulator of neuronal pathways governing behavior  

PubMed Central

Calcium-dependent release of gliotransmitters by astrocytes is reported to play a critical role in synaptic transmission and be necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and other forms of synaptic modulation that are correlates of learning and memory. Further, physiological processes reported to be dependent on Ca2+ fluxes in astrocytes include functional hyperemia, sleep, and regulation of breathing. The preponderance of findings indicate that most, if not all, receptor dependent Ca2+ fluxes within astrocytes are due to release of Ca2+ through IP3 receptor/channels in the endoplasmic reticulum. Findings from several laboratories indicate that astrocytes only express IP3 receptor type 2 (IP3R2) and that a knockout of IP3R2 obliterates the GPCR-dependent astrocytic Ca2+ responses. Assuming that astrocytic Ca2+ fluxes play a critical role in synaptic physiology, it would be predicted that elimination of astrocytic Ca2+ fluxes would lead to marked changes in behavioral tests. Here, we tested this hypothesis by conducting a broad series of behavioral tests that recruited multiple brain regions, on an IP3R2 conditional knockout mouse model. We present the novel finding that behavioral processes are unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signals. IP3R2 cKO animals display no change in anxiety or depressive behaviors, and no alteration to motor and sensory function. Morris water maze testing, a behavioral correlate of learning and memory, was unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R2-mediated Ca2+-signaling. Therefore, in contrast to the prevailing literature, we find that neither receptor-driven astrocyte Ca2+ fluxes nor, by extension, gliotransmission is likely to be a major modulating force on the physiological processes underlying behavior.

Petravicz, Jeremy; Boyt, Kristen M.; McCarthy, Ken D.

2014-01-01

145

The Raffaello, a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, arrives at KSC aboard a Beluga super transporter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Airbus Industrie A300-600ST 'Beluga' Super Transporter is reflected in the rain puddles as it taxis toward the mate/demate tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Beluga is carrying the Raffaello, the second Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS). One of Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, the MPLM is a reusable logistics carrier and the primary delivery system used to resupply and return station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Weighing nearly 4.5 tons, the module measures 21 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Raffaello will join Leonardo, the first Italian-built MPLM, in the Space Station Processing Facility for testing. NASA, Boeing, the Italian Space Agency and Alenia Aerospazio will provide engineering support.

1999-01-01

146

The Raffaello, a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, arrives at KSC aboard a Beluga super transporter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Airbus Industrie A300-600ST 'Beluga' Super Transporter is reflected in the rain puddles as it comes to a stop at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Beluga is carrying the Raffaello, the second Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS). One of Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, the MPLM is a reusable logistics carrier and the primary delivery system used to resupply and return station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Weighing nearly 4.5 tons, the module measures 21 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Raffaello will join Leonardo, the first Italian-built MPLM, in the Space Station Processing Facility for testing. NASA, Boeing, the Italian Space Agency and Alenia Aerospazio will provide engineering support.

1999-01-01

147

The Raffaello, a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, arrives at KSC aboard a Beluga super transporter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Airbus Industrie A300-600ST 'Beluga' Super Transporter lands in the rain at the Shuttle Landing Facility to deliver its cargo, the second Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS). One of Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, the MPLM, named Raffaello, is a reusable logistics carrier and the primary delivery system used to resupply and return station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Weighing nearly 4.5 tons, the module measures 21 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Raffaello will join Leonardo, the first Italian-built MPLM, in the Space Station Processing Facility for testing. NASA, Boeing, the Italian Space Agency and Alenia Aerospazio will provide engineering support.

1999-01-01

148

The Raffaello, a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, arrives at KSC aboard a Beluga super transporter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Airbus Industrie A300-600ST 'Beluga' Super Transporter touches down at the Shuttle Landing Facility to deliver its cargo, the second Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS). One of Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, the MPLM, named Raffaello, is a reusable logistics carrier and the primary delivery system used to resupply and return station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Weighing nearly 4.5 tons, the module measures 21 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Raffaello will join Leonardo, the first Italian-built MPLM, in the Space Station Processing Facility for testing. NASA, Boeing, the Italian Space Agency and Alenia Aerospazio will provide engineering support.

1999-01-01

149

Structural performance of a Multipurpose Canister shell for HLNW under normal handling conditions  

SciTech Connect

A Multipurpose Canister (MPC) is analyzed for critical stresses that occur during normal handling conditions and accidental scenarios. Linear and Non-linear Finite Element Analysis is performed and the stresses at various critical locations in the MPC and its weldments are studied extensively. Progressive failure analysis of the MPC`s groove and fillet welds, is presented. The structural response of the MPC to dynamic lifting loads, to loads resulting from an accidental slippage of a crane cable carrying the MPC, and from the impact between two canisters, is evaluated. Nonlinear structural analysis is used in the evaluation of the local buckling and the ultimate failure phenomena in the shell when the steel is in the strain hardening state during impact. Results make a case for increasing the thickness of the shell and all the welds.

Ladkany, S.G.; Rajagopalan, R.

1994-05-01

150

Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

2005-01-01

151

Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launched on July 26 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

2005-01-01

152

Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.

2013-01-01

153

Multipurpose Small Size Fast Reactor: Its Basic Concept and Application to Nuclear Hydrogen Production  

SciTech Connect

Here we propose a basic concept of a multipurpose small-sized fast reactor and its applicability to produce nuclear hydrogen for near future mass use of hydrogen industrial and public use. The modular-type fast reactor of 150 MW thermal output does not require fuel exchange nor decommissioning on the site, and can be transported from the factory in a fabricated form. For the hydrogen production, we propose to use the sorption enhanced reforming process (SERP), in which the steam-methane reforming can take place around 450 - 550. Since this temperature range is rather low compared to the ongoing steam reforming method (> 800 ), the SERP system combined with an adequate nuclear reactor system should be a promising one to cope with the coming age of hydrogen civilization. (authors)

Endo, H. [Toshiba Corporation (Japan); Sawada, T.; Ninokata, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2002-07-01

154

Multi-purpose sulfur-sodium cell and mockup battery of twelve cells for electric car  

SciTech Connect

The report provides results of electrical tests of multipurpose cells and electric car mockup battery of twelve cells. It is shown that, sulfur-sodium accumulators, being produced at STC ISTOK, have adequate reliability in testing under electric car batteries conditions. They withstand discharge current of up to 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} density and demonstrate consistent characteristics at operating current densities of 0.1--0.3 A/cm{sup 2}. Results are represented on safety tests, including those with deliberately destroyed electrolyte. The mockup battery can operate according to the electrical car driving runs, the mockup characteristics here do not deteriorate when transmitting up to 50 A current.

Nikolaev, Yu.V.; Vybyvanets, V.I.; Suganeev, V.S.; Dzhalandinov, D.N.; Belousenko, A.P.; Fedorova, V.N. [State Research Inst. of Scientific Industrial Association, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

155

A Multi-Purpose Scenario-based Simulator for Smart House Environments  

E-print Network

Developing smart house systems has been a great challenge for researchers and engineers in this area because of the high cost of implementation and evaluation process of these systems, while being very time consuming. Testing a designed smart house before actually building it is considered as an obstacle towards an efficient smart house project. This is because of the variety of sensors, home appliances and devices available for a real smart environment. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a multi-purpose smart house simulation system for designing and simulating all aspects of a smart house environment. This simulator provides the ability to design the house plan and different virtual sensors and appliances in a two dimensional model of the virtual house environment. This simulator can connect to any external smart house remote controlling system, providing evaluation capabilities to their system much easier than before. It also supports detailed adding of new emerging sensors and devi...

Jahromi, Zahra Forootan; Manashty, Ali Reza

2011-01-01

156

R3-R4 deletion in the PRNP gene is associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)  

SciTech Connect

There are conflicting reports on the association of deletions in the PRNP gene on chromosome 20 with CJD, a rapidly progressive fatal spongiform encephalopathy. We accumulated data suggesting that a deletion of R3-R4 type (parts of the third and fourth repeats are deleted from the area of four repeating 24 bp sequences in the 5{prime} region of the gene) is causing CJD. Screening of 129 unaffected control individuals demonstrated presence of a deletion of R2 type in four (1.55% of the studied chromosomes), but none of them had the R3-R4 type. Of 181 screened patients with spongiform encephalopathies, two had a deletion of R3-R4 type with no other mutations in the coding sequence. Both patients had a classical rapidly progressive dementing disease and diffuse spongiform degeneration, and both cases were apparently sporadic. The same R3-R4 type of deletion was detected in three additional neuropathologically confirmed spongiform encephalopathy patients, of which two had other known pathogenic mutations in the PRNP gene: at codon 178 on the methionine allele exhibiting the phenotype of fatal familial insomnia, and codon 200 causing CJD with severe dementia; the third was a patient with iatrogenic CJD who developed the disease after treatment with growth hormone extracted from cadaveric human pituitary glands. In all cases the deletion coincided with a variant sequence at position 129 coding for methionine.

Cervenakova, L.; Brown, P.; Nagle, J. [and others

1994-09-01

157

Are ‘Endurance’ Alleles ‘Survival’ Alleles? Insights from the ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Exercise phenotypes have played a key role for ensuring survival over human evolution. We speculated that some genetic variants that influence exercise phenotypes could be associated with exceptional survival (i.e. reaching ?100years of age). Owing to its effects on muscle structure/function, a potential candidate is the Arg(R)577Ter(X) polymorphism (rs1815739) in ACTN3, the structural gene encoding the skeletal muscle protein ?-actinin-3. We compared the ACTN3 R577X genotype/allele frequencies between the following groups of ethnically-matched (Spanish) individuals: centenarians (cases, n?=?64; 57 female; age range: 100–108 years), young healthy controls (n?=?283, 67 females, 216 males; 21±2 years), and humans who are at the two end-points of exercise capacity phenotypes, i.e. muscle endurance (50 male professional road cyclists) and muscle power (63 male jumpers/sprinters). Although there were no differences in genotype/allele frequencies between centenarians (RR:28.8%; RX:47.5%; XX:23.7%), and controls (RR:31.8%; RX:49.8%; XX:18.4%) or endurance athletes (RR:28.0%; RX:46%; XX:26.0%), we observed a significantly higher frequency of the X allele (P?=?0.019) and XX genotype (P?=?0.011) in centenarians compared with power athletes (RR:47.6%; RX:36.5%;XX:15.9%). Notably, the frequency of the null XX (?-actinin-3 deficient) genotype in centenarians was the highest ever reported in non-athletic Caucasian populations. In conclusion, despite there were no significant differences with the younger, control population, overall the ACTN3 genotype of centenarians resembles that of world-class elite endurance athletes and differs from that of elite power athletes. Our preliminary data would suggest a certain ‘survival’ advantage brought about by ?-actinin-3 deficiency and the ‘endurance’/oxidative muscle phenotype that is commonly associated with this condition. PMID:21407828

Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Santiago, Catalina; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Yvert, Thomas; Cano-Nieto, Amalia; Garatachea, Nuria

2011-01-01

158

Interaction Between ACE I/D and ACTN3 R557X Polymorphisms in Polish Competitive Swimmers  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that the ACE ID / ACTN3 R577X genotype combination was associated with sprint and endurance performance. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the interaction between both ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and sprint and endurance performance in swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit (Sigma, Germany). All samples were genotyped using a real-time poly- merase chain reaction. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X genotype frequencies met Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both swimmers and controls. When the two swimmer groups, long distance swimmers (LDS) and short distance swimmers (SDS), were compared with control subjects in a single test, a significant association was found only for the ACE polymorphism, but not for ACTN3. Additionally, four ACE/ACTN3 combined genotypes (ID/RX, ID/XX, II/RX and II/XX) were statistically significant for the LDS versus Control comparison, but none for the SDS versus Control comparison. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms did not show any association with sprint swimming, taken individually or in combination. In spite of numerous previous reports of associations with athletic status or sprint performance in other sports, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism, in contrast to ACE I/D, was not significantly associated with elite swimming status when considered individually. However, the combined analysis of the two loci suggests that the co-occurrence of the ACE I and ACTN3 X alleles may be beneficial to swimmers who compete in long distance races.

Grenda, Agata; Leo?ska-Duniec, Agata; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Ficek, Krzysztof; Król, Pawe?; Ci?szczyk, Pawe?; ?mijewski, Piotr

2014-01-01

159

Overexpression of IL-3R? on CD34+CD38? stem cells defines leukemia-initiating cells in Fanconi anemia AML  

PubMed Central

Patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) have a high risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we attempted to identify cell-surface markers for leukemia-initiating cells in FA-AML patients. We found that the IL-3 receptor-? (IL-3R?) is a promising candidate as an leukemia-initiating cell-specific antigen for FA-AML. Whereas IL-3R? expression is undetectable on normal CD34+CD38? HSCs, it is overexpressed on CD34+CD38? cells from FA patients with AML. We examined the leukemia-initiating cell activity of IL-3R?–positive FA-AML cells in a “humanized” FA xenotransplant model in which we separated AML cells into IL-3R?–positive and IL-3R?–negative CD34 fractions and transplanted them into irradiated recipient mice. In all 3 FA-AML samples, only IL-3R?–positive cells showed significant levels of engraftment and developed leukemia in the recipient mice. The FA CD34+IL-3R?+ blasts isolated from leukemic mice exhibited hypersensitivity to IL-3 deprivation and JAK2-STAT5 overactivation after IL-3 treatment. Finally, treatment of FA CD34+IL-3R?+ blasts with an IL-3R?–neutralizing antibody inhibited IL-3–mediated proliferation and STAT5 activation. These results demonstrate that IL-3R? is a cell-surface marker present on FA-AML leukemia-initiating cells and may be a valuable therapeutic target. PMID:21330473

Li, Xu-E; Sipple, Jared

2011-01-01

160

Role of caspase-3 cleaved IP3 R1 on Ca(2+) homeostasis and developmental competence of mouse oocytes and eggs.  

PubMed

Apoptosis in most cell types is accompanied by altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. During apoptosis, caspase-3 mediated cleavage of the type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3 R1) generates a 95-kDa C-terminal fragment (C-IP3 R1), which represents the channel domain of the receptor. Aged mouse eggs display abnormal Ca(2+) homeostasis and express C-IP3 R1, although whether or not C-IP3 R1 expression contributes to Ca(2+) misregulation or a decrease in developmental competency is unknown. We sought to answer these questions by injecting in mouse oocytes and eggs cRNAs encoding C-IP3 R1. We found that: (1) expression of C-IP3 R1 in eggs lowered the Ca(2+) content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), although, as C-IP3 R1 is quickly degraded at this stage, its expression did not impair pre-implantation embryo development; (2) expression of C-IP3 R1 in eggs enhanced fragmentation associated with aging; (3) endogenous IP3 R1 is required for aging associated apoptosis, as its down-regulation prevented fragmentation, and expression of C-IP3 R1 in eggs with downregulated IP3 R1 partly restored fragmentation; (4) C-IP3 R1 expression in GV oocytes resulted in persistent levels of protein, which abolished the increase in the ER releasable Ca(2+) pool that occurs during maturation, undermined the Ca(2+) oscillatory ability of matured eggs and their activation potential. Collectively, this study supports a role for IP3 R1 and C-IP3 R1 in regulating Ca(2+) homeostasis and the ER Ca(2+) content during oocyte maturation. Nevertheless, the role of C-IP3 R1 on Ca(2+) homeostasis in aged eggs seems minor, as in MII eggs the majority of endogenous IP3 R1 remains intact and C-IP3 R1 undergoes rapid turnover. PMID:24692207

Zhang, Nan; Fissore, Rafael A

2014-11-01

161

Thermoelectric energy harvesting system for demonstrating autonomous operation of a wireless sensor node enabled by a multipurpose interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper demonstrates the autonomous operation of a wireless sensor node exclusively powered by thermoelectric energy harvesting. Active operation of a wireless sensor system is demonstrated successfully by means of an on-line programmable emulation kit that enables various thermoelectric energy harvesting scenarios. Moreover, this emulation kit accomplishes autonomous wireless sensor node operation by interfacing a small-scaled thermogenerator via a CMOS integrated autonomous multipurpose energy harvesting interface circuit performing maximum power point tracking.

Leicht, Joachim; Heilmann, Peter; Hehn, Thorsten; Li, Xiaoming; Maurath, Dominic; Moranz, Christian; Thewes, Marcell; Scholl, Gerd; Manoli, Yiannos

2013-12-01

162

Conflict of use for multi-purpose tree species in the state of Pará, eastern Amazonia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although diversified forest management is promoted as a strategy aimed at slowing tropical deforestation, little is known\\u000a about the viability of integrating timber and non-timber forest products in the same forest management plans. In this study\\u000a we offer an initial characterization of multi-purpose tree species in the State of Pará, the principal Amazonian logging region.\\u000a We identify the species used

Cristina Herrero-Jáuregui; Carmen García-Fernández; Plinio L. J. Sist; Miguel A. Casado

2009-01-01

163

Histamine H3-Receptor Signaling in Cardiac Sympathetic Nerves: Identification of a Novel MAPK-PLA2-COX-PGE2-EP3R Pathway  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that the histamine H3-receptor (H3R)-mediated attenuation of norepinephrine (NE) exocytosis from cardiac sympathetic nerves results not only from a G?i-mediated inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP-PKA pathway, but also from a G??i-mediated activation of the MAPK-PLA2 cascade, culminating in formation of an arachidonate metabolite with anti-exocytotic characteristics (e.g., PGE2). We report in Langendorff-perfused guinea-pig hearts and isolated sympathetic nerve endings (cardiac synaptosomes), H3R-mediated attenuation of K+-induced NE exocytosis was prevented by MAPK and PLA2 inhibitors, and by cyclooxygenase and EP3-receptor (EP3R) antagonists. Moreover, H3R activation resulted in MAPK phosphorylation in H3R-transfected SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and in PLA2 activation and PGE2 production in cardiac synaptosomes; H3R-induced MAPK phosphorylation was prevented by an anti-?? peptide. Synergism between H3R and EP3R agonists (i.e., imetit and sulprostone, respectively) suggested PGE2 may be a downstream effector of the anti-exocytotic effect of H3R activation. Furthermore, the anti-exocytotic effect of imetit and sulprostone was potentiated by the N-type Ca2+-channel antagonist ?-conotoxin GVIA, and prevented by an anti-G?? peptide. Our findings suggest an EP3R G??i-induced decrease in Ca2+ influx through N-type Ca2+-channels is involved in PGE2/EP3R-mediated attenuation of NE exocytosis elicited by H3R activation. Conceivably, activation of the G??i subunit of H3R and EP3R may also inhibit Ca2+ entry directly, independent of MAPK intervention. As heart failure, myocardial ischemia and arrhythmic dysfunction are associated with excessive local NE release, attenuation of NE release by H3R activation is cardioprotective. Thus, the uncovering of a novel H3R signaling pathway may ultimately bear therapeutic significance in hyper-adrenergic states. PMID:17266940

Levi, Roberto; Seyedi, Nahid; Schaefer, Ulrich; Estephan, Rima; Mackins, Christina J.; Tyler, Eleanor; Silver, Randi B.

2007-01-01

164

Contribution of the phosphagen system to postmortem muscle metabolism in AMP-activated protein kinase ?3 R200Q pig Longissimus muscle.  

PubMed

Pigs with the AMP-activated protein kinase ?3 R200Q (AMPK?3(R200Q)) mutation generate pork with low ultimate pH (pHu). We hypothesized that reducing muscle creatine (Cr) and phosphocreatine (PCr) may accelerate postmortem ATP consumption and prevent extended pH decline in AMPK?3(R200Q) longissimus muscle. Wild type and AMPK?3(R200Q) pigs were assigned to control diet or diet supplemented with the creatine analog ?-guanidinopropionic acid (?-GPA, 1%) for 2 wk. ?-GPA reduced muscle PCr (P = 0.006) and total Cr (P<0.0001). In general, AMPK?3(R200Q)+?-GPA exhibited more rapid metabolism than control, AMPK?3(R200Q), and ?-GPA treatment, evidenced by more rapid loss of ATP, more rapid increase in IMP, and decreased pH during the first 90 min postmortem. Overall, pHu was similar despite elevated glycogen (AMPK?3(R200Q)), reduced total Cr (?-GPA) or both (AMPK?3(R200Q)+?-GPA). Thus, reducing muscle phosphagens did not affect pHu in AMPK?3(R200Q) muscle, but it hastened ATP depletion and pH decline. PMID:24200581

Scheffler, Tracy L; Kasten, Steven C; England, Eric M; Scheffler, Jason M; Gerrard, David E

2014-02-01

165

The multi-module, multi-resolution system (M3R): A novel small-animal SPECT system  

PubMed Central

We have designed and built an inexpensive, high-resolution, tomographic imaging system, dubbed the multi-module, multi-resolution system, or M3R. Slots machined into the system shielding allow for the interchange of pinhole plates, enabling the system to operate over a wide range of magnifications and with virtually any desired pinhole configuration. The flexibility of the system allows system optimization for specific imaging tasks and also allows for modifications necessary due to improved detectors, electronics, and knowledge of system construction (e.g., system sensitivity optimization). We provide an overview of M3R, focusing primarily on system design and construction, aperture construction, and calibration methods. Reconstruction algorithms will be described and reconstructed images presented. PMID:17441245

Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Barrett, Harrison H.

2008-01-01

166

The multi-module, multi-resolution system (M{sup 3}R): A novel small-animal SPECT system  

SciTech Connect

We have designed and built an inexpensive, high-resolution, tomographic imaging system, dubbed the multi-module, multi-resolution system, or M{sup 3}R. Slots machined into the system shielding allow for the interchange of pinhole plates, enabling the system to operate over a wide range of magnifications and with virtually any desired pinhole configuration. The flexibility of the system allows system optimization for specific imaging tasks and also allows for modifications necessary due to improved detectors, electronics, and knowledge of system construction (e.g., system sensitivity optimization). We provide an overview of M{sup 3}R, focusing primarily on system design and construction, aperture construction, and calibration methods. Reconstruction algorithms will be described and reconstructed images presented.

Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Barrett, Harrison H. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); College of Optical Sciences and Department of Radiology, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Arizona, 1609 N. Warren Ave., Bldg 211, Tucson, Arizona 85724 (United States); College of Optical Sciences and Department of Radiology, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

2007-03-15

167

PHONON DEPENDENCE ON THERMAL PROPERTIES OF RGaO3(R = La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have systematically investigated the effect of phonons on elastic, thermal and cohesive properties for rare earth gallates RGaO3(R = La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd) by means of a Rigid Ion Model after modifying its framework to incorporate the van der Waals interactions. Besides that, we have calculated the temperature dependence of the specific heat for the present orthogallates. The results on bulk modulus, Debye temperature and specific heat reproduce well with the available experimental data.

Parveen, Atahar; Gaur, N. K.

2012-03-01

168

MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME  

E-print Network

MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME ~ I T U D I N of the endemicity of malaria will be essential i n a population which is t o receive an acceptable malaria vaccine another." V. Nabokov (1972, p. 8) Abstract A research project on malaria i n the Garki d i s t r i c

Cohen, Joel E.

169

PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression  

SciTech Connect

Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

Rajakumara, Eerappa; Wang, Zhentian; Ma, Honghui; Hu, Lulu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wu, Feizhen; Li, Haitao; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Xu, Yanhui; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Shi, Yang (MSKCC); (Constellation); (Fudan); (Tsinghua)

2011-08-29

170

The Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor (IP3R) and Its Regulators: Sometimes Good and Sometimes Bad Teamwork  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Changes in the amount of calcium inside cells initiate many cellular events, including muscle contraction, hormone secretion, and cell growth. These changes can be modulated in time and space by the cell to tailor its response to the prevailing conditions. A major pathway used for the release of calcium from intracellular stores involves opening the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), a calcium channel that is part of a signaling complex with multiple binding partners. This Review, which contains 2 tables, 6 figures, and 119 references, discusses the role of specific binding partners in regulating the function of the IP3R. These studies provide information on how these channels work and form the background for the investigation of disease-induced changes in calcium release channel function. The initiation of intracellular calcium signals can depend on factors as diverse as the nonuniform distribution of a binding partner in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum or the activation of a calcium-binding protein in the cytoplasm. Once calcium signals start, they can be transient, sustained, or oscillating; these temporal aspects of the signal are regulated by similarly diverse factors. Changes in intracellular calcium regulation occur in many diseases. As more and more new regulators of the IP3R are discovered, it will be important to understand the teamwork needed to regulate and modulate this complex system.

Chi-un Choe (Yale University;Departments of Pharmacology and Cellular and Molecular Physiology REV); Barbara E. Ehrlich (Yale University;Departments of Pharmacology and Cellular and Molecular Physiology REV)

2006-11-28

171

A compact light-weighted and multi-purpose calibration unit for LINC-NIRVANA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory and on-sky experience suggests that the integration of big astronomical instruments, specially of a complex interferometric system, is a challenging process. LINC-NIRVANA is the Fizeau interferometric imager for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Simulating the final operating environment of every system component has shown how critical is the presence of flexures, vibrations and thermal expansion. Assembling and aligning the opto-mechanical sub-systems will require an absolute reference which is not affected by static displacements or positioning errors. A multi-purpose calibration unit has been designed to ensure the quality of the alignment of optics and detectors and the reliability of the mechanical setup. This new compact and light-weighted unit is characterized by sophisticated kinematics, simple mechanical design and composite materials. In addition, the reduced number of motorized axis improves the stiffness and lowers the angular displacements due to moving parts. The modular concept integrates several light sources to provide the proper calibration reference for the different sub-systems of LINC-NIRVANA. For the standard alignment of the optics an absolute reference fiber will be used. For flatfielding of the detectors the unit provides an integrating sphere, and a special rotating multi-fiber plate (infrared and visible) is used to calibrate the advanced adaptive optics and the fringe-tracking systems. A module to control non-common path aberrations (Flattening of Deformable Mirrors) is also provided.

De Bonis, Fulvio; Bertram, Thomas; Labadie, Lucas; Egner, Sebastian; Bizenberger, Peter; Hofferbert, Ralph; Eckart, Andreas; Kuerster, Martin; Herbst, Tom

2010-07-01

172

Application of a multipurpose unequal probability stream survey in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A stratified, spatially balanced sample with unequal probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of unusual but significant environmental settings to support empirical modeling of the factors affecting those conditions. The design and field application of the survey are discussed in light of these multiple objectives. A probability (random) sample of 175 first-order nontidal streams was selected for synoptic sampling of water chemistry and benthic and riparian ecology during late winter and spring 2000. Twenty-five streams were selected within each of seven hydrogeologic subregions (strata) that were delineated on the basis of physiography and surficial geology. In each subregion, unequal inclusion probabilities were used to provide an approximately even distribution of streams along a gradient of forested to developed (agricultural or urban) land in the contributing watershed. Alternate streams were also selected. Alternates were included in groups of five in each subregion when field reconnaissance demonstrated that primary streams were inaccessible or otherwise unusable. Despite the rejection and replacement of a considerable number of primary streams during reconnaissance (up to 40 percent in one subregion), the desired land use distribution was maintained within each hydrogeologic subregion without sacrificing the probabilistic design.

Ator, S.W.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.; Denver, J.M.

2003-01-01

173

Assessing marginal water values in multipurpose multireservoir systems via stochastic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Conference on Water and the Environment held in Dublin in 1992 emphasized the need to consider water as an economic good. Since water markets are usually absent or ineffective, the value of water cannot be directly derived from market activities but must rather be assessed through shadow prices. Economists have developed various valuation techniques to determine the economic value of water, especially to handle allocation issues involving environmental water uses. Most of the nonmarket valuation studies reported in the literature focus on long-run policy problems, such as permanent (re)allocations of water, and assume that the water availability is given. When dealing with short-run allocation problems, water managers are facing complex spatial and temporal trade-offs and must therefore be able to track site and time changes in water values across different hydrologic conditions, especially in arid and semiarid areas where the availability of water is a limiting and stochastic factor. This paper presents a stochastic programming approach for assessing the statistical distribution of marginal water values in multipurpose multireservoir systems where hydropower generation and irrigation crop production are the main economic activities depending on water. In the absence of a water market, the Lagrange multipliers correspond to shadow prices, and the marginal water values are the Lagrange multipliers associated with the mass balance equations of the reservoirs. The methodology is illustrated with a cascade of hydroelectric-irrigation reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin in Turkey and Syria.

Tilmant, A.; Pinte, D.; Goor, Q.

2008-12-01

174

Evaluation of Suited and Unsuited Human Functional Strength Using Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic Dynamometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the planned summer research was to develop a procedure to determine the isokinetic functional strength of suited and unsuited participants in order to estimate the coefficient of micro-gravity suit on human strength. To accomplish this objective, the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility's Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic dynamometer (MMID) was used. Development of procedure involved selection and testing of seven routines to be tested on MMID. We conducted the related experiments and collected the data for 12 participants. In addition to the above objective, we developed a procedure to assess the fatiguing characteristics of suited and unsuited participants using EMG technique. We collected EMG data on 10 participants while performing a programmed routing on MMID. EMG data along with information on the exerted forces, effector speed, number of repetitions, and duration of each routine were recorded for further analysis. Finally, gathering and tabulation Of data for various human strengths for updating of MSIS (HSIS) strength requirement, which started in summer 2003, also continued.

Aghazadeh, Fred

2005-01-01

175

Feasibility study for a DOE research and production fuel multipurpose canister  

SciTech Connect

This is a report of the feasibility of multipurpose canisters for transporting, storing, and sing of Department of Energy research and production spent nuclear fuel. Six representative Department of Energy fuel assemblies were selected, and preconceptual canister designs were developed to accommodate these assemblies. The study considered physical interface, structural adequacy, criticality safety, shielding capability, thermal performance of the canisters, and fuel storage site infrastructure. The external envelope of the canisters was designed to fit within the overpack casks for commercial canisters being developed for the Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The budgetary cost of canisters to handle all fuel considered is estimated at $170.8M. One large conceptual boiling water reactor canister design, developed for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, and two new canister designs can accommodate at least 85% of the volume of the Department of Energy fuel considered. Canister use minimizes public radiation exposure and is cost effective compared with bare fuel handling. Results suggest the need for additional study of issues affecting canister use and for conceptual design development of the three canisters.

Lopez, D.A.; Abbott, D.G.

1994-02-01

176

Study of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been a critical need for analyzing various aspects of atmospheric corrosion and for the development of atmospheric corrosion microsensors. The project work has involved the following activities: (1) making of multielectrode corrosion monitors on dielectric substrates; (2) testing them in the laboratory for functional characteristics; (3) preparing a report on the state of the art of atmospheric corrosion sensor development around the world; and (4) corrosion testing of electrochemical changes of sensor specimens and related fog testing. The study included work on the subject of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor and this report is the annual report on work carried out on this research project. This has included studies on the development of sensors of two designs, stage 1 and stage 2, and with glass and alumina substrate, experimentation and development and characterization of the coating uniformity, aspects of corrosion monitoring, literature search on the corrosion sensors and their development. A state of the art report on atmospheric corrosion sensor development was prepared and submitted.

Diwan, Ravinder M.; Raman, A.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

1994-01-01

177

DISMANTLING OF THE UPPER RPV COMPONENTS OF THE KARLSRUHE MULTI-PURPOSE RESEARCH REACTOR (MZFR), GERMANY  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-purpose Research Reactor was a pressurized-water reactor cooled and moderated with heavy water. It was built from 1961 to 1966 and went critical for the first time on 29 September 1965. After nineteen years of successful operation, the reactor was de-activated on 3 May 1984. The reactor had a thermal output of 200 MW and an electrical output of 50 MW. The MZFR not only served to supply electrical power, but also as a test bed for: - research into various materials for reactor building (e. g. zirkaloy), - the manufacturing and operating industry to gain experience in erection and operation, - training scientific and technical reactor staff, and - power supply (first nuclear combined-heat-and-power system, 1979-1984). The experience gained in operating the MZFR was very helpful for the development and operation of power reactors. At first, safe containment and enclosure of the plant was planned, but then it was decided to dismantle the plant completely, step by step, in view o f the clear advantages of this approach. The decommissioning concept for the complete elimination of the plant down to a green-field site provides for eight steps. A separate decommissioning license is required for each step. As part of the dismantling, about 72,000 Mg [metric tons] of concrete and 7,200 Mg of metal (400 Mg RPV) must be removed. About 700 Mg of concrete (500 Mg biological shield) and 1300 Mg of metal must be classified as radioactive waste.

Prechtl, E.; Suessdorf, W.

2003-02-27

178

A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points.

Ruytenberg, T.; Webb, A. G.; Beenakker, J. W. M.

2014-10-01

179

A case study: Transforming a vaudeville theatre into a 21st century multi-purpose hall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Originally constructed in 1927 as an atmospheric, vaudeville theatre, the Coronado enjoyed 50 years as host to a true variety of events. In the 1970s, functional and space limitations became a catalyst for touring events to avoid the Coronado, and the theatre fell into disrepair. In the mid-1990s, a renovation was planned (completed January 2001) to restore the glory of the original theatre and upgrade it to be a viable multi-purpose hall for the 21st century. By annexing two neighboring buildings, many of the space limitations could be overcome in both the front- and back-of-house. The scope included a significantly enlarged stage and stagehouse, performer support spaces, expanded lobby spaces, quiet ventilation systems, and a new music rehearsal room. Acoustically, a primary goal was to upgrade the hall for both reinforced music/theatre performances and unreinforced, orchestral performances. However, historical regulations prevented modification to the room shape and configuration. In order to make the room suitable for unreinforced music, two primary acoustic features were instituted-a semi-custom concert enclosure for the stage and an acoustic enhancement system for the audience chamber. For theatrical and popular music events, a new performance audio system was designed and integrated into the hall.

Talaske, Richard H.; Hoffman, Ian B.; Laney, Jonathan P.

2002-05-01

180

Multipurpose ultra and superhydrophobic surfaces based on oligodimethylsiloxane-modified nanosilica.  

PubMed

Nonfluorinated hydrophobic surfaces are of interest for reduced cost, toxicity, and environmental problems. Searching for such surfaces together with versatile processing, A200 silica nanoparticles are modified with an oligodimethylsiloxane and used by themselves or with a polymer matrix. The goal of the surface modification is controlled aggregate size and stable suspensions. Characterization is done by NMR, microanalysis, nitrogen adsorption, and dynamic light scattering. The feasibility of the concept is then demonstrated. The silica aggregates are sprayed in a scalable process to form ultrahydrophobic and imperceptible coatings with surface topographies of controlled nanoscale roughness onto different supports, including nanofibrillated cellulose. To improve adhesion and wear properties, the organosilica was mixed with polymers. The resulting composite coatings are characterized by FE-SEM, AFM, and contact angle measurements. Depending on the nature of the polymer, different functionalities can be developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate) leads to almost superhydrophobic and highly transparent coatings. Composites based on commercial acrylic car paint show "pearl-bouncing" droplet behavior. A light-emitting polyfluorene is synthesized to prepare luminescent and water repellent coatings on different supports. The interactions between polymers and the organosilica influence coating roughness and are critical for wetting behavior. In summary, the feasibility of a facile, rapid, and fluorine-free hydrophobization concept was successfully demonstrated in multipurpose antiwetting applications. PMID:25275966

de Francisco, Raquel; Tiemblo, Pilar; Hoyos, Mario; González-Arellano, Camino; García, Nuria; Berglund, Lars; Synytska, Alla

2014-11-12

181

PROGRAPE-1: A Programmable, Multi-Purpose Computer for Many-Body Simulations  

E-print Network

We have developed PROGRAPE-1 (PROgrammable GRAPE-1), a programmable multi-purpose computer for many-body simulations. The main difference between PROGRAPE-1 and "traditional" GRAPE systems is that the former uses FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chips as the processing elements, while the latter rely on the hardwired pipeline processor specialized to gravitational interactions. Since the logic implemented in FPGA chips can be reconfigured, we can use PROGRAPE-1 to calculate not only gravitational interactions but also other forms of interactions such as van der Waals force, hydrodynamical interactions in SPH calculation and so on. PROGRAPE-1 comprises two Altera EPF10K100 FPGA chips, each of which contains nominally 100,000 gates. To evaluate the programmability and performance of PROGRAPE-1, we implemented a pipeline for gravitational interaction similar to that of GRAPE-3. One pipeline fitted into a single FPGA chip, which operated at 16 MHz clock. Thus, for gravitational interaction, PROGRAPE-1 provided the speed of 0.96 Gflops-equivalent. PROGRAPE will prove to be useful for wide-range of particle-based simulations in which the calculation cost of interactions other than gravity is high, such as the evaluation of SPH interactions.

Tsuyoshi Hamada; Toshiyuki Fukushige; Atsushi Kawai; Junichiro Makino

1999-06-25

182

Development of JSTAMP-Works/NV and HYSTAMP for Multipurpose Multistage Sheet Metal Forming Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1996, Japan Research Institute Limited (JRI) has been providing a sheet metal forming simulation system called JSTAMP-Works packaged the FEM solvers of LS-DYNA and JOH/NIKE, which might be the first multistage system at that time and has been enjoying good reputation among users in Japan. To match the recent needs, "faster, more accurate and easier", of process designers and CAE engineers, a new metal forming simulation system JSTAMP-Works/NV is developed. The JSTAMP-Works/NV packaged the automatic healing function of CAD and had much more new capabilities such as prediction of 3D trimming lines for flanging or hemming, remote control of solver execution for multi-stage forming processes and shape evaluation between FEM and CAD. On the other way, a multi-stage multi-purpose inverse FEM solver HYSTAMP is developed and will be soon put into market, which is approved to be very fast, quite accurate and robust. Lastly, authors will give some application examples of user defined ductile damage subroutine in LS-DYNA for the estimation of material failure and springback in metal forming simulation.

Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu

2005-08-01

183

Software-programmable continuous-flow multi-purpose lab-on-a-chip  

PubMed Central

Current lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices are assay-specific and are custom-built for each single experiment. Performing an experiment requires scientists or engineers to go through the time-consuming process of designing, fabricating, and testing a chip before conducting the actual experiment. This prolonged cycle can take months to complete, increasing effort and cost and reducing productivity. Similarly, minor modifications to an assay protocol re-incur the overheads of the design cycle. In this paper, we develop a multi-purpose, software-programmableLab-on-a-Chip (SPLoC), where the user simply writes or downloads a program for each experiment. We describe the components necessary to realize the SPLoC, which include a high-level programming language, an abstract instruction set, a runtime and control system, and a microfluidic device. We describe two key features of our high-level language compiler, and describe a novel variable-volume variable-ratio mixer. Finally, we demonstrate our SPLoC on four diverse, real-world assays. PMID:24436691

Amin, Ahmed M.; Thakur, Raviraj; Madren, Seth; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Thottethodi, Mithuna; Vijaykumar, T. N.; Wereley, Steven T.; Jacobson, Stephen C.

2013-01-01

184

A new NASA LaRC Multi-Purpose Prepregging Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-purpose prepregging machine has been designed and built for NASA Langley Research Center. The machine has numerous advantages over existing units due to its various modular components. Each of these can be used individually or simultaneously depending on the required prepregging method. A reverse roll coater provides the ability to prepare thin films from typical hot-melt thermoset formulations. Also, if necessary, the design allows direct fiber impregnation within the reverse roll coater gap. Included in the impregnation module is a solution dip tank allowing the fabrication of thermoplastic prepregs from solution. The proceeding modules within the unit consist of four nip stations, two hot-plates, a hot-sled option and a high temperature oven. This paper describes the advantages of such a modular construction and discusses the various processing combinations available to the prepregger. A variety of high performance prepreg material systems were produced on IM7 (Hercules) carbon fiber. These included LaRC RP46, a PMR-type resin processed from methanol and two polyamide acids, LaRC IA and LaRC ITPI, prpregged from N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP). Parameters involved in the production of these prepreg materials are presented as are the mechanical properties of the resulting good quality laminates. A brief introduction into the existing prepregging science is presented. Topics relating to solution prepregging are identified with a focus on the current research effort and its future development.

Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Dixon, D.; Johnston, N. J.

1993-01-01

185

A multipurpose quality assurance phantom for the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the suitability and performance of a mouse-size MOSFET (Mousefet) phantom is investigated for routine quality assurance (QA) of the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). This Mousefet phantom is a simple construction consisting of five micro-MOSFETS custom integrated in a quincunx pattern within a tissue-equivalent phantom, allowing repeat/multiple QA tasks to be quickly performed in one experimental set-up. The Mousefet phantom is particularly evaluated for facilitating SARRP QA tasks which may warrant daily evaluation, including output constancy, isocenter congruency test and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image geometric accuracy. Results for the output constancy measurements showed a maximum daily variation of less than 2.6% for all MOSFETS, in consonance with observations from concurrent ion chamber measurements. It is also shown that the design of the Mousefet phantom allows the output check data to be used for prompt verification of beam energy and cone profile constancy. For the isocenter congruency test, it is demonstrated that the Mousefet phantom can detect 0.3 mm deviations of the CBCT isocenter from the radiation isocenter. Meanwhile, results for CBCT image geometric accuracy were consistently found to be within 2% of the expected value. Other CBCT image quality parameters could also be assessed in terms of image intensity constancy, noise and image uniformity. Overall, the results establish the Mousefet phantom as a simple and time-efficient multipurpose tool that could be employed effectively for routine QA of the SARRP.

Ngwa, Wilfred; Tsiamas, Panagiotis; Zygmanski, Piotr; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike; Berbeco, Ross I.

2012-05-01

186

Designing a multipurpose methodology for strategic environmental research: the Rönneå Catchment Dialogues.  

PubMed

The Rönneå Catchment Dialogues were developed as a multipurpose methodology to enable stakeholder-oriented, interdisciplinary research. This article describes the background of the Catchment Dialogues and their multiple aims and evaluates the Dialogue design. The three parallel objectives that were expected from the Catchment Dialogues were that they would function as a method to i) collect qualitative research data, ii) promote the involvement of stakeholders in water management, and iii) offer a practical example to enable integration of disciplines. Drawing on experiences from similar research or stakeholder-involvement projects using focus groups and similar techniques, this article assesses how the research aim was fulfilled and how the balance between fulfilling different objectives was struck. It reflects on Catchment Dialogues as a fruitful research method for answering our research questions, specifically focusing on the "new" design features, i.e. heterogeneous groups, structured interviews (long hours), and external moderation. Conclusions show that Catchment Dialogues was a useful approach for achieving VASTRA's multiple purposes. PMID:16435736

Jonsson, Anna; Danielsson, Ingela; Jöborn, Anna

2005-11-01

187

MYRRHA a multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications  

SciTech Connect

MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator driven system (ADS) in development at SCK-CEN. MYRRHA is able to work both in subcritical (ADS) as in critical mode. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for generation IV (GEN IV) systems, material developments for fusion reactors, radioisotope production and industrial applications, such as Si-doping. MYRRHA will also demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling the three components (accelerator, spallation target and subcritical reactor) at reasonable power level to allow operation feedback, scalable to an industrial demonstrator and allow the study of efficient transmutation of high-level nuclear waste. MYRRHA is based on the heavy liquid metal technology and so it will contribute to the development of lead fast reactor (LFR) technology and in critical mode, MYRRHA will play the role of European technology pilot plant in the roadmap for LFR. In this paper the historical evolution of MYRRHA and the rationale behind the design choices is presented and the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system is described. (authors)

Abderrahim, H. A.; Baeten, P. [SCK CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

2012-07-01

188

A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8ms variation between the exact trigger points. PMID:25222861

Ruytenberg, T; Webb, A G; Beenakker, J W M

2014-10-01

189

Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 °C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90° in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10-5 mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 °C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 °C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 °C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

Sharma, Hemant; Wattjes, Alix C.; Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S. Erik

2009-12-01

190

The multipurpose time-of-flight neutron reflectometer “Platypus” at Australia's OPAL reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this manuscript we describe the major components of the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer at the 20 MW OPAL reactor in Sydney, Australia. Platypus is a multipurpose spectrometer for the characterisation of solid thin films, materials adsorbed at the solid-liquid interface and free-liquid surfaces. It also has the capacity to study magnetic thin films using spin-polarised neutrons. Platypus utilises a white neutron beam ( ?=2-20 Å) that is pulsed using boron-coated disc chopper pairs; thus providing the capacity to tailor the wavelength resolution of the pulses to suit the system under investigation. Supermirror optical components are used to focus, deflect or spin-polarise the broad bandwidth neutron beams, and typical incident spectra are presented for each configuration. A series of neutron reflectivity datasets are presented, indicating the quality and flexibility of this spectrometer. Minimum reflectivity values of <10 -7 are observed; while maximum thickness values of 325 nm have been measured for single-component films and 483 nm for a multilayer system. Off-specular measurements have also been made to investigate in-plane features as opposed to those normal to the sample surface. Finally, the first published studies conducted using the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer are presented.

James, M.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; Saerbeck, T.; Hamilton, W. A.; Klose, F.

2011-03-01

191

Error-free 1,001-hop Cascaded Operation of an Optical-label Switching Router with Optical 3R Regeneration  

E-print Network

Error-free 1,001-hop Cascaded Operation of an Optical-label Switching Router with Optical 3R-label switching router. The optical 3R regeneration using wavelength conversion and synchronous modulation leads networking is desired. The OLS routers must maintain high signal quality beyond a very large number

Kolner, Brian H.

192

Coping with high reliabilities in multi-objective optimizations of multi-purpose reservoir systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoir systems responsible for potable water supply have commonly to be operated to meet the demands with an occurrence-based reliability higher than 99% (in contrast, the reliability e.g. of irrigation water supply may less than 90%). This requirement is not fully met in most studies which use single- or multi-objective optimization techniques for the optimization of reservoir operation problems. For dealing with very high reliabilities, long time series of several thousand years may be necessary for resilient calculations of those reliabilities using a Monte Carlo approach. However, unreasonable computational costs are the consequence. Thus, in many studies formulations of objective functions have so far been restricted to formulations that minimize an expected value or variance between various demands and the according deliveries. In this study we present a new approach to enable the explicit formulation of the reservoir performance by means of reliability in objective functions. A simulation based multi-objective optimization method is introduced that theoretically allows for highly efficient and robust optimization of operating rules over time periods of several thousand years. The technical framework of the approach comprises (i) a multivariate time series model, (ii) a new Monte-Carlo recombination technique that is capable of shortening the time series with little small loss of information (iii), a reservoir model coupled with an evolutionary optimization strategy using a box constraint handler and decision variable coding technique for constraint free optimization and (iv) a validation step. In a real case application, the multi-purpose multi-reservoir system Klingenberg - Lehnmühle - Rauschenbach (Germany) is optimized to meeting a reliability of supply in three levels of supply, ranging from 99% to 99,95%, as well as for minimizing pumping costs and to preserve water quality. It is shown that the new approach is capable of providing a resilient Pareto-front with a broad range of compromises between achievable reliabilities and the other two objectives.

Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels

2014-05-01

193

Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

Popa, R.; Popa, F.; Popa, B.; Zachia-Zlatea, D.

2010-08-01

194

Superconducting solenoid magnet for the Multi-Purpose Detector at the NICA facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is a 4? spectrometer to be used for studying charged hadrons, electrons and photons generated in heavy ion collisions at energies provided by the NICA collider of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna). A constituent part of MPD is a solenoid magnet with superconducting NbTi coil and steel flux return yoke. The magnet is intended for providing a highly homogeneous magnetic field of 0.5 T in an aperture of 4596 mm in diameter to ensure the transverse momentum resolution within the range of 0.1–3 GeV/c at NICA. The mass of the magnet is eight hundred tons. Structurally, the MPD magnet yoke is a cylindrical barrel-like structure, which consists of 24 beams that return the magnetic flux of the coil, two support rings, two poles and two support cradles that carry the total weight of the detector. The stainless cryostat with the superconducting coil is rigidly fixed inside the yoke barrel. The structural arrangement of the yoke guarantees high rigidity of the whole magnet and will ensure the required field homogeneity and integral of the radial magnetic induction component in the TPC region after subsequent withdrawals of the poles and multiple movements of the magnet to the assembly site for updating or repair. The coil is a one-layer solenoid made of an aluminum stabilized superconductor. The conductor is wound onto inside the aluminum support cylinder. The cooling method chosen for the MPD magnet is based on the forced two-phase helium flow using a helium refrigerator. The coil conductor is cooled indirectly via the thermal contact with the aluminum cylinder and heat removal through the cylinder to the aluminum tube with circulated liquid helium. In this paper the details of the technical design and results of the magnetic and mechanical calculations are presented.

Bunzarov, Zh; Dodokhov, V.; Efremov, A.; Golovatyuk, V.; Ionaites, V.; Kekelidze, V.; Kovalchuk, O.; Koshurnikov, E.; Lobanov, Yu; Makarov, A.; Ochrimenko, V.; Vodopyanov, A.

2014-09-01

195

Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 degree sign C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degree sign in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10{sup -5} mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degree sign C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 deg. C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 deg. C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

Sharma, Hemant; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S. Erik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Wattjes, Alix C. [Electronic and Mechanical Support Division (DEMO), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan [Materials Innovation Institute, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

2009-12-15

196

Totally implantable total artificial heart and ventricular assist device with multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system.  

PubMed

A multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system has been developed to yield a compact, efficient, durable, and biocompatible total artificial heart (TAH) and ventricular assist device (VAD). Associated controller-driver electronics were recently miniaturized and converted into hybrid circuits. The hybrid controller consists of a microprocessor and controller, motor driver, Hall sensor, and commutation circuit hybrids. The sizing study demonstrated that all these components can be incorporated in the pumping unit of the TAH and VAD, particularly in the centerpiece of the TAH and the motor housing of the VAD. Both TAH and VAD pumping units will start when their power line is connected to either the internal power pack or the external battery unit. As a redundant driving and diagnostic port, an emergency port was newly added and will be placed in subcutaneous location. In case of system failure, the skin will be cut down, and an external motor drive or a pneumatic driver will be connected to this port to run the TAH. This will minimize the circulatory arrest time. Overall efficiency of the TAH without the transcutaneous energy transmission system was 14-18% to deliver pump outputs of 4-9 L/min against the right and left afterload pressures of 25 and 100 mm Hg. The internal power requirement ranged from 6 to 13 W. The rechargeable batteries such as NiCd or NiMH with 1 AH capacity can run the TAH for 30-45 min. The external power requirement, when TETS efficiency of 75% was assumed, ranged from 8 to 18 W. The accelerated endurance test in the 42 degrees C saline bath demonstrated stable performance over 4 months. Long-term endurance and chronic animal studies will continue toward a system with 5 years durability by the year 2000. PMID:8141662

Takatani, S; Orime, Y; Tasai, K; Ohara, Y; Naito, K; Mizuguchi, K; Makinouchi, K; Damm, G; Glueck, J; Ling, J

1994-01-01

197

Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies  

PubMed Central

There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs). IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of women’s health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not disrupt intercourse or have high rates of expulsion. Herein, we reviewed the microbicide and MPT IVRs currently in development, with a focus on the clinical aspects of IVR assessment and the challenges facing microbicide and MPT IVR product development, clinical testing, and implementation. The information in this review was drawn from PubMed searches and a recent microbicide/MPT product development workshop organized by CONRAD. PMID:24174884

Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R; Hurlburt, Jennifer A; Doncel, Gustavo F

2013-01-01

198

Development of a new contact lens multipurpose solution: Comparative analysis of microbiological, biological and clinical performance  

PubMed Central

Purpose Antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and clinical performance of a new soft contact lens multi-purpose solution (COMPLETE® RevitaLens) based on polyquaternium-1 and alexidine dihydrochloride (NuMPS) was evaluated. Methods Antimicrobial efficacy was assessed according to ISO 14729 for both biocidal and regimen performance against bacteria and fungi. Acanthamoeba efficacy was tested along with ability to retain antimicrobial activity on partial evaporation. In vitro cytotoxicity of NuMPS and OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® MPS (MPS-3) was assessed based on ISO 10993-5 and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) methods. In addition, a 3 month, double-masked, parallel group clinical trial comparing safety and acceptability with respect to MPS-3 was conducted with 4 silicone hydrogel (SiHy) and FDA Group IV lens types. Results NuMPS showed broad antimicrobial efficacy, including Acanthamoeba, giving a 3–4 log10 reduction in viability after 6 hours contact time. NuMPS also passed ISO 14729 regimens with SiHy and etafilcon lenses for bacteria, fungi and also Acanthamoeba. The cytotoxicity of NuMPS was equivalent or better compared to MPS-3. In the clinical trial, there was no statistically significant between-group difference in corneal staining (p > 0.05). Patients using MPS-3 had more adverse events than patients using NuMPS: 11.8 % (11/93) versus 2.8 % (5/177), respectively, (p < 0.05). There were no differences noted in cleanliness or wearing comfort (p > 0.05). Conclusion Taken together, the results of these studies indicate that the NuMPS is a novel and effective soft contact lens care solution.

Kilvington, Simon; Huang, Ling; Kao, Eugenia; Powell, Charles H.

2010-01-01

199

Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics model and to verify no recontact. NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) teams examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute parameters, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1, but more testing is required to support human certification, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust but affordable human spacecraft capability.

Ali, Yasmin; Radke, Tara; Chuhta, Jesse; Hughes, Michael

2014-01-01

200

Design for multipurpose use: an application of DfE concept in a developing economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design for Environment (DfE) has been defined as the systematic integration of environmental considerations into product and process design. And it has been discovered that material and space can be saved when several functions are integrated into a single product by taking advantage of common components. In this design and development project, a multipurpose thresher was designed based on an integrated concept of design for modularity, disassembly, demanufacturing and remanufacturing. The machine can be used to thresh various types of farm produce such as rice, sorghum, cowpea and rye by changing the concave and the cylinder (threshing drum). The configuration of the machine enables access to most of the component parts without changing the tools needed for disassembly because the same type of fasteners was used. Furthermore, the functional units (the shelling unit, the separation unit and the grading unit) were assembled into modules such that only the faulty part needs to be replaced if necessary. The design was so simplified that the operator can make the changes for different uses without any difficulty. The machine has been successfully tested with a number of these products and it is scheduled for tests with other produce like corn and peanuts. The modularity of the functional unit will facilitate multi-lifecycle use of machine and/or its component parts. The uniformity of the liaisons and simplification of the configuration will reduce both the disassembly times and maintenance cost. By this integration, the material requirements for four different machines are conserved, environmental emissions that would be associated with the manufacture, transportation and disposal of four machines are eliminated while the capital requirements by farmers for machinery are reduced to about a quarter. Consequently the total lifecycle cost is kept minimum while the eco-efficiency is maximized.

Dunmade, Israel

2004-12-01

201

The fate of the 2?3 × 2?3R(30°) silicene phase on Ag(111)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon atoms deposited on Ag(111) produce various single layer silicene sheets with different buckling patterns and periodicities. Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that one of the silicene sheets, the hypothetical ?7 × ?7 silicene structure, on 2?3 × 2?3 Ag(111), is inherently highly defective and displays no long-range order. Moreover, Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal its sudden death, to end, in a dynamic fating process at ˜300 °C. This result clarifies the real nature of the 2?3 × 2?3R(30°) silicene phase and thus helps to understand the diversity of the silicene sheets grown on Ag(111).

Liu, Zhi-Long; Wang, Mei-Xiao; Liu, Canhua; Jia, Jin-Feng; Vogt, Patrick; Quaresima, Claudio; Ottaviani, Carlo; Olivieri, Bruno; De Padova, Paola; Lay, Guy Le

2014-09-01

202

Pressure dependence of metal-insulator transition in perovskites RNiO3 ( R=Eu , Y, Lu)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure experiments on the RNiO3 perovskites with smaller rare-earth R3+ ions complete our study of the crossover from itinerant to localized e -electron behavior associated with the low-spin Ni(III):t6e1 ion. By measuring second-sintered samples in a multianvil module, we have observed a clear anomaly of rho(T) at TIM and obtained the pressure dependence of TIM for the RNiO3 ( R=Eu

J.-G. Cheng; J.-S. Zhou; J. B. Goodenough; J. A. Alonso; M. J. Martinez-Lope

2010-01-01

203

Multiferroic hexagonal ferrites (h-RFeO3, R = Y, Dy-Lu): a brief experimental review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexagonal ferrites (h-RFeO3, R = Y, Dy-Lu) have recently been identified as a new family of multiferroic complex oxides. The coexisting spontaneous electric and magnetic polarizations make h-RFeO3 rare-case ferroelectric ferromagnets at low temperature. Plus the room-temperature multiferroicity and the predicted magnetoelectric effect, h-RFeO3 are promising materials for multiferroic applications. Here we review the structural, ferroelectric, magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of h-RFeO3. The thin film growth is also discussed because it is critical in making high quality single crystalline materials for studying intrinsic properties.

Xu, Xiaoshan; Wang, Wenbin

2014-08-01

204

Multipurpose modular experimental station for the DiProI beamline of Fermi-Elettra free electron laser  

SciTech Connect

We present a compact modular apparatus with a flexible design that will be operated at the DiProI beamline of the Fermi-Elettra free electron laser (FEL) for performing static and time-resolved coherent diffraction imaging experiments, taking advantage of the full coherence and variable polarization of the short seeded FEL pulses. The apparatus has been assembled and the potential of the experimental setup is demonstrated by commissioning tests with coherent synchrotron radiation. This multipurpose experimental station will be open to general users after installation at the Fermi-Elettra free electron laser in 2011.

Pedersoli, Emanuele; Capotondi, Flavio; Cocco, Daniele; Kaulich, Burkhard; Menk, Ralf H.; Locatelli, Andrea; Mentes, Tevfik O.; Spezzani, Carlo; Sandrin, Gilio; Bacescu, Daniel M.; Kiskinova, Maya [Fermi, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, SS 14 - km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Zangrando, Marco [Fermi, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, SS 14 - km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); IOM CNR, Laboratorio TASC, SS 14 - km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam [Photon Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars [Centre for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Chapman, Henry N. [Centre for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); University of Hamburg, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Nelson, A. J.; Frank, Matthias [Physical and Life Sciences, LLNL, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

2011-04-15

205

Multipurpose modular experimental station for the DiProI beamline of Fermi@Elettra free electron laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a compact modular apparatus with a flexible design that will be operated at the DiProI beamline of the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser (FEL) for performing static and time-resolved coherent diffraction imaging experiments, taking advantage of the full coherence and variable polarization of the short seeded FEL pulses. The apparatus has been assembled and the potential of the experimental setup is demonstrated by commissioning tests with coherent synchrotron radiation. This multipurpose experimental station will be open to general users after installation at the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser in 2011.

Pedersoli, Emanuele; Capotondi, Flavio; Cocco, Daniele; Zangrando, Marco; Kaulich, Burkhard; Menk, Ralf H.; Locatelli, Andrea; Mentes, Tevfik O.; Spezzani, Carlo; Sandrin, Gilio; Bacescu, Daniel M.; Kiskinova, Maya; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars; Chapman, Henry N.; Nelson, A. J.; Frank, Matthias; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Woods, Bruce W.; Bogan, Michael J.; Hajdu, Janos

2011-04-01

206

Preparation of 3R- and 3S-methyl isomers of the myocardial imaging agent 15-(p-IODOPHENYL)-3-methylpentadecanoic acid ({open_quotes}BMIPP{close_quotes})  

SciTech Connect

Iodine-123-labeled racemic BMIPP is used for clinical evaluation of heart disease. To evaluate the expected importance of configuration of the asymmetric C-3 center, we have synthesized the 3R-isomer. 6-Phenylhexanoyl chloride was condensed with thiophene (Friedel-Crafts), followed by Wolff-Kishner reduction and subsequent acylation with the ethyl-3-R-methylglutaroyl chloride, Wolff-Kishner reduction and Raney-Ni ring opening. Para Thallation (TTFA)/KI provided 3R-BMIPP, m.p. 51-52{degrees}C, [{alpha}{sub D}] = +0.74{degrees}. The diastereomeric amide mixture was prepared by reaction of racemic 3-R,S-BMIPP with (S)-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine. Chromatographic separation and HCl hydrolysis (at 175{degrees}C) provided the 3R- and 3S- (m.p. 45-46{degrees}C, [{alpha}{sub D}] = -1.67{degrees}) BMIPP isomers. The more polar amide (m.p. 93-94{degrees}C) was identical with the amide from the synthetic 3R-BMIPP (m.p., HPLC, NMR). Availability of the 3R- and 3S-BMIPP isomers will permit preparation of the radioiodinated isomers and animal evaluation to determine the effects of the methyl group configuration on myocardial uptake and metabolism.

Lin, Q. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); [Xavier Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States); Luo, J.; Mokler, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

207

Loss of IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signalling in thymocytes leads to aberrant development and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) function as universal second messengers in eukaryotic cells, including immune cells. Ca(2+) is crucial for peripheral T-lymphocyte activation and effector functions, and influences thymocyte selection and motility in the developing thymus. However, the role of Ca(2+) signalling in early T-lymphocyte development is not well understood. Here we show that the inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) Ca(2+) ion channels are required for proliferation, survival and developmental progression of T-lymphocyte precursors. Our studies indicate that signalling via IP3Rs represses Sox13, an antagonist of the developmentally important transcription factor Tcf-1. In the absence of IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) signalling, repression of key Notch transcriptional targets--including Hes1--fail to occur in post ?-selection thymocytes, and mice develop aggressive T-cell malignancies that resemble human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). These data indicate that IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) signalling reinforces Tcf-1 activity to both ensure normal development and prevent thymocyte neoplasia. PMID:25215520

Ouyang, Kunfu; Leandro Gomez-Amaro, Rafael; Stachura, David L; Tang, Huayuan; Peng, Xiaohong; Fang, Xi; Traver, David; Evans, Sylvia M; Chen, Ju

2014-01-01

208

Exome sequencing identifies a novel mutation in PIK3R1 as the cause of SHORT syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background SHORT syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition whose name is the acronym of short stature, hyperextensibility of joints, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly and teething delay (MIM 269880). Additionally, the patients usually present a low birth weight and height, lipodystrophy, delayed bone age, hernias, low body mass index and a progeroid appearance. Case presentation In this study, we used whole-exome sequencing approaches in two patients with clinical features of SHORT syndrome. We report the finding of a novel mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8), as well as a recurrent mutation c.1945C > T (p.Arg649Trp) in this gene. Conclusions We found a novel frameshift mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8) which consists of a deletion right before the site of substrate recognition. As a consequence, the protein lacks the position that interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue of the substrate, resulting in the development of SHORT syndrome. PMID:24886349

2014-01-01

209

Friction Stir Weld Application and Tooling Design for the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), commonly known as the Orion capsule, is planned to be the United States' next manned spacecraft for missions beyond low earth orbit. Following the cancellation of the Constellation program and creation of SLS (Space Launch System), the need arose for the MPCV to utilize the Delta IV Heavy rocket for a test launch scheduled for 2014 instead of the previously planned Ares I rocket. As a result, an adapter (MSA) must be used in conjunction with the MPCV to account for the variation in diameter of the launch vehicles; 5.5 meters down to 5.0 meters. Prior to ight article fabrication, a path nder (test article) will be fabricated to ne tune the associated manufacturing processes. The adapter will be comprised of an aluminum frustum (partial cone) that employs isogrid technology and circumferential rings on each end. The frustum will be fabricated by friction stir welding (FSW) three individual panels together on a Vertical Weld Tool (VWT) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Subsequently, each circumferential ring will be friction stir welded to the frustum using a Robotic Weld Tool (RWT). The irregular geometry and large mass of the MSA require that extensive tooling preparation be put into support structures for the friction stir weld. The tooling on the VWT will be comprised of a set of conveyors mounted on pre-existing stanchions so that the MSA will have the ability to be rotated after each of the three friction stir welds. The tooling requirements to friction stir weld the rings with the RWT are somewhat more demanding. To support the mass of the MSA and resist the load of the weld tool, a system of mandrels will be mounted to stanchions and assembled in a circle. The goal of the paper will be to explain the design, fabrication, and assembly of the tooling, to explain the use of friction stir welding on the MSA path nder, and also to discuss the lessons learned and modi cations made in preparation for ight article fabrication in support of the 2014 launch of the Orion MPCV.

Alcorn, John

2013-01-01

210

NASA Planning for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Ground Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Orion Ground Processing Team was originally formed by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Constellation (Cx) Project Office's Orion Division to define, refine and mature pre-launch and post-landing ground operations for the Orion human spacecraft. The multidisciplined KSC Orion team consisted of KSC civil servant, SAIC, Productivity Apex, Inc. and Boeing-CAPPS engineers, project managers and safety engineers, as well as engineers from Constellation's Orion Project and Lockheed Martin Orion Prime contractor. The team evaluated the Orion design configurations as the spacecraft concept matured between Systems Design Review (SDR), Systems Requirement Review (SRR) and Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The team functionally decomposed prelaunch and post-landing steps at three levels' of detail, or tiers, beginning with functional flow block diagrams (FFBDs). The third tier FFBDs were used to build logic networks and nominal timelines. Orion ground support equipment (GSE) was identified and mapped to each step. This information was subsequently used in developing lower level operations steps in a Ground Operations Planning Document PDR product. Subject matter experts for each spacecraft and GSE subsystem were used to define 5th - 95th percentile processing times for each FFBD step, using the Delphi Method. Discrete event simulations used this information and the logic network to provide processing timeline confidence intervals for launch rate assessments. The team also used the capabilities of the KSC Visualization Lab, the FFBDs and knowledge of the spacecraft, GSE and facilities to build visualizations of Orion pre-launch and postlanding processing at KSC. Visualizations were a powerful tool for communicating planned operations within the KSC community (i.e., Ground Systems design team), and externally to the Orion Project, Lockheed Martin spacecraft designers and other Constellation Program stakeholders during the SRR to PDR timeframe. Other operations planning tools included Kaizen/Lean events, mockups and human factors analysis. The majority of products developed by this team are applicable as KSC prepares 21st Century Ground Systems for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Launch System.

Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

2011-01-01

211

A Modern Explorer's Journey - using events for innovative multipurpose educational outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observations are important across the specter of geo-sciences. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. The lack of dedicated funding to support specific Science &Technology activities in support of GEOSS is one of the most important obstacles to engaging the Science &Technology communities in its implementation. Finding resources to outreach and capacity building is likewise a challenge. The continuation of GEO and GEOSS rely on political support which again is influenced by public opinions. The GEO Ministerial Summit in 2014 was an event that both needed visibility and represented an opportunity to mobilize the GEO community in producing outreach and educational material. Through the combined resources from two of GEO tasks in the GEO work plan, a multipurpose educational outreach project was planned and executed. This project addressed the following issues: How can the GEO community mobilize resources for its work plan projects in the Societal Benefit Area Water? How can we produce more educational and capacity building material? How can the GEO community support the GEO secretariat related to public relations (material and otherwise) Based on activities described in the GEO work plan, a showcase video and online campaign consisting on a series of webinars were developed and produced. The video and webinars were linked through a common reference: the water cycle. Various aspects of the water cycle ranging from general to more technical and scientific education were covered in the webinars, while the video called A Modern Explorer's Journey focused on story telling with a more emotional appeal. The video was presented to the Ministers at the GEO Ministerial Summit and distributed widely to the GEO community and through social media and articles (as embedded YouTube and more). A discussion of challenges and successes of this event-based educational outreach project will be presented. Continued use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community. Lessons learned need to be provided continuously and this project add to this material.

Lilja Bye, Bente

2014-05-01

212

Effect of contact lens material on cytotoxicity potential of multipurpose solutions using human corneal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose Multipurpose solutions (MPS) are used daily to clean and disinfect silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lenses. This in vitro study was undertaken to identify the potential for interaction between MPS, SiHy surface treatments, and lens materials, which may lead to changes in the response of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) to MPS-soaked lenses. Methods The MPS tested were renu fresh (formerly known as ReNu MultiPlus; ReNu), OptiFree Express (OFX), OptiFree RepleniSH, SoloCare Aqua, and Complete Moisture Plus. The SiHy materials evaluated were lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, comfilcon A, galyfilcon A, and balafilcon A (BA). MPS-soaked lenses were placed on top of adherent HCEC. The effect of MPS dilutions (0.1 to 10% final concentration in medium) was also characterized. Cell viability, adhesion phenotype and caspase activation were studied after 24-h cell exposure. OFX released from lenses was determined using UV absorbance. Results A significant reduction in viability (between 30 to 50%) was observed with cells exposed to lenses soaked in ReNu and OFX. A significant downregulation of ?3 and ?1 integrins, with integrin expression ranging from 60% to 75% of control (cells with no lens), was also observed with OFX and ReNu-soaked lenses. With the exception of BA, all other lenses soaked in OFX resulted in significant caspase activation, whereby over 18% of cells stained positive for caspases. Minimal caspase activation was observed in cells exposed to ReNu and Solo soaked lenses. For both OFX and ReNu, exposing cells to at least a 5% dilution had a significant effect on viability and integrin expression. While Complete and Solo did not lead to reduction in viability, cells exposed to a 10% dilution showed reduced integrin expression down to less than 70% of control value. Comparing cell response to diluted MPS solutions and various MPS-soaked lenses showed that it is not possible to reliably use cell response to MPS dilution alone to assess MPS biocompatibility. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the reaction of HCEC to MPS are affected by the type of lenses the MPS is released from and may potentially be influenced by the surface treatment (or lack of it) of SiHy materials. PMID:22219641

Tanti, N.C.; Crockett, B.; Mansour, L.; Jones, L.

2011-01-01

213

Fifth International Poplar Symposium: 'Poplars and willows: from research models to multipurpose trees for a bio-based society'.  

PubMed

Carefully managed tree plantations offer an opportunity for sustainable biomass production. In recent years, the responses of the Salicaceae to environmental constraints have increasingly been investigated at different levels of biological integration, giving rise to a physiological approach to the function of trees in environmental restoration and monitoring. Significant progress has been achieved by the poplar and willow community in understanding targeted characteristics of complex tree stress responses. The Fifth International Poplar Symposium brought together experts in this area, with the main objective being to improve, coordinate and communicate existing national research on the biological and environmental dimension of multifunctional poplar and willow plantations. The secondary objective was to develop a network of research scientists and extension workers to provide scientific support for subjects interested in using fast-growing poplar and willow species for tree-related environmental projects. The ultimate goal was to build up services for the multipurpose tree plantation network on local-level management in order to obtain maximized benefits from tree crops. The purpose was also to maximize the synergy between local knowledge and global-level processes that require information on multipurpose tree crop production. PMID:22158009

Tognetti, Roberto; Massacci, Angelo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia

2011-12-01

214

Interaction between the J3R Subunit of Vaccinia Virus Poly(A) Polymerase and the H4L Subunit of the Viral RNA Polymerase  

Microsoft Academic Search

J3R, the 39-kDa subunit of vaccinia virus poly(A) polymerase, is a multifunctional protein that catalyzes (nucleoside-2?-O-)-methyltransferase activity, serves as a poly(A) polymerase stimulatory factor, and acts as a postreplicative positive transcription elongation factor. Prior results support an association between poly(A) polymerase and the virion RNA polymerase. A possible direct interaction between J3R and H4L subunit of virion RNA polymerase was

Mohamed Ragaa Mohamed; Donald R. Latner; Richard C. Condit; Edward G. Niles

2001-01-01

215

Enantioselective total synthesis of (2 R,3 R,6 R)- N-methyl-6-(deca-1?,3?,5?-trienyl)-3-methoxy-2-methylpiperidine, an insecticidal alkaloid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An insecticidal piperidine alkaloid, (2R,3R,6R)-N-methyl-6-(deca-1?,3?,5?-trienyl)-3-methoxy-2-methylpiperidine, was efficiently synthesized in a stereoselective manner starting from d-alanine. Chiral center at C-6 was controlled by hydrogenation of imine and side chain was introduced by Julia olefination. The absolute configuration of natural product was determined to be 2R, 3R, 6R.

Yusuke Nakatani; Jun Oshita; Ken Ishigami; Hidenori Watanabe; Takeshi Kitahara

2006-01-01

216

Vibrational circular dichroism in the CH stretching region of (+)-3(R)-methylcyclohexanone and chiral deuteriated isotopomers  

SciTech Connect

The CH stretching Raman, FTIR, and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of 3(R)-methylcyclohexanone and its chiral 2,2,6,6-d/sub 4/, 4,4-d/sub 2/, 5,5-d/sub 2/ and methyl-d/sub 3/ isotopomers, and the Raman and FTIR spectra of racemic 3-methylcyclohexanone-3-d/sub 1/ are presented and analyzed. Fourier self-deconvolution has been applied to the FTIR spectra to artificially enhance the resolution in order to determine individual band frequencies. Band assignments have been obtained on the basis of the spectra changes occurring due to selective deuteriation and from an analysis of the strong Fermi resonance interactions. The VCD spectral features of the five chiral isotopomers can all be understood in terms of the coupling of pairs of chirally oriented CH oscillators on adjacent carbon atoms and the removal of the degeneracy in the methyl modes.

Freedman, T.B.; Kallmerten, J.; Lipp, E.D.; Young, D.A.; Nafie, L.A.

1988-02-03

217

Theoretical studies of strongly correlated rare-earth intermetallics RIn3 and RSn3 (R = Sm, Eu, and Gd)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of RIn3 and RSn3 (R = Sm, Eu, Gd) compounds have been investigated using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method within the density functional theory. The structural properties are investigated using the LDA, GGA, and the band correlated LDA+U and GGA+U schemes. The lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental results and the divalent state of Eu is also verified. The spin-orbit coupling is included in order to predict the correct electronic properties and splitting of 4f states of the rare earth elements is also incorporated. We calculated Bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, anisotropic ratio, Kleinman parameters, Poisson's ratio, Lame's co-efficient, sound velocities for shear and longitudinal waves, and Debye temperature. We also predict the Cauchy pressure and B/G ratio in order to explore the ductile and brittle behaviors of these compounds.

Shafiq, M.; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Jalali Asadabadi, S.

2014-09-01

218

The use of a multipurpose phantom for mailed dosimetry checks of therapeutic photon beams: ‘OPERA’ (operational phantom for external radiotherapy audit)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: This study presents a technical description of the solid multipurpose phantom (MPP) ‘OPERA’ (operational phantom for external radiotherapy audit) for mailed dosimetry checks of photon beams in reference and non-reference conditions. The aim is to test the functionality of this phantom by comparing the results provided by the local treatment planning system (TPS) with the measurements by

Ans Swinnen; Jan Verstraete; Dominique Pierre Huyskens

2002-01-01

219

A Multipurpose Apparatus to Measure Viscosity and Surface Tension of Solutions: The Measurement of the Molecular Cross-Sectional Area of N-Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multipurpose apparatus that can be used to measure the viscosity of solution by the Ostwald method and the surface tension of solution by the drop-weight method or by the capillary-rise method is developed. The apparatus is convenient for in-situ preparation of solutions of different concentrations and avoids the error that frothing of the…

Xin Zhang; Shouxin Liu; Booxin Li; Na An; Fan Zhang

2004-01-01

220

The CaV2.3 R-Type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channel in Mouse Sleep Architecture  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are key elements in mediating thalamocortical rhythmicity. Low-voltage activated (LVA) CaV 3 T-type Ca2+ channels have been related to thalamic rebound burst firing and to generation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. High-voltage activated (HVA) CaV 1 L-type Ca2+ channels, on the opposite, favor the tonic mode of action associated with higher levels of vigilance. However, the role of the HVA Non-L-type CaV2.3 Ca2+ channels, which are predominantly expressed in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN), still remains unclear. Recently, CaV2.3?/? mice were reported to exhibit altered spike-wave discharge (SWD)/absence seizure susceptibility supported by the observation that CaV2.3 mediated Ca2+ influx into RTN neurons can trigger small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+-channel type 2 (SK2) currents capable of maintaining thalamic burst activity. Based on these studies we investigated the role of CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels in rodent sleep. Methods: The role of CaV2.3 Ca2+ channels was analyzed in CaV2.3?/? mice and controls in both spontaneous and artificial urethane-induced sleep, using implantable video-EEG radiotelemetry. Data were analyzed for alterations in sleep architecture using sleep staging software and time-frequency analysis. Results: CaV2.3 deficient mice exhibited reduced wake duration and increased slow-wave sleep (SWS). Whereas mean sleep stage durations remained unchanged, the total number of SWS epochs was increased in CaV2.3?/? mice. Additional changes were observed for sleep stage transitions and EEG amplitudes. Furthermore, urethane-induced SWS mimicked spontaneous sleep results obtained from CaV2.3 deficient mice. Quantitative Real-time PCR did not reveal changes in thalamic CaV3 T-type Ca2+ channel expression. The detailed mechanisms of SWS increase in CaV2.3?/? mice remain to be determined. Conclusions: Low-voltage activated CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels in the thalamocortical loop and extra-thalamocortical circuitries substantially regulate rodent sleep architecture thus representing a novel potential target for pharmacological treatment of sleep disorders in the future. Citation: Siwek ME, Müller R, Henseler C, Broich K, Papazoglou A, Weiergräber M. The CaV2.3 R-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel in mouse sleep architecture. SLEEP 2014;37(5):881-892. PMID:24790266

Siwek, Magdalena Elisabeth; Muller, Ralf; Henseler, Christina; Broich, Karl; Papazoglou, Anna; Weiergraber, Marco

2014-01-01

221

Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Active Thermal Control and Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in 2014. The development of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the completing the components which are on EFT1. Additional development work has been done to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation for a flight tests in of EM1 in 2017 and in and EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2012 to April 2013.

Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward

2013-01-01

222

Environmental assessment for the reuse of TNX as a multi-purpose pilot plant campus at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental and safety impacts of DOE planning to allow asset reuse of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include providing for a location for the Centers of Excellence at or adjacent to SRS and entering into a cooperative agreement with a non-profit management and operations (management firm) contractor to operate and market the TNX facilities and equipment. The area (formerly TNX) would be called a Multi-Purpose Pilot Plant Campus (MPPC) and would be used: (1) as location for technology research, development, demonstration, and commercial operations; (2) to establish partnerships with industry to develop applied technologies for commercialization; and (3) serve as administrative headquarters for Centers of Excellence in the program areas of soil remediation, radioecology, groundwater contamination, and municipal solid waste minimization.

NONE

1998-07-01

223

Development of a multipurpose vacuum chamber for serial optical and diffraction experiments with free electron laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a development of a multipurpose vacuum chamber which primal function is to be used in pump/probe experiments with free electron laser (FEL) radiation. The chamber is constructed for serial diffraction and serial spectroscopy allowing a fast exchange of samples during the measurement process. For the fast exchange of samples, liquid jet systems are used. Both applications, utilizing soft x-ray FEL pulses as pump and optical laser pulses as probe and vice versa are documented. Experiments with solid samples as well as the liquid jet samples are presented. When working with liquid jets, a system of automatically refilled liquid traps for capturing liquids has been developed in order to ensure stable vacuum conditions. Differential pumping stages are placed in between the FEL beamline and the experimental chamber so that working pressure in the chamber can be up to four orders of magnitude higher than the pressure in the FEL beamline.

Rajkovic, I.; Hallmann, J.; Grübel, S.; More, R.; Quevedo, W.; Petri, M.; Techert, S.

2010-04-01

224

Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide Production are Involved in Systemic Drought Tolerance Induced by 2R,3R-Butanediol in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

2R,3R-Butanediol, a volatile compound produced by certain rhizobacteria, is involved in induced drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana through mechanisms involving stomatal closure. In this study, we examined the involvement of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide in induced drought tolerance, because these are signaling agents in drought stress responses mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). Fluorescence-based assays showed that systemic nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production was induced by 2R,3R-butanediol and correlated with expression of genes encoding nitrate reductase and nitric oxide synthase. Co-treatment of 2R,3R-butanediol with an inhibitor of nitrate reductase or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase lowered nitric oxide production and lessened induced drought tolerance. Increases in hydrogen peroxide were negated by co-treatment of 2R,3R-butanediol with inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, or peroxidase. These findings support the volatile 2R,3R-butanediol synthesized by certain rhizobacteria is an active player in induction of drought tolerance through mechanisms involving nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production. PMID:25288971

Cho, Song-Mi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Anderson, Anne J; Kim, Young Cheol

2013-12-01

225

IP3R1 deficiency in the cerebellum/brainstem causes basal ganglia-independent dystonia by triggering tonic Purkinje cell firings in mice  

PubMed Central

The type 1 inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) is a Ca2+ channel on the endoplasmic reticulum and is a predominant isoform in the brain among the three types of IP3Rs. Mice lacking IP3R1 show seizure-like behavior; however the cellular and neural circuit mechanism by which IP3R1 deletion causes the abnormal movements is unknown. Here, we found that the conditional knockout mice lacking IP3R1 specifically in the cerebellum and brainstem experience dystonia and show that cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) firing patterns were coupled to specific dystonic movements. Recordings in freely behaving mice revealed epochs of low and high frequency PC complex spikes linked to body extension and rigidity, respectively. Remarkably, dystonic symptoms were independent of the basal ganglia, and could be rescued by inactivation of the cerebellum, inferior olive or in the absence of PCs. These findings implicate IP3R1-dependent PC firing patterns in cerebellum in motor coordination and the expression of dystonia through the olivo-cerebellar pathway. PMID:24109434

Hisatsune, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Hirono, Moritoshi; Yamaguchi, Naohide; Sugawara, Takeyuki; Ogawa, Naoko; Ebisui, Etsuko; Ohshima, Toshio; Yamada, Masahisa; Hensch, Takao K.; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

2013-01-01

226

Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide Production are Involved in Systemic Drought Tolerance Induced by 2R,3R-Butanediol in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

2R,3R-Butanediol, a volatile compound produced by certain rhizobacteria, is involved in induced drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana through mechanisms involving stomatal closure. In this study, we examined the involvement of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide in induced drought tolerance, because these are signaling agents in drought stress responses mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). Fluorescence-based assays showed that systemic nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production was induced by 2R,3R-butanediol and correlated with expression of genes encoding nitrate reductase and nitric oxide synthase. Co-treatment of 2R,3R-butanediol with an inhibitor of nitrate reductase or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase lowered nitric oxide production and lessened induced drought tolerance. Increases in hydrogen peroxide were negated by co-treatment of 2R,3R-butanediol with inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, or peroxidase. These findings support the volatile 2R,3R-butanediol synthesized by certain rhizobacteria is an active player in induction of drought tolerance through mechanisms involving nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production.

Cho, Song-Mi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Anderson, Anne J.; Kim, Young Cheol

2013-01-01

227

The L266V tau mutation is associated with frontotemporal dementia and Pick-like 3R and 4R tauopathy.  

PubMed

We report a case of rapidly progressive frontotemporal dementia presenting at age 33 years. At autopsy there was severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes. Tau-positive Pick bodies, which ultrastructurally were composed of straight filaments, were present, accompanied by severe neuronal loss and gliosis. RD3, a tau antibody specific for the three-repeat (3R) isoforms, labeled the Pick bodies. ET3, a four-repeat (4R) isoform-specific tau antibody, did not label Pick bodies, but highlighted rare astrocytes, and threads in white matter bundles in the corpus striatum. Analysis of the tau gene revealed an L266V mutation in exon 9. Analysis of brain tissue from this case revealed elevated levels of exon 10+ tau RNA and soluble 4R tau. However, both 3R and 4R isoforms were present in sarkosyl-insoluble tau fractions with a predominance of the shortest 3R isoform. The L266V mutation is associated with decreased rate and extent of tau-induced microtubule assembly, and a 3R isoform-specific increase in tau self assembly as measured by an in vitro assay. Combined, these data indicate that L266V is a pathogenic tau mutation that is associated with Pick-like pathology. In addition, the results of the RD3 and ET3 immunostains clearly explain for the first time the presence of both 3R and 4R tau isoforms in preparations of insoluble tau from some Pick's disease cases. PMID:12883828

Hogg, Marion; Grujic, Zoran M; Baker, Matt; Demirci, Serpil; Guillozet, Angela L; Sweet, Alison P; Herzog, Laura L; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; LaPointe, Nichole E; Gamblin, T C; Berry, Robert W; Binder, Lester I; de Silva, Rohan; Lees, Andrew; Espinoza, Marisol; Davies, Peter; Grover, Andrew; Sahara, Naruhiko; Ishizawa, Takashi; Dickson, Dennis; Yen, Shu-Hui; Hutton, Michael; Bigio, Eileen H

2003-10-01

228

Transport properties of Ce-doped RMnO{sub 3} (R=La, Pr, and Nd) manganites  

SciTech Connect

In Ce-doped RMnO{sub 3} the rare earth (R) is partially replaced with cerium ions instead of divalent alkaline-earth metals. These compounds are very sensitive to annealing. The resistivity and thermoelectric power (TEP, S) of R{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (R=La, Pr, and Nd) have been studied as a function of annealing conditions. They show a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition, and a resistive peak near T{sub c}, marking a metal-insulator (MI) transition. A pronounced giant magnetoresistance effect is also observed in these compounds, and T{sub c} can be changed by annealing in various atmospheres. The {rho}(T) curve of oxygen overdoped samples shows double peaks along with a hysteresis loop (in the heating and cooling cycles), which bears the signature of the first-order nature of the transition. The thermopower of as-prepared samples show a peak near the MI transition, and changes sign from positive to negative at temperatures below the ferromagnetic transition. The magnitude of S at low temperatures is enhanced to an abnormally large value. With increasing of oxygen content, several characteristic features develop in the temperature dependence of the thermopower which is consistent with the resistive behavior. At high temperatures, the resistivity and thermopower follow the predictions of the Emin-Holstein theory of adiabatic polaron hopping. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Mandal, P.; Das, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India)] [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India)

1997-12-01

229

How omics technologies can contribute to the '3R' principles by introducing new strategies in animal testing.  

PubMed

In Europe, in light of ethical, political and commercial pressure, every effort should be made to replace animals with alternatives (e.g. in vitro models), to reduce the number of animals used in experiments to a minimum and to refine current testing strategies in a way that ensures animals undergo minimum pain and distress. Methods currently used in toxicology for mandatory safety tests rely heavily on the dosing of animals, followed by the detection and pathological evaluation of manifested toxic lesions. Through the integration of so-called 'omics' technologies, a global analysis of treatment-related changes on the molecular level becomes feasible and therefore might provide a means for predicting toxicity before classical toxicological endpoints. This Opinion article summarizes the key features of pushing the '3R' principles in animal testing, discusses the possible impact on safety testing in toxicology and describes the potential of using omics technologies for improved toxicity prediction to meet ethical, political and commercial expectations. PMID:16782220

Kroeger, Michaela

2006-08-01

230

Pressure dependence of metal-insulator transition in perovskites RNiO3 ( R=Eu , Y, Lu)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure experiments on the RNiO3 perovskites with smaller rare-earth R3+ ions complete our study of the crossover from itinerant to localized e -electron behavior associated with the low-spin Ni(III):t6e1 ion. By measuring second-sintered samples in a multianvil module, we have observed a clear anomaly of ?(T) at TIM and obtained the pressure dependence of TIM for the RNiO3 ( R=Eu , Y, Lu) that are different from the published data supporting a charge-ordering model. Instead, they are comparable to that for the orbital-ordering insulator LaMnO3 . Our distinct results show clearly that where the crossover is approached from the localized-electron side by increasing the orbital overlap integral, a cooperative Jahn-Teller distortion prevents charge transfer from molecular e orbitals on strongly bonded NiO6/2 clusters to more weakly bonded Ni(III) centers. However, where the crossover is approached from the itinerant-electron side as in the perovskite CaFeO3 , a disproportionation charge transfer may occur. In a separate experiment in which the powder samples were pressed in a Bridgman anvil device without a pressure medium, we have shown after releasing pressure that the samples were reduced. This irreversible effect should be distinguished from the hydrostatic-pressure effect on the physical properties of the RNiO3 perovskites.

Cheng, J.-G.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Alonso, J. A.; Martinez-Lope, M. J.

2010-08-01

231

Assessing Interactions Between Ghsr and Mc3r Reveals a Role for AgRP in the Expression of Food Anticipatory Activity in Male Mice.  

PubMed

The stomach hormone ghrelin and hypothalamic melanocortin neurons belong to a gut-brain circuit controlling appetite and metabolic homeostasis. Mice lacking melanocortin-3 receptor (Mc3rKO) or growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GhsrKO) genes exhibit attenuated food anticipatory activity (FAA), a rise in locomotor activity anticipating mealtime, suggesting common circuitry regulating anticipatory responses to nutrient loading. To investigate the interaction between Ghsrs and Mc3rs, we compared food anticipatory responses in GhsrKO, Mc3rKO, and double Ghsr;Mc3r knockout (DKO) mice subjected to a hypocaloric restricted feeding (RF) protocol in constant dark or 12-hour light, 12-hour dark settings. DKO are viable, exhibiting no overt behavioral or metabolic phenotypes in ad libitum or fasting conditions. FAA was initially attenuated in all mutant strains in constant darkness. However, GhsrKO eventually exhibited a robust food anticipatory response, suggesting compensation. Mc3rKO and DKO did not compensate, indicating a continued requirement for Mc3rs in maintaining the expression of FAA in situations of RF. Abnormal regulation of hypothalamic agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/Npy) neurons previously observed during fasting may contribute to attenuated FAA in Mc3rKO. AgRP and Npy expression measured 1 hour before food presentation correlated positively with FAA. Absence of Mc3rs (but not Ghsrs) was associated with lower AgRP/Npy expression, suggesting attenuated responses to signals of negative energy balance. These observations support the importance of Mc3rs as modulators of anticipatory responses to feeding, with mice able to compensate for loss of Ghsrs. The behavioral deficits of Mc3rKO displayed during RF may be partially explained by reduced hunger sensations owing to abnormal regulation of orexigenic AgRP/Npy neurons. PMID:25211592

Girardet, Clemence; Mavrikaki, Maria; Southern, Mark R; Smith, Roy G; Butler, Andrew A

2014-12-01

232

Modulatory effects of NMDA on phosphoinositide responses evoked by the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist 1S,3R-ACPD in neonatal rat cerebral cortex.  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of NMDA-receptor stimulation on phosphoinositide signalling in response to the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist 1-aminocyclopentane-1S,3R-dicarboxylic acid (1S,3R-ACPD) has been examined in neonatal rat cerebral cortex slices. 2. Total [3H]-inositol phosphate ([3H]-InsPx) accumulation, in the presence of 5 mM LiCl, in [3H]-inositol pre-labelled slices was concentration-dependently increased by 1S,3R-ACPD (EC50 16.6 microM) and, at a maximally effective concentration, 1S,3R-ACPD (300 microM) increased [3H]-InsPx accumulation by 12.8 fold over basal values. 3. [3H]-InsPx accumulation stimulated by 1S,1R-ACPD was enhanced by low concentrations of NMDA (3-30 microM), but not by higher concentrations (> 30 microM). [3H]-InsPx accumulations stimulated by 1S,3R-ACPD in the absence or presence of 10 microM NMDA were linear with time, at least over the 15 min period examined; however, in the presence of 100 microM NMDA the initial enhancement of 1S,3R-ACPD-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis progressively decreased with time. 4. In the presence of a maximal enhancing concentration of NMDA (10 microM), the response to 1S,3R-ACPD (300 microM) was increased 1.9 fold and the EC50 for agonist-stimulated [3H]-InsPx accumulation decreased about 4 fold. The enhanced response to the metabotropic agonist was concentration-dependently inhibited by competitive and uncompetitive antagonists of NMDA-receptor activation. 5. 1S,3R-ACPD also stimulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) mass accumulation with an initial peak response (5-6 fold over basal) at 15 s decaying to a smaller (2 fold), but persistent elevated accumulation (1-10 min).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7913380

Challiss, R. A.; Mistry, R.; Gray, D. W.; Nahorski, S. R.

1994-01-01

233

Ultrafast electron dynamics and recombination at the Ge(1 1 1):Sn(?{3}×?{3})R30° surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first study revealing the electronic structure and electron dynamics of the excited adatom state at the Ge(1 1 1):Sn(?{3}×?{3})R30° surface. By the use of time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, the normally unoccupied electronic structure of the partly empty Sn adatom can be probed. From the angle-resolved data we conclude that the adatom electrons at the Ge:Sn surface are more delocalized than at the clean Ge(1 1 1)c(2×8) surface. A unique pump-and-probe technique, based on a pulsed femtosecond laser-system, has also allowed us to study the recombination process of the excited state. We connect the recombination process of the excited electrons to the coherent fluctuations of the Sn adatoms. As a result we present an estimate for the time between each collective and coherent adatom flip ?t=9 ps, i.e. an adatom switching frequency ??0.1 THz. We find that our results, contrary to scanning tunneling microscopy measurements [F. Ronci, S. Colonna, S.D. Thorpe, A. Cricenti, G. Le Lay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 156101], agree very well with values extracted from molecular dynamics simulations found in the literature [J. Avila, A. Mascaraque, E.G. Michel, M.C. Asensio, G. Le Lay, J. Ortega, R. Pérez, F. Flores, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 442; D. Farias, W. Kaminski, J. Lobo, J. Ortega, E. Hulpke, R. Perez, F. Flores, E.G. Michel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 16103].

Månsson, M.; Tjernberg, O.; Göthelid, M.; Grishin, M. A.; Claesson, T.; Karlsson, U. O.

2008-03-01

234

Farming or burning? shadow prices and farmer’s impatience on the allocation of multi-purpose resource in the mixed farming system of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In crop-livestock mixed farming system where farm yard manure (FYM) is considered as important multi-purpose resource such as source of soil organic matter, additional source of income and household source of energy, soil fertility depletion could takes place within the perspective of the household allocation pattern of FYM. This paper estimates structural FYM-allocation model in the presence of corner solution,

Hailemariam Teklewold

2011-01-01

235

A comparative description of three multipurpose phantoms (MPP) for external audits of photon beams in radiotherapy: the water MPP, the Umeå MPP and the EC MPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To present a technical description and intercomparison of three multipurpose phantoms (MPP) developed for mailed dosimetry checks of therapeutic photon beams in reference and non-reference conditions.Materials: The W-MPP is a water MPP, whereas the Umeå-MPP, made of perspex (PMMA, Plexiglas), and the EC-MPP, made of polystyrene, are solid MPPs. The W-MPP uses only thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for dosimetry checks,

André Bridier; Hakan Nyström; Ivaldo Ferreira; Igor Gomola; Dominique Huyskens

2000-01-01

236

Marine geodesy a multipurpose approach to solve oceanic problems. [including submersible navigation under iced seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep ocean, tsunamis, and ecology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various current and future problem areas of marine geodesy are identified. These oceanic problem areas are highly diversified and include submersible navigation under ice seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep ocean, tsunamis, ecology, etc., etc. Their achieved as well as desired positional accuracy estimates, based upon publications and discussions, are also given. A multipurpose approach to solve these problems is described. An optimum configuration of an ocean-bottom control-net unit is provided.

Saxena, N.

1974-01-01

237

Genetic algorithms optimization of hedging rules for operation of the multi-purpose Ubonratana Reservoir in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study has developed optimal hedging policies for the multi-purpose Ubonratana Reservoir in northeastern Thailand based on its existing rule curves. The hedging policy was applied whenever the reservoir storage falls below a critical level for each month of the year. The decision variables, i.e. the set of monthly storages defining the critical rule curve that triggers rationing and the rationing ratio, were optimized by genetic algorithm (GA). Both single stage (i.e. with one critical rule curve and one rationing ratio) and two-stage (with two critical rule curves and ratios) of the hedging policy were considered in the optimization. To test the effect of the optimized hedging policies on reservoir performance, simulations were carried out, forced alternatively with the existing rule curves (i.e. without hedging) and the two optimized hedging policies. Performance was summarized in terms of reliability (time- and volume-based) and vulnerability. The results showed that the vulnerability was significantly reduced by using the optimized hedging rules. However, the number of water shortages increased with the optimized rules, causing the time-based reliability to worsen significantly. This should not be of concern since, although the number of shortages increased, the associated shortage quantities on most of these additional occasions were small, leaving the volumetric reliability largely unchanged.

Chiamsathit, C.; Adeloye, A. J.; Soudharajan, B.

2014-09-01

238

Effective information management in forestry: An application to fuel wood and multi-purpose tree species research in Central America  

SciTech Connect

The main goals of this study were: (a) the development of a methodology to collect and organize silvicultural and environmental information in forestry research on fuel wood and multi-purpose tree species (MPTS) production, and (b) the design of a Management Information System (MIS) to supply decision-support for different end-users. This study was supported by a project of USAID for fuel wood research in six Central American countries. Uniform standards and guidelines for implementing fuel wood and MPTS experiments were established in order to permit global exchange and transfer of information on MPTS research. These standards for data collection and field measurements, and minimum data sets were developed in coordination with scientists to ensure the collection of useful information and to gain acceptance of these standards. The minimum data sets were developed to reflect what can be achieved at a reasonable logistic expense with an acceptable degree of consistency. Establishment of MPTS information data bases will permit improvement in all phases of forest management, including seed procurement and species selection for environmental zones.

Ugalde Arias, L.A.

1988-01-01

239

The prospective usage of the multi-purpose canister and impacts on the waste management and disposal system  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) is designed to be loaded with spent fuel and sealed at reactors and then serve the functions of transport, storage and disposal without reopening. It can be either self-shielded or unshielded, thus requiring compatible overpacks for transport, storage and disposal. The MPC is not a new concept but it may now be viable because of the particular characteristics at Yucca Mountain: larger MPCs are possible because of ramp access to the repository horizon, and the less difficult temperature limits because of in-drift emplacement, rather than borehole emplacement. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of adopting the MPC as the principal technology to be employed in the US program. Use of the MPC permits integration of the utility and DOE portions of the system as well as among the elements within the DOE portion. Paradoxically, the principal disadvantage of the MPC is a direct consequence of its merit as an integrating technology. Full integration includes disposability without reopening, and requires that disposability design decisions be made and implemented well in advance of when waste package licensing uncertainties are resolved. There is, therefore, a risk that MPCs loaded prior to waste package licensing will have to be opened. This risk is discussed in terms of probability and consequences and various alternatives for mitigating this risk are discussed.

McLeod, N.B. [E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1993-12-31

240

Plasma appearance of unesterified astaxanthin geometrical E\\/ Z and optical R\\/ S isomers in men given single doses of a mixture of optical 3 and 3? R\\/ S isomers of astaxanthin fatty acyl diesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appearance, pharmacokinetics and distribution of astaxanthin all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z-geometrical and (3R,3?R)-, (3R,3?S)- and (3S,3?S)-optical isomers in plasma fractions were studied in three middle-aged male volunteers (41–50 years) after ingestion of a single meal containing first a 10-mg dose equivalent of astaxanthin from astaxanthin diesters, followed by a dose of 100 mg astaxanthin equivalents after 4 weeks. Direct resolution of

Gladis N. Coral-Hinostroza; Trine Ytrestøyl; Bente Ruyter; Bjørn Bjerkeng

2004-01-01

241

A SURFACE CRYSTALLOGRAPHY STUDY BY DYNAMICAL LEED OF THE (sqrt3xsqrt3)R30o CO STRUCTURE ON THE Rh(111) CRYSTAL SURFACE  

SciTech Connect

The atomic positions of the Rh(111) + ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{sup o} CO and CO{sub 2} surfaces are analyzed by dynamical LEED. The Rh(111) + ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{sup o} CO and CO{sub 2} systems produce identical I-V curves, confirming the dissociation of CO{sub 2} to CO on this surface. The adsorbed CO is found to stand perpendicular to the surface with the carbon end down at an atop site (that is, terminally bonded). The CO overlayer spacings are d{sub RhC} = 1.95 {+-} 0.1 {angstrom} and d{sub CD} = 1.07 {+-} 0.1 {angstrom}. This geometry yields a Zanazzi-Jona R-factor of 0.40 and a Pendry R-factor of 0.50.

Koestner, R.J.; Van Hove, M.A.; Somorjai, G.A.

1980-09-01

242

The L266V tau mutation is associated with frontotemporal dementia and Pick-like 3R and 4R tauopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of rapidly progressive frontotemporal dementia presenting at age 33 years. At autopsy there was severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes. Tau-positive Pick bodies, which ultrastructurally were composed of straight filaments, were present, accompanied by severe neuronal loss and gliosis. RD3, a tau antibody specific for the three-repeat (3R) isoforms, labeled the Pick bodies. ET3, a

Marion Hogg; Zoran M. Grujic; Matt Baker; Serpil Demirci; Angela L. Guillozet; Alison P. Sweet; Laura L. Herzog; Sandra Weintraub; M.-Marsel Mesulam; Nichole E. LaPointe; T. C. Gamblin; Robert W. Berry; Lester I. Binder; Rohan de Silva; Andrew Lees; Marisol Espinoza; Peter Davies; Andrew Grover; Naruhiko Sahara; Takashi Ishizawa; Dennis Dickson; Shu-Hui Yen; Michael Hutton; Eileen H. Bigio

2003-01-01

243

Controlling stereoselectivity by enzymatic and chemical means to access enantiomerically pure (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives?  

PubMed Central

A chemoenzymatic strategy for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure novel alkaloids (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines is presented. The key steps are the biocatalytic stereoselective reductive amination of substituted 1-phenylpropan-2-one derivatives to yield chiral amines employing microbial ?-transaminases, and the diastereoselective reduction of a Bischler–Napieralski imine intermediate by catalytic hydrogenation in the presence of palladium on charcoal, leading exclusively to the desired cis-isomer. PMID:24503964

Orden, Alejandro A.; Schrittwieser, Joerg H.; Resch, Verena; Mutti, Francesco G.; Kroutil, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

244

Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}: Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and thermal behavior  

SciTech Connect

The new 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} (1), where Piv=OOCBu{sup t-}, was synthesized in high yield (>95%) by the reaction of thulium acetate with pivalic acid in air at 100 Degree-Sign S. According to the X-ray diffraction data, the metal atoms in compound 1 are in an octahedral ligand environment unusual for lanthanides. The magnetic and luminescence properties of polymer 1, it's the solid-phase thermal decomposition in air and under argon, and the thermal behavior in the temperature range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S were investigated. The vaporization process of complex 1 was studied by the Knudsen effusion method combined with mass-spectrometric analysis of the gas-phase composition in the temperature range of 570-680 K. - Graphical Abstract: Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic, luminescence properties, the thermal behavior and the volatility for the compound {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} were investigated. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized the coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tm atoms in polymer have the coordination number 6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer exhibits blue-color emission at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer shows high thermal stability and volatility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer has no phase transitions in the range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S.

Fomina, Irina, E-mail: fomina@igic.ras.ru [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 31, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Dobrokhotova, Zhanna; Aleksandrov, Grygory [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 31, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Emelina, Anna; Bykov, Mikhail [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1/3, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Malkerova, Irina [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 31, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Bogomyakov, Artem [International Tomography Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya Str. 3a, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Puntus, Lada [Kotel'nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Mokhovaya Str. 11-7, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Novotortsev, Vladimir; Eremenko, Igor [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 31, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15

245

Intraseptal administration of (1 S,3 R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid induces immediate early gene expression in lateral septal neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior work has shown that activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors can induce burst firing and a form of NMDA receptor independent long term potentiation in lateral septal slice preparations. To study this phenomenon in vivo we used the expression of immediate early gene products as markers for increased neuronal activity following intraseptal injection of the metabotropic agonist 1S,3R-ACPD. Intraseptal injection

Kevin W. Kaatz; Roger L. Albin

1996-01-01

246

Association analysis of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and complex quantitative body composition and performance phenotypes in adolescent Greeks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional allele (577R) of ACTN3, which encodes human ?-actinin-3, has been reported to be associated with elite athletic status and with response to resistance training, while the nonfunctional allele (577X) has been proposed as a candidate metabolically thrifty allele. In a study of 992 adolescent Greeks, we show that there is a significant association (P=0.003) between the ACTN3 R577X

Colin N Moran; Nan Yang; Mark E S Bailey; Athanasios Tsiokanos; Athanasios Jamurtas; Daniel G MacArthur; Kathryn North; Yannis P Pitsiladis; Richard H Wilson

2007-01-01

247

Theoretical study on the reactivity of Lewis pairs PR3/B(C6F5)3 (R = Me, Ph, tBu, C6F5)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactivity of PR3/B(C6F5)3 (R = Me, Ph, tBu, C6F5) Lewis pairs are investigated in detail by quantum chemical calculations. The observed reactivity difference of these pairs is interpreted in terms of the existence of a frustrated complex, the condensed Fukui functions of the Lewis centers, and the thermodynamic properties of dihydrogen cleavage reaction. The calculated results are shown to account well for the observed reactivity of these Lewis pairs.

Wu, Dongling; Jia, Dianzeng; Liu, Anjie; Liu, Lang; Guo, Jixi

2012-07-01

248

Resolving lineage assignation on Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates classified by spoligotyping with a new high-throughput 3R SNPs based method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a new multiplexed-PCR assay to accurately classify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates at the sublineage level by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This method relies on 7 SNPs located in different genes of the MTC strains (recC, rec0, recR, ligB, ligC, alkA, and mgtC). Most of these genes are involved in replication, repair and recombination (3R) functions of M.

Edgar Abadia; Jian Zhang; Tiago dos Vultos; Viviana Ritacco; Kristin Kremer; Elif Aktas; Tomoshige Matsumoto; Guislaine Refregier; Dick van Soolingen; Brigitte Gicquel; Christophe Sola

2010-01-01

249

A sequence similar to tRNA3Lys gene is embedded in HIV1 U3R and promotes minus-strand transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified a sequence embedded in the U3R region of HIV-1 RNA that is highly complementary to human tRNA3Lys. The free energy of annealing to tRNA3Lys is significantly lower for this sequence and the primer-binding site than for other viral sequences of similar length. The only interruption in complementarity is a 29-nucleotide segment inserted where a tRNA intron would be

Dorota Piekna-Przybylska; Laura DiChiacchio; David H Mathews; Robert A Bambara

2009-01-01

250

Insights into mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis from the structure of heterotetrameric 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase/3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) is essential for respiratory growth in yeast and mammalian embryonic survival. The human 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (KAR) of mtFAS is a heterotetrameric ?2?2-assembly composed of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-8 (HSD17B8, ?-subunit) and carbonyl reductase type-4 (CBR4, ?-subunit). Here we provide a structural explanation for the stability of the heterotetramer from the crystal structure with NAD(+) and NADP(+) bound to the HSD17B8 and CBR4 subunits, respectively, and show that the catalytic activity of the NADPH- and ACP-dependent CBR4 subunit is crucial for a functional HsKAR. Therefore, mtFAS is NADPH- and ACP dependent, employing the 3R-hydroxyacyl-ACP intermediate. HSD17B8 assists in the formation of the competent HsKAR assembly. The intrinsic NAD(+)- and CoA-dependent activity of the HSD17B8 subunit on the 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA intermediates may indicate a role for this subunit in routing 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA esters, potentially arising from the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids, into the mitochondrial ?-oxidation pathway. PMID:25203508

Venkatesan, Rajaram; Sah-Teli, Shiv K; Awoniyi, Luqman O; Jiang, Guangyu; Prus, Piotr; Kastaniotis, Alexander J; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Wierenga, Rik K; Chen, Zhijun

2014-01-01

251

Significant clinical response to JAK1/2 inhibition in a patient with CSF3R-T618I-positive atypical chronic myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Mutations in CSF3R (colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor) are frequent oncogenic drivers in chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Here we describe a 75 year old man who was diagnosed with CSF3R-T618I-positive atypical CML. He presented with leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia and developed massive splenomegaly and severe constitutional symptoms. Hydroxyurea was given over a 6 month period but failed to provide any measureable clinical benefit. Eventually, he was treated with ruxolitinib, an FDA-approved JAK1/2 inhibitor, which resulted in dramatic improvement of his blood counts. He also had significant reduction of spleen volume and constitutional symptoms. This case highlights the need for a clinical trial to interrogate JAK1/2 as a potential molecular target in CNL and aCML in patients with or without CSF3R mutation. A clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib for this patient population is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02092324). PMID:25180155

Dao, Kim-Hien T; Solti, Magdolna B; Maxson, Julia E; Winton, Elliott F; Press, Richard D; Druker, Brian J; Tyner, Jeffrey W

2014-01-01

252

"Quantal" Ca2+ release at the cytoplasmic aspect of the Ins(1,4,5)P3R channel in smooth muscle.  

PubMed

Smooth muscle responds to activation of the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor [Ins(1,4,5)P(3)R] with a graded concentration-dependent ("quantal") Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) store. Graded release seems incompatible both with the finite capacity of the store and the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR)-like facility, at Ins(1,4,5)P3Rs, that, once activated, should release the entire content of SR Ca2+. The structural organization of the SR and the regulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3R activity by inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] and Ca2+ have each been proposed to explain ;quantal' Ca2+ release. Here, we propose that regulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3R activity by lumenal Ca2+ acting at the cytoplasmic aspect of the receptor might explain ;quantal' Ca2+ release in smooth muscle. The entire SR store was found to be lumenally continuous and Ca2+ could diffuse freely throughout: peculiarities of SR structure are unlikely to account for ;quantal' release. While Ca2+ release was regulated by [Ca2+] within the SR, the velocity of release increased (accelerated) during the release process. The extent of acceleration of release determined the peak cytoplasmic [Ca2+] and was attenuated by a reduction in SR [Ca2+] or an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffering. Positive feedback by released Ca2+ acting at the cytoplasmic aspect of Ins(1,4,5)P3Rs (i.e. CICR-like) might (a) account for the acceleration, (b) provide the regulation of release by SR [Ca2+] and (c) explain the ;quantal' release process itself. During Ca2+ release, SR [Ca2+] and thus unitary Ins(1,4,5)P3R currents decline, CICR reduces and stops. With increasing [Ins(1,4,5)P3], coincidental activation of several neighbouring Ins(1,4,5)P3Rs offsets the reduced Ins(1,4,5)P3R current to renew CICR and Ca2+ release. PMID:18073237

McCarron, John G; Chalmers, Susan; Muir, Thomas C

2008-01-01

253

microRNA 126 Inhibits the Transition of Endothelial Progenitor Cells to Mesenchymal Cells via the PIK3R2-PI3K/Akt Signalling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Aims Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are capable of proliferating and differentiating into mature endothelial cells, and they have been considered as potential candidates for coronary heart disease therapy. However, the transition of EPCs to mesenchymal cells is not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the role of microRNA 126 (miR-126) in the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1). Methods and Results EndMT of rat bone marrow-derived EPCs was induced by TGF?1 (5 ng/mL) for 7 days. miR-126 expression was depressed in the process of EPC EndMT. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the PI3K regulatory subunit p85 beta (PIK3R2) was a direct target of miR-126 in EPCs. Overexpression of miR-126 by a lentiviral vector (lenti-miR-126) was found to downregulate the mRNA expression of mesenchymal cell markers (?-SMA, sm22-a, and myocardin) and to maintain the mRNA expression of progenitor cell markers (CD34, CD133). In the cellular process of EndMT, there was an increase in the protein expression of PIK3R2 and the nuclear transcription factors FoxO3 and Smad4; PI3K and phosphor-Akt expression decreased, a change that was reversed markedly by overexpression of miR-126. Furthermore, knockdown of PIK3R2 gene expression level showed reversed morphological changes of the EPCs treated with TGF?1, thereby giving the evidence that PIK3R2 is the target gene of miR-126 during EndMT process. Conclusions These results show that miR-126 targets PIK3R2 to inhibit EPC EndMT and that this process involves regulation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. miR-126 has the potential to be used as a biomarker for the early diagnosis of intimal hyperplasia in cardiovascular disease and can even be a therapeutic tool for treating cardiovascular diseases mediated by the EndMT process. PMID:24349482

Zhang, David Y.; Zhu, Jianbing; Zhang, Tiantian; Wang, Changqian

2013-01-01

254

Managing runoff and flow pathways in a small rural catchment to reduce flood risk with other multi-purpose benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 2000 to 2009 there have been a high number of flood events throughout Northern Europe. Meanwhile, there is a demand for land in which to construct homes and businesses on, which is encroaching on land which is prone to flooding. Nevertheless, flood defences usually protect us from this hazard. However, the severity of floods and this demand for land has increased the number of homes which have been flooded in the past ten years. Public spending on flood defences can only go so far which targets the large populations first. Small villages and communities, where in many cases normal flood defences are not cost effective, tend to wait longer for flood mitigation strategies. The Belford Burn (Northumberland, UK) catchment is a small rural catchment that drains an area of 6 km2. It flows through the village of Belford. There is a history of flooding in Belford, with records of flood events dating back to 1877. Normal flood defences are not suitable for this catchment as it failed the Environment Agency (EA) cost benefit criteria for support. There was a desire by the local EA Flood Levy Team and the Northumbria Regional Flood Defence Committee at the Environment Agency to deliver an alternative catchment-based solution to the problem. The EA North East Flood Levy team and Newcastle University have created a partnership to address the flood problem using soft engineered runoff management features. Farm Integrated Runoff Management (FIRM) plans manage flow paths directly by storing slowing and filtering runoff at source on farms. The features are multipurpose addressing water quality, trapping sediment, creating new habitats and storing and attenuating flood flow. Background rainfall and stream stage data have been collected since November 2007. Work on the first mitigation features commenced in July 2008. Since that date five flood events have occurred in the catchment. Two of these flood events caused widespread damage in other areas of the county. However, in Belford only two houses were flooded. Data from the catchment and mitigation features showed that the defence measures resulted in an increase in travel time of the peak and attenuated high flows which would have usually travelled quickly down the channel to the village. For example, the pilot feature appears to have increased the travel time of a flood peak at the top of the catchment from 20 minutes to 35 minutes over a 1 km stretch of channel. There are currently ten active mitigation features present in the catchment. More features are planned for construction this year. Early data from the catchment indicates that the runoff attenuation features are having an impact on reducing flood flows in the channel and also slowing down the flood peak. At the same time the multi-purpose aspects of the features are apparent.

Wilkinson, Mark; Welton, Phil; Kerr, Peter; Quinn, Paul; Jonczyk, Jennine

2010-05-01

255

Monte Carlo simulations of gamma-ray space telescopes: a BoGEMMS multi-purpose application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the development of a BoGEMMS (Bologna Geant4 Multi-Mission Simulator) template for the background study of X-ray telescopes, a new extension is built for the simulation of a Gamma-ray space mission (e.g. AGILE, Fermi), conceived to work as a common, multi-purpose framework for the present and future electron tracking gamma-ray space telescopes. The Gamma-ray extension involves the Geant4 mass model, the physics list and, more important, the production and treatment of the simulation output. From the user point of view, the simulation set-up follows a tree structure, with the main level being the selection of the simulation framework (the general, X-ray or gamma-ray application) and the secondary levels being the detailed configuration of the geometry and the output format. The BoGEMMS application to Gamma-ray missions has been used to evaluate the instrument performances of a new generation of Gamma-ray telescopes (e.g. Gamma-Light), and a full simulation of the AGILE mission is currently under construction, to scientifically validate and calibrate the simulator with real in-space data sets. A complete description of the BoGEMMS Gamma-ray framework is presented here, with an overview of the achieved results for the potential application to present and future experiments (e.g., GAMMA-400 and Gamma-Light). The evaluation of the photon conversion efficiency to beta particle pairs and the comparison to tabulated data allows the preliminary physical validation of the overall architecture. The Gamma-ray module application for the study of the Gamma-Light instrument performances is reported as reference test case.

Fioretti, Valentina; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Tavani, Marco; Marisaldi, Martino; Sabatini, Sabina; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Trifoglio, Massimo; Gianotti, Fulvio

2014-07-01

256

Preparation and evaluation of 3-methyl isomers of 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP): 3R-BMIPP shows greater heart uptake than 3S-BMIPP in rats  

SciTech Connect

Iodine-123 racemic (3-R,S) BMIPP is of widespread interest for evaluation of myocardial viability. To evaluate the effects of the asymmetric C-3 center of BMIPP on heart uptake/clearance we have resolved and characterized 3R- and 3S-BMIPP (H-1 and C-13 NMR, MS, HPLC, [{alpha}], m.p.) and evaluated the radioiodinated isomers in rats. A thiophene {open_quotes}template{close_quotes} approach using ethyl 3R-methylglutarate was used to synthesize the authentic 3R-BMPPA substrate (mp 41-42 {degrees}C, [{alpha}] + 1.45 {degrees}). Reaction of racemic 3-R, S-BNPPA with S-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine gave the diastereomeric amides, separated by TLC, column or HPLC. The more polar isomer was identical to the amide prepared from the 3R-isomer. HCI cleavage of the purified diastereomers provided 3R- and 3S-BMPPA (mp 40-41 {degrees}C, [{alpha}] - 3.90 {degrees}). Iodination (TTFAA/KI) gave 3R-BMIPP (mp 51-52 {degrees}C, [{alpha}] + 0.74 {degrees}) and 3S-BMIPP (mp 45-46 {degrees}C, [{alpha}] - 1.67 {degrees}), which formed amides identical with the two amides separated from the 3-R, S-BMIPP amide mixture. A [I-125]-3R-BMIPP and [I-131]-3S-BMIPP mixture was administered to groups of fasted rats (n = 5/group) sacrificed at 5, 15, 60 and 180 minutes. While blood levels and uptake and clearance from liver, lungs and kidney were nearly identical for both isomers, 3R-BMIPP had higher heart uptake at all periods evaluated (%ID/gram, i.e., 15 min: 3R = 5.25 {plus_minus} 0.77, 3S= 4.51 {plus_minus} 0.50; 180 min: 3R = 2.31 {plus_minus} 0.51, 3S = 1.98 {plus_minus} 0.26), suggesting that transport into the myocytes is different for the isomers. Higher heart uptake suggests that the 3R-BMIPP isomer should be further evaluated.

Knapp, F.F.R. Jr.; Lin, Q.; Luo, H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01

257

The Role of Combination Techniques in Maximizing the Utility of Precipitation Estimates from Several Multi-Purpose Remote-Sensing Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multi-purpose remote-sensing products from various satellites have proved crucial in developing global estimates of precipitation. Examples of these products include low-earth-orbit and geosynchronous-orbit infrared (leo- and geo-IR), Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Television Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data, and passive microwave data such as that from the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I). Each of these datasets has served as the basis for at least one useful quasi-global precipitation estimation algorithm; however, the quality of estimates varies tremendously among the algorithms for the different climatic regions around the globe.

Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

258

Atomic distribution, local structure and cation size effect in o-R1-xCaxMnO3 (R?=?Dy, Y, and Ho)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose new interatomic potentials for the small rare-earth-based orthorhombic RMnO3 (R?=?Dy, Y, Ho), which accurately model the structural properties of these extreme cases of lanthanide manganate series. They are further employed to investigate the intrinsic defects in o-RMnO3 and the cation distribution and local structure in o-R1-xCaxMnO3 (R?=?Dy, Y, Ho). Schottky disorders are found to be the dominant structural defects, and the possibility of a small degree of anti-site disorder of R and Mn ions over A and B sites is found. The introduced Ca dopants tend to form chemically and structurally like CaMnO3 clusters in the lightly doped system, which can be regarded as representations of microscopic phase separation. The local structural disorder is reduced with increasing doping density. For o-R0.5Ca0.5MnO3 (R?=?Dy, Y, Ho), the charge ordering state is intrinsically favored, and the layer stripe model is shown to be energetically more favorable and structurally more reasonable. Moreover, the tendency to form charge ordered stripes increases with the decrease of R size. The local structure in the layer stripe pattern deviates largely from the average structure: RMnO3-like and CaMnO3-like layers are formed. The size of R ion has a significant influence on the doping effect on Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion and a manganate with a larger R will experience a larger reduction on the anisotropy of Mn-O bonds in Mn3+O6 octahedra. However, the change of octahedral tilting upon doping does not vary much with R radii.

Jiang, Ning; Zhang, X.; Yu, Yi

2013-11-01

259

Crystal structure of 2-amino-4-methyl-pyridin-1-ium (2R,3R)-3-carb-oxy-2,3-di-hydroxy-propano-ate monohydrate  

PubMed Central

The title mol­ecular salt, C6H9N2 +·C4H5O6 ?·H2O, crystallized with two 2-amino-4-methyl­pyridin-1-ium cations, two l-(+)-tartaric acid monoanions [systematic name: (2R,3R)-3-carb­oxy-2,3-di­hydroxy­propano­ate] and two water mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, the cations, anions and water mol­ecules are linked via a number of O—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds, and a C—H?O hydrogen bond, forming a three-dimensional structure

Jovita, J. V.; Sathya, S.; Usha, G.; Vasanthi, R.; Ramanand, A.

2014-01-01

260

Jahn-Teller distortion and magnetic transitions in perovskite RMnO3 ( R=Ho , Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perovskite RMnO3 ( R=Ho , Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) were prepared under high pressure and studied with heat capacity and synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction measurements. The temperature interval between the antiferromagnetic transition and the first-order transition to the presumably E -type structure narrows with the decreasing ionic radius of R , and almost closes for R=Lu . Combined with the data for the larger rare earth R , the results show intricate relationship between the complex magnetic phase diagram and significant increase of Jahn-Teller distortion found for the smallest members of RMnO3 .

Tachibana, Makoto; Shimoyama, Tomotaka; Kawaji, Hitoshi; Atake, Tooru; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji

2007-04-01

261

Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or health problems for humans. Other identified components from the MPLM are quite similar to those found from off gassing of construction material and laboratory reagents characterized in ground based studies with closed plant growth chambers.

Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

262

Molecular cloning of isoflavone reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.): evidence for a 3R-isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Isoflavone reductase (IFR) reduces achiral isoflavones to chiral isoflavanones during the biosynthesis of chiral pterocarpan phytoalexins. A cDNA clone for IFR from pea (Pisum sativum) was isolated using the polymerase chain reaction and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the reduction product sophorol obtained using the recombinant enzyme indicated that the isoflavanone possessed the 3R stereochemistry, in contrast to previous reports indicating a 3S-isoflavanone as the product of the pea IFR. Analysis of CD spectra of sophorol produced using enzyme extracts of CuCl2-treated pea seedlings confirmed the 3R stereochemistry. Thus, the stereochemistry of the isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis in pea is the same as that in (-)-medicarpin biosynthesis in alfalfa, although the final pterocarpans have the opposite stereochemistry. At the amino acid level the pea IFR cDNA was 91.8 and 85.2% identical to the IFRs from alfalfa and chickpea, respectively. IFR appears to be encoded by a single gene in pea. Its transcripts are highly induced in CuCl2-treated seedlings, consistent with the appearance of IFR enzyme activity and pisatin accumulation. PMID:8037464

Paiva, N L; Sun, Y; Dixon, R A; VanEtten, H D; Hrazdina, G

1994-08-01

263

An overview on CALR and CSF3R mutations and a proposal for revision of WHO diagnostic criteria for myeloproliferative neoplasms.  

PubMed

Disease-specific mutations facilitate diagnostic precision and drug target discovery. In myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), this is best exemplified by the chronic myeloid leukemia-associated BCR-ABL1. No other mutation in MPN has thus far shown a similar degree of diagnostic accuracy or therapeutic relevance. However, JAK2 and KIT mutations are detected in more than 90% of patients with polycythemia vera and systemic mastocytosis, respectively, and are therefore used as highly sensitive clonal markers in these diseases. JAK2 and MPL mutations also occur in essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), but their diagnostic value is limited by suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. The molecular diagnostic gap in JAK2/MPL-unmutated ET/PMF is now partially addressed by the recent discovery of calreticulin (CALR) mutations in the majority of such cases. However, bone marrow morphology remains the central diagnostic platform and is essential for distinguishing ET from prefibrotic PMF and diagnosing patients those do not express JAK2, MPL or CALR (triple-negative). The year 2013 was also marked by the description of CSF3R mutations in the majority of patients with chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL). Herein, we argue for the inclusion of CALR and CSF3R mutations in the World Health Organization classification system for ET/PMF and CNL, respectively. PMID:24441292

Tefferi, A; Thiele, J; Vannucchi, A M; Barbui, T

2014-07-01

264

Reduced inhibitory gate in the barrel cortex of Neuroligin3R451C knock-in mice, an animal model of autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that interacting with presynaptic neurexins ensure the cross-talk between pre- and postsynaptic specializations. Rare mutations in neurexin-neuroligin genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One of these, the R451C mutation of the gene encoding for Neuroligin3 (Nlgn3), has been found in patients with familial forms of ASDs. Animals carrying this mutation (NL3(R451C) knock-in mice) exhibit impaired social behaviors, reminiscent of those observed in ASD patients, associated with major alterations in both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission, which vary among different brain regions and at different developmental stages. Here, pair recordings from parvalbumin- (PV) expressing basket cells and spiny neurons were used to study GABAergic synaptic signaling in layer IV barrel cortex of NL3(R451C) mutant mice. We found that the R451C mutation severely affects the probability of GABA release from PV-expressing basket cells, responsible for controlling via thalamo-cortical inputs the feed-forward inhibition. No changes in excitatory inputs to parvalbumin-positive basket cells or spiny neurons were detected. These data clearly show that primary targets of the NL3 mutation are PV-expressing basket cells, independently of the brain region where they are localized. Changes in the inhibitory gate of layer IV somatosensory cortex may alter sensory processing in ASD patients leading to misleading sensory representations with difficulties to combine pieces of information into a unified perceptual whole. PMID:25347860

Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

2014-01-01

265

Luminescence properties of Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Bi3+, R+ (R+=Li+, Na+, and K+) red emission phosphor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Bi3+, Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, R+, and Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Bi3+, R+ (R+=Li+, Na+, and K+) phosphors are synthesized by solid-state reaction method in air. All phosphors show bright red emissions centered at ~617 nm upon excitation with UV light of 397 nm. Bi3+ is a sensitizer for the luminescence of Eu3+, and can improve significantly the PL intensity of Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+ phosphor due to energy transfer between Bi3+ and Eu3+ ions. The sensitization mechanism is investigated and discussed by energy level diagrams of Bi3+ and Eu3+ ions. R+ ion is used as the charge compensator to improve the luminescence intensity of Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+ and Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Bi3+ phosphors, and their PL intensities are enhanced in the sequence K+?Na+?Li+. These phosphors can be promising red emitting candidate for white LED with a ~397 nm near UV chip excitation owing to the high brightness.

Cao, Renping; Chen, Guo; Yu, Xiaoguang; Cao, Chunyan; Chen, Kangbin; Liu, Pan; Jiang, Shenhua

2014-12-01

266

Reduced inhibitory gate in the barrel cortex of Neuroligin3R451C knock-in mice, an animal model of autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Abstract Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that interacting with presynaptic neurexins ensure the cross?talk between pre? and postsynaptic specializations. Rare mutations in neurexin–neuroligin genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One of these, the R451C mutation of the gene encoding for Neuroligin3 (Nlgn3), has been found in patients with familial forms of ASDs. Animals carrying this mutation (NL3R451C knock?in mice) exhibit impaired social behaviors, reminiscent of those observed in ASD patients, associated with major alterations in both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission, which vary among different brain regions and at different developmental stages. Here, pair recordings from parvalbumin? (PV) expressing basket cells and spiny neurons were used to study GABAergic synaptic signaling in layer IV barrel cortex of NL3R451C mutant mice. We found that the R451C mutation severely affects the probability of GABA release from PV?expressing basket cells, responsible for controlling via thalamo?cortical inputs the feed?forward inhibition. No changes in excitatory inputs to parvalbumin?positive basket cells or spiny neurons were detected. These data clearly show that primary targets of the NL3 mutation are PV?expressing basket cells, independently of the brain region where they are localized. Changes in the inhibitory gate of layer IV somatosensory cortex may alter sensory processing in ASD patients leading to misleading sensory representations with difficulties to combine pieces of information into a unified perceptual whole. PMID:25347860

Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

2014-01-01

267

Geostationary multipurpose platforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the advantages generally associated with orbital platforms, such as improved reliability, economies of scale, simple connectivity of elements, reduced tracking demands and the restraint of orbital object population growth, geostationary platforms yield: (1) continuous access by fixed ground antennas for communications services; (2) continuous monitoring of phenomena over chosen regions of the earth's surface; (3) a preferred location for many solar-terrestrial physics experiments. The geostationary platform also offers a low-risk and economical solution to the impending saturation of the orbital arc/frequency spectrum, maximizing the capacity of individual slots and increasing the utility of the entire arc. It also allows the use of many small, simple and inexpensive earth stations through complexity inversion and high power per beam. Block diagram and operational flowcharts are provided.

Bekey, I.; Bowman, R. M.

1981-01-01

268

Resolution of 1-n-butyl-3-methyl-3-phospholene 1-oxide with TADDOL derivatives and calcium salts of O,O'-Dibenzoyl-(2R,3R)- or O,O'-di-p-toluoyl-(2R,3R)-tartaric acid.  

PubMed

The resolution methods applying (-)-(4R,5R)-4,5-bis(diphenylhydroxymethyl)-2,2-dimethyldioxolane ("TADDOL"), (-)-(2R,3R)-?,?,?',?'-tetraphenyl-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decan-2,3-dimethanol ("spiro-TADDOL"), as well as the acidic and neutral Ca(2+) salts of (-)-O,O'-dibenzoyl- and (-)-O,O'-di-p-toluoyl-(2R,3R)-tartaric acid were extended for the preparation of 1-n-butyl-3-methyl-3-phospholene 1-oxide in optically active form. In one case, the intermediate diastereomeric complex could be identified by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The absolute P-configuration of the enantiomers of the phospholene oxide was also determined by comparing the experimentally obtained and calculated CD spectra. PMID:24510520

Bagi, Péter; Fekete, András; Kállay, Mihály; Hessz, Dóra; Kubinyi, Miklós; Holczbauer, Tamás; Czugler, Mátyás; Fogassy, Elemér; Keglevich, György

2014-03-01

269

Thermal and fluid flow analyses of sounding rocket experiment 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R. [low gravity crystallization of a 27.8 percent ammonium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal convective velocities during the 4-21/2R and 74-21/3R flight tests were calculated. The 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R ground tests were analyzed using a convection formula. Thermal convection velocities of 0.1 to 0.5 cm/sec were calculated for the 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R ground tests which were two to four orders of magnitude greater than for the flight tests. For the 74-21/2R flight test, solutal effects do not produce any convective motion. For the 74-21/3R flight test closed form convection equations estimated the solutal convective velocities on the order of 1/0.003 cm/sec.

Robertson, S. J.

1979-01-01

270

Belford proactive flood solutions: scientific evidence to influence local and national policy by multi-purpose runoff management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased risk from flooding continues to be of concern to governments all around the world and flood protection is becoming more of a challenge. In the UK, climate change projections indicate more extremes within the weather systems. In addition, there is an increased demand for using land in urban areas beside channels. These developments both put pressure on our flood defences and there is a need for new solutions to managing flood risk. There is currently support within the England and Wales Environment Agency for sustainable flood management solutions such as storage ponds, wetlands, beaver dams and willow riparian features (referred to here as Runoff Attenuation Features, or RAFs). However the effectiveness of RAFs are not known at the catchment scale since they have only really been trailed at the plot scale. These types of mitigation measure can offer benefits to water quality and create ecological habitats. The village of Belford, situated in the Belford Burn catchment (6km2), northern England, has suffered from numerous flood events. In addition, the catchment suffers from water quality issues within the channel and high sediment loads are having an impact on the ecology of the nearby estuary. There was a desire by the Local Environment Agency Flood Levy team to deliver an alternative catchment-based solution to the problem. With funding from the Northumbria Regional Flood Defence Committee, the Environment Agency North East Local Levy team and Newcastle University have created a partnership to address the flood problem trailing soft engineered RAF’s at the catchment scale. The partnership project, “Belford proactive flood solutions” is testing novel techniques in reducing flood risk in small sub-catchments for the Environment Agency. The project provides the information needed to understand whether the multi-functional mitigation measures are working at the sub-catchment scale. Data suggest that the mitigation measures present have delayed the overall travel time of the flood peak in the catchment by 33%. The current maximum flood storage capacity of all the features stands at around 15,000 m3. The evidence also suggests that a dam like in-stream mitigation measure can significantly reduce sediment load. Other benefits of some mitigation features include large increase in the population of water voles over the past two years. The scheme also acts as a demonstration site for interested stakeholders where they can learn about this approach to flood risk management and see the multipurpose benefits. As the project has progressed and lessons have been learnt, it has been possible to develop a runoff management toolkit for implementing these mitigation measures in other catchments of similar size. Already, the local Environment Agency has utilised the tools and recently applied similar mitigation measures to other catchments. On-going modelling exercises in the project are using the data to explore the up-scaling of the features to larger catchments.

Wilkinson, M.; Quinn, P. F.; Jonczyk, J.

2010-12-01

271

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 748 - BIS-748P, BIS-748P-A; Item Appendix, and BIS-748P-B; End-User Appendix; Multipurpose Application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Multipurpose Application Instructions No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 748 Commerce and Foreign...DOCUMENTATION Pt. 748, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 748—BIS-748P...part 768, applicants should still use Supplement No. 1 to part 768 for...

2012-01-01

272

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 748 - BIS-748P, BIS-748P-A; Item Appendix, and BIS-748P-B; End-User Appendix; Multipurpose Application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Multipurpose Application Instructions No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 748 Commerce and Foreign...DOCUMENTATION Pt. 748, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 748—BIS-748P...part 768, applicants should still use Supplement No. 1 to part 768 for...

2013-01-01

273

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 748 - BIS-748P, BIS-748P-A; Item Appendix, and BIS-748P-B; End-User Appendix; Multipurpose Application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Multipurpose Application Instructions No. Supplement No. 1 to part 748 Commerce and Foreign...DOCUMENTATION Pt. 748, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to part 748—BIS-748P...part 768, applicants should still use supplement No. 1 to part 768 for...

2011-01-01

274

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 748 - BIS-748P, BIS-748P-A; Item Appendix, and BIS-748P-B; End-User Appendix; Multipurpose Application...  

...Multipurpose Application Instructions No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 748 Commerce and Foreign...DOCUMENTATION Pt. 748, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 748—BIS-748P...and then proceed to Block 6 of this supplement for instructions specific to such...

2014-01-01

275

Effect of Ga doping on the multiferroic properties of RMn1-xGaxO3 ,,R=Ho,Y... H. D. Zhou, J. C. Denyszyn, and J. B. Goodenough  

E-print Network

Effect of Ga doping on the multiferroic properties of RMn1-xGaxO3 ,,R=Ho,Y... H. D. Zhou, J. C+ -ion displacements along the c axis. Ga doping raises the ferrielectric Curie temperature TC and the Mn are fixed. In this paper, we substitute Ga for Mn in single crystals of RMn1-xGaxO3 R=Ho or Y in order to

Weston, Ken

276

Evaluation of ischemia and myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP)  

SciTech Connect

Twenty patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) controlled by coronary arteriography (CA) and biplane left ventricular cineventriculography (LVCV) were investigated with the 15- (p[I-123]iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue. During maximal symptom limited exercise 5 mCi (200 MBq) of BMIPP were injected followed by two SPECT studies within three hours. After another 30 min, with the patient at rest a third SPECT was performed after reinjection of 3 mCi (100 MBq) BMIPP. Visual inspection of the short and long axis slices and quantitative comparison of the short axis slices of the tomograms were performed to grade BMIPP uptake and refill and detect turnover abnormalities. These were addressed either as scar or as ischemia and compared to CA and a graded score of regional wall motion by LVCV which provided values for sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) to detect CAD. Fifteen infarctions had corresponded clinical, angiographic and scintigraphic findings in 93%.

Kropp, J.; Joergens, M.; Glaenzer, K.P.; Luederitz, B.; Biersack, H.J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-10-01

277

Computational analysis of mRNA expression profiles identifies the ITG family and PIK3R3 as crucial genes for regulating triple negative breast cancer cell migration.  

PubMed

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu). TNBC has worse clinical outcomes than other breast cancer subtypes. However, the key molecules and mechanisms of TNBC migration remain unclear. In this study, we compared two normalized microarray datasets from GEO database between Asian (GSE33926) and non-Asian populations (GSE46581) to determine the molecules and common pathways in TNBC migration. We demonstrated that 16 genes in non-Asian samples and 9 genes in Asian samples are related to TNBC migration. In addition, our analytic results showed that 4 genes, PIK3R3, ITGB1, ITGAL, and ITGA6, were involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Our results indicated potential genes that link to TNBC migration. This study may help identify novel therapeutic targets for drug development in cancer therapy. PMID:24982892

Klahan, Sukhontip; Wu, Mei-Shin; Hsi, Edward; Huang, Chi-Cheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Wei-Chiao

2014-01-01

278

Computational Analysis of mRNA Expression Profiles Identifies the ITG Family and PIK3R3 as Crucial Genes for Regulating Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu). TNBC has worse clinical outcomes than other breast cancer subtypes. However, the key molecules and mechanisms of TNBC migration remain unclear. In this study, we compared two normalized microarray datasets from GEO database between Asian (GSE33926) and non-Asian populations (GSE46581) to determine the molecules and common pathways in TNBC migration. We demonstrated that 16 genes in non-Asian samples and 9 genes in Asian samples are related to TNBC migration. In addition, our analytic results showed that 4 genes, PIK3R3, ITGB1, ITGAL, and ITGA6, were involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Our results indicated potential genes that link to TNBC migration. This study may help identify novel therapeutic targets for drug development in cancer therapy. PMID:24982892

Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Wei-Chiao

2014-01-01

279

Development of a multipurpose construction and maintenance vehicle for the gas industry. Phase 1. Final report, November 1, 1984-March 31, 1986. Engineering prototype  

SciTech Connect

An engineering prototype multipurpose construction and maintenance vehicle (MCMV) was developed for gas utilities to service distribution systems buried under pavement. The vehicle incorporates an abrasive waterjet to cut pavement, a vacuum bell to lift it out, a soft excavation tool to dig without utility damage and a soil stabilizer mixer to prevent pot holes after backfilling. The design is modular to permit a mix of standard-tools techniques with advanced technology. The vehicle is aimed at smallhole operations and a significant cost reduction over current utility truck methods. Cost/benefit analysis indicates the MCMV may be attractive compared to current methods but would be at a competitive disadvantage with new vacuum-truck technology. To become competitive, substantial configuration changes in the MCMV are required.

Chaiko, W.M.

1986-04-01

280

Motivation and job satisfaction among multipurpose health workers in hilly and non-hilly areas of Jashpur District, Chhattisgarh: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

It is essential to have a capable and motivated health workforce for building an effective, responsive health system and in turn achieve national health goals. The present cross sectional study was conducted in Chhattisgarh, India to assess the level of motivation and job satisfaction among multipurpose health workers (MPWs) and to study factors influencing them. A pre-tested semistructured questionnaire was used to obtain information about the respondents' perceived importance of various job characteristics and perceived job satisfaction. The majority of MPWs were not satisfied with their existing job conditions. Motivators or satisfiers like career advancement and achievement had low scores for all the participants. Working conditions and salary were found to be the dissatisfiers with low scores. The present study suggests that, although financial incentives are important, they are not sufficient to motivate personnel to perform better. PMID:23431836

Lakra, George Jeevan; Kadam, Shridhar; Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Pati, Sanghamitra; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay

2012-09-01

281

Ligand independence of the T618I mutation in the colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) protein results from loss of O-linked glycosylation and increased receptor dimerization.  

PubMed

Mutations in the CSF3 granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor CSF3R have recently been found in a large percentage of patients with chronic neutrophilic leukemia and, more rarely, in other types of leukemia. These CSF3R mutations fall into two distinct categories: membrane-proximal mutations and truncation mutations. Although both classes of mutation have exhibited the capacity for cellular transformation, several aspects of this transformation, including the kinetics, the requirement for ligand, and the dysregulation of downstream signaling pathways, have all been shown to be discrepant between the mutation types, suggesting distinct mechanisms of activation. CSF3R truncation mutations induce overexpression and ligand hypersensitivity of the receptor, likely because of the removal of motifs necessary for endocytosis and degradation. In contrast, little is known about the mechanism of activation of membrane-proximal mutations, which are much more commonly observed in chronic neutrophilic leukemia. In contrast with CSF3R truncation mutations, membrane-proximal mutations do not exhibit overexpression and are capable of signaling in the absence of ligand. We show that the Thr-615 and Thr-618 sites of membrane-proximal mutations are part of an O-linked glycosylation cluster. Mutation at these sites prevents O-glycosylation of CSF3R and increases receptor dimerization. This increased dimerization explains the ligand-independent activation of CSF3R membrane-proximal mutations. Cytokine receptor activation through loss of O-glycosylation represents a novel avenue of aberrant signaling. Finally, the combination of the CSF3R membrane proximal and truncation mutations, as has been reported in some patients, leads to enhanced cellular transformation when compared with either mutation alone, underscoring their distinct mechanisms of action. PMID:24403076

Maxson, Julia E; Luty, Samuel B; MacManiman, Jason D; Abel, Melissa L; Druker, Brian J; Tyner, Jeffrey W

2014-02-28

282

Application of a novel integrated toxicity testing strategy incorporating "3R" principles of animal research to evaluate the safety of a new agrochemical sulfoxaflor.  

PubMed

Plant protection products (PPPs) and the active substance(s) contained within them are rigorously and comprehensively tested prior to registration to ensure that human health is not impacted by their use. In recent years, there has been a widespread drive to have more relevant testing strategies (e.g., ILSI/HESI-ACSA and new EU Directives), which also take account of animal welfare, including the 3R (replacement, refinement, and reduction) principles. The toxicity potential of one such new active substance, sulfoxaflor, a sulfoximine insecticide (CAS #946578-00-3), was evaluated utilizing innovative testing strategies comprising: (1) an integrated testing scheme to optimize information obtained from as few animals as possible (i.e., 3R principles) through modifications of standard protocols, such as enhanced palatability study design, to include molecular endpoints, additional neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity parameters in a subchronic toxicity study, and combining multiple test guidelines into one study protocol; (2) generation of toxicokinetic data across dose levels, sexes, study durations, species, strains and life stages, without using satellite animals, which was a first for PPP development, and (3) addition of prospective mode of action (MoA) endpoints within repeat dose toxicity studies as well as proactive inclusion of specific MoA studies as an integral part of the development program. These novel approaches to generate key data early in the safety evaluation program facilitated informed decision-making on the need for additional studies and contributed to a more relevant human health risk assessment. This supplement also contains papers which describe in more detail the approach taken to establish the MoA and human relevance framework related to toxicities elicited by sulfoxaflor in the mammalian toxicology studies: developmental toxicity in rats mediated via the fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ( Ellis-Hutchings et al. 2014 ); liver tumors in rodents mediated via CAR/PXR ( LeBaron et al. 2014 ); and Leydig cell tumors in Fischer 344 rats ( Rasoulpour et al. 2014 ). PMID:24832550

Terry, Claire; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Saghir, Shakil; Marty, Sue; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Billington, Richard

2014-05-01

283

The influence of ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training  

PubMed Central

Background We studied the influence of the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms (single or combined) on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training. Methods One hundred and thirty-nine healthy older Caucasian women participated in this study (age: 65.5?±?8.2 years, body mass: 67.0?±?10.0 kg and height: 1.57?±?0.06 m). Walking speed (S10) performance and functional capacity assessed by the “get-up and go” (GUG) mobility test were measured at baseline (T1) and after a consecutive 12-week period of high-speed power training (40-75% of one repetition maximum in arm and leg extensor exercises; 3 sets 4–12 reps, and two power exercises for upper and lower extremity). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples, and genotyping analyses were performed by PCR methods. Genotype distributions between groups were compared by Chi-Square test and the gains in physical performance were analyzed by two-way, repeated-measures ANOVA. Results There were no significant differences between genotype groups in men or women for adjusted baseline phenotypes (P?>?0.05). ACE I/D and ACTN3 polymorphisms showed a significant interaction genotype-training only in S10 (P?=?0.012 and P?=?0.044, respectively) and not in the GUG test (P?=?0.311 and P?=?0.477, respectively). Analyses of the combined effects between genotypes showed no other significant differences in all phenotypes (P?3 R577X polymorphisms are likely candidates in the modulation of exercise-related gait speed phenotype in older women but not a significant influence in mobility traits. PMID:24313907

2013-01-01

284

Plasma appearance of unesterified astaxanthin geometrical E/Z and optical R/S isomers in men given single doses of a mixture of optical 3 and 3'R/S isomers of astaxanthin fatty acyl diesters.  

PubMed

Appearance, pharmacokinetics and distribution of astaxanthin all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z-geometrical and (3R,3'R)-, (3R,3'S)- and (3S,3'S)-optical isomers in plasma fractions were studied in three middle-aged male volunteers (41-50 years) after ingestion of a single meal containing first a 10-mg dose equivalent of astaxanthin from astaxanthin diesters, followed by a dose of 100 mg astaxanthin equivalents after 4 weeks. Direct resolution of geometrical isomers and optical isomers of astaxanthin dicamphanates by HPLC after saponification showed that the astaxanthin consisted of 95.2% all-E-, 1.2% 9Z- and 3.6% 13Z-astaxanthin, of (3R,3'R)-, (3R,3'S; meso)- and (3S,3'S)-astaxanthin in a 31:49:20 ratio. The plasma astaxanthin concentration-time curves were measured during 76 h. Astaxanthin esters were not detected in plasma. Maximum levels of astaxanthin (C(max)=0.28+/-0.1 mg/l) were reached 11.5 h after administration and the plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 52+/-40 h. The C(max) at the low dose was 0.08 mg/l and showed that, the dose response was non-linear. The (3R,3'R)-astaxanthin optical isomer accumulated selectively in plasma compared to the (3R,3'S)- and (3S,3'S)-isomers, and comprised 54% of total astaxanthin in the blood and only 31% of total astaxanthin in the administered dose. The astaxanthin Z-isomers were absorbed selectively into plasma and comprised approximately 32% of total astaxanthin 6-7.5 h postprandially. The proportion of all-E-astaxanthin was significantly higher in the very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons (VLDL/CM) plasma lipoprotein fraction than in the high density lipoproteins (HDL) and low denisty lipoproteins (LDL) fractions (P<0.05). The results indicate that a selective process increase the relative proportion of astaxanthin Z-isomers compared to the all-E-astaxanthin before uptake in blood and that the astaxanthin esters are hydrolyzed selectively during absorption. PMID:15556071

Coral-Hinostroza, Gladis N; Ytrestøyl, Trine; Ruyter, Bente; Bjerkeng, Bjørn

2004-10-01

285

In vivo roles of Bm3R1 repressor in the barbiturate-mediated induction of the cytochrome P450 genes (P450(BM-3) and P450(BM-)1) of Bacillus megaterium.  

PubMed

We previously showed [Q. Liang, A.J. Fulco, J. Biol. Chem., 270 (1995) 18606-18614) that the binding of Bm3R1 repressor to Barbie box elements and operator sites in the 5'-flanking regions of the P450BM-3 and P450BM-1 (CYP102 and CYP106) genes in Bacillus megaterium was a critical factor in their regulation at the level of transcription. We now describe experiments that delineate specific roles for Bm3R1 in the barbiturate-mediated induction of these genes. We directly demonstrate the interaction of Bm3R1 with Barbie box and operator sequences and show that high in vivo levels of Bm3R1 prevent putative positive factors from binding to Barbie box elements, strongly inhibit the expression of the P450 genes, prolong the lag phase of growth in Bacillus megaterium cultures and increase the sensitivity of the cells to the growth-inhibitory effects of barbiturates. Finally, our data suggest that there may be two forms of Bm3R1, either of which can interact with OIII, the bicistronic operator sequence. PMID:9565684

Liang, Q; Chen, L; Fulco, A J

1998-04-10

286

Hydrothermal Fabrication of MnCO3@rGO Composite as an Anode Material for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.  

PubMed

The layer structure of graphene or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) opens an avenue for the development of advanced functional materials. In this paper, a MnCO3@rGO composite (MGC) was fabricated by anchoring MnCO3 nanoparticles (NPs) on rGO sheets in the hydrothermal reduction process of graphene oxide by using NaBH4. MnCO3 NPs with an average diameter of 8-20 nm were anchored onto the surface of rGO. The layer structure of rGO was maintained in MGC. The MGC was employed as an anode active material for lithium ion batteries. Excellent performances were obtained with a high specific capacity up to 857 mA·h·g(-1) after 100 cycles. The various charging-discharging current rates of 0.2-5.0 C exhibited no clear negative effect on the recycling stability of the MGC. The enhanced structure stability and ion and electron conductivity of the MGC are responsible for the superior electrochemical properties. PMID:25144314

Zhou, Liankai; Kong, Xianghua; Gao, Min; Lian, Fang; Li, Baojun; Zhou, Zhongfu; Cao, Huaqiang

2014-09-01

287

A study on adatom transport through (?3 × ?3)-R30°-CH3S self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) using first principles calculations.  

PubMed

Self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) have outstanding chemical, electrical, and optical properties, and Au adatoms seem to play a key role in these properties. Still, the fundamental understanding of adatom transport inside the self-assembled structure is very thin. In this paper we use first-principles calculations to reveal new details about the migration mechanism of Au adatoms in the presence of a CH3S self-assembled structure on Au(111). We study the inclusion of Au adatoms inside a well-packed (?3 × ?3)-R30°-CH3S self-assembled lattice and present atomistic models supporting adatom migration by means of a hopping mechanism between pairs of CH3S species. Our calculations reveal that the transport of Au adatoms is slowed down inside the molecular network where the kinetic barrier for adatom migration is larger than on the clean Au surface. We attribute the hindered mobility of Au adatoms to the fact that adatom transport involves the breaking and making of Au-S bonds. Our results form a basis for further understanding the role played by defect transport in the properties of molecular assemblies. PMID:25248932

Paulius, D; Torres, D; Illas, F; Archibald, W E

2014-10-01

288

Environmental, Health and Safety Assessment: ATS 7H Program (Phase 3R) Test Activities at the GE Power Systems Gas Turbine Manufacturing Facility, Greenville, SC  

SciTech Connect

International Technology Corporation (IT) was contracted by General Electric Company (GE) to assist in the preparation of an Environmental, Health and Safety (HI&3) assessment of the implementation of Phase 3R of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) 7H program at the GE Gas Turbines facility located in Greenville, South Carolina. The assessment was prepared in accordance with GE's contractual agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (GE/DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-95MC3 1176) and supports compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. This report provides a summary of the EH&S review and includes the following: General description of current site operations and EH&S status, Description of proposed ATS 7H-related activities and discussion of the resulting environmental, health, safety and other impacts to the site and surrounding area. Listing of permits and/or licenses required to comply with federal, state and local regulations for proposed 7H-related activities. Assessment of adequacy of current and required permits, licenses, programs and/or plans.

None

1998-11-17

289

Metabolic engineering of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain capable of simultaneously utilizing glucose and galactose to produce enantiopure (2R,3R)-butanediol.  

PubMed

2,3-Butanediol (BDO) is an important chemical with broad industrial applications and can be naturally produced by many bacteria at high levels. However, the pathogenicity of these native producers is a major obstacle for large scale production. Here we report the engineering of an industrially friendly host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce BDO at high titer and yield. By inactivation of pyruvate decarboxylases (PDCs) followed by overexpression of MTH1 and adaptive evolution, the resultant yeast grew on glucose as the sole carbon source with ethanol production completely eliminated. Moreover, the pdc- strain consumed glucose and galactose simultaneously, which to our knowledge is unprecedented in S. cerevisiae strains. Subsequent introduction of a BDO biosynthetic pathway consisting of the cytosolic acetolactate synthase (cytoILV2), Bacillus subtilis acetolactate decarboxylase (BsAlsD), and the endogenous butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH1) resulted in the production of enantiopure (2R,3R)-butanediol (R-BDO). In shake flask fermentation, a yield over 70% of the theoretical value was achieved. Using fed-batch fermentation, more than 100g/L R-BDO (1100mM) was synthesized from a mixture of glucose and galactose, two major carbohydrate components in red algae. The high titer and yield of the enantiopure R-BDO produced as well as the ability to co-ferment glucose and galactose make our engineered yeast strain a superior host for cost-effective production of bio-based BDO from renewable resources. PMID:24525332

Lian, Jiazhang; Chao, Ran; Zhao, Huimin

2014-05-01

290

Real topography, atomic relaxations, and short-range chemical interactions in atomic force microscopy: The case of the ?-Sn/Si(111)-(3×3)R30° surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the phases of the Sn/Si(111)-(3×3)R30° surface below (1)/(3) ML coverage at room temperature by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and density functional theory based first-principles calculations. By tuning the Sn concentration at the surface we have been able to discriminate between Sn and Si adatoms, and to assure that the AFM topography for the different phases resembles the one reported using scanning tunneling microscopy. In the mosaic and the intermediate phases, a dependence of the topographic height of the Si adatoms on the number of surrounding Sn adatoms has been identified. In the pure phase, however, variations in the measured height difference between the Sn adatoms and the substitutional Si defects, which are intrinsic to the AFM observation, are reported. Reliable room-temperature force spectroscopic measurements using the atom-tracking technique and first-principles calculations provide an explanation for these striking induced height variations on the pure phase in terms of both the different strength of the short-range chemical interaction and tip-induced atomic relaxations. Our results suggest that the corrugation measured with true atomic resolution AFM operated at low interaction forces and close to the onset of significant short-range chemical interactions provides direct access to the real structure of heterogeneous semiconductor surfaces.

Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Pou, Pablo; Custance, Óscar; Jelinek, Pavel; Morita, Seizo; Pérez, Rubén; Abe, Masayuki

2006-05-01

291

De novo germline and postzygotic mutations in AKT3, PIK3R2 and PIK3CA cause a spectrum of related megalencephaly syndromes  

PubMed Central

Megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) and megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus (MPPH) syndromes are sporadic overgrowth disorders associated with markedly enlarged brain size and other recognizable features1-5. We performed exome sequencing in three families with MCAP or MPPH and confirmed our initial observations in exomes from 7 MCAP and 174 control individuals, as well as in 40 additional megalencephaly subjects using a combination of Sanger sequencing, restriction-enzyme assays, and targeted deep sequencing. We identified de novo germline or postzygotic mutations in three core components of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. These include two mutations of AKT3, one recurrent mutation of PIK3R2 in 11 unrelated MPPH families, and 15 mostly postzygotic mutations of PIK3CA in 23 MCAP and one MPPH patients. Our data highlight the central role of PI3K/AKT signaling in vascular, limb and brain development, and emphasize the power of massively parallel sequencing in a challenging context of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity combined with postzygotic mosaicism. PMID:22729224

Riviere, Jean-Baptiste; Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; O'Roak, Brian J.; Beddaoui, Margaret; Alcantara, Diana; Conway, Robert L.; St-Onge, Judith; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A.; Gripp, Karen W.; Nikkel, Sarah M.; Worthylake, Thea; Sullivan, Christopher T.; Ward, Thomas R.; Butler, Hailly E.; Kramer, Nancy A.; Albrecht, Beate; Armour, Christine M.; Armstrong, Linlea; Caluseriu, Oana; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Drolet, Beth A.; Innes, A. Micheil; Lauzon, Julie L.; Lin, Angela E.; Mancini, Grazia M. S.; Meschino, Wendy S.; Reggin, James D.; Saggar, Anand K.; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Uyanik, Gokhan; Weksberg, Rosanna; Zirn, Birgit; Beaulieu, Chandree L.; Majewski, Jacek; Bulman, Dennis E.; O'Driscoll, Mark; Shendure, Jay; Graham, John M.; Boycott, Kym M.; Dobyns, William B.

2012-01-01

292

Raman spectra of R2O3 (R—rare earth) sesquioxides with C-type bixbyite crystal structure: A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectra of R2O3 (R—Sc, Er, Y, Ho, Gd, Eu, and Sm) powders with C-type bixbyite crystal structure are measured. With the help of these data and ones, previously published for other oxides from the same structural family, general dependencies of the frequencies of the Raman peaks on the cubic crystal unit cell parameter are constructed. Using these dependencies and knowing the symmetry of the peaks for one of the oxides, determined from previous single-crystal measurements, it is possible to find out the symmetry of the peaks from the spectra of all compounds. It was found that the frequency of the six lowest frequency peaks scales with the square root of the mass of the rare earth showing that mainly R ions take part in these vibrations. These results agree with performed here lattice dynamical calculations. The anomalous softening of the frequency of some peaks in the spectra of Eu2O3 is discussed.

Abrashev, M. V.; Todorov, N. D.; Geshev, J.

2014-09-01

293

Vertebrate Vitellogenin Gene Duplication in Relation to the "3R Hypothesis": Correlation to the Pelagic Egg and the Oceanic Radiation of Teleosts  

PubMed Central

The spiny ray-finned teleost fishes (Acanthomorpha) are the most successful group of vertebrates in terms of species diversity. Their meteoric radiation and speciation in the oceans during the late Cretaceous and Eocene epoch is unprecedented in vertebrate history, occurring in one third of the time for similar diversity to appear in the birds and mammals. The success of marine teleosts is even more remarkable considering their long freshwater ancestry, since it implies solving major physiological challenges when freely broadcasting their eggs in the hyper-osmotic conditions of seawater. Most extant marine teleosts spawn highly hydrated pelagic eggs, due to differential proteolysis of vitellogenin (Vtg)-derived yolk proteins. The maturational degradation of Vtg involves depolymerization of mainly the lipovitellin heavy chain (LvH) of one form of Vtg to generate a large pool of free amino acids (FAA 150–200 mM). This organic osmolyte pool drives hydration of the ooctye while still protected within the maternal ovary. In the present contribution, we have used Bayesian analysis to examine the evolution of vertebrate Vtg genes in relation to the “3R hypothesis” of whole genome duplication (WGD) and the functional end points of LvH degradation during oocyte maturation. We find that teleost Vtgs have experienced a post-R3 lineage-specific gene duplication to form paralogous clusters that correlate to the pelagic and benthic character of the eggs. Neo-functionalization allowed one paralogue to be proteolyzed to FAA driving hydration of the maturing oocytes, which pre-adapts them to the marine environment and causes them to float. The timing of these events matches the appearance of the Acanthomorpha in the fossil record. We discuss the significance of these adaptations in relation to ancestral physiological features, and propose that the neo-functionalization of duplicated Vtg genes was a key event in the evolution and success of the teleosts in the oceanic environment. PMID:17245445

Finn, Roderick Nigel; Kristoffersen, B?rge A.

2007-01-01

294

Association between Genetic Polymorphisms in Cav2.3 (R-type) Ca2+ Channels and Fentanyl Sensitivity in Patients Undergoing Painful Cosmetic Surgery  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in the sensitivity to fentanyl, a widely used opioid analgesic, lead to different proper doses of fentanyl, which can hamper effective pain treatment. Voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (VACCs) play a crucial role in the nervous system by controlling membrane excitability and calcium signaling. Cav2.3 (R-type) VACCs have been especially thought to play critical roles in pain pathways and the analgesic effects of opioids. However, unknown is whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human CACNA1E (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit) gene that encodes Cav2.3 VACCs influence the analgesic effects of opioids. Thus, the present study examined associations between fentanyl sensitivity and SNPs in the human CACNA1E gene in 355 Japanese patients who underwent painful orofacial cosmetic surgery, including bone dissection. We first conducted linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses of 223 SNPs in a region that contains the CACNA1E gene using genomic samples from 100 patients, and a total of 13 LD blocks with 42 Tag SNPs were observed within and around the CACNA1E gene region. In the preliminary study using the same 100 genomic samples, only the rs3845446 A/G SNP was significantly associated with perioperative fentanyl use among these 42 Tag SNPs. In a confirmatory study using the other 255 genomic samples, this SNP was also significantly associated with perioperative fentanyl use. Thus, we further analyzed associations between genotypes of this SNP and all of the clinical data using a total of 355 samples. The rs3845446 A/G SNP was associated with intraoperative fentanyl use, 24 h postoperative fentanyl requirements, and perioperative fentanyl use. Subjects who carried the minor G allele required significantly less fentanyl for pain control compared with subjects who did not carry this allele. Although further validation is needed, the present findings show the possibility of the involvement of CACNA1E gene polymorphisms in fentanyl sensitivity. PMID:23940630

Fukuda, Ken-ichi; Kasai, Shinya; Hasegawa, Junko; Hayashida, Masakazu; Minami, Masabumi; Ikeda, Kazutaka

2013-01-01

295

Developmental regulation of GABAergic signalling in the hippocampus of neuroligin 3 R451C knock-in mice: an animal model of Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) comprise an heterogeneous group of neuro-developmental abnormalities, mainly of genetic origin, characterized by impaired social interactions, communications deficits, and stereotyped behaviors. In a small percentage of cases, ASDs have been found to be associated with single mutations in genes involved in synaptic function. One of these involves the postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule neuroligin (NL) 3. NLs interact with presynaptic neurexins (Nrxs) to ensure a correct cross talk between post and presynaptic specializations. Here, transgenic mice carrying the human R451C mutation of Nlgn3, were used to study GABAergic signaling in the hippocampus early in postnatal life. Whole cell recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons in slices from NL3R451C knock-in mice revealed an enhanced frequency of Giant Depolarizing Potentials (GDPs), as compared to controls. This effect was probably dependent on an increased GABAergic drive to principal cells as demonstrated by the enhanced frequency of miniature GABAA-mediated (GPSCs), but not AMPA-mediated postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Changes in frequency of mGPSCs were associated with an acceleration of their decay kinetics, in the absence of any change in unitary synaptic conductance or in the number of GABAA receptor channels, as assessed by peak scaled non-stationary fluctuation analysis. The enhanced GABAergic but not glutamatergic transmission early in postnatal life may change the excitatory/inhibitory balance known to play a key role in the construction and refinement of neuronal circuits during postnatal development. This may lead to behavioral deficits reminiscent of those observed in ASDs patients. PMID:23761734

Pizzarelli, Rocco; Cherubini, Enrico

2013-01-01

296

Correlation between the structure and the spin state in R1-xSrxCoO3 ( R=La , Pr, and Nd)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystal structures of the perovskites R1-xSrxCoO3 ( R=La , Pr, and Nd) with 0?x?0.3 were refined from x-ray powder diffraction spectra with the Rietveld method. The result of the Rietveld analyses indicates the presence of three unequal Co-O bonds with different lengths for all samples, and we found that the difference between the two Co-O(2) bond lengths increases with temperature and Sr content. The intermediate-spin (IS) state of the Co3+ ion is Jahn-Teller (JT) active, and the structural data show that the concentration of Co3+ ions increases with temperature and Sr content. For the non-Sr-doped R=La sample, we observed only a small distortion at 90K while the JT distortion was large at 300K . With substitution of Sr for La, the distortion at 90K was found to increase. This observation can be accounted for by the increased stability of the IS state with Sr doping. On the other hand, the distortion was small even at 300K for nondoped PrCoO3 and NdCoO3 , indicating that the low-spin state is stable up to higher temperatures than in LaCoO3 . The distortion at 90K was larger for the Sr-doped samples as in the R=La system, but the Sr content at which the JT distortion started to increase significantly was larger than that in the R=La system.

Takami, T.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Ikuta, H.

2007-10-01

297

Developmental regulation of GABAergic signalling in the hippocampus of neuroligin 3 R451C knock-in mice: an animal model of Autism.  

PubMed

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) comprise an heterogeneous group of neuro-developmental abnormalities, mainly of genetic origin, characterized by impaired social interactions, communications deficits, and stereotyped behaviors. In a small percentage of cases, ASDs have been found to be associated with single mutations in genes involved in synaptic function. One of these involves the postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule neuroligin (NL) 3. NLs interact with presynaptic neurexins (Nrxs) to ensure a correct cross talk between post and presynaptic specializations. Here, transgenic mice carrying the human R451C mutation of Nlgn3, were used to study GABAergic signaling in the hippocampus early in postnatal life. Whole cell recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons in slices from NL3(R451C) knock-in mice revealed an enhanced frequency of Giant Depolarizing Potentials (GDPs), as compared to controls. This effect was probably dependent on an increased GABAergic drive to principal cells as demonstrated by the enhanced frequency of miniature GABAA-mediated (GPSCs), but not AMPA-mediated postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Changes in frequency of mGPSCs were associated with an acceleration of their decay kinetics, in the absence of any change in unitary synaptic conductance or in the number of GABAA receptor channels, as assessed by peak scaled non-stationary fluctuation analysis. The enhanced GABAergic but not glutamatergic transmission early in postnatal life may change the excitatory/inhibitory balance known to play a key role in the construction and refinement of neuronal circuits during postnatal development. This may lead to behavioral deficits reminiscent of those observed in ASDs patients. PMID:23761734

Pizzarelli, Rocco; Cherubini, Enrico

2013-01-01

298

Pentahapto-bonded gold heteroborane clusters [3-(R3P)-closo-2,1-AuTeB10H10]- and [3-(R3P)-closo-3,1,2-AuAs2B9H9]-.  

PubMed

Gold acetylide compounds [(R3P)AuC[triple bond]CC(Me)(OH)Et], where R = Ph 1 or cyclohexyl (Cy) 2, were synthesised and 2 was characterised using X-ray diffraction techniques. The solid-state structure of 2 contained a two-coordinate gold atom and a linear P-Au-C[triple bond]C-C bonding sequence. The reactions between 1 or 2 and [NR4][nido-7,8-As2B9H10] or [NR4][nido-7-TeB10H10] in ethanol-acetone solvent afforded the twelve-vertex cluster species [NMe4][3-(R3P)-closo-3,1,2-AuAs2B9H9], where R = Ph 5 or Cy 6, or [NEt4][3-(R3P)-closo-2,1-AuTeB10H10], where R = Ph 7 or Cy 8, in moderate or low yields (ca. 35% for , and and ca. 20% for ). Compounds and were characterised with X-ray crystallographic techniques. Although there was crystallographic disorder in the {As2B3} and {TeB4} rings to which the gold atoms were attached, the structures of 5 and 7 strongly suggested that the gold atoms were pentahapto bonded to all the atoms in the {As2B3} or {TeB4} rings giving formally closo cluster geometries with closo cluster electron counts. The solution-phase NMR properties of 5, 6 and 7 were consistent with closo descriptions. PMID:16625258

Ferguson, George; Gallagher, John F; Kennedy, John D; Kelleher, Anne-Marie; Spalding, Trevor R

2006-05-01

299

Synthesis of New 6-{[?-(Dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones and Evaluation of their Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activities  

PubMed Central

Several novel 6-thio-3-R-2-oxo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-based compounds containing an ?-(dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)]alkyl fragment were synthesized to examine their anticancer activity. Some of the 6-{[?-(hetero-cyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (3.1–3.10) were obtained by the nucleophilic substitution of 6-[?-halogenalkyl]thio-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (2.1–2.8) with azaheterocycles. Alternatively, compounds 3.1–3.22 were synthesized by alkylation of 3-R-6-thio-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones potassium salts (1.1–1.4) with (2-chloroethyl)-N,N-dialkylamine hydrochlorides or 1-(2-chloroethyl)heterocycle hydrochlorides. The structures of compounds were elucidated by 1H, 13C NMR, LC–MS and EI-MS analysis. Then anticancer and antibacterial, bioluminescence inhibition of Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 activities of the substances were tested in vitro. It was found that compound 3.18 possessed a wide range of anticancer activity against 27 cell lines of cancer: non-small cell lung, colon, CNS, ovarian, renal, prostate, breast, melanoma and leukemia (log GI50 < ?5.65). The “structure-activity” relationship was discussed. COMPARE analysis for synthesized anticancer active compounds was performed. PMID:22396903

Berest, Galina G.; Voskoboynik, Olexiy Y.; Kovalenko, Sergiy I.; Nosulenko, Inna S.; Antypenko, Lyudmyla M.; Antypenko, Olexii M.; Shvets, Volodymyr M.; Katsev, Andriy M.

2012-01-01

300

Field-induced polarization rotation in ,,001...-cut Pb,,Mg13Nb23...0.76Ti0.24O3 R. R. Chien* and V. Hugo Schmidt  

E-print Network

Field-induced polarization rotation in ,,001...-cut Pb,,Mg1Ã?3Nb2Ã?3...0.76Ti0.24O3 R. R. Chien June 2003; published 11 May 2004 Polarization rotation of field-induced phase transformations From polarization results, an E-field-induced transformation from 111 R to 110 O phase through MB

301

Temperature dependence of the ESR linewidth in the paramagnetic phase ,,T>TC... of R1 xBxMnO3 ,,R La,Pr; B Ca,Sr...  

E-print Network

, in the doped manganites R1 xBxMnO3 R La, Pr, Nd, etc.; B Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb with a perovskite structure has and refined later by deGennes using the double-exchange DE mecha- nism. In this model the conductivity

302

Simulation of the effects of operating lakes Mendota, Monona, and Waubesa, south-central Wisconsin, as multipurpose reservoirs to maintain dry-weather flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital reservoir routing model was used to simulate the operation of Lakes Mendota, Monona, and Waubesa, south-central Wisconsin for various levels of minimum release. Twenty-five years of record (1970?94) were used in model simulation. The amount of water available to maintain streamflow and lake levels during dry periods has declined because of extensive pumping of ground water for municipal use and diversion of the effluent around the lakes. The goal of the simulation was to determine whether using the lakes as multipurpose reservoirs to maintain flow during periods of low flow would appreciably lower the lake levels. The model results indicated that it would be possible to maintain a minimum flow of 36 cubic feet per second in all but the driest years simulated (1970, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1989, and 1991) without lowering the lake levels more than they have been lowered from 1970 to 1994 under current operating conditions. Maintaining minimum flow would require detailed computations to guide the operation of the dams during the year.

Krug, W.R.

1999-01-01

303

Probing static and dynamic correlations in matter under extreme conditions: Concept of multi-purpose instrument at the European Spallation Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of neutrons, in particular high penetration depth for most materials, make them very powerful for studying matter under extreme conditions, e.g. high pressures or magnetic fields. A new generation of high power spallation neutron sources, such as the existing SNS and J-Parc and the coming ESS, brings neutron scattering in extreme environments to a completely new level. Indeed, measurements of smaller samples, use of more complex equipment and neutron instruments optimized for operation with extreme sample environment become readily available. The latter is actually one of the most important factors contributing to the field. In this paper a novel concept of an instrument for extreme environments at the ESS is presented. The main feature of the Extreme Conditions Instrument is its multi-purpose nature. It is not optimized for a single scattering technique but combines in a balanced way elastic (Diffraction and Small Angle Neutron Scattering) and inelastic capabilities. Such a concept enables effective combination of neutron scattering with a state-of-the-art sample environment independent of the complexity, dimensions and transportability of the latter. In addition, all available types of neutron experiments can be performed at the same thermodynamic conditions. The instrument concept has been verified by Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulations and the results for instrument operation modes are compared with world-class instruments.

Prokhnenko, O.; Lieutenant, K.; Cussen, L. D.; Stein, W.-D.; Zendler, C.; Prokeš, K.

2014-11-01

304

Profiling glucosinolates and phenolics in vegetative and reproductive tissues of the multi-purpose trees Moringa oleifera L. (horseradish tree) and Moringa stenopetala L.  

PubMed

Moringa species are important multi-purpose tropical crops, as human foods and for medicine and oil production. There has been no previous comprehensive analysis of the secondary metabolites in Moringa species. Tissues of M. oleifera from a wide variety of sources and M. stenopetala from a single source were analyzed for glucosinolates and phenolics (flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and cinnamates). M. oleifera and M. stenopetala seeds only contained 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate at high concentrations. Roots of M. oleifera and M. stenopetala had high concentrations of both 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and benzyl glucosinolate. Leaves from both species contained 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and three monoacetyl isomers of this glucosinolate. Only 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate was detected in M. oleifera bark tissue. M. oleifera leaves contained quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-(6' '-malonyl-glucoside), and lower amounts of kaempferol-3-O-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-(6' '-malonyl-glucoside). M. oleifera leaves also contained 3-caffeoylquinic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Leaves of M. stenopetala contained quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside (rutin) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Neither proanthocyanidins nor anthocyanins were detected in any of the tissues of either species. PMID:12769522

Bennett, Richard N; Mellon, Fred A; Foidl, Nikolaus; Pratt, John H; Dupont, M Susan; Perkins, Lionel; Kroon, Paul A

2003-06-01

305

Association between genetic polymorphisms in Ca(v)2.3 (R-type) Ca2+ channels and fentanyl sensitivity in patients undergoing painful cosmetic surgery.  

PubMed

Individual differences in the sensitivity to fentanyl, a widely used opioid analgesic, lead to different proper doses of fentanyl, which can hamper effective pain treatment. Voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels (VACCs) play a crucial role in the nervous system by controlling membrane excitability and calcium signaling. Ca(v)2.3 (R-type) VACCs have been especially thought to play critical roles in pain pathways and the analgesic effects of opioids. However, unknown is whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human CACNA1E (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit) gene that encodes Cav2.3 VACCs influence the analgesic effects of opioids. Thus, the present study examined associations between fentanyl sensitivity and SNPs in the human CACNA1E gene in 355 Japanese patients who underwent painful orofacial cosmetic surgery, including bone dissection. We first conducted linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses of 223 SNPs in a region that contains the CACNA1E gene using genomic samples from 100 patients, and a total of 13 LD blocks with 42 Tag SNPs were observed within and around the CACNA1E gene region. In the preliminary study using the same 100 genomic samples, only the rs3845446 A/G SNP was significantly associated with perioperative fentanyl use among these 42 Tag SNPs. In a confirmatory study using the other 255 genomic samples, this SNP was also significantly associated with perioperative fentanyl use. Thus, we further analyzed associations between genotypes of this SNP and all of the clinical data using a total of 355 samples. The rs3845446 A/G SNP was associated with intraoperative fentanyl use, 24 h postoperative fentanyl requirements, and perioperative fentanyl use. Subjects who carried the minor G allele required significantly less fentanyl for pain control compared with subjects who did not carry this allele. Although further validation is needed, the present findings show the possibility of the involvement of CACNA1E gene polymorphisms in fentanyl sensitivity. PMID:23940630

Ide, Soichiro; Nishizawa, Daisuke; Fukuda, Ken-ichi; Kasai, Shinya; Hasegawa, Junko; Hayashida, Masakazu; Minami, Masabumi; Ikeda, Kazutaka

2013-01-01

306

A theoretical study of H(2) dissociation on (sq.rt(3) x sq.rt(3))R30 degrees CO/Ru(0001).  

PubMed

We have studied the influence of preadsorbed CO on the dissociative adsorption of H(2) on Ru(0001) with density functional theory calculations. For a coverage of 1/3 ML CO, we investigated different possible reaction paths for hydrogen dissociation using nudged elastic band and adaptive nudged elastic band calculations. One reaction path was studied in detail through an energy decomposition and molecular orbital type of analysis. The minimum barrier for H(2) dissociation is found to be 0.29 eV. At the barrier the H-H bond is hardly stretched. Behind this barrier a molecular chemisorption minimum is present. Next, the molecule overcomes a second barrier, with a second local chemisorption minimum behind it. To finally dissociate to chemisorbed atoms, the molecule has to overcome a third barrier. To move along the reaction path from reactants to products, the hydrogen molecule needs to rotate, and to significantly change its center-of-mass position. The procedure of mapping out reaction paths for H(2) reacting on low-index surfaces of bare metals (computing two-dimensional elbow plots for fixed impact high-symmetry sites and H(2) orientations parallel to the surface) does not work for H(2)+CO/Ru. The first barrier in the path is recovered, but the features of the subsequent stretch to the dissociative chemisorption minimum are not captured, because the molecule is not allowed to change its center-of-mass position or to rotate. The dissociative chemisorption of H(2) on CO/Ru(0001) is endoergic, in contrast to the case of H(2) on bare Ru(0001). The zero-point energy corrected energies of molecularly and dissociatively chemisorbed H(2) are very close, suggesting that it may be possible to detect molecularly chemisorbed H(2) on (sq.rt(3) x sq.rt(3))R30 degrees CO/Ru(0001). The presence of CO on the surface increases the barrier height to dissociation compared with bare Ru(0001). Based on an energy decomposition and molecular orbital analysis we attribute the increase in the barrier height mainly to an occupied-occupied interaction between the bonding H(2) sigma(g) orbital and the (surface-hybridized) CO 1pi orbitals, i.e., to site blocking. There is a small repulsive contribution to the barrier from the interaction between the H(2) molecule and the Ru part of the CO covered Ru surface, but it is smaller than one might expect based on the calculations of H(2) interacting with a clean Ru surface, and on calculations of H(2) interacting with the CO overlayer only. Actually, the analysis suggests that the Ru surface as a subsystem is (slightly) more reactive for the reaction path studied with CO preadsorbed on it than without it. Thus, the results indicate that the influence of CO on H(2) dissociation on Ru is not only a simple site-blocking effect, the electronic structure of the underlying Ru is changed. PMID:20406007

Groot, I M N; Juanes-Marcos, J C; Olsen, R A; Kroes, G J

2010-04-14

307

Multi-time scale Climate Informed Stochastic Hybrid Simulation-Optimization Model (McISH model) for Multi-Purpose Reservoir System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to mitigate the impacts of climate change, proactive management strategies to operate reservoirs and dams are needed. A multi-time scale climate informed stochastic model is developed to optimize the operations for a multi-purpose single reservoir by simulating decadal, interannual, seasonal and sub-seasonal variability. We apply the model to a setting motivated by the largest multi-purpose dam in N. India, the Bhakhra reservoir on the Sutlej River, a tributary of the Indus. This leads to a focus on timing and amplitude of the flows for the monsoon and snowmelt periods. The flow simulations are constrained by multiple sources of historical data and GCM future projections, that are being developed through a NSF funded project titled 'Decadal Prediction and Stochastic Simulation of Hydroclimate Over Monsoon Asia'. The model presented is a multilevel, nonlinear programming model that aims to optimize the reservoir operating policy on a decadal horizon and the operation strategy on an updated annual basis. The model is hierarchical, in terms of having a structure that two optimization models designated for different time scales are nested as a matryoshka doll. The two optimization models have similar mathematical formulations with some modifications to meet the constraints within that time frame. The first level of the model is designated to provide optimization solution for policy makers to determine contracted annual releases to different uses with a prescribed reliability; the second level is a within-the-period (e.g., year) operation optimization scheme that allocates the contracted annual releases on a subperiod (e.g. monthly) basis, with additional benefit for extra release and penalty for failure. The model maximizes the net benefit of irrigation, hydropower generation and flood control in each of the periods. The model design thus facilitates the consistent application of weather and climate forecasts to improve operations of reservoir systems. The decadal flow simulations are re-initialized every year with updated climate projections to improve the reliability of the operation rules for the next year, within which the seasonal operation strategies are nested. The multi-level structure can be repeated for monthly operation with weekly subperiods to take advantage of evolving weather forecasts and seasonal climate forecasts. As a result of the hierarchical structure, sub-seasonal even weather time scale updates and adjustment can be achieved. Given an ensemble of these scenarios, the McISH reservoir simulation-optimization model is able to derive the desired reservoir storage levels, including minimum and maximum, as a function of calendar date, and the associated release patterns. The multi-time scale approach allows adaptive management of water supplies acknowledging the changing risks, meeting both the objectives over the decade in expected value and controlling the near term and planning period risk through probabilistic reliability constraints. For the applications presented, the target season is the monsoon season from June to September. The model also includes a monthly flood volume forecast model, based on a Copula density fit to the monthly flow and the flood volume flow. This is used to guide dynamic allocation of the flood control volume given the forecasts.

Lu, M.; Lall, U.

2013-12-01

308

Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.  

PubMed

An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 ?M BA + 0.73 ?M phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 ?M BA + 0.73 ?M PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 ?M Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 ?M activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:23573054

Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

2012-04-01

309

Optimization of Allylic Oxidation of (1S,3R,8R)?2,2?Dichloro?3,7,7,10?tetramethyltricyclo[6,4,0,0]dodec?9?ene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allylic oxidation of (1S,3R,8R)?2,2?dichloro?3,7,7,10?tetramethyltricyclo[6,4,0,0]dodec?9?ene into the corresponding enone with N?bromosuccinimide (NBS), CrO3 and t?BuOOH has been studied. A good yield and high selectivity were obtained in the presence of t?BuOOH and a copper catalyst.

M. Dakir; A. Auhmani; My. Y. Ait Itto; N. Mazoir; M. Akssira; M. Pierrot; A. Benharref

2004-01-01

310

Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-ultraviolet absorbance detection assay using derivatisation for the novel marine anticancer agent ES285·HCl [(2 S,3 R)-2-amino-3-octadecanol hydrochloride] and its pharmaceutical dosage form  

Microsoft Academic Search

ES-285·HCl [(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-octadecanol hydrochloride] is a novel investigational anticancer agent, which has shown in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activity against various tumor cell lines with selectivity for certain solid tumors. The pharmaceutical development of ES-285·HCl warranted the availability of an assay for the quantification and purity determination of ES-285·HCl active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and its pharmaceutical dosage form. A liquid

Monique W. J den Brok; Bastiaan Nuijen; Elena Miranda; Pablo Floriano; Simon Munt; Ignacio Manzanares; Jos H Beijnen

2003-01-01

311

Nuclear ALG-2 Protein Interacts with Ca2+ Homeostasis Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein (CHERP) Ca2+-dependently and Participates in Regulation of Alternative Splicing of Inositol Trisphosphate Receptor Type 1 (IP3R1) Pre-mRNA*  

PubMed Central

The intracellular Ca2+ signaling pathway is important for the control of broad cellular processes from fertilization to cell death. ALG-2 is a Ca2+-binding protein that contains five serially repeated EF-hand motifs and interacts with various proteins in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Although ALG-2 is present both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, little is known about its nuclear function. Ca2+ homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP) was first identified as an endoplasmic reticulum protein that regulates intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in human cells, but recent proteomics data suggest an association between CHERP and spliceosomes. Here, we report that CHERP, containing a Pro-rich region and a phosphorylated Ser/Arg-rich RS-like domain, is a novel Ca2+-dependent ALG-2-interactive target in the nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopic analysis revealed localization of CHERP to the nucleoplasm with prominent accumulation at nuclear speckles, which are the sites of storage and modification for pre-mRNA splicing factors. Live cell time-lapse imaging showed that nuclear ALG-2 was recruited to the CHERP-localizing speckles upon Ca2+ mobilization. Results of co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed binding of CHERP to a phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II. Knockdown of CHERP or ALG-2 in HT1080 cells resulted in generation of alternatively spliced isoforms of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1) pre-mRNA that included exons 41 and 42 in addition to the major isoform lacking exons 40–42. Furthermore, binding between CHERP and IP3R1 RNA was detected by an RNA immunoprecipitation assay using a polyclonal antibody against CHERP. These results indicate that CHERP and ALG-2 participate in regulation of alternative splicing of IP3R1 pre-mRNA and provide new insights into post-transcriptional regulation of splicing variants in Ca2+ signaling pathways. PMID:24078636

Sasaki-Osugi, Kanae; Imoto, Chiaki; Takahara, Terunao; Shibata, Hideki; Maki, Masatoshi

2013-01-01

312

The Multi-Purpose Astrolabe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Directions are given for construction of an astrolabe capable of yielding two celestial coordinates: altitude and azimuth. Potential uses are included for both young and older children. Quantitative measurement activities related to celestial motion and position are given. (SA)

Neie, Van E.

1979-01-01

313

Multipurpose Spray Adhesive Product Description  

E-print Network

foils, carpeting, many lightweight foams, paper, cardboard, felt and cloth to painted or unpainted. Soft, non-dimpling glue lines normal storage life. Lower temperatures may cause increased viscosity of a temporary nature. Rotate stock

Rollins, Andrew M.

314

Residence Halls Academic, Administrative & Multipurpose  

E-print Network

-THOMPSON STUDENTUNION JOHNSTON HALL ALPHA PHI DELTA GAMMA ALPHA XI DELTA GAMMA PHI BETA CHI OMEGA KAPPA DELTA LA MAISON LAMBDA CHI ALPHA KAPPA SIGMA PHI GAMMA DELTA ALPHA SIGMA PHI DELTA CHI PI KAPPA PHI PHI DELTA THETA PI LOT W LOT H LOT Y LOT J LOT 3 LOT F LOT E LOT 11 LOT 4 LOT Q LOT B LOT P LOT 15 LOT 23 LOT A LOT G LOT

Moore, Paul A.

315

Multi-purpose tool mitten  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tool mitten provides a low reaction torque source of power for wrench, screwdriver, or drill activities. The technique employed prevents the attachments from drifting away from the operator. While the tools are specifically designed for space environments, they can be used on steel scaffolding, in high building maintenance, or underwater environments.

Wilcomb, E. F.

1969-01-01

316

Configurable Multi-Purpose Processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advancements in technology have allowed the miniaturization of systems used in aerospace vehicles. This technology is driven by the need for next-generation systems that provide reliable, responsive, and cost-effective range operations while providing increased capabilities such as simultaneous mission support, increased launch trajectories, improved launch, and landing opportunities, etc. Leveraging the newest technologies, the command and telemetry processor (CTP) concept provides for a compact, flexible, and integrated solution for flight command and telemetry systems and range systems. The CTP is a relatively small circuit board that serves as a processing platform for high dynamic, high vibration environments. The CTP can be reconfigured and reprogrammed, allowing it to be adapted for many different applications. The design is centered around a configurable field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device that contains numerous logic cells that can be used to implement traditional integrated circuits. The FPGA contains two PowerPC processors running the Vx-Works real-time operating system and are used to execute software programs specific to each application. The CTP was designed and developed specifically to provide telemetry functions; namely, the command processing, telemetry processing, and GPS metric tracking of a flight vehicle. However, it can be used as a general-purpose processor board to perform numerous functions implemented in either hardware or software using the FPGA s processors and/or logic cells. Functionally, the CTP was designed for range safety applications where it would ultimately become part of a vehicle s flight termination system. Consequently, the major functions of the CTP are to perform the forward link command processing, GPS metric tracking, return link telemetry data processing, error detection and correction, data encryption/ decryption, and initiate flight termination action commands. Also, the CTP had to be designed to survive and operate in a launch environment. Additionally, the CTP was designed to interface with the WFF (Wallops Flight Facility) custom-designed transceiver board which is used in the Low Cost TDRSS Transceiver (LCT2) also developed by WFF. The LCT2 s transceiver board demodulates commands received from the ground via the forward link and sends them to the CTP, where they are processed. The CTP inputs and processes data from the inertial measurement unit (IMU) and the GPS receiver board, generates status data, and then sends the data to the transceiver board where it is modulated and sent to the ground via the return link. Overall, the CTP has combined processing with the ability to interface to a GPS receiver, an IMU, and a pulse code modulation (PCM) communication link, while providing the capability to support common interfaces including Ethernet and serial interfaces boarding a relatively small-sized, lightweight package.

Valencia, J. Emilio; Forney, Chirstopher; Morrison, Robert; Birr, Richard

2010-01-01

317

HLA Footprints for Multipurpose Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Footprints from the science observations of the Hubble Space Telescope are defined by a set of hierarchical geometric regions of instrument coverage; exposures, combined observations, high level science products, and mosaics. In the growing global community of networked applications, the science end-user has several use cases for visualizing and accessing footprint data including scientific proposal preparation, research and analysis of generated science products, and interoperability between archives for correlation of coverage. The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at Space Telescope Science Institute, in coordination with ESO-ECF and CADC, has developed a web based science user interface built on a VO service oriented architecture system to enable varying levels of astronomical community access to science products derived from the HST archive. In this ADASS poster paper we describe new features and technologies for the HLA footprint component web browser visualization tool and the underlying footprint services utilized by the HST Astronomers Proposal Tool (APT) in compliance with an IVOA standard data access protocol. The service infrastructure is based on a high performance spherical geometric model developed by Johns Hopkins University (JHU) and database search algorithms co-developed by STScI and JHU.

Greene, G.; Lubow, S.; Donaldson, T.; Gillies, K.; Budavari, T.; Szalay, A.

2010-12-01

318

Steviamine, a new class of indolizidine alkaloid [(1R,2S,3R,5R,8aR)-3-hydroxy-meth-yl-5-methyl-octa-hydro-indolizine-1,2-diol hydro-bromide  

PubMed Central

X-ray crystallographic analysis of the title hydro­bromide salt, C10H20N+·Br?, of (1R,2S,3R,5R,8aR)-3-hydroxy­meth­yl-5-methyl­octa­hydro­indolizine-1,2-diol defines the absolute and relative stereochemistry at the five chiral centres in steviamine, a new class of polyhydroxy­lated indolizidine alkaloid isolated from Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) leaves. In the crystal structure, mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular O—H?Br and N—H?Br hydrogen bonds, forming double chains around the twofold screw axes along the b-axis direction. Intra­molecular O—H?O inter­actions occur. PMID:21578486

Thompson, Amber L.; Michalik, Agnieszka; Nash, Robert J.; Wilson, Francis X.; van Well, Renate; Johnson, Peter; Fleet, George W. J.; Yu, Chu-Yi; Hu, Xiang-Guo; Cooper, Richard I.; Watkin, David J.

2009-01-01

319

Preparation of orthogonally protected (2S, 3R)-2-amino-3-methyl-4-phosphonobutyric acid (Pmab) as a phosphatase-stable phosphothreonine mimetic and its use in the synthesis of Polo-box domain-binding peptides  

PubMed Central

Reported herein is the first stereoselective synthesis of (2S,3R)-4-[bis-(tert-butyloxy)phosphinyl]-2-[(9H-fluoren-9-ylmethoxy)carbonyl]amino-3-methylbutanoic acid [(N-Fmoc, O,O-(bis-(tert-butyl))-Pmab, 4] as a hydrolytically-stable phosphothreonine mimetic bearing orthogonal protection compatible with standard solid-phase protocols. The synthetic approach used employs Evans’ oxazolidinone for chiral induction. Also presented is the application of 4 in the solid-phase synthesis of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) polo box domain (PBD)-binding peptides. These Pmab-containing peptides retain PBD binding efficacy similar to a parent pThr containing peptide. Reagent 4 should be a highly useful reagent for the preparation of signal transduction-directed peptides. PMID:24954959

Liu, Fa; Park, Jung-Eun; Lee, Kyung S.; Burke, Terrence R.

2014-01-01

320

Crystal structure, morphotropic phase transition and luminescence in the new cyclosilicates Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Y, Eu-Lu  

SciTech Connect

A new series of promising luminescent materials, cyclosilicates Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Y, Eu-Lu, has been synthesized via a solid-state reaction. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction studies show that these oxides crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system (S.G. C2/c, Z=4) and have a morphotropic phase transition between Er and Tm compounds followed by a step-like change of the unit cell constants. Isolated [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] rings located in layers are basic building units and stack with Sr/R layers along the [1 0 1{sup Macron }] direction. The rare earth atoms are distributed among three independent Sr/R sites coordinated by 8, 7 and 6 oxygen atoms, and the Sr-R populations change from mixed to 0.5/0.5 over site (1) and full occupation of sites (2) and (3) by Sr and R, respectively, at the transition. Changes of the conformation and mutual arrangement of [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] rings, as well as exchange of oxygen atoms from the first and the second coordination sphere of two Sr/R sites also feature the phase transition. Luminescence in Sr{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} under ultraviolet (UV) excitation has been discussed. - Graphical abstract: The change of the [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] ring conformation in Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Eu, Er, Tm and Lu. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new group of cyclosilicates Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Y, Eu-Lu, was first synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolated [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] rings located in layers are basic building units and stack with Sr/R layers along the [1 0 1{sup Macron }] direction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rare earth atoms are distributed among three independent Sr/R sites coordinated by 6, 7 and 8 oxygen ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A step-like change of the unit cell parameters is observed in the Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2} structure for R=Er{yields}Tm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} demonstrates intense multiband orange-red photoluminescence.

Tyutyunnik, Alexander P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, UB RAS, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Leonidov, Ivan I., E-mail: ivanleonidov@ihim.uran.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, UB RAS, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Surat, Ludmila L.; Berger, Ivan F.; Zubkov, Vladimir G. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, UB RAS, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2013-01-15

321

Contribution to the synthesis of aureobasidin A. Synthesis of cyclopeptolides containing the sequence leucyl-N-methyl-beta-hydroxyvalyl-(2R)-oxy-(3R)-methyl-pentanoi c acid.  

PubMed

The efficient antimycotic agent aureobasidin A, isolated from the culture broth of Aureobasidium pullulans R 106, and the [(R)-Pro9]-aureobasidin A were prepared starting from benzyl N-Boc-N-methyl-(S)-beta-triethylsiloxyvalinate, the synthesis of which is described here. The easy accessibility of the tripeptolide benzyl Boc-leucyl-N-methyl-beta-hydroxyvalyl-(2R)-oxy-(3R)-methylpentanoa te [Boc-Leu-HOMeVal-(R)-HMP-OBn] facilitates the construction of the cyclopeptolides 28, 34, 45 and 47. The peptide bonds of the N-methylamino acids were formed with the help of O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophophate. The rings of [(R)-Pro9]-aureobasidin A and of cyclopeptolides 28, 34, 45 and 47 were closed by way of pentafluorophenyl esters. The ring of aureobasidin A could only be formed with bromo-tris-pyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate. PMID:9727871

Schmidt, U; Schumacher, A; Mittendorf, J; Riedl, B

1998-08-01

322

The solution structure of the first PHD finger of autoimmune regulator in complex with non-modified histone H3 tail reveals the antagonistic role of H3R2 methylation  

PubMed Central

Plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers are often present in chromatin-binding proteins and have been shown to bind histone H3 N-terminal tails. Mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein, which harbours two PHD fingers, cause a rare monogenic disease, autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). AIRE activates the expression of tissue-specific antigens by directly binding through its first PHD finger (AIRE-PHD1) to histone H3 tails non-methylated at K4 (H3K4me0). Here, we present the solution structure of AIRE-PHD1 in complex with H3K4me0 peptide and show that AIRE-PHD1 is a highly specialized non-modified histone H3 tail reader, as post-translational modifications of the first 10 histone H3 residues reduce binding affinity. In particular, H3R2 dimethylation abrogates AIRE-PHD1 binding in vitro and reduces the in vivo activation of AIRE target genes in HEK293 cells. The observed antagonism by R2 methylation on AIRE-PHD1 binding is unique among the H3K4me0 histone readers and represents the first case of epigenetic negative cross-talk between non-methylated H3K4 and methylated H3R2. Collectively, our results point to a very specific histone code responsible for non-modified H3 tail recognition by AIRE-PHD1 and describe at atomic level one crucial step in the molecular mechanism responsible for antigen expression in the thymus. PMID:19293276

Chignola, Francesca; Gaetani, Massimiliano; Rebane, Ana; Org, Tonis; Mollica, Luca; Zucchelli, Chiara; Spitaleri, Andrea; Mannella, Valeria; Peterson, Part; Musco, Giovanna

2009-01-01

323

Cours de Sismologie L3 R. Madariaga  

E-print Network

Nord du Chili du 14/11/07 à 15:40:38 PKP SKSSaint Sauveur R Rayleigh Ondes de Love et de Rayleigh #12 t -= Détails sur l'équation des tsunamis zughg -=-= v& P(x+dx)~g h(x+dx)P(x)~g h(x) zxz ughv tx hu t 2 2 2 2

Madariaga, Raúl

324

The action site of the synthetic kainoid (2S,3R,4R)-3-carboxymethyl-4-(4-methylphenylthio)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (PSPA-4), an analogue of Japanese mushroom poison acromelic acid, for allodynia (tactile pain).  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that intrathecal (i.t.) administration of acromelic acid A (Acro-A) induced allodynia in mice and that simultaneous administration of (2S,3R,4R)-3-carboxymethyl-4-(phenylthio)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (PSPA-1), an Acro-A analogue, attenuated the Acro-A-induced allodynia. To clarify a mechanism of PSPA-1, we attached methyl radical to PSPA-1 and synthesized (2S,3R,4R)-3-carboxymethyl-4-(4-methylphenylthio) pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (PSPA-4) and [(11)C]PSPA-4 for behavioral and autoradiography studies. Although PSPA-4 inhibited the Acro-A-induced allodynia in a dose-dependent manner from 1 to 10 fg/mouse, PSPA-4 itself induced allodynia at 10 to 100 pg/mouse. In vitro autoradiography, [(11)C]PSPA-4 was specifically bound to the rat brain and spinal cord, and the binding was significantly displaced by PSPA-1 and kainic acid, but not by AMPA and antagonists of NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors. Conversely, [(3)H]kainate was specifically bound to the rat brain and the dorsal horn of spinal cord, and the binding was significantly displaced by PSPA-1 and PSPA-4. The PSPA-4-induced allodynia was blocked by the AMPA/kainate antagonist GYKI53655, but not by kainate antagonists NS102 and UBP296. PSPA-4 increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in 27.9% of cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons responding to glutamate, much higher than kainate in 10.9% of them. Taken together, these results suggest that PSPA-4 attenuated the Acro-A-induced allodynia at low doses and induced allodynia at high doses via a binding site different from known kainate antagonists. The development of a radio-labeled PSPA-4 will enable us to promote the understanding of the action mechanism not only of Acro-A, but also of pain transmission in the periphery and central nervous system. PMID:23124023

Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Minami, Toshiaki; Mizuma, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Masakatsu; Doi, Hisashi; Matsumura, Shinji; Lu, Jingshan; Onoe, Hirotaka; Furuta, Kyoji; Suzuki, Masaaki; Ito, Seiji

2013-06-15

325

ATPA induced GluR5-containing kainite receptor S-nitrosylation via activation of GluR5-Gq-PLC-IP(3)R pathway and signalling module GluR5·PSD-95·nNOS.  

PubMed

GluR5-containing kainite receptor (GluR5-KAR) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of nervous system diseases, while S-nitrosylation exerts a variety of effects on biological systems. However, the mechanism of GluR5-KAR S-nitrosylation is still unclear up to now. Here our researches found that GluR5-KAR selective agonist ATPA stimulation activated the nonclassical GluR5-KAR-Gq-PLC-IP(3)R pathway and the signalling module GluR5·PSD-95·nNOS (the former is more important), led to Ca(2+) release from intracellular calcium stores endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cytoplasm and extracellular calcium indrawal, respectively, which further resulted in nNOS activation and GluR5-KAR S-nitrosylation, and then inhibited GluR5-mediated whole-cell current attenuation and induced apoptosis in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Clarification of the primary mechanisms of GluR5-KAR S-nitrosylation induced by ATPA and identification of critical cysteine for GluR5-2a S-nitrosylation (Cys231 and Cys804) open up a brand-new field for revealing downstream signalling pathway of GluR5-KAR and its molecular characteristics, exploring the pathogenesis of neurological diseases and searching for promising therapies. PMID:23000395

Zhang, Hai-Jian; Li, Chong; Zhang, Guang-Yi

2012-12-01

326

Synthesis and application of (13)C-labeled 2-acetyl-4-((1R,2S,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI), an immunosuppressant observed in caramel food colorings.  

PubMed

2-Acetyl-4-((1R,2S,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI) is a minor toxic contaminant observed in caramel food colorings and was shown to exert immunosuppressant activity when fed to rodents. Because of this toxicity, maximum levels of THI in caramel food colorings have been defined by international and European authorities. Several reports of THI analysis using external standardization have been published for liquid foods such as beers and soft drinks. However, no suitable internal standard has yet been described allowing THI analysis in more complex samples. In this paper we describe the preparation of a labeled [(13)C6]THI analogue and its application for the successful validation of the first stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) of THI in caramel food colorings. A brief survey of THI levels in commercially available caramel class III (E 150c) and IV (E 150d) food colorings is also included, corroborating that THI occurs only in caramel class III food colorings. PMID:23866086

Elsinghorst, Paul W; Raters, Marion; Dingel, Anna; Fischer, Jochen; Matissek, Reinhard

2013-08-01

327

Loss-of-function RNAi screens in breast cancer cells identify AURKB, PLK1, PIK3R1, MAPK12, PRKD2, and PTK6 as sensitizing targets of rapamycin activity.  

PubMed

The use of molecularly targeted drugs as single agents has shown limited utility in many tumor types, largely due to the complex and redundant nature of oncogenic signaling networks. Targeting of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway through inhibition of mTOR in combination with aromatase inhibitors has seen success in particular sub-types of breast cancer and there is a need to identify additional synergistic combinations to maximize the clinical potential of mTOR inhibitors. We have used loss-of-function RNAi screens of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin to identify sensitizers of mTOR inhibition. RNAi screens conducted in combination with rapamycin in multiple breast cancer cell lines identified six genes, AURKB, PLK1, PIK3R1, MAPK12, PRKD2, and PTK6 that when silenced, each enhanced the sensitivity of multiple breast cancer lines to rapamycin. Using selective pharmacological agents we confirmed that inhibition of AURKB or PLK1 synergizes with rapamycin. Compound-associated gene expression data suggested histone deacetylation (HDAC) inhibition as a strategy for reducing the expression of several of the rapamycin-sensitizing genes, and we tested and validated this using the HDAC inhibitor entinostat in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicate new approaches for enhancing the efficacy of rapamycin including the use of combining its application with HDAC inhibition. PMID:25193464

Ou, Oliver; Huppi, Konrad; Chakka, Sirisha; Gehlhaus, Kristen; Dubois, Wendy; Patel, Jyoti; Chen, Jinqiu; Mackiewicz, Mark; Jones, Tamara L; Pitt, Jason J; Martin, Scott E; Goldsmith, Paul; Simmons, John K; Mock, Beverly A; Caplen, Natasha J

2014-11-28

328

EMdeCODE: a novel algorithm capable of reading words of epigenetic code to predict enhancers and retroviral integration sites and to identify H3R2me1 as a distinctive mark of coding versus non-coding genes.  

PubMed

Existence of some extra-genetic (epigenetic) codes has been postulated since the discovery of the primary genetic code. Evident effects of histone post-translational modifications or DNA methylation over the efficiency and the regulation of DNA processes are supporting this postulation. EMdeCODE is an original algorithm that approximate the genomic distribution of given DNA features (e.g. promoter, enhancer, viral integration) by identifying relevant ChIPSeq profiles of post-translational histone marks or DNA binding proteins and combining them in a supermark. EMdeCODE kernel is essentially a two-step procedure: (i) an expectation-maximization process calculates the mixture of epigenetic factors that maximize the Sensitivity (recall) of the association with the feature under study; (ii) the approximated density is then recursively trimmed with respect to a control dataset to increase the precision by reducing the number of false positives. EMdeCODE densities improve significantly the prediction of enhancer loci and retroviral integration sites with respect to previous methods. Importantly, it can also be used to extract distinctive factors between two arbitrary conditions. Indeed EMdeCODE identifies unexpected epigenetic profiles specific for coding versus non-coding RNA, pointing towards a new role for H3R2me1 in coding regions. PMID:23234700

Santoni, Federico Andrea

2013-02-01

329

Design of a new, multi-purpose, light-curing adhesive comprising a silane coupling agent, acidic adhesive monomers and dithiooctanoate monomers for bonding to varied metal and dental ceramic materials.  

PubMed

A newly designed, light-curing adhesive was investigated for its bonding effectiveness to porcelain, alumina, zirconia, Au, Au alloy, Ag alloy, Au-Ag-Pd alloy, and Ni-Cr alloy. Four experimental adhesives were prepared using varying contents of the following: a silane coupling agent [3-methacryloyloxypropyltriethoxysilane (3-MPTES)], acidic adhesive monomers [6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate(6-MHPA),6-methacryloyloxyhexyl3-phosphonopropionate(6-MHPP)and 4-methacryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-MET)], and dithiooctanoate monomers [6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (6-MHDT) and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT)]. After all adherend surfaces were sandblasted and applied with an experimental adhesive, shear bond strengths (SBSs) of a light-curing resin composite (Beautifil II, Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan) to the adherend materials after 2,000 times of thermal cycling were measured. For the experimental adhesive which contained 3-MPTES (30.0 wt%), 6-MHPA (1.0 wt%), 6-MHPP (1.0 wt%), 4-MET (1.0 wt%), 6-MHDT (0.5 wt%) and 10-MDDT (0.5 wt%), it consistently yielded the highest SBS for all adherend surfaces in the range of 20.8 (4.8)-30.3 (7.9) MPa, with no significant differences among all the adherend materials (p>0.05). Therefore, the newly designed, multi-purpose, light-curing adhesive was able to deliver high SBS to all the adherend materials tested. PMID:21778601

Ikemura, Kunio; Tanaka, Hisaki; Fujii, Toshihide; Deguchi, Mikito; Negoro, Noriyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

2011-01-01

330

Effects of a newly designed HEMA-free, multi-purpose, single-bottle, self-etching adhesive on bonding to dental hard tissues, zirconia-based ceramics, and gold alloy.  

PubMed

This study investigated the bonding effectiveness of newly designed self-etching adhesives to four types of adherends--enamel, dentin, zirconia, and gold (Au) alloy. Five experimental adhesives were prepared, which contained 3.0-5.0 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA) or 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 3-phosphonopropionate (6-MHPP), 3.0 wt% 4-acryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-AET) or 17.0 wt% 4-methacryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-MET), 0-0.5 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (6-MHDT) or 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT), and varying contents of Bis-GMA, dimethacrylate monomers, water, acetone, and a photoinitiator system. After 2,000 times of thermal cycling, shear bond strengths (SBSs) between a resin composite (Beautifil II, Shofu Inc., Japan) and the four adherends, bonded using the experimental adhesives, were measured at 1.0 mm/min. No statistically significant differences in SBS for bonding to ground enamel, dentin, sandblasted zirconia and Au alloy (p>0.05) were found between experimental adhesives which contained 6-MHPA and/or 6-MHPP, 4-MET or 4-AET, 6-MHDT and/or 10-MDDT, Bis-GMA, and dimethacrylates. An adhesive layer of less than 5.0 µm thickness, by scanning electron microscopy observation, revealed strong adhesion to the four adherends. Therefore, the newly designed multi-purpose, self-etching adhesive strongly adhered to all the four adherend materials tested. PMID:21946481

Ikemura, Kunio; Jogetsu, Yoshiyuki; Shinno, Kazuya; Nakatsuka, Toshiyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

2011-01-01

331

Structure of the 1,4-Bis(2'-deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-2R,3R-butanediol Crosslink Arising from Alkylation of the Human N-ras Codon 61 by Butadiene Diepoxide†  

PubMed Central

The solution structure of the 1,4-bis(2'-deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-2R,3R-butanediol crosslink arising from N6-dA alkylation of nearest neighbor adenines by butadiene diepoxide (BDO2) was determined in the oligodeoxynucleotide 5' - d(CGGACXYGAAG)•d(CTTCTCGTCCG)-3'. This oligodeoxynucleotide contained codon 61 (underlined) of the human N-ras protooncogene. The cross link was accommodated in the major groove of duplex DNA. At the 5'-side of the crosslink there was a break in Watson-Crick base pairing at base pair X6•T17, whereas at the 3'-side of the crosslink at base pair Y7•T16, base pairing was intact. Molecular dynamics calculations carried out using a simulated annealing protocol, and restrained by a combination of 338 interproton distance restraints obtained from 1H NOESY data and 151 torsion angle restraints obtained from 1H and 31P COSY data, yielded ensembles of structures with good convergence. Helicoidal analysis indicated an increase in base pair opening at base pair X6•T17, accompanied by a shift in the phosphodiester backbone torsion angle ? P5'-O5'-C5'-C4' at nucleotide X6. The rMD calculations predicted that the DNA helix was not significantly bent by the presence of the four-carbon crosslink. This was corroborated by gel mobility assays of multimers containing non-hydroxylated four carbon N6,N6-dA crosslinks, which did not predict DNA bending. The rMD calculations suggested the presence of hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl group located on the ?-carbon of the fourcarbon crosslink, and T17 O4, which perhaps stabilized the base pair opening at X6•T17 and protected the T17 imino proton from solvent exchange. The opening of base pair X6•T17 altered base stacking patterns at the crosslink site and induced slight unwinding of the DNA duplex. The structural data are interpreted in terms of biochemical data suggesting that this crosslink is bypassed by a variety of DNA polymerases, yet is significantly mutagenic [Kanuri, M., Nechev, L. V., Tamura, P. J., Harris, C. M., Harris, T. M., and Lloyd, R. S. (2002) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 15, 1572–1580]. PMID:16042385

Merritt, W. Keither; Nechev, Lubomir V.; Scholdberg, Tandace A.; Dean, Stephen M.; Kiehna, Sarah E.; Chang, Johanna C.; Harris, Thomas M.; Harris, Constance M.; Lloyd, R. Stephen; Stone, Michael P.

2008-01-01

332

Nitrogen gas-solid reaction process and basic magnetism of the interstitially modified rare-earth 3d transition-metal nitrides R2Fe17N3 (R=Y, Ce, Nd, Sm) and Y2Co17N3  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present our recent results of studies of the nitrogen absorption process, magnetization measurements, and neutron powder-diffraction measurements for interstitially modified nitrides R2Fe17N3 (R=Y, Ce, Nd, and Sm) and Y2Co17N3. (1) The studies of nitrogen absorption rates in the Sm2Fe17 under various N2-gas pressure up to 6 MPa indicated that the nitrogen absorption into grain interior is

Keiichi Koyama; Hironobu Fujii

2000-01-01

333

Large-format, high-speed, X-ray pnCCDs combined with electron and ion imaging spectrometers in a multipurpose chamber for experiments at 4th generation light sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourth generation accelerator-based light sources, such as VUV and X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FEL), deliver ultra-brilliant (˜10 12-10 13 photons per bunch) coherent radiation in femtosecond (˜10-100 fs) pulses and, thus, require novel focal plane instrumentation in order to fully exploit their unique capabilities. As an additional challenge for detection devices, existing (FLASH, Hamburg) and future FELs (LCLS, Menlo Park; SCSS, Hyogo and the European XFEL, Hamburg) cover a broad range of photon energies from the EUV to the X-ray regime with significantly different bandwidths and pulse structures reaching up to MHz micro-bunch repetition rates. Moreover, hundreds up to trillions of fragment particles, ions, electrons or scattered photons can emerge when a single light flash impinges on matter with intensities up to 10 22 W/cm 2. In order to meet these challenges, the Max Planck Advanced Study Group (ASG) within the Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL) has designed the CFEL-ASG MultiPurpose (CAMP) chamber. It is equipped with specially developed photon and charged particle detection devices dedicated to cover large solid-angles. A variety of different targets are supported, such as atomic, (aligned) molecular and cluster jets, particle injectors for bio-samples or fixed target arrangements. CAMP houses 4? solid-angle ion and electron momentum imaging spectrometers ("reaction microscope", REMI, or "velocity map imaging", VMI) in a unique combination with novel, large-area, broadband (50 eV-25 keV), high-dynamic-range, single-photon-counting and imaging X-ray detectors based on the pnCCDs. This instrumentation allows a new class of coherent diffraction experiments in which both electron and ion emission from the target may be simultaneously monitored. This permits the investigation of dynamic processes in this new regime of ultra-intense, high-energy radiation—matter interaction. After an introduction into the salient features of the CAMP chamber and the properties of the redesigned REMI/VMI spectrometers, the new 1024×1024 pixel format pnCCD imaging detector system will be described in detail. Results of tests of four smaller format (256×512) devices of identical performance, conducted at FLASH and BESSY, will be presented and the concept as well as the anticipated properties of the full, large-scale system will be elucidated. The data obtained at both radiation sources illustrate the unprecedented performance of the X-ray detectors, which have a voxel size of 75×75×450 ?m 3 and a typical read-out noise of 2.5 electrons (rms) at an operating temperature of -50 °C.

Strüder, Lothar; Epp, Sascha; Rolles, Daniel; Hartmann, Robert; Holl, Peter; Lutz, Gerhard; Soltau, Heike; Eckart, Rouven; Reich, Christian; Heinzinger, Klaus; Thamm, Christian; Rudenko, Artem; Krasniqi, Faton; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Bauer, Christian; Schröter, Claus-Dieter; Moshammer, Robert; Techert, Simone; Miessner, Danilo; Porro, Matteo; Hälker, Olaf; Meidinger, Norbert; Kimmel, Nils; Andritschke, Robert; Schopper, Florian; Weidenspointner, Georg; Ziegler, Alexander; Pietschner, Daniel; Herrmann, Sven; Pietsch, Ullrich; Walenta, Albert; Leitenberger, Wolfram; Bostedt, Christoph; Möller, Thomas; Rupp, Daniela; Adolph, Marcus; Graafsma, Heinz; Hirsemann, Helmut; Gärtner, Klaus; Richter, Rainer; Foucar, Lutz; Shoeman, Robert L.; Schlichting, Ilme; Ullrich, Joachim

2010-03-01

334

Dual-Channel Multi-Purpose Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual-channel telescope allows for a wide-field telescope design wit h a good, narrow field channel of fewer surfaces for shorter-wavelen gth or planet-finding applications. The design starts with a Korsch three-mirror-anastigmat (TMA) telescope that meets the mission criter ia for image quality over a wide field of view. The internal image a t the Cassegrain focus is typically blurry due to the aberration bala ncing among the three mirrors. The Cassegrain focus is then re-optim ized on the axis of the system where the narrow field channel instru ment is picked off by bending the primary mirror.

Howard, Joseph M.; Content, David

2009-01-01

335

A Multipurpose Experiment with an Electronic Balance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This short article describes some useful and quick applications of a cooking electronic balance. Newton's third law, Archimedes buoyancy and an estimate of relative density are accomplished in a very simple way. (Contains 1 figure.)

Ganci, S.

2008-01-01

336

Two Multipurpose Thermochemical Experiments for General Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two experiments designed to provide concepts on the difference between heat and temperature and also bond energy. Investigates both a neutralization experiment and a ligation experiment. Notes inexpensive chemicals are used along with simple equipment. Discusses the sharing of lab results for a single class value. (MVL)

Wentworth, R. A. D.

1988-01-01

337

Soy isoflavone: The multipurpose phytochemical (Review)  

PubMed Central

Soy isoflavones are compounds found in soybean and soybean products. They have been reported to possess numerous physiological properties, such as antitumor, anti-menopausal (female) osteoporosis and anti-aging. They have also been reported to improve learning and memory skills in menopausal women and aid in the prevention and treatment of heart disease, diabetes and Kawasaki disease (KD). In this review, the effects of soy isoflavones on various diseases were analyzed. Based on the analysis, it was hypothesized that the function of soybean isoflavones in the prevention and treatment of various diseases results from their phytoestrogen and antioxidant properties. However, due to their phytoestrogen properties, it is recommended that the risks of soy isoflavone intake as food and/or medical treatment be further evaluated. PMID:24649012

WANG, QINGLU; GE, XIAOYUE; TIAN, XUEWEN; ZHANG, YUJUN; ZHANG, JIE; ZHANG, PINGPING

2013-01-01

338

Continuous Commisssioning of a Multipurpose Facility  

E-print Network

are in occupied mode, the supply and exhaust fans of the HRUs are activated. The design maximum outside airflow for each unit is 9,000 cfm and the design exhaust airflow is 7,880 cfm. When the CO2 level measured by the sensors in the return air duct... are in occupied mode, the supply and exhaust fans of the HRUs are activated. The design maximum outside airflow for each unit is 9,000 cfm and the design exhaust airflow is 7,880 cfm. When the CO2 level measured by the sensors in the return air duct...

Yagua, C.; Wei, G.; Napper, G.; Turner, D.; Effinger, M.; Shahsavary, F.

339

THE CIRCUMFUSION SYSTEM FOR MULTIPURPOSE CULTURE CHAMBERS  

PubMed Central

A self-contained mechanical system for circulating nutrient fluid through 12 tissue culture chambers is described in detail. This system utilizes nonperforated cellophane membranes in the chambers which separate the circulating nutrient from the tissue culture environments. The nutrient, therefore, is dialyzed through the cellophane of each chamber; some cell products are retained in the microenvironment between the closely apposed cellophane and cover slip, whereas the other cell products move from chamber to chamber in the circulating nutrient. The resultant environmental conditions directed by the circumfusion systems are highly favorable for maintaining the differentiation of chick embryo tissues over protracted periods; a number of micrographs are shown. PMID:10976203

Rose, George G.

1967-01-01

340

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial settings to prevent friction or rust. Greases, which are lubricants composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers...

2013-01-01

341

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

...Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial settings to prevent friction or rust. Greases, which are lubricants composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers...

2014-01-01

342

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial settings to prevent friction or rust. Greases, which are lubricants composed of oils thickened to a semisolid or solid consistency using soaps, polymers...

2012-01-01

343

7 CFR 2902.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product. (c) Preference...

2010-01-01

344

Quarkonia as a multi-purpose tool  

SciTech Connect

Quarkonia can be a very useful tool for understanding the medium in which they are produced and pass through. However, their usefulness as a tool depends on how well certain aspects of their behavior in cold matter are understood.

Vogt, R

2010-12-21

345

A multipurpose serological survey in Kenya  

PubMed Central

The need to develop methods for serological sample surveys has increased during recent years. The article describes the methods of sampling and blood collecting employed in a serological survey which was conducted in three different areas of Kenya. The purpose of the survey was primarily to gather information about the age-specific prevalence of various infections which were thought to pose public health problems in the country. An attempt was also made to identify environmental factors which might be associated with variation in the prevalence of the different infections. This was done by collecting data about such factors at the same time as the serological specimens were obtained in the selected survey groups. The experience gained during the field work showed that it is possible to achieve a high coverage of bleeding (80%) in randomly selected population groups living in rural Kenya when proper incentives are given to the examines. Venous blood could be obtained from subjects under field conditions down to the age of 2 years; from the babies only capillary blood could be obtained. PMID:5313065

Geser, Anton; Christensen, Svend; Thorup, Ib

1970-01-01

346

A multipurpose serological survey in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Arbovirus infections are of public health interest in East Africa, where a very widespread epidemic of o'nyong-nyong fever was reported in 1959-60 and where the threat of yellow fever, present in neighbouring areas such as Ethiopia, remains. Sera collected in a serological survey in Kenya were therefore tested for antibodies against 3 group-A arboviruses (chikungunya, o'nyong-nyong and Sindbis), 6 group-B arboviruses (Zika, yellow fever, West Nile, Banzi, Wesselsbron and dengue 1), and Bunyamwera virus. The sera were examined mainly by the haemagglutination-inhibition test but a small proportion were also subjected to virus neutralization tests. The results showed that the prevalence of arbovirus tnfection varies markedly from area to area in Kenya. All types of arbovirus infections were more frequent on the coast than on the dry plateau around Kitui and the Lake Victoria area, The only exceptions were o'nyong-nyong and chikungunya, which were found to be just as prevalent on the coast as in Nyanza, where an epidemic was reported in 1959-60. Yellow fever antibodies were found to be present in about half of the people living on the coast but practically absent from the other two areas. It was concluded that the yellow fever antibodies in the coastal area must be due either to vaccination or to cross-reactions with other group-B arboviruses. PMID:5313066

Geser, Anton; Henderson, Brian E.; Christensen, Svend

1970-01-01

347

Multipurpose microcontroller design for PUGAS 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will report on the past year's work on the development of the microcontroller design for the second Purdue University small self-contained payload. A first report on this effort was given at last year's conference by Ritter (1985). At that time, the project was still at the conceptual stage. Now a specific design has been set, prototyping has begun, and layout of the two-sided circuit board using CAD-techniques is nearing completion. A redesign of the overall concept of the circuit board was done to take advantage of the facilities available to students. An additional controller has been added to take large quantities of data concerning the shuttle environment during takeoff. The importance of setting a design time-line is discussed along with the electrical design considerations given to the controllers.

Weber, David M.; Deckard, Todd W.

1987-01-01

348

Multipurpose Centers in a Rural County.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes services, programs, and funding for the various senior centers in Frankin County, New York, which has a predominately rural, low-income population. Services include bus transportation, nutrition programs, health and financial assistance, and social events. (MF)

Norris, Jean

1978-01-01

349

Sustainable multipurpose tree production systems for Nepal  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory is developing methods for producing reforestation plating stock, fuel, and fodder in a sustainable manner in Nepal. This project, in cooperation with the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation of Nepal, is sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID). Several production systems are being evaluated for the Mid-Hills Region of Nepal. To provide sustainable biomass production and ecological management of the fragile Mid-Hills Region, the production systems must simultaneously satisfy the physiological requirements of the plants, the symbiotic requirements of the plant and the microorganisms in its rhizosphere, the physicochemical requirements of nutrient and water cycling, and the climatic and topographic constraints.

Shen, S.Y.; Kilpatrick, K.J.

1988-03-01

350

Stormwater management and multipurpose infrastructure networks  

E-print Network

In urban planning and design, natural systems are a key element of explorations about how to design for sustainability. As part of these efforts, academics and practitioners have also begun to explore the ways in which the ...

Vecchio, Ann-Ariel (Ann-Ariel Nichiko)

2012-01-01

351

DEVELOPMENT OF THE MULTIPURPOSE THERMAL SPRAYING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many components and structures require protection against corrosion, oxidization, excessive heat and wear. This is achieved by applying various types of coatings on the component base material, hence providing the necessary protection and improving performance of aircraft systems. For example, the application of the thermal barrier coatings (TBC), in the last decade, on the aircraft turbine blades, vanes and combustors

Igor A. Gorlach; Daniela Ghelase; Nelson Mandela

352

Multipurpose underground structures in the extreme north  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial and natural cavities in underground space have been constructed and utilized even in the distant past. The building of underground structures (US) has evolved most rigorously, however, in the modern era. The installation of engineering-transport, secondary-auxiliary, utility, storage, and other entities of the urban economy in the underground space is an acute necessity of large and small municipalities. The

A. V. Samokhin; V. Yu. Izakson

1993-01-01

353

Multipurpose peptide tags for protein isolation.  

PubMed

A multifunctional peptide tag (HYDHYD) consisting of histidine, tyrosine and aspartate residues was fused to the N-terminal ends of green fluorescent protein (GFP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and human hemoglobin (Hb), proteins which were subjected to ion-exchange chromatography (IEC), aqueous two-phase system partition, immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC), and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). Tagged GFP was retained significantly longer (>1 column volume) in both HIC and IEC. It exhibited 3x greater partition in favor of the hydrophobic phase in a two-phase system and 96% could be bound to an IMAC column which did not bind native GFP. PMID:18635190

Becker, Kristian; Van Alstine, James; Bülow, Leif

2008-08-15

354

Advanced Multipurpose Rendezvous Tracking System Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rendezvous and docking (R&D) sensors needed to support Earth orbital operations of vehicles were investigated to determine the form they should take. An R&D sensor must enable an interceptor vehicle to determine both the relative position and the relative attitude of a target vehicle. Relative position determination is fairly straightforward and places few constraints on the sensor. Relative attitude determination, however, is more difficult. The attitude is calculated based on relative position measurements of several reflectors placed in a known arrangement on the target vehicle. The constraints imposed on the sensor by the attitude determination method are severe. Narrow beamwidth, wide field of view (fov), high range accuracy, and fast random scan capability are all required to determine attitude by this method. A consideration of these constraints as well as others imposed by expected operating conditions and the available technology led to the conclusion that the sensor should be a cw optical radar employing a semiconductor laser transmitter and an image dissector receiver.

Laurie, R. J.; Sterzer, F.

1982-01-01

355

Confronting Global Issues: A Multipurpose IR Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an international relations simulation that focuses on threats of transnational insurgent organizations, the future of the Iraqi regime, and the effect of globalization on foreign policies. It contains both the Simulation Director's Guide and the Participant's Guide. The guides explain the steps taken to run the simulation…

Shellman, Stephen M.; Turan, Kursad

2006-01-01

356

Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design included minimizing the power requirements and maximizing the strength-to-weight and lift-to-drag ratios. Given the design constraints, Surya (the code-name given to the aircraft), is a lightweight aircraft primarily built using composite materials and capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar energy.

Alexandrou, A. N.; Durgin, W. W.; Cohn, R. F.; Olinger, D. J.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Chan, Agnes; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Conley, Kristin; Crivelli, Paul M.; Javorski, Christian T.

1992-01-01

357

NBODY - a multipurpose trajectory optimization computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Documentation of the NBODY trajectory optimization program is presented in the form of a mathematical development plus a user's manual. Optimal multistage-launch ascent trajectories may be determined by variational thrust steering during the upper phase. Optimal low-thrust interplanetary spacecraft trajectories may also be calculated with solar power or constant power, all-propulsion or embedded coast arcs, fixed or optimal thrust angles, and a variety of terminal end conditions. A hybrid iteration scheme solves the boundary-value problem, while either transversality conditions or a univariate search scheme optimize vehicle or trajectory parameters.

Strack, W. C.

1974-01-01

358

Metal-insulator transitions, structural and microstructural evolution of RNiO{sub 3} (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Y) perovskites: Evidence for room-temperature charge disproportionation in monoclinic HoNiO{sub 3} and YNiO{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect

RNiO{sub 3} nickelates have been prepared under high oxygen pressure (R = Sm, Eu, Gd) or high hydrostatic pressure (R = Dy, Ho, Y) in the presence of KClO{sub 4}. The samples have been investigated at room temperature (RT) by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction to follow the evolution of the crystal structures and microstructures along the series. The distortion of the orthorhombic (space group Pbnm) perovskite progressively increases along the series, leading for the smallest Ho{sup 3+} and Y{sup 3+} cations to a subtle monoclinic distortion (space group P2{sub 1}/n) which implies the splitting of the Ni positions in the crystal. This symmetry was confirmed by neutron powder diffraction; the crystal structures for R = Ho and Y were refined simultaneously from RT synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction data. In both perovskites the oxygen octahedra around Ni1 and Ni2 positions are significantly distorted, suggesting the manifestation of Jahn-Teller effect, which is almost absent in the nickelates` of lighter rare earths. The very distinct mean Ni-O bond distances observed for Ni1 and Ni2 atoms at RT, in the insulating regime, suggest the presence of a charge disproportionation effect, considered as driving force for the splitting of the Ni positions. The metal-insulator (MI) transitions for RNiO{sub 3} (R = Gd, Dy, Ho, Y), above room temperature, have been characterized by DSC. The transition temperatures for Gd, Dy, Ho, and Y oxides in the heating runs are 510.7, 563.9, 572.7, and 581.9 K, respectively. The increasing rate of T{sub MI} for Dy, Ho, and Y materials is lower than that expected from the variation of T{sub MI} for the larger rare earth perovskites. This is probably related to the subtle monoclinic distortion found for Ho and Y nickelates. The high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder patterns have revealed changes in the microstructure along the series. Powder patterns for orthorhombic RNiO{sub 3} (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy) display asymmetric tails for some reflections which are due to structural mistakes such as stacking faults or regular intergrowths. These mistakes are not present in monoclinic RNiO{sub 3} (R = Ho, Y) nickelates.

Alonso, J.A.; Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Casais, M.T.; Arangda, M.A.G.; Fernandez-Diaz, M.T. [C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales] [C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales; [Univ. de Malaga (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia; [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

1999-05-26

359

Heats of Formation for the Boronic Acids R-B(OH)2 and Boroxines R3B3O3 (R=H, Li, HBe, H2B, H3C, H2N, HO, F, and Cl) Calculated at the G2, G3, and G4 Levels of Theory  

PubMed Central

Boronic acids (R–B(OH)2) and their boroxine (R3B3O3) dehydration products have emerged as important classes of compounds with a multitude of diverse applications. However, the available heats of formation for these compounds are not always as accurate as would be required for further use. In this study the heats of formation at 298.15 K of R–B(OH)2 and R3B3O3 (R = H, Li, HBe, H2B, H3C, H2N, HO, F, and Cl) have been calculated at the G2, G3[G3B3], and G4 levels of theory and used to determine the enthalpy changes for the dehydration reactions: 3 R–B(OH)2 ? R3B3O3 + 3 H2O; comparisons are made with other rigorous levels of theory, e.g. CBS-Q[CBS-QB3] and W1U, as well as with experimental values wherever possible. Enthalpy changes for the dehydration reactions have also been calculated using second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the Dunning-Woon correlation-consistent aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets, and B3LYP density functional theory with the 6-311++G(2df,2pd) basis set. With the exception of H2N-B(OH)2, the dehydration reactions are consistently predicted to be exothermic. Our results provide a cautionary note for the use of the B3LYP functional in the calculation of structures and energies of boronic acids and boroxines. Where comparisons could be made, the G4 and W1U predictions for the heats of formation of these boron compounds differ significantly. PMID:24653975

Bock, Charles W.; Larkin, Joseph D.

2014-01-01

360

AUTHOR (3): R. J. Howard NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY 088ERVATORY  

E-print Network

millimeters in order to achieve clean square way chopping of the beam with a small chopper wheel. The second) parabola. Tbe coupli_ efficiency to the hot and cold loads was assumed to be 1.0. Each set of measurements consisted of hot and cold calibration followed by sky temperature measurements at 1.0, #12;1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 2

Groppi, Christopher

361

Back to the 3 R's: Reading, Writing, Rhetoric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary understandings and practices of adult literacy and adult basic education need to reestablish a substantial connection with ancient rhetoric as at once a political tradition, a culture of language use, a storehouse of metalanguage, and as an ensemble of pedagogic strategies and exercises. Developed in ancient Greece, rhetoric was for…

McCormack, Rob

362

C3R - Participatory Urban Pollution Monitoring from your Car  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed on-line measurements of city air quality are nec- essary to support compliance with air quality standards and emission strategy developments and to inform both policy makers and the general public in a timely manner. Current approaches to pollution monitoring, however, rely on very small numbers of stationary nodes. Providing de- tailed air quality information is a particularly hard chal-

John S. Otto; John P. Rula Fabi; E. Bustamante

363

dated 9/4/2013 Building, 3r  

E-print Network

and such cultural institutions as religion. Their analyses are scientific, employing diverse quantitative problems: for example, to evaluate educational innovations, improve the delivery of health care, increase

Acton, Scott

364

ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS: MULTIPURPOSE PLATFORMS OF THE FUTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial research has been conducted at universities and major defense laboratories regarding the design, development, and implementation of electromagnetic launching systems. Such devices are capable of almost instantaneously accelerating masses to extremely high velocities, and could be utilized as an alternative propulsion mechanism for future orbital satellite launching. Relying on the physics of the principle of electromagnetic induction, such devices

Jonathan Dumm; Kevin Murray

365

Dynamic versus static allocation policies in multipurpose multireservoir systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the competition for water is likely to increase in the near future due to socioeconomic development and population growth, water resources managers will face hard choices when allocating water between competing users. Because water is a vital resource used in multiple sectors, including the environment, the allocation is inherently a political and social process, which is likely to become

A. Tilmant; Q. Goor; D. Pinte; P. van der Zaag

2007-01-01

366

Economic study of multipurpose advanced high-speed transport configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nondimensional economic examination of a parametrically-derived set of supersonic transport aircraft was conducted. The measure of economic value was surcharged relative to subsonic airplane tourist-class yield. Ten airplanes were defined according to size, payload, and speed. The price, range capability, fuel burned, and block time were determined for each configuration, then operating costs and surcharges were calculated. The parameter with the most noticeable influence on nominal surcharge was found to be real (constant dollars) fuel price increase. A change in SST design Mach number from 2.4 to Mach 2.7 showed a very small surcharge advantage (on the order of 1 percent for the faster aircraft). Configuration design compromises required for an airplane to operate overland at supersonic speeds without causing sonic boom annoyance result in severe performance penalties and require high (more than 100 percent) surcharges.

1979-01-01

367

Multi-Purpose High-Building Fire Protection Management Research.  

E-print Network

??The urbanized congregate housing and commercial buildings have long developed towards the super high-rise, enlarged and complex composition. The application, identification, usage and administration of… (more)

chang, ping-hai

2008-01-01

368

Using Dynamic Hypertext to Create Multi-Purpose Textbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In textbooks the different topics are introduced in an order which is (supposedly) the best way for learning the subject at hand. Once the student masters the subject, most textbooks are not well suited for use as reference material, because re lated topics are not located near each other. This paper presents a framework for self-modifying hyperdocuments. A textbook, delivered

Licia Calvi; Bra de P. M. E

1997-01-01

369

Dynamics and control of MTV: a multipurpose unmanned underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Manta Test Vehicle (MTV) has been built by the US Navy as the prototype of a new class of unmanned underwater vehicles (UWs). The paper presents the complete nonlinear dynamics model of the MTV and discusses the design of its control system. As MTV's first in-water trial is still to come, performance is shown through simulated runs

Alberico Menozzi; T. C. Galiardi; Sergey E. Lyshevski

2000-01-01

370

Model primary content type for multipurpose internet mail extensions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this memo is to propose an update to Internet RFC 2045 to include a new primary content-type to be known as `model`. RFC 2045 [1] describes mechanisms for specifying and describing the format of Internet Message Bodies via content-type/subtype pairs. We believe that `model` defines a fundamental type of content with unique presentational, hardware, and processing aspects. Various subtypes of this primary type are immediately anticipated but will be covered under separate documents.

Nelson, S.; Parks, C.

1997-01-01

371

Non-Intrusive Pressure/Multipurpose Sensor And Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for determining pressure using a non-intrusive sensor that is easily attachable to the plumbing of a pressurized system. A bent mode implementation and a hoop mode implementation of the invention are disclosed. Each of these implementations is able to nonintrusively measure pressure while fluid is flowing. As well, each implementation may be used to measure mass flow rate simultaneously with pressure. An ultra low noise control system is provided for making pressure measurements during gas flow. The control system includes two tunable digital bandpass filters with center frequencies that are responsive to a clock frequency. The clock frequency is divided by a factor of N to produce a driving vibrational signal for resonating a metal sensor section.

Smith, William C. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

372

Multipurpose Fiber Injected-micro-spherical LIDAR System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technological revolution is occurring in the field of fiber lasers. Over the past two years, the level of power has increased from approx. 100 watts to nearly 1 kilowatt. We are developing a novel fiber laser system, which is a satellite-based LIDAR transmitter of multi-lines. The system is made of a hollow fiber filled with micro-spheres doped with lasing materials. Each sphere has its inherent optical cavity, which makes the system a cavity free and in the same time, emits multi-laser lines for simultaneous multi-task operations. The system is also rugged, compact, lightweight, and durable. Our earlier studies on micro-spheres doped with different laser dyes demonstrated the emission of extremely fine laser lines of less than 3 A line-width, which are of interest for spectroscopic applications, sensing, imaging, and optical communications. Individual dye-doped micro-spheres demonstrated a lasing resonance peaks phenomenon in their fluorescence spectra of linear and nonlinear features that do not exist in the bulk dye solutions. Each individual micro-sphere acts as a laser system with inherent cavity, where the fluorescence line suffers multiple internal reflections within the micro-sphere and gains enough energy to become a laser line. Such resonance peaks are dependent on the sphere's morphology, size, shape, and its refractive index. These resonance peaks are named structural resonance, whispering modes or whispering gallery modes, creeping waves, circumferential waves, surfaces modes, and virtual modes. All of these names refer to the same phenomenon of morphology dependent resonance (MDR), which has already been described and predicted precisely by electromagnetic theory and Lorentz-Mie theory since 1908. The resonance peaks become more obvious when the particle size approaches and exceeds the wavelength of the laser used and the relative index of the particle is greater than that of the surrounding medium. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Abdelayem, Hossin; Jamison, Tracee

2005-01-01

373

Molecular network topology and reliability for multipurpose diagnosis  

PubMed Central

This investigation proposes the use of molecular network topology for drug delivery and diagnosis network design. Three modules of molecular network topologies, such as bus, star, and ring networks, are designed and manipulated based on a micro- and nanoring resonator system. The transportation of the trapping molecules by light in the network is described and the theoretical background is reviewed. The quality of the network is analyzed and calculated in terms of signal transmission (ie, signal to noise ratio and crosstalk effects). Results obtained show that a bus network has advantages over star and ring networks, where the use of mesh networks is possible. In application, a thin film network can be fabricated in the form of a waveguide and embedded in artificial bone, which can be connected to the required drug targets. The particular drug/nutrient can be transported to the required targets via the particular network used. PMID:22072875

Jalil, MA; Moongfangklang, N; Innate, K; Mitatha, S; Ali, J; Yupapin, PP

2011-01-01

374

Multipurpose High-Frequency ESR Spectrometer for Condensed Matter Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a multifrequency quasi-optical electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer operating in the 75–225 GHz range and\\u000a optimized at 222.4 GHz for general use in condensed matter physics and chemistry. The quasi-optical bridge detects the change\\u000a of millimeter wave polarization at the ESR condition. A controllable reference arm maintains a millimeter wave bias at the\\u000a detector. The sensitivity of 2 × 1010 spin\\/(G Hz0.5), measured on

Kálmán L. Nagy; Dario Quintavalle; Titusz Fehér; András Jánossy

2011-01-01

375

LARC-TPI: A multi-purpose thermoplastic polyimide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linear thermoplastic polyimide, LARC-TPI, was characterized and developed for a variety of high temperature applications. In its fully imidized form, this material can be used as an adhesive for bonding metals such as titanium, aluminum, copper, brass, and stainless steel. LARC-TPI was evaluated as a thermoplastic for bonding large pieces of polyimide film to produce flexible, 100 void-free laminates for flexible circuit applications. The development of LARC-TPI as a potential molding powder, composite matrix resin, high temperature film and fiber is also discussed.

St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

1982-01-01

376

(Littoral Operation Multipurpose Auxiliary Craft) Casey Connor, John Sebastian,  

E-print Network

on top of the painted surface. #12;Fiberglassing 1) Cut Fiberglass to fit plug. 2) Coat plug with wax releasing agent. 3) Mix epoxy at a 2 part resin to 1 part hardener. 4) Saturate fiberglass with epoxy mix. 5) Place fiberglass on plug and remove air bubbles. 6) Allow to cure. #12;Finishing ? Mix microballoons

Wood, Stephen L.

377

Bio-inspired enol-degradation for multipurpose oxygen sensing.  

PubMed

Inspired by the enol-degradation of luciferin, a new oxygen sensor with oppositely changed color and fluorescence has been designed. This new reaction-based dual mode sensor can not only be used as a highly selective instant "fluorescence on" oxygen probe, but also as a freshness indicator of food or food materials by using its property of time-adjustable color fading. PMID:25234330

Zhang, Yu-Mo; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Wen; Zhang, Weiran; Li, Minjie; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

2014-10-01

378

Feasibility of seasonal multipurpose reservoir operation in Texas  

E-print Network

are dynamic. Construction of numerous small flood retarding dams by the Soil Conservation Service and other entities in the watersheds of major reservoirs have reduced flood inflows to the reservoirs. Construction of numerous small ponds for recreation... to flooding could actually decrease over time as existing property owners choose to relocate and regulation prevents others from moving into the floodplain. Reservoir sedimentation reduces available storage capacity. Construction of additional reservoirs...

Tibbets, Michael N

2012-06-07

379

Designing, Fabrication and Controlling Of Multipurpose3-DOF Robotic Arm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, we have successfully designed and developed a 3-DOF articulated Robotic Arm capable of performing typical industrial tasks such as painting or spraying, assembling and handling automobiles parts and etc., in resemblance to a human arm. The mechanical assembly is designed on SOLIDWORKS and aluminum grade 6061 -T6 is used for its fabrication in order to reduce the structure weight. We have applied inverse kinematics to determine the joint angles, equations are fed into an efficient microcontroller ATMEGA16 which performs all the calculations to determine the joint angles on the basis of given coordinates to actuate the joints through motorized control. Good accuracy was obtained with quadrature optical encoders installed in each joint to achieve the desired position and a LabVIEW based GUI is designed to provide human machine interface.

Nabeel, Hafiz Muhammad; Azher, Anum; Usman Ali, Syed M.; Wahab Mughal, Abdul

2013-12-01

380

Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services—industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006.

Alexandru, Mioara; Ene, Mihaela

2007-08-01

381

In vitro micropropagation of Gymnema sylvestre – A multipurpose medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the explant, seedling age, medium type, plant growth regulators, complex extracts (casein hydrolysate, coconut\\u000a milk, malt extract and yeast extract) and antioxidants (activated charcoal, ascorbic acid, citric acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone)\\u000a markedly influenced in vitro propagation of Gymnema sylvestre. A maximum number of shoots (57.2) were induced from 30 day old seedling axillary node explants on Murashige and

N. Komalavalli; M. V. Rao

2000-01-01

382

Multipurpose Dissociation Cell for Enhanced ETD of Intact Protein Species  

PubMed Central

We describe and characterize an improved implementation of ETD on a modified hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument. Instead of performing ETD in the mass-analyzing quadrupole linear ion trap (A-QLT), the instrument collision cell was modified to enable ETD. We partitioned the collision cell into a multi-section RF ion storage and transfer device to enable injection and simultaneous separate storage of precursor and reagent ions. Application of a secondary (axial) confinement voltage to the cell end lens electrodes enables charge-sign independent trapping for ion-ion reactions. The approximately two-fold higher quadrupole field frequency of this cell relative to that of the A-QLT, enables higher reagent ion densities and correspondingly faster ETD reactions, and, with the collision cell’s longer axial dimensions, larger populations of precursor ions may be reacted. The higher ion capacity of the collision cell permits the accumulation and reaction of multiple full loads of precursor ions from the A-QLT followed by FT Orbitrap m/z analysis of the ETD product ions. This extends the intra-scan dynamic range by increasing the maximum number of product ions in a single MS/MS event. For analyses of large peptide/small protein precursor cations, this reduces or eliminates the need for spectral averaging to achieve acceptable ETD product ion signal-to-noise levels. Using larger ion populations, we demonstrate improvements in protein sequence coverage and aggregate protein identifications in LC-MS/MS analysis of intact protein species as compared to the standard ETD implementation. PMID:23609185

Rose, Christopher M.; Russell, Jason D.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Westphall, Michael S.; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C.; Coon, Joshua J.; Syka, John E.P.

2013-01-01

383

A simulation model for operating a multipurpose multireservoir system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a mathematical model used for assessing alternative policies of operation for the Trent River system in Ontario, Canada. The Trent basin is characterized by numerous reservoirs (48 were represented in the model), each with a control structure(s) in its outlet channel(s). The reservoir system is used for flood control, water supply, hydropower, and augmenting flows through the

O. T. Sigvaldson

1976-01-01

384

Ephus: multipurpose data acquisition software for neuroscience experiments.  

PubMed

Physiological measurements in neuroscience experiments often involve complex stimulus paradigms and multiple data channels. Ephus (http://www.ephus.org) is an open-source software package designed for general-purpose data acquisition and instrument control. Ephus operates as a collection of modular programs, including an ephys program for standard whole-cell recording with single or multiple electrodes in typical electrophysiological experiments, and a mapper program for synaptic circuit mapping experiments involving laser scanning photostimulation based on glutamate uncaging or channelrhodopsin-2 excitation. Custom user functions allow user-extensibility at multiple levels, including on-line analysis and closed-loop experiments, where experimental parameters can be changed based on recently acquired data, such as during in vivo behavioral experiments. Ephus is compatible with a variety of data acquisition and imaging hardware. This paper describes the main features and modules of Ephus and their use in representative experimental applications. PMID:21960959

Suter, Benjamin A; O'Connor, Timothy; Iyer, Vijay; Petreanu, Leopoldo T; Hooks, Bryan M; Kiritani, Taro; Svoboda, Karel; Shepherd, Gordon M G

2010-01-01

385

WND-CHARM: Multi-purpose image classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WND-CHARM quantitatively analyzes morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. It computes a large set (up to ~2700) of image features for each image based on the WND-CHARM algorithm. It can then split the images into training and test sets and classify them. The software extracts the image content descriptor from raw images, image transforms, and compound image transforms. The most informative features are then selected, and the feature vector of each image is used for classification and similarity measurement using Fisher discriminant scores and a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis. WND-CHARM's results comparable favorably to the performance of task-specific algorithms developed for tested datasets. The simple user interface allows researchers who are not knowledgeable in computer vision methods and have no background in computer programming to apply image analysis to their data.

Shamir, Lior; Orlov, Nikita; Eckley, D. Mark; Macura, Tomasz; Johnston, Josiah; Goldberg, Ilya

2013-12-01

386

Multi-Purpose Reefs - A Decade of Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore submerged structures for coastal protection and artificial reefs for enhancing local marine biodiversity and/or attracting sea life have been utilized for centuries. Indeed, the first known use of artificial reef structures for habitat enhancement dates back to 2000 BC on the south west coast of India. However, it was not until the 1960's that multi- purpose reefs (MPRs) intended combine coastal protection, eco-enhancement and surfing were first proposed. Through the 1970's and 1980's the concept of MPR's was advanced through the seminal works of James 'Kimo' Walker who pioneered the area of surfing science and developed the first methods for quantification of a surfing break. Design studies for artificial reefs primarily for surfing were undertaken for the construction of the world's first artificial surfing reef built in Perth in 1998, as well as for artificial reefs in California and the Queensland Gold Coast MPR in Australia. More than a decade on, seven reefs have now been constructed at locations around the world with differing levels of success. and a great deal has been learned about the functionality of and potential applications for these structures. This poster provides a brief update on the performance of these structures, summarizing the large volume of monitoring data available for many of these projects. This includes data on shoreline protection and beach response, ecological enhancement, habitat restoration and improvement of recreational amenities. We discuss several projects with respect to the above topics as well as some of the lessons learned in the light of future MPR developments. This poster considers the performance of MPR's in three primary areas of functionality: coastal protection, ecological enhancement and surfing enhancement. We also discuss some of the lessons learned and applied as understanding of these structures has increased.

Mead, S.; Borrero, J. C.; Hearin, J.

2011-12-01

387

Arduino: a low-cost multipurpose lab equipment.  

PubMed

Typical experiments in psychological and neurophysiological settings often require the accurate control of multiple input and output signals. These signals are often generated or recorded via computer software and/or external dedicated hardware. Dedicated hardware is usually very expensive and requires additional software to control its behavior. In the present article, I present some accuracy tests on a low-cost and open-source I/O board (Arduino family) that may be useful in many lab environments. One of the strengths of Arduinos is the possibility they afford to load the experimental script on the board's memory and let it run without interfacing with computers or external software, thus granting complete independence, portability, and accuracy. Furthermore, a large community has arisen around the Arduino idea and offers many hardware add-ons and hundreds of free scripts for different projects. Accuracy tests show that Arduino boards may be an inexpensive tool for many psychological and neurophysiological labs. PMID:22037977

D'Ausilio, Alessandro

2012-06-01

388

Multi-Purpose Wireless Accelerometers for Civil Infrastructure Monitoring  

E-print Network

from low-amplitude ambient to earthquake strong motions. Software components are added to the general. 1 INTRODUCTION A new generation of small, inexpensive and efficient devices has been emerged, thanks that can measure acceleration, velocity, strain, tilt, temperature, light, sound and other physical

Culler, David E.

389

Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the New Shuttle Orbiter's Multi- Purpose Logistics Modulo (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger (HX) and associated MPLM cooling system. This paper presents Heat Exchanger (HX) design and performance characteristics of the system.

Zampiceni, John J.; Harper, Lon T.

2002-01-01

390

A unique multipurpose damping circuit for shunt capacitor bank switching  

SciTech Connect

Considerations on disturbances related to Shunt Capacitor Bank (SCB) switching are summarized and a unique damping circuit able to cope with all of them is proposed. This damping circuit consists of a reactor in parallel with a resistor which is in series with a Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV), the latter being used to switch on the resistor only during transients. The design parameter of this damping circuit are described and the main tests performed are presented.

Sabot, A.; Morin, C.; Guillaume, C.; Pons, A. (Electricite de France, Les Renardieres (France). Les Renardieres Lab.); Taisne, J.P. (Electricite de France, Les Renardieres (France). Transmission Division); Pizzo, G.L.; Morf, H.U. (Haefely S.A., Saint Louis (France))

1993-07-01

391

Multipurpose Poetry: Introducing Science Concepts and Increasing Fluency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson introduces the study of insects in science by using poetry. Students work in cooperative groups to prepare choral poetry readings and present factual information on an assigned insect to the class. The choral poetry readings also serve to increase fluency in English-as-a-second-language students. During four 30-minute sessions,…

Dennis, Sarah

392

Enabling multipurpose image interaction in modular visualization environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent improvements in processor and graphics power mean researchers can now interact with their running simulation at the same time as they view the results. This so-called 'computational steering' brings greater insight to the investigation process and is even more compelling when immersed in the visual representation of the data. Visualization of pre-computed data likewise benefits if we can generate

Fotis Chatzinikos; Helen Wright

2003-01-01

393

Diversity of Photogrammetric Approaches for Multi-Purpose Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presented paper shows the diversity of photogrommetric approaches by introducing a problem of camera interior orientation, data georeferencing. data integration and the issue of automatic object surface modelling. The authors discuss the abovementioned issues on the example of the work carried out at the Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology referring to solutions practiced in Computer Vision. This article is an example of introduction of photogrammetry as a discipline open to achievements of close fields of science, which is widely applied in practice

Bujakiewicz, Aleksandra; Markiewicz, Jakub; Baku?a, Krzysztof; Zawierska, Dorota

2014-06-01

394

Multipurpose 5-MeV linear induction accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Although linear induction accelerators (LIAs) are quite reliable by most standards, they are limited in repeating rate, average power, and reliability because the final stage of energy delivery is based on spark gap performance. In addition, they have a low duty factor of operation. To provide a higher burst rate and greater reliability, the researchers used new technology to develop a magnetic pulse compression scheme that eliminates all spark gaps and exceeds requirements. The paper describes the scheme. The magnetic drive system can be tailored to drive induction cells from a few kA to over 10 kA at 500 kV, with average beam power levels in the megawatts. This new 5-MeV, 2.5-kA LIA under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be used for the development of high brightness sources and will provide a test bed for the new technology, which should lead to LIAs that surpass the radio frequency linacs for efficiency and reliability, as well as fit other industrial applications, such as sewage sterilization.

Birx, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L. Smith, M.W.

1984-06-11

395

A New Multipurpose Comprehensive Database for Handwritten Dari Recognition  

E-print Network

and Pashto are the two official languages of Afghanistan but Dari is considered to be the lingua franca and Pashto and is written from right to left [1], except the numerals which are, like Farsi, written from

Suen, Ching Y.

396

One-Step Multipurpose Surface Functionalization by Adhesive Catecholamine  

E-print Network

Surface modification is one of the most important techniques in modern science and engineering. The facile introduction of a wide variety of desired properties onto virtually any material surface is an ultimate goal in ...

Kang, Sung Min

397

Pharmacological characterization of MK-0974 [N-[(3R,6S)-6-(2,3-difluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)azepan-3-yl]-4-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl)piperidine-1-carboxamide], a potent and orally active calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist for the treatment of migraine.  

PubMed

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent neuropeptide that plays a key role in the pathophysiology of migraine headache. CGRP levels in the cranial circulation are increased during a migraine attack, and CGRP itself has been shown to trigger migraine-like headache. The correlation between CGRP release and migraine headache points to the potential utility of CGRP receptor antagonists as novel therapeutics in the treatment of migraine. Indeed, clinical proof-of-concept in the acute treatment of migraine was demonstrated with an intravenous formulation of the CGRP receptor antagonist BIBN4096BS (olcegepant). Here we report on the pharmacological characterization of the first orally bioavailable CGRP receptor antagonist in clinical development, MK-0974 [N-[(3R,6S)-6-(2,3-difluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)azepan-3-yl]-4-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl)piperidine-1-carboxamide]. In vitro, MK-0974 is a potent antagonist of the human (K(i) = 0.77 nM) and rhesus (K(i) = 1.2 nM) CGRP receptors but displays >1500-fold lower affinity for the canine and rat receptors as determined via (125)I-human CGRP competition binding assays. A rhesus pharmacodynamic assay measuring capsaicin-induced changes in forearm dermal blood flow via laser Doppler imaging was utilized to determine the in vivo activity of CGRP receptor antagonism. MK-0974 produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of dermal vasodilation, generated by capsaicin-induced release of endogenous CGRP, with plasma concentrations of 127 and 994 nM required to block 50 and 90% of the blood flow increase, respectively. In conclusion, MK-0974 is a highly potent, selective, and orally bioavailable CGRP receptor antagonist, which may be valuable in the acute treatment of migraine. PMID:18039958

Salvatore, Christopher A; Hershey, James C; Corcoran, Halea A; Fay, John F; Johnston, Victor K; Moore, Eric L; Mosser, Scott D; Burgey, Christopher S; Paone, Daniel V; Shaw, Anthony W; Graham, Samuel L; Vacca, Joseph P; Williams, Theresa M; Koblan, Kenneth S; Kane, Stefanie A

2008-02-01

398

ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism and Neuromuscular Response to Resistance Training  

PubMed Central

The R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene has been associated with muscle strength, hypertrophy and athletic status. The X allele, which is associated with the absence of ACTN3 protein is supposed to impair performance of high force/velocity muscle contractions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of the R577X polymorphism with the muscle response to resistance training in young men. One hundred forty one men performed two resistance training sessions per week for 11 weeks. Participants were tested for 1RM bench press, knee extensors peak torque, and knee extensors muscle thickness at baseline and after the training period. Genotyping was conducted using de DdeI restriction enzyme. Genotype distribution was 34.4% for RR, 47% for RX and 18.6% for the XX genotype. According to the results, the R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene is not associated with baseline muscle strength or with the muscle strength response to resistance training. However, only carriers of the R allele showed increases in muscle thickness in response to training. Key points ACTN3 Genotype distribution in the present study was similar to others populations (34.4% for RR, 47% for RX, and 18.6% for the XX). The R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene is not associated with baseline muscle strength or with the muscle strength response to resistance training. It appears that the R allele carriers respond better to muscle thickness gains in response to training. PMID:24149888

Gentil, Paulo; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Leite, Tailce K.M.; Bottaro, Martim

2011-01-01

399

The R3/R5 impoundment study: a large-scale management experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Managed wetlands provide a broad spectrum of resources to migratory waterbirds (shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl) throughout the annual cycle. Successful conservation and management of waterbirds depends on integrated approaches that (1) incorporate larger spatial and temporal scales than traditional approaches to wetland management, and (2) use experimental designs to reduce uncertainty about the response of the systems to management. In a previous experiment on USFWS National Wildlife Refuges in the Northeast, we explored the effects of water-level management on migratory shorebirds in spring. We documented regional patterns of shorebird use of Refuge wetlands and showed that across the region, a slow drawdown was superior to 2 alternatives. USGS and USFWS have now cooperatively undertaken an expanded study focusing on 3 waterbird guilds in the context of the complete annual cycle and over a larger spatial extent. For this 3-yr study, now in its first year, 2 impoundments were selected at each of 23 NWRs across the Northeast and Upper Midwest Regions. Two experimental treatments (annual water regimes focused on early-season or late-season drawdowns) are being applied each year in a cross-over design. This experimental design will increase our understanding of cross-seasonal interactions which result from specific hydrologic regimes aimed at a particular waterbird guild. Monitoring will allow waterbird responses to be linked with direct effects of water management on plant and invertebrate populations. Results of this large-scale experiment will be used to motivate formal adaptive management of wetlands and waterbirds at refuges following completion of this experiment.

Lyons, J.E.; Laskowski, H.P.; Runge, M.C.; Lor, S.; Kendall, W.L.; Talbott, S.

2005-01-01

400

Toward Complete Path Planning for Planar 3R-Manipulators Among Point Obstacles  

E-print Network

.C. Trinkle1 and R.J. Milgram2 1 Department of Computer Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.C. Trinkle and R.J. Milgram 2. C-free - the complement in C-space of the closure of C-obstacle. C

Trinkle, Jeff

401

Minimal aberrant behavioral phenotypes of neuroligin-3 R451C knockin mice.  

PubMed

Neuroligin-3 is a member of the class of cell adhesion proteins that mediate synapse development and have been implicated in autism. Mice with the human R451C mutation (NL3), identical to the point mutation found in two brothers with autism spectrum disorders, were generated and phenotyped in multiple behavioral assays with face validity to the diagnostic symptoms of autism. No differences between NL3 and their wildtype (WT) littermate controls were detected on measures of juvenile reciprocal social interaction, adult social approach, cognitive abilities, and resistance to change in a spatial habit, findings which were replicated in several cohorts of males and females. Physical and procedural abilities were similar across genotypes on measures of general health, sensory abilities, sensorimotor gating, motor functions, and anxiety-related traits. Minor developmental differences were detected between NL3 and WT, including slightly different rates of somatic growth, slower righting reflexes at postnatal days 2-6, faster homing reflexes in females, and less vocalizations on postnatal day 8 in males. Significant differences in NL3 adults included somewhat longer latencies to fall from the rotarod, less vertical activity in the open field, and less acoustic startle to high decibel tones. The humanized R451C mutation in mice did not result in apparent autism-like phenotypes, but produced detectable functional consequences that may be interpreted in terms of physical development and/or reduced sensitivity to stimuli. PMID:19360662

Chadman, Kathryn K; Gong, Shiaoching; Scattoni, Maria L; Boltuck, Sarah E; Gandhy, Shruti U; Heintz, Nathaniel; Crawley, Jacqueline N

2008-06-01

402

A 3R compliant testing strategy to predict chronic fish toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

To ensure an ecologically relevant basis for environmental quality standards, whole-organism vertebrate tests are considered most suitable. Currently, the fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD 210), which involves an exposure up to one - two months, is used to estimate chronic ...

403

Reform, Revise or Rebuild: The 3R's Relating School Budget to District and School Objectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to relate the school budget to district and school goals and objectives, a process must be established that will provide an orderly approach for the school and community to follow. First, a thorough needs assessment should be made of the school and community. From this assessment should follow a set of goals and needs that provide the…

Watt, Robert S.

404

Priming by NUMB3R5 Does Not Involve Top-Down Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the same-different task, Perea, Dunabeitia, Pollatsek, and Carreiras (2009) showed that digits resembling letters ("leet digits"; e.g., 1 = "I", 4 = "A") primed pseudoword strings (e.g., "V35Z3D-VESZED"), but letters resembling digits ("leet letters") did not prime digit strings (e.g., "9ES7E2-935732"), and suggested that this is due to…

Kinoshita, Sachiko; Lagoutaris, Stephanie

2010-01-01

405

P3R-5 Novel Capacitive Ultrasonic Transducers Fabricated Using Microstereolithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) have been developed using microstereolithography fabrication with architectures comprised entirely of partially metalised photopolymer. These devices derive considerable advantages from rapid prototyping technology, in that they are cheap to produce, and benefit from the design-to-product lead times inherent in the production of components using stereolithography. To date membranes have been produced with thicknesses ranging from

R. J. Bradley; D. R. Billson; D. A. Hutchins

2006-01-01

406

The 3R's of El Salvador's Civil War: Revolution, Religion and Radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the 12 years of the civil war in El Salvador, a rebel radio station collaborated with elements of the Roman Catholic Church that shared a desire for a fundamental change in the country. In an overwhelmingly Catholic country, church leaders were regularly quoted and one priest in particular frequently spoke on rebel radio, supporting the insurgency. The alliance that

Juanita Darling

2008-01-01

407

A concise, asymmetric synthesis of (2R,3R)-3-hydroxyaspartic acid.  

PubMed

3-Hydroxyaspartic acid and its derivatives are found both in the free form and as peptide constituents in various microorganisms and fungi. Considering the biological importance of this amino acid and its potential utility as a multifunctional building block in organic syntheses, we have developed a short-step, asymmetric synthetic route to a strategically protected 3-hydroxyaspartic acid derivative in enantiopure form. The key steps in the synthesis involve, Sharpless asymmetric aminohydroxylation of commercially available trans-ethyl cinnamate, and, utilization of the phenyl group as a masked carboxylic acid synthon towards construction of the complete structural framework of the title compound. PMID:17914600

Khalaf, J K; Datta, A

2008-08-01

408

Crystallographic superstructure in R2PdSi3 (R = heavy rare earth) compounds  

SciTech Connect

The R2PdSi3 intermetallic compounds have been reported to crystallize in a hexagonal AlB2- derived structure, with the rare earth atoms on the Al sites and Pd and Si atoms randomly distributed on the B sites. However, the intricate magnetic properties observed in the series of compounds have always suggested complications to the assumed structure. To clarify the situation, x-ray and neutron diffraction measurements were performed on the heavy rare earth compounds with R = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, which revealed the existence of a crystallographic superstructure. The superstructure features a doubled unit cell in the hexagonal basal plane and an octuplication along the perpendicular c direction with respect to the primitive cell. No structural transition was observed between 300 K and 1.5 K. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations were utilized to investigate the local environments of the respective atoms. In this article the various experimental results will be presented and it will be shown that the superstructure is mainly due to the Pd-Si order on the B sites. A structure model will be proposed to fully describe the superstructure of Pd-Si order in R2PdSi3. The connection between the crystallographic superstructure and the magnetic properties will be discussed in the framework of the presented model.

Tang, Fei [TU Dresden; Frontzek, Matthias D [ORNL; Dshemuchadse, Julia [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Leisegang, Tilmann [Technische Universitat Dresden; Zschornak, Matthias [Technische Universitat Dresden; Mietrach, Robert [Technische Universitat Dresden; Hoffman, Jens-Uwe [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin; Loeser, W [IFW Dresden; Gemming, Sibylle [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany; Meyer, Dirk [Technische Universitat Dresden; Loewenhaupt, Michael [TU Dresden

2011-01-01

409

Accountancy http://stir.ac.uk/3r Finance http://stir.ac.uk/4a  

E-print Network

to enhance their learning experience by offering social events throughout their study which include Winner at the Literati Network Awards for Excellence, 2012 for his paper Corporate Governance: Coping for quality. The BAcc (Hons) degree is highly rated, with 91 percent of Single Honours students satisfied

Little, Tony

410

Thermal and Mechanical Properties of ACoO3 (R = Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal and mechanical properties of orthocobaltates, ACoO3 (A = Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er), have been investigated using the modified rigid ion model (MRIM) by incorporating the effect of lattice distortions. We have computed the variations of specific heat and thermal expansion coefficient for these orthocobaltates in wide temperature range of 1 K (-272 °C) ? T ? 1000 K (727 °C). The calculated results of specific heat, thermal expansion, bulk modulus, and other thermal and mechanical properties accord very well with the available experimental data, implying that MRIM represents properly the nature of the perovskite-type rare earth cobaltates. In addition, we have also reported the results on molecular force constant ( f), Reststrahlen frequency ( ?), cohesive energy ( ?), Debye temperature ( ? D), and Gruneisen parameter ( ?).

Gaur, N. K.; Thakur, Rasna

2013-12-01

411

Linear log-likelihood ratio (L3R) algorithm for spectral target detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of a new class of detection algorithms is demonstrated on an object of practical interest. The continuum fusion (CF) [1] methodology is applied to a linear subspace model. A new algorithm results from first invoking a fusion interpretation of a conventional GLR test and then modifying it with CF methods. Usual performance is enhanced in two ways. First the Gaussian clutter model is replaced by a Laplacian distribution, which is not only more realistic in its tail behavior but, when used in a hypothesis test, also creates decision surfaces more selective than the hyperplanes associated with linear matched filters. Second, a fusion flavor is devised that generalizes the adaptive coherence estimator (ACE) [2, 3] algorithm but has more design flexibility. An IDL/ENVI user interface has been developed and will be described.

Daniel, Brian J.; Schaum, Alan P.

2011-06-01

412

Teaching the 3 R's through the 3 C's: Connecting Curriculum & Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents suggestions for class activities that integrate community resources and local contexts into curriculum and instruction. Activities include field trips to a historic one-room schoolhouse, a local track meet, a beauty salon, and local manufacturing companies; explorations of local water supply systems and community history and sociology;…

Karner, Terrence R., Jr.; Knapp, Clifford E.; Simmert, R. Larry; Carlson, Pamela; Criswell, Marquiette R.; Arroz, Marie; Geocaris, Claudia; Roth-Longe, Jennifer

2001-01-01

413

UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING PHASE 3 RESTRUCTURED (3R)  

SciTech Connect

Much of the ''H'' technology design is based on proven, established technologies. The major technologies of the combined cycle powertrain, including the bearing designs, the evaluation methods for rotor dynamics, the compressor and turbine blading designs, and the generator field construction methods are all either direct applications of proven design technology or evolutionary refinement of existing designs. It is for these reasons that GE expects that the reliability of the new ''H'' Class generating system will be fully commensurate with the levels associated with today's ''F'' Class combined cycle power plants. With maintenance and operations performed at ''best practice'' levels, the new ''H'' Class plant should reach its full reliability potential of 97.0% or better.

Unknown

2000-09-01

414

R34D1NG W0RD5 W1TH NUMB3R5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Letter identities and number identities are usually thought to imply different cortical mechanisms. Specifically, the left fusiform gyrus responds more to letters than to digits (T. A. Polk et al., 2002). However, a widely circulated statement on the internet illustrates that it is possible to use numbers (leet digits) as parts of words, 4ND TH3…

Perea, Manuel; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

2008-01-01

415

A compact light-weighted and multi-purpose calibration unit for LINC-NIRVANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and on-sky experience suggests that the integration of big astronomical instruments, specially of a complex interferometric system, is a challenging process. LINC-NIRVANA is the Fizeau interferometric imager for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Simulating the final operating environment of every system component has shown how critical is the presence of flexures, vibrations and thermal expansion. Assembling and aligning the

Fulvio de Bonis; Thomas Bertram; Lucas Labadie; Sebastian Egner; Peter Bizenberger; Ralph Hofferbert; Andreas Eckart; Martin Kuerster; Tom Herbst

2010-01-01

416

Designing I*CATch: A Multipurpose, Education-Friendly Construction Kit for Physical and Wearable Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the design and development of i*CATch, a construction kit for physical and wearable computing that was designed to be scalable, plug-and-play, and to provide support for iterative and exploratory learning. It consists of a standardized construction interface that can be adapted for a wide range of soft textiles or electronic…

Ngai, Grace; Chan, Stephen C. F.; Leong, Hong Va; Ng, Vincent T. Y.

2013-01-01

417

High-pressure autoclave for multipurpose nuclear magnetic resonance measurements up to 10 MPa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an established method in NMR spectroscopy: on-line coupling of high-performance liquid chromatography with NMR, for example, reveals structural information which cannot be obtained with any other method. However, applications has been focused solely on high-pressure NMR spectroscopy, even though high-pressure NMR imaging allows in situ studies of processes such as the fluid exchange in porous media. A versatile high-pressure autoclave for NMR imaging is described in this article. The autoclave allows measurements in any horizontal NMR imager using magnetic field coil systems with an inside diameter of more than 70 mm. Any sample with a diameter up to 28 mm and a length of about 200 mm can be investigated. The autoclave is constructed for operating pressures up to 10 MPa and is temperature controlled between 10 and 60 °C. The materials of the high-pressure cell which are the thermoplastic polyetheretherketon (PEEK) for the pressure tube and brass (63% Cu, 37% Zn) for the caps also permit investigations with aggressive fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide. Inlet and outlet valves allow replacement of fluids and pressure variations in the autoclave during the NMR measurement. FLASH NMR images of the fluid exchange of methanol for liquid carbon dioxide in silica alcogels at 6.5 MPa are presented in order to demonstrate possible applications.

Behr, W.; Haase, A.; Reichenauer, G.; Fricke, J.

1999-05-01

418

Factors affecting root and seed yield in ahipa ( Pachyrhizus ahipa (Wedd.) Parodi), a multipurpose legume crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ahipa (Pachyrhizus ahipa) is a legume crop, which produces carbohydrate-rich tuberous roots and seeds rich in protein and oil. In the present work, we studied the effect of different agronomic practices and climatic conditions on root and seed yield in order to make a preliminary assessment of the yield potential under different managements for the ahipa crop in south-western Europe.

Eduardo O. Leidi; D. N. Rodr??guez-Navarro; M. Fernández; R. Sarmiento; J. Semedo; N. Marques; A. Matos; A. P. Machado; B. Ørting; M. Sørensen; M. C. Matos

2004-01-01

419

Multi-purpose HealthCare Telemedicine Systems with mobile communication link support  

PubMed Central

The provision of effective emergency telemedicine and home monitoring solutions are the major fields of interest discussed in this study. Ambulances, Rural Health Centers (RHC) or other remote health location such as Ships navigating in wide seas are common examples of possible emergency sites, while critical care telemetry and telemedicine home follow-ups are important issues of telemonitoring. In order to support the above different growing application fields we created a combined real-time and store and forward facility that consists of a base unit and a telemedicine (mobile) unit. This integrated system: can be used when handling emergency cases in ambulances, RHC or ships by using a mobile telemedicine unit at the emergency site and a base unit at the hospital-expert's site, enhances intensive health care provision by giving a mobile base unit to the ICU doctor while the telemedicine unit remains at the ICU patient site and enables home telemonitoring, by installing the telemedicine unit at the patient's home while the base unit remains at the physician's office or hospital. The system allows the transmission of vital biosignals (3–12 lead ECG, SPO2, NIBP, IBP, Temp) and still images of the patient. The transmission is performed through GSM mobile telecommunication network, through satellite links (where GSM is not available) or through Plain Old Telephony Systems (POTS) where available. Using this device a specialist doctor can telematically "move" to the patient's site and instruct unspecialized personnel when handling an emergency or telemonitoring case. Due to the need of storing and archiving of all data interchanged during the telemedicine sessions, we have equipped the consultation site with a multimedia database able to store and manage the data collected by the system. The performance of the system has been technically tested over several telecommunication means; in addition the system has been clinically validated in three different countries using a standardized medical protocol. PMID:12694629

Kyriacou, E; Pavlopoulos, S; Berler, A; Neophytou, M; Bourka, A; Georgoulas, A; Anagnostaki, A; Karayiannis, D; Schizas, C; Pattichis, C; Andreou, A; Koutsouris, D

2003-01-01

420

Assessing marginal water values in multipurpose multireservoir systems via stochastic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Conference on Water and the Environment held in Dublin in 1992 emphasized the need to consider water as an economic good. Since water markets are usually absent or ineffective, the value of water cannot be directly derived from market activities but must rather be assessed through shadow prices. Economists have developed various valuation techniques to determine the economic

A. Tilmant; D. Pinte; Q. Goor

2008-01-01

421

Renaissance robotics : novel applications of multipurpose robotic arms spanning design fabrication, utility, and art  

E-print Network

This work investigates, defines, and expands on the use of robotic arms in digital fabrication, design, and art through methods including 3D printing, milling, sculpting, functionally graded fabrication, construction-scale ...

Keating, Steven J. (Steven John)

2012-01-01

422

21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...system for in vitro coagulation studies. 864.5425 Section 864...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY...system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification...system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device consisting...

2011-04-01

423

21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...system for in vitro coagulation studies. 864.5425 Section 864...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY...system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification...system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device consisting...

2013-04-01

424

A Multi-Purpose Modular Electronics Integration Node for Exploration Extravehicular Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA works to develop an effective integrated portable life support system design for exploration Extravehicular activity (EVA), alternatives to the current system s electrical power and control architecture are needed to support new requirements for flexibility, maintainability, reliability, and reduced mass and volume. Experience with the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has demonstrated that the current architecture, based in a central power supply, monitoring and control unit, with dedicated analog wiring harness connections to active components in the system has a significant impact on system packaging and seriously constrains design flexibility in adapting to component obsolescence and changing system needs over time. An alternative architecture based in the use of a digital data bus offers possible wiring harness and system power savings, but risks significant penalties in component complexity and cost. A hybrid architecture that relies on a set of electronic and power interface nodes serving functional models within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is proposed to minimize both packaging and component level penalties. A common interface node hardware design can further reduce penalties by reducing the nonrecurring development costs, making miniaturization more practical, maximizing opportunities for maturation and reliability growth, providing enhanced fault tolerance, and providing stable design interfaces for system components and a central control. Adaptation to varying specific module requirements can be achieved with modest changes in firmware code within the module. A preliminary design effort has developed a common set of hardware interface requirements and functional capabilities for such a node based on anticipated modules comprising an exploration PLSS, and a prototype node has been designed assembled, programmed, and tested. One instance of such a node has been adapted to support testing the swingbed carbon dioxide and humidity control element in NASA s advanced PLSS 2.0 test article. This paper will describe the common interface node design concept, results of the prototype development and test effort, and plans for use in NASA PLSS 2.0 integrated tests.

Hodgson, Edward; Papale, William; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David; Hawes, Kevin; Stankiewicz, Tom

2013-01-01

425

An Energy Analysis Of A Large, Multipurpose Educational Building In A Hot Climate  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Michael Pate Committee Members, Bryan P. Rasmussen Christine E. Economides Head of Department, Jerald A. Caton December 2011 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering... WCLd Dry Cooling Coil Humidity Ratio WOA Outside Air Temperature Humidity Ratio WR? Return Air Humidity Ratio, dry iV& / eV & Interior/Exterior Volume Flow Rate TL Transmission Load viii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT...

Kamranzadeh, Vahideh

2012-02-14

426

The Caater Facility Falcon of the German Aerospace Cente: A multipurpose airborne research Platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DLR research aircraft Falcon D-CMET was available to scientists through an EC-funded IHP-ARI contract. 9 different research projects have been funded by CAATER on the Falcon with an average of about 10 flight hours per project. More than 20 users from 5 countries have benefited from this access project between 1999--2003. As a fan jet the Falcon covers a wide atmospheric range between the boundary layer and the lower stratosphere. Many modifications have been added to the aircraft to provide suitable interfaces for the scientific payload: openings in the fuselage to house large optical windows and inlets for in situ experiments, hard points under wings and fuselage, additional electrical generators and standardized electrical and mechanical interfaces for the installation of scientific instrumentation onboard. The Falcon is equipped with a data acquisition system and a basic instrumentation providing data on aircraft parameters and meteorology for the scientific users. Additional instrumentation is available from the different DLR institutes in Oberpfaffenhofen and can be added to the aircraft. CAATER users have access to an extensive infrastructure on the ground which includes workshops, calibration setups, an environmental simulation chamber and an own user lab. They are supported by several groups within the Facility who lead them through the different steps of an airborne field experiment such as certification and installation of their instruments on the aircraft, campaign and flight planning and the processing and preparation of aircraft data right after a flight. The users have been stimulated to use DLR's Approved Design Organisation status together with its Airworthiness Office to develop and operate new airborne instrumentation . Several new instrument packages have been installed and certified for the first time on the Falcon within CAATER.

Giez, A.; Krautstrunk, M.

2003-04-01

427

The XP spaceplane: A near term multi-purpose suborbital RLV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will describe the history, technology and design features of the XP spaceplane being developed by Rocketplane Ltd. in Oklahoma. The XP is a four seat fighter-sized spaceplane that uses turbojets for takeoff and landing and a liquid oxygen/kerosene rocket engine for main propulsion during its ascent to a 100 km apogee suborbital space flight. The XP is intended to serve a variety of markets including suborbital tourist flights, intermediate duration microgravity research, remote sensing, astronomy, and microsatellite launch missions. Changes in vehicle configuration and flight profile for serving each of these markets will be described. The prototype XP will have its rollout ceremony at the end of 2007 and will begin test flights in early 2008. Commercial space flight operations are expected to begin in fall 2008 with tourist flights and microgravity research flights being the early customer base. The spaceplane's flight systems, safety systems, and operating procedures will be reviewed. In addition, key elements of the Rocketplane business and financial model will be discussed.

Lauer, Charles J.

2007-06-01

428

Plant-microbe interactions: novel applications for exploitation in multipurpose remediation technologies.  

PubMed

Soil remediation that revitalizes degraded or contaminated land while simultaneously contributing to biomass biofuel production and carbon sequestration is an attractive strategy to meet the food and energy requirements of the burgeoning world population. As a result, plant-based remediation approaches have been gaining in popularity. The drawbacks of phytoremediation, particularly those associa