Science.gov

Sample records for 3r multipurpose

  1. Multipurpose Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

  2. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  3. Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

  4. Multipurpose Compact Spectrometric Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Bocarov, Viktor; Cermak, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; Stekl, Ivan

    2009-11-09

    A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is multipurpose device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.

  5. Multipurpose hardened spacecraft insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steimer, Carlos H.

    1990-01-01

    A Multipurpose Hardened Spacecraft Multilayer Insulation (MLI) system was developed and implemented to meet diverse survivability and performance requirements. Within the definition and confines of a MLI assembly (blanket), the design: (1) provides environmental protection from natural and induced nuclear, thermal, and electromagnetic radiation; (2) provides adequate electrostatic discharge protection for a geosynchronous satellite; (3) provides adequate shielding to meet radiated emission needs; and (4) will survive ascent differential pressure loads between enclosed volume and space. The MLI design is described which meets these requirements and design evolution and verification is discussed. The application is for MLI blankets which closeout the area between the laser crosslink subsystem (LCS) equipment and the DSP spacecraft cabin. Ancillary needs were implemented to ease installation at launch facility and to survive ascent acoustic and vibration loads. Directional venting accommodations were also incorporated to avoid contamination of LCS telescope, spacecraft sensors, and second surface mirrors (SSMs).

  6. Novel multipurpose timer for laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisler, W. J.; Klein, P. D.

    1969-01-01

    Multipurpose digital delay timer simultaneously controls both a buffer pump and a fraction-collector. Timing and control may be in 30-second increments for up to 15 hours. Use of glassware and scintillation vials make it economical.

  7. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... be afforded the preference in purchasing. Note to paragraph (d): Biobased multipurpose lubricant products within this designated item can compete with similar multipurpose lubricant products with...

  8. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... be afforded the preference in purchasing. Note to paragraph (d): Biobased multipurpose lubricant products within this designated item can compete with similar multipurpose lubricant products with...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... be afforded the preference in purchasing. Note to paragraph (d): Biobased multipurpose lubricant products within this designated item can compete with similar multipurpose lubricant products with...

  10. 7 CFR 2902.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... be afforded the preference in purchasing. Note to paragraph (d): Biobased multipurpose lubricant products within this designated item can compete with similar multipurpose lubricant products with...

  11. 7 CFR 2902.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Multipurpose cleaners. 2902.50 Section 2902.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.50 Multipurpose cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to clean dirt, grease, and...

  12. 7 CFR 2902.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multipurpose cleaners. 2902.50 Section 2902.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.50 Multipurpose cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to clean dirt, grease, and...

  13. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  14. Multipurpose Thermal Insulation Test Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A multi-purpose thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials, or other components. The test apparatus is a fluid boil-off calorimeter system for calibrated measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) of a specimen material at a fixed vacuum level. The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a fluid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the inner vessel and thermal guards, is suspended from the top of the vacuum chamber. Handling tools attach to the cold mass assembly for convenient manipulation of the assembly and for the installation or wrapping of insulation test materials. Liquid nitrogen is typically supplied to the inner vessel using a fill tube with funnel. A single port through the top of the vacuum chamber facilitates both filling and venting. Aerogel composite stacks with reflective films are fastened to the top and the bottom of the inner vessel as thermal guards. The comparative k-value of the insulation material is determined by measuring the boil-off flow rate of gas, the temperature differential across the insulation thickness, and the dimensions (length and diameters) of the test specimen.

  15. Scheduling multipurpose batch process industries with no-wait restrictions

    E-print Network

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting

    may be produced on one of several similar or identical machines. Multipurpose batch process industriesScheduling multipurpose batch process industries with no-wait restrictions ALCOM-Deliverable D9, WP in multipurpose batch industries are very hard to solve because of the job shop like processing structure

  16. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A...

  1. Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System was developed to provide remote, interactive information retrieval capability for various types of data bases to be processed on different types of small and medium size computers. Use of the system for three different data bases is decribed: (1) LANDSAT photo look-up, (2) land use, and (3) census/socioeconomic. Each of the data base elements is shown together with other detailed information that a user would require to contact the system remotely, to transmit inquiries on commands, and to receive the results of the queries or commands.

  2. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose...

  3. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose...

  4. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose...

  5. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose...

  6. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose...

  7. Reactive Scheduling in Multipurpose Batch Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayani, A.; Shaik, Munawar A.

    2010-10-01

    Scheduling is an important operation in process industries for improving resource utilization resulting in direct economic benefits. It has a two-fold objective of fulfilling customer orders within the specified time as well as maximizing the plant profit. Unexpected disturbances such as machine breakdown, arrival of rush orders and cancellation of orders affect the schedule of the plant. Reactive scheduling is generation of a new schedule which has minimum deviation from the original schedule in spite of the occurrence of unexpected events in the plant operation. Recently, Shaik & Floudas (2009) proposed a novel unified model for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants using unit-specific event-based continuous time representation. In this paper, we extend the model of Shaik & Floudas (2009) to handle reactive scheduling.

  8. A new multipurpose gamma-irradiation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, G.

    In the past 3 yr much work has been done in the G.D.R. on food irradiation. The experiments have shown that this treatment gives favourable results in many products such as spices, onions, potatoes, chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. Economic aspects of food irradiation require the effective use of an irradiation plant and cobalt-60. Therefore, a new multipurpose irradiation facility was developed, applicable as an onion irradiator with a capacity of about 15 ton/h and for the simultaneous irradiation of different products (spices, animal feed, chicken, etc.) in closed product ?es with a size of 1.2 m x 1.0 m x 1.2 m. A microcomputer controls the transport of product ?es around the gamma sources.

  9. MINIS: Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS) was developed in response to the need for a data management system capable of operation on several different minicomputer systems. The desired system had to be capable of performing the functions of a LANDSAT photo descriptive data retrieval system while remaining general in terms of other acceptable user definable data bases. The system also had to be capable of performing data base updates and providing user-formatted output reports. The resultant MINI System provides all of these capabilities and several other features to complement the data management system. The MINI System is currently implemented on two minicomputer systems and is in the process of being installed on another minicomputer system. The MINIS is operational on four different data bases.

  10. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pantea, Cristian

    2012-05-04

    The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

  11. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank.

  12. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank. 9 figs.

  13. MYRRHA: A multipurpose nuclear research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeten, P.; Schyns, M.; Fernandez, Rafaël; De Bruyn, Didier; Van den Eynde, Gert

    2014-12-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a multipurpose research facility currently being developed at SCK•CEN. MYRRHA is based on the ADS (Accelerator Driven System) concept where a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical reactor are coupled. MYRRHA will demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling these three components at a reasonable power level to allow operation feedback. As a flexible irradiation facility, the MYRRHA research facility will be able to work in both critical as subcritical modes. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for GEN IV and fusion reactors, and radioisotope production for medical and industrial applications. MYRRHA will be cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic and will play an important role in the development of the Pb-alloys technology needed for the LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) GEN IV concept. MYRRHA will also contribute to the study of partitioning and transmutation of high-level waste. Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) can be completed in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, so both critical reactors and subcritical ADS are potential candidates as dedicated transmutation systems. However critical reactors heavily loaded with fuel containing large amounts of MA pose reactivity control problems, and thus safety problems. A subcritical ADS operates in a flexible and safe manner, even with a core loading containing a high amount of MA leading to a high transmutation rate. In this paper, the most recent developments in the design of the MYRRHA facility are presented.

  14. Design and fabrication of a multipurpose compliant nanopositioning architecture

    E-print Network

    Panas, Robert M. (Robert Matthew)

    2013-01-01

    This research focused on generating the knowledge required to design and fabricate a high-speed application flexible, low average cost multipurpose compliant nanopositioner architecture with high performance integrated ...

  15. 48. Second floor, looking southwest (possibly former multipurpose room) with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Second floor, looking southwest (possibly former multi-purpose room) with fire stair in center - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  16. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar-powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is, therefore, beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multipurpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of using solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year-long effort by a group of eight students, divided into four teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a lightweight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structural design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion were governed by weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is an MPRPV weighing 35 N that cruises at 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 12.5 percent-efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were researched and tested during the design process.

  17. MULTIPURPOSE GELLING AGENT AND ITS APPLICATION TO SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, a blend of materials was formulated that would spontaneously gel a wide variety of hazardous liquids. This blend, known as the Multipurpose Gelling Agent (MGA), has been optimized to obtain a balanced formulation that will effectively gel and immobilize most spilled h...

  18. Connections to Career Opportunities. A Multi-Purpose Career Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammers, Gale; Gregory, B. J., Ed.

    This publication provides a description of the Phillips Community College (Arkansas) multipurpose career fair as well as a step-by-step planning and implementation guide for putting on a career fair. The Phillips career fair provides an exchange of information and interaction for persons seeking employment, career awareness and employment, and…

  19. OCRWM Bulletin: Westinghouse begins designing multi-purpose canister

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This publication consists of two parts: OCRWM (Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management) Bulletin; and Of Mountains & Science which has articles on the Yucca Mountain project. The OCRWM provides information about OCRWM activities and in this issue has articles on multi-purpose canister design, and transportation cask trailer.

  20. (Littoral Operation Multipurpose Auxiliary Craft) Casey Connor, John Sebastian,

    E-print Network

    Wood, Stephen L.

    L.O.M.A.C. (Littoral Operation Multipurpose Auxiliary Craft) Casey Connor, John Sebastian, Austin ? The purpose of Team LOMAC is to design a double chine monohull vessel to operate in the littoral zone. ? The littoral zone is the area close to the shoreline characterized by breaking waves. ? The monohull

  1. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification....

  2. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification....

  3. The 3R polymorph of CaSi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedumkandathil, Reji; Benson, Daryn E.; Grins, Jekabs; Spektor, Kristina; Häussermann, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    The Zintl phase CaSi2 commonly occurs in the 6R structure where puckered hexagon layers of Si atoms are stacked in an AA?BB?CC? fashion. In this study we show that sintering of CaSi2 in a hydrogen atmosphere (30 bar) at temperatures between 200 and 700 °C transforms 6R-CaSi2 quantitatively into 3R-CaSi2. In the 3R polymorph (space group R-3m (no. 166), a=3.8284(1), c=15.8966(4), Z=3) puckered hexagon layers are stacked in an ABC fashion. The volume per formula unit is about 3% larger compared to 6R-CaSi2. First principles density functional calculations reveal that 6R and 3R-CaSi2 are energetically degenerate at zero Kelvin. With increasing temperature 6R-CaSi2 stabilizes over 3R because of its higher entropy. This suggests that 3R-CaSi2 should revert to 6R at elevated temperatures, which however is not observed up to 800 °C. 3R-CaSi2 may be stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects.

  4. Programmable Thermostat Module Upgrade for the Multipurpose Logistics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. W.; Glasgow, S. d.; Reagan, S. E.; Presson, K. H.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    The STS-121/ULF 1.1 mission was the maiden flight of the programmable thermostat module (PTM) system used to control the 28 V shell heaters on the multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM). These PTMs, in conjunction with a data recorder module (DRM), provide continuous closed loop temperature control and data recording of MPLM on-orbit heater operations. This Technical Memorandum discusses the hardware design, development, test, and verification (DDT&V) activities performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as well as the operational implementation and mission performance.

  5. [The development and clinical application of a multipurpose neuroendoscope].

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Wan, C; Liu, S; Chen, M; Song, J; Yao, S; Gao, F

    1999-01-01

    The multipurpose rigid neuroendoscope MGE-4 has been developed with the application of the self-focussing lens technology. We have been using it to examine and treat 10 neurosurgical patients who suffered from tumours, hydrocephalus, intracerebral haematomas of head injury and hypertensive cerebral haemorrhage. The short-term effect was satisfactory and there was no operative complications. It is considered that Model MGE-4 with the accessories can be used safely for the brain functional subcortical lesion or the deep-seated cystic lesions and haematomas. PMID:12583033

  6. System Engineering Strategy for Distributed Multi-Purpose Simulation Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhula, Dlilpkumar; Kurt, Cindy Marie; Luty, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the system engineering approach used to develop distributed multi-purpose simulations. The multi-purpose simulation architecture focuses on user needs, operations, flexibility, cost and maintenance. This approach was used to develop an International Space Station (ISS) simulator, which is called the International Space Station Integrated Simulation (ISIS)1. The ISIS runs unmodified ISS flight software, system models, and the astronaut command and control interface in an open system design that allows for rapid integration of multiple ISS models. The initial intent of ISIS was to provide a distributed system that allows access to ISS flight software and models for the creation, test, and validation of crew and ground controller procedures. This capability reduces the cost and scheduling issues associated with utilizing standalone simulators in fixed locations, and facilitates discovering unknowns and errors earlier in the development lifecycle. Since its inception, the flexible architecture of the ISIS has allowed its purpose to evolve to include ground operator system and display training, flight software modification testing, and as a realistic test bed for Exploration automation technology research and development.

  7. Plant Cell Monogr (3) R. Malh: The Pollen Tube

    E-print Network

    .steer@ucd.ie Abstract The pollen tube wall differs in both structure and function from walls of vege- tative plant cellsPlant Cell Monogr (3) R. Malhó: The Pollen Tube DOI 10.1007/7089_049/Published online: 10 February. Cellulose represents only a small portion of the cell wall polymers, so an organized microfibrillar system

  8. Development of a multipurpose hand controller for JEMRMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuhira, Nobuto; Iikura, Shoichi; Asakura, Makoto; Shinomiya, Yasuo

    1990-01-01

    A prototype multipurpose hand controller for the JEMRMS (Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System) was developed. The hand controller (H/C) is an orthogonal type, with 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) and small size. The orthogonal type H/C is very simple for coordinate transformations and can easily control any type of manipulators. In fact, the JEMRMS is planned to have two manipulators controlled by a common H/C at this stage. The H/C was able to be used as a rate control joystick and a force reflection master arm, using an experimental 6 DOF manipulator. Good maneuverability was confirmed in the verification test. The orthogonal type H/C is suitable for use as a common H/C for the two manipulators of the JEMRMS.

  9. Design of Multilayer Insulation for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlow, Weston A.

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is a critical component for future, long term space missions. These missions will require the storage of cryogenic fuels for extended periods of time with little to no boil-off and MLI is vital due to its exceptional radiation shielding properties. Several MLI test articles were designed and fabricated which explored methods of assembling and connecting blankets, yielding results for evaluation. Insight gained, along with previous design experience, will be used in the design of the replacement blanket for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is slated for upcoming tests. Future design considerations are discussed which include mechanical testing to determine robustness of such a system, as well as cryostat testing of samples to give insight to the loss of thermal performance of sewn panels in comparison to the highly efficient, albeit laborious application of the original MHTB blanket.

  10. Development of a multipurpose smart recorder for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. H.; Finger, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    An intelligent flight recorder, called the Smart Recorder, was fabricated and installed on a King Air aircraft used in standard commercial charter service. This recorder was used for collection of data toward two objectives: (1) the characterization of the typical environment encountered by the aircraft; and (2) research in the area of trend monitoring. Data processing routines and data presentation formats were defined that are applicable to commuter size aircraft. The feasibility of a cost-effective, multipurpose recorder for general aviation aircraft was successfully demonstrated. Implementation of on-board environmental data processing increased the number of flight hours that could be stored on a single data cartridge and simplified the data management problem by reducing the volume of data to be processed in the laboratory. Trend monitoring algorithms showed less variability in the trend plots when compared against plots of manual data.

  11. Multipurpose Uninhabited Air Vehicle (UAV) design and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barquero, Juan P.

    A multipurpose Uninhabited Air Vehicle was designed and built for the NASA University Research Center. It is capable of carrying a payload of up to 14 lbs with an estimated endurance of 3 hours. This thesis will describe the work that was completed on the aerodynamic and preliminary structural design of the air vehicle. It will be demonstrated how the size and configuration of the airframe were chosen based on the design requirements. The detailed design process will be described to achieve initial performance and mission requirements. Although the URC has successfully constructed airframes in the past, it is the intention of this thesis to also take a different approach on alternative construction methods in an effort to reduce cost and improve aircraft performance.

  12. 77 FR 38766 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Client Life.... These collections include all client intake, events/activities and export success forms. This... International Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose Forms, previously titled Export Assistance Center Internet...

  13. A description of model 3B of the multipurpose ventricular actuating system. [providing controlled driving pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The multipurpose ventricular actuating system is a pneumatic signal generating device that provides controlled driving pressures for actuating pulsatile blood pumps. Overall system capabilities, the timing circuitry, and calibration instruction are included.

  14. Human resources for maternal health: multi-purpose or specialists?

    PubMed Central

    Fauveau, Vincent; Sherratt, Della R; de Bernis, Luc

    2008-01-01

    A crucial question in the aim to attain MDG5 is whether it can be achieved faster with the scaling up of multi-purpose health workers operating in the community or with the scaling up of professional skilled birth attendants working in health facilities. Most advisers concerned with maternal mortality reduction concur to promote births in facilities with professional attendants as the ultimate strategy. The evidence, however, is scarce on what it takes to progress in this path, and on the 'interim solutions' for situations where the majority of women still deliver at home. These questions are particularly relevant as we have reached the twentieth anniversary of the safe motherhood initiative without much progress made. In this paper we review the current situation of human resources for maternal health as well as the problems that they face. We propose seven key areas of work that must be addressed when planning for scaling up human resources for maternal health in light of MDG5, and finally we indicate some advances recently made in selected countries and the lessons learned from these experiences. Whilst the focus of this paper is on maternal health, it is acknowledged that the interventions to reduce maternal mortality will also contribute to significantly reducing newborn mortality. Addressing each of the seven key areas of work – recommended by the first International Forum on 'Midwifery in the Community', Tunis, December 2006 – is essential for the success of any MDG5 programme. We hypothesize that a great deal of the stagnation of maternal health programmes has been the result of confusion and careless choices in scaling up between a limited number of truly skilled birth attendants and large quantities of multi-purpose workers with short training, fewer skills, limited authority and no career pathways. We conclude from the lessons learnt that no significant progress in maternal mortality reduction can be achieved without a strong political decision to empower midwives and others with midwifery skills, and a substantial strengthening of health systems with a focus on quality of care rather than on numbers, to give them the means to respond to the challenge. PMID:18826600

  15. Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a crew will be living and working in microgravity, interfacing with their physical environment. Without optimum restraints and mobility aids (R&MA' s), the crewmembers may be handicapped for perfonning some of the on-orbit tasks. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity area and may cause prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Thus, determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment are crucial to astronauts' well-being and productivity. The purpose of this project is to develop requirements and guidelines, and conceptual designs, for an ergonomically designed multi-purpose crew restraint. In order to achieve this goal, the project would involve development of functional and human factors requirements, design concept prototype development, analytical and computer modeling evaluations of concepts, two sets of micro gravity evaluations and preparation of an implementation plan. It is anticipated that developing functional and design requirements for a multi-purpose restraint would facilitate development of ergonomically designed restraints to accommodate the off-nominal but repetitive tasks, and minimize the performance degradation due to lack of optimum setup for onboard task performance. In addition, development of an ergonomically designed restraint concept prototype would allow verification and validation of the requirements defined. To date, we have identified "unique" tasks and areas of need, determine characteristics of "ideal" restraints, and solicit ideas for restraint and mobility aid concepts. Focus group meetings with representatives from training, safety, crew, human factors, engineering, payload developers, and analog environment representatives were key to assist in the development of a restraint concept based on previous flight experiences, the needs of future tasks, and crewmembers' preferences. Also, a catalog with existing IVA/EVA restraint and mobility aids has been developed. Other efforts included the ISS crew debrief data on restraints, compilation of data from MIR, Skylab and ISS on restraints, and investigating possibility of an in-flight evaluation of current restraint systems. Preliminary restraint concepts were developed and presented to long duration crewmembers and focus groups for feedback. Currently, a selection criterion is being refined for prioritizing the candidate concepts. Next steps include analytical and computer modeling evaluations of the selected candidate concepts, prototype development, and microgravity evaluations.

  16. Developing Multipurpose Reproductive Health Technologies: An Integrated Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P. F.; Hemmerling, A.; Romano, J.; Whaley, K. J.; Young Holt, B.

    2013-01-01

    Women worldwide confront two frequently concurrent reproductive health challenges: the need for contraception and for protection from sexually transmitted infections, importantly HIV/AIDS. While conception and infection share the same anatomical site and mode of transmission, there are no reproductive health technologies to date that simultaneously address that reality. Relevant available technologies are either contraceptive or anti-infective, are limited in number, and require different modes of administration and management. These “single-indication” technologies do not therefore fully respond to what is a substantial reproductive health need intimately linked to pivotal events in many women's lives. This paper reviews an integrated attempt to develop multipurpose prevention technologies—“MPTs”—products explicitly designed to simultaneously address the need for both contraception and protection from sexually transmitted infections. It describes an innovative and iterative MPT product development strategy with the following components: identifying different needs for such technologies and global variations in reproductive health priorities, defining “Target Product Profiles” as the framework for a research and development “roadmap,” collating an integrated MPT pipeline and characterizing significant pipeline gaps, exploring anticipated regulatory requirements, prioritizing candidates for problem-solving and resource investments, and implementing an ancillary advocacy agenda to support this breadth of effort. PMID:23533733

  17. A novel multipurpose modular mini-endoscope for otology.

    PubMed

    Bozzato, Alessandro; Bozzato, Victoria; Al Kadah, Basel; Schick, Bernhard

    2014-12-01

    Transtympanic access to the round window membrane (RWM) for drug delivery is in the focus of otology and has stimulated development of various endoscopes. These endoscopes are tasked to enable best visualization at a low diameter and to offer a working channel for various instruments. The specific aspect of sterilization is a major issue especially in regard to the diameter of the endoscope with its integrated working channel. We evaluated a new multi-purpose modular semi-rigid optical fiber endoscope (10,000 pixel resolution) for minimal invasive middle ear endoscopy focusing on access to the RWM and micro instruments in 12 cadaver specimens. Microscopic visualization was compared to endoscopy. With the modular mini ear endoscope (MMEE) we were able to visualize the RWM in 3 specimens directly and in 8 specimens after removal of a mucous membrane using micro instruments. A bony overhang prevented visualization of the RWM in one case. The endoscope enabled minimal invasive RWM access initially in a higher number of cases compared to microscope investigation. The designed MMEE is suited to access transtympanic the round window membrane even in situations of an obstructed round window niche. The modular concept of the endoscope is attractive for different types of indications, various instruments and with regard to the aspects of sterilization. Experiences in humans are the next necessary step to define the possible role of this endoscope in otology. PMID:25318687

  18. Curcumin: a multipurpose matrix for MALDI mass spectrometry imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Francese, S; Bradshaw, R; Flinders, B; Mitchell, C; Bleay, S; Cicero, L; Clench, M R

    2013-05-21

    Curcumin, 1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione, is a polyphenolic compound naturally present in the Curcuma longa plant, also known as tumeric. Used primarily as a coloring agent and additive in food, curcumin has also long been used for its therapeutic properties in a number of medical scenarios. Here, we report on an entirely novel use of curcumin; its extended structure of conjugated double bonds suggested the potential of this compound to be a good matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) matrix candidate. In the quest for novel and more efficient MALDI MS matrices, curcumin is revealed to be a versatile and multipurpose matrix. It has been applied successfully for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and drugs, for imaging lipids in skin and lung tissues, and for the analysis of a number of compound classes in fingermarks. In each case, the use of curcumin is shown to promote analyte ionization very efficiently as well as provide excellent mass spectral image quality. PMID:23621442

  19. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

  20. Development of novel neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) selective agonists with resistance to proteolytic degradation.

    PubMed

    Misu, Ryosuke; Oishi, Shinya; Yamada, Ai; Yamamura, Takashi; Matsuda, Fuko; Yamamoto, Koki; Noguchi, Taro; Ohno, Hiroaki; Okamura, Hiroaki; Ohkura, Satoshi; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2014-10-23

    Neurokinin B (NKB) regulates the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) via activation of the neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3R). We evaluated the biological stability of NK3R selective agonists to develop novel NK3R agonists to regulate reproductive functions. On the basis of degradation profiles, several peptidomimetic derivatives were designed. The modification of senktide with (E)-alkene dipeptide isostere generated a novel potent NK3R agonist with high stability and prolonged bioactivity. PMID:25247671

  1. Experimental Demonstration of an Optical-Label-Switching Router Architecture Supporting Selective 3R Regeneration

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    R Regeneration Zuqing Zhu, Bo Xiang, Haijun Yang, and S. J. Ben Yoo Department of Electrical architecture that utilizes selective-3R to offer regeneration in a smart and efficient way with only limited 3R integration of data and optical networking. Optical 3R regeneration re-amplifies, reshapes, and retimes

  2. A New General Continuous-Time State Task Network Formulation for Short-Term Scheduling of Multipurpose Batch Plants

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of Multipurpose Batch Plants Christos T. Maravelias, Ignacio E. Grossmann Department of Chemical Engineering continuous time MILP model for the short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants is presented as it accounts for resources other than equipment and often gives better solutions being equally fast

  3. Inherited biallelic CSF3R mutations in severe congenital neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Triot, Alexa; Järvinen, Päivi M.; Arostegui, Juan I.; Murugan, Dhaarini; Kohistani, Naschla; Dapena Díaz, José Luis; Racek, Tomas; Pucha?ka, Jacek; Gertz, E. Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Kotlarz, Daniel; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Díaz de Heredia Rubio, Cristina; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Patiroglu, Turkan; Karakukcu, Musa; Sánchez de Toledo Codina, José; Yagüe, Jordi; Touw, Ivo P.; Unal, Ekrem

    2014-01-01

    Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is characterized by low numbers of peripheral neutrophil granulocytes and a predisposition to life-threatening bacterial infections. We describe a novel genetic SCN type in 2 unrelated families associated with recessively inherited loss-of-function mutations in CSF3R, encoding the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor. Family A, with 3 affected children, carried a homozygous missense mutation (NM_000760.3:c.922C>T, NP_000751.1:p.Arg308Cys), which resulted in perturbed N-glycosylation and aberrant localization to the cell surface. Family B, with 1 affected infant, carried compound heterozygous deletions provoking frameshifts and premature stop codons (NM_000760.3:c.948_963del, NP_000751.1:p.Gly316fsTer322 and NM_000760.3:c.1245del, NP_000751.1:p.Gly415fsTer432). Despite peripheral SCN, all patients had morphologic evidence of full myeloid cell maturation in bone marrow. None of the patients responded to treatment with recombinant human G-CSF. Our study highlights the genetic and morphologic SCN variability and provides evidence both for functional importance and redundancy of G-CSF receptor-mediated signaling in human granulopoiesis. PMID:24753537

  4. Multipurpose Pressure Vessel Scanner and Photon Doppler Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Tayera

    2015-01-01

    Critical flight hardware typically undergoes a series of nondestructive evaluation methods to screen for defects before it is integrated into the flight system. Conventionally, pressure vessels have been inspected for flaws using a technique known as fluorescent dye penetrant, which is biased to inspector interpretation. An alternate method known as eddy current is automated and can detect small cracks better than dye penetrant. A new multipurpose pressure vessel scanner has been developed to perform internal and external eddy current scanning, laser profilometry, and thickness mapping on pressure vessels. Before this system can be implemented throughout industry, a probability of detection (POD) study needs to be performed to validate the system’s eddy current crack/flaw capabilities. The POD sample set will consist of 6 flight-like metal pressure vessel liners with defects of known size. Preparation for the POD includes sample set fabrication, system operation, procedure development, and eddy current settings optimization. For this, collaborating with subject matter experts was required. This technical paper details the preparation activities leading up to the POD study currently scheduled for winter 2015/2016. Once validated, this system will be a proven innovation for increasing the safety and reliability of necessary flight hardware.Additionally, testing of frangible joint requires Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) and Digital Image Correlation instrumentation. There is often noise associated with PDV data, which necessitates a frequency modulation (FM) signal-to-noise pre-test. Generally, FM radio works by varying the carrier frequency and mixing it with a fixed frequency source, creating a beat frequency which is represented by audio frequency that can be heard between about 20 to 20,000 Hz. Similarly, PDV reflects a shifted frequency (a phenomenon known as the Doppler Effect) from a moving source and mixes it with a fixed source frequency, which results in a beat frequency. However, for PDV, discerning the signal from the noise is difficult without a moving source to induce the modulation. A rotating wheel is currently being used as the moving source but its configuration is impractical and has cumbersome placement inside the current frangible joint test cell. As a way to combat this problem and verify a satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio, a reflective moving crystal piezo will be used to modulate a beat frequency, and an absorptive target will be used to block the signal in order to determine any back reflection coming from the probe and discern the true signal-to noise ratio. The piezo will be mounted and inserted onto the test table on an extendable telescopic antenna grounded by a magnetic base in the test zone. This piezo configuration will be more compatible within the test zone and allow for easy removal of the disk following acceptable signal verification and prior to frangible joint tests.Additionally, topics of what was learned and smaller tasks given at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) will be discussed. All statements in this paper are newly gained knowledge of what I have learned, observed, and have done while at WSTF.

  5. Multipurpose Pressure Vessel Scanner and Photon Doppler Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Tayera

    2015-01-01

    Critical flight hardware typically undergoes a series of nondestructive evaluation methods to screen for defects before it is integrated into the flight system. Conventionally, pressure vessels have been inspected for flaws using a technique known as fluorescent dye penetrant, which is biased to inspector interpretation. An alternate method known as eddy current is automated and can detect small cracks better than dye penetrant. A new multipurpose pressure vessel scanner has been developed to perform internal and external eddy current scanning, laser profilometry, and thickness mapping on pressure vessels. Before this system can be implemented throughout industry, a probability of detection (POD) study needs to be performed to validate the system's eddy current crack/flaw capabilities. The POD sample set will consist of 6 flight-like metal pressure vessel liners with defects of known size. Preparation for the POD includes sample set fabrication, system operation, procedure development, and eddy current settings optimization. For this, collaborating with subject matter experts was required. This technical paper details the preparation activities leading up to the POD study currently scheduled for winter 2015/2016. Once validated, this system will be a proven innovation for increasing the safety and reliability of necessary flight hardware. Additionally, testing of frangible joint requires Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) and Digital Image Correlation instrumentation. There is often noise associated with PDV data, which necessitates a frequency modulation (FM) signal-to-noise pre-test. Generally, FM radio works by varying the carrier frequency and mixing it with a fixed frequency source, creating a beat frequency which is represented by audio frequency that can be heard between about 20 to 20,000 Hz. Similarly, PDV reflects a shifted frequency (a phenomenon known as the Doppler Effect) from a moving source and mixes it with a fixed source frequency, which results in a beat frequency. However, for PDV, discerning the signal from the noise is difficult without a moving source to induce the modulation. A rotating wheel is currently being used as the moving source but its configuration is impractical and has cumbersome placement inside the current frangible joint test cell. As a way to combat this problem and verify a satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio, a reflective moving crystal piezo will be used to modulate a beat frequency, and an absorptive target will be used to block the signal in order to determine any back reflection coming from the probe and discern the true signal-to-noise ratio. The piezo will be mounted and inserted onto the test table on an extendable telescopic antenna grounded by a magnetic base in the test zone. This piezo configuration will be more compatible within the test zone and allow for easy removal of the disk following acceptable signal verification and prior to frangible joint tests.

  6. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. 864.5425 Section 864.5425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and...

  7. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. 864.5425 Section 864.5425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and...

  8. Multipurpose panel, phase 1, study report. [display utilizing multiplexing and digital techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkin, W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a multipurpose panel which provides a programmable electronic display for changeable panel nomenclature, multiplexes similar indicator display signals to the signal display, and demultiplexes command signals is examined. Topics discussed include: electronic display technology, miniaturized electronic and memory devices, and data management systems which employ digital address and multiplexing.

  9. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants…

  10. Breeding status of tung tree (Vernicia sp.) in China, a multipurpose oilseed crop with industrial uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a developing country with the world’s largest population, China faces a serious challenge in satisfying its continuously increasing energy demands. Tung trees (Vernicia sp., especially V. fordii and V. montana), are multipurpose, perennial plants belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The unique ...

  11. Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP2) Facility as

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Gun . Cathode Device Control System Data Acquisition System #12;Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, JapanJapan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP2) Facility as a Steady State Divertor Simulator B. J. Lee, K. Cho, A. England, T. Lho, J. Yoon, and plasma research team Div. Of Plasma

  12. Engineering a multi-purpose test collection for Web retrieval experiments

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    quantities of dark matter (Bailey, Craswell, & Hawking, 2000) due to Web page access restrictions, to lackEngineering a multi-purpose test collection for Web retrieval experiments Peter Bailey a,*, Nick methods for the Web has been restricted by the lack of a test collection capable of supporting experiments

  13. A Model for a Linked System of Multi-Purpose Reservoirs with Stochastic Inflows and Demands 

    E-print Network

    Curry, G. L.; Helm, J. C.; Clark, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    In Chapter I of this report a model of a single multi-purpose reservoir with stochastic inflows is addressed. The objective of the model is the development of an optimal operating policy for given time sequence of minimum and maximum reservoir...

  14. Multipurpose Identity-Based Signcryption A Swiss Army Knife for Identity-Based Cryptography

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Multipurpose Identity-Based Signcryption A Swiss Army Knife for Identity-Based Cryptography Xavier://eprint.iacr.org/2003/163. Abstract Identity-Based (IB) cryptography is a rapidly emerging approach to public-key cryptography that does not require principals to pre-compute key pairs and obtain certificates for their public

  15. Multipurpose Identity-Based Signcryption A Swiss Army Knife for Identity-Based Cryptography

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Multipurpose Identity-Based Signcryption A Swiss Army Knife for Identity-Based Cryptography Xavier://eprint.iacr.org/2003/163. Abstract Identity-Based (IB) cryptography is a rapidly emerging approach to public-key cryptography that does not require principals to pre-compute key pairs and obtain certi#12;cates

  16. The trigeneration cycle as a way to create multipurpose stationary power plants based on conversion of aeroderivative turbofan engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varaksin, A. Yu.; Arbekov, A. N.; Inozemtsev, A. A.

    2014-10-01

    A schematic cycle is considered, and thermodynamic analysis is performed to substantiate the possibility of creating multipurpose industrial power plants, operating on a trigeneration cycle, based on production-type turbofan engines.

  17. 77 FR 67732 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2009 Porsche Cayenne S Multipurpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...Cayenne S Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National...Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS), are eligible for importation into the United States because they are substantially similar to vehicles that...

  18. Multipurpose Wetlands Phase II/III: final design and ongoing research investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Babbitt, Bruce; Beard, Daniel P.; Hancock, Lawrence F.

    1994-01-01

    The Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD), the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and the National Biological Survey (NBS), in consultation with other governmental agencies, the academic community, and environmental groups, are involved in a cooperative wetlands research and demonstration effort. This report reflects progress through the first 3 years of a 5-year program. The goal of the Multipurpose Wetlands Research and Demonstration Project is to evaluate and expand the use of reclaimed water and contaminated ground water through the incorporation of multipurpose constructed wetlands into EMWD's total water resources management program. The focus of the wetlands is the development of design, construction, and operation criteria that will provide a cost-effective and innovative alternative for managing water resources and provide other public benefits in arid areas. The program also recognizes the fact that naturally-occurring wetlands, both coastal and inland, have been disappearing at an alarming rate.

  19. Zone Management of Multi-Purpose Use of Groundwater Via Spatial Variability Analysis of Water Quality and Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C. P.; Chen, C. F.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is comprehensively used for irrigation, aquaculture and public water supply in Pingtung plain. Establishing a sound management plan of multi-purpose groundwater utilization in Pingtung plain is imperial for water resources sustainability. When extracting groundwater for such multi-purpose use, the major concerns are to assure the meets for the different water quality standards for various water use sectors demand and minimizing the pumping impacts on aquifers. The groundwater quality and hydrogeological conditions play important roles in multi-purpose groundwater utilization. Management and effective use of groundwater typically face great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study combines the variability of groundwater quality and hydrological condition to propose zonal management of multi-purpose use of groundwater in Pingtung plain. Based on the water quality standards for various groundwater utilization sectors, the integration of hydrochemical parameters are used to delineate most appropriate zones of various groundwater utilization sectors. For evaluation of hydrogeological condition, transmissivity which represents the ability of water transmitted in aquifer is adopted to determine the most suitable zones of groundwater extraction. Based on the analytical results of the water quality parameters and transmissivity in combination with actual groundwater utilization, a zonal management plan of multi-purpose groundwater utilization is established. The framework in this project can provide an effective tool for government administrator establishing a zonal management of multi-purpose groundwater utilization in Pingtung plain.

  20. Multi-Purpose, Application-Centric, Scalable I/O Proxy Application

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    MACSio is a Multi-purpose, Application-Centric, Scalable I/O proxy application. It is designed to support a number of goals with respect to parallel I/O performance testing and benchmarking including the ability to test and compare various I/O libraries and I/O paradigms, to predict scalable performance of real applications and to help identify where improvements in I/O performance can be made within the HPC I/O software stack.

  1. Development of Cyclic ?-MSH Analogues with Selective hMC3R Agonist and hMC3R/hMC5R Antagonist Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mayorov, Alexander V.; Cai, Minying; Chandler, Kevin B.; Petrov, Ravil R.; Van Scoy, April R.; Yu, Zerui; Tanaka, Dustin K.; Trivedi, Dev; Hruby, Victor J.

    2006-01-01

    A series of cyclic lactam analogues of ?-MSH (H-Tyr1-Val2-Met3-Gly4-His5-Phe6-Arg7-Trp8-Asp9-Arg10-Phe11-Gly12-OH) with a bulky hydrophobic residue in the direct proximity to the pharmacophore (Xaa-d-Phe/d-Nal(2?)-Arg-Trp) were designed and synthesized by solid-phase methods. A variety of amino acids with a broad range of hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties was introduced in position 5 to further explore their complementary role in receptor selectivity. Biological evaluation of these peptides revealed several analogues with potent hMC3R agonist and hMC3R/hMC5R antagonist activities, and good receptor selectivity. Analogue 4, c[Nle-Arg-d-Phe-Arg-Trp-Glu]-NH2, was found to be a very potent and selective hMC3R agonist (EC50 = 1.2 nM, 112% act). In addition, analogue 13, c[Nle-Val-d-Nal(2?)-Arg-Trp-Glu]-NH2, was identified as an hMC3R/hMC5R antagonist with the best selectivity against the hMC4R in this series (pA2(hMC3R) = 8.4; pA2(hMC5R) = 8.7). These results indicate the significance of steric factors in melanocortin receptor selectivity and suggest that introduction of bulky residues in the direct proximity to the melanocortin pharmacophore is an effective approach to design of novel hMC3R and hMC5R selective ligands. PMID:16539382

  2. The structural analysis of Cu(111)-Te ?{3}×?{3}R30° and 2?{3}×2?{3}R30° surface phases by quantitative LEED and DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, M.; Chaudhuri, A.; Pussi, K.; Hesp, D.; McLeod, I. M.; Dhanak, V. R.; King, M. O.; Kadodwala, M.; MacLaren, D. A.

    2014-04-01

    The chemisorption of tellurium on atomically clean Cu(111) surface has been studied under ultra-high vacuum conditions. At room temperature, the initial stage of growth was an ordered 2?{3}×2?{3}R30° phase (0.08 ML). An ordered ?{3}×?{3}R30° phase is formed at 0.33 ML coverage of Te. The adsorption sites of the Te atoms on the Cu(111) surface at 0.08 ML and 0.33 ML coverages are explored by quantitative low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and density functional theory (DFT). Our results indicate that substitutional surface alloy formation starts at very low coverages.

  3. Novel multiband luminescence of Y2Zr2O7:Eu3+, R3+ (R = Ce, Bi) orange-red phosphors via a sol-gel combustion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qingqing; Zhou, Guangjun; Zhou, Haifeng; Yang, Zhongsen

    2012-12-01

    A novel class of orange-red phosphors Y2Zr2O7:Eu3+, R3+ (R = Ce, Bi) was successfully fabricated by a facile sol-gel combustion method. XRD, TG-DTA and SEM results show that the heat-treatment of the powders at 800 oC is enough to obtain highly crystallized Y2Zr2O7 samples. Photoluminescence spectra of the Eu3+-doped nanoparticles illuminated the simultaneous occurrence of several intense orange-red band emissions corresponding to the f-f transitions 5D0-7FJ (J = 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) of Eu3+ under 395 nm excitation. The photoluminescence spectra of Y2Zr2O7:Eu3+, R3+ (R = Ce, Bi) showed that the luminescence intensity of Y2Zr2O7:Eu3+ was greatly enhanced by Ce3+ and Bi3+ by 260% and 165%, respectively. The possible sensitization mechanisms of Ce3+ and Bi3+ on Eu3+ emission intensity have been investigated and discussed in detail. The high brightness confirmed the potential applications of the phosphors in display devices and light-emitting diodes.

  4. Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990). Appendix A3-R

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    Techniques in use at the Hanford Reservation as of March, 1990 for the analysis of liquids and radioactive effluents are described. Limitations and applications of the techniques are included. This report is Appendix A3-R.

  5. A potent antibrowning agent from pine needles of Cedrus deodara: 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue; Wu, Yan-Ping; Qiu, Jing-Hong; Zhong, Kai; Gao, Hong

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on finding the novel antibrowning agents from the pine needles of Cedrus deodara and studying its antibrowning effect. By bioassay guide of tyrosinase inhibitory activity, the main active compound was isolated and purified from 50% methanol extract of pine needles of C. deodara through macroporous resin Diaion HP-20 column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on mass and nuclear magnetic resonance data, the active compound was identified as 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin, which showed the potent monophenolase and diphenolase inhibitory activities. Moreover, 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin exhibited a strong ABTS radical scavenging activity with a dose-dependent manner. The antibrowning efficacy of 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin was evaluated by monitoring the changes of L*, a*, and b* values and total color difference (?E) on fresh-cut apple slices. It was found that 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin was effective in inhibiting the browning of apple slices treated with a concentration as low as 0.05% at 25 °C for 24 h. Its antibrowning effect was significantly better than ascorbic acid (0.5%) alone. Furthermore, 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin showed a good synergistic antibrowning effect with ascorbic acid. This is the first report that 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin from pine needles of C. deodara may be used as a potential antibrowning agent in protecting against food browning. PMID:25163933

  6. Targeted H3R26 Deimination Specifically Facilitates Estrogen Receptor Binding by Modifying Nucleosome Structure

    PubMed Central

    Anguish, Lynne; Kim, Sohyoung; Varticovski, Lyuba; Lis, John T.; Hager, Gordon L.; Coonrod, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor binding to DNA in vivo causes the recruitment of chromatin modifiers that can cause changes in chromatin structure, including the modification of histone tails. We previously showed that estrogen receptor (ER) target gene activation is facilitated by peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2)-catalyzed histone H3R26 deimination (H3R26Cit). Here we report that the genomic distributions of ER and H3R26Cit in breast cancer cells are strikingly coincident, linearly correlated, and observed as early as 2 minutes following estradiol treatment. The H3R26Cit profile is unlike that of previously described histone modifications and is characterized by sharp, narrow peaks. Paired-end MNase ChIP-seq indicates that the charge-neutral H3R26Cit modification facilitates ER binding to DNA by altering the fine structure of the nucleosome. Clinically, we find that PAD2 and H3R26Cit levels correlate with ER expression in breast tumors and that high PAD2 expression is associated with increased survival in ER+ breast cancer patients. These findings provide insight into how transcription factors gain access to nucleosomal DNA and implicate PAD2 as a novel therapeutic target for ER+ breast cancer. PMID:25211228

  7. Naturally occurring neomorphic PIK3R1 mutations activate the MAPK pathway, dictating therapeutic response to MAPK pathway inhibitors

    Cancer.gov

    Published on Office of Cancer Genomics (https://ocg.cancer.gov) Home > Naturally occurring neomorphic PIK3R1 mutations activate the MAPK pathway, dictating therapeutic response to MAPK pathway inhibitors Naturally occurring neomorphic PIK3R1 mutations

  8. Naturally occurring neomorphic PIK3R1 mutations activate the MAPK pathway, dictating therapeutic response to MAPK pathway inhibitors

    Cancer.gov

    Published on Office of Cancer Genomics (http://ocg.cancer.gov) Home > Naturally occurring neomorphic PIK3R1 mutations activate the MAPK pathway, dictating therapeutic response to MAPK pathway inhibitors Naturally occurring neomorphic PIK3R1 mutations

  9. Restoring Natural Streamflow Variability by Modifying Multi-purpose Reservoir Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Multi-purpose reservoirs typically provide benefits of water supply, hydroelectric power, and flood mitigation. Hydroelectric power generations generally do not consume water. However, temporal distribution of downstream flows is highly changed due to hydro-peaking effects. Associated with offstream diversion of water supplies for municipal, industrial, and agricultural requirements, natural streamflow characteristics of magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change is significantly altered by multi-purpose reservoir operation. Natural flow regime has long been recognized a master factor for ecosystem health and biodiversity. Restoration of altered flow regime caused by multi-purpose reservoir operation is the main objective of this study. This study presents an optimization framework that modifying reservoir operation to seeking balance between human and environmental needs. The methodology presented in this study is applied to the Feitsui Reservoir, located in northern Taiwan, with main purpose of providing stable water-supply and auxiliary purpose of electricity generation and flood-peak attenuation. Reservoir releases are dominated by two decision variables, i.e., duration of water releases for each day and percentage of daily required releases within the duration. The current releasing policy of the Feitsui Reservoir releases water for water-supply and hydropower purposes during 8:00 am to 16:00 pm each day and no environmental flows releases. Although greater power generation is obtained by 100% releases distributed within 8-hour period, severe temporal alteration of streamflow is observed downstream of the reservoir. Modifying reservoir operation by relaxing these two variables and reserve certain ratio of streamflow as environmental flow to maintain downstream natural variability. The optimal reservoir releasing policy is searched by the multi-criterion decision making technique for considering reservoir performance in terms of shortage ratio and power generation and downstream hydrologic alterations in terms of ecological relevant indicators. The results show that the proposed methodology can mitigate hydro-peaking effects on natural variability, while maintains efficient reservoir operation.

  10. Programmable Thermostat Module Upgrade for the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Dallas; Glasgow, Shaun; Reagan, Shawn; Presson, Keith; Howard, David; Smith, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The STS-121/ULF1.1 mission was the maiden flight of the Programmable Thermostat Module (PTM) system used to control the 28 V shell heaters on the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). These PTMs, in conjunction with a Data Recorder Module (DRM), provide continuous closed loop temperature control and data recording of MPLM on-orbit heater operations. This paper will discuss the hardware design, development, test and verification (DDT&V) activities performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as well as the operational implementation and mission performance.

  11. The Multi-Purpose Detector for NICA heavy-Ion Collider at JINR

    SciTech Connect

    Rogachevsky, O. V.

    2012-05-15

    The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is designed to study heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna. Its main components located inside a superconducting solenoid are a tracking system composed of a silicon microstrip vertex detector followed by a large volume time-projection chamber, a time-of-flight system for particle identification and a barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. A zero degree hadron calorimeter is designed specifically to measure the energy of spectators. In this paper, all parts of the apparatus are described and their tracking and particle identification parameters are discussed in some detail.

  12. 2078 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 20, OCTOBER 15, 2006 Optical Clock Recovery and 3R Regeneration

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    and 3R Regeneration for 10-Gb/s NRZ Signal to Achieve 10 000-hop Cascadability and 1 000 000-km Abstract--This letter experimentally demonstrates all-optical clock recovery and optical 3R regeneration for a 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) format. The 3R regenerator has achieved 10 000-hop cascadability

  13. IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 20, OCTOBER 15, 2006 2081 Cascadability of Optical 3R Regeneration for

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    3R Regeneration for NRZ Format Investigated in Recirculating Loop Transmission Over Field Fibers, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--This letter demonstrates optical 3R regeneration in 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero field transmission. The 3R regenerator utilizes semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Mach

  14. Skeletal Muscle IP3R1 Receptors Amplify Physiological and Pathological Synaptic Calcium Signals

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haipeng; Bhattacharyya, Bula; Lin, Hong; Gomez, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Ca2+ release from internal stores is critical for mediating both normal and pathological intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Recent studies suggest that the inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor mediates Ca2+ release from internal stores upon cholinergic activation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in both physiological and pathological conditions. Here we report that the type I IP3 receptor (IP3R1) -mediated Ca2+ release plays a crucial role in synaptic gene expression, development and neuromuscular transmission, as well as mediating degeneration during excessive cholinergic activation. We found that IP3R1-mediated Ca2+ release plays a key role in early development of the NMJ, in homeostatic regulation of neuromuscular transmission, and in synaptic gene expression. Reducing IP3R1-mediated Ca2+ release via siRNA knockdown or IP3R blockers in C2C12 cells decreased calpain activity, and prevented agonist-induced AChR cluster dispersal. In fully developed NMJ in adult muscle, IP3R1 knockdown or blockade effectively increased synaptic strength at pre- and postsynaptic sites, by increasing both quantal release and expression of AChR subunits and other NMJ-specific genes, in a pattern resembling muscle denervation. Moreover, in two mouse models of cholinergic overactivity and NMJ Ca2+ overload, anti-cholinesterase toxicity and the slow-channel myasthenic syndrome (SCS), IP3R1 knockdown eliminated NMJ Ca2+ overload, pathological activation of calpain and caspase proteases, and markers of DNA damage at subsynaptic nuclei, and improved both neuromuscular transmission and clinical measures of motor function. Thus, blockade or genetic silencing of muscle IP3R1 may be an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic strategy in SCS and other conditions of excitotoxicity or Ca2+ overload. PMID:22031873

  15. Abolished InsP3R2 function inhibits sweat secretion in both humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Klar, Joakim; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Baig, Shahid M.; Tariq, Muhammad; Johansson, Anna C.V.; Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Naveed Altaf; Ameur, Adam; Sugiura, Kotomi; Feuk, Lars; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Dahl, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    There are 3 major sweat-producing glands present in skin; eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands. Due to the high rate of secretion, eccrine sweating is a vital regulator of body temperature in response to thermal stress in humans; therefore, an inability to sweat (anhidrosis) results in heat intolerance that may cause impaired consciousness and death. Here, we have reported 5 members of a consanguineous family with generalized, isolated anhidrosis, but morphologically normal eccrine sweat glands. Whole-genome analysis identified the presence of a homozygous missense mutation in ITPR2, which encodes the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2), that was present in all affected family members. We determined that the mutation is localized within the pore forming region of InsP3R2 and abrogates Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ release by InsP3R2 in clear cells of the sweat glands is important for eccrine sweat production. Itpr2–/– mice exhibited a marked reduction in sweat secretion, and evaluation of sweat glands from Itpr2–/– animals revealed a decrease in Ca2+ response compared with controls. Together, our data indicate that loss of InsP3R2-mediated Ca2+ release causes isolated anhidrosis in humans and suggest that specific InsP3R inhibitors have the potential to reduce sweat production in hyperhidrosis. PMID:25329695

  16. A Self-Timed Multipurpose Delay Sensor for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, Carlos Gómez; Ituero, Pablo; López-Vallejo, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel self-timed multi-purpose sensor especially conceived for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The aim of the sensor is to measure performance variations during the life-cycle of the device, such as process variability, critical path timing and temperature variations. The proposed topology, through the use of both combinational and sequential FPGA elements, amplifies the time of a signal traversing a delay chain to produce a pulse whose width is the sensor's measurement. The sensor is fully self-timed, avoiding the need for clock distribution networks and eliminating the limitations imposed by the system clock. One single off- or on-chip time-to-digital converter is able to perform digitization of several sensors in a single operation. These features allow for a simplified approach for designers wanting to intertwine a multi-purpose sensor network with their application logic. Employed as a temperature sensor, it has been measured to have an error of ±0.67 °C, over the range of 20–100 °C, employing 20 logic elements with a 2-point calibration. PMID:24361927

  17. Development of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) coatings for multipurpose mechanical pump seals.

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalchenko, A. M.; Elam, J. W.; Erdemir, A.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Libera, J. A.; Pellin, M. J.; Gruen, D. M.; Hryn, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and performance of silicon carbide (SiC) shaft seals on multipurpose mechanical pumps are improved by applying a protective coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). UNCD exhibits extreme hardness (97 GPa), low friction (0.1 in air) and outstanding chemical resistance. Consequently, the application of UNCD coatings to multipurpose mechanical pump seals can reduce frictional energy losses and eliminate the downtime and hazardous emissions from seal failure and leakage. In this study, UNCD films were prepared by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition utilizing an argon/methane gas mixture. Prior to coating, the SiC seals were subjected to mechanical polishing using different grades of micron-sized diamond powder to produce different starting surfaces with well-controlled surface roughnesses. Following this roughening process, the seals were seeded by mechanical abrasion with diamond nanopowder, and subsequently coated with UNCD. The coated seals were subjected to dynamic wear testing performed at 3600 RPM and 100 psi for up to 10 days during which the seals were periodically removed and inspected. The UNCD-coated seals were examined using Raman microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and adhesion testing before and after the wear testing. These analyses revealed that delamination of the UNCD films was prevented when the initial SiC seal surface had an initial roughness >0.1 {micro}m. In addition, the UNCD surfaces showed no measurable wear as compared to approximately 0.2 {micro}m of wear for the untreated SiC surfaces.

  18. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  19. Superior thermoelectric response in the 3R phases of hydrated NaxRhO2

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Y.; Singh, N.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory is used to investigate the thermoelectric properties of the 3R phases of NaxRhO2 for different Na vacancy configurations and concentrations. As compared to the analogous 2H phases, the modified stacking of the atomic layers in the 3R phases reduces the interlayer coupling. As a consequence, the 3R phases are found to be superior in the technologically relevant temperature range. The Rh orbitals still govern the valence band maxima and therefore determine the transport properties. A high figure of merit of 0.35 is achieved in hydrated Na0.83RhO2 at 580?K by water intercalation, which is 34% higher than in the non-hydrated phase. PMID:24633155

  20. 77 FR 38582 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle... collections include all client intake, events/activities and export success forms. This comprehensive... services and trade events to U.S. organizations. The Domestic Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose...

  1. Penetration Analysis of a XEROX Docucenter DC 230ST: Assessing the Security of a Multi-purpose Office Machine

    E-print Network

    Kuperman, Benjamin A.

    advances in manufacturing technology have made possible multi-purpose office equipment that handle a large. With the addition of the image capture of a photocopier and the network connection from the printer, adding scanning is a specialized computer that has a built in scanner, fax modem, network card, disk drive, RAM, and laser printer

  2. Evaluation Report for the ESEA Title III Project, South Bronx Multi-Purpose Supplementary Educational Center (SOMPSEC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Robert D.

    This is a report of an evaluation of the South Bronx Multi-Purpose Supplementary Educational Center (SOMPSEC). The primary objectives of SOMPSEC, funded under Title III, Elementary and Secondary Education Act were: (1) to enhance the self-image of minority-group students, (2) to encourage development of their artistic talent, and (3) to increase…

  3. Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models: a multilevel perspective.

    PubMed

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Bakker, Wieger E

    2012-01-01

    The importance placed on risk avoidance in our society has resulted in a broad range of regulations intended to guarantee safety of products such as pharmaceuticals and chemicals. Many of these regulations rely on animal tests. As a result, about 25% of the animal experiments in Europe are done for regulatory purposes. There are many initiatives that aim to replace, reduce, or refine laboratory animal use, but the regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models lags behind. The central question of this study is: "Which variables influence the regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models and in what way?" Regulatory acceptance is seen as one of the biggest hurdles 3R models face, but the rationale behind this is still underexplored. This study is an approach to filling that gap by combining opinions from experts in the field with literature on technology acceptance and risk regulation, resulting in a model of the variables that determine the process of the regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models. PMID:22847256

  4. The 3R's of Solid Waste & the Population Factor for a Sustainable Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Joan

    1995-01-01

    Opens with a brief history of human awareness of our effect upon the environment. Culminates with a discussion of a strategy to handle solid wastes. This plan includes the 3R's: (1) source reduction; (2) direct reuse of products; and (3) recycling. Also provides statistics on recycling practices of some countries. (ZWH)

  5. SOAR versus SQ3R: A Test of Two Study Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairam, Dharma; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Rogers-Kasson, Sarah; Patterson-Hazley, Melissa; Marxhausen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Although researchers have long investigated ways to improve study habits and raise achievement, few studies compare study strategy systems with one another. No study to date has compared the long popular SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) system with the more modern SOAR (Select, Organize, Associate, Regulate) system. This study…

  6. IP3R deficit underlies loss of salivary fluid secretion in Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Teos, Leyla Y.; Zhang, Yu; Cotrim, Ana P.; Swaim, William; Won, Jon H.; Ambrus, Julian; Shen, Long; Bebris, Lolita; Grisius, Margaret; Jang, Shyh-Ing; Yule, David I.; Ambudkar, Indu S.; Alevizos, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    The autoimmune exocrinopathy, Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), is associated with secretory defects in patients, including individuals with mild lymphocytic infiltration and minimal glandular damage. The mechanism(s) underlying the secretory dysfunction is not known. We have used minor salivary gland biopsies from SS patients and healthy individuals to assess acinar cell function in morphologically intact glandular areas. We report that agonist-regulated intracellular Ca2+ release, critically required for Ca2+ entry and fluid secretion, is defective in acini from SS patients. Importantly, these acini displayed reduction in IP3R2 and IP3R3, but not AQP5 or STIM1. Similar decreases in IP3R and carbachol (CCh)-stimulated [Ca2+]i elevation were detected in acinar cells from lymphotoxin-alpha (LT?) transgenic (TG) mice, a model for (SS). Treatment of salivary glands from healthy individuals with LT ?, a cytokine linked to disease progression in SS and IL14? mice, reduced Ca2+ signaling. Together, our findings reveal novel IP3R deficits in acinar cells that underlie secretory dysfunction in SS patients. PMID:26365984

  7. EPA PC3R Questions Set 1 1 Enclosure: First Set of EPA Questions to DOE

    E-print Network

    of salt consolidation over time. Completeness Question 1.1d: Please identify the effect of the rock bolts estimated different time periods for run of mine salt to reach steady state porosity. Specifically, the PC3R cites Callahan and DeVries (1991, SAND91-7052), who predict consolidation of ROM salt to a porosity of 0

  8. SQ3R: A Must for Teaching Science Concepts to Sixth Graders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paporello, Ann Gale

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the SQ3R study skill technique in the science education of sixth grade students. Subjects, 30 students in a control group and 19 students in the experimental group comprising two separate classrooms in a culturally mixed urban elementary school, used the science text "Gateways to Science" and completed…

  9. The 3C3R Model: A Conceptual Framework for Designing Problems in PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Woei

    2006-01-01

    Well-designed problems are crucial for the success of problem-based learning (PBL). Previous discussions about designing problems for PBL have been rather general and inadequate in guiding educators and practitioners to design effective PBL problems. This paper introduces the 3C3R PBL problem design model as a conceptual framework for…

  10. Quark-Monopole Potentials from Supersymmetric SL(3,R) Deformed IIB Supergravity

    E-print Network

    Changhyun Ahn

    2006-08-22

    We recompute the quark-monopole potential from supersymmetric SL(3,R) deformation of IIB supergravity background dual to deformed Coulomb branch flow of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The marginal deformations strengthen the Coulombic attraction between quarks and monopoles.

  11. Benefits of Student-Generated Note Packets: A Preliminary Investigation of SQ3R Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlston, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Minimal research to date has evaluated the impact of Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review (SQ3R) implementation (i.e., surveying prior to reading, generating questions, reading to answer said questions, reciting, and reviewing information) on content retention and student performance. Existing research is anecdotal or lacks ecological validity. The…

  12. Comparison of ICD-10 and DC: 0-3R Diagnoses in Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equit, Monika; Paulus, Frank; Fuhrmann, Pia; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare diagnoses of patients from a special outpatient department for infants, toddlers and preschoolers. Specifically, overlap, age and gender differences according to the two classification systems DC: 0-3R and ICD-10 were examined. 299 consecutive children aged 0-5;11 years received both ICD-10 and…

  13. A Counterpart of the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa Soliton Hierarchy Associated with so(3,R)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wen-Xiu; Manukure, Solomon; Zheng, Hong-Chan

    2014-09-01

    A counterpart of the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa (WKI) soliton hierarchy, associated with so(3;R), is presented through the zero curvature formulation. Its spectral matrix is defined by the same linear combination of basis vectors as the WKI one, and its Hamiltonian structures yielding Liouville integrability are furnished by the trace identity

  14. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  18. Synthesis and energetics of Tp0 Rh[P(OMe)3](R)H: a

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Synthesis and energetics of Tp0 Rh[P(OMe)3](R)H: a systematic investigation of ligand effects on C­H activation at rhodium Yunzhe Jiao, William W. Brennessel and William D. Jones* The thermal precursor Tp0 Rh[P(OMe)3](Me)H was used to generate the active [Tp0 Rh[P(OMe)3

  19. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  20. Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

  1. Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  2. Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  3. Auto-focusing schemes for LAMOST multipurpose fiber-fed spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Hu, Zhongwen; Wang, Jianing; Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Lei

    2007-12-01

    The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) project is one of the National Major Scientific Projects undertaken by the Chinese Academy of Science. There are 16 low resolution multipurpose fiber-fed spectrographs in total, enabling it to obtain the spectrum of celestial objects as faint as down to 20.5. Building auto-focusing systems for the spectrographs is important due to the popularity of instruments. The system enables the optical system to automatically compensate changes in accordance to external variables, such as temperature, timidity, to ensure the spectrum collected more reliably. Image-based algorithm is utilized to calculate the departure of CCD plane from optical focal plane. The calculation also aids to regulation of the system. The defocus value is transformed to the controlling computer of each spectrograph. A driving step-motor performs refocusing function by moving the fiber slit unit to its right position.

  4. Multipurpose nonlinear optical imaging system for in vivo and ex vivo multimodal histology

    PubMed Central

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada; König, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We report on a flexible multipurpose nonlinear microscopic imaging system based on a femtosecond excitation source and a photonic crystal fiber with multiple miniaturized time-correlated single-photon counting detectors. The system provides the simultaneous acquisition of e.g., two-photon autofluorescence, second-harmonic generation, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images. Its flexible scan head permits ex vivo biological imaging with subcellular resolution such as rapid biopsy examination during surgery as well as imaging on small as well as large animals. Above all, such an arrangement perfectly matches the needs for the clinical investigation of human skin in vivo where knowledge about the distribution of endogenous fluorophores, second-harmonic generation–active collagen as well as nonfluorescent lipids is of high interest. PMID:26158089

  5. Source test of the prototype neutron detector for the large-acceptance multipurpose spectrometer at RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Mulilo, Benard; Hong, Byungsik

    2013-05-01

    A neutron detector array will be essential for the study of the nuclear symmetry energy in the large-acceptance multipurpose spectrometer (LAMPS) at the planned rare-isotope beam facility RAON in Korea. We have built the prototype neutron detector for LAMPS and examined its performance by using radiation sources. For data taking, we tested the voltage-threshold discriminator (VTD) and the constant-fraction discriminator (CFD) modules for the pulse process. The intrinsic time resolution of the prototype detector is estimated to be 723 ps for VTD and 488 ps for CFD. The fission neutrons and gammas emitted from 252Cf can be clearly separated in the time distribution. We reconstruct the energy spectrum of the spontaneous fission neutrons from 252Cf, which can be described well by using the empirical Watt spectrum.

  6. Design and Development of Multi-Purpose CCD Camera System with Thermoelectric Cooling: Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Y.-W.; Byun, Y. I.; Rhee, J. H.; Oh, S. H.; Kim, D. K.

    2007-12-01

    We designed and developed a multi-purpose CCD camera system for three kinds of CCDs; KAF-0401E(768×512), KAF-1602E(1536×1024), KAF-3200E(2184×1472) made by KODAK Co.. The system supports fast USB port as well as parallel port for data I/O and control signal. The packing is based on two stage circuit boards for size reduction and contains built-in filter wheel. Basic hardware components include clock pattern circuit, A/D conversion circuit, CCD data flow control circuit, and CCD temperature control unit. The CCD temperature can be controlled with accuracy of approximately 0.4° C in the max. range of temperature, ? 33° C. This CCD camera system has with readout noise 6 e^{-}, and system gain 5 e^{-}/ADU. A total of 10 CCD camera systems were produced and our tests show that all of them show passable performance.

  7. Multi-Purpose Avionic Architecture for Vision Based Navigation Systems for EDL and Surface Mobility Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutola, A.; Paltro, D.; Cabalo Perucha, M. P.; Paar, G.; Steiner, J.; Barrio, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Vision Based Navigation (VBNAV) has been identified as a valid technology to support space exploration because it can improve autonomy and safety of space missions. Several mission scenarios can benefit from the VBNAV: Rendezvous & Docking, Fly-Bys, Interplanetary cruise, Entry Descent and Landing (EDL) and Planetary Surface exploration. For some of them VBNAV can improve the accuracy in state estimation as additional relative navigation sensor or as absolute navigation sensor. For some others, like surface mobility and terrain exploration for path identification and planning, VBNAV is mandatory. This paper presents the general avionic architecture of a Vision Based System as defined in the frame of the ESA R&T study “Multi-purpose Vision-based Navigation System Engineering Model - part 1 (VisNav-EM-1)” with special focus on the surface mobility application.

  8. NASA AND ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, NASA and ESA made a decision to partially offset the European obligations deriving from the extension of the ISS Program until the end of 2020 with different means than ATVs, following the ATV-5 mission foreseen in mid-2014. NASA and ESA considered a number of barter options, and concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module and Spacecraft Adaptor for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter element with the most interest. A joint ESA - NASA working group was established to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage. The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin. This paper gives an overview of the results of the on-going study as well as its projected utilization for the global space exploration endeavour.

  9. Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

  10. Delivery of multipurpose prevention drug combinations from electrospun nanofibers using composite microarchitectures

    PubMed Central

    Blakney, Anna K; Krogstad, Emily A; Jiang, Yonghou H; Woodrow, Kim A

    2014-01-01

    Background Electrospun drug-eluting fabrics have enormous potential for the delivery of physicochemically diverse drugs in combination by controlling the underlying material chemistry and fabric microarchitecture. However, the rationale for formulating drugs at high drug loading in the same or separate fibers is unknown but has important implications for product development and clinical applications. Methods Using a production-scale free-surface electrospinning instrument, we produced electrospun nanofibers with different microscale geometries for the co-delivery of tenofovir (TFV) and levonorgestrel (LNG) – two lead drug candidates for multipurpose prevention of HIV acquisition and unintended pregnancy. We investigated the in vitro drug release of TFV and LNG combinations from composites that deliver the two drugs from the same fiber (combined fibers) or from separate fibers in a stacked or interwoven architecture. For stacked composites, we also examined the role that fabric thickness has on drug-release kinetics. We also measured the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the drugs delivered alone and in combination. Results Herein, we report on the solution and processing parameters for the free-surface electrospinning of medical fabrics with controlled microarchitecture and high drug loading (up to 20 wt%). We observed that in vitro release of the highly water-soluble TFV, but not the water-insoluble LNG, was affected by composite microarchitecture, fabric thickness, and drug content. Finally, we showed that the drug-loaded nanofibers are noncytotoxic and that the antiviral activity of TFV is preserved through the electrospinning process and when combined with LNG. Conclusion Electrospun fabrics with high drug loading create multicomponent systems that benefit from the independent control of the nanofibrous microarchitecture. Our findings are significant because they will inform the design and production of composite electrospun fabrics for the co-delivery of physicochemically diverse drugs that may be useful for multipurpose prevention. PMID:24971008

  11. Evidence that anti-muscarinic antibodies in Sjögren's syndrome recognise both M3R and M1R.

    PubMed

    Schegg, Vanessa; Vogel, Monique; Didichenko, Svetlana; Stadler, Michael B; Beleznay, Zsuzsanna; Gadola, Stephan; Sengupta, Christine; Stadler, Beda M; Miescher, Sylvia M

    2008-07-01

    Inhibitory anti-muscarinic receptor type 3 (M3R) antibodies may contribute to the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), and putative anti-M3R blocking antibodies in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) have been suggested as a rationale for treatment with IVIg. We investigated the presence of subtype-specific anti-MR autoantibodies in healthy donor and SS sera using MR-transfected whole-cell binding assays as well as M1R and M3R peptide ELISAs. Control antibodies against the second extracellular loop of the M3R, a suggested target epitope, were induced in rabbits and found to be cross-reactive on the peptides M3R and M1R. The rabbit antibodies had neither an agonistic nor an antagonistic effect on M3R-dependent ERK1/2 signalling. Only one primary SS (out of 5 primary SS, 2 secondary SS and 5 control sera) reacted strongly with M3R transfected cells. The same SS serum also reacted strongly with M1R and M2R transfectants, as well as M1R and two different M3R peptides. Strong binding to M1R and low-level activities against M3R peptides were observed both in SS and control sera. IVIg showed a strong reactivity against all three peptides, especially M1R. Our results indicate that certain SS individuals may have antibodies against M1R, M2R and M3R. Our results also suggest that neither the linear M3R peptide nor M3R transfectants represent suitable tools for discrimination of pathogenic from natural autoantibodies in SS. PMID:18249005

  12. TACR3 mutations disrupt NK3R function through distinct mechanisms in GnRH-deficient patients

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Sekoni D.; Abreu, Ana Paula; Xu, Shuyun; Muyide, Titilayo; Gianetti, Elena; Tusset, Cintia; Carroll, Jessica; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Carroll, Rona S.; Kaiser, Ursula B.

    2014-01-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) and its G-protein-coupled receptor, NK3R, have been implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH release; however, little is known about the structure-function relationship of this ligand-receptor pair. Moreover, loss-of-function NK3R mutations cause GnRH deficiency in humans. Using missense mutations in NK3R we previously identified in patients with GnRH deficiency, we demonstrate that Y256H and Y315C NK3R mutations in the fifth and sixth transmembrane domains (TM5 and TM6), resulted in reduced whole-cell (79.3±7.2%) or plasma membrane (67.3±7.3%) levels, respectively, compared with wild-type (WT) NK3R, with near complete loss of inositol phosphate (IP) signaling, implicating these domains in receptor trafficking, processing, and/or stability. We further demonstrate in a FRET-based assay that R295S NK3R, in the third intracellular loop (IL3), bound NKB but impaired dissociation of Gq-protein subunits from the receptor compared with WT NK3R, which showed a 10.0 ± 1.3% reduction in FRET ratios following ligand binding, indicating activation of Gq-protein signaling. Interestingly, R295S NK3R, identified in the heterozygous state in a GnRH-deficient patient, also interfered with dissociation of G proteins and IP signaling from wild-type NK3R, indicative of dominant-negative effects. Collectively, our data illustrate roles for TM5 and TM6 in NK3R trafficking and ligand binding and for IL3 in NK3R signaling.—Noel, S. D., Abreu, A. P., Xu, S., Muyide, T., Gianetti, E., Tusset, C., Carroll, J., Latronico, A. C., Seminara, S. B., Carroll, R. S., Kaiser, U. B. TACR3 mutations disrupt NK3R function through distinct mechanisms in GnRH-deficient patients. PMID:24376026

  13. Pleiotropic effects of TaMYB3R1 on plant development and response to osmotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongsheng; Tian, Shan; Dong, Hansong; Guo, Changhong

    2015-03-10

    In a previous study, we isolated and characterized TaMYB3R1, a MYB3R gene, from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In vitro assays showed that the TaMYB3R1 protein is localized to the nucleus, and functions as an MSA-binding transcriptional activator. Expression of TaMYB3R1 is induced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stress, which encouraged us to further investigate its function in planta. In the present study, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaMYB3R1. Compared with wild-type plants, the transgenic lines produced more rosette leaves, and thus more inflorescences, but the plants showed delayed development at the reproductive stage. The TaMYB3R1 protein also functions in the osmotic stress response. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stresses, and the tolerance phenotype was conveyed by limiting transpiration through increasing stomatal closure as well as reducing water loss. In addition, TaMYB3R1 influenced the expression of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent responsive genes, implicating TaMYB3R1 in diverse osmotic stress-response mechanisms in Arabidopsis. Our study sheds light on novel functions of a plant MYB3R protein. PMID:25560188

  14. IP3R2 levels dictate the apoptotic sensitivity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells to an IP3R-derived peptide targeting the BH4 domain of Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Akl, H; Monaco, G; La Rovere, R; Welkenhuyzen, K; Kiviluoto, S; Vervliet, T; Molgó, J; Distelhorst, C W; Missiaen, L; Mikoshiba, K; Parys, J B; De Smedt, H; Bultynck, G

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R)/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) complexes using a cell-permeable peptide (stabilized TAT-fused IP3R-derived peptide (TAT-IDP(S))) that selectively targets the BH4 domain of Bcl-2 but not that of B-cell lymphoma 2-extra large (Bcl-Xl) potentiated pro-apoptotic Ca(2+) signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. However, the molecular mechanisms rendering cancer cells but not normal cells particularly sensitive to disrupting IP3R/Bcl-2 complexes are poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the effect of TAT-IDP(S) in a more heterogeneous Bcl-2-dependent cancer model using a set of 'primed to death' diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DL-BCL) cell lines containing elevated Bcl-2 levels. We discovered a large heterogeneity in the apoptotic responses of these cells to TAT-IDP(S) with SU-DHL-4 being most sensitive and OCI-LY-1 being most resistant. This sensitivity strongly correlated with the ability of TAT-IDP(S) to promote IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release. Although total IP3R-expression levels were very similar among SU-DHL-4 and OCI-LY-1, we discovered that the IP3R2-protein level was the highest for SU-DHL-4 and the lowest for OCI-LY-1. Strikingly, TAT-IDP(S)-induced Ca(2+) rise and apoptosis in the different DL-BCL cell lines strongly correlated with their IP3R2-protein level, but not with IP3R1-, IP3R3- or total IP3R-expression levels. Inhibiting or knocking down IP3R2 activity in SU-DHL-4-reduced TAT-IDP(S)-induced apoptosis, which is compatible with its ability to dissociate Bcl-2 from IP3R2 and to promote IP3-induced pro-apoptotic Ca(2+) signaling. Thus, certain chronically activated B-cell lymphoma cells are addicted to high Bcl-2 levels for their survival not only to neutralize pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family members but also to suppress IP3R hyperactivity. In particular, cancer cells expressing high levels of IP3R2 are addicted to IP3R/Bcl-2 complex formation and disruption of these complexes using peptide tools results in pro-apoptotic Ca(2+) signaling and cell death. PMID:23681227

  15. [Adaptive "3R" De-Noising Algorithm Based on Near Infrared Bi-Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-yu; Fang, Yi-ming; Tan, Feng; Wang, Zhi-gang; Tong, Liang

    2015-04-01

    Adaptive de-noising algorithm is proposed based on transmission spectrum and absorption spectrum of near infrared. Near infrared transmission spectrum and absorption spectrum collected synchronously are decomposed into intrinsic mode functions by ensemble empirical mode decomposition; the intrinsic mode function is a single frequency component. Correlations between intrinsic mode functions and transmission spectrum, absorption spectrum were calculated, and the correlation between intrinsic mode functions of transmission spectrum and absorption spectrum was also computed. The results show that the intrinsic mode function with minimum correlation coefficient should be noise component. The self-correlation of this intrinsic mode function was analyzed to judge whether the intrinsic mode function is noise. IF the self-correlation is very large at the midpoint and is zero or very small at the other point of the spectrum, then the intrinsic mode function is noise component for judgment, based on which "3R" algorithm is named to judge whether the intrinsic mode function is noise component. Removing noise component, constructing spectral signal and circulating the previous decomposition was conducted, and the noise reduction process was ended until it did not meet the "3R" rule. To do experiment on the simulated spectrum with noise, the effect of de-noising with "3R" algorithm is better than EMD and EEMD low pass filter, and it is not so good as wavelet decomposition. In the real spectrum testing, the model was established between spectra treated by above methods with chlorophyll on three layers. BP neural network, and the model de-noised by "3R" method has the biggest correlation coefficient and prediction coefficient, but the smallest correction standard error and prediction standard error. "3R" method's effects on the peak position and peak intensity of spectrum are the smallest among the four kinds of de-noising methods. Experiments show that the "3R" algorithm based on bi-spectrum can be used for near infrared spectra de-nosing without presetting the number of iterations, there is no need to consider layers of decomposition, also no need of basis function, and the adaptability is very strong. PMID:26197620

  16. Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration scheme with improved scalability using TOAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Shankar, Raji; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2006-10-01

    A novel re-timing, re-amplifying, and re-shaping (3R) regeneration system is proposed to process multiple WDM (wavelengthdivision-multiplexing) channels simultaneously. Its re-timing capability is investigated by both simulation and experiment with polarizationscrambling method at 10 Gb/s bit rate. Jitter tolerance up to 0.8 UIpp is demonstrated with BER improvement and floor breaking ability.

  17. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING PHASE 3 RESTRUCTURED (3R)

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-03-17

    This scope document defines the work scope for accomplishing the design of the GE MS7001H and MS9001H (7H and 9H) combined-cycle power systems under the original ATS Phase 3 DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-95MC31176, and incorporates changes in scope required to convert Phase 3 to the ''restructured'' Phase 3R as defined in Amendment A012 to the Cooperative Agreement.

  18. ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprinting in elite Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Mikami, E; Fuku, N; Murakami, H; Tsuchie, H; Takahashi, H; Ohiwa, N; Tanaka, H; Pitsiladis, Y P; Higuchi, M; Miyachi, M; Kawahara, T; Tanaka, M

    2014-02-01

    The ACTN3 R577X genotype has been found to associate with sprint/power phenotypes in all elite athlete cohorts investigated. This association has not been extensively studied in elite Asian athletes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association between the ACTN3 R577X genotype and elite Japanese track and field athlete status. 299 elite Japanese track and field athletes (134 sprint/power athletes; 165 endurance/middle-power athletes) and 649 Japanese controls were genotyped for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism. All athletes were of national or international level. Sprint/power athletes showed a higher frequency of RR + RX genotype than controls (111/134 [82.8%] vs. 478/649 [73.7%], P = 0.025 under the R-dominant model), while there was no significant difference between endurance/middle-power athletes and controls (126/165 [76.4%] vs. 478/649 [73.7%], P = 0.48 under the R-dominant model). Sprinters with the RR + RX genotype had significantly faster personal best times for the 100?m than those with XX genotype (10.42 ± 0.05?s vs. 10.64 ± 0.09?s, P = 0.042); no such association was found in the 400?m sprinters (47.02 ± 0.36?s vs. 47.56 ± 0.99?s, P = 0.62). ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprint/power performance in elite Japanese track and field athletes, especially short sprint performance. PMID:23868678

  19. Phase coexistence between the ( 3)R30 b and (1 1) phases

    E-print Network

    Chiang, Shirley

    Phase coexistence between the ( p 3 Â p 3)R30° ­ b and (1 Â 1) phases on Pb/Ge(1 1 1) Y. Sato, S Keywords: LEEM Phase transition Phase coexistence Metal­semiconductor interfaces Solid­liquid interfaces Germanium Lead a b s t r a c t We have characterized the phase transition between the (1 Â 1) and ( p 3 Â p

  20. Two-Dimensional Valley Electrons and Excitons in Noncentrosymmetric 3 R -MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Ryosuke; Ochi, Masayuki; Bordács, Sándor; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokura, Yoshinori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Arita, Ryotaro

    2015-07-01

    We find that the motion of the valley electrons—electronic states close to the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone—is confined into two dimensions when the layers of MoS2 form the 3 R stacking, while in the 2 H polytype, the bands have dispersion in all three dimensions. According to our first-principles band-structure calculations, the valley states have no interlayer hopping in 3 R -MoS2 , which is proven to be the consequence of the rotational symmetry of the Bloch functions. By measuring the reflectivity spectra and analyzing an anisotropic hydrogen-atom model, we confirm that the valley excitons in 3 R -MoS2 have two-dimensional hydrogenlike spectral series, and the spreads of the wave function are smaller than the interlayer distance. In contrast, the valley excitons in 2 H -MoS2 are well described by the three-dimensional model and, thus, not confined in a single layer. Our results indicate that the dimensionality of the valley degree of freedom can be controlled simply by the stacking geometry, which can be utilized in future valleytronics.

  1. Shared functional defect in IP3R-mediated calcium signaling in diverse monogenic autism syndromes.

    PubMed

    Schmunk, G; Boubion, B J; Smith, I F; Parker, I; Gargus, J J

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 2% of children, and is characterized by impaired social and communication skills together with repetitive, stereotypic behavior. The pathophysiology of ASD is complex due to genetic and environmental heterogeneity, complicating the development of therapies and making diagnosis challenging. Growing genetic evidence supports a role of disrupted Ca(2+) signaling in ASD. Here, we report that patient-derived fibroblasts from three monogenic models of ASD-fragile X and tuberous sclerosis TSC1 and TSC2 syndromes-display depressed Ca(2+) release through inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs). This was apparent in Ca(2+) signals evoked by G protein-coupled receptors and by photoreleased IP3 at the levels of both global and local elementary Ca(2+) events, suggesting fundamental defects in IP3R channel activity in ASD. Given the ubiquitous involvement of IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, gene expression and neurodevelopment, we propose dysregulated IP3R signaling as a nexus where genes altered in ASD converge to exert their deleterious effect. These findings highlight potential pharmaceutical targets, and identify Ca(2+) screening in skin fibroblasts as a promising technique for early detection of individuals susceptible to ASD. PMID:26393489

  2. Superconductivity in 3R-Ta(1-x)M(x)Se2 (M = W, Mo).

    PubMed

    Luo, Huixia; Xie, Weiwei; Seibel, Elizabeth M; Cava, R J

    2015-09-16

    The 3-layer rhombohedral (3R) polytype of TaSe2-x Te x is known to display a superconducting transition temperature that is between 6 and 17 times higher than that of the two-layer hexagonal (2H) polytype. The remarkable difference in T c, although clearly associated with a difference in polytype, could have been due to an electronic effect specific to the Te-Se substitution. Here we report that small amounts of Mo or W doping lead to a 2H to 3R polytype transition in Ta1-x Mo x Se2 and Ta1-x W x Se2. The 3R polytype materials are again found to have substantially higher T c (~2 K for Ta0.9W0.1Se2 and Ta0.9Mo0.1Se2) than the 2H material (0.15 K), eliminating the possibility that any special characteristics of the Te/Se substitution are responsible for the dramatic difference in T c. We infer that a three-layer stacking sequence is strongly preferred for superconductivity over a two-layer stacking sequence in the TaSe2 system. PMID:26289096

  3. Two dimensional valley electrons and excitons in the noncentrosymmetric 3R MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Ryosuke; Ochi, Masayuki; Bordacs, Sandor; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokura, Yoshinori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Arita, Ryotaro

    2015-03-01

    Possible control of the valley-dependent spin polarization in transition-metal dichalcogenides has been a hot topic as the valleytronics. Through the recent great progress based on the monolayer systems, people's interest is shifting to multilayered polytypes. The centrosymmetric 2H-stacked systems have been much studied for switching of the valley-dependent spin polarization. On the other hand, some of the authors [Suzuki et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 611 (2014)] have successfully fabricated the noncentrosymmetric 3R-stacked MoS2 multilayer and demonstrated the valley polarization independent of the number of layers. On the basis of this success, we further examined the valley electronic states in the 3R-MoS2 and found their novel two-dimensional properties utilizable for the valleytronics [Akashi et al., submitted.]. Namely, interlayer hopping of the valley electrons was proved to be zero as a consequence of a quantum-interference effect caused by the 3R-stacking geometry. In the talk, we report the results of the reflectivity measurement and analysis with an anisotropic hydrogen atomic model and show that the zero hopping causes 2D-hydrogen-like spectral series and confinement of the wave function within a single layer of the valley exciton. Present address: The University of Tokyo.

  4. Metabolism of (Z)-(1R,3R)-Profluthrin in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abe, Jun; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Omori, Rie; Mikata, Kazuki; Kurosawa, Motohiro; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Isobe, Naohiko

    2015-10-01

    When [benzyl-?-(14)C]-labeled (Z)-(1R,3R)-profluthrin (2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-methylbenzyl (Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl) cyclopropanecarboxylate, a newly developed pyrethroid) was administered orally to rats at 1 mg/kg, around 70% was absorbed, metabolized, and mainly excreted into urine within 48 h. Radioactivity in plasma reached Cmax at 6-8 h, and decreased (half-life; 37-52 h). A similar tendency was observed also in tissues. Absorption rate was slightly lower at high dose, while kinetics and distribution did not change. Eight metabolites were detected in urine and one in feces. Most of the (14)C in feces was unabsorbed (Z)-(1R,3R)-profluthrin. The main metabolic reactions were ester cleavage, hydroxylation of the methyl group on the C4-position of the benzene ring, and its glucuronidation or oxidation to carboxylic acid. Oxidation of the geminal dimethyl on the cyclopropane-C2 to carboxylic acid, oxidation followed by hydration of the propenyl double bond, and ?-oxidation to carboxylic acid and mercapturic acid conjugation of the benzyl alcohol were observed as minor reactions. PMID:26357989

  5. 75 FR 3471 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... Canada, and the European Free Trade Area. In the Federal Register of September 3, 2008 (73 FR 51491), FDA... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on M3(R2... Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``M3(R2)...

  6. All-optical 3R regeneration in monolithic SOA-MZI to achieve 0.4 million km fiber transmission

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    All-optical 3R regeneration in monolithic SOA-MZI to achieve 0.4 million km fiber transmission Jose, California 95134 Abstract: An all-optical 3R regenerator that combines reshaping in SOAR regeneration (Re-amplification, Re-shaping and Re-timing) is a key function in controlling

  7. IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 20, OCTOBER 15, 2006 2159 1000 Cascaded Stages of Optical 3R Regeneration

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    of Optical 3R Regeneration With SOA-MZI-Based Clock Enhancement to Achieve 10-Gb/s 125 000-km Dispersion Member, IEEE Abstract--We propose an optical 3R regenerator that incor- porates a clock enhancement stage regeneration technique using a fiber recirculation loop containing 125-km dispersion uncompensated large

  8. PS'2006 -Photonics in Switching Conference Multi-hop Optical-label Switching Using Optical 3R Regeneration

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Regeneration Z. Pan1 , H. Yang1 , Z. Zhu1 , M. Funabashi1 , S. J. B. Yoo1 1: Department of Electrical clock performs retiming. The 3R regeneration maintains a good signal quality through multiple hops swapping, optical 3R regeneration 1. Introduction The rapid growth of Internet constantly demands more

  9. Error-free 31-hop cascaded operation of an optical packet switching router with all-optical 3R regeneration

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    regeneration Zhong Pan, Zuqing Zhu, Masaki Funabashi, Haijun Yang, O. Aytug Karalar, Robert A. Marsland, S. J of an optical-label switching router. The all-optical 3R regeneration enables error-free 31-hop cascaded packet optical 3R regeneration (re-amplification, reshaping, and retiming) can partly limit the accumulation

  10. Mutations in MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 cause pleiotropic developmental defects and preferential down-regulation of multiple G2/M-specific genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Haga, Nozomi; Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Takamasa; Maeo, Kenichiro; Kubo, Minoru; Ohtani, Misato; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Demura, Taku; Nakamura, Kenzo; Jürgens, Gerd; Ito, Masaki

    2011-10-01

    R1R2R3-Myb proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved class of Myb family proteins important for cell cycle regulation and differentiation in eukaryotic cells. In plants, this class of Myb proteins are believed to regulate the transcription of G2/M phase-specific genes by binding to common cis-elements, called mitosis-specific activator (MSA) elements. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 act as transcriptional activators and positively regulate cytokinesis by activating the transcription of KNOLLE, which encodes a cytokinesis-specific syntaxin. Here, we show that the double mutation myb3r1 myb3r4 causes pleiotropic developmental defects, some of which are due to deficiency of KNOLLE whereas other are not, suggesting that multiple target genes are involved. Consistently, microarray analysis of the double mutant revealed altered expression of many genes, among which G2/M-specific genes showed significant overrepresentation of the MSA motif and a strong tendency to be down-regulated by the double mutation. Our results demonstrate, on a genome-wide level, the importance of the MYB3R-MSA pathway for regulating G2/M-specific transcription. In addition, MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 may have diverse roles during plant development by regulating G2/M-specific genes with various functions as well as genes possibly unrelated to the cell cycle. PMID:21862669

  11. Software-programmable continuous-flow multi-purpose lab-on-a-chip

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Ahmed M.; Thakur, Raviraj; Madren, Seth; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Thottethodi, Mithuna; Vijaykumar, T. N.; Wereley, Steven T.; Jacobson, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Current lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices are assay-specific and are custom-built for each single experiment. Performing an experiment requires scientists or engineers to go through the time-consuming process of designing, fabricating, and testing a chip before conducting the actual experiment. This prolonged cycle can take months to complete, increasing effort and cost and reducing productivity. Similarly, minor modifications to an assay protocol re-incur the overheads of the design cycle. In this paper, we develop a multi-purpose, software-programmableLab-on-a-Chip (SPLoC), where the user simply writes or downloads a program for each experiment. We describe the components necessary to realize the SPLoC, which include a high-level programming language, an abstract instruction set, a runtime and control system, and a microfluidic device. We describe two key features of our high-level language compiler, and describe a novel variable-volume variable-ratio mixer. Finally, we demonstrate our SPLoC on four diverse, real-world assays. PMID:24436691

  12. A multipurpose quality assurance phantom for the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Tsiamas, Panagiotis; Zygmanski, Piotr; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike; Berbeco, Ross I.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, the suitability and performance of a mouse-size MOSFET (Mousefet) phantom is investigated for routine quality assurance (QA) of the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). This Mousefet phantom is a simple construction consisting of five micro-MOSFETS custom integrated in a quincunx pattern within a tissue-equivalent phantom, allowing repeat/multiple QA tasks to be quickly performed in one experimental set-up. The Mousefet phantom is particularly evaluated for facilitating SARRP QA tasks which may warrant daily evaluation, including output constancy, isocenter congruency test and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image geometric accuracy. Results for the output constancy measurements showed a maximum daily variation of less than 2.6% for all MOSFETS, in consonance with observations from concurrent ion chamber measurements. It is also shown that the design of the Mousefet phantom allows the output check data to be used for prompt verification of beam energy and cone profile constancy. For the isocenter congruency test, it is demonstrated that the Mousefet phantom can detect 0.3 mm deviations of the CBCT isocenter from the radiation isocenter. Meanwhile, results for CBCT image geometric accuracy were consistently found to be within 2% of the expected value. Other CBCT image quality parameters could also be assessed in terms of image intensity constancy, noise and image uniformity. Overall, the results establish the Mousefet phantom as a simple and time-efficient multipurpose tool that could be employed effectively for routine QA of the SARRP.

  13. A case study: Transforming a vaudeville theatre into a 21st century multi-purpose hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaske, Richard H.; Hoffman, Ian B.; Laney, Jonathan P.

    2002-05-01

    Originally constructed in 1927 as an atmospheric, vaudeville theatre, the Coronado enjoyed 50 years as host to a true variety of events. In the 1970s, functional and space limitations became a catalyst for touring events to avoid the Coronado, and the theatre fell into disrepair. In the mid-1990s, a renovation was planned (completed January 2001) to restore the glory of the original theatre and upgrade it to be a viable multi-purpose hall for the 21st century. By annexing two neighboring buildings, many of the space limitations could be overcome in both the front- and back-of-house. The scope included a significantly enlarged stage and stagehouse, performer support spaces, expanded lobby spaces, quiet ventilation systems, and a new music rehearsal room. Acoustically, a primary goal was to upgrade the hall for both reinforced music/theatre performances and unreinforced, orchestral performances. However, historical regulations prevented modification to the room shape and configuration. In order to make the room suitable for unreinforced music, two primary acoustic features were instituted-a semi-custom concert enclosure for the stage and an acoustic enhancement system for the audience chamber. For theatrical and popular music events, a new performance audio system was designed and integrated into the hall.

  14. A multipurpose camera system for monitoring K?lauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim R.; Lee, Lopaka; Moniz, Cyril J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low-cost, compact multipurpose camera system designed for field deployment at active volcanoes that can be used either as a webcam (transmitting images back to an observatory in real-time) or as a time-lapse camera system (storing images onto the camera system for periodic retrieval during field visits). The system also has the capability to acquire high-definition video. The camera system uses a Raspberry Pi single-board computer and a 5-megapixel low-light (near-infrared sensitive) camera, as well as a small Global Positioning System (GPS) module to ensure accurate time-stamping of images. Custom Python scripts control the webcam and GPS unit and handle data management. The inexpensive nature of the system allows it to be installed at hazardous sites where it might be lost. Another major advantage of this camera system is that it provides accurate internal timing (independent of network connection) and, because a full Linux operating system and the Python programming language are available on the camera system itself, it has the versatility to be configured for the specific needs of the user. We describe example deployments of the camera at K?lauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, to monitor ongoing summit lava lake activity. 

  15. The multipurpose time-of-flight neutron reflectometer “Platypus” at Australia's OPAL reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; Saerbeck, T.; Hamilton, W. A.; Klose, F.

    2011-03-01

    In this manuscript we describe the major components of the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer at the 20 MW OPAL reactor in Sydney, Australia. Platypus is a multipurpose spectrometer for the characterisation of solid thin films, materials adsorbed at the solid-liquid interface and free-liquid surfaces. It also has the capacity to study magnetic thin films using spin-polarised neutrons. Platypus utilises a white neutron beam ( ?=2-20 Å) that is pulsed using boron-coated disc chopper pairs; thus providing the capacity to tailor the wavelength resolution of the pulses to suit the system under investigation. Supermirror optical components are used to focus, deflect or spin-polarise the broad bandwidth neutron beams, and typical incident spectra are presented for each configuration. A series of neutron reflectivity datasets are presented, indicating the quality and flexibility of this spectrometer. Minimum reflectivity values of <10 -7 are observed; while maximum thickness values of 325 nm have been measured for single-component films and 483 nm for a multilayer system. Off-specular measurements have also been made to investigate in-plane features as opposed to those normal to the sample surface. Finally, the first published studies conducted using the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer are presented.

  16. Newly Elaborated Multipurpose Polymer Electrolyte Encompassing RTILs for Smart Energy-Efficient Devices.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jijeesh R; Porcarelli, Luca; Bella, Federico; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2015-06-17

    Profoundly ion-conducting, self-standing, and tack-free ethylene oxide-based polymer electrolytes encompassing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) with specific amounts of lithium salt are successfully prepared via a rapid and easily upscalable process including a UV irradiation step. All prepared materials are thoroughly characterized in terms of their physical, chemical, and morphological properties and eventually galvanostatically cycled in lab-scale lithium batteries (LIBs) exploiting a novel direct polymerization procedure to get intimate electrode/electrolyte interfacial characteristics. The promising multipurpose characteristics of the newly elaborated materials are demonstrated by testing them in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), where the introduction of the iodine/iodide-based redox mediator in the polymer matrix assured the functioning of a lab-scale test cell with conversion efficiency exceeding 6% at 1 sun. The reported results enlighten the promising prospects of the material to be successfully implemented as stable, durable, and efficient electrolyte in next-generation energy conversion and storage devices. PMID:26020809

  17. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Ruytenberg, T; Webb, A G; Beenakker, J W M

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points. PMID:25222861

  18. MYRRHA a multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abderrahim, H. A.; Baeten, P.

    2012-07-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator driven system (ADS) in development at SCK-CEN. MYRRHA is able to work both in subcritical (ADS) as in critical mode. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for generation IV (GEN IV) systems, material developments for fusion reactors, radioisotope production and industrial applications, such as Si-doping. MYRRHA will also demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling the three components (accelerator, spallation target and subcritical reactor) at reasonable power level to allow operation feedback, scalable to an industrial demonstrator and allow the study of efficient transmutation of high-level nuclear waste. MYRRHA is based on the heavy liquid metal technology and so it will contribute to the development of lead fast reactor (LFR) technology and in critical mode, MYRRHA will play the role of European technology pilot plant in the roadmap for LFR. In this paper the historical evolution of MYRRHA and the rationale behind the design choices is presented and the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system is described. (authors)

  19. Development of flaw acceptance criteria for aging management of spent nuclear fuel multi-purpose canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Poh -Sang; Sindelar, Robert L.

    2015-03-09

    A typical multipurpose canister (MPC) is made of austenitic stainless steel and is loaded with spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation when it is exposed to aggressive atmospheric environments during a possibly long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Because heat treatment for stress relief is not required for the construction of an MPC, stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic in-service Inspection. The first-order instability flaw sizes has been determined with bounding flaw configurations, that is, through-wall axial or circumferential cracks, and part-through-wall long axial flaw or 360° circumferential crack. The procedure recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service code (Second Edition) is used to estimate the instability crack length or depth by implementing the failure assessment diagram (FAD) methodology. The welding residual stresses are mostly unknown and are therefore estimated with the API 579 procedure. It is demonstrated in this paper that the residual stress has significant impact on the instability length or depth of the crack. The findings will limit the applicability of the flaw tolerance obtained from limit load approach where residual stress is ignored and only ligament yielding is considered.

  20. Study of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.; Raman, A.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    1994-01-01

    There has been a critical need for analyzing various aspects of atmospheric corrosion and for the development of atmospheric corrosion microsensors. The project work has involved the following activities: (1) making of multielectrode corrosion monitors on dielectric substrates; (2) testing them in the laboratory for functional characteristics; (3) preparing a report on the state of the art of atmospheric corrosion sensor development around the world; and (4) corrosion testing of electrochemical changes of sensor specimens and related fog testing. The study included work on the subject of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor and this report is the annual report on work carried out on this research project. This has included studies on the development of sensors of two designs, stage 1 and stage 2, and with glass and alumina substrate, experimentation and development and characterization of the coating uniformity, aspects of corrosion monitoring, literature search on the corrosion sensors and their development. A state of the art report on atmospheric corrosion sensor development was prepared and submitted.

  1. DISMANTLING OF THE UPPER RPV COMPONENTS OF THE KARLSRUHE MULTI-PURPOSE RESEARCH REACTOR (MZFR), GERMANY

    SciTech Connect

    Prechtl, E.; Suessdorf, W.

    2003-02-27

    The Multi-purpose Research Reactor was a pressurized-water reactor cooled and moderated with heavy water. It was built from 1961 to 1966 and went critical for the first time on 29 September 1965. After nineteen years of successful operation, the reactor was de-activated on 3 May 1984. The reactor had a thermal output of 200 MW and an electrical output of 50 MW. The MZFR not only served to supply electrical power, but also as a test bed for: - research into various materials for reactor building (e. g. zirkaloy), - the manufacturing and operating industry to gain experience in erection and operation, - training scientific and technical reactor staff, and - power supply (first nuclear combined-heat-and-power system, 1979-1984). The experience gained in operating the MZFR was very helpful for the development and operation of power reactors. At first, safe containment and enclosure of the plant was planned, but then it was decided to dismantle the plant completely, step by step, in view o f the clear advantages of this approach. The decommissioning concept for the complete elimination of the plant down to a green-field site provides for eight steps. A separate decommissioning license is required for each step. As part of the dismantling, about 72,000 Mg [metric tons] of concrete and 7,200 Mg of metal (400 Mg RPV) must be removed. About 700 Mg of concrete (500 Mg biological shield) and 1300 Mg of metal must be classified as radioactive waste.

  2. Performance of Three Multipurpose Disinfecting Solutions with a Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens

    PubMed Central

    García-Porta, Nery; Rico-del-Viejo, Laura; Ferreira-Neves, Helena; Peixoto-de-Matos, Sofia C.; Queirós, Antonio; González-Méijome, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the clinical performance of a silicone hydrogel (Si-Hy) soft contact lens (CL) in combination with three different multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDSs). Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, single-masked, crossover, and comparative study in which 31 habitual soft CL wearers were randomly assigned to one of the three MPDSs (Synergi, COMPLETE RevitaLens, and OPTI-FREE PureMoist) for 1 month with a 1-week wash-out period between each exposure. All subjects were successfully refitted with a Si-Hy CL (Biofinity). Subjects were then scheduled for follow-up visits after 1 month of lens wear, being evaluated at 2 and 8 hours after lens insertion. Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) were used to gauge comfort rating. Results. The tarsal conjunctiva showed a significantly different degree of lid redness between the MPDSs at the 2-hour visit (P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test), being lower for COMPLETE RevitaLens compared to the other two MPDSs (Mann-Whitney U test). Furthermore, a significantly different degree of lid roughness at the 8-hour visit was seen (P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test), being higher for Synergi (Mann-Whitney U test). The subjective comfort was similar with the three MPDSs. Conclusion. Tarsal conjunctival response should be also considered in the context of the clinical performance of MPDs at the ocular surface. PMID:25918703

  3. Long-term Surgical Outcomes of the Multi-purpose Conical Porous Synthetic Orbital Implant

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Ji; Jung, Su-Kyung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Paik, Ji-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We present clinical results of the use of the multipurpose conical porous synthetic orbital implant (MCOI) in surgical procedures of evisceration, enucleation, and secondary enucleation in ophthalmology patients. Methods A retrospective review was performed of 59 eyes in which conical implants were used, including 36 cases of eviscerations, 11 enucleations, and 9 secondary enucleations. In all of the cases, the follow-up period was greater than six months between 2004 and 2013. The results focus on documenting surgical findings, as well as postoperative complications among patients. Results Superior sulcus deformities were found in six eyes (10.2% of conical implant patients), and two eyes received additional surgical interventions to correct the deformities (3.4%). Blepharoptosis was found in four eyes (6.8%), two of which received upper eyelid blepharoplasty (3.4%). Fornix shortening was reported in only one eye (1.7%). Forty-one eyes had a satisfactory cosmetic appearance after the final prosthetic fitting of conical implants (69.5%). The most frequent postoperative complication was orbital implant exposure, which seemed to occur when the preoperative status of the conjunctiva, Tenon's capsule, and sclera preservation were poor in the eyes of the patients. Conclusions There was a lower incidence of blepharoptosis and fornix shortening with the MCOI in comparison to spherical implants, while the incidence of orbital implant exposure was similar with the MCOI in comparison to other types of orbital implants. In addition, the MCOI may have advantages with respect to postoperative cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26457034

  4. Cultural Resource Investigations for a Multipurpose Haul Road on the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Cameron Brizzee; Hollie Gilbert; Clayton Marler; Julie Braun Williams

    2010-08-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a multipurpose haul road to transport materials and wastes between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and other Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site facilities. The proposed road will be closed to the public and designed for limited year-round use. Two primary options are under consideration: a new route south of the existing T-25 power line road and an upgrade to road T-24. In the Spring of 2010, archaeological field surveys and initial coordination and field reconnaissance with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes were completed to identify any resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed road construction and to develop recommendations to protect any listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The investigations showed that 24 archaeological resources and one historic marker are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation south of the T-25 powerline road and 27archaeological resources are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation along road T-24. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both road corridors. This report outlines recommendations for additional investigations and protective measures that can be implemented to minimize adverse impacts to the identified resources.

  5. A Design and Development of Multi-Purpose CCD Camera System with Thermoelectric Cooling: Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, S. H.; Kang, Y. W.; Byun, Y. I.

    2007-12-01

    We present a software which we developed for the multi-purpose CCD camera. This software can be used on the all 3 types of CCD - KAF-0401E (768×512), KAF-1602E (15367times;1024), KAF-3200E (2184×1472) made in KODAK Co.. For the efficient CCD camera control, the software is operated with two independent processes of the CCD control program and the temperature/shutter operation program. This software is designed to fully automatic operation as well as manually operation under LINUX system, and is controled by LINUX user signal procedure. We plan to use this software for all sky survey system and also night sky monitoring and sky observation. As our results, the read-out time of each CCD are about 15sec, 64sec, 134sec for KAF-0401E, KAF-1602E, KAF-3200E., because these time are limited by the data transmission speed of parallel port. For larger format CCD, the data transmission is required more high speed. we are considering this control software to one using USB port for high speed data transmission.

  6. Development of JSTAMP-Works/NV and HYSTAMP for Multipurpose Multistage Sheet Metal Forming Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu

    2005-08-05

    Since 1996, Japan Research Institute Limited (JRI) has been providing a sheet metal forming simulation system called JSTAMP-Works packaged the FEM solvers of LS-DYNA and JOH/NIKE, which might be the first multistage system at that time and has been enjoying good reputation among users in Japan. To match the recent needs, 'faster, more accurate and easier', of process designers and CAE engineers, a new metal forming simulation system JSTAMP-Works/NV is developed. The JSTAMP-Works/NV packaged the automatic healing function of CAD and had much more new capabilities such as prediction of 3D trimming lines for flanging or hemming, remote control of solver execution for multi-stage forming processes and shape evaluation between FEM and CAD.On the other way, a multi-stage multi-purpose inverse FEM solver HYSTAMP is developed and will be soon put into market, which is approved to be very fast, quite accurate and robust.Lastly, authors will give some application examples of user defined ductile damage subroutine in LS-DYNA for the estimation of material failure and springback in metal forming simulation.

  7. Development of JSTAMP-Works/NV and HYSTAMP for Multipurpose Multistage Sheet Metal Forming Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu

    2005-08-01

    Since 1996, Japan Research Institute Limited (JRI) has been providing a sheet metal forming simulation system called JSTAMP-Works packaged the FEM solvers of LS-DYNA and JOH/NIKE, which might be the first multistage system at that time and has been enjoying good reputation among users in Japan. To match the recent needs, "faster, more accurate and easier", of process designers and CAE engineers, a new metal forming simulation system JSTAMP-Works/NV is developed. The JSTAMP-Works/NV packaged the automatic healing function of CAD and had much more new capabilities such as prediction of 3D trimming lines for flanging or hemming, remote control of solver execution for multi-stage forming processes and shape evaluation between FEM and CAD. On the other way, a multi-stage multi-purpose inverse FEM solver HYSTAMP is developed and will be soon put into market, which is approved to be very fast, quite accurate and robust. Lastly, authors will give some application examples of user defined ductile damage subroutine in LS-DYNA for the estimation of material failure and springback in metal forming simulation.

  8. Earthscape, a Multi-Purpose Interactive 3d Globe Viewer for Hybrid Data Visualization and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarthou, A.; Mas, S.; Jacquin, M.; Moreno, N.; Salamon, A.

    2015-08-01

    The hybrid visualization and interaction tool EarthScape is presented here. The software is able to display simultaneously LiDAR point clouds, draped videos with moving footprint, volume scientific data (using volume rendering, isosurface and slice plane), raster data such as still satellite images, vector data and 3D models such as buildings or vehicles. The application runs on touch screen devices such as tablets. The software is based on open source libraries, such as OpenSceneGraph, osgEarth and OpenCV, and shader programming is used to implement volume rendering of scientific data. The next goal of EarthScape is to perform data analysis using ENVI Services Engine, a cloud data analysis solution. EarthScape is also designed to be a client of Jagwire which provides multisource geo-referenced video fluxes. When all these components will be included, EarthScape will be a multi-purpose platform that will provide at the same time data analysis, hybrid visualization and complex interactions. The software is available on demand for free at france@exelisvis.com.

  9. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  10. MATISSE: Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Antonelli, L. A.

    In planetary sciences, design, assemble and launch onboard instruments are only preliminary steps toward the final aim of converting data into scientific knowledge, as the real challenge is the data analysis and interpretation. Up to now data have been generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e. common ftp servers where the user can manually search for data browsing directories organized in a time order manner. However, as datasets to be stored and searched become particularly large, this latter task absorbs a great part of the time, subtracting time to the real scientific work. In order to reduce the time spent to search and analyze data MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), a new set of software tools developed together with the scientific teams of the instruments involved, is under development at ASDC (ASI Science Data Center), whose experience in space missions data management is well known (e.g., \\citealt{verrecchia07,pittori09,giommi09,massaro11}) and its features and aims will be presented here.

  11. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruytenberg, T.; Webb, A. G.; Beenakker, J. W. M.

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points.

  12. Evaluation of Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and Multi-Purpose Crew Restraint Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of the Multi-purpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Spaceflights project, funded by Code U, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations on the ground and on the KC-135 to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as the design of crew restraints. The usability of multiple crew restraints was evaluated for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and for performing general purpose tasks. The purpose of the KC-135 microgravity evaluation was to: (1) to investigate the usability and effectiveness of the concepts developed, (2) to gather recommendations for further development of the concepts, and (3) to verify the validity of the existing requirements. Some designs had already been tested during a March KC-135 evaluation, and testing revealed the need for modifications/enhancements. This flight was designed to test the new iterations, as well as some new concepts. This flight also involved higher fidelity tasks in the LSG, and the addition of load cells on the gloveports.

  13. Software-programmable continuous-flow multi-purpose lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmed M; Thakur, Raviraj; Madren, Seth; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Thottethodi, Mithuna; Vijaykumar, T N; Wereley, Steven T; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2013-11-01

    Current lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices are assay-specific and are custom-built for each single experiment. Performing an experiment requires scientists or engineers to go through the time-consuming process of designing, fabricating, and testing a chip before conducting the actual experiment. This prolonged cycle can take months to complete, increasing effort and cost and reducing productivity. Similarly, minor modifications to an assay protocol re-incur the overheads of the design cycle. In this paper, we develop a multi-purpose, software-programmableLab-on-a-Chip (SPLoC), where the user simply writes or downloads a program for each experiment. We describe the components necessary to realize the SPLoC, which include a high-level programming language, an abstract instruction set, a runtime and control system, and a microfluidic device. We describe two key features of our high-level language compiler, and describe a novel variable-volume variable-ratio mixer. Finally, we demonstrate our SPLoC on four diverse, real-world assays. PMID:24436691

  14. Evaluation of Suited and Unsuited Human Functional Strength Using Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazadeh, Fred

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the planned summer research was to develop a procedure to determine the isokinetic functional strength of suited and unsuited participants in order to estimate the coefficient of micro-gravity suit on human strength. To accomplish this objective, the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility's Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic dynamometer (MMID) was used. Development of procedure involved selection and testing of seven routines to be tested on MMID. We conducted the related experiments and collected the data for 12 participants. In addition to the above objective, we developed a procedure to assess the fatiguing characteristics of suited and unsuited participants using EMG technique. We collected EMG data on 10 participants while performing a programmed routing on MMID. EMG data along with information on the exerted forces, effector speed, number of repetitions, and duration of each routine were recorded for further analysis. Finally, gathering and tabulation Of data for various human strengths for updating of MSIS (HSIS) strength requirement, which started in summer 2003, also continued.

  15. Application of probabilistic hydrologic forecasting for risk analysis of multipurpose reservoir real-time operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of the risk for reservoir real-time operation is a hard task owing to the difficulty of accurate description of inflow uncertainties. The ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting depicts the inflow not only the marginal distributions but also their corrections by producing inflow scenarios. This motivates us to analyze the reservoir real-time operating risk with ensemble-based hydrologic forecasting inputs. The proposed procedure involves: (1) based upon the Bayesian inference, the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is implemented to produce ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, (2) the reservoir risk is defined as the ratio of the number of scenarios that excessive the critical value to the total number of scenarios, (3) a multipurpose reservoir operation model is built and solved using scenario optimization to produce Pareto solutions for trade-offs between risks and profits. With a case study of the China's Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) for the 2010 and 2012 floods, it is found that the reservoir real-time operation risks can be estimated directly and minimized based on the proposed methods, and is easy of implementation by the reservoir operators.

  16. Risk Analysis of Multipurpose Reservoir Real-time Operation based on Probabilistic Hydrologic Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of the risk for reservoir real-time operation is a hard task owing to the difficulty of accurate description of inflow uncertainties. The ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, which outputs a lot of inflow scenarios or traces, does well in depicting the inflow not only the marginal distribution but also their corrections. This motivates us to analyze the reservoir operating risk by inputting probabilistic hydrologic forecasting into reservoir real-time operation. The proposed procedure involves: (1) based upon the Bayesian inference, two alternative techniques, the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), are implemented for producing probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, respectively, (2) the reservoir risk is defined as the ratio of the number of traces that excessive (or below) the critical value to the total number of traces, and (3) a multipurpose reservoir operation model is build to produce Pareto solutions for trade-offs between risks and profits with the inputted probabilistic hydrologic forecasting. With a case study of the China's Three Gorges Reservoir, it is found that the reservoir real-time operation risks can be estimated and minimized based on the proposed methods, and this is great potential benefit in decision and choosing the most realistic one.

  17. NASA and ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen E.; Grantier, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    (1) ESA decided in its Council Meeting in March 2011 to partially offset the European ISS obligations after 2015 with different means than ATVs; (2) The envisioned approach is based on a barter element(s) that would generate cost avoidance on the NASA side; (3) NASA and ESA considered a number of Barter options, NASA concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter with the most interest;. (4) A joint ESA - NASA working group was established in May 2011 to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage; (5)The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin; and (6) The project is currently in phase B1 with the objective to prepare a technical and programmatic proposal for an ESA MPCV-SM development. This proposal will be one element of the package that ESA plans submit to go forward for approval by European Ministers in November 2012.

  18. Design and characterization of specMACS, a multipurpose hyperspectral cloud and sky imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewald, F.; Kölling, T.; Baumgartner, A.; Zinner, T.; Mayer, B.

    2015-09-01

    The new spectrometer of the Munich Aerosol Cloud Scanner (specMACS) is a multipurpose hyperspectral cloud and sky imager designated, but not limited to investigations of cloud-aerosol interactions in Earth's atmosphere. Equipped with a high spectral and spatial resolution, the instrument is designed to measure solar radiation in the visible and short-wave infrared region that is reflected from, or transmitted through clouds and aerosol layers. It is based on two hyperspectral line cameras that measure in the solar spectral range between 400-2500 nm with a spectral bandwidth between 2.5-12.0 nm. The instrument was already operated in ground-based campaigns as well as aboard the German High Altitude LOng Range (HALO) research aircraft, e.g. during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign in Brazil during summer 2014. This paper describes the specMACS instrument hardware and software design and characterizes the instrument performance. During the laboratory characterization of the instrument the radiometric response as well as the spatial and spectral performance was assessed. Since the instrument is primarily intended for retrievals of atmospheric quantities by inversion of radiative models using measured radiances, a focus is placed on the determination of its radiometric response. Radiometric characterization was possible for both spectrometers with an absolute accuracy of 3 % at their respective central wavelength regions. First measurements are presented which demonstrate the application possibilities and show that the key demands on radiometric and spectral accuracy as posed by the intended remote sensing techniques are fulfilled.

  19. Multi-criteria objective based climate change impact assessment for multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels

    2014-05-01

    Water resources systems with reservoirs are expected to be sensitive to climate change. Assessment studies that analyze the impact of climate change on the performance of reservoirs can be divided in two groups: (1) Studies that simulate the operation under projected inflows with the current set of operational rules. Due to non adapted operational rules the future performance of these reservoirs can be underestimated and the impact overestimated. (2) Studies that optimize the operational rules for best adaption of the system to the projected conditions before the assessment of the impact. The latter allows for estimating more realistically future performance and adaption strategies based on new operation rules are available if required. Multi-purpose reservoirs serve various, often conflicting functions. If all functions cannot be served simultaneously at a maximum level, an effective compromise between multiple objectives of the reservoir operation has to be provided. Yet under climate change the historically preferenced compromise may no longer be the most suitable compromise in the future. Therefore a multi-objective based climate change impact assessment approach for multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems is proposed in the study. Projected inflows are provided in a first step using a physically based rainfall-runoff model. In a second step, a time series model is applied to generate long-term inflow time series. Finally, the long-term inflow series are used as driving variables for a simulation-based multi-objective optimization of the reservoir system in order to derive optimal operation rules. As a result, the adapted Pareto-optimal set of diverse best compromise solutions can be presented to the decision maker in order to assist him in assessing climate change adaption measures with respect to the future performance of the multi-purpose reservoir system. The approach is tested on a multi-purpose multi-reservoir system in a mountainous catchment in Germany. A climate change assessment is performed for climate change scenarios based on the SRES emission scenarios A1B, B1 and A2 for a set of statistically downscaled meteorological data. The future performance of the multi-purpose multi-reservoir system is quantified and possible intensifications of trade-offs between management goals or reservoir utilizations are shown.

  20. The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Fitness in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Chelsea L.; Connors, Kimberly E.; Klein, Matthias S.; Johnsen, Virginia L.; Shearer, Jane; Vogel, Hans J.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Many, Gina M.; Barfield, Whitney; Hoffman, Eric P.; Kraus, William E.; Hittel, Dustin S.

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity for a premature stop codon (X) in the ACTN3 “sprinter” gene is common in humans despite the fact that it reduces muscle size, strength and power. Because of the close relationship between skeletal muscle function and cardiometabolic health we examined the influence of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism over cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young adults (n = 98 males, n = 102 females; 23 ± 4.2 years) from our Assessing Inherent Markers for Metabolic syndrome in the Young (AIMMY) study. Both males and females with the RR vs XX genotype achieved higher mean VO2 peak scores (47.8 ± 1.5 vs 43.2 ±1.8 ml/O2/min, p = 0.002) and exhibited higher resting systolic (115 ± 2 vs 105 ± mmHg, p = 0.027) and diastolic (69 ± 3 vs 59 ± 3 mmHg, p = 0.005) blood pressure suggesting a role for ACTN3 in the maintenance of vascular tone. We subsequently identified the expression of alpha-actinin 3 protein in pulmonary artery smooth muscle, which may explain the genotype-specific differences in cardiovascular adaptation to acute exercise. In addition, we utilized targeted serum metabolomics to distinguish between RR and XX genotypes, suggesting an additional role for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in human metabolism. Taken together, these results identify significant cardiometabolic effects associated with possessing one or more functional copies of the ACTN3 gene. PMID:26107372

  1. PEPPER (BELL): Capsicum annuum (L.), 'X3R Lancelot' MANAGEMENT OF PESTS OF BELL PEPPER WITH HORTICULTURAL MINERAL OIL, 2004

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    (E47) PEPPER (BELL): Capsicum annuum (L.), 'X3R Lancelot' MANAGEMENT OF PESTS OF BELL PEPPER, including peppers in south Florida. Greenhouse-raised pepper plants were transplanted on 20 Sep at 10- inch

  2. Neomorphic Mutations in PIK3R1 Confer Sensitivity to MAPK Inhibitors due to Activation of ERK and JNK Pathways

    Cancer.gov

    In a recent publication in Cancer Cell, CTD2 investigators discovered that a known cancer-associated gain-of-function alteration in phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 (PIK3R1) results in novel protein activity that confers sensitivity to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. The PIK3R1 gene encodes the p85? regulatory subunit of PIK3. Under normal conditions, p85? suppresses PIK3 mediated activation of downstream pathways that promote cell growth and survival.

  3. HyBIS - a low cost, multi-purpose, modular vehicle for detailed ocean mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huehnerbach, V.; Murton, B.; Berndt, C.; Garrard, J.; Wollatz-Vogt, M.; Wetzel, G.; Matthiessen, T.

    2013-12-01

    HyBIS is a low-cost, multi-purpose, highly maneuverable, fibre-optic controlled survey and sampling robotic underwater vehicle (RUV) capable of diving to 6000m. Built in the UK by Hydro-Lek Ltd. in collaboration with the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, it has proven itself during recent discoveries of the deepest hydrothermal vents in the world, at 5100m deep in the Cayman Trough in the Caribbean and habitat mapping of seamounts in the Atlantic and Indian oceans . The vehicle has a modular design, with the top module being a command and power system that comprises power management, cameras, lights, hydraulics, thrusters and telemetry. The lower module can alternatively be a clam-shell sampling grab, a manipulator-arm and tool sled, a winch for instrument recovery, or an ocean bottom seismometer deployment module. Unlike a conventional ROV, HyBIS does not have any floatation, rather it is suspended by its umbilical cable directly from the ship. The advantage of direct suspension is that HyBIS can recover or deploy a payload of up to 700kg, although this comes at the price of reduced maneuverability compared to a 'normal' ROV. During its four years of service, HyBIS has, so far, accumulated an impressive list of achievements: recording over 450 hours of HD video footage, thousands of HD still images, collected geological, biological samples, as well as fluids and gas from over 40 different sites. It has also recovered two different seabed landers containing scientific equipment worth over £300k, and placed Ocean Bottom Seismometers onto the seafloor.

  4. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of a new multipurpose disinfecting solution on silicone hydrogel contact lenses?

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Fraga, José; Blázquez Arauzo, Francisco; Urbano Rodríguez, Rubén; González-García, María J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new multipurpose disinfecting solution (MPDS) with a formulation that includes aloe vera on its composition. Methods This is a prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical trial with a crossover design that included seven examinations. Two different MPDSs, Avizor Alvera® (study solution) and All Clean Soft® (control solution), each were used for 1 month. Comfilcon A silicone hydrogel contact lenses were used during the trial. The main outcome variables were corneal staining and deposits on the surfaces of the contact lenses. Other parameters including ocular surface response, contact lens wettability, user satisfaction, and adverse events, were analyzed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 11980:2010 guidance for clinical investigation. Results Twenty subjects (10 women, 10 men) (mean age, 27.7 ± 5.6 years; range, 20–41) were included. No differences between both MPDSs were found in the percentage of subjects with corneal staining >0 at day 30 (study: 35%, control: 50%; p = 0.46); neither in the percentage of subjects with deposits on the surface of the contact lens >0 at day 30 (study: 26.32%, control: 52.63%; p = 0.18). The study MPDS received higher rates in comfort (study: 8.14 ± 1.09, control: 7.94 ± 0.92; p = 0.56) and satisfaction at day 30 (study: 8.63 ± 0.91, control: 8.29 ± 0.80; p = 0.19), however the scores were not significantly different with the control MPDS. Conclusions The clinical trial showed that the study MPDS is safe, efficient, and has acceptable physiologic tolerance, according to the ISO 11980:2010 guidance for clinical investigation. PMID:25649640

  5. Honeycomblike large area LaB{sub 6} plasma source for Multi-Purpose Plasma facility

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Kyu-Sun; You, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Lho, Taihyeop; Choh, Kwon Kook; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Yong Ho; Lee, Bongju; Yoo, Suk Jae; Kwon, Myeon

    2007-10-15

    A Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP{sup 2}) facility has been renovated from Hanbit mirror device [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 686 (2003)] by adopting the same philosophy of diversified plasma simulator (DiPS) [Chung et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46, 354 (2006)] by installing two plasma sources: LaB{sub 6} (dc) and helicon (rf) plasma sources; and making three distinct simulators: divertor plasma simulator, space propulsion simulator, and astrophysics simulator. During the first renovation stage, a honeycomblike large area LaB{sub 6} (HLA-LaB{sub 6}) cathode was developed for the divertor plasma simulator to improve the resistance against the thermal shock fragility for large and high density plasma generation. A HLA-LaB{sub 6} cathode is composed of the one inner cathode with 4 in. diameter and the six outer cathodes with 2 in. diameter along with separate graphite heaters. The first plasma is generated with Ar gas and its properties are measured by the electric probes with various discharge currents and magnetic field configurations. Plasma density at the middle of central cell reaches up to 2.6x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, while the electron temperature remains around 3-3.5 eV at the low discharge current of less than 45 A, and the magnetic field intensity of 870 G. Unique features of electric property of heaters, plasma density profiles, is explained comparing with those of single LaB{sub 6} cathode with 4 in. diameter in DiPS.

  6. Superconducting solenoid magnet for the Multi-Purpose Detector at the NICA facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunzarov, Zh; Dodokhov, V.; Efremov, A.; Golovatyuk, V.; Ionaites, V.; Kekelidze, V.; Kovalchuk, O.; Koshurnikov, E.; Lobanov, Yu; Makarov, A.; Ochrimenko, V.; Vodopyanov, A.

    2014-09-01

    The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is a 4? spectrometer to be used for studying charged hadrons, electrons and photons generated in heavy ion collisions at energies provided by the NICA collider of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna). A constituent part of MPD is a solenoid magnet with superconducting NbTi coil and steel flux return yoke. The magnet is intended for providing a highly homogeneous magnetic field of 0.5 T in an aperture of 4596 mm in diameter to ensure the transverse momentum resolution within the range of 0.1-3 GeV/c at NICA. The mass of the magnet is eight hundred tons. Structurally, the MPD magnet yoke is a cylindrical barrel-like structure, which consists of 24 beams that return the magnetic flux of the coil, two support rings, two poles and two support cradles that carry the total weight of the detector. The stainless cryostat with the superconducting coil is rigidly fixed inside the yoke barrel. The structural arrangement of the yoke guarantees high rigidity of the whole magnet and will ensure the required field homogeneity and integral of the radial magnetic induction component in the TPC region after subsequent withdrawals of the poles and multiple movements of the magnet to the assembly site for updating or repair. The coil is a one-layer solenoid made of an aluminum stabilized superconductor. The conductor is wound onto inside the aluminum support cylinder. The cooling method chosen for the MPD magnet is based on the forced two-phase helium flow using a helium refrigerator. The coil conductor is cooled indirectly via the thermal contact with the aluminum cylinder and heat removal through the cylinder to the aluminum tube with circulated liquid helium. In this paper the details of the technical design and results of the magnetic and mechanical calculations are presented.

  7. Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R; Hurlburt, Jennifer A; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs). IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of women’s health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not disrupt intercourse or have high rates of expulsion. Herein, we reviewed the microbicide and MPT IVRs currently in development, with a focus on the clinical aspects of IVR assessment and the challenges facing microbicide and MPT IVR product development, clinical testing, and implementation. The information in this review was drawn from PubMed searches and a recent microbicide/MPT product development workshop organized by CONRAD. PMID:24174884

  8. Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Yasmin; Radke, Tara; Chuhta, Jesse; Hughes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics model and to verify no recontact. NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) teams examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute parameters, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1, but more testing is required to support human certification, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust but affordable human spacecraft capability.

  9. Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Yasmin; Chuhta, Jesse D.; Hughes, Michael P.; Radke, Tara S.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics models used to verify no re-contact. The NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) architecture includes a highly-integrated Forward Bay Cover (FBC) jettison assembly design that combines parachutes and piston thrusters to separate the FBC from the Crew Module (CM) and avoid re-contact. A multi-disciplinary team across numerous organizations examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the FBC separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute elements, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1. Additional testing will be required to support human certification of this separation event, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust human-rated FBC separation event.

  10. NASA multipurpose airborne DIAL system and measurements of ozone and aerosol profiles.

    PubMed

    Browell, E V; Carter, A F; Shipley, S T; Allen, R J; Butler, C F; Mayo, M N; Siviter, J H; Hall, W M

    1983-02-15

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed for the remote measurement of gas and aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The multipurpose DIAL system can operate from 280 to 1064 nm for measurements of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, temperature,pressure, and aerosol backscattering. The laser transmitter consists of two narrow linewidth Nd: YAG pumped dye lasers with automatic wavelength control. The DIAL wavelengths are transmitted with a 00-,usec temporal separation to reduce receiver system complexity. A coaxial receiver system is used to collect and optically separate the DIAL and aerosol lidar returns. Photomultiplier tubes detect the backscattered laser returns after optical filtering, and the analog signals from three tubes are digitized and stored on high-speed magnetic tape. Real-time gas concentration profiles or aerosol backscatter distributions are calculated and displayed for experiment control. Operational parameters for the airborne DIAL system are presented for measurements of ozone, water vapor, and aerosols in the 290-, 720-, and 600-nm wavelength regions, respectively. The first ozone profile measurements from an aircraft using the DIAL technique are discussed in this paper. Comparisons between DIAL and in situ ozone measurements show agreement to within +/-5 ppbv in the lower troposphere. Lidar aerosol data obtained simultaneously with DIAL ozone measurements are presented for a flight over Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay. DIAL system performance for profiling ozone in a tropopause folding experiment is evaluated, and the applications of the DIAL system to regional and global-scale tropospheric investigations are discussed. PMID:18195821

  11. Design for multipurpose use: an application of DfE concept in a developing economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunmade, Israel

    2004-12-01

    Design for Environment (DfE) has been defined as the systematic integration of environmental considerations into product and process design. And it has been discovered that material and space can be saved when several functions are integrated into a single product by taking advantage of common components. In this design and development project, a multipurpose thresher was designed based on an integrated concept of design for modularity, disassembly, demanufacturing and remanufacturing. The machine can be used to thresh various types of farm produce such as rice, sorghum, cowpea and rye by changing the concave and the cylinder (threshing drum). The configuration of the machine enables access to most of the component parts without changing the tools needed for disassembly because the same type of fasteners was used. Furthermore, the functional units (the shelling unit, the separation unit and the grading unit) were assembled into modules such that only the faulty part needs to be replaced if necessary. The design was so simplified that the operator can make the changes for different uses without any difficulty. The machine has been successfully tested with a number of these products and it is scheduled for tests with other produce like corn and peanuts. The modularity of the functional unit will facilitate multi-lifecycle use of machine and/or its component parts. The uniformity of the liaisons and simplification of the configuration will reduce both the disassembly times and maintenance cost. By this integration, the material requirements for four different machines are conserved, environmental emissions that would be associated with the manufacture, transportation and disposal of four machines are eliminated while the capital requirements by farmers for machinery are reduced to about a quarter. Consequently the total lifecycle cost is kept minimum while the eco-efficiency is maximized.

  12. GALEN: a third generation terminology tool to support a multipurpose national coding system for surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Trombert-Paviot, B; Rodrigues, J M; Rogers, J E; Baud, R; van der Haring, E; Rassinoux, A M; Abrial, V; Clavel, L; Idir, H

    2000-09-01

    Generalised architecture for languages, encyclopedia and nomenclatures in medicine (GALEN) has developed a new generation of terminology tools based on a language independent model describing the semantics and allowing computer processing and multiple reuses as well as natural language understanding systems applications to facilitate the sharing and maintaining of consistent medical knowledge. During the European Union 4 Th. framework program project GALEN-IN-USE and later on within two contracts with the national health authorities we applied the modelling and the tools to the development of a new multipurpose coding system for surgical procedures named CCAM in a minority language country, France. On one hand, we contributed to a language independent knowledge repository and multilingual semantic dictionaries for multicultural Europe. On the other hand, we support the traditional process for creating a new coding system in medicine which is very much labour consuming by artificial intelligence tools using a medically oriented recursive ontology and natural language processing. We used an integrated software named CLAW (for classification workbench) to process French professional medical language rubrics produced by the national colleges of surgeons domain experts into intermediate dissections and to the Grail reference ontology model representation. From this language independent concept model representation, on one hand, we generate with the LNAT natural language generator controlled French natural language to support the finalization of the linguistic labels (first generation) in relation with the meanings of the conceptual system structure. On the other hand, the Claw classification manager proves to be very powerful to retrieve the initial domain experts rubrics list with different categories of concepts (second generation) within a semantic structured representation (third generation) bridge to the electronic patient record detailed terminology. PMID:10978911

  13. Multipurpose bedrock surficial, and environmental geologic maps, New River valley, southwest Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, A. ); Collins, T. )

    1994-03-01

    Multipurpose bedrock, surficial, and environmental geologic maps have recently been completed for portions of the Valley and Ridge province of southwest VA. The maps, at both 1:100,000 and 1:24,000 scales, show generalized and detailed bedrock geology grouped by lithology and environmental hazard associations. Also shown are a variety of alluvial, colluvial, debris flow, and landslide deposits, as well as karst features. Multidisciplinary research topics addressed during the mapping included slope evolution and geomorphology, drainage history and terrace distribution, ancient large-scale landsliding, and sinkhole development. The maps have been used by land-use planners and engineering firms in an evaluation of Appalachian paleoseismicity and to assess potential groundwater contamination and subsidence in karst areas. The maps are being used for environmental hazard assessment and site selection of a proposed large electric powerline that crosses the Jefferson National Forest. Also, the maps are proving useful in planning for a public access interpretive geologic enter focused on large-scale slope failures. Some of the largest known landslides in eastern North America took place within the map area. Field comparisons and detailed structure mapping of similar features along the Front Range of the Colorado Rockies indicate that the landslides were probably emplaced during a single catastrophic event of short duration. Although the giles County seismic zone is nearby, stability analyses of slopes in the map area have shown that failure need not have been initiated by a seismic event. Several distinct colluvial units mapped within the area of landslides document a period of extensive weathering that postdates slide emplacement. Radiocarbon dates from landslide sag ponds indicate a minimum age of 9,860 B.P. for emplacement of some of the landslides. These results indicate that pre-slide colluvial and debris flow deposits are at least Pleistocene in age.

  14. Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R; Hurlburt, Jennifer A; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs). IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of women's health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not disrupt intercourse or have high rates of expulsion. Herein, we reviewed the microbicide and MPT IVRs currently in development, with a focus on the clinical aspects of IVR assessment and the challenges facing microbicide and MPT IVR product development, clinical testing, and implementation. The information in this review was drawn from PubMed searches and a recent microbicide/MPT product development workshop organized by CONRAD. PMID:24174884

  15. Study of structural, electronic and elastic properties of RPd3 (R = Lu and Sc) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Veena; Pagare, Gitanjali; Chouhan, S. S.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2014-04-01

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of nonmagnetic RPd3 (R = Lu and Sc) compounds, which crystallize in AuCu3-type structure, are studied using first principles density functional theory based on full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The calculations are carried out within the PBE-GGA and WC-GGA for the exchange correlation potential. Our calculated ground state properties such as lattice constant (a0), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B') are in good agreement with the experimental results. We first time predict the elastic constants for these compounds using different approximations of GGA. These RPd3 compounds are found to be ductile in nature in accordance with Pugh's criteria. The computed electronic band structures and density of states show metallic character of these compounds.

  16. Design and fabrication of a multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Hun; Chai, Kil Byoung; Jang, Siwon; Choe, Wonho; Ko, Won-Ha; Kim, Junghee; Seo, Dongcheol; Lee, Jongha; Bogatu, I. N.; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2012-10-15

    A multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system was developed for measuring two-dimensional x-ray emissivity profile, electron temperature, Ar impurity transport, and total radiation power. A remotely controlled filter wheel was designed with three different choices of filters. The electron temperature profile can be determined from the ratio of two channels having different thickness of Be layer, and the Ar impurity concentration transport can be determined from a pair of Ar Ross filters (CaF{sub 2} and NaCl thin films). Without any filters, this diagnostic system can also be used as a bolometer.

  17. Multipurpose modular experimental station for the DiProI beamline of Fermi-Elettra free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersoli, Emanuele; Capotondi, Flavio; Cocco, Daniele; Kaulich, Burkhard; Menk, Ralf H.; Locatelli, Andrea; Mentes, Tevfik O.; Spezzani, Carlo; Sandrin, Gilio; Bacescu, Daniel M.; Kiskinova, Maya; Zangrando, Marco; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars; Chapman, Henry N.; Nelson, A. J.; Frank, Matthias; and others

    2011-04-15

    We present a compact modular apparatus with a flexible design that will be operated at the DiProI beamline of the Fermi-Elettra free electron laser (FEL) for performing static and time-resolved coherent diffraction imaging experiments, taking advantage of the full coherence and variable polarization of the short seeded FEL pulses. The apparatus has been assembled and the potential of the experimental setup is demonstrated by commissioning tests with coherent synchrotron radiation. This multipurpose experimental station will be open to general users after installation at the Fermi-Elettra free electron laser in 2011.

  18. MUST - An integrated system of support tools for research flight software engineering. [Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.; Foudriat, E. C.; Will, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's MUST (Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology) program at Langley Research Center are to cut the cost of producing software which effectively utilizes digital systems for flight research. These objectives will be accomplished by providing an integrated system of support software tools for use throughout the research flight software development process. A description of the overall MUST program and its progress toward the release of a first MUST system will be presented. This release includes: a special interactive user interface, a library of subroutines, assemblers, a compiler, automatic documentation tools, and a test and simulation system.

  19. A Modern Explorer's Journey - using events for innovative multipurpose educational outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2014-05-01

    Earth observations are important across the specter of geo-sciences. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. The lack of dedicated funding to support specific Science &Technology activities in support of GEOSS is one of the most important obstacles to engaging the Science &Technology communities in its implementation. Finding resources to outreach and capacity building is likewise a challenge. The continuation of GEO and GEOSS rely on political support which again is influenced by public opinions. The GEO Ministerial Summit in 2014 was an event that both needed visibility and represented an opportunity to mobilize the GEO community in producing outreach and educational material. Through the combined resources from two of GEO tasks in the GEO work plan, a multipurpose educational outreach project was planned and executed. This project addressed the following issues: How can the GEO community mobilize resources for its work plan projects in the Societal Benefit Area Water? How can we produce more educational and capacity building material? How can the GEO community support the GEO secretariat related to public relations (material and otherwise) Based on activities described in the GEO work plan, a showcase video and online campaign consisting on a series of webinars were developed and produced. The video and webinars were linked through a common reference: the water cycle. Various aspects of the water cycle ranging from general to more technical and scientific education were covered in the webinars, while the video called A Modern Explorer's Journey focused on story telling with a more emotional appeal. The video was presented to the Ministers at the GEO Ministerial Summit and distributed widely to the GEO community and through social media and articles (as embedded YouTube and more). A discussion of challenges and successes of this event-based educational outreach project will be presented. Continued use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community. Lessons learned need to be provided continuously and this project add to this material.

  20. NASA Planning for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Orion Ground Processing Team was originally formed by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Constellation (Cx) Project Office's Orion Division to define, refine and mature pre-launch and post-landing ground operations for the Orion human spacecraft. The multidisciplined KSC Orion team consisted of KSC civil servant, SAIC, Productivity Apex, Inc. and Boeing-CAPPS engineers, project managers and safety engineers, as well as engineers from Constellation's Orion Project and Lockheed Martin Orion Prime contractor. The team evaluated the Orion design configurations as the spacecraft concept matured between Systems Design Review (SDR), Systems Requirement Review (SRR) and Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The team functionally decomposed prelaunch and post-landing steps at three levels' of detail, or tiers, beginning with functional flow block diagrams (FFBDs). The third tier FFBDs were used to build logic networks and nominal timelines. Orion ground support equipment (GSE) was identified and mapped to each step. This information was subsequently used in developing lower level operations steps in a Ground Operations Planning Document PDR product. Subject matter experts for each spacecraft and GSE subsystem were used to define 5th - 95th percentile processing times for each FFBD step, using the Delphi Method. Discrete event simulations used this information and the logic network to provide processing timeline confidence intervals for launch rate assessments. The team also used the capabilities of the KSC Visualization Lab, the FFBDs and knowledge of the spacecraft, GSE and facilities to build visualizations of Orion pre-launch and postlanding processing at KSC. Visualizations were a powerful tool for communicating planned operations within the KSC community (i.e., Ground Systems design team), and externally to the Orion Project, Lockheed Martin spacecraft designers and other Constellation Program stakeholders during the SRR to PDR timeframe. Other operations planning tools included Kaizen/Lean events, mockups and human factors analysis. The majority of products developed by this team are applicable as KSC prepares 21st Century Ground Systems for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Launch System.

  1. Effect of contact lens material on cytotoxicity potential of multipurpose solutions using human corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tanti, N.C.; Crockett, B.; Mansour, L.; Jones, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Multipurpose solutions (MPS) are used daily to clean and disinfect silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lenses. This in vitro study was undertaken to identify the potential for interaction between MPS, SiHy surface treatments, and lens materials, which may lead to changes in the response of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) to MPS-soaked lenses. Methods The MPS tested were renu fresh (formerly known as ReNu MultiPlus; ReNu), OptiFree Express (OFX), OptiFree RepleniSH, SoloCare Aqua, and Complete Moisture Plus. The SiHy materials evaluated were lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, comfilcon A, galyfilcon A, and balafilcon A (BA). MPS-soaked lenses were placed on top of adherent HCEC. The effect of MPS dilutions (0.1 to 10% final concentration in medium) was also characterized. Cell viability, adhesion phenotype and caspase activation were studied after 24-h cell exposure. OFX released from lenses was determined using UV absorbance. Results A significant reduction in viability (between 30 to 50%) was observed with cells exposed to lenses soaked in ReNu and OFX. A significant downregulation of ?3 and ?1 integrins, with integrin expression ranging from 60% to 75% of control (cells with no lens), was also observed with OFX and ReNu-soaked lenses. With the exception of BA, all other lenses soaked in OFX resulted in significant caspase activation, whereby over 18% of cells stained positive for caspases. Minimal caspase activation was observed in cells exposed to ReNu and Solo soaked lenses. For both OFX and ReNu, exposing cells to at least a 5% dilution had a significant effect on viability and integrin expression. While Complete and Solo did not lead to reduction in viability, cells exposed to a 10% dilution showed reduced integrin expression down to less than 70% of control value. Comparing cell response to diluted MPS solutions and various MPS-soaked lenses showed that it is not possible to reliably use cell response to MPS dilution alone to assess MPS biocompatibility. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the reaction of HCEC to MPS are affected by the type of lenses the MPS is released from and may potentially be influenced by the surface treatment (or lack of it) of SiHy materials. PMID:22219641

  2. Friction Stir Weld Application and Tooling Design for the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcorn, John

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), commonly known as the Orion capsule, is planned to be the United States' next manned spacecraft for missions beyond low earth orbit. Following the cancellation of the Constellation program and creation of SLS (Space Launch System), the need arose for the MPCV to utilize the Delta IV Heavy rocket for a test launch scheduled for 2014 instead of the previously planned Ares I rocket. As a result, an adapter (MSA) must be used in conjunction with the MPCV to account for the variation in diameter of the launch vehicles; 5.5 meters down to 5.0 meters. Prior to ight article fabrication, a path nder (test article) will be fabricated to ne tune the associated manufacturing processes. The adapter will be comprised of an aluminum frustum (partial cone) that employs isogrid technology and circumferential rings on each end. The frustum will be fabricated by friction stir welding (FSW) three individual panels together on a Vertical Weld Tool (VWT) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Subsequently, each circumferential ring will be friction stir welded to the frustum using a Robotic Weld Tool (RWT). The irregular geometry and large mass of the MSA require that extensive tooling preparation be put into support structures for the friction stir weld. The tooling on the VWT will be comprised of a set of conveyors mounted on pre-existing stanchions so that the MSA will have the ability to be rotated after each of the three friction stir welds. The tooling requirements to friction stir weld the rings with the RWT are somewhat more demanding. To support the mass of the MSA and resist the load of the weld tool, a system of mandrels will be mounted to stanchions and assembled in a circle. The goal of the paper will be to explain the design, fabrication, and assembly of the tooling, to explain the use of friction stir welding on the MSA path nder, and also to discuss the lessons learned and modi cations made in preparation for ight article fabrication in support of the 2014 launch of the Orion MPCV.

  3. Optimization and Validation of a Neutralizing Antibody Assay for HIV-1 in A3R5 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Daniell, Xiaoju; Todd, Christopher A.; Bilska, Miroslawa; Martelli, Amanda; LaBranche, Celia; Perez, Lautaro G.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C.; Rountree, Wes; Denny, Thomas N.; Montefiori, David C.

    2014-01-01

    A3R5 is a human CD4+ lymphoblastoid cell line that was engineered to express CCR5 and is useful for the detection of weak neutralizing antibody responses against tier 2 strains of HIV-1. Here we describe the optimization and validation of the HIV-1 neutralizing antibody assay that utilizes A3R5 cells, performed in compliance with Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines. The assay utilizes Renilla luciferase-expressing replication competent infectious molecular clones (IMC) encoding heterologous env genes from different HIV-1 clades. Key assay validation parameters tested included specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and quantitation, specificity, linearity and range, and robustness. Plasma samples demonstrated higher non-specific activity than serum samples in the A3R5 assay. This assay can tolerate a wide range of virus input but is more sensitive to cell concentration. The higher sensitivity of the A3R5 assay in neutralization responses to tier 2 strains of HIV-1 makes it complementary to, but not a substitute for the TZM-bl assay. The validated A3R5 assay is employed as an endpoint immunogenicity test for vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies against tier 2 strains of HIV-1, and to identify correlates of protection in HIV-1 vaccine trials conducted globally. PMID:24607608

  4. Astrocyte IP3R2-dependent Ca(2+) signaling is not a major modulator of neuronal pathways governing behavior.

    PubMed

    Petravicz, Jeremy; Boyt, Kristen M; McCarthy, Ken D

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-dependent release of gliotransmitters by astrocytes is reported to play a critical role in synaptic transmission and be necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and other forms of synaptic modulation that are correlates of learning and memory. Further, physiological processes reported to be dependent on Ca(2+) fluxes in astrocytes include functional hyperemia, sleep, and regulation of breathing. The preponderance of findings indicate that most, if not all, receptor dependent Ca(2+) fluxes within astrocytes are due to release of Ca(2+) through IP3 receptor/channels in the endoplasmic reticulum. Findings from several laboratories indicate that astrocytes only express IP3 receptor type 2 (IP3R2) and that a knockout of IP3R2 obliterates the GPCR-dependent astrocytic Ca(2+) responses. Assuming that astrocytic Ca(2+) fluxes play a critical role in synaptic physiology, it would be predicted that elimination of astrocytic Ca(2+) fluxes would lead to marked changes in behavioral tests. Here, we tested this hypothesis by conducting a broad series of behavioral tests that recruited multiple brain regions, on an IP3R2 conditional knockout mouse model. We present the novel finding that behavioral processes are unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) signals. IP3R2 cKO animals display no change in anxiety or depressive behaviors, and no alteration to motor and sensory function. Morris water maze testing, a behavioral correlate of learning and memory, was unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R2-mediated Ca(2+)-signaling. Therefore, in contrast to the prevailing literature, we find that neither receptor-driven astrocyte Ca(2+) fluxes nor, by extension, gliotransmission is likely to be a major modulating force on the physiological processes underlying behavior. PMID:25429263

  5. Characterization of a (2R,3R)-2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis WZ010.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meilan; Huang, Meijuan; Song, Qingqing; Shao, Jianzhong; Ying, Xiangxian

    2015-01-01

    The gene encoding a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis WZ010 (ReBDH) was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and the resulting recombinant ReBDH was successfully purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified ReBDH in the native form was found to exist as a monomer with a calculated subunit size of 37180, belonging to the family of the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases. The enzyme was NAD(H)-specific and its optimal activity for acetoin reduction was observed at pH 6.5 and 55 °C. The optimal pH and temperature for 2,3-butanediol oxidation were pH 10 and 45 °C, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or metal ions Al3+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Cu2+ and Ag+, while the addition of 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the reaction mixture increased the activity by 161.2%. Kinetic parameters of the enzyme showed lower Km values and higher catalytic efficiency for diacetyl and NADH in comparison to those for (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and NAD+. The activity of acetoin reduction was 7.7 times higher than that of (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol oxidation when ReBDH was assayed at pH 7.0, suggesting that ReBDH-catalyzed reaction in vivo might favor (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol formation rather than (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol oxidation. The enzyme displayed absolute stereospecificity in the reduction of diacetyl to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol via (R)-acetoin, demonstrating its potential application on the synthesis of (R)-chiral alcohols. PMID:25903366

  6. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING: PHASE 3R

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished in 2Q99.

  7. Relationship Between ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism and Physical Abilities in Polish Athletes.

    PubMed

    Orysiak, Joanna; Busko, Krzysztof; Mazur-Ró?ycka, Joanna; Michalski, Radoslaw; Gajewski, Jan; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga; Sitkowski, Dariusz

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between ?-actinin 3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism and physical abilities of male athletes performing various sports (volleyball, ice hockey, canoeing, swimming). One hundred eighty-five subjects were recruited for the study. The following measurements were taken: height of jump and power output in countermovement jump and spike jump (SPJ) and muscle strength of 10 muscle groups. The R577X polymorphism of ACTN3 was typed using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results showed that RR genotype carriers develop greater power output in SPJ than RX and XX individuals (44.6 ± 11.1, 42.6 ± 11.0, and 38.4 ± 7.9 W·kg(-1) for RR, RX, and XX genotypes, respectively) and height of jump in SPJ (0.537 ± 0.075, 0.523 ± 0.072, and 0.498 ± 0.053 m for RR, RX, and XX genotypes, respectively). Muscle strength did not differ between genotype groups. This suggests that the ACTN3 gene has a greater impact on determining dynamic movements than influencing static muscle strength. PMID:25734782

  8. Gating machinery of InsP3R channels revealed by electron cryomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guizhen; Baker, Matthew L; Wang, Zhao; Baker, Mariah R; Sinyagovskiy, Pavel A; Chiu, Wah; Ludtke, Steven J; Serysheva, Irina I

    2015-11-19

    Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) are ubiquitous ion channels responsible for cytosolic Ca(2+) signalling and essential for a broad array of cellular processes ranging from contraction to secretion, and from proliferation to cell death. Despite decades of research on InsP3Rs, a mechanistic understanding of their structure-function relationship is lacking. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, near-atomic (4.7 Å) resolution electron cryomicroscopy structure of the tetrameric mammalian type 1 InsP3R channel in its apo-state. At this resolution, we are able to trace unambiguously ?85% of the protein backbone, allowing us to identify the structural elements involved in gating and modulation of this 1.3-megadalton channel. Although the central Ca(2+)-conduction pathway is similar to other ion channels, including the closely related ryanodine receptor, the cytosolic carboxy termini are uniquely arranged in a left-handed ?-helical bundle, directly interacting with the amino-terminal domains of adjacent subunits. This configuration suggests a molecular mechanism for allosteric regulation of channel gating by intracellular signals. PMID:26458101

  9. New RMnO3+? (R=Y, Ho; ??0.35) phases with modulated structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkkima, Outi; Malo, Sylvie; Hervieu, Maryvonne; Rautama, Eeva-Leena; Karppinen, Maarit

    2015-01-01

    A series of hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Y, Ho-Lu) compounds are first annealed in various highly oxidizing conditions to show that for the largest R constituents, Y and Ho, it is possible to load the phases with large amounts of excess oxygen. Within the oxygen-annealed samples we identify new heavily-oxygenated phases, that is, YMnO3.35 and HoMnO3.34. The former is then thoroughly characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction. These studies evidence a hexagonal sub-cell (aS?3.578 Å (aH /?{ 3}), cS?11.18 Å, space group P63mc) and satellites, associated with two modulation vectors q?1 *? 0.41 a?S *+ 0.41b? S * + 1 / 3 c?S* and q?2* = (1 / 2). The results are interpreted by the formation of a modulated composite structure, resulting from the evolution of the hexagonal parent YMnO3+? structure toward a reduced pyrochlore-type structure Y2Mn2O7-x, in long- and short-range ordering.

  10. Pure Rotatonal Spectra of the Rare Isotopologues of TiO (X3?r)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincowski, Andrew P.; Halfen, DeWayne T.; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2015-06-01

    Pure rotational spectra of the rare isotopologues of the TiO radical (X3?r) in their natural abundance have been measured using millimeter/submillimeter-wave direct absorption and Fourier transform millimeter-wave (FTmmW) techniques. Between five and seven rotational transitions each of 46TiO (8.2 %), 47TiO (7.4 %), 49TiO (5.4 %), and 50TiO (5.2 %) have been recorded for all three spin components in the frequency ranges 62-64 GHz and 255-522 GHz. In the millimeter-wave data, the TiO isotopologues were created in the gas phase from titanium vapor, produced with a specialized Broida-type oven, and N_2O. In the FTmmW spectrometer, laser ablation was used as a titanium source. Titanium hyperfine structure has been fully resolved for both 47TiO and 49TiO, resulting in distinctive sextets (47Ti: I = 5/2) and octets (49Ti: I = 7/2) in the millimeter data. The data has been analyzed, and rotation, fine structure, and hyperfine parameters have been determined. These spectroscopic constants are consistent with the past optical data, but have higher precision. TiO has recently been observed in the circumstellar envelope of VY CMa.

  11. Cylindrical crystals of molybdenite-3R:sem- and x-ray investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkin, N.; Zhabin, A.

    2003-04-01

    Flat faces are the characteristic feature of ionic crystals; nevertheless, among them there are cleavage-faced ones, up to the crystals with cylindrical shapes. More often they occur among minerals with layer structure or minerals with higher tendency to structural defectiveness (cylindrite, franckeite, asbestos, jamesonite, boulangerite and etc.). We studied exotic cylindrical crystals of molybdenite, discovered in the pegmatite veins of Slyudyanogorsky deposit of muscovite in Middle Ural by Kobyashev Yu. S., Zverev G. F. in 1973. Crystals have cylindrical shape, sometimes with sharpened or flattened wedge-shaped edges. Their length is 2-10 mm, diameter 0.8-mm. At the cross section crystals possess concentrically-laminar composition with tabulated axled canal with diameter about 120mkm. Thin layers arise packages about 15 mkm thickness. In the section crystals are fixed up to 6 such packages visually as well as by methods of X-ray phase-dispersed introscopy. According to the data of monocrystal and powder X-ray molybdenite represents as trigonal polytype 3R-R3m with insignificant quantity of hexagonal polytype 2H-P6@3/mmc. Twisting of leaf-like crystalline germs is one of the reasons of formation of cylindrical crystals due to syngenetic shistosity of containing rocks with crystallization.

  12. Electronic structure and optical properties of orthorhombic and rhombohedral RAlO3 (R = Sm, Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhya, Anup Pradhan; Dutta, Alo; Shannigrahi, Santiranjan; Sinha, T. P.

    2015-04-01

    The electronic structure and optical properties of RAlO3 (R = Sm, Nd) have been investigated by full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the framework of density functional theory in its generalized gradient approximation. The calculations are initiated with the experimental lattice constants obtained by the Rietveld refinement of the XRD data of the synthesized samples. The band gaps of the systems are measured from the UV-visible reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function and compared with the calculated data. The spin-polarized calculation has been carried out with on-site Coulomb potential U to consider the electron-electron correlation in the system. The X-ray photoemission spectra of the systems are measured. The valence-band density-of-states spectra are generated and compared with the X-ray photoemission spectra. The chemical shifts of these compounds suggest a mixed ionic and covalent character of the bonds. It has been observed that f-state of Nd and Sm hybridizes with O-2p state near the Fermi level in valence band. The Born effective charge tensors of the constituent ions for SmAlO3 and NdAlO3 have also been calculated which shows strong hybridization and charge transfer between Sm and O in SmAlO3 and Nd and O in NdAlO3. The calculated static dielectric tensor is found to be in good agreement with the experimental values.

  13. MORE REALISTIC CYCLOTRON LINE MODELS FOR ACCRETING PULSAR SPECTRA P. Kretschmar 1,3 , R. A. ArayaGochez 2 , I. Kreykenbohm 3 , J. Wilms 3 , R. Staubert 3 ,

    E-print Network

    Barnstedt, Jürgen

    1 MORE REALISTIC CYCLOTRON LINE MODELS FOR ACCRETING PULSAR SPECTRA P. Kretschmar 1,3 , R. A. Araya results of a project to analyze spectra of accreting X­ray pulsars modeling the cyclotron line fea­ tures­ drical. These model spectra are compared with RXTE spectra showing cyclotron line features. We discuss

  14. A Multipurpose Apparatus to Measure Viscosity and Surface Tension of Solutions: The Measurement of the Molecular Cross-Sectional Area of N-Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin Zhang; Shouxin Liu; Booxin Li; Na An; Fan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    A multipurpose apparatus that can be used to measure the viscosity of solution by the Ostwald method and the surface tension of solution by the drop-weight method or by the capillary-rise method is developed. The apparatus is convenient for in-situ preparation of solutions of different concentrations and avoids the error that frothing of the…

  15. ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and Israeli top-level athletes.

    PubMed

    Eynon, N; Duarte, J A; Oliveira, J; Sagiv, M; Yamin, C; Meckel, Y; Sagiv, M; Goldhammer, E

    2009-09-01

    A common genetic variation in the alpha-actinin-3 ( ACTN3) gene causes a replacement of an arginine (R) with a premature stop codon (X) at amino-acid 577 (rs1815739). While the R allele has been found to be associated with power-oriented performance, the XX genotype may be linked with endurance ability. To test this hypothesis, we studied the distribution of ACTN3 genotypes in 155 Israeli athletes (age=35.9+12.2 years) classified by sport (endurance runners and sprinters) and in 240 sedentary individuals. The sprinters' allele frequencies (AF: R/X=0.7/0.3) and 577RR genotype distribution percentage (GD: RR=52%) differed markedly from those of the endurance athletes (AF: R/X=0.53/0.47, p=0.000007; GD: RR=18%, p=0.00009) and the control group (AF: R/X=0.55/0.45, p=0.0002; GD: RR=27.3%, p=0.000003). A comparison between the top-level and national-level sprinters revealed that the R allele occurs more often in the top-level sprinters. A significantly higher proportion of the XX genotype was observed in endurance athletes (34%) compared with controls (18%, p=0.02) and sprinters (13%, p=0.002). However, top-level and national level endurance athletes had similar allele and genotype frequencies. We conclude that the ACTN3 R allele is associated with top-level sprint performance and the X allele and XX genotypes may not be critical but rather additive to endurance performance. PMID:19544227

  16. Production of 3R-hydroxy-polyenoic fatty acids by the yeast Dipodascopsis uninucleata.

    PubMed

    Venter, P; Kock, J L; Kumar, G S; Botha, A; Coetzee, D J; Botes, P J; Bhatt, R K; Falck, J R; Schewe, T; Nigam, S

    1997-12-01

    Various fatty acids were fed to the yeast Dipodascopsis uninucleata UOFS Y 128, and the extracted samples were analyzed for the accumulation of 3-hydroxy metabolites with the help of electron impact gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids containing of 5Z,8Z-diene system (5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic, 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic, and 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z-eicosapentaenoic acids) yielded the corresponding 3-hydroxy-all-Z-eicosapolyenoic acids. Moreover, linoleic acid (9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid) and 11Z,14Z,17Z-eicosatrienoic acid were converted to the 3-hydorxylated metabolites of shorter chain length, e,g., 3-hydroxy-5Z,8Z-tetradecadienoic acid and 3-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z-tetradecatrienoic acid, respectively. In contrast, no accumulation of a 3-hydroxy metabolite was observed with oleic acid (9Z-octadecenoic acid), linolelaidic acid (9E,12E-octadecadienoic acid), gamma-linolenic acid (6Z,9Z,12Z-octadecatrienoic acid), and eicosanoic acid as substrate. These findings pinpoint that the 3-hydroxylation of a fatty acid in Dipodascopsis uninucleata requires a 5Z,8Z-diene system either directly or following initial incomplete beta-oxidation. Following analysis of the enantiomer composition, the arachidonic acid metabolite was identified as 3R-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid, which rules out a normal beta-oxidation as biosynthetic route to this new class of oxylipins. PMID:9438238

  17. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 205130 (2015) Magnetochromic effect in multiferroic RIn1-xMnxO3 (R = Tb, Dy)

    E-print Network

    2015-01-01

    and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA 4 Laboratory of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, Korea 5 National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee-charge coupling in Mn-substituted rare-earth indium oxides of chemical formula RIn1-xMnxO3 (R = Tb, Dy). The edge

  18. Enhanced fullerene–Au(111) coupling in (2?3 × 2?3)R30° superstructures with intermolecular interactions

    PubMed Central

    Paßens, Michael; Waser, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Summary Disordered and uniform (2?3 × 2?3)R30° superstructures of fullerenes on the Au(111) surface have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. It is shown that the deposition and growth process of a fullerene monolayer on the Au(111) surface determine the resulting superstructure. The supply of thermal energy is of importance for the activation of a Au vacancy forming process and thus, one criterion for the selection of the respective superstructure. However, here it is depicted that a vacancy–adatom pair can be formed even at room temperature. This latter process results in C60 molecules that appear slightly more bright in scanning tunnelling microscopy images and are identified in disordered (2?3 x 2?3)R30° superstructures based on a detailed structure analysis. In addition, these slightly more bright C60 molecules form uniform (2?3 x 2?3)R30° superstructures, which exhibit intermolecular interactions, likely mediated by Au adatoms. Thus, vacancy–adatom pairs forming at room temperature directly affect the resulting C60 superstructure. Differential conductivity spectra reveal a lifting of the degeneracy of the LUMO and LUMO+1 orbitals in the uniform (2?3 x 2?3)R30° superstructure and in addition, hybrid fullerene–Au(111) surface states suggest partly covalent interactions. PMID:26199846

  19. The Effects of Keyword Cues and 3R Strategy on Children's e-Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, T.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that electronic books (e-books) promote learning, but few works have examined the use of e-books along with an adaptive reading strategy for children. The current study implemented a method to extract keyword cues from e-books to support e-book reading with the read, recite and review (3R) strategy, and then examined the…

  20. R3-R4 deletion in the PRNP gene is associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

    SciTech Connect

    Cervenakova, L.; Brown, P.; Nagle, J.

    1994-09-01

    There are conflicting reports on the association of deletions in the PRNP gene on chromosome 20 with CJD, a rapidly progressive fatal spongiform encephalopathy. We accumulated data suggesting that a deletion of R3-R4 type (parts of the third and fourth repeats are deleted from the area of four repeating 24 bp sequences in the 5{prime} region of the gene) is causing CJD. Screening of 129 unaffected control individuals demonstrated presence of a deletion of R2 type in four (1.55% of the studied chromosomes), but none of them had the R3-R4 type. Of 181 screened patients with spongiform encephalopathies, two had a deletion of R3-R4 type with no other mutations in the coding sequence. Both patients had a classical rapidly progressive dementing disease and diffuse spongiform degeneration, and both cases were apparently sporadic. The same R3-R4 type of deletion was detected in three additional neuropathologically confirmed spongiform encephalopathy patients, of which two had other known pathogenic mutations in the PRNP gene: at codon 178 on the methionine allele exhibiting the phenotype of fatal familial insomnia, and codon 200 causing CJD with severe dementia; the third was a patient with iatrogenic CJD who developed the disease after treatment with growth hormone extracted from cadaveric human pituitary glands. In all cases the deletion coincided with a variant sequence at position 129 coding for methionine.

  1. Washout of tritium from 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-L-aspartate in the aspartase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, B.M.; Cook, P.F.

    1987-05-01

    Bacterial aspartase catalyzes the reversible conversion of L-aspartate to fumarate and ammonia. Recent studies that made use of deuterium and /sup 15/N isotope effects suggested a carbanion intermediate mechanism in which C-N bond cleavage is rate determining. This could result in removal of a proton from the 3R position of aspartate at a rate of faster than the elimination of ammonia. 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-Aspartate was prepared enzymatically using aspartase from fumarate, ammonia and /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and aspartate isolated via chromatography on Dowex 50W x 8 at pH 1, eluting with 2N pyridine. The rate of /sup 3/H washout from this aspartate was then measured as a function of aspartate concentration and compared to the rate of production of fumarate. Tritium does washout of aspartate at a rate faster than fumarate is formed but the proton is apparently not rapidly equilibrated with solvent. The tritium washout experiments were supplemented using 3R-3(/sup 2/H)-aspartate prepared as above with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O replacing /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and monitoring the appearance of 3R-3(/sup 1/H)-aspartate via /sup 1/H-NMR. Results confirm the tritium washout results. Data are discussed in terms of the carbanion mechanism.

  2. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. E.; Sion, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined.

  3. THE CASE FOR REACTIVE SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY AT THE MOON. W. M. Farrell1,3 , R. M. Kil-

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    THE CASE FOR REACTIVE SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY AT THE MOON. W. M. Farrell1,3 , R. M. Kil- len1,3 , G. T Field, CA Abstract: The Moon is often considered a dead, stagnant body. However, the space environment includ- ing solar radiation, solar wind, and micro-meteoroid impacts provides a source of energy

  4. Interaction Between ACE I/D and ACTN3 R557X Polymorphisms in Polish Competitive Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Grenda, Agata; Leo?ska-Duniec, Agata; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Ficek, Krzysztof; Król, Pawe?; Ci?szczyk, Pawe?; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2014-09-29

    We hypothesized that the ACE ID / ACTN3 R577X genotype combination was associated with sprint and endurance performance. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the interaction between both ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and sprint and endurance performance in swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit (Sigma, Germany). All samples were genotyped using a real-time poly- merase chain reaction. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X genotype frequencies met Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both swimmers and controls. When the two swimmer groups, long distance swimmers (LDS) and short distance swimmers (SDS), were compared with control subjects in a single test, a significant association was found only for the ACE polymorphism, but not for ACTN3. Additionally, four ACE/ACTN3 combined genotypes (ID/RX, ID/XX, II/RX and II/XX) were statistically significant for the LDS versus Control comparison, but none for the SDS versus Control comparison. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms did not show any association with sprint swimming, taken individually or in combination. In spite of numerous previous reports of associations with athletic status or sprint performance in other sports, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism, in contrast to ACE I/D, was not significantly associated with elite swimming status when considered individually. However, the combined analysis of the two loci suggests that the co-occurrence of the ACE I and ACTN3 X alleles may be beneficial to swimmers who compete in long distance races. PMID:25414746

  5. Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Active Thermal Control and Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in 2014. The development of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the completing the components which are on EFT1. Additional development work has been done to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation for a flight tests in of EM1 in 2017 and in and EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2012 to April 2013.

  6. Environmental assessment for the reuse of TNX as a multi-purpose pilot plant campus at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental and safety impacts of DOE planning to allow asset reuse of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include providing for a location for the Centers of Excellence at or adjacent to SRS and entering into a cooperative agreement with a non-profit management and operations (management firm) contractor to operate and market the TNX facilities and equipment. The area (formerly TNX) would be called a Multi-Purpose Pilot Plant Campus (MPPC) and would be used: (1) as location for technology research, development, demonstration, and commercial operations; (2) to establish partnerships with industry to develop applied technologies for commercialization; and (3) serve as administrative headquarters for Centers of Excellence in the program areas of soil remediation, radioecology, groundwater contamination, and municipal solid waste minimization.

  7. New multipurpose endodontic device developed in Germany for use in predoctoral and continuing dental education and science.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Josef; Buchmann, Gerald

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a simple and versatile aid for the endodontic treatment of extracted teeth and its possible applications. The Med*-box is a new endodontic multipurpose device made of transparent acrylic that permits all elements of root canal treatment to be performed and evaluated either visually or radiologically. The Med*-box represents a valuable addition to the spectrum of educational and practical means in endodontic training. It is well suited for students, dentists, and endodontists for learning the handling of new materials, methods, and instruments in endodontics before they work clinically upon a patient. Also in the context of scientific endodontic issues, the Med*-box represents a simple, economical, and easily manageable aid. PMID:22659705

  8. Effective utilization of genetic information for athletes and coaches: focus on ACTN3 R577X polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Training variants (type, intensity, and duration of exercise) can be selected according to individual aims and fitness assessment. Recently, various methods of resistance and endurance training have been used for muscle hypertrophy and VO2max improvement. Although several genetic variants are associated with elite athletic performance and muscle phenotypes, genetic background has not been used as variant for physical training. ACTN3 R577X is a well-studied genetic polymorphism. It is the only genotype associated with elite athletic performance in multiple cohorts. This association is strongly supported by mechanistic data from an Actn3-knockout mouse model. In this review, possible guidelines are discussed for effective utilization of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism for physical training. PMID:26526670

  9. Chronic neutrophilic leukemia with overexpression of EVI-1, and concurrent CSF3R and SETBP1 mutations: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ALTANGEREL, OTGONBAT; CAO, SHANNAN; MENG, JUANXIA; LIU, PENG; HAIYAN, GONG; XU, YUANFU; ZHAO, MINGFENG

    2015-01-01

    Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare type of myeloproliferative neoplasm, characterized by sustained neutrophilia, splenomegaly, bone marrow granulocytic hyperplasia (without evidence of dysplasia) and an absence of the Philadelphia chromosome. Thus far, ~150 cases of CNL have been described in the literature; however, none have demonstrated overexpression of the ecotropic viral integration site-1 (EVI-1, also known as MECOM) gene. The present study describes a case that fulfilled the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for CNL, and was associated with overexpression of EVI-1, as well as novel concurrent mutations of colony stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) and SET binding protein-1 (SETBP1). In addition, the current study briefly reviewed the relevant literature regarding novel genetic findings associated with the diagnosis and treatment of CNL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of CNL with associated EVI-1 overexpression, and concurrent CSF3R and SETBP1 mutations. PMID:26622734

  10. Effective utilization of genetic information for athletes and coaches: focus on ACTN3 R577X polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Training variants (type, intensity, and duration of exercise) can be selected according to individual aims and fitness assessment. Recently, various methods of resistance and endurance training have been used for muscle hypertrophy and VO2max improvement. Although several genetic variants are associated with elite athletic performance and muscle phenotypes, genetic background has not been used as variant for physical training. ACTN3 R577X is a well-studied genetic polymorphism. It is the only genotype associated with elite athletic performance in multiple cohorts. This association is strongly supported by mechanistic data from an Actn3-knockout mouse model. In this review, possible guidelines are discussed for effective utilization of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism for physical training. PMID:26526670

  11. A theoretical study of H2 dissociation on (?3 ×?3 )R30°CO/Ru(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groot, I. M. N.; Juanes-Marcos, J. C.; Olsen, R. A.; Kroes, G. J.

    2010-04-01

    We have studied the influence of preadsorbed CO on the dissociative adsorption of H2 on Ru(0001) with density functional theory calculations. For a coverage of 1/3 ML CO, we investigated different possible reaction paths for hydrogen dissociation using nudged elastic band and adaptive nudged elastic band calculations. One reaction path was studied in detail through an energy decomposition and molecular orbital type of analysis. The minimum barrier for H2 dissociation is found to be 0.29 eV. At the barrier the H-H bond is hardly stretched. Behind this barrier a molecular chemisorption minimum is present. Next, the molecule overcomes a second barrier, with a second local chemisorption minimum behind it. To finally dissociate to chemisorbed atoms, the molecule has to overcome a third barrier. To move along the reaction path from reactants to products, the hydrogen molecule needs to rotate, and to significantly change its center-of-mass position. The procedure of mapping out reaction paths for H2 reacting on low-index surfaces of bare metals (computing two-dimensional elbow plots for fixed impact high-symmetry sites and H2 orientations parallel to the surface) does not work for H2+CO/Ru. The first barrier in the path is recovered, but the features of the subsequent stretch to the dissociative chemisorption minimum are not captured, because the molecule is not allowed to change its center-of-mass position or to rotate. The dissociative chemisorption of H2 on CO/Ru(0001) is endoergic, in contrast to the case of H2 on bare Ru(0001). The zero-point energy corrected energies of molecularly and dissociatively chemisorbed H2 are very close, suggesting that it may be possible to detect molecularly chemisorbed H2 on (?3 ×?3 )R30°CO/Ru(0001). The presence of CO on the surface increases the barrier height to dissociation compared with bare Ru(0001). Based on an energy decomposition and molecular orbital analysis we attribute the increase in the barrier height mainly to an occupied-occupied interaction between the bonding H2 ?g orbital and the (surface-hybridized) CO 1? orbitals, i.e., to site blocking. There is a small repulsive contribution to the barrier from the interaction between the H2 molecule and the Ru part of the CO covered Ru surface, but it is smaller than one might expect based on the calculations of H2 interacting with a clean Ru surface, and on calculations of H2 interacting with the CO overlayer only. Actually, the analysis suggests that the Ru surface as a subsystem is (slightly) more reactive for the reaction path studied with CO preadsorbed on it than without it. Thus, the results indicate that the influence of CO on H2 dissociation on Ru is not only a simple site-blocking effect, the electronic structure of the underlying Ru is changed.

  12. MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Joel E.

    MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME ~ I T U D I N of the endemicity of malaria will be essential i n a population which is t o receive an acceptable malaria vaccine another." V. Nabokov (1972, p. 8) Abstract A research project on malaria i n the Garki d i s t r i c

  13. Magnetochromic effect in multiferroic RIn1-xMnxO3 (R=Tb, Dy) B. S. Holinsworth,1

    E-print Network

    Magnetochromic effect in multiferroic RIn1-xMnxO3 (R=Tb, Dy) P. Chen,1 B. S. Holinsworth,1 K. R. O, and rare-earth f-manifold excitations all track the magnetization energy due to dominant Zeeman, these on-site excitations red shift due to the Zee- man effect.21 In the more well-studied RMnO3 systems

  14. A Science S e n i c c loaturo 7 w;IY TXE rn4Ty3R 7

    E-print Network

    A Science S e n i c c loaturo 7 w;IY TXE rn4Ty3R 7 By Era Chnlcs P, Erooks of CLarlr Univcmity WATC:I TIB VUTIBS---- The l i t t l e child loves mutine. Let him look out the opened window every night just, are followed and tho growing child bogins to understand t h e i r interrelations and. t o make some A roaring

  15. Novel potato micro-tuber-inducing compound, (3R,6S)-6-hydroxylasiodiplodin, from a strain of Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Takahashi, Kosaku; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2005-08-01

    A novel potato micro-tuber-inducing compound was isolated from the culture broth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae Shimokita 2. The structure of the isolated compound was determined as (3R,6S)-6-hydroxylasiodiplodin by means of spectroscopic analyses, the modified Mosher method, and chemical conversion. The compound showed potato micro-tuber-inducing activity at a concentration of 10(-4) M, using the culture of single-node segments of potato stems in vitro. PMID:16116294

  16. Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytes from Ip3r2(-/-) mice in brain slices and during startle responses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Rahul; Huang, Ben S; Venugopal, Sharmila; Johnston, April D; Chai, Hua; Zeng, Hongkui; Golshani, Peyman; Khakh, Baljit S

    2015-05-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) signaling is considered to be important for multiple astrocyte functions in neural circuits. However, mice devoid of inositol triphosphate type 2 receptors (IP3R2) reportedly lack all astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling, but display no neuronal or neurovascular deficits, implying that astrocyte Ca(2+) fluctuations are not involved in these functions. An assumption has been that the loss of somatic Ca(2+) fluctuations also reflects a similar loss in astrocyte processes. We tested this assumption and found diverse types of Ca(2+) fluctuations in astrocytes, with most occurring in processes rather than in somata. These fluctuations were preserved in Ip3r2(-/-) (also known as Itpr2(-/-)) mice in brain slices and in vivo, occurred in end feet, and were increased by G protein-coupled receptor activation and by startle-induced neuromodulatory responses. Our data reveal previously unknown Ca(2+) fluctuations in astrocytes and highlight limitations of studies that used Ip3r2(-/-) mice to evaluate astrocyte contributions to neural circuit function and mouse behavior. PMID:25894291

  17. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rajakumara, Eerappa; Wang, Zhentian; Ma, Honghui; Hu, Lulu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wu, Feizhen; Li, Haitao; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Xu, Yanhui; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Shi, Yang

    2011-08-29

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  18. Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes from IP3R2?/? mice in brain slices and during startle responses in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Rahul; Huang, Ben S.; Venugopal, Sharmila; Johnston, April D.; Chai, Hua; Zeng, Hongkui; Golshani, Peyman; Khakh, Baljit S.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ signaling is considered important for multiple astrocyte functions in neural circuits. However, mice devoid of inositol triphosphate type 2 receptors (IP3R2) reportedly lack all astrocyte Ca2+ signaling, but display no neuronal or neurovascular deficits, implying that astrocyte Ca2+ fluctuations play no role(s) in these functions. An assumption has been that loss of somatic Ca2+ fluctuations also reflects similar loss within astrocyte processes. Here, we tested this assumption and found diverse types of Ca2+ fluctuations within astrocytes, with most occurring within processes rather than in somata. These fluctuations were preserved in IP3R2?/? mice in brain slices and in vivo, occurred in endfeet, were increased by G-protein coupled receptor activation and by startle-induced neuromodulatory responses. Our data reveal novel Ca2+ fluctuations within astrocytes and highlight limitations of studies that used IP3R2?/? mice to evaluate astrocyte contributions to neural circuit function and mouse behavior. PMID:25894291

  19. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    E Rajakumara; Z Wang; H Ma; L Hu; H Chen; Y Lin; R Guo; F Wu; H Li; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  20. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Honghui; Hu, Lulu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wu, Feizhen; Li, Haitao; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Xu, Yanhui; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Shi, Yang

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHDUHRF1), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHDUHRF1 bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHDUHRF1 binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function. PMID:21777816

  1. Modulation of behavior by the histaminergic system: lessons from HDC-, H3R- and H4R-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Erich H; Neumann, Detlef; Seifert, Roland

    2014-11-01

    Histamine, which is synthesized by histidine decarboxylase (HDC), does not only modulate the immune system, but is also acting as a neurotransmitter. Histaminergic neurons project from the tuberomamillary nucleus to numerous brain regions. Activation of presynaptic H3R inhibits the release of histamine and of non-histaminergic neurotransmitters. The phenotypes of Hdc(-/-)- and Hrh3(-/-) mice comprise behaviors related to locomotor activity, memory, cognition, anxiety, circadian rhythm, pain perception, food intake and addiction. We critically discuss these phenotypes that are probably caused by global changes of the histaminergic tone rather than by an altered stimulation of a single histamine receptor subtype. Constitutive H3R activity may add another layer of complexity by causing "histamine-independent histaminergic" processes, e.g. in Hdc(-/-) mice. We also discuss the clinical relevance of H3R- and HDC-deficient mice, e.g. the role of HDC in Tourette's syndrome. Finally, this review summarizes current knowledge on possible central H4R functions. Neuronal expression of H4R, however, is discussed controversially and a systematic behavioral characterization of Hrh4(-/-) mice is still missing. PMID:25102165

  2. Synthesis of (2R, 3R)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-hydroxybenzoate), a novel catechin from Cistus salvifolius, and evaluation of its proteasome inhibitory activities

    PubMed Central

    Osanai, Kumi; Huo, Congde; Landis-Piwowar, Kristin R.; Dou, Q. Ping; Chan, Tak Hang

    2010-01-01

    The total and semi syntheses of (2R, 3R)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-hydroxybenzoate), a novel catechin from Cistus salvifolius, was accomplished. The proteasome inhibition and cytotoxic activities of the synthetic compound and its acetyl derivative were studied and compared with (2R, 3R)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the active component from green tea. PMID:21152270

  3. Error-free 1,001-hop Cascaded Operation of an Optical-label Switching Router with Optical 3R Regeneration

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Regeneration Zhong Pan (1), Zuqing Zhu (1), Masaki Funabashi (1), Haijun Yang (1), S. J. B. Yoo (1) 1-label switching router. The optical 3R regeneration using wavelength conversion and synchronous modulation leads of cascaded stages of multi-hop packet forwarding [2]. While optical 3R regeneration (re- amplification

  4. Disruption of IP3R2-mediated Ca(2+) signaling pathway in astrocytes ameliorates neuronal death and brain damage while reducing behavioral deficits after focal ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Xie, Yicheng; Zhang, Nannan; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Qiao; Ding, Shinghua

    2015-12-01

    Inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) increase is the major Ca(2+) signaling pathway in astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Ca(2+) increases in astrocytes have been found to modulate neuronal function through gliotransmitter release. We previously demonstrated that astrocytes exhibit enhanced Ca(2+) signaling in vivo after photothrombosis (PT)-induced ischemia, which is largely due to the activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The aim of this study is to investigate the role of astrocytic IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in neuronal death, brain damage and behavior outcomes after PT. For this purpose, we conducted experiments using homozygous type 2 IP3R (IP3R2) knockout (KO) mice. Histological and immunostaining studies showed that IP3R2 KO mice were indeed deficient in IP3R2 in astrocytes and exhibited normal brain cytoarchitecture. IP3R2 KO mice also had the same densities of S100?+ astrocytes and NeuN+ neurons in the cortices, and exhibited the same glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glial glutamate transporter (GLT-1) levels in the cortices and hippocampi as compared with wild type (WT) mice. Two-photon (2-P) imaging showed that IP3R2 KO mice did not exhibit ATP-induced Ca(2+) waves in vivo in the astrocytic network, which verified the disruption of IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytes of these mice. When subject to PT, IP3R2 KO mice had smaller infarction than WT mice in acute and chronic phases of ischemia. IP3R2 KO mice also exhibited less neuronal apoptosis, reactive astrogliosis, and tissue loss than WT mice. Behavioral tests, including cylinder, hanging wire, pole and adhesive tests, showed that IP3R2 KO mice exhibited reduced functional deficits after PT. Collectively, our study demonstrates that disruption of astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling by deleting IP3R2s has beneficial effects on neuronal and brain protection and functional deficits after stroke. These findings reveal a novel non-cell-autonomous neuronal and brain protective function of astrocytes in ischemic stroke, whereby suggest that the astrocytic IP3R2-mediated Ca(2+) signaling pathway might be a promising target for stroke therapy. PMID:26433454

  5. Marine geodesy a multipurpose approach to solve oceanic problems. [including submersible navigation under iced seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep ocean, tsunamis, and ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, N.

    1974-01-01

    Various current and future problem areas of marine geodesy are identified. These oceanic problem areas are highly diversified and include submersible navigation under ice seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep ocean, tsunamis, ecology, etc., etc. Their achieved as well as desired positional accuracy estimates, based upon publications and discussions, are also given. A multipurpose approach to solve these problems is described. An optimum configuration of an ocean-bottom control-net unit is provided.

  6. An enzyme-free strategy for ultrasensitive detection of adenosine using a multipurpose aptamer probe and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Tang, Xian; Zhou, Bin; Xue, Jin-Hua; Liu, Hui; Liu, Shan-Du; Cao, Jin-Xiu; Li, Ming-Hui; Chen, Si-Han

    2015-08-01

    We report on an enzyme-free and label-free strategy for the ultrasensitive determination of adenosine. A novel multipurpose adenosine aptamer (MAAP) is designed, which serves as an effective target recognition probe and a capture probe for malachite green. In the presence of adenosine, the conformation of the MAAP is converted from a hairpin structure to a G-quadruplex. Upon addition of malachite green into this solution, a noticeable enhancement of resonance light scattering was observed. The signal response is directly proportional to the concentration of adenosine ranging from 75 pM to 2.2 nM with a detection limit of 23 pM, which was 100-10,000 folds lower than those obtained by previous reported methods. Moreover, this strategy has been applied successfully for detecting adenosine in human urine and blood samples, further proving its reliability. The mechanism of adenosine inducing MAAP to form a G-quadruplex was demonstrated by a series of control experiments. Such a MAAP probe can also be used to other strategies such as fluorescence or spectrophotometric ones. We suppose that this strategy can be expanded to develop a universal analytical platform for various target molecules in the biomedical field and clinical diagnosis. PMID:26320800

  7. Iodine Tagging Velocimetry and Mechanism in the Hypersonic Near Wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balla, R. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a new molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) method for velocity measurements of high speed flow. It demonstrates offbody Iodine Tagging Velocimetry (ITV) in the hypersonic near wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) model. Experiments are performed in the NASA-Langley 31-inch Mach 10 air wind tunnel. A 0.5% I2 / N2 mixture is seeded on the leeward backshell of the model using a pressure tap. I2 laser-induced fluorescence is excited along a 5.5 mm line using an ArF excimer laser near 193 nm. Results indicate I2 absorbs at least 2 photons to produce iodine ions and electrons. These recombine as the tagged region is displaced downstream to produce I (2P3/2) whose emission is monitored at 206 nm. Results at P0 = 2.41 MPa (350 psi), T0 = 990K, and 10 micro-sec transit times produce velocities from 630-820 m/sec across the I2 seeded jet at a distance of 38.2 mm (25.5 jet diameters) downstream from the jet orifice. Maximum wake jet velocities near the shear layer are 59% of freestream velocity.

  8. Design and investigations of the superconducting magnet system for the multipurpose superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Maeder, J.; Rossbach, J.; Spaedtke, P.; Komorowski, P.; Meyer-Reumers, M.; Krischel, D.; Fischer, B.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.

    2012-02-15

    The production of intense beams of heavy ions with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) is an important request at many accelerators. According to the ECR condition and considering semi-empirical scaling laws, it is essential to increase the microwave frequency together with the magnetic flux density of the ECRIS magnet system. A useful frequency of 28 GHz, therefore, requires magnetic flux densities above 2.2 T implying the use of superconducting magnets. A cooperation of European institutions initiated a project to build a multipurpose superconducting ECRIS (MS-ECRIS) in order to achieve an increase of the performances in the order of a factor of ten. After a first design of the superconducting magnet system for the MS-ECRIS, the respective cold testing of the built magnet system reveals a lack of mechanical performance due to the strong interaction of the magnetic field of the three solenoids with the sextupole field and the magnetization of the magnetic iron collar. Comprehensive structural analysis, magnetic field calculations, and calculations of the force pattern confirm thereafter these strong interactions, especially of the iron collar with the solenoidal fields. The investigations on the structural analysis as well as suggestions for a possible mechanical design solution are given.

  9. Strategic focus on 3R principles reveals major reductions in the use of animals in pharmaceutical toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Öberg, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

  10. Strategic Focus on 3R Principles Reveals Major Reductions in the Use of Animals in Pharmaceutical Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Öberg, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

  11. Phase and structural behavior of SmAlO{sub 3}–RAlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ohon, N.; Vasylechko, L.; Prots, Yu.; Schmidt, M.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Continuous solid solutions exist in the SmAlO{sub 3}–RAlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd) systems. • Lattice parameter crossover was found in solid solutions Sm{sub 1?x}R{sub x}AlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd). • Thermally induced lattice crossovers occur in Sm{sub 0.9}R{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3} at elevated temperatures. • First-order structural phase transition Pbnm?R3{sup ¯}c was found in Sm{sub 1?x}R{sub x}AlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd). • Phase diagram of the systems SmAlO{sub 3}–EuAlO{sub 3} and SmAlO{sub 3}–GdAlO{sub 3} has been constructed. - Abstract: Phase and structural behavior in the SmAlO{sub 3}–RAlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd) systems has been studied in a whole concentration range by means of laboratory X-ray diffraction, in situ synchrotron powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis techniques. Continuous solid solutions with orthorhombic perovskite structure have been found in both systems. Peculiarity of the solid solutions of Sm{sub 1?x}Eu{sub x}AlO{sub 3} and Sm{sub 1?x}Gd{sub x}AlO{sub 3} is the existence of two lattice parameter crossovers in each system occurred at x{sub Eu} = 0.07 and 0.62 and at x{sub Gd} = 0.04 and 0.33, respectively. The temperature induced lattice crossovers in the Sm{sub 0.9}Eu{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3} and Sm{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3} samples have been found at 387 and 922 K and at 501 and 894 K. First-order reversible structural phase transformations Pbnm?R3{sup ¯}c have been detected in both systems at the elevated temperatures. The temperatures of these transitions increase linearly with the decreasing of the samarium content. Phase diagrams of the pseudo-binary systems SmAlO{sub 3}–EuAlO{sub 3} and SmAlO{sub 3}–GdAlO{sub 3} have been constructed.

  12. The fate of the 2?3 × 2?3R(30°) silicene phase on Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhi-Long; Wang, Mei-Xiao; Liu, Canhua E-mail: depadova@ism.cnr.it Jia, Jin-Feng; Vogt, Patrick; Quaresima, Claudio; Ottaviani, Carlo; De Padova, Paola E-mail: depadova@ism.cnr.it; Olivieri, Bruno; Lay, Guy Le E-mail: depadova@ism.cnr.it

    2014-09-01

    Silicon atoms deposited on Ag(111) produce various single layer silicene sheets with different buckling patterns and periodicities. Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that one of the silicene sheets, the hypothetical ?7 × ?7 silicene structure, on 2?3 × 2?3 Ag(111), is inherently highly defective and displays no long-range order. Moreover, Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal its sudden death, to end, in a dynamic fating process at ?300?°C. This result clarifies the real nature of the 2?3 × 2?3R(30°) silicene phase and thus helps to understand the diversity of the silicene sheets grown on Ag(111)

  13. [Decolorization of reactive blue P-3R with microsphere-supported binuclear Manganese complex as a novel heterogeneous CWPO catalyst].

    PubMed

    Song, Min; Zhang, Lin-Ping; Zhong, Yi; Xu, Hong; Mao, Zhi-Ping

    2015-03-01

    Binuclear manganese complex (MnL), with high catalytic activity, was encapsulated into ethyl cellulose microspheres via a microencapsulation technique. The characterization of the catalyst through ICP, UV-VIS, SEM and TEM revealed that MnL was well distributed within the ethyl cellulose matrix. The results of UV-VIS confirmed the structural integrity of MnL after the encapsulation process. The MnL loaded microspheres exhibited an excellent catalytic property in the oxidative decolorization of Reactive Blue P-3R, which was used to simulate the dyestuff wastewater. The dye solution was completely decolorized under the catalyzing action of these microspheres. What's more, these MnL loaded microspheres could be reused for at least 4 times and the decolorization degree of Reactive Blue P-3R was maintained above 70%. The results demonstrated the potential application of the microsphere-supported MnL as a novel heterogeneous CWPO catalyst for the decolorization of wastewater containing dyestuff. PMID:25929067

  14. An in-vitro microtensile test of Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive applied at different priming times.

    PubMed

    Purk, John H; Ganne, Sravanthi; Parikh, Ruchi; Dusevich, Vladimir; Glaros, Alan; Eick, J David

    2004-01-01

    Adhesive bonding to dentin can fail if the dentin is too wet during application of the bonding resin. This study compared the in vitro 24-hour microtensile bond strength of teeth restored at four different priming times at the gingival cavity wall of Class II resin composite restorations. After IRB approval, six pairs of extracted third molars (yielding 12 teeth) received a proximal Class II prep/restoration in each tooth. Each pair was from the same patient. Four treatment groups were randomly assigned for each pair. The treatment groups were: TM-primer applied and dried according to manufacturer's directions; T30-primer allowed to dry for an additional 30 seconds; T60-primer dried for an additional 60 seconds; T120-primer dried for an additional 120 seconds. The teeth were restored with 3M ESPE Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Dental Adhesive and 3M ESPE Z100 Restorative. Manufacturers' directions were followed except for the additional primer dwelling times. The teeth were sectioned to obtain rectangular specimens with a surface area of approximately 0.5 mm2. Samples were tested on the Instron at 1.0 mm/minute until failure. The results in megapaschals were TM (n=15) 25.5+/-12.2; T30 (n=14) 22.7+/-13.6; T60 (n=15) 28.1+/-14.7; T120 (n=20) 27.7+/-15.2. Samples that debonded during the preparation phase and could not be tested from each group were TM=5, T30=6, T60=5, T120=1. A one-way ANOVA found no statistically significant difference between groups. Ninety percent of the samples broke through the adhesive layer as observed under the scanning electron microscope at 2000x. A chi square analysis found no difference in the number of debonds between groups. Increasing the primer drying time did not increase the microtensile bond strength of adhesive bonded to the dentin gingival wall. PMID:15646226

  15. Investigating a multi-purpose target for electron linac based photoneutron sources for BNCT of deep-seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudi, S. Farhad; Rasouli, Fatemeh S.

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies in BNCT have focused on investigating appropriate neutron sources as alternatives for nuclear reactors. As the most prominent facilities, the electron linac based photoneutron sources benefit from two consecutive reactions, (e, ?) and (?, n). The photoneutron sources designed so far are composed of bipartite targets which involve practical problems and are far from the objective of achieving an optimized neutron source. This simulation study deals with designing a compact, optimized, and geometrically simple target for a photoneutron source based on an electron linac. Based on a set of MCNPX simulations, tungsten is found to have the potential of utilizing as both photon converter and photoneutron target. Besides, it is shown that an optimized dimension for such a target slows-down the produced neutrons toward the desired energy range while keeping them economy, which makes achieving the recommended criteria for BNCT of deep-tumors more available. This multi-purpose target does not involve complicated designing, and can be considered as a significant step toward finding application of photoneutron sources for in-hospital treatments. In order to shape the neutron beam emitted from such a target, the beam is planned to pass through an optimized arrangement of materials composed of moderators, filters, reflector, and collimator. By assessment with the recommended in-air parameters, it is shown that the designed beam provides high intensity of desired neutrons, as well as low background contamination. The last section of this study is devoted to investigate the performance of the resultant beam in deep tissue. A typical simulated liver tumor, located within a phantom of human body, was subjected to the irradiation of the designed spectrum. The dosimetric results, including evaluated depth-dose curves and carried out in-phantom parameters show that the proposed configuration establishes acceptable agreement between the appropriate neutron intensity, and penetrating deep in tissue in a reasonable treatment time.

  16. Optimal tree-based release rules for real-time flood control operations on a multipurpose multireservoir system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chih-Chiang; Hsu, Nien-Sheng

    2009-02-01

    SummaryThis study presents a methodology to establish a set of optimal operation release rules which are tree-based rules for real-time flood control on a multipurpose multireservoir system. The derived rules can be used to determine the optimal real-time releases during flood periods. Steps of the proposed methodology involve: (1) collection of data, (2) building of flood database, (3) generation of optimal input-output patterns by running the flood control optimization model, (4) classification of training and testing data, (5) extraction of tree-based release rules for designed scenarios using the decision-tree algorithm (C5.0), (6) determination of optimal tree-based rules, (7) generation of the real-time forecast data by using the hydrological forecast model, (8) processing of reservoir real-time releases by simulating the reservoir real-time flood control operation, and (9) verification of the superior release rules through comparisons of tree-based rules, regression-based rules derived from a multiple-linear regression model and existing release rules. The developed methodology is applied to the Tanshui River Reservoir System in Taiwan to extract the decision trees for each scenario and then select the best ones with highest accuracy as the optimal tree-based rules. The derived optimal tree-based rules, regression-based rules and existing rules are compared by conducting the real-time operations in three historical typhoons, including Aere, Haima and Nock-ten in 2004. Results demonstrate that the solution using the derived tree-based rules have better performance than the regression-based rules and the existing rules in terms of reducing the peak stage at downstream control points, and meeting the target reservoir storage at the end of flood.

  17. Neomorphic Mutations in PIK3R1 Confer Sensitivity to MAPK Inhibitors due to Activation of ERK and JNK Pathways | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    In a recent publication in Cancer Cell, CTD2 investigators discovered that a known cancer-associated gain-of-function alteration in phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 (PIK3R1) results in novel protein activity that confers sensitivity to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. The PIK3R1 gene encodes the p85? regulatory subunit of PIK3. Under normal conditions, p85? suppresses PIK3 mediated activation of downstream pathways that promote cell growth and survival.

  18. Net lactate accumulation and low buffering capacity explain low ultimate pH in the longissimus lumborum of AMPK?3(R200Q) mutant pigs.

    PubMed

    Matarneh, Sulaiman K; England, Eric M; Scheffler, Tracy L; Oliver, Emily M; Gerrard, David E

    2015-12-01

    Postmortem lactate accumulation in skeletal muscle is linearly associated with the extent of pH decline. Yet, pigs harboring the AMPK?3(R200Q) mutation produce meat with similar lactate levels to that of wild-type pigs but have a lower ultimate pH. We hypothesized that lower initial lactate levels and (or) lower buffering capacity in muscle of these pigs may help explain this discrepancy. Longissimus lumborum muscle samples were harvested at 0 and 1440min postmortem from AMPK?3(R200Q) and wild-type pigs. As expected, AMPK?3(R200Q) muscle exhibited a lower ultimate pH but similar lactate levels to that of wild-type pigs at 1440min postmortem. However, the total net lactate produced postmortem was greater in the AMPK?3(R200Q) muscle due to lower initial lactate levels at 0min postmortem. Buffering capacity measured over the pH range of 5.5-7.0 was also lower in AMPK?3(R200Q) muscle. Greater net lactate accumulation postmortem (i.e., glycolytic flux) coupled with a lower buffering capacity explains the lower ultimate pH of meat from AMPK?3(R200Q) pigs. PMID:26241465

  19. Tumor-specific delivery of BSH-3R for boron neutron capture therapy and positron emission tomography imaging in a mouse brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Yoshiya; Michiue, Hiroyuki; Kitamatsu, Mizuki; Hayashi, Yuri; Takenaka, Fumiaki; Nishiki, Tei-Ichi; Matsui, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    Glioblastoma, a malignant brain tumor with poor disease outcomes, is managed in modern medicine by multimodality therapy. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an encouraging treatment under clinical investigation. In malignant cells, BNCT consists of two major factors: neutron radiation and boron uptake. To increase boron uptake in cells, we created a mercapto-closo-undecahydrododecaborate ([B12HnSH](2-)2Na(+), BSH) fused with a short arginine peptide (1R, 2R, 3R) and checked cellular uptake in vitro and in vivo. In a mouse brain tumor model, only BSH with at least three arginine domains could penetrate cell membranes of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, to monitor the pharmacokinetic properties of these agents in vivo, we fused BSH and BSH-3R with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA); DOTA is a metal chelating agent for labeling positron emission tomography (PET) probe with (64)Cu. We administered BSH-DOTA-(64)Cu and BSH-3R-DOTA-(64)Cu to the tumor model through a mouse tail vein and determined the drugs' pharmacokinetics by PET imaging. BSH-3R showed a high uptake in the tumor area on PET imaging. We concluded that BSH-3R is the ideal boron compound for clinical use during BNCT and that in developing this compound for clinical use, the BSH-3R PET probe is essential for pharmacokinetic imaging. PMID:25934274

  20. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER (MPC) WITH ACD DISPOSAL CONTAINER (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Lotz

    1995-11-13

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24,5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Subsystem Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude MPC compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual MPC design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded MPC performance is similar to an MPC loaded with commercial BWR SNF. Future design efforts will focus on specific MPC vendor designs and BWR MOX SNF designs when they become available.

  1. Study of structural, electronic and elastic properties of RPd{sub 3} (R = Lu and Sc) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Veena Pagare, Gitanjali Chouhan, S. S.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2014-04-24

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of nonmagnetic RPd{sub 3} (R = Lu and Sc) compounds, which crystallize in AuCu{sub 3}-type structure, are studied using first principles density functional theory based on full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The calculations are carried out within the PBE-GGA and WC-GGA for the exchange correlation potential. Our calculated ground state properties such as lattice constant (a0), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B’) are in good agreement with the experimental results. We first time predict the elastic constants for these compounds using different approximations of GGA. These RPd{sup 3} compounds are found to be ductile in nature in accordance with Pugh’s criteria. The computed electronic band structures and density of states show metallic character of these compounds.

  2. Differing Evolutionary Histories of the ACTN3*R577X Polymorphism among the Major Human Geographic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Carlos Eduardo G.; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Hünemeier, Tábita

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that the functional ACTN3*R577X polymorphism might have evolved due to selection in Eurasian human populations. To test this possibility we surveyed all available population-based data for this polymorphism and performed a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of its genetic diversity, in order to assess the action of adaptive and random mechanisms on its variation across human geographical distribution. The derived 577X allele increases in frequency with distance from Africa, reaching the highest frequencies on the American continent. Positive selection, detected by an extended haplotype homozygosisty test, was consistent only with the Eurasian data, but simulations with neutral models could not fully explain the results found in the American continent. It is possible that particularities of Native American population structure could be responsible for the observed allele frequencies, which would have resulted from a complex interaction between selective and random factors. PMID:25706920

  3. Automatic sorting of toxicological information into the IUCLID (International Uniform Chemical Information Database) endpoint-categories making use of the semantic search engine Go3R.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Hareng, Lars; Wareing, Britta; Langsch, Angelika; Zschunke, Matthias; Alvers, Michael R; Landsiedel, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge-based search engine Go3R, www.Go3R.org, has been developed to assist scientists from industry and regulatory authorities in collecting comprehensive toxicological information with a special focus on identifying available alternatives to animal testing. The semantic search paradigm of Go3R makes use of expert knowledge on 3Rs methods and regulatory toxicology, laid down in the ontology, a network of concepts, terms, and synonyms, to recognize the contents of documents. Search results are automatically sorted into a dynamic table of contents presented alongside the list of documents retrieved. This table of contents allows the user to quickly filter the set of documents by topics of interest. Documents containing hazard information are automatically assigned to a user interface following the endpoint-specific IUCLID5 categorization scheme required, e.g. for REACH registration dossiers. For this purpose, complex endpoint-specific search queries were compiled and integrated into the search engine (based upon a gold standard of 310 references that had been assigned manually to the different endpoint categories). Go3R sorts 87% of the references concordantly into the respective IUCLID5 categories. Currently, Go3R searches in the 22 million documents available in the PubMed and TOXNET databases. However, it can be customized to search in other databases including in-house databanks. PMID:24389116

  4. IP3R1 deficiency in the cerebellum/brainstem causes basal ganglia-independent dystonia by triggering tonic Purkinje cell firings in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hisatsune, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Hirono, Moritoshi; Yamaguchi, Naohide; Sugawara, Takeyuki; Ogawa, Naoko; Ebisui, Etsuko; Ohshima, Toshio; Yamada, Masahisa; Hensch, Takao K.; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The type 1 inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) is a Ca2+ channel on the endoplasmic reticulum and is a predominant isoform in the brain among the three types of IP3Rs. Mice lacking IP3R1 show seizure-like behavior; however the cellular and neural circuit mechanism by which IP3R1 deletion causes the abnormal movements is unknown. Here, we found that the conditional knockout mice lacking IP3R1 specifically in the cerebellum and brainstem experience dystonia and show that cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) firing patterns were coupled to specific dystonic movements. Recordings in freely behaving mice revealed epochs of low and high frequency PC complex spikes linked to body extension and rigidity, respectively. Remarkably, dystonic symptoms were independent of the basal ganglia, and could be rescued by inactivation of the cerebellum, inferior olive or in the absence of PCs. These findings implicate IP3R1-dependent PC firing patterns in cerebellum in motor coordination and the expression of dystonia through the olivo-cerebellar pathway. PMID:24109434

  5. Multipurpose assessment for the quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria in fish and seawater using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yeun; Lee, Jung-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes the first multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay developed, as a multipurpose assessment, for the simultaneous quantification of total bacteria and three Vibrio spp. (V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. anguillarum) in fish and seawater. The consumption of raw finfish as sushi or sashimi has been increasing the chance of Vibrio outbreaks in consumers. Freshness and quality of fishery products also depend on the total bacterial populations present. Results The detection sensitivity of the specific targets for the multiplex assay was 1 CFU mL?1 in pure culture and seawater, and 10 CFU g?1 in fish. While total bacterial counts by the multiplex assay were similar to those obtained by cultural methods, the levels of Vibrio detected by the multiplex assay were generally higher than by cultural methods of the same populations. Among the natural samples without Vibrio spp. inoculation, eight out of 10 seawater and three out of 20 fish samples were determined to contain Vibrio spp. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that this multiplex assay could be useful for the rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria as a multipurpose tool for surveillance of fish and water quality as well as diagnostic method. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24752974

  6. Multipurpose Hyperspectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye; Smith, David; Lanoue, Mark A.; Poole, Gavin H.; Heitschmidt, Jerry; Martinez, Luis; Windham, William A.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon

    2005-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral imaging with or without relative movement of the imaging system, and it can be used to scan a target of any size as long as the target can be imaged at the focal plane; for example, automated inspection of food items and identification of single-celled organisms. The spectral resolution of this system is greater than that of prior terrestrial multispectral imaging systems. Moreover, unlike prior high-spectral resolution airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral imaging systems, this system does not rely on relative movement of the target and the imaging system to sweep an imaging line across a scene. This compact system (see figure) consists of a front objective mounted at a translation stage with a motorized actuator, and a line-slit imaging spectrograph mounted within a rotary assembly with a rear adaptor to a charged-coupled-device (CCD) camera. Push-broom scanning is carried out by the motorized actuator which can be controlled either manually by an operator or automatically by a computer to drive the line-slit across an image at a focal plane of the front objective. To reduce the cost, the system has been designed to integrate as many as possible off-the-shelf components including the CCD camera and spectrograph. The system has achieved high spectral and spatial resolutions by using a high-quality CCD camera, spectrograph, and front objective lens. Fixtures for attachment of the system to a microscope (U.S. Patent 6,495,818 B1) make it possible to acquire multispectral images of single cells and other microscopic objects.

  7. Multipurpose hyperspectral imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral i...

  8. Assessing Interactions Between Ghsr and Mc3r Reveals a Role for AgRP in the Expression of Food Anticipatory Activity in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Girardet, Clemence; Mavrikaki, Maria; Southern, Mark R.; Smith, Roy G.

    2014-01-01

    The stomach hormone ghrelin and hypothalamic melanocortin neurons belong to a gut-brain circuit controlling appetite and metabolic homeostasis. Mice lacking melanocortin-3 receptor (Mc3rKO) or growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GhsrKO) genes exhibit attenuated food anticipatory activity (FAA), a rise in locomotor activity anticipating mealtime, suggesting common circuitry regulating anticipatory responses to nutrient loading. To investigate the interaction between Ghsrs and Mc3rs, we compared food anticipatory responses in GhsrKO, Mc3rKO, and double Ghsr;Mc3r knockout (DKO) mice subjected to a hypocaloric restricted feeding (RF) protocol in constant dark or 12-hour light, 12-hour dark settings. DKO are viable, exhibiting no overt behavioral or metabolic phenotypes in ad libitum or fasting conditions. FAA was initially attenuated in all mutant strains in constant darkness. However, GhsrKO eventually exhibited a robust food anticipatory response, suggesting compensation. Mc3rKO and DKO did not compensate, indicating a continued requirement for Mc3rs in maintaining the expression of FAA in situations of RF. Abnormal regulation of hypothalamic agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/Npy) neurons previously observed during fasting may contribute to attenuated FAA in Mc3rKO. AgRP and Npy expression measured 1 hour before food presentation correlated positively with FAA. Absence of Mc3rs (but not Ghsrs) was associated with lower AgRP/Npy expression, suggesting attenuated responses to signals of negative energy balance. These observations support the importance of Mc3rs as modulators of anticipatory responses to feeding, with mice able to compensate for loss of Ghsrs. The behavioral deficits of Mc3rKO displayed during RF may be partially explained by reduced hunger sensations owing to abnormal regulation of orexigenic AgRP/Npy neurons. PMID:25211592

  9. S2P3-R (v1.0): a framework for efficient regional modelling of physical and biological structures and processes in shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, R.; Hickman, A. E.; Sharples, J.

    2015-10-01

    An established one-dimensional (1-D) model of Shelf Sea Physics and Primary Production (S2P3) is adapted for flexible use in selected regional settings over selected periods of time. This Regional adaptation of S2P3, the S2P3-R framework (v1.0), can be efficiently used to investigate physical and biological phenomena in shelf seas that are strongly controlled by vertical processes. These include spring blooms that follow the onset of stratification, tidal mixing fronts that seasonally develop at boundaries between mixed and stratified water, and sub-surface chlorophyll maxima that persist throughout summer. While not representing 3-D processes, S2P3-R reveals the horizontal variation of the key 1-D (vertical) processes. S2P3-R should therefore only be used in regions where horizontal processes - including mean flows, eddy fluxes and internal tides - are known to exert a weak influence in comparison with vertical processes. In such cases, S2P3-R may be used as a highly versatile research tool, alongside more complex and computationally expensive models. In undergraduate oceanography modules and research projects, the model serves as an effective practical tool for linking theory and field observations. Three different regional configurations of S2P3-R are described, illustrating a range of diagnostics, evaluated where practical with observations. The model can be forced with daily meteorological variables for any selected year in the reanalysis era (1948 onwards). Example simulations illustrate the considerable extent of synoptic-to-interannual variability in the physics and biology of shelf seas. In discussion, the present limitations of S2P3-R are emphasised, and future developments are outlined.

  10. Structure of the modulation hole doped (2 ?3x2 ?3)R30? Sn double layer on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snijders, Paul C.; Huang, Ying-Tzu; Ming, Fangfei; Mulugeta, Daniel; Tu, Weisong; Kent, Paul R. C.; Diehl, Renee D.; Weitering, Hanno H.

    2015-03-01

    Over the years, a large collection of temperature dependent phase transitions has been identified in atomically thin metal overlayers on semiconductor surfaces. However, studying their doping dependence remains difficult due to the symmetry breaking nature of dopant atoms located on top of these structures, and the associated local lattice deformations localizing the doped carriers. Here we have used a subsurface modulation doping approach using B on Si(111) to hole-dope an overlaying Sn double layer. STM, LEED-I(E), and XPS were used to characterize the structure of a (2 ?3x2 ?3)R30 Sn double layer on a Si(111) (?3x ?3)-B surface. STM images 4 atoms in the top Sn layer. Using the tip to remove this top layer, a second layer consisting of 3 triangular structures becomes visible, resulting in a total of 13 Sn atoms per unit cell, consistent with an XPS core level intensity analysis. An extensive LEED-I(E) analysis using 20 independent beams with an energy range of 7126 eV points to a structural model consistent with the STM and XPS data and having a Pendry R-factor of 0.34. Research sponsored by NSF DMR-1005488 (FM, DM, WT, HHW), and by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division (PCS,PRCK).

  11. Dielectric properties of PVDF thin films doped with 3 wt.% of RCl3 (R = Gd or Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, S.; Abdel-Baset, T. A.; Hassen, A.

    2014-03-01

    The dielectric permittivity (?'), electric modulus (M?), and ac conductivity (?ac) of pure polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and PVDF containing 3 wt.% RCl3 (R = Er or Gd) were measured. The incorporation of 3 wt.% of ErCl3 or GdCl3 within the PVDF matrix is found significantly to increase its ?' and ?ac. All investigated samples show different relaxation processes within the studied temperature and frequency ranges. The first process is ?a-relaxation, which occurs around the glass transition temperature, Tg. The second process is ?c-relaxation, which is associated with the molecular motions in the crystalline region of the main polymer chain. Third is the ?-relaxation which observed for pure PVDF at low temperatures and high frequencies. The frequency dependence of ?ac shows that the conduction mechanism for pure PVDF and PVDF containing 3 wt.% of RCl3 is correlated barrier hopping (CBH). The binding energy of the carriers was calculated based on the CBH model. Finally, the results obtained in this work are discussed and compared with those for 3 wt.% LaCl3-doped PVDF and similar materials.

  12. Effect of Ga doping on the multiferroic properties of RMn1-xGaxO3 (R=Ho,Y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H. D.; Denyszyn, J. C.; Goodenough, J. B.

    2005-12-01

    Structural, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, magnetic, and dielectric measurements on single-crystal RMn1-xGaxO3 ( R=Ho or Y) hexagonal compounds have revealed that the c axis decreases with increasing temperature with a larger ?dc/dT? above TC than below it, which shows that the cooperative MnO5 site rotations responsible for the ferrielectricity expend energy to induce the ferroic R3+ -ion displacements along the c axis. Ga doping raises the ferrielectric Curie temperature TC and the Mn-spin reorientation temperature TSR while lowering TN of the Mn spins and the Ho magnetic ordering temperature T2 . The data show an important coupling between the Mn3+ -ion and Ho3+ -ion spins as well as a TSR that is driven by the cooperative MnO5 site rotation and R3+ -ion displacements that control the c lattice parameter. The data also support an enhanced spin-lattice interaction in the geometrically frustrated Mn-spin system.

  13. Nucleation and growth of Ag islands on the (.sqroot.3 × .sqroot.3)R30° phase of Ag on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Belianinov, A.; Unal, B.; Ho, K.-M.; Wang, C.-Z.; Evans, J. W.; Tringides, M. C.; Thiel, P. A.

    2011-06-06

    We use scanning tunneling microscopy to measure densities and characteristics of Ag islands that form on the ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{sup o}-Ag phase on Si(111), as a function of deposition temperature. Nucleation theory predicts that the logarithm of island density varies linearly with inverse deposition temperature. The data show two linear regimes. At 50-125 K, islands are relatively small, and island density decreases only slightly with increasing temperature. At 180-250 K, islands are larger and polycrystalline, and island density decreases strongly with increasing temperature. At 300 K, Ag atoms can travel for distances of the order of 1 {micro}m. Assuming that Ag diffusion occurs via thermally activated motion of single atoms between adjacent sites, the data can be explained as follows. At 50-125 K, the island density does not follow conventional Arrhenius scaling due to limited mobility and a consequent breakdown of the steady-state condition for the adatom density. At {approx} 115-125 K, a transition to conventional Arrhenius scaling with critical nucleus size (i = 1) begins, and at 180-250 K, i > 1 prevails. The transition points indicate a diffusion barrier of 0.20-0.23 eV and a pairwise Ag-Ag bond strength of 0.14 eV. These energy values lead to an estimate of i {approx} 3-4 in the regime 180-250 K, where island density varies strongly with temperature.

  14. Modulation of Elementary Calcium Release Mediates a Transition from Puffs to Waves in an IP3R Cluster Model

    PubMed Central

    Rückl, Martin; Parker, Ian; Marchant, Jonathan S.; Nagaiah, Chamakuri; Johenning, Friedrich W.; Rüdiger, Sten

    2015-01-01

    The oscillating concentration of intracellular calcium is one of the most important examples for collective dynamics in cell biology. Localized releases of calcium through clusters of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor channels constitute elementary signals called calcium puffs. Coupling by diffusing calcium leads to global releases and waves, but the exact mechanism of inter-cluster coupling and triggering of waves is unknown. To elucidate the relation of puffs and waves, we here model a cluster of IP3R channels using a gating scheme with variable non-equilibrium IP3 binding. Hybrid stochastic and deterministic simulations show that puffs are not stereotyped events of constant duration but are sensitive to stimulation strength and residual calcium. For increasing IP3 concentration, the release events become modulated at a timescale of minutes, with repetitive wave-like releases interspersed with several puffs. This modulation is consistent with experimental observations we present, including refractoriness and increase of puff frequency during the inter-wave interval. Our results suggest that waves are established by a random but time-modulated appearance of sustained release events, which have a high potential to trigger and synchronize activity throughout the cell. PMID:25569772

  15. Modulation of elementary calcium release mediates a transition from puffs to waves in an IP3R cluster model.

    PubMed

    Rückl, Martin; Parker, Ian; Marchant, Jonathan S; Nagaiah, Chamakuri; Johenning, Friedrich W; Rüdiger, Sten

    2015-01-01

    The oscillating concentration of intracellular calcium is one of the most important examples for collective dynamics in cell biology. Localized releases of calcium through clusters of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor channels constitute elementary signals called calcium puffs. Coupling by diffusing calcium leads to global releases and waves, but the exact mechanism of inter-cluster coupling and triggering of waves is unknown. To elucidate the relation of puffs and waves, we here model a cluster of IP3R channels using a gating scheme with variable non-equilibrium IP3 binding. Hybrid stochastic and deterministic simulations show that puffs are not stereotyped events of constant duration but are sensitive to stimulation strength and residual calcium. For increasing IP3 concentration, the release events become modulated at a timescale of minutes, with repetitive wave-like releases interspersed with several puffs. This modulation is consistent with experimental observations we present, including refractoriness and increase of puff frequency during the inter-wave interval. Our results suggest that waves are established by a random but time-modulated appearance of sustained release events, which have a high potential to trigger and synchronize activity throughout the cell. PMID:25569772

  16. Expression, purification and crystallization of the (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase HadAB complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Li, Jun; Qiu, Xiaodi; Yan, Chuanqiang; Li, Xuemei

    2015-10-01

    The (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase HadAB, involved in the biosynthetic pathway for mycolic acid (MA) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, catalyzes the third step in the fatty acid (FA) elongation cycle, which is an ideal and actual target for anti-tubercular agent. Though HadAB is predicted to be a member of the hotdog superfamily, it shares no sequence identity with typical hotdog fold isoenzyme FabZ. To characterize the significance of HadAB from the perspective of structural biology, large amount of pure HadAB complex is required for biochemical characterization and crystallization. Here, we used a unique expression and purification method. HadA and HadB were cloned separately and co-expressed in Escherichia coli. After GST affinity chromatography, two steps of anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration, the purity of the protein as estimated by SDS-PAGE was >95%. Using hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method, crystals were obtained and diffracted X-rays to 1.75Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a=b=82.0Å, c=139.8Å, ?=?=?=90.0°. PMID:26118698

  17. Belford proactive flood solutions: scientific evidence to influence local and national policy by multi-purpose runoff management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, M.; Quinn, P. F.; Jonczyk, J.

    2010-12-01

    The increased risk from flooding continues to be of concern to governments all around the world and flood protection is becoming more of a challenge. In the UK, climate change projections indicate more extremes within the weather systems. In addition, there is an increased demand for using land in urban areas beside channels. These developments both put pressure on our flood defences and there is a need for new solutions to managing flood risk. There is currently support within the England and Wales Environment Agency for sustainable flood management solutions such as storage ponds, wetlands, beaver dams and willow riparian features (referred to here as Runoff Attenuation Features, or RAFs). However the effectiveness of RAFs are not known at the catchment scale since they have only really been trailed at the plot scale. These types of mitigation measure can offer benefits to water quality and create ecological habitats. The village of Belford, situated in the Belford Burn catchment (6km2), northern England, has suffered from numerous flood events. In addition, the catchment suffers from water quality issues within the channel and high sediment loads are having an impact on the ecology of the nearby estuary. There was a desire by the Local Environment Agency Flood Levy team to deliver an alternative catchment-based solution to the problem. With funding from the Northumbria Regional Flood Defence Committee, the Environment Agency North East Local Levy team and Newcastle University have created a partnership to address the flood problem trailing soft engineered RAF’s at the catchment scale. The partnership project, “Belford proactive flood solutions” is testing novel techniques in reducing flood risk in small sub-catchments for the Environment Agency. The project provides the information needed to understand whether the multi-functional mitigation measures are working at the sub-catchment scale. Data suggest that the mitigation measures present have delayed the overall travel time of the flood peak in the catchment by 33%. The current maximum flood storage capacity of all the features stands at around 15,000 m3. The evidence also suggests that a dam like in-stream mitigation measure can significantly reduce sediment load. Other benefits of some mitigation features include large increase in the population of water voles over the past two years. The scheme also acts as a demonstration site for interested stakeholders where they can learn about this approach to flood risk management and see the multipurpose benefits. As the project has progressed and lessons have been learnt, it has been possible to develop a runoff management toolkit for implementing these mitigation measures in other catchments of similar size. Already, the local Environment Agency has utilised the tools and recently applied similar mitigation measures to other catchments. On-going modelling exercises in the project are using the data to explore the up-scaling of the features to larger catchments.

  18. Ultrafast electron dynamics and recombination at the Ge(1 1 1):Sn(?{3}×?{3})R30° surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Månsson, M.; Tjernberg, O.; Göthelid, M.; Grishin, M. A.; Claesson, T.; Karlsson, U. O.

    2008-03-01

    We present the first study revealing the electronic structure and electron dynamics of the excited adatom state at the Ge(1 1 1):Sn(?{3}×?{3})R30° surface. By the use of time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, the normally unoccupied electronic structure of the partly empty Sn adatom can be probed. From the angle-resolved data we conclude that the adatom electrons at the Ge:Sn surface are more delocalized than at the clean Ge(1 1 1)c(2×8) surface. A unique pump-and-probe technique, based on a pulsed femtosecond laser-system, has also allowed us to study the recombination process of the excited state. We connect the recombination process of the excited electrons to the coherent fluctuations of the Sn adatoms. As a result we present an estimate for the time between each collective and coherent adatom flip ?t=9 ps, i.e. an adatom switching frequency ??0.1 THz. We find that our results, contrary to scanning tunneling microscopy measurements [F. Ronci, S. Colonna, S.D. Thorpe, A. Cricenti, G. Le Lay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 156101], agree very well with values extracted from molecular dynamics simulations found in the literature [J. Avila, A. Mascaraque, E.G. Michel, M.C. Asensio, G. Le Lay, J. Ortega, R. Pérez, F. Flores, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 442; D. Farias, W. Kaminski, J. Lobo, J. Ortega, E. Hulpke, R. Perez, F. Flores, E.G. Michel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 16103].

  19. Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models for pharmaceuticals and chemicals: expert opinions on the state of affairs and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bakker, Wieger E; Beken, Sonja; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Koëter, Herman B W M; Krul, Cyrille

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and chemicals are subjected to regulatory safety testing accounting for approximately 25% of laboratory animal use in Europe. This testing meets various objections and has led to the development of a range of 3R models to Replace, Reduce or Refine the animal models. However, these models must overcome many barriers before being accepted for regulatory risk management purposes. This paper describes the barriers and drivers and options to optimize this acceptance process as identified by two expert panels, one on pharmaceuticals and one on chemicals. To untangle the complex acceptance process, the multilevel perspective on technology transitions is applied. This perspective defines influences at the micro-, meso- and macro level which need alignment to induce regulatory acceptance of a 3R model. This paper displays that there are many similar mechanisms within both sectors that prevent 3R models from becoming accepted for regulatory risk assessment and management. Shared barriers include the uncertainty about the value of the new 3R models (micro level), the lack of harmonization of regulatory requirements and acceptance criteria (meso level) and the high levels of risk aversion (macro level). In optimizing the process commitment, communication, cooperation and coordination are identified as critical drivers. PMID:24534000

  20. The CSF3R T618I mutation causes a lethal neutrophilic neoplasia in mice that is responsive to therapeutic JAK inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, Angela G.; Maxson, Julia E.; Luty, Samuel B.; Agarwal, Anupriya; Royer, Lacey R.; Abel, Melissa L.; MacManiman, Jason D.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Druker, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently identified targetable mutations in CSF3R (GCSFR) in 60% of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and atypical (BCR-ABL–negative) chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) patients. Here we demonstrate that the most prevalent, activating mutation, CSF3R T618I, is sufficient to drive a lethal myeloproliferative disorder in a murine bone marrow transplantation model. Mice transplanted with CSF3R T618I–expressing hematopoietic cells developed a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by overproduction of granulocytes and granulocytic infiltration of the spleen and liver, which was uniformly fatal. Treatment with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib lowered the white blood count and reduced spleen weight. This demonstrates that activating mutations in CSF3R are sufficient to drive a myeloproliferative disorder resembling aCML and CNL that is sensitive to pharmacologic JAK inhibition. This murine model is an excellent tool for the further study of neutrophilic myeloproliferative neoplasms and implicates the clinical use of JAK inhibitors for this disease. PMID:24081659

  1. Interaction transfer of silicon atoms forming Co silicide for Co/?(3)×?(3)R30°-Ag/Si(111) and related magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Fu, Tsu-Yi; Tsay, Jyh-Shen

    2015-05-07

    Combined scanning tunneling microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and surface magneto-optic Kerr effect studies were employed to study the microscopic structures and magnetic properties for ultrathin Co/?(3)×?(3)R30°-Ag/Si(111). As the annealing temperature increases, the upward diffusion of Si atoms and formation of Co silicides occurs at temperature above 400?K. Below 600?K, the ?(3)×?(3)R30°-Ag/Si(111) surface structure persists. We propose an interaction transferring mechanism of Si atoms across the ?(3)×?(3)R30°-Ag layer. The upward transferred Si atoms react with Co atoms to form Co silicide. The step height across the edge of the island, a separation of 0.75?nm from the analysis of the 2?×?2 structure, and the calculations of the normalized Auger signal serve as strong evidences for the formation of CoSi{sub 2} at the interface. The interaction transferring mechanism for Si atoms enhances the possibility of interactions between Co and Si atoms. The smoothness of the surface is advantage for that the easy axis of magnetization for Co/?(3)×?(3)R30°-Ag/Si(111) is in the surface plane. This provides a possible way of growing flat magnetic layers on silicon substrate with controllable silicide formation and shows potential applications in spintronics devices.

  2. Fig. 3: rFOV fat-water phantom validation for (a) 2 and (b) Fig. 2: Experimentally measured excitation profiles on-

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Fig. 3: rFOV fat-water phantom validation for (a) 2 and (b) method. Fig. 2: Experimentally Ttipdown. Fig. 4: rFOV in cardiac imaging at 3T. Conventional slice-selective RF with fat- saturation pulse arrows identify areas of fat. Note that fat signal appears blurred due to the spiral acquisition (b and d

  3. Demonstration of Field Trial Experiments to Investigate the Cascadability of a 10 Gb/s Optical 3R Regenerator with All-optical Clock Recovery

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    /s optical 3R regenerator using fiber recirculation loops built with 264-km and 462-km SSMF fiber in field-Zehnder interferometer, Fabry-Perot filter 1. Introduction The remarkable growth of the Internet traffic has spurred research and development of efficient and scalable optical network systems that can deliver high-speed data

  4. THE ALPHA-ACTININ-3 (ACTN3) R577X POLYMORPHISM INFLUENCES KNEE EXTENSOR PEAK POWER RESPONSE TO STRENGTH TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism has been associated with muscle power performance in cross-sectional studies. We examined baseline knee extensor concentric peak power (PP) and PP change with 10 weeks of unilateral knee extensor strength training (ST) using pneumatic resistance machines in 71 older men...

  5. 76 FR 59067 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2B16 (CL-601-3A, CL-601-3R, and CL-604...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    .... Model CL-600-2B16 (CL- 601-3A, CL-601-3R, and CL-604 Variants) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2B16 (CL- 601-3A,...

  6. Interaction transfer of silicon atoms forming Co silicide for Co/ ?{ 3 } × ?{ 3 } R 30 ° -Ag/Si(111) and related magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Fu, Tsu-Yi; Tsay, Jyh-Shen

    2015-05-01

    Combined scanning tunneling microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and surface magneto-optic Kerr effect studies were employed to study the microscopic structures and magnetic properties for ultrathin Co/ ?{ 3 } × ?{ 3 } R 30 ° -Ag/Si(111). As the annealing temperature increases, the upward diffusion of Si atoms and formation of Co silicides occurs at temperature above 400 K. Below 600 K, the ?{ 3 } × ?{ 3 } R 30 ° -Ag/Si(111) surface structure persists. We propose an interaction transferring mechanism of Si atoms across the ?{ 3 } × ?{ 3 } R 30 ° -Ag layer. The upward transferred Si atoms react with Co atoms to form Co silicide. The step height across the edge of the island, a separation of 0.75 nm from the analysis of the 2 × 2 structure, and the calculations of the normalized Auger signal serve as strong evidences for the formation of CoSi2 at the interface. The interaction transferring mechanism for Si atoms enhances the possibility of interactions between Co and Si atoms. The smoothness of the surface is advantage for that the easy axis of magnetization for Co/ ?{ 3 } × ?{ 3 } R 30 ° -Ag/Si(111) is in the surface plane. This provides a possible way of growing flat magnetic layers on silicon substrate with controllable silicide formation and shows potential applications in spintronics devices.

  7. Polymorphisms of the bovine MC3R gene and their associations with body measurement traits and meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, W-C; Wang, Y-N; Cui, A; Zan, L-S

    2015-01-01

    The melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R) gene, which belongs to the rhodopsin-like family A of the G protein-coupled receptor family, plays a crucial role in feed efficiency and energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to examine associations between bovine MC3R gene polymorphisms and body measurement traits (BMTs) and meat quality traits (MQTs). We identified three synonymous mutations (T429C, T537C, and T663C) in exon 1 of the MC3R gene in Chinese Qinchuan beef cattle (N = 271) by sequencing. D' and r(2) values revealed that these three SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r(2) > 0.33); the T429C and T537C SNPs were in complete LD (D' = 1 and r(2) = 1). Association analyses revealed that the SNPs were significantly associated with BMTs and MQTs in Qinchuan cattle. Individuals with the wild homozygotic genotypes g.TTTT and g.TT had significantly higher values of chest depth, heart girth, back fat thickness, intramuscular fat content, and loin muscle area than the mutant heterozygotic genotypes g.TCTC and g.TC. These results suggest that the MC3R gene affects MQTs in Qinchuan cattle, and that it may be a good candidate gene for marker-assisted selection. PMID:26505335

  8. CALIFORNIA DOLPHIN ONLINE CATALOG Alex Kesaris1, David Weller2, Gregory Campbell3, R.H. Defran4, Maddalena Bearzi5, Daniela Maldini6 and John Hildebrand3

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA DOLPHIN ONLINE CATALOG Alex Kesaris1, David Weller2, Gregory Campbell3, R.H. Defran4, Maddalena Bearzi5, Daniela Maldini6 and John Hildebrand3 1 Curator, California Dolphin Online Catalog; 2 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and multiple collections of photo-identification images

  9. Effect of Nourishing “Yin”-Removing “Fire” Chinese Herbal Mixture on Hypothalamic NKB/NK3R Expression in Female Precocious Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiran; Zhu, Liting; Yu, Jian; Tian, Zhanzhuang

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The present study aims to investigate the effects of nourishing “Yin”-removing “Fire” Chinese herb mixture on the hypothalamic NKB/NK3R expression in female precocious model rats. Materials and Methods. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal (N), central precocious puberty (CPP) model (M), CPP fed with Chinese herbal mixture (CHM), and CPP fed with normal saline (MS). Rats on postnatal day 5 were given a single subcutaneous injection of 300??g to establish CPP model rats. Rats of CHM and MS groups were continuously administered with nourishing “Yin”-removing “Fire” Chinese herb mixture or saline since postnatal day 15. The expressions of hypothalamic NKB/NK3R were detected by means of real-time PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence histochemistry. Results. The day of vaginal opening and establishment of two regular estrous cycles were delayed in the CHM group compared with M and MS groups. The expression of hypothalamic NKB/NK3R mRNA and protein in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and medial preoptic (MPO) area were decreased significantly in the CHM group compared with the M and MS groups on the day of onset-puberty. Conclusions. These results indicate that the NKB/NK3R signaling pathway might be involved in the effect of herbal mixture treatment on CPP. PMID:25031603

  10. Metabolic engineering of Enterobacter cloacae for high-yield production of enantiopure (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol from lignocellulose-derived sugars.

    PubMed

    Li, Lixiang; Li, Kun; Wang, Yu; Chen, Chao; Xu, Youqiang; Zhang, Lijie; Han, Binbin; Gao, Chao; Tao, Fei; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Biotechnological production of biofuels is restricted by toxicity of the products such as ethanol and butanol. As its low toxicity to microbes, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), a fuel and platform bio-chemical, could be a promising alternative for biofuel production from renewable bioresources. In addition, no bacterial strains have been reported to produce enantiopure 2,3-BD using lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In this study, Enterobacter cloacae strain SDM was systematically and metabolically engineered to construct an efficient biocatalyst for production of the fuel and enantiopure bio-chemical-(2R,3R)-2,3-BD. First, the various (2R,3R)-2,3-BD dehydrogenase encoding genes were expressed in a meso-2,3-BD dehydrogenase encoding gene disrupted E. cloacae strain under native promoter Pb of the 2,3-BD biosynthetic gene cluster of E. cloacae. Then, carbon catabolite repression was eliminated via inactivation of the glucose transporter encoding gene ptsG and overexpression of a galactose permease encoding gene galP. The resultant strain could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously. To improve the efficiency of (2R,3R)-2,3-BD production, the byproduct-producing genes (ldh and frdA) were knocked out, thereby enhancing the yield of (2R,3R)-2,3-BD by 16.5% in 500-mL Erlenmeyer flasks. By using fed-batch fermentation in a 5-L bioreactor, 152.0 g/L (2R,3R)-2,3-BD (purity>97.5%) was produced within 44 h with a specific productivity of 3.5 g/[Lh] and a yield of 97.7% from a mixture of glucose and xylose, two major carbohydrate components in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In addition, when a lignocellulosic hydrolysate was used as the substrate, 119.4 g/L (2R,3R)-2,3-BD (purity>96.0%) was produced within 51 h with a productivity of 2.3g/[Lh] and a yield of 95.0%. These results show that the highest records have been acquired for enantiopure (2R,3R)-2,3-BD production by a native or engineered strain from biomass-derived sugars. In addition to producing the 2,3-BD, our systematic approach might also be used in the production of other important chemicals by using lignocellulose-derived sugars. PMID:25499652

  11. Development of a multipurpose construction and maintenance vehicle for the gas industry. Phase 1. Final report, November 1, 1984-March 31, 1986. Engineering prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, W.M.

    1986-04-01

    An engineering prototype multipurpose construction and maintenance vehicle (MCMV) was developed for gas utilities to service distribution systems buried under pavement. The vehicle incorporates an abrasive waterjet to cut pavement, a vacuum bell to lift it out, a soft excavation tool to dig without utility damage and a soil stabilizer mixer to prevent pot holes after backfilling. The design is modular to permit a mix of standard-tools techniques with advanced technology. The vehicle is aimed at smallhole operations and a significant cost reduction over current utility truck methods. Cost/benefit analysis indicates the MCMV may be attractive compared to current methods but would be at a competitive disadvantage with new vacuum-truck technology. To become competitive, substantial configuration changes in the MCMV are required.

  12. Astrocytic Gq-GPCR-Linked IP3R-Dependent Ca2+ Signaling Does Not Mediate Neurovascular Coupling in Mouse Visual Cortex In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bonder, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Local blood flow is modulated in response to changing patterns of neuronal activity (Roy and Sherrington, 1890), a process termed neurovascular coupling. It has been proposed that the central cellular pathway driving this process is astrocytic Gq-GPCR-linked IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signaling, though in vivo tests of this hypothesis are largely lacking. We examined the impact of astrocytic Gq-GPCR and IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signaling on cortical blood flow in awake, lightly sedated, responsive mice using multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy and novel genetic tools that enable the selective manipulation of astrocytic signaling pathways in vivo. Selective stimulation of astrocytic Gq-GPCR cascades and downstream Ca2+ signaling with the hM3Dq DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) designer receptor system was insufficient to modulate basal cortical blood flow. We found no evidence of observable astrocyte endfeet Ca2+ elevations following physiological visual stimulation despite robust dilations of adjacent arterioles using cyto-GCaMP3 and Lck-GCaMP6s, the most sensitive Ca2+ indicator available. Astrocytic Ca2+ elevations could be evoked when inducing the startle response with unexpected air puffs. However, startle-induced astrocytic Ca2+ signals did not precede corresponding startle-induced hemodynamic changes. Further, neurovascular coupling was intact in lightly sedated, responsive mice genetically lacking astrocytic IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signaling (IP3R2 KO). These data demonstrate that astrocytic Gq-GPCR-linked IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signaling does not mediate neurovascular coupling in visual cortex of awake, lightly sedated, responsive mice. PMID:25253859

  13. TH-A-19A-08: Intel Xeon Phi Implementation of a Fast Multi-Purpose Monte Carlo Simulation for Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Souris, K; Lee, J; Sterpin, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of graphics processing units (GPUs) to compute dose distributions using Monte Carlo (MC) methods within clinical time constraints. However, GPUs have a rigid vectorial architecture that favors the implementation of simplified particle transport algorithms, adapted to specific tasks. Our new, fast, and multipurpose MC code, named MCsquare, runs on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. This technology offers 60 independent cores, and therefore more flexibility to implement fast and yet generic MC functionalities, such as prompt gamma simulations. Methods: MCsquare implements several models and hence allows users to make their own tradeoff between speed and accuracy. A 200 MeV proton beam is simulated in a heterogeneous phantom using Geant4 and two configurations of MCsquare. The first one is the most conservative and accurate. The method of fictitious interactions handles the interfaces and secondary charged particles emitted in nuclear interactions are fully simulated. The second, faster configuration simplifies interface crossings and simulates only secondary protons after nuclear interaction events. Integral depth-dose and transversal profiles are compared to those of Geant4. Moreover, the production profile of prompt gammas is compared to PENH results. Results: Integral depth dose and transversal profiles computed by MCsquare and Geant4 are within 3%. The production of secondaries from nuclear interactions is slightly inaccurate at interfaces for the fastest configuration of MCsquare but this is unlikely to have any clinical impact. The computation time varies between 90 seconds for the most conservative settings to merely 59 seconds in the fastest configuration. Finally prompt gamma profiles are also in very good agreement with PENH results. Conclusion: Our new, fast, and multi-purpose Monte Carlo code simulates prompt gammas and calculates dose distributions in less than a minute, which complies with clinical time constraints. It has been successfully validated with Geant4. This work has been financialy supported by InVivoIGT, a public/private partnership between UCL and IBA.

  14. Increased Cortical Inhibition in Autism-Linked Neuroligin-3R451C Mice Is Due in Part to Loss of Endocannabinoid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Haley E.; Masiulis, Irene; Gibson, Jay R.; Powell, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    A single, maternally inherited, X-linked point mutation leading to an arginine to cysteine substitution at amino acid 451 (R451C) of Neuroligin 3 (NLGN3R451C) is a likely cause of autism in two brothers. Knockin mice expressing the Nlgn3R451C mutation in place of wild-type Nlgn3 demonstrate increased inhibitory synaptic strength in somatosensory cortex, resulting in an excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) imbalance that is potentially relevant for autism-associated behavioral deficits characteristic of these mice. We have replicated the increase in evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs) onto layer II/III cortical pyramidal neurons. We also find that increased frequency of spontaneous mIPSCs in Nlgn3R451C mice occurs in the absence of action potential-driven transmission. This suggests the E/I imbalance is due to changes at the synapse level, as opposed to the network level. Next, we use paired whole-cell recordings in an attempt to identify specific interneuron subtypes affected by the Nlgn3R451C mutation. Curiously, we observe no change in the amplitude of cell-to-cell, unitary IPSCs (uIPSCs) from parvalbumin-positive (PV) or somatostatin-positive (SOM) interneurons onto pyramidal neurons. We also observe no change in the number or density of PV and SOM interneurons in LII/III of somatosensory cortex. This effectively rules out a role for these particular interneurons in the increased inhibitory synaptic transmission, pointing to perhaps alternative interneuron subtypes. Lastly, impaired endocannabinoid signaling has been implicated in hippocampal synaptic dysfunction in Nlgn3R451C mice, but has not been investigated at cortical synapses. We find that bath application of the CB1 antagonist, AM 251 in WT mice eliminates the Nlgn3R451C increase in eIPSC amplitude and mIPSC frequency, indicating that increased inhibitory transmission in mutant mice is due, at least in part, to a loss of endocannabinoid signaling through CB1 receptors likely acting at interneurons other than PV or SOM. PMID:26469287

  15. A comprehensive study of the (2?3??×??2?3)R30° structure of silicene on Ag(1?1?1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamgotchian, H.; Ealet, B.; Colignon, Y.; Maradj, H.; Hoarau, J.-Y.; Biberian, J.-P.; Aufray, B.

    2015-10-01

    The deposition of one silicon monolayer on Ag(1?1?1) gives rise to a set of superstructures depending on growth conditions. These superstructures are correlated to the epitaxy between the honeycomb structure of silicon (so called silicene) and the silver substrate. In this paper, from a detailed re-analysis of experimental results, obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy and by low energy electron diffraction on the (2?3??×??2?3)R30° structure, we propose a new atomic model of the silicene layer based on periodic arrangements of perfect areas of (2?3??×??2?3)R30° surrounded by defect areas. A generalization of this model explains the main experimental observations: deviation of the average direction, Moiré patterns and apparent global disorder. In the frame of the proposed model, the apparent disorders observed on the STM images, would be topological effects, i.e. the silicene would keep a quasi-perfect honeycomb structure.

  16. A comprehensive study of the (2?3??×??2?3)R30° structure of silicene on Ag(1?1?1).

    PubMed

    Jamgotchian, H; Ealet, B; Colignon, Y; Maradj, H; Hoarau, J-Y; Biberian, J-P; Aufray, B

    2015-10-01

    The deposition of one silicon monolayer on Ag(1?1?1) gives rise to a set of superstructures depending on growth conditions. These superstructures are correlated to the epitaxy between the honeycomb structure of silicon (so called silicene) and the silver substrate. In this paper, from a detailed re-analysis of experimental results, obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy and by low energy electron diffraction on the (2?3??×??2?3)R30° structure, we propose a new atomic model of the silicene layer based on periodic arrangements of perfect areas of (2?3??×??2?3)R30° surrounded by defect areas. A generalization of this model explains the main experimental observations: deviation of the average direction, Moiré patterns and apparent global disorder. In the frame of the proposed model, the apparent disorders observed on the STM images, would be topological effects, i.e. the silicene would keep a quasi-perfect honeycomb structure. PMID:26381052

  17. Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}: Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and thermal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Fomina, Irina; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna; Aleksandrov, Grygory; Emelina, Anna; Bykov, Mikhail; Bogomyakov, Artem; Puntus, Lada; Novotortsev, Vladimir; Eremenko, Igor

    2012-01-15

    The new 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} (1), where Piv=OOCBu{sup t-}, was synthesized in high yield (>95%) by the reaction of thulium acetate with pivalic acid in air at 100 Degree-Sign S. According to the X-ray diffraction data, the metal atoms in compound 1 are in an octahedral ligand environment unusual for lanthanides. The magnetic and luminescence properties of polymer 1, it's the solid-phase thermal decomposition in air and under argon, and the thermal behavior in the temperature range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S were investigated. The vaporization process of complex 1 was studied by the Knudsen effusion method combined with mass-spectrometric analysis of the gas-phase composition in the temperature range of 570-680 K. - Graphical Abstract: Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic, luminescence properties, the thermal behavior and the volatility for the compound {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} were investigated. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized the coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tm atoms in polymer have the coordination number 6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer exhibits blue-color emission at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer shows high thermal stability and volatility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer has no phase transitions in the range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S.

  18. Insights into mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis from the structure of heterotetrameric 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase/3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Rajaram; Sah-Teli, Shiv K; Awoniyi, Luqman O; Jiang, Guangyu; Prus, Piotr; Kastaniotis, Alexander J; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Wierenga, Rik K; Chen, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) is essential for respiratory growth in yeast and mammalian embryonic survival. The human 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (KAR) of mtFAS is a heterotetrameric ?2?2-assembly composed of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-8 (HSD17B8, ?-subunit) and carbonyl reductase type-4 (CBR4, ?-subunit). Here we provide a structural explanation for the stability of the heterotetramer from the crystal structure with NAD(+) and NADP(+) bound to the HSD17B8 and CBR4 subunits, respectively, and show that the catalytic activity of the NADPH- and ACP-dependent CBR4 subunit is crucial for a functional HsKAR. Therefore, mtFAS is NADPH- and ACP dependent, employing the 3R-hydroxyacyl-ACP intermediate. HSD17B8 assists in the formation of the competent HsKAR assembly. The intrinsic NAD(+)- and CoA-dependent activity of the HSD17B8 subunit on the 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA intermediates may indicate a role for this subunit in routing 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA esters, potentially arising from the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids, into the mitochondrial ?-oxidation pathway. PMID:25203508

  19. The PI3K regulatory subunit gene PIK3R1 is under direct control of androgens and repressed in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Munkley, Jennifer; Livermore, Karen E.; McClurg, Urszula L.; Kalna, Gabriela; Knight, Bridget; McCullagh, Paul; McGrath, John; Crundwell, Malcolm; Leung, Hing Y.; Robson, Craig N.; Harries, Lorna W.; Rajan, Prabhakar; Elliott, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signalling and the PI3K pathway mediate survival signals in prostate cancer, and have been shown to regulate each other by reciprocal negative feedback, such that inhibition of one activates the other. Understanding the reciprocal regulation of these pathways is important for disease management as tumour cells can adapt and survive when either single pathway is inhibited pharmacologically. We recently carried out genome-wide exon-specific profiling of prostate cancer cells to identify novel androgen-regulated transcriptional events. Here we interrogated this dataset for novel androgen-regulated genes associated with the PI3K pathway. We find that the PI3K regulatory subunits PIK3R1 (p85?) and PIK3R3 (p55?) are direct targets of the AR which are rapidly repressed by androgens in LNCaP cells. Further characterisation revealed that the PIK3CA p110? catalytic subunit is also indirectly regulated by androgens at the protein level. We show that PIK3R1 mRNA is significantly under-expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) tissue, and provide data to suggest a context-dependent regulatory mechanism whereby repression of the p85? protein by the AR results in destabilisation of the PI3K p110? catalytic subunit and downstream PI3K pathway inhibition that functionally affects the properties of prostate cancer cells. PMID:26501081

  20. Basal adenosine modulates the functional properties of AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons through the activation of A1R A2AR and A3R

    PubMed Central

    Di Angelantonio, Silvia; Bertollini, Cristina; Piccinin, Sonia; Rosito, Maria; Trettel, Flavia; Pagani, Francesca; Limatola, Cristina; Ragozzino, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a widespread neuromodulator within the CNS and its extracellular level is increased during hypoxia or intense synaptic activity, modulating pre- and postsynaptic sites. We studied the neuromodulatory action of adenosine on glutamatergic currents in the hippocampus, showing that activation of multiple adenosine receptors (ARs) by basal adenosine impacts postsynaptic site. Specifically, the stimulation of both A1R and A3R reduces AMPA currents, while A2AR has an opposite potentiating effect. The effect of ARs stimulation on glutamatergic currents in hippocampal cultures was investigated using pharmacological and genetic approaches. A3R inhibition by MRS1523 increased GluR1-Ser845 phosphorylation and potentiated AMPA current amplitude, increasing the apparent affinity for the agonist. A similar effect was observed blocking A1R with DPCPX or by genetic deletion of either A3R or A1R. Conversely, impairment of A2AR reduced AMPA currents, and decreased agonist sensitivity. Consistently, in hippocampal slices, ARs activation by AR agonist NECA modulated glutamatergic current amplitude evoked by AMPA application or afferent fiber stimulation. Opposite effects of AR subtypes stimulation are likely associated to changes in GluR1 phosphorylation and represent a novel mechanism of physiological modulation of glutamatergic transmission by adenosine, likely acting in normal conditions in the brain, depending on the level of extracellular adenosine and the distribution of AR subtypes. PMID:26528137

  1. Thermal evolution of Fe on Ge(1 1 1)-c(2 × 8) surface and the effect of (?{ 3} ×?{ 3})R30° Ag-Ge buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Chang; Jhou, Ming-Kuan; Lin, Wen-Chin; Fu, Tsu-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy, two systems of Fe deposition on clean Ge(1 1 1)-c(2 × 8) surface and surfaces with a (?{ 3} ×?{ 3})R30° Ag-Ge buffer layer were compared. Complex surface alloy structures were easily formed on Fe/Ge systems through annealing at 300-650 K. On clean Ge(1 1 1) surfaces, similar surface morphology evolution was observed when two different amounts of Fe were deposited. To reduce the complexity, (?{ 3} ×?{ 3})R30° Ag-Ge interfaces were used as buffer layers. The growth morphologies differed in the presence and absence of the buffer layers. During annealing at 570 K, (2 × 2) reconstruction platform islands were formed in the Fe-Ge system, which transformed to three-dimensional (3D) islands at 640 K. With Ag buffer layer, only nanoparticle growth occurred and 3D islands were formed early at 570 K. Generally, ?{ 19} ring clusters increased to break the order c(2 × 8) reconstruction by increasing the temperature and disappeared at 640 K in a Fe-Ge system, but only ?{ 7} ring clusters appeared at 390 K with (?{ 3} ×?{ 3})R30° Ag-Ge buffer layer.

  2. The Source, Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil from the Pearl River Delta Based on the National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingyan; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The data on the heavy metal content at different soil depths derived from a multi-purpose regional geochemical survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0. By comparing their spatial distributions and areas, the sources of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As and Pb) were quantitatively identified and explored. Netted measuring points at 25 ×25 km were set over the entire PRD according to the geochemical maps. Based on the calculation data obtained from different soil depths, the concentrations of As and Cd in a large area of the PRD exceeded the National Second-class Standard. The spatial disparity of the geometric centers in the surface soil and deep soil showed that As in the surface soil mainly came from parent materials, while Cd had high consistency in different soil profiles because of deposition in the soil forming process. The migration of Cd also resulted in a considerable ecological risk to the Beijiang and Xijiang River watershed. The potential ecological risk index followed the order Cd ? Hg > Pb > As. According to the sources, the distribution trends and the characteristics of heavy metals in the soil from the perspective of the whole area, the Cd pollution should be repaired, especially in the upper reaches of the Xijiang and Beijiang watershed to prevent risk explosion while the pollution of Hg and Pb should be controlled in areas with intense human activity, and supervision during production should be strengthened to maintain the ecological balance of As. PMID:26230506

  3. Multipurpose Radiation Resistant Semiconductor Detectors for Alpha, Neutron & Low Energy Gamma Ray Measurements at High Temperatures in High-Intensity Gamma Ray

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, Frank H.

    2005-06-01

    Work scheduled under year two of DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER63734 is on schedule and all year-two milestones have or will be met. Results to date demonstrate that unprecedented silicon carbide (SiC) energy resolution has been obtained, and that SiC detectors may achieve energy resolution that exceeds that obtainable with the best silicon alpha spectrometers. Fast-neutron energy spectrometry measurements indicate that recoil-ion energy spectrometry should be possible with SiC detectors. Furthermore, SiC detectors have been demonstrated to perform well even after gamma-ray exposures of 1.E09 Rad. This result and the previously demonstrated capability of SiC detectors to operate in elevated-temperature environments are very promising for potential DOE EMSP applications. A new class of multipurpose, radiation-resistant semiconductor detectors that can be used in elevated-temperature and high-radiation environments is being developed under this grant. These detectors, based on silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor are designed to have larger active volumes than previously available SiC detectors, and are being tested for their response to alpha particles, X-rays and low energy gamma rays, and fast neutrons.

  4. Multipurpose Radiation Resistant Semiconductor Detectors for Alpha, Neutron & Low Energy Gamma Ray Measurements at High Temperatures in High-Intensity Gamma Ray

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, Frank H

    2005-06-01

    Work scheduled under year two of DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER63734 is on schedule and all year-two milestones have or will be met. Results to date demonstrate that unprecedented silicon carbide (SiC) energy resolution has been obtained, and that SiC detectors may achieve energy resolution that exceeds that obtainable with the best silicon alpha spectrometers. Fast-neutron energy spectrometry measurements indicate that recoil-ion energy spectrometry should be possible with SiC detectors. Furthermore, SiC detectors have been demonstrated to perform well even after gamma-ray exposures of 1.E09 Rad. This result and the previously demonstrated capability of SiC detectors to operate in elevated-temperature environments are very promising for potential DOE EMSP applications. A new class of multipurpose, radiation-resistant semiconductor detectors that can be used in elevated-temperature and high-radiation environments is being developed under this grant.

  5. A FRAMEWORK TO DEVELOP FLAW ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPURPOSE CANISTERS FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.; Duncan, A.; Adams, T.

    2014-04-07

    A multipurpose canister (MPC) made of austenitic stainless steel is loaded with used nuclear fuel assemblies and is part of the transfer cask system to move the fuel from the spent fuel pool to prepare for storage, and is part of the storage cask system for on-site dry storage. This weld-sealed canister is also expected to be part of the transportation package following storage. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation especially if exposed to aggressive environments during possible very long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone because the construction of MPC does not require heat treatment for stress relief. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic Inservice Inspection. The external loading cases include thermal accident scenarios and cask drop conditions with the contribution from the welding residual stresses. The determination of acceptable flaw size is based on the procedure to evaluate flaw stability provided by American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service (Second Edition). The material mechanical and fracture properties for base and weld metals and the stress analysis results are obtained from the open literature such as NUREG-1864. Subcritical crack growth from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and its impact on inspection intervals and acceptance criteria, is not addressed.

  6. The Source, Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil from the Pearl River Delta Based on the National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lingyan; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The data on the heavy metal content at different soil depths derived from a multi-purpose regional geochemical survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0. By comparing their spatial distributions and areas, the sources of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As and Pb) were quantitatively identified and explored. Netted measuring points at 25 ×25 km were set over the entire PRD according to the geochemical maps. Based on the calculation data obtained from different soil depths, the concentrations of As and Cd in a large area of the PRD exceeded the National Second-class Standard. The spatial disparity of the geometric centers in the surface soil and deep soil showed that As in the surface soil mainly came from parent materials, while Cd had high consistency in different soil profiles because of deposition in the soil forming process. The migration of Cd also resulted in a considerable ecological risk to the Beijiang and Xijiang River watershed. The potential ecological risk index followed the order Cd ? Hg > Pb > As. According to the sources, the distribution trends and the characteristics of heavy metals in the soil from the perspective of the whole area, the Cd pollution should be repaired, especially in the upper reaches of the Xijiang and Beijiang watershed to prevent risk explosion while the pollution of Hg and Pb should be controlled in areas with intense human activity, and supervision during production should be strengthened to maintain the ecological balance of As. PMID:26230506

  7. Simulation of the effects of operating lakes Mendota, Monona, and Waubesa, south-central Wisconsin, as multipurpose reservoirs to maintain dry-weather flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krug, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    A digital reservoir routing model was used to simulate the operation of Lakes Mendota, Monona, and Waubesa, south-central Wisconsin for various levels of minimum release. Twenty-five years of record (1970?94) were used in model simulation. The amount of water available to maintain streamflow and lake levels during dry periods has declined because of extensive pumping of ground water for municipal use and diversion of the effluent around the lakes. The goal of the simulation was to determine whether using the lakes as multipurpose reservoirs to maintain flow during periods of low flow would appreciably lower the lake levels. The model results indicated that it would be possible to maintain a minimum flow of 36 cubic feet per second in all but the driest years simulated (1970, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1989, and 1991) without lowering the lake levels more than they have been lowered from 1970 to 1994 under current operating conditions. Maintaining minimum flow would require detailed computations to guide the operation of the dams during the year.

  8. Association of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I/D and ?-actinin-3 R577X Genotypes with Growth Factors and Physical Fitness in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Cheun, Wookwang; Byun, Jayoung; Joo, Youngsik

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the differences in aerobic and anaerobic exercise ability and growth-related indicators, depending on the polymorphism of the ACE and the ACTN3 genes, to understand the genetic influence of exercise ability in the growth process of children. The subjects of the study consisted of elementary school students (n=856, age 10.32±0.07 yr). The anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors were compared among groups of the ACE I/D or the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms. There were no significant differences between the anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors for the ACE gene ID or the ACTN3 gene R577X polymorphism. However, the DD type of ACE gene was highest in the side step test (p<0.05), and the DD type was significantly higher than the II+ID type (p<0.05) in the early bone age. The combined group of the ACE gene II+ID and the ACTN3 gene XX type significantly showed lower early bone age (p< 0.05). This study did not find any individual or compounding effects of the polymorphism in the ACE I/D or the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on the anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors of Korean children. However, the exercise experience and the DD type of the ACE gene may affect the early maturity of the bones. PMID:25729275

  9. Electronic structures of hexagonal RMnO3 ( R=Gd , Tb, Dy, and Ho) thin films: Optical spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo Seok; Kim, Dong Geun; Seo, Sung Seok A.; Moon, Soon Jae; Lee, Daesu; Lee, Jung Hyuk; Lee, Ho Sik; Cho, Deok-Yong; Lee, Yun Sang; Murugavel, Pattukkannu; Yu, Jaejun; Noh, Tae W.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the electronic structure of multiferroic hexagonal RMnO3 ( R=Gd , Tb, Dy, and Ho) thin films using both optical spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. One of the difficulties in explaining the electronic structures of hexagonal RMnO3 is that they exist in nature with limited rare earth ions (i.e., R=Sc , Y, and Ho-Lu), so a systematic study in terms of the different R ions has been lacking. Recently, our group succeeded in fabricating hexagonal RMnO3 ( R=Gd , Tb, and Dy) using the epitaxial stabilization technique [Adv. Mater. (Weinheim Ger.) 18, 3125 (2006)]. Using artificially stabilized hexagonal RMnO3 , we extended the optical spectroscopic studies on the hexagonal multiferroic manganite system. We observed two optical transitions located near 1.7 and 2.3eV , in addition to the predominant absorption above 5eV . With the help of first-principles calculations, we attributed the low-lying optical absorption peaks to interband transitions from the oxygen states hybridized strongly with different Mn orbital symmetries to the Mn3d3z2-r2 state. As the ionic radius of the rare earth ion increased, we observed a systematic increase of the lowest peak position, which became more evident when compared with previously reported results. We explained this systematic change in terms of a flattening of the MnO5 triangular bipyramid.

  10. (1S,3R,4S,5R)5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid: isolation, stereo-structure characterization and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Forino, Martino; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Tartaglione, Luciana; Carmela, Dell'Aversano; Novellino, Ettore; Ciminiello, Patrizia

    2015-07-01

    Sorbus domestica fruits (sorbs) are commonly harvested and consumed for their nutritious qualities and have long been used as natural remedy against diabetes in the popular medicine. Recently, sorbs have been described as sources of antioxidant compounds including polyphenols. Chemical analyses carried out on sorbs collected in Southern Italy have led to the isolation of a chlorogenic acid isomer as the main antioxidant compound contained in the fruit butanol extract. NMR studies have identified the isolated compound as (1S,3R,4S,5R)5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid. In comparison to chlorogenic acid, the isolated isomer features an inverted configuration at C4. Such configurational inversion causes the chlorogenic acid stereoisomer acid to assume a preferential conformation remarkably different from that of chlorogenic acid. This seems to account for the enhanced potency of (1S,3R,4S,5R)5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid to reduce both the glucose and cholesterol uptakes by the cell line HepG2 when compared to chlorogenic acid. PMID:25704716

  11. Reduced inhibitory gate in the barrel cortex of Neuroligin3R451C knock?in mice, an animal model of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that interacting with presynaptic neurexins ensure the cross?talk between pre? and postsynaptic specializations. Rare mutations in neurexin–neuroligin genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One of these, the R451C mutation of the gene encoding for Neuroligin3 (Nlgn3), has been found in patients with familial forms of ASDs. Animals carrying this mutation (NL3R451C knock?in mice) exhibit impaired social behaviors, reminiscent of those observed in ASD patients, associated with major alterations in both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission, which vary among different brain regions and at different developmental stages. Here, pair recordings from parvalbumin? (PV) expressing basket cells and spiny neurons were used to study GABAergic synaptic signaling in layer IV barrel cortex of NL3R451C mutant mice. We found that the R451C mutation severely affects the probability of GABA release from PV?expressing basket cells, responsible for controlling via thalamo?cortical inputs the feed?forward inhibition. No changes in excitatory inputs to parvalbumin?positive basket cells or spiny neurons were detected. These data clearly show that primary targets of the NL3 mutation are PV?expressing basket cells, independently of the brain region where they are localized. Changes in the inhibitory gate of layer IV somatosensory cortex may alter sensory processing in ASD patients leading to misleading sensory representations with difficulties to combine pieces of information into a unified perceptual whole. PMID:25347860

  12. Heterozygous splice mutation in PIK3R1 causes human immunodeficiency with lymphoproliferation due to dominant activation of PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Carrie L.; Zhang, Yu; Venida, Anthony; Wang, Ying; Hughes, Jason; McElwee, Joshua; Butrick, Morgan; Matthews, Helen; Price, Susan; Biancalana, Matthew; Wang, Xiaochuan; Richards, Michael; Pozos, Tamara; Barlan, Isil; Ozen, Ahmet; Rao, V. Koneti; Su, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), which generate PIP3 as a signal for cell growth and proliferation, exist as an intracellular complex of a catalytic subunit bound to a regulatory subunit. We and others have previously reported that heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD encoding the p110? catalytic PI3K subunit cause a unique disorder termed p110?-activating mutations causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency (PASLI) disease. We report four patients from three families with a similar disease who harbor a recently reported heterozygous splice site mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the p85?, p55?, and p50? regulatory PI3K subunits. These patients suffer from recurrent sinopulmonary infections and lymphoproliferation, exhibit hyperactive PI3K signaling, and have prominent expansion and skewing of peripheral blood CD8+ T cells toward terminally differentiated senescent effector cells with short telomeres. The PIK3R1 splice site mutation causes skipping of an exon, corresponding to loss of amino acid residues 434–475 in the inter-SH2 domain. The mutant p85? protein is expressed at low levels in patient cells and activates PI3K signaling when overexpressed in T cells from healthy subjects due to qualitative and quantitative binding changes in the p85?–p110? complex and failure of the C-terminal region to properly inhibit p110? catalytic activity. PMID:25488983

  13. First principles study of Cu on Zn(0001): Resolution of the (?3x?3)-R30^o -- Cu/ZnO(0001) surface phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuasiripattana, Katawut; Warschkow, Oliver; Delley, Bernard; Stampfl, Cathy

    2009-03-01

    The Cu/ZnO system is a well known catalyst for methanol synthesis as well as hydrogen production from methanol by the reverse water gas-shift reaction. Despite many years of effort to clarify the characterization and the synergetic mechanisms between Cu and ZnO, there still exists considerable controversy such as the active phase of this combination catalyst. Recently, a (?3x?3)-R30^o phase has been reported on the Cu/ZnO(0001) surface (Dulub et. al., Topics in Catalysis, 36, 65 (2005)). This reconstruction appears in the LEED pattern after annealing the pre-deposited Cu-clusters on the ZnO(0001) surface at 350 ^oC in a 10-6 mbar O2 environment for 10 minutes. In this work, we perform first-principles total- energy calculations within the framework of ab initio atomistic thermodynamics to investigate the atomic geometry and relative stability of this structure. We have extensively surveyed many possible atomic geometries, from which we are able to we propose the atomic structure of this (?3x?3)-R30^ o phase. To provide an overall understanding of this system, we also construct a two-dimensional phase diagram as a function of the Cu and O chemical potential, thus displaying the most stable surface structures.

  14. Multi-time scale Climate Informed Stochastic Hybrid Simulation-Optimization Model (McISH model) for Multi-Purpose Reservoir System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, M.; Lall, U.

    2013-12-01

    In order to mitigate the impacts of climate change, proactive management strategies to operate reservoirs and dams are needed. A multi-time scale climate informed stochastic model is developed to optimize the operations for a multi-purpose single reservoir by simulating decadal, interannual, seasonal and sub-seasonal variability. We apply the model to a setting motivated by the largest multi-purpose dam in N. India, the Bhakhra reservoir on the Sutlej River, a tributary of the Indus. This leads to a focus on timing and amplitude of the flows for the monsoon and snowmelt periods. The flow simulations are constrained by multiple sources of historical data and GCM future projections, that are being developed through a NSF funded project titled 'Decadal Prediction and Stochastic Simulation of Hydroclimate Over Monsoon Asia'. The model presented is a multilevel, nonlinear programming model that aims to optimize the reservoir operating policy on a decadal horizon and the operation strategy on an updated annual basis. The model is hierarchical, in terms of having a structure that two optimization models designated for different time scales are nested as a matryoshka doll. The two optimization models have similar mathematical formulations with some modifications to meet the constraints within that time frame. The first level of the model is designated to provide optimization solution for policy makers to determine contracted annual releases to different uses with a prescribed reliability; the second level is a within-the-period (e.g., year) operation optimization scheme that allocates the contracted annual releases on a subperiod (e.g. monthly) basis, with additional benefit for extra release and penalty for failure. The model maximizes the net benefit of irrigation, hydropower generation and flood control in each of the periods. The model design thus facilitates the consistent application of weather and climate forecasts to improve operations of reservoir systems. The decadal flow simulations are re-initialized every year with updated climate projections to improve the reliability of the operation rules for the next year, within which the seasonal operation strategies are nested. The multi-level structure can be repeated for monthly operation with weekly subperiods to take advantage of evolving weather forecasts and seasonal climate forecasts. As a result of the hierarchical structure, sub-seasonal even weather time scale updates and adjustment can be achieved. Given an ensemble of these scenarios, the McISH reservoir simulation-optimization model is able to derive the desired reservoir storage levels, including minimum and maximum, as a function of calendar date, and the associated release patterns. The multi-time scale approach allows adaptive management of water supplies acknowledging the changing risks, meeting both the objectives over the decade in expected value and controlling the near term and planning period risk through probabilistic reliability constraints. For the applications presented, the target season is the monsoon season from June to September. The model also includes a monthly flood volume forecast model, based on a Copula density fit to the monthly flow and the flood volume flow. This is used to guide dynamic allocation of the flood control volume given the forecasts.

  15. Thermal and fluid flow analyses of sounding rocket experiment 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R. [low gravity crystallization of a 27.8 percent ammonium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, S. J.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal convective velocities during the 4-21/2R and 74-21/3R flight tests were calculated. The 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R ground tests were analyzed using a convection formula. Thermal convection velocities of 0.1 to 0.5 cm/sec were calculated for the 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R ground tests which were two to four orders of magnitude greater than for the flight tests. For the 74-21/2R flight test, solutal effects do not produce any convective motion. For the 74-21/3R flight test closed form convection equations estimated the solutal convective velocities on the order of 1/0.003 cm/sec.

  16. A high-frequency in vitro multiplication, micromorphological studies and ex vitro rooting of Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce (Bahuguni): a multipurpose endangered medicinal shrub.

    PubMed

    Lodha, Deepika; Patel, Ashok Kumar; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-07-01

    An efficient and reproducible in vitro propagation protocol has been established for Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce. Surface-sterilized nodal stem segments of mature plant were used as explants for culture establishment. Multiple shoots were optimally differentiated from the nodal stem explants through bud breaking on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium containing 3.0 mg l(-1) benzyladenine (BA). The effect of different plant growth regulators and minerals were studied on different stages of micropropagation procedure (i.e., explant establishment, shoot multiplication/growth and ex vitro rooting). Additionally, for enhancing shoot multiplication during subculture, MS medium was modified (MMS) with higher levels of magnesium, potassium and sulphate ions. Out of these, MMS3 medium containing 0.25 mg l(-1) each of BA and Kin (N6-furfuryladenine), with 0.1 mg l(-1) NAA (?-naphthalene acetic acid) was found the best for shoot multiplication (42.45?±?3.82 per culture vessel). The in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted under ex vitro conditions on treating the shoot base with 500 mg l(-1) of IBA (indole-3 butyric acid) for 3 min on sterile Soilrite®. The ex vitro rooted plants were hardened in the greenhouse and transferred to the field with ?85 % survival rate. There were not any visual differences between wild and micropropagated plants in the field, although the later underwent significant changes during acclimatization. Micromorphological changes on leaf surface characters from in vitro to acclimatized plantlets were studied in terms of development of glandular trichomes, changes in vein spacing and vein structure in order to understand the nature of plant responses towards environmental conditions. The method developed and defined can be applied for commercial cultivation, which may be important for extraction of bioactive compounds and may facilitate conservation of this multipurpose endangered medicinal shrub. PMID:26261405

  17. Crystal structure of (NH 3- R-NH 3)(NH 3- R-NH 2)PbI 5 ( R=5,5'-bis(ethylsulfanyl)-2,2'-bithiophene): NH 3+⋯NH 2 interaction as a tool to reach densely packed organic layers in organic-inorganic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xu-Hui; Mercier, Nicolas; Allain, Magali; Frère, Pierre; Blanchard, Philippe; Roncali, Jean; Riou, Amédée

    2004-04-01

    In the layered (NH 3- R-NH 3)(NH 3- R-NH 2)PbI 5 ( R=5,5'-bis(ethylsulfanyl)-2,2'-bithiophene) organic-inorganic hybrid compound, a PbI 53- 1D network of corner sharing octahedra defines ordered deficient perovskite layers separated by the organic sheets. The NH 3+⋯NH 2 interactions together with NH 3+⋯I contacts, which take place at the inorganic-organic interface, favor rather strong S⋯S intermolecular interactions between bithiophene units, compared to those found in purely organic compounds or in (NH 3- R-NH 3)PbI 4. Crystal data: (C 24H 35S 8N 4)PbI 5, Mr=1477.73, monoclinic, P2 1/ c, a=17.553(2) Å, b=8.710(1) Å, c=27.122(5) Å, ?=97.57(2)°, V=4110(1) Å 3, Z=4, R=0.053, Rw=0.119.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Bacillus coagulans 2-6.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiangzhi; Huang, Xianhui; Zhang, Guofang; Zhao, Xiufang; Zhu, Xianming; Dong, Hui

    2013-10-01

    (2R,3R)-2,3-Butanediol dehydrogenase (R,R-BDH) from Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is a zinc-dependent medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase. Recombinant R,R-BDH with a His6 tag at the C-terminus was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and purified by Ni2+-chelating affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289?K. The crystallization condition consisted of 8%(v/v) Tacsimate pH 4.6, 18%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350. The crystal diffracted to 2.8?Å resolution in the orthorhombic space group P2?2?2?, with unit-cell parameters a=88.35, b=128.73, c=131.03?Å. PMID:24100567

  19. Thermal and optical properties of glass and crystalline phases formed in the binary R2O3-Al2O3 (R = La-Lu and Y) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya Kumar, Malahalli; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Basavalingu, B.; Okada, Junpei T.; Watanabe, Yuki

    2013-05-01

    Rare-earth aluminate (RAlO3, R = La-Lu and Y) glass and crystalline phases were prepared by containerless levitation in an aerodynamic levitation furnace. In the RAlO3 system, La, Nd and Sm aluminum perovskites solidified as glass and Eu-Lu and Y aluminum perovskites solidified as crystalline phases. The glass forming region decreased with decreasing ionic radius of the rare-earth element. Scanning electron microscopy images and x-ray diffraction results revealed the formation of a single RAlO3 phase from the undercooled melt. The glass transition temperature, Tg, and density increased and the molar volume decreased with decreasing rare-earth element ionic radius. The refractive index at 589 nm exceeds 1.85 in each composition and a transparency of approximately 72% was achieved for the LaAlO3 glass.

  20. Synthesis of (2R,5S)-dihydroxymethyl-(3R,4R)-dihydroxypyrrolidine (DGDP) via stereoselective amination using chlorosulfonyl isocyanate.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Su; Kim, Sin Jung; Lee, Jae Koo; Li, Qing Ri; Jung, Young Hoon

    2007-08-13

    A stereoselective approach for synthesizing (2R,5S)-dihydroxymethyl-(3R,4R)-dihydroxypyrrolidine 1 (2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-d-glucitol, DGDP) was achieved using a seven-step approach starting from 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-d-mannose (7). Key steps for the preparation of the title compound 1 involved the regioselective and diastereoselective amination of the cinnamyl anti-1,2-polybenzyl ethers 5 and 6 using chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) and ring cyclization to form the pyrrolidine ring. The reaction between anti-1,2-polybenzyl ether 5 and CSI in toluene at 0 degrees C afforded the corresponding anti-1,2-amino alcohol 4 as a major product with a diastereoselectivity of 16:1 in 76% yield. The mechanism underlying these reactions may be explained by the neighboring-group effect leading to the retention of stereochemistry. PMID:17509544

  1. Structure determination of the ({radical} (3) {times}{radical} (3) )R30{degree} boron phase on the Si(111) surface using photoelectron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertel, P.; Paggel, J.J.; Hasselblatt, M.; Horn, K.; Fernandez, V.; Schaff, O.; Weaver, J.H.; Bradshaw, A.M.; Woodruff, D.P.; Rotenberg, E.; Denlinger, J.

    1999-05-01

    A quantitative structural analysis of the system Si(111)({radical} (3) {times}{radical} (3) )R30{degree}-B has been performed using photoelectron diffraction in the scanned energy mode. We confirm that the substitutional S{sub 5} adsorption site is occupied and show that the interatomic separations to the three nearest-neighbor Si atoms are 1.98({plus_minus}0.04) {Angstrom}thinsp, 2.14({plus_minus}0.13) {Angstrom}thinsp, and 2.21({plus_minus}0.12) {Angstrom}thinsp. These correspond to the silicon atom immediately below the boron atom, the adatom immediately above, and the three atoms to which it is coordinated symmetrically in the first layer. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Effect of Orbital Rotation and Mixing on the Optical Properties of Orthorhombic RMnO3 (R=La, Pr, Nd, Gd, and Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. W.; Moon, S. J.; Jung, J. H.; Yu, Jaejun; Parashar, Sachin; Murugavel, P.; Lee, J. H.; Noh, T. W.

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the ab-plane absorption spectra of RMnO3 (R=La, Pr, Nd, Gd, and Tb) thin films. As the ionic radius of the R ion decreases, we observed a drastic suppression of the 2 eV peak, i.e., the intersite optical transition between spin- and orbital-aligned states across the Mott gap. We found that, in addition to orbital rotation, orbital mixing in the orbital-ordered state should play an important role in the suppression of 2 eV peak. We also found that the spectral weight of 2 eV peak is proportional to the A-type antiferromagnetic ordering temperature, which suggests that the magnetic interaction should be sensitively coupled to the orbital degree of freedom.

  3. Evaluation of ischemia and myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kropp, J.; Joergens, M.; Glaenzer, K.P.; Luederitz, B.; Biersack, H.J.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    Twenty patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) controlled by coronary arteriography (CA) and biplane left ventricular cineventriculography (LVCV) were investigated with the 15- (p[I-123]iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue. During maximal symptom limited exercise 5 mCi (200 MBq) of BMIPP were injected followed by two SPECT studies within three hours. After another 30 min, with the patient at rest a third SPECT was performed after reinjection of 3 mCi (100 MBq) BMIPP. Visual inspection of the short and long axis slices and quantitative comparison of the short axis slices of the tomograms were performed to grade BMIPP uptake and refill and detect turnover abnormalities. These were addressed either as scar or as ischemia and compared to CA and a graded score of regional wall motion by LVCV which provided values for sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) to detect CAD. Fifteen infarctions had corresponded clinical, angiographic and scintigraphic findings in 93%.

  4. Tissue-Specific Differences in the Spatial Interposition of X-Chromosome and 3R Chromosome Regions in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles messeae Fall.

    PubMed Central

    Artemov, Gleb; Bondarenko, Semen; Sapunov, Gleb; Stegniy, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Spatial organization of a chromosome in a nucleus is very important in biology but many aspects of it are still generally unresolved. We focused on tissue-specific features of chromosome architecture in closely related malaria mosquitoes, which have essential inter-specific differences in polytene chromosome attachments in nurse cells. We showed that the region responsible for X-chromosome attachment interacts with nuclear lamina stronger in nurse cells, then in salivary glands cells in Anopheles messeae Fall. The inter-tissue differences were demonstrated more convincingly in an experiment of two distinct chromosomes interposition in the nucleus space of cells from four tissues. Microdissected DNA-probes from nurse cells X-chromosome (2BC) and 3R chromosomes (32D) attachment regions were hybridized with intact nuclei of nurse cells, salivary gland cells, follicle epithelium cells and imaginal dis?s cells in 3D-FISH experiments. We showed that only salivary gland cells and follicle epithelium cells have no statistical differences in the interposition of 2BC and 32D. Generally, the X-chromosome and 3R chromosome are located closer to each other in cells of the somatic system in comparison with nurse cells on average. The imaginal dis?s cell nuclei have an intermediate arrangement of chromosome interposition, similar to other somatic cells and nurse cells. In spite of species-specific chromosome attachments there are no differences in interposition of nurse cells chromosomes in An. messeae and An. atroparvus Thiel. Nurse cells have an unusual chromosome arrangement without a chromocenter, which could be due to the special mission of generative system cells in ontogenesis and evolution. PMID:25671311

  5. Multipurpose Radiation Resistant Semiconductor Detectors for Alpha, Neutron & Low Energy Gamma Ray Measurements at High Temperatures in High-Intensity Gamma Ray

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, Frank H.

    2005-06-01

    Work scheduled under year two of DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER63734 is on schedule and all year-two milestones have or will be met. Results to date demonstrate that unprecedented silicon carbide (SiC) energy resolution has been obtained, and that SiC detectors may achieve energy resolution that exceeds that obtainable with the best silicon alpha spectrometers. Fast-neutron energy spectrometry measurements indicate that recoil-ion energy spectrometry should be possible with SiC detectors. Furthermore, SiC detectors have been demonstrated to perform well even after gamma-ray exposures of 1.E09 Rad. This result and the previously demonstrated capability of SiC detectors to operate in elevated-temperature environments are very promising for potential DOE EMSP applications. A new class of multipurpose, radiation-resistant semiconductor detectors that can be used in elevated-temperature and high-radiation environments is being developed under this grant. These detectors, based on silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor are designed to have larger active volumes than previously available SiC detectors, and are being tested for their response to alpha particles, X-rays and low energy gamma rays, and fast neutrons. Specifically, SiC radiation detectors with larger areas and 100-micrometer thick active regions have been designed and manufactured according to detector-design specifications. Detectors based on a Schottky diode design were specified in order to minimize the effects of the detector entrance window on alpha particle measurements. During manufacture of the Schottky diodes, the manufacturer also provided a set of large-volume SiC p-i-n diodes for testing Extensive alpha particle measurements have been carried out to test and quantify the response of the SiC Schottky diodes. Exposures to 148-Gd, 213-Po, 217-At, 221-Fr, 225-Ac, 237-Np, 238-Pu, 240-Pu, and 242-Pu sources were used to obtain detailed alpha response data in the alpha energy range from 3182.787 keV to 8375.9 keV. The 148-Gd, 213-Po, 217-At, and 221-Fr sources provide energy-separated, mono-energetic alpha particle peaks which can be analyzed to provide detailed information on the energy response characteristics of the detectors.

  6. De novo assembly and characterization of leaf transcriptome for the development of functional molecular markers of the extremophile multipurpose tree species Prosopis alba

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) is an important native tree adapted to arid and semiarid regions of north-western Argentina which is of great value as multipurpose species. Despite its importance, the genomic resources currently available for the entire Prosopis genus are still limited. Here we describe the development of a leaf transcriptome and the identification of new molecular markers that could support functional genetic studies in natural and domesticated populations of this genus. Results Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to P. alba transcripts produced a total of 1,103,231 raw reads with an average length of 421 bp. De novo assembling generated a set of 15,814 isotigs and 71,101 non-assembled sequences (singletons) with an average of 991 bp and 288 bp respectively. A total of 39,000 unique singletons were identified after clustering natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads. Regarding the non-redundant sequences or unigenes, 22,095 out of 54,814 were successfully annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Moreover, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were searched, resulting in 5,992 and 6,236 markers, respectively, throughout the genome. For the validation of the the predicted SSR markers, a subset of 87 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidence was successfully amplified from six DNA samples of seedlings. From this analysis, 11 of these 87 SSRs were identified as polymorphic. Additionally, another set of 123 nuclear polymorphic SSRs were determined in silico, of which 50% have the probability of being effectively polymorphic. Conclusions This study generated a successful global analysis of the P. alba leaf transcriptome after bioinformatic and wet laboratory validations of RNA-Seq data. The limited set of molecular markers currently available will be significantly increased with the thousands of new markers that were identified in this study. This information will strongly contribute to genomics resources for P. alba functional analysis and genetics. Finally, it will also potentially contribute to the development of population-based genome studies in the genera. PMID:24125525

  7. A multipurpose satellite ejection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    A design is presented for a pneumatic ejection system capable of ejecting a spin stabilized satellite from the cargo bay of space vehicles. This system was orginally designed for use on the Spacelab 6 shuttle mission, but is now being considered for use with expendable rockets for launching satellites. The ejection system was designed to launch a 150 lb satellite at an initial ejection velocity of 32 ft/sec with a spin rate of 30 rev/min. The ejection system consists of a pneumatic cylinder, satellite retaining mechanism, and bearing assembly to allow the satellite to rotate during the spin up phase. As the cylinder is pressurized rapidly causing movement of the actuation piston, the mechanism automatically releases the spinning satellite by retracting a pneumatic locking pin and three spring loaded holddown pins. When the piston reaches the end of its stroke, it encounters a crushable aluminum honeycomb shock absorber which decelerates the piston and retaining mechanism. The assembly is designed for multiple uses except for the crushable shock absorber and pyrotechnic valves. The advantage of the design is discussed and patent no. and date given.

  8. MultiPurpose University High

    E-print Network

    Learned, John

    Wist Hall Addition UNIVERSITY AVENUE MA I LE WAY FARRINGTON ROAD CAMPUS ROAD METCALF STREET EAST WEST ROAD DOLE S TREET CORREA ROAD McCARTHY MALL LOWER CAMPUS ROAD VARNEY CIRCLE BACHMAN PLACE Wist Hall Softball Field Parking Structure Makai Campus Portables Practice Fields Baseball Stadium Hale Wainani Hale

  9. The influence of ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We studied the influence of the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms (single or combined) on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training. Methods One hundred and thirty-nine healthy older Caucasian women participated in this study (age: 65.5?±?8.2 years, body mass: 67.0?±?10.0 kg and height: 1.57?±?0.06 m). Walking speed (S10) performance and functional capacity assessed by the “get-up and go” (GUG) mobility test were measured at baseline (T1) and after a consecutive 12-week period of high-speed power training (40-75% of one repetition maximum in arm and leg extensor exercises; 3 sets 4–12 reps, and two power exercises for upper and lower extremity). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples, and genotyping analyses were performed by PCR methods. Genotype distributions between groups were compared by Chi-Square test and the gains in physical performance were analyzed by two-way, repeated-measures ANOVA. Results There were no significant differences between genotype groups in men or women for adjusted baseline phenotypes (P?>?0.05). ACE I/D and ACTN3 polymorphisms showed a significant interaction genotype-training only in S10 (P?=?0.012 and P?=?0.044, respectively) and not in the GUG test (P?=?0.311 and P?=?0.477, respectively). Analyses of the combined effects between genotypes showed no other significant differences in all phenotypes (P?3 R577X polymorphisms are likely candidates in the modulation of exercise-related gait speed phenotype in older women but not a significant influence in mobility traits. PMID:24313907

  10. PIK3R1 negatively regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem-like phenotype of renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Youcheng; Yang, Zhao; Xu, Abai; Dong, Pei; Huang, Yi; Liu, Huan; Li, Feida; Wang, Haifeng; Xu, Qian; Wang, Yongqiang; Sun, Da; Zou, Yong; Zou, Xiaowen; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Duo; Liu, Hongjie; Wu, Xun; Zhang, Meng; Fu, Yu; Cai, Zhiming; Liu, Chunxiao; Wu, Song

    2015-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway has been identified as an important pathway in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We have reported a nonsense mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the regulatory subunit of PI3K, in a metastatic RCC (mRCC), while the mutation was absent in the corresponding primary RCC (pRCC). To identify the function of PIK3R1 in RCC, we examined its expression in normal kidney, pRCC and mRCC by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of PIK3R1 significantly decreased in pRCC and was further reduced in mRCC compared with normal tissue. Besides, its expression levels were negatively correlated with T-category of tumor stage. Additionally, 786-O and A-704 cells with PIK3R1 depletion introduced by CRISPR/Cas9 system displayed enhanced proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and acquired a stem-like phenotype. Moreover, the PIK3R1 depletion promoted the phosphorylation of AKT in the cells. The knockdown of AKT by shRNA reduced p-GSK3? and CTNNB1 expression in the cells, while the depletion of CTNNB1 impaired stem-like phenotype of the cells. Overall, PIK3R1 down-regulation in RCC promotes propagation, migration, EMT and stem-like phenotype in renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 pathway, and may contribute to progression and metastasis of RCC. PMID:25757764

  11. PIK3R1 negatively regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem-like phenotype of renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Youcheng; Yang, Zhao; Xu, Abai; Dong, Pei; Huang, Yi; Liu, Huan; Li, Feida; Wang, Haifeng; Xu, Qian; Wang, Yongqiang; Sun, Da; Zou, Yong; Zou, Xiaowen; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Duo; Liu, Hongjie; Wu, Xun; Zhang, Meng; Fu, Yu; Cai, Zhiming; Liu, Chunxiao; Wu, Song

    2015-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway has been identified as an important pathway in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We have reported a nonsense mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the regulatory subunit of PI3K, in a metastatic RCC (mRCC), while the mutation was absent in the corresponding primary RCC (pRCC). To identify the function of PIK3R1 in RCC, we examined its expression in normal kidney, pRCC and mRCC by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of PIK3R1 significantly decreased in pRCC and was further reduced in mRCC compared with normal tissue. Besides, its expression levels were negatively correlated with T-category of tumor stage. Additionally, 786-O and A-704 cells with PIK3R1 depletion introduced by CRISPR/Cas9 system displayed enhanced proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and acquired a stem-like phenotype. Moreover, the PIK3R1 depletion promoted the phosphorylation of AKT in the cells. The knockdown of AKT by shRNA reduced p-GSK3? and CTNNB1 expression in the cells, while the depletion of CTNNB1 impaired stem-like phenotype of the cells. Overall, PIK3R1 down-regulation in RCC promotes propagation, migration, EMT and stem-like phenotype in renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 pathway, and may contribute to progression and metastasis of RCC. PMID:25757764

  12. Quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for high-bit-rate signal processing up to 160 Gb s-1 and a new scheme of 3R regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, M.; Akiyama, T.; Hatori, N.; Nakata, Y.; Ebe, H.; Ishikawa, H.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents a theory and simulation of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) for high-bit-rate optical signal processing. The theory includes spatial isolation of quantum dots, carrier relaxation and excitation among the discrete energy states and the wetting layer, grouping of dots by their optical resonant frequency under the inhomogeneous broadening, and the homogeneous broadening of the single-dot gain, which are all essential to the amplifier performance. We show that high-speed gain saturation occurs due to spectral hole burning under the optical pulse trains up to at least 160 Gb s-1 with negligible pattern effect, and that the self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot SOAs have about two to three orders faster response speed than bulk InGaAsP SOAs, with one order larger gain saturation for the 160 Gb s-1 signals. We also show that switching functions can be realized by the cross gain modulation between the two wavelength channels when the channel separation is within the homogeneous broadening. These results indicate great potential of quantum-dot SOAs for all-optical high-speed switches. As one of their possible applications, we propose a new signal-processing scheme of a `quantum-dot 3R regenerator'.

  13. Environmental, Health and Safety Assessment: ATS 7H Program (Phase 3R) Test Activities at the GE Power Systems Gas Turbine Manufacturing Facility, Greenville, SC

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-17

    International Technology Corporation (IT) was contracted by General Electric Company (GE) to assist in the preparation of an Environmental, Health and Safety (HI&3) assessment of the implementation of Phase 3R of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) 7H program at the GE Gas Turbines facility located in Greenville, South Carolina. The assessment was prepared in accordance with GE's contractual agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (GE/DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-95MC3 1176) and supports compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. This report provides a summary of the EH&S review and includes the following: General description of current site operations and EH&S status, Description of proposed ATS 7H-related activities and discussion of the resulting environmental, health, safety and other impacts to the site and surrounding area. Listing of permits and/or licenses required to comply with federal, state and local regulations for proposed 7H-related activities. Assessment of adequacy of current and required permits, licenses, programs and/or plans.

  14. Association analysis of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and complex quantitative body composition and performance phenotypes in adolescent Greeks.

    PubMed

    Moran, Colin N; Yang, Nan; Bailey, Mark E S; Tsiokanos, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios; MacArthur, Daniel G; North, Kathryn; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Wilson, Richard H

    2007-01-01

    The functional allele (577R) of ACTN3, which encodes human alpha-actinin-3, has been reported to be associated with elite athletic status and with response to resistance training, while the nonfunctional allele (577X) has been proposed as a candidate metabolically thrifty allele. In a study of 992 adolescent Greeks, we show that there is a significant association (P=0.003) between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and 40 m sprint time in males that accounts for 2.3% of phenotypic variance, with the 577R allele contributing to faster times in an additive manner. The R577X polymorphism is not associated with other power phenotypes related to 40 m sprint, nor with an endurance phenotype. Furthermore, the polymorphism is not associated with obesity-related phenotypes in our population, suggesting that the 577X allele is not a thrifty allele, and thus the persistence of this null allele must be explained in other terms. PMID:17033684

  15. Raman spectra of R{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R—rare earth) sesquioxides with C-type bixbyite crystal structure: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Abrashev, M. V.; Todorov, N. D.; Geshev, J.

    2014-09-14

    Raman spectra of R{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R—Sc, Er, Y, Ho, Gd, Eu, and Sm) powders with C-type bixbyite crystal structure are measured. With the help of these data and ones, previously published for other oxides from the same structural family, general dependencies of the frequencies of the Raman peaks on the cubic crystal unit cell parameter are constructed. Using these dependencies and knowing the symmetry of the peaks for one of the oxides, determined from previous single-crystal measurements, it is possible to find out the symmetry of the peaks from the spectra of all compounds. It was found that the frequency of the six lowest frequency peaks scales with the square root of the mass of the rare earth showing that mainly R ions take part in these vibrations. These results agree with performed here lattice dynamical calculations. The anomalous softening of the frequency of some peaks in the spectra of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} is discussed.

  16. A study on adatom transport through (?3 × ?3)-R30°-CH3S self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) using first principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Paulius, D; Torres, D; Illas, F; Archibald, W E

    2014-11-14

    Self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) have outstanding chemical, electrical, and optical properties, and Au adatoms seem to play a key role in these properties. Still, the fundamental understanding of adatom transport inside the self-assembled structure is very thin. In this paper we use first-principles calculations to reveal new details about the migration mechanism of Au adatoms in the presence of a CH3S self-assembled structure on Au(111). We study the inclusion of Au adatoms inside a well-packed (?3 × ?3)-R30°-CH3S self-assembled lattice and present atomistic models supporting adatom migration by means of a hopping mechanism between pairs of CH3S species. Our calculations reveal that the transport of Au adatoms is slowed down inside the molecular network where the kinetic barrier for adatom migration is larger than on the clean Au surface. We attribute the hindered mobility of Au adatoms to the fact that adatom transport involves the breaking and making of Au-S bonds. Our results form a basis for further understanding the role played by defect transport in the properties of molecular assemblies. PMID:25248932

  17. Magnetic and dielectric study of R{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} (R = Gd, Tb and Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshii, Kenji; Hiramitsu, Yusuke; Okajima, Yuka; Yoneda, Yasuhiro; Nishihata, Yasuo; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Nakamura, Akio; Shimojo, Yutaka; Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio; Ikeda, Naoshi

    2010-11-15

    Magnetic and dielectric properties of perovskite manganites R{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} (R = Gd, Tb and Dy) have been investigated. DC and AC magnetic measurements showed short-range glassy magnetic ordering at T{sub g} {approx} 40 K. Such ordering was observed by neutron diffraction and is ascribable to the size mismatch of R{sup 3+} and Sr{sup 3+} settled randomly at the same crystallographic site. Dielectric constants for each material were {approx}1000-10,000 between {approx}50 and {approx}300 K and showed broad maximums above T{sub g}. Dielectric dispersion showed poor coherency of the motion of polar regions, plausibly because of the size-mismatch effect; both the magnetic and dielectric properties of this system are governed by the randomness at the R/Sr site. The tan {delta} and EXAFS data suggest that the dielectric response is rooted in a transfer of the Mn-3d electrons.

  18. Metabolic engineering of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain capable of simultaneously utilizing glucose and galactose to produce enantiopure (2R,3R)-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiazhang; Chao, Ran; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-05-01

    2,3-Butanediol (BDO) is an important chemical with broad industrial applications and can be naturally produced by many bacteria at high levels. However, the pathogenicity of these native producers is a major obstacle for large scale production. Here we report the engineering of an industrially friendly host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce BDO at high titer and yield. By inactivation of pyruvate decarboxylases (PDCs) followed by overexpression of MTH1 and adaptive evolution, the resultant yeast grew on glucose as the sole carbon source with ethanol production completely eliminated. Moreover, the pdc- strain consumed glucose and galactose simultaneously, which to our knowledge is unprecedented in S. cerevisiae strains. Subsequent introduction of a BDO biosynthetic pathway consisting of the cytosolic acetolactate synthase (cytoILV2), Bacillus subtilis acetolactate decarboxylase (BsAlsD), and the endogenous butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH1) resulted in the production of enantiopure (2R,3R)-butanediol (R-BDO). In shake flask fermentation, a yield over 70% of the theoretical value was achieved. Using fed-batch fermentation, more than 100g/L R-BDO (1100mM) was synthesized from a mixture of glucose and galactose, two major carbohydrate components in red algae. The high titer and yield of the enantiopure R-BDO produced as well as the ability to co-ferment glucose and galactose make our engineered yeast strain a superior host for cost-effective production of bio-based BDO from renewable resources. PMID:24525332

  19. Divergent enhancer haplotype of ebony on inversion In(3R)Payne associated with pigmentation variation in a tropical population of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Aya; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    The pattern and intensity of pigmentation have direct impact on individual fitness through various ecological factors. In a Drosophila melanogaster population from southern Japan, thoracic trident pigmentation intensity of most of the strains could be classified into Dark or Light-type. The expression level variation of the ebony gene correlated well with this phenotype and the allelic differences in expression indicated that the variation is partly due to cis-regulatory changes. In the ?13?kb gene region, we identified 17 nucleotide sites and 2 indels that were in complete association with the thoracic trident pigmentation intensity. Interestingly, 11 out of 19 sites located within ?0.5?kb of the core epidermis enhancer. These sites had no obvious association with the abdominal pigmentation intensity in the previously analysed African populations from Uganda and Kenya, which suggested that multiple potential mutational pathways in the cis-regulatory control region of a single gene could lead to similar phenotypic variation within this species. We also found that the Light-type enhancer haplotype is strongly linked to a cosmopolitan inversion, In(3R)Payne, which is predominant in warmer climatic regions in both hemispheres. The sequence pattern suggested that the strong linkage may be due to selective forces related to thermal adaptation. The inferred selection for lighter pigmentation in the Japanese population is in the opposite direction of the previously reported case of selection for darker individuals in African populations. Nevertheless, both adaptive changes involved cis-regulatory changes of ebony, which shows that this gene is likely to be a common target of natural selection. PMID:21914015

  20. Vertebrate vitellogenin gene duplication in relation to the "3R hypothesis": correlation to the pelagic egg and the oceanic radiation of teleosts.

    PubMed

    Finn, Roderick Nigel; Kristoffersen, Børge A

    2007-01-01

    The spiny ray-finned teleost fishes (Acanthomorpha) are the most successful group of vertebrates in terms of species diversity. Their meteoric radiation and speciation in the oceans during the late Cretaceous and Eocene epoch is unprecedented in vertebrate history, occurring in one third of the time for similar diversity to appear in the birds and mammals. The success of marine teleosts is even more remarkable considering their long freshwater ancestry, since it implies solving major physiological challenges when freely broadcasting their eggs in the hyper-osmotic conditions of seawater. Most extant marine teleosts spawn highly hydrated pelagic eggs, due to differential proteolysis of vitellogenin (Vtg)-derived yolk proteins. The maturational degradation of Vtg involves depolymerization of mainly the lipovitellin heavy chain (LvH) of one form of Vtg to generate a large pool of free amino acids (FAA 150-200 mM). This organic osmolyte pool drives hydration of the ooctye while still protected within the maternal ovary. In the present contribution, we have used Bayesian analysis to examine the evolution of vertebrate Vtg genes in relation to the "3R hypothesis" of whole genome duplication (WGD) and the functional end points of LvH degradation during oocyte maturation. We find that teleost Vtgs have experienced a post-R3 lineage-specific gene duplication to form paralogous clusters that correlate to the pelagic and benthic character of the eggs. Neo-functionalization allowed one paralogue to be proteolyzed to FAA driving hydration of the maturing oocytes, which pre-adapts them to the marine environment and causes them to float. The timing of these events matches the appearance of the Acanthomorpha in the fossil record. We discuss the significance of these adaptations in relation to ancestral physiological features, and propose that the neo-functionalization of duplicated Vtg genes was a key event in the evolution and success of the teleosts in the oceanic environment. PMID:17245445

  1. Vertebrate Vitellogenin Gene Duplication in Relation to the “3R Hypothesis”: Correlation to the Pelagic Egg and the Oceanic Radiation of Teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Roderick Nigel; Kristoffersen, Børge A.

    2007-01-01

    The spiny ray-finned teleost fishes (Acanthomorpha) are the most successful group of vertebrates in terms of species diversity. Their meteoric radiation and speciation in the oceans during the late Cretaceous and Eocene epoch is unprecedented in vertebrate history, occurring in one third of the time for similar diversity to appear in the birds and mammals. The success of marine teleosts is even more remarkable considering their long freshwater ancestry, since it implies solving major physiological challenges when freely broadcasting their eggs in the hyper-osmotic conditions of seawater. Most extant marine teleosts spawn highly hydrated pelagic eggs, due to differential proteolysis of vitellogenin (Vtg)-derived yolk proteins. The maturational degradation of Vtg involves depolymerization of mainly the lipovitellin heavy chain (LvH) of one form of Vtg to generate a large pool of free amino acids (FAA 150–200 mM). This organic osmolyte pool drives hydration of the ooctye while still protected within the maternal ovary. In the present contribution, we have used Bayesian analysis to examine the evolution of vertebrate Vtg genes in relation to the “3R hypothesis” of whole genome duplication (WGD) and the functional end points of LvH degradation during oocyte maturation. We find that teleost Vtgs have experienced a post-R3 lineage-specific gene duplication to form paralogous clusters that correlate to the pelagic and benthic character of the eggs. Neo-functionalization allowed one paralogue to be proteolyzed to FAA driving hydration of the maturing oocytes, which pre-adapts them to the marine environment and causes them to float. The timing of these events matches the appearance of the Acanthomorpha in the fossil record. We discuss the significance of these adaptations in relation to ancestral physiological features, and propose that the neo-functionalization of duplicated Vtg genes was a key event in the evolution and success of the teleosts in the oceanic environment. PMID:17245445

  2. Association between Genetic Polymorphisms in Cav2.3 (R-type) Ca2+ Channels and Fentanyl Sensitivity in Patients Undergoing Painful Cosmetic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Ken-ichi; Kasai, Shinya; Hasegawa, Junko; Hayashida, Masakazu; Minami, Masabumi; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences in the sensitivity to fentanyl, a widely used opioid analgesic, lead to different proper doses of fentanyl, which can hamper effective pain treatment. Voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (VACCs) play a crucial role in the nervous system by controlling membrane excitability and calcium signaling. Cav2.3 (R-type) VACCs have been especially thought to play critical roles in pain pathways and the analgesic effects of opioids. However, unknown is whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human CACNA1E (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit) gene that encodes Cav2.3 VACCs influence the analgesic effects of opioids. Thus, the present study examined associations between fentanyl sensitivity and SNPs in the human CACNA1E gene in 355 Japanese patients who underwent painful orofacial cosmetic surgery, including bone dissection. We first conducted linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses of 223 SNPs in a region that contains the CACNA1E gene using genomic samples from 100 patients, and a total of 13 LD blocks with 42 Tag SNPs were observed within and around the CACNA1E gene region. In the preliminary study using the same 100 genomic samples, only the rs3845446 A/G SNP was significantly associated with perioperative fentanyl use among these 42 Tag SNPs. In a confirmatory study using the other 255 genomic samples, this SNP was also significantly associated with perioperative fentanyl use. Thus, we further analyzed associations between genotypes of this SNP and all of the clinical data using a total of 355 samples. The rs3845446 A/G SNP was associated with intraoperative fentanyl use, 24 h postoperative fentanyl requirements, and perioperative fentanyl use. Subjects who carried the minor G allele required significantly less fentanyl for pain control compared with subjects who did not carry this allele. Although further validation is needed, the present findings show the possibility of the involvement of CACNA1E gene polymorphisms in fentanyl sensitivity. PMID:23940630

  3. Density variations in liquid tellurium: Roles of rings, chains, and cavities J. Akola,1,2,3 R. O. Jones,1,4 S. Kohara,5 T. Usuki,6 and E. Bychkov7

    E-print Network

    Density variations in liquid tellurium: Roles of rings, chains, and cavities J. Akola,1,2,3 R. O March 2010 Liquid tellurium has been studied by density-functional/molecular-dynamics simulations at 560 The remarkable properties of liquid elemental tellurium have challenged our understanding for more than 50 years

  4. 78 FR 56921 - South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1... 2 of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project and consists of restoring and enhancing over 2,000.... The overall south bay salt pond restoration area includes 15,100 acres which the USFWS and the...

  5. Temperature dependence of the ESR linewidth in the paramagnetic phase ,,T>TC... of R1 xBxMnO3 ,,R La,Pr; B Ca,Sr...

    E-print Network

    , the Curie temperature.2 The proximity of the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic FM phase transition,3Temperature dependence of the ESR linewidth in the paramagnetic phase ,,T>TC... of R1 xBxMnO3 ,,R the existence of spin clusters in these compounds over a wide range of temperature. S0163-1829 97 05805-0 I

  6. LANGMUIR TURBULENCE AND SOLAR RADIO BURSTS F. B. RIZZATO1,2, A. C.-L. CHIAN2,3, M. V. ALVES3, R. ERICHSEN1, S. R. LOPES4,

    E-print Network

    weather and monitoring the space environment. For example, type-III solar radio bursts are producedLANGMUIR TURBULENCE AND SOLAR RADIO BURSTS F. B. RIZZATO1,2, A. C.-L. CHIAN2,3, M. V. ALVES3, R beam-plasma instability play a fundamental role in the generation of solar radio bursts. We report

  7. Cortes-Barco AM, Goodwin PH, Hsiang T. in press. Induced systemic resistance against three foliar diseases of Agrostis stolonifera by (2R,3R)-Butanediol or an isoparaffin mixture. Annals of Applied

    E-print Network

    Hsiang, Tom

    by PC1, a mixture of food-grade synthetic isoparaffins, and (2R,3R)-butanediol, a volatile organic. stolonifera, expression of the jasmonate synthesis-related genes, AsAOS1, encoding an allene oxide synthase-related protein gene, AsGns5, encoding an acidic -1,3-glucanase, were primed for increased expression by PC1 or (2

  8. PIK3R1 targeting by miR-21 suppresses tumor cell migration and invasion by reducing PI3K/AKT signaling and reversing EMT, and predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Xu; Liu, Yan-Hui; Xiang, Jian-Wen; Wu, Qi-Nian; Xu, Lei-Bo; Luo, Xin-Lan; Zhu, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Chao; Xu, Fang-Ping; Luo, Dong-Lan; Mei, Ping; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Ke-Ping; Chen, Jie

    2016-02-01

    We have previously shown that dysregulation of miR-21 functioned as an oncomiR in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which miR-21 regulate breast tumor migration and invasion. We applied pathway analysis on genome microarray data and target-predicting algorithms for miR-21 target screening, and used luciferase reporting assay to confirm the direct target. Thereafter, we investigated the function of the target gene phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (?) (PIK3R1), and detected PIK3R1 coding protein (p85?) by immunohistochemistry and miR-21 by RT-qPCR on 320 archival paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer to evaluate the correlation of their expression with prognosis. First, we found that PIK3R1 suppressed growth, invasiveness, and metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. Next, we identified the PIK3R1 as a direct target of miR-21 and showed that it was negatively regulated by miR-21. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p85? overexpression phenocopied the suppression effects of antimiR-21 on breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, indicating its tumor suppressor role in breast cancer. On the contrary, PIK3R1 knockdown abrogated antimiR?21-induced effect on breast cancer cells. Notably, antimiR-21 induction increased p85?, accompanied by decreased p-AKT level. Besides, antimiR-21/PIK3R1-induced suppression of invasiveness in breast cancer cells was mediated by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). p85? downregulation was found in 25 (7.8%) of the 320 breast cancer patients, and was associated with inferior 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Taken together, we provide novel evidence that miR-21 knockdown suppresses cell growth, migration and invasion partly by inhibiting PI3K/AKT activation via direct targeting PIK3R1 and reversing EMT in breast cancer. p85? downregulation defined a specific subgroup of breast cancer with shorter 5-year DFS and OS, which may require more aggressive treatment. PMID:26676464

  9. An application of the Multi-Purpose System Simulation /MPSS/ model to the Monitor and Control Display System /MACDS/ at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration /NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center /GSFC/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mill, F. W.; Krebs, G. N.; Strauss, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose System Simulator (MPSS) model was used to investigate the current and projected performance of the Monitor and Control Display System (MACDS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center in processing and displaying launch data adequately. MACDS consists of two interconnected mini-computers with associated terminal input and display output equipment and a disk-stored data base. Three configurations of MACDS were evaluated via MPSS and their performances ascertained. First, the current version of MACDS was found inadequate to handle projected launch data loads because of unacceptable data backlogging. Second, the current MACDS hardware with enhanced software was capable of handling two times the anticipated data loads. Third, an up-graded hardware ensemble combined with the enhanced software was capable of handling four times the anticipated data loads.

  10. Multipurpose Radiation Resistant Semiconductor Detectors for Alpha, Neutron & Low Energy Gamma Ray Measurements at High Temperatures in High-Intensity Gamma Ray

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, Frank H.

    2005-06-01

    Work scheduled under year two of DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER63734 is on schedule and all year-two milestones have or will be met. Results to date demonstrate that unprecedented silicon carbide (SiC) energy resolution has been obtained, and that SiC detectors may achieve energy resolution that exceeds that obtainable with the best silicon alpha spectrometers. Fast-neutron energy spectrometry measurements indicate that recoil-ion energy spectrometry should be possible with SiC detectors. Furthermore, SiC detectors have been demonstrated to perform well even after gamma-ray exposures of 1.E09 Rad. This result and the previously demonstrated capability of SiC detectors to operate in elevated-temperature environments are very promising for potential DOE EMSP applications. A new class of multipurpose, radiation-resistant semiconductor detectors that can be used in elevated-temperature and high-radiation environments is being developed under this grant. These detectors, based on silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor are designed to have larger active volumes than previously available SiC detectors, and are being tested for their response to alpha particles, X-rays and low energy gamma rays, and fast neutrons. Specifically, SiC radiation detectors with larger areas and 100-micrometer thick active regions have been designed and manufactured according to detector-design specifications. Detectors based on a Schottky diode design were specified in order to minimize the effects of the detector entrance window on alpha particle measurements. During manufacture of the Schottky diodes, the manufacturer also provided a set of large-volume SiC p-i-n diodes for testing Extensive alpha particle measurements have been carried out to test and quantify the response of the SiC Schottky diodes. Exposures to 148-Gd, 213-Po, 217-At, 221-Fr, 225-Ac, 237-Np, 238-Pu, 240-Pu, and 242-Pu sources were used to obtain detailed alpha response data in the alpha energy range from 3182.787 keV to 8375.9 keV. The 148-Gd, 213-Po, 217-At, and 221-Fr sources provide energy-separated, mono-energetic alpha particle peaks which can be analyzed to provide detailed information on the energy response characteristics of the detectors. As was reported last year, a highly linear response was obtained between observed pulse height and alpha-particle energy over the entire energy range. Detailed full width at half maximum (FWHM) measurements were made for each of five mono-energetic peaks. The FWHM values ranged from 41.5 keV for 3182.787-keV 148-Gd (1.3% energy resolution) to 55.4 keV for 8379.5-keV 213-Po (0.66% energy resolution). Although these energy resolution values are comparable to those obtainable with silicon alpha-particle spectrometers and surpass the best values reported previously for SiC detectors, other factors in addition to the inherent SiC energy resolution contribute to the observed values and were evaluated. Details of the energy deposition processes that contribute to the FWHM were modeled with calculations using the SRIM-2003.26 code developed by Ziegler and Beirsack. Electronic and statistical broadening of the FWHM were also evaluated in order to isolate the component of the FWHM that is inherent to SiC semiconductor. It was found that the SRIM calculations systematically overestimated the range straggling component of the FWHM leading to calculated values that exceeded the measured total FWHM values. It is believed that the overestimates are a result of inherent limitations of the SRIM code. The range-straggling component of the measured energy resolution results primarily from energy-loss processes in the detector entrance window, which consists of thin layers of Au, Pt, and Ti. Therefore, it was decided to perform measurements to evaluate the range straggling component directly. For this purpose, a high-resolution (15 keV FWHM) Si alpha spectrometer was obtained.

  11. Association between genetic polymorphisms in Ca(v)2.3 (R-type) Ca2+ channels and fentanyl sensitivity in patients undergoing painful cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ide, Soichiro; Nishizawa, Daisuke; Fukuda, Ken-ichi; Kasai, Shinya; Hasegawa, Junko; Hayashida, Masakazu; Minami, Masabumi; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences in the sensitivity to fentanyl, a widely used opioid analgesic, lead to different proper doses of fentanyl, which can hamper effective pain treatment. Voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels (VACCs) play a crucial role in the nervous system by controlling membrane excitability and calcium signaling. Ca(v)2.3 (R-type) VACCs have been especially thought to play critical roles in pain pathways and the analgesic effects of opioids. However, unknown is whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human CACNA1E (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit) gene that encodes Cav2.3 VACCs influence the analgesic effects of opioids. Thus, the present study examined associations between fentanyl sensitivity and SNPs in the human CACNA1E gene in 355 Japanese patients who underwent painful orofacial cosmetic surgery, including bone dissection. We first conducted linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses of 223 SNPs in a region that contains the CACNA1E gene using genomic samples from 100 patients, and a total of 13 LD blocks with 42 Tag SNPs were observed within and around the CACNA1E gene region. In the preliminary study using the same 100 genomic samples, only the rs3845446 A/G SNP was significantly associated with perioperative fentanyl use among these 42 Tag SNPs. In a confirmatory study using the other 255 genomic samples, this SNP was also significantly associated with perioperative fentanyl use. Thus, we further analyzed associations between genotypes of this SNP and all of the clinical data using a total of 355 samples. The rs3845446 A/G SNP was associated with intraoperative fentanyl use, 24 h postoperative fentanyl requirements, and perioperative fentanyl use. Subjects who carried the minor G allele required significantly less fentanyl for pain control compared with subjects who did not carry this allele. Although further validation is needed, the present findings show the possibility of the involvement of CACNA1E gene polymorphisms in fentanyl sensitivity. PMID:23940630

  12. [ret/PtC1 and ret/PTC3r1 rearrangement in thyroid cancer cells, arising in residents of Belorus in the period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant].

    PubMed

    Pisarchik, A V; Iarmolinski?, D G; Demidchik, Iu E; Ermak, G Z; Kartel', N A; Figge, J

    2000-07-01

    After the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, a considerable increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children in Belarus was observed. In the present study, the frequency of the c-ret protooncogene rearrangements in samples of thyroid carcinomas resected and diagnosed in 1998 from individuals in Belarus was investigated. The ret/PTC1 oncogene was detected in 19% of the samples, and the ret/PTC3r1 oncogene, in 14%. The number of ret/PTC1 rearrangements observed in tumor cells from the patients whose age at the time of the accident was from 1 to 10 years, was greater compared to those whose age at the time was from 10 to 20 years, irrespective of the year of surgery (1996 or 1998). The majority of the patients with ret/PTC3r1 rearrangements lived in Gomel oblast, which was contaminated by the Chernobyl meltdown. PMID:10994501

  13. THE 1000 BRIGHTEST HIPASS GALAXIES: NEWLY CATALOGED GALAXIES E. RyanWeber, 1,2 B. S. Koribalski, 2 L. StaveleySmith, 2 H. Jerjen, 3 R. C. KraanKorteweg, 4 S. D. Ryder, 5

    E-print Network

    Zwaan, Martin

    ­ covered by Henning et al. in the H i shallow survey of the zone of avoidance. The other 30 newly cataloged L. Staveley­Smith, 2 H. Jerjen, 3 R. C. Kraan­Korteweg, 4 S. D. Ryder, 5 D. G. Barnes, 6 W. J. G. de. Ekers, 2 K. C. Freeman, 3 B. K. Gibson, 6 A. J. Green, 11 R. F. Haynes, 2 P. A. Henning, 12 S. Juraszek

  14. Effects of a newly designed HEMA-free, multi-purpose, single-bottle, self-etching adhesive on bonding to dental hard tissues, zirconia-based ceramics, and gold alloy.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Kunio; Jogetsu, Yoshiyuki; Shinno, Kazuya; Nakatsuka, Toshiyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the bonding effectiveness of newly designed self-etching adhesives to four types of adherends--enamel, dentin, zirconia, and gold (Au) alloy. Five experimental adhesives were prepared, which contained 3.0-5.0 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA) or 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 3-phosphonopropionate (6-MHPP), 3.0 wt% 4-acryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-AET) or 17.0 wt% 4-methacryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-MET), 0-0.5 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (6-MHDT) or 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT), and varying contents of Bis-GMA, dimethacrylate monomers, water, acetone, and a photoinitiator system. After 2,000 times of thermal cycling, shear bond strengths (SBSs) between a resin composite (Beautifil II, Shofu Inc., Japan) and the four adherends, bonded using the experimental adhesives, were measured at 1.0 mm/min. No statistically significant differences in SBS for bonding to ground enamel, dentin, sandblasted zirconia and Au alloy (p>0.05) were found between experimental adhesives which contained 6-MHPA and/or 6-MHPP, 4-MET or 4-AET, 6-MHDT and/or 10-MDDT, Bis-GMA, and dimethacrylates. An adhesive layer of less than 5.0 µm thickness, by scanning electron microscopy observation, revealed strong adhesion to the four adherends. Therefore, the newly designed multi-purpose, self-etching adhesive strongly adhered to all the four adherend materials tested. PMID:21946481

  15. Theoretical investigation of conformational stabilities and 13C NMR chemical shifts of a seven-membered ring thiosugar, (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Chin-Kuen; Yeh, Pao-Ling; Wu, Yun-Sheng; Shih, Tzenge-Lien; Wang, Bo-Cheng

    2014-06-01

    DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations have been performed to obtain optimized structures for fourteen conformers of (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol. These conformers are considered as the twist-chair (TC) and twist-boat (TB) conformations. Among all conformers, the TCS5 and TCS6 conformers appear to be the most energetically stable since they contain an intramolecular hydrogen bond between hydroxyl group at C(8) and S atom. Boltzmann weighting factor analysis provides valuable information on the population of the fourteen conformers, including both the TC and TB conformations. The analysis results demonstrate that the TCS2, TCS5, and TCS6 conformers provide a major population contribution with Boltzamann weighting factors larger than 7% as compared to other conformers. For these conformers of (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol, the GIAO/HF, GIAO/DFT/OPBE, GIAO/DFT/B3LYP and GIAO/DFT/mPW1PW91 calculations with the 6-311++G(d,p), 6-311+G(2d,p), cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ basis sets were used to obtain their 13C NMR chemical shifts. The calculated 13C NMR chemical shifts of the TCS2, TCS5, and TCS6 conformers show a close correlation with experimental data, within 2.4-3.0 ppm of MAE values. The experimental 13C NMR chemical shifts represent a combination of contributions from all the conformers. In our investigation, the calculated 13C NMR chemical shifts of the mixture of (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol conformers display a remarkable MAE and RMS improvement comparing to those for each individual conformer. The most appropriate calculation method and basis set to evaluate the theoretical 13C NMR chemical shifts for these conformers are OPBE/6-311+G(2d,p). Calculated results represent that the conformation of (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol can be determined by the intramolecular hydrogen bond which could be simulated by the 13C NMR chemical shift calculation.

  16. Crystal structure, morphotropic phase transition and luminescence in the new cyclosilicates Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Y, Eu-Lu

    SciTech Connect

    Tyutyunnik, Alexander P.; Leonidov, Ivan I.; Surat, Ludmila L.; Berger, Ivan F.; Zubkov, Vladimir G.

    2013-01-15

    A new series of promising luminescent materials, cyclosilicates Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Y, Eu-Lu, has been synthesized via a solid-state reaction. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction studies show that these oxides crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system (S.G. C2/c, Z=4) and have a morphotropic phase transition between Er and Tm compounds followed by a step-like change of the unit cell constants. Isolated [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] rings located in layers are basic building units and stack with Sr/R layers along the [1 0 1{sup Macron }] direction. The rare earth atoms are distributed among three independent Sr/R sites coordinated by 8, 7 and 6 oxygen atoms, and the Sr-R populations change from mixed to 0.5/0.5 over site (1) and full occupation of sites (2) and (3) by Sr and R, respectively, at the transition. Changes of the conformation and mutual arrangement of [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] rings, as well as exchange of oxygen atoms from the first and the second coordination sphere of two Sr/R sites also feature the phase transition. Luminescence in Sr{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} under ultraviolet (UV) excitation has been discussed. - Graphical abstract: The change of the [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] ring conformation in Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Eu, Er, Tm and Lu. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new group of cyclosilicates Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Y, Eu-Lu, was first synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolated [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] rings located in layers are basic building units and stack with Sr/R layers along the [1 0 1{sup Macron }] direction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rare earth atoms are distributed among three independent Sr/R sites coordinated by 6, 7 and 8 oxygen ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A step-like change of the unit cell parameters is observed in the Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2} structure for R=Er{yields}Tm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} demonstrates intense multiband orange-red photoluminescence.

  17. The biosynthetic implications of acetate and glutamate incorporation into (3R,5R)-carbapenam-3-carboxylic acid and (5R)-carbapen-2-em-3-carboxylic acid by Serratia sp.

    PubMed

    Bycroft, B W; Maslen, C; Box, S J; Brown, A; Tyler, J W

    1988-09-01

    Two new beta-lactams have been isolated from strains of Serratia and Erwinia sp. and identified as (3R,5R)- and (3S,5R)-carbapenam-3-carboxylic acid. These novel carbapenams lack antibacterial activity, are resistant to both beta-lactamases I and II from Bacillus cereus and are not detected by the lactamase induction assay. Radiolabelled and stable isotope experiments have established that both metabolites together with the antibiotic 5R-carbapenem-3-carboxylic acid are glutamate and acetate derived. A number of possible pathways for the biosynthesis of these compounds as well as their relationship to the more complex members of the carbapenem family of beta-lactam antibiotics are discussed. PMID:3182403

  18. Sex Pheromone of the Pine Sawfly Macrodiprion nemoralis (Hymenoptera : Diprionidae): Identification of (2S,3R,7R,9S)-3,7,9-Trimethyl-2-tridecanol as the Precursor for the Active Pheromone Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassgren, A.-B.; Bergström, G.; Sierpinski, A.; Anderbrant, O.; Högberg, H.-E.; Hedenström, E.

    The main component of the sex pheromone precursor in females of Macrodiprion nemoralis was identified as a threo-3,7,9-trimethyl-2-tridecanol isomer, approximately 800pg per female, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Comparison of mass spectrometric ion chromatograms showed that the natural compound in the female extract has the same retention time and mass spectrum as one of the two synthetic threo peaks. The acetate of the synthetic 16-isomer mixture caught a large number of males in the field, confirming the structure of the active pheromone. Comparison of gas chromatograms of the natural female extract with the eight synthetic threo stereoisomers showed that the pheromone is the (2S,3R,7R,9S)-stereoisomer of 3,7,9-trimethyl-2-tridecyl acetate.

  19. Enantiomeric composition of (3R)-(-)- and (3S)-(+)-linalool in various essential oils of Indian origin by enantioselective capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection methods.

    PubMed

    Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2009-04-01

    Enantiomeric ratios of linalool have been determined in various authentic essential oils of Indian origin using 10% heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin as a chiral stationary phase. A complete enantiomeric excess (ee) for (3S)-(+)-linalool was characteristic of Lippia alba and Cinnamomum tamala leaf oils while less than 90% excess was noticed in Zanthoxylum armatum leaf, Zingiber roseum root/rhizome and Citrus sinensis leaf oils. On the contrary, an enantiomeric excess of (3R)-(-)-linalool characterizes essential oils of basil (100% for Ocimum basilicum) and bergamot mint (72 to 75% for Mentha citrata). Notably, some essential oils containing both enantiomers in equal ratios or in racemic forms are rose, geranium, lemongrass and Origanum. The enantiomeric composition studies are discussed as indicators of origin authenticity and quality of essential oil of Indian origin. PMID:19476006

  20. A multi-purpose thermoplastic polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saint Clair, A. K.; Saint Clair, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    A linear thermoplastic polyimide, LARC-TPI, has been characterized and developed for a variety of high-temperature applications. In its fully imidized form, this new material can be used as an adhesive for bonding metals such as titanium, aluminum, copper, brass, and stainless steel. LARC-TPI is being evaluated as a thermoplastic for bonding large pieces of polyimide film to produce flexible, 100% void-free laminates for flexible circuit applications. The further development of LARC-TPI as a potential molding powder, composite matrix resin, high-temperature film and fiber will also be discussed.

  1. A multi-purpose thermoplastic polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saint Clair, A. K.; Saint Clair, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    A linear thermoplastic polyimide, LARC-TPI, has been characterized and developed for a variety of high-temperature applications. In its fully imidized form, this new material can be used as an adhesive for bonding metals such as titanium, aluminum, copper, brass, and stainless steel. LARC-TPI is being evaluated as a thermoplastic for bonding large pieces of polyimide film to produce flexible, 100% void-free laminates for flexible circuit applications. The further development of LARC-TPI as a potential molding powder, composite matrix resin, high-temperature film and fiber is also discussed.

  2. A Multipurpose Device for Some Hydrostatics Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    A number of well-known hydrostatics problems dealing with Archimedes' principle concern a loaded boat floating in a pool. Examples of this sort of problem include: 1. (a) If a stone is thrown overboard from a boat floating in a pool, does the water level in the pool rise, fall, or remain unchanged? (b) If a hole is made in the bottom of the boat…

  3. A Multipurpose Device for Some Hydrostatics Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2008-10-01

    A number of well-known hydrostatics problems dealing with Archimedes' principle concern a loaded boat floating in a pool.1-4 Examples of this sort of problem include: 1. (a) If a stone is thrown overboard from a boat floating in a pool, does the water level in the pool rise, fall, or remain unchanged? (b) If a hole is made in the bottom of the boat so that the boat sinks, does the water level in the pool change? If so, when does the change begin (when water first begins to enter the boat or later)? 2. A boat floating in a pool carries a mass M that can either be placed on the raft or hung below the raft. (a) How does the water level in the pool compare in the two cases? (b) In which case does the raft float higher in the water? This paper describes a simple low-cost experimental setup that can be used to demonstrate the solutions to such problems in a concrete and dramatic way.

  4. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT ...included in this item. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a minimum biobased content of at least 88 percent,...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT ...as disinfectants. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a minimum biobased content of at least 56 percent,...

  6. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT ...included in this item. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a minimum biobased content of at least 88 percent,...

  7. 7 CFR 3201.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT ...as disinfectants. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a minimum biobased content of at least 56 percent,...

  8. 7 CFR 2902.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT ...as disinfectants. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a minimum biobased content of at least 56 percent,...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT ...included in this item. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a minimum biobased content of at least 88 percent,...

  10. 7 CFR 2902.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT ...as disinfectants. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a minimum biobased content of at least 56 percent,...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT ...as disinfectants. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a minimum biobased content of at least 56 percent,...

  12. Dual-Channel Multi-Purpose Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Content, David

    2009-01-01

    A dual-channel telescope allows for a wide-field telescope design wit h a good, narrow field channel of fewer surfaces for shorter-wavelen gth or planet-finding applications. The design starts with a Korsch three-mirror-anastigmat (TMA) telescope that meets the mission criter ia for image quality over a wide field of view. The internal image a t the Cassegrain focus is typically blurry due to the aberration bala ncing among the three mirrors. The Cassegrain focus is then re-optim ized on the axis of the system where the narrow field channel instru ment is picked off by bending the primary mirror.

  13. Quarkonia as a multi-purpose tool

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2010-12-21

    Quarkonia can be a very useful tool for understanding the medium in which they are produced and pass through. However, their usefulness as a tool depends on how well certain aspects of their behavior in cold matter are understood.

  14. Microbolometer spectrometer, the multipurpose smallsat instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leijtens, J.; Court, A.; de Boom, K.

    2004-11-01

    Due to lower mass, size and power demands and recognized increased reliability, microbolometer detectors seem to be well suited for small sattelite applications. Due to the improving technical performance, next generation instruments can use uncooled microbolometer arrays without significantly sacrificing performance. An example of this type of instruments is a hyper spectral imager called Micro Bolometer Spectrometer MIBS, which is being developed by TNO TPD. By optimizing the throughput of the optical system, and using the latest improvements in detector performance, TNO TPD has been able to design a spectrometer that is able to provide co-registered measurements in the 7 to 14 ?m wavelength region resulting in an acceptable NETD performance on the basis of currently available standard detectors. Through further developments, it is expected that detectors with even lower NETD will become available in the future. Apart from the usual multispectral imaging in the thermal infrared atmospheric window, the concept can be used for several other applications, for example CO2 monitoring due to the broader spectral response. The removal of the highpass filter, which is typically integrated on the window of the currently available bolometer detectors, allows imaging in the range from 2 to beyond 15 ?m. This enables an instrument to perform a number of simultaneous tasks like atmospheric and disaster monitoring. A number of applications would benefit from high temporal coverage, which can only be provided in an economical fashion by the use of mini or micro satellites. Due to the limited size of the instrument, MIBS is well suited for application on a microsatellite.

  15. 7 CFR 2902.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...task-specific lubricants, such as chain and cable lubricants and gear lubricants, are not included in this item. (b) Minimum...with recycled content. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, section 6002, the U.S. Environmental...

  16. Two Multipurpose Thermochemical Experiments for General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, R. A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two experiments designed to provide concepts on the difference between heat and temperature and also bond energy. Investigates both a neutralization experiment and a ligation experiment. Notes inexpensive chemicals are used along with simple equipment. Discusses the sharing of lab results for a single class value. (MVL)

  17. Spacecraft design project multipurpose satellite bus MPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellman, Lyle; Riley, John; Szostak, Michael; Watkins, Joseph; Willhelm, Joseph; Yale, Gary

    1990-01-01

    The thrust of this project was to design not a single spacecraft, but to design a multimission bus capable of supporting several current payloads and unnamed, unspecified future payloads. Spiraling costs of spacecraft and shrinking defense budgets necessitated a fresh look at the feasibility of a multimission spacecraft bus. The design team chose two very diverse and different payloads, and along with them two vastly different orbits, to show that multimission spacecraft buses are an area where indeed more research and effort needs to be made. Tradeoffs, of course, were made throughout the design, but optimization of subsystem components limited weight and volume penalties, performance degradation, and reliability concerns. Simplicity was chosen over more complex, sophisticated and usually more efficient designs. Cost of individual subsystem components was not a primary concern in the design phase, but every effort was made to chose flight tested and flight proven hardware. Significant cost savings could be realized if a standard spacecraft bus was indeed designed and purchased in finite quantities.

  18. Stormwater management and multipurpose infrastructure networks

    E-print Network

    Vecchio, Ann-Ariel (Ann-Ariel Nichiko)

    2012-01-01

    In urban planning and design, natural systems are a key element of explorations about how to design for sustainability. As part of these efforts, academics and practitioners have also begun to explore the ways in which the ...

  19. Continuous Commisssioning of a Multipurpose Facility 

    E-print Network

    Yagua, C.; Wei, G.; Napper, G.; Turner, D.; Effinger, M.; Shahsavary, F.

    2009-01-01

    sensor failure which led to a significant amount of simultaneous heating and cooling based on the existing sequence of operation (SOO). Since this is a rather common control sequence, the solution implemented in this case study has a broad application...

  20. Confronting Global Issues: A Multipurpose IR Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellman, Stephen M.; Turan, Kursad

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an international relations simulation that focuses on threats of transnational insurgent organizations, the future of the Iraqi regime, and the effect of globalization on foreign policies. It contains both the Simulation Director's Guide and the Participant's Guide. The guides explain the steps taken to run the simulation…

  1. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrou, A. N.; Durgin, W. W.; Cohn, R. F.; Olinger, D. J.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Chan, Agnes; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Conley, Kristin; Crivelli, Paul M.; Javorski, Christian T.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design included minimizing the power requirements and maximizing the strength-to-weight and lift-to-drag ratios. Given the design constraints, Surya (the code-name given to the aircraft), is a lightweight aircraft primarily built using composite materials and capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar energy.

  2. Skylab M518 multipurpose furnace convection analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeois, S. V.; Spradley, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis was performed of the convection which existed on ground tests and during skylab processing of two experiments: vapor growth of IV-VI compounds growth of spherical crystals. A parallel analysis was also performed on Skylab experiment indium antimonide crystals because indium antimonide (InSb) was used and a free surface existed in the tellurium-doped Skylab III sample. In addition, brief analyses were also performed of the microsegregation in germanium experiment because the Skylab crystals indicated turbulent convection effects. Simple dimensional analysis calculations and a more accurate, but complex, convection computer model, were used in the analysis.

  3. Advanced Multipurpose Rendezvous Tracking System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurie, R. J.; Sterzer, F.

    1982-01-01

    Rendezvous and docking (R&D) sensors needed to support Earth orbital operations of vehicles were investigated to determine the form they should take. An R&D sensor must enable an interceptor vehicle to determine both the relative position and the relative attitude of a target vehicle. Relative position determination is fairly straightforward and places few constraints on the sensor. Relative attitude determination, however, is more difficult. The attitude is calculated based on relative position measurements of several reflectors placed in a known arrangement on the target vehicle. The constraints imposed on the sensor by the attitude determination method are severe. Narrow beamwidth, wide field of view (fov), high range accuracy, and fast random scan capability are all required to determine attitude by this method. A consideration of these constraints as well as others imposed by expected operating conditions and the available technology led to the conclusion that the sensor should be a cw optical radar employing a semiconductor laser transmitter and an image dissector receiver.

  4. A Multipurpose Experiment with an Electronic Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, S.

    2008-01-01

    This short article describes some useful and quick applications of a cooking electronic balance. Newton's third law, Archimedes buoyancy and an estimate of relative density are accomplished in a very simple way. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. Multi-purpose mechanical circulatory device.

    PubMed

    Mussivand, T V; Hendry, P J; Masters, R G; Keon, W J

    1997-04-01

    A mechanical circulatory assist device for long term use outside the hospital setting has been developed. The device can be used for left, right or bi-ventricular support, and several of the developed technologies are applicable for total artificial hearts and non-pulsatile flow systems. The totally implantable device is principally designed for left ventricular support with implantation in the left hemithorax. The system utilizes transcutaneous energy and information transfer sub-systems, and has no percutaneous connections. In vitro durability testing has been conducted for periods from 1-4 years. Bovine experiments have been conducted with sustained circulation for periods form 1.5 to 96 hours. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation to date has demonstrated that the system can function effectively as a totally implantable ventricular assist device. The transcutaneous energy and information transfer sub-systems provided the ability to power, monitor and control the device, without the need for percutaneous connections. Design optimization and chronic in vivo evaluation is planned. PMID:9195239

  6. Multi-Purpose Development and Operation Environments

    E-print Network

    and used either in commercial word pro- cessing software packages or in NLP projects (e.g., the transla), LUKE (Wrob- iewski and Rich, 1988) or ONTOS (Monarch and Nirenburg, 1989), among many others). Our

  7. A multi-purpose computing center: FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Fermilab Computing Center is described with a special emphasis given to the scientific computing systems and the data storage and archiving systems. The scope and focus of this paper is the Fermilab scientific computing facility. It does not cover, or does not cover very well, related issues such as data Grids, cloud computing and storage, commercial storage, data integrity, authorization, access rates, and novel storage technologies. These are all important considerations in discussing data centers and should be kept in mind when one explores issues related to computing centers and long-term data storage.

  8. Multipurpose transportable missile-space complex 'Start'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonov, Y.; Andryushin, V.

    1993-06-01

    Space-launcher of the Start family are reviewed focusing on differences between space-launchers and battle missiles, possible payload delivery schemes, and peculiarities of the fundamental and design schemes of a space launcher and ballistic missile. It is pointed out that a process of ICBM transformation into space launchers should be analyzed taking into account differences in operating conditions and the choice of the fundamental and design solutions.

  9. The action site of the synthetic kainoid (2S,3R,4R)-3-carboxymethyl-4-(4-methylphenylthio)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (PSPA-4), an analogue of Japanese mushroom poison acromelic acid, for allodynia (tactile pain).

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Minami, Toshiaki; Mizuma, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Masakatsu; Doi, Hisashi; Matsumura, Shinji; Lu, Jingshan; Onoe, Hirotaka; Furuta, Kyoji; Suzuki, Masaaki; Ito, Seiji

    2013-06-15

    We previously demonstrated that intrathecal (i.t.) administration of acromelic acid A (Acro-A) induced allodynia in mice and that simultaneous administration of (2S,3R,4R)-3-carboxymethyl-4-(phenylthio)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (PSPA-1), an Acro-A analogue, attenuated the Acro-A-induced allodynia. To clarify a mechanism of PSPA-1, we attached methyl radical to PSPA-1 and synthesized (2S,3R,4R)-3-carboxymethyl-4-(4-methylphenylthio) pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (PSPA-4) and [(11)C]PSPA-4 for behavioral and autoradiography studies. Although PSPA-4 inhibited the Acro-A-induced allodynia in a dose-dependent manner from 1 to 10 fg/mouse, PSPA-4 itself induced allodynia at 10 to 100 pg/mouse. In vitro autoradiography, [(11)C]PSPA-4 was specifically bound to the rat brain and spinal cord, and the binding was significantly displaced by PSPA-1 and kainic acid, but not by AMPA and antagonists of NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors. Conversely, [(3)H]kainate was specifically bound to the rat brain and the dorsal horn of spinal cord, and the binding was significantly displaced by PSPA-1 and PSPA-4. The PSPA-4-induced allodynia was blocked by the AMPA/kainate antagonist GYKI53655, but not by kainate antagonists NS102 and UBP296. PSPA-4 increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in 27.9% of cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons responding to glutamate, much higher than kainate in 10.9% of them. Taken together, these results suggest that PSPA-4 attenuated the Acro-A-induced allodynia at low doses and induced allodynia at high doses via a binding site different from known kainate antagonists. The development of a radio-labeled PSPA-4 will enable us to promote the understanding of the action mechanism not only of Acro-A, but also of pain transmission in the periphery and central nervous system. PMID:23124023

  10. C-C and C-Heteroatom Bond Dissociation Energies in CH3R?C(OH)2: Energetics for Photocatalytic Processes of Organic Diolates on TiO2 Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tsang-Hsiu; Dixon, David A.; Henderson, Michael A.

    2010-08-26

    The bond energies of a range of gem-diols, CH3R?C(OH)2 (R? = H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO2, CF3, CH3CH2, CH3CH2CH2, CH3CH2CH2CH2, ((CH3)2)CH, (CH3)3C, ((CH3)2CH)CH2, (CH3CH2)(CH3)CH, C6H5 (CH3CH2)(CH3)CH) which serve as models for binding to a surface have been studied with density functional theory (DFT) and the molecular orbital G3(MP2) methods to provide thermodynamic data for the analysis of the photochemistry of ketones on TiO2. The ultraviolet (UV) photon-induced photodecomposition of adsorbed acetone and 3,3-dimethylbutanone on the rutile TiO2 (110) surface have been investigated with photon stimulated desorption (PSD) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The C-CH3 and C-C(R?) bond dissociation energies in CH3R?C(OH)2 were predicted, and our calculated bond dissociation energies are in excellent agreement with the available experimental values. We used a series of isodemic reactions to provide small corrections to the various bond dissociation energies. The calculated bond dissociation energies are in agreement with the observed photodissociation processes except for R? = CF3, suggesting that these processes are under thermodynamic control. For R? = CF3, reaction dynamics also play a role in determining the photodissociation mechanism. The gas phase Brönsted acidities of the gem-diols were calculated. For three molecules, R? = Cl, Br, and NO2, loss of a proton leads to the formation of a complex of acetic acid with the anion Cl-, Br-, and NO2-. The acidities of these three species are very high with the former two having acidities comparable to CF3SO3H. The ketones (R?RC(=O)) are weak Lewis acids except where addition of OH- leads to the dissociation of the complex to form an anion bonded to acetic acid, R' = NO2, Cl, and Br. The X-C bond dissociation energies for a number of X-CO2- species were calculated and these should be useful in correlating with photochemical reactivity studies.

  11. Structure determination of the ordered (?{ 3} ×?{ 3}) R 30 ° phase of Ni2Si and Ni2Ge surface alloys on Ni(111) via low-energy electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Sazzadur; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Mizuno, Seigi

    2015-12-01

    The (?{ 3} ×?{ 3}) R 30 ° structures of 2-D nickel silicide and nickel germanide surface alloys on Ni(111) were investigated using quantitative low-energy electron diffraction analysis. The unit cells of the determined silicide and germanide structures contain two Ni atoms and one Si or Ge atom, corresponding to the chemical compositions Ni2Si and Ni2Ge, respectively. Both the Si and Ge atoms adopt substitutional face-centered cubic hollow sites to sit on the Ni(111) substrates, and the alloy surfaces exhibit a slight corrugation. The Nisbnd Si and Nisbnd Ge distances were 2.44 and 2.56 Å, respectively, and corresponded well to their respective empirical radii. It was also found that the Ni atoms in the second and third layers moved toward the Si or Ge atom sites from their bulk crystal positions. These results indicate rather strong interactions of the Ni atoms with both the Si and Ge atoms at the surface, leading to trapping of the Si and Ge atoms at the substitutional sites without diffusion into the bulk.

  12. Development and Preclinical Studies of Broad-spectrum Anti-HIV Agent (3?R,4?R)-3-Cyanomethyl-4-methyl-3?,4?-di-O-(S)-camphanoyl-(+)-cis-khellactone (3-Cyanomethyl-4-methyl-DCK)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lan; Guo, Huan-Fang; Lu, Hong; Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, An-Ming; Wu, Gang; Ruan, Jin-Xiu; Zhou, Ting; Yu, Donglei; Qian, Keduo; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Jiang, Shibo

    2009-01-01

    In prior investigation, we discovered that (3'R,4'R)-3-cyanomethyl-4-methyl-3',4'-di-O-(S)-camphanoyl-(+)-cis-khellactone (4, 3-cyanomethyl-4-methyl-DCK) showed promising anti-HIV activity. In these current studies, we developed and optimized successfully a practical ten-step synthesis for scale-up preparation to increase the overall yield of 4 from 7.8% to 32%. Furthermore, compound 4 exhibited broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity against wild-type and drug-resistant viral infection of CD4+ T cell lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells by both laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 isolates with distinct subtypes and tropisms. Compound 4 was further subjected to in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. These studies indicated that 4 has moderate cell permeability, moderate oral bioavailability and low systemic clearance. These results suggest that 4 should be developed as a promising anti-HIV agent for development as a clinical trial candidate. PMID:19053755

  13. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of TbMnO3 and Tb0.67R0.33MnO3 (R=Dy, Y, and Ho) bulk powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staruch, M.; Kuna, L.; McDannald, A.; Jain, M.

    2015-03-01

    Orthorhombically distorted perovskite rare-earth manganites with smaller rare-earth ions, such as TbMnO3, have mostly been explored for their multiferroic properties. In this work, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in both TbMnO3 and A-site substituted Tb0.67R0.33MnO3 (R=Dy, Y, Ho) powder samples, prepared via solution route, were investigated. A weak ferromagnetic component was observed in the dc magnetic data of Dy- and Ho-substituted TbMnO3 that may be due to the change in average ionic radius at the A-site (Tb-site) as well as the larger magnetic moment of the substituting ion (~10.6 ?B for Dy3+ and Ho3+ as compared to 9.7 ?B for Tb3+). The magnetic entropy was found to decrease with the dilution of the Tb3+ ordering by the introduction of both magnetic and non-magnetic dopants at the A-site. Magnetocaloric properties of these samples were evaluated and for pure TbMnO3, a maximum relative cooling power of ~103 J/kg with 5 T applied field was observed that shows its potential for magnetic refrigeration.

  14. Modeling the combined impacts of climate and socio-economic change on water quality, availability and consumption in a multi-purpose reservoir: an application to the Xarrama basin, southern Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacinto, Rita; Nunes, João Pedro; Santos, Juliana

    2014-05-01

    The water resources sector is one of the most vulnerable to climate change. In southern Europe, an increase of water scarcity is expected, combined with a higher frequency and length of severe droughts. Water management in these regions is already a challenge, and several severe droughts occurred there during the last decades, such as the severe droughts of 2005 and 2012 in Portugal, which have highlighted existing vulnerabilities and led to the disruption of part of water supplies. Furthermore, the evolution of socio-economic conditions and even climate change could cause changes to population and land-uses, with the potential to increase pressures on existing resources. The threat of scarcer water resources highlights the need to understand these vulnerabilities and act to reduce them, adapting to the impacts of future climate and land use changes. In fact, water resources governance has been pointed as a key challenge in the present and in the future, as it builds capacity on how to deal with stress and uncertainties generated by climatic variability and global change. Project ERLAND is focused on assessing the eco-hydrological impacts of climate change in Portugal, and therefore water scarcity and droughts are an important focal point on this research. One of the study areas is the Xarrama river basin in southern Portugal, which feeds the multi-purpose Vale do Gaio reservoir used for irrigation and urban water supplies, coupled with a small hydroelectric generating capacity. Currently it experiences some water quality problems and there is already the need of water transfers from other reservoirs to maintain supplies and quality. This is combined with ongoing land-use changes, where irrigated vineyards and olive groves have started to replace traditional rainfed pastures and cereal cultivation. The exposition and vulnerability of the Xarrama basin and the Vale do Gaio reservoir is being addressed for present and future conditions. Future climate scenarios were downscaled from existing Global Circulation Model forecasts. Socioeconomic scenarios for population and land use change were downscaled from European-level forecasts based on local tendencies from recent decades. All these scenarios are being included in the SWAT eco-hydrological model; population is used as a proxy for water consumption and effluent production, while land use changes lead to different water consumptions (both before water reaches the reservoir, and from water uptakes for irrigation) and nutrient exports. The model also allows for the simplified simulation of lower water availability and nutrient inputs on water quality. This approach combines hydrologic and socioeconomic scenarios in an integrated modeling framework, which will allow an evaluation of best planning practices for land use and water management. It will present relevant data for local stakeholders and managers, while demonstrating the utility and added value of including future socioeconomic scenarios in the evaluation of global change impacts and the design of adaptation measures.

  15. Refined genomic localization of the genetic lesion in the osteopetrosis (op) rat and exclusion of three positional and functional candidate genes, Clcn7, Atp6v0c, and Slc9a3r2.

    PubMed

    Perdu, B; Odgren, P R; Van Wesenbeeck, L; Jennes, K; Mackay, C C; Van Hul, W

    2009-05-01

    Osteopetrosis is a disease characterised by a generalized skeletal sclerosis resulting from a reduced osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Several spontaneous mutations lead to osteopetrotic phenotypes in animals. Moutier et al. (1974) discovered the osteopetrosis (op) rat as a spontaneous, lethal, autosomal recessive mutant. op rats have large nonfunctioning osteoclasts and severe osteopetrosis. Dobbins et al. (2002) localized the disease-causing gene to a 1.5-cM genetic interval on rat chromosome 10, which we confirm in the present report. We also refined the genomic localization of the disease gene and provide statistical evidence for a disease-causing gene in a small region of rat chromosome 10. Three strong functional candidate genes are within the delineated region. Clcn7 was previously shown to underlie different forms of osteopetrosis, in both human and mice. ATP6v0c encodes a subunit of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase or proton pump. Mutations in TCIRG1, another subunit of the proton pump, are known to cause a severe form of osteopetrosis. Given the critical role of proton pumping in bone resorption, the Slc9a3r2 gene, a sodium/hydrogen exchanger, was also considered as a candidate for the op mutation. RT-PCR showed that all 3 genes are expressed in osteoclasts, but sequencing found no mutations either in the coding regions or in intron splice junctions. Our ongoing mutation analysis of other genes in the candidate region will lead to the discovery of a novel osteopetrosis gene and further insights into osteoclast functioning. PMID:19259722

  16. Evidence that NO/cGMP/PKG signalling cascade mediates endothelium dependent inhibition of IP3R mediated Ca(2+) oscillations in myocytes and pericytes of ureteric microvascular network in situ.

    PubMed

    Borysova, Lyudmyla; Burdyga, Theodor

    2015-12-01

    In ureteric microvessels the antagonistic relationship between Ca(2+) signalling in endothelium and Ca(2+) oscillations in myocytes and pericytes of arterioles and venules involves nitric oxide (NO), but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study we investigated the effects of carbachol and NO donor SNAP on Ca(2+) signalling and vasomotor responses of arterioles and venules in intact urteric microvascular network in situ using confocal microscopy. Vasomotor responses of arterioles and venules induced by AVP correlated with the occurrence of Ca(2+) oscillations in the myocytes and pericytes and were not abolished by the removal of Ca(2+) from extracellular fluid. Carbachol-induced rise of intracellular Ca(2+) in endothelium was accompanied by the termination of the Ca(2+) oscillations in myocytes and pericytes. This carbachol-induced inhibitory effect on Ca(2+) oscillations in myocytes and pericytes was reversed by ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and by Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS, an inhibitor of protein kinase G (PKG). Ca(2+) oscillations in myocytes and pericytes were also effectively blocked by NO donor SNAP. An Inhibitory effect of SNAP was markedly enhanced by zaprinast, a selective inhibitor of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase-5, and reversed by sGC inhibitor, ODQ and PKG inhibitor, Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS. The cGMP analogue and selective PKG activator 8pCPT-cGMP also induced inhibition of the AVP-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in myocytes and pericytes. SNAP had no effects on Ca(2+) oscillations induced by caffeine in distributing arcade arterioles. Consequently, we conclude that NO- mediated inhibition of Ca(2+) oscillations in myocytes and pericytes predominantly recruits the cGMP/PKG dependent pathway. The inhibitory effect of NO/cGMP/PKG cascade is associated with suppressed Ca(2+) release from the SR of myocytes and pericytes selectively via the inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) channels. PMID:26344105

  17. Sol-gel derived nanocrystalline multiferroic BiFeO3 and R3+ (R=Er and Tm) doped therein: Magnetic phase transitions and enhancement of magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, S.; Sutradhar, S.; Mandal, J.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Deb, A. K.; Chakrabarti, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Nanocrystalline BiFeO3 and rare earth ion doped BiFeO3 (Bi0.9R0.1FeO3, R=Er and Tm) were prepared by sol-gel method. Rietveld analysis of the X-ray diffractograms of the samples revealed that small amount of impurity phase of Bi2Fe4O9 was formed together with the desired phase. In the thermal variation of magnetic mass susceptibility (?m) of the samples, one sharp transition below TM (TM˜100 K, 50 K and 30 K for BiFeO3, Bi0.9Er0.1FeO3 and Bi0.9Tm0.1FeO3, respectively) was observed, which clearly hint the change of the domination of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction over the usual antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. Also, static magnetization (M) and susceptibility of each doped sample have been drastically enhanced compared to that of BiFeO3. The values of ?m and M measured at different temperatures confirmed that the magnetic behavior of the doped systems has been dominated by the paramagnetic/ferromagnetic clusters below ˜TM. Another phase transition were observed in the ?m vs. T curve of the samples at relatively higher temperature TB (˜260 K for BiFeO3, ˜220 K for Bi0.9Er0.1FeO3 and ˜180 K for Bi0.9Tm0.1FeO3), which may be attributed to the charge ordering transition. Ferroelectric hysteresis loops of the samples observed at 100 Hz confirmed the presence of ferroelectric ordering of the samples. Measured values of dielectric constants at 1 kHz of each sample in presence and absence of magnetic field confirmed a substantial magnetoelectric coupling of all the samples.

  18. Isolation and structural characterization of 2R, 3R taxifolin 3-O-rhamnoside from ethyl acetate extract of Hydnocarpus alpina and its hypoglycemic effect by attenuating hepatic key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Rangachari; Vendan, Subramanian Ezhil; Aravinthan, Adithan; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Hydnocarpus alpina Wt. (Flacourtiaceae) (H. alpina) is a large tree traditionally used to treat leprosy; it also posses antidiabetic property. The present study was undertaken to isolate, characterize and to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of 2R, 3R taxifolin 3-O-rhamnoside. (rhamnoside) and its impact on carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes in control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg). Oral administration of rhamnoside for 21 days significantly reduced food intake, calorie intake, blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and improved plasma insulin levels. Administration of rhamnoside showed significant increase in the body weight, body composition (Lean body weight (LBW) and retro body fat), glycolytic hexokinase, glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase levels where as significant decrease was observed in the levels of glucose-6-phosphatase fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in diabetic treated rats. Further, administration of rhamnoside significantly improved the glycogen content, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, suggesting the antihyperglycemic potential of rhamnoside in diabetic rats. The results obtained were compared with glibenclamide a standard hypoglycaemic drug. Immunohistopathological study of pancreas revealed increased number of ?-cells and insulin granules in diabetes-induced rats after treatment with rhamnoside for 21 days. Furthermore, Co-administration of rhamnoside (50 mg/kg) with nifedipine (13.6 mg/kg), a Ca(2+)ion channel blocker, or nicorandil (6.8 mg/kg), an ATP-sensitive K(+) ion channel opener, reveals the insulin secretion property of rhamnoside via a K(+)-ATP channels dependent pathway in diabetic rats. In conclusion, rhamnoside normalized blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, key hepatic enzymes and glycogen content by increasing insulin secretion via K(+)-ATP channels dependent signaling pathway. The results suggest that the rhamnoside from H. alpina could be used as a therapeutic agent to treat diabetes mellitus. PMID:25698613

  19. Expression and localisation of brain-type organic cation transporter (BOCT/24p3R/LCN2R) in the normal rat hippocampus and after kainate-induced excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chia, Wan-Jie; Tan, Francis Chee Kuan; Ong, Wei-Yi; Dawe, Gavin S

    2015-08-01

    The iron siderophore binding protein lipocalin 2 (LCN2, also known as 24p3, NGAL and siderocalin) may be involved in iron homeostasis, but to date, little is known about expression of its putative receptor, brain-type organic cation transporter (BOCT, also known as BOCT1, 24p3R, NGALR and LCN2R), in the brain during neurodegeneration. The present study was carried out to elucidate the expression of LCN2 and BOCT in hippocampus after excitotoxicity induced by the glutamate analog, kainate (KA) and a possible role of LCN2 in neuronal injury. As reported previously, a rapid and sustained induction in expression of LCN2 was found in the hippocampus after intracerebroventicular injection of KA. BOCT was expressed in neurons of the saline-injected control hippocampus, and immunolabel for BOCT protein was preserved in pyramidal neurons of CA1 at 1 day post-KA injection, likely due to the delayed onset of neurodegeneration after KA injection. At 3 days and 2 weeks after KA injections, loss of immunolabel was observed due to degenerated neurons, although remaining neurons continued to express BOCT, and induction of BOCT was found in OX-42 positive microglia. This resulted in an overall decrease in BOCT mRNA and protein expression after KA treatment. Increased expression of the pro-apoptotic marker, Bim, was found in both neurons and microglia after KA injection, but TUNEL staining indicating apoptosis was found primarily in Bim-expressing neurons, but not microglia. Interaction between LCN2 and BOCT was found by DuoLink assay in cultured hippocampal neurons. Apo-LCN2 without iron caused no significant differences in neuronal Bim expression or cell survival, whereas holo-LCN2 consisting of LCN2:iron:enterochelin complex increased Bim mRNA expression and decreased neuronal survival. Together, results suggest that LCN2 and BOCT may have a role in neuronal injury. PMID:26004810

  20. Evidence that NO/cGMP/PKG signalling cascade mediates endothelium dependent inhibition of IP3R mediated Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes of ureteric microvascular network in situ

    PubMed Central

    Borysova, Lyudmyla; Burdyga, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    In ureteric microvessels the antagonistic relationship between Ca2+ signalling in endothelium and Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes of arterioles and venules involves nitric oxide (NO), but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study we investigated the effects of carbachol and NO donor SNAP on Ca2+ signalling and vasomotor responses of arterioles and venules in intact urteric microvascular network in situ using confocal microscopy. Vasomotor responses of arterioles and venules induced by AVP correlated with the occurrence of Ca2+ oscillations in the myocytes and pericytes and were not abolished by the removal of Ca2+ from extracellular fluid. Carbachol-induced rise of intracellular Ca2+ in endothelium was accompanied by the termination of the Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes. This carbachol-induced inhibitory effect on Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes was reversed by ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and by Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS, an inhibitor of protein kinase G (PKG). Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes were also effectively blocked by NO donor SNAP. An Inhibitory effect of SNAP was markedly enhanced by zaprinast, a selective inhibitor of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase-5, and reversed by sGC inhibitor, ODQ and PKG inhibitor, Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS. The cGMP analogue and selective PKG activator 8pCPT-cGMP also induced inhibition of the AVP-induced Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes. SNAP had no effects on Ca2+ oscillations induced by caffeine in distributing arcade arterioles. Consequently, we conclude that NO- mediated inhibition of Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes predominantly recruits the cGMP/PKG dependent pathway. The inhibitory effect of NO/cGMP/PKG cascade is associated with suppressed Ca2+ release from the SR of myocytes and pericytes selectively via the inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) channels. PMID:26344105

  1. Highly tunable fluorinated trispyrazolylborates [HB(3-CF3-5-{4-RPh}pz)3](-) (R = NO2, CF3, Cl, F, H, OMe and NMe2) and their copper(i) complexes.

    PubMed

    van Dijkman, Thomas F; Siegler, Maxime A; Bouwman, Elisabeth

    2015-12-28

    The ethene and carbon monoxide adducts of copper(i) with seven trispyrazolylborate ligands ([HB(3-CF3-5-{4-RPh}pz)3](-); R = NO2 (4a), CF3 (4b), Cl (4c), F (4d), H (4e), OMe (4f) and NMe2 (4g)) were synthesized and characterized. The ligands were synthesized from their corresponding pyrazoles and sodium tetrahydridoborate and were obtained as solvent adducts of their sodium salts after workup. When the pyrazole with the most electron-withdrawing substituent (R = NO2) is used the asymmetric ligand [HB(3-CF3-5-{4-NO2Ph}pz)2(3-{4-NO2Ph}-5-CF3pz)](-) (4a') is formed as the major product. Copper(i) complexes with ethene or CO as a co-ligand were prepared in good yields and were structurally characterized using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and infrared spectroscopy. Single crystal X-ray crystallography analyses revealed the structures of Na4a', Na4b, four copper ethene complexes and four copper carbonyl complexes. The structures of the copper(i) complexes show Cu(I) ions in pseudo-tetrahedral coordination environments consisting of three nitrogen atoms of the trispyrazolylborate ligand and the carbonyl or ?(2)-coordinated ethene ligands, with nearly identical coordination environments around the Cu(I) ion. The compound [Na(4a')(H2O)]n crystallizes as one-dimensional chains with intermolecular NaO2N interactions. The sodium ions were found in severely distorted octahedral geometries with three nitrogen atoms from the trispyrazolylborate ligand, one aqua ligand and two oxygen atoms from the nitro group of an adjacent molecule. The compound [Na2(4b)2(?-H2O)2] crystallizes as a centrosymmetric water-bridged dimer: two five-coordinate square-pyramidal sodium ions each are coordinated facially by three nitrogen atoms from a trispyrazolylborate ligand and two bridging water ligands. Below the base of the pyramidal structure one intermolecular and two intramolecular NaF short contacts are present. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of the copper-ethene complexes show signals for the ethene ligands in the range of 4.84-4.96 ppm and 84.9-86.8 ppm respectively. The infrared spectra of the carbonyl complexes show CO stretching frequencies in the range of 2096-2120 cm(-1). Both the NMR signals for the ethene ligands and infrared signals for the carbonyl ligands were found to show good correlations with the Hammett ?p parameters of the substituents on the phenyl rings of the ligands. PMID:26596893

  2. CeAlO{sub 3} and Ce{sub 1-} {sub x}R{sub x} AlO{sub 3} (R=La, Nd) solid solutions: Crystal structure, thermal expansion and phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Vasylechko, L. Senyshyn, A.; Trots, D.; Niewa, R.; Schnelle, W.; Knapp, M.

    2007-04-15

    The crystal structures of CeAlO{sub 3} and the solid solutions Ce{sub 1-} {sub x}R{sub x} AlO{sub 3} (R=La, Nd), and their thermal behaviour in a wide temperature range of 12-1200 K have been precisely determined by means of in situ high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction technique applying synchrotron radiation, thermal analysis and magnetic measurements. The unique sequence of the reversible phase transitions I4/mcm{r_reversible}Imma{r_reversible}R3-barc{r_reversible}Pm3-barm has been detected in CeAlO{sub 3} and solid solutions formed in the pseudo-binary system CeAlO{sub 3}-LaAlO{sub 3}. In the Ce{sub 1-} {sub x} Nd {sub x} AlO{sub 3} system, the samples with x=0.3 and 0.5 compositions undergo three phase transformations I2/m{r_reversible}Imma{r_reversible}R3-barc{r_reversible}Pm3-barm, whereas for the Ce-rich sample Ce{sub 0.9}Nd{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3} four successive transitions are observed: I4/mcm{r_reversible}I2/m{r_reversible}Imma{r_reversible}R3-barc{r_reversible}Pm3-barm. = Crystal structure parameters of all structural polymorphs of CeAlO{sub 3} and solid solutions based on them as well as their thermal evolution are reported. Based on in situ powder diffraction and DTA/DSC data, the phase diagrams of the pseudo-binary systems CeAlO{sub 3}-LaAlO{sub 3} and CeAlO{sub 3}-NdAlO{sub 3} are constructed together with a combined phase diagram, where the transition temperatures are presented as a function of the average radius of rare-earth cations. - Graphical abstract: Combined phase diagram of the CeAlO{sub 3}-LaAlO{sub 3} and CeAlO{sub 3}-NdAlO{sub 3} systems, where the transition temperatures are presented as a function of the average radius of rare-earth cations. The letters indicate L iquid, C ubic, R hombohedral, O rthorhombic, M onoclinic and T etragonal phase fields.

  3. Structure-Activity Relationships of Peptides Incorporating a Bioactive Reverse-Turn Heterocycle at the Melanocortin Receptors: Identification of a 5,800-fold Mouse Melanocortin-3 Receptor (mMC3R) Selective Antagonist/Partial Agonist versus the Mouse Melanocortin-4 Receptor (mMC4R)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anamika; Dirain, Marvin; Witek, Rachel; Rocca, James R.; Edison, Arthur S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    The melanocortin-3 (MC3) and melanocortin-4 (MC4) receptors regulate energy homeostasis, food intake, and associated physiological conditions. The MC4R has been studied extensively. Less is known about specific physiological roles of the MC3R. A major obstacle to this lack of knowledge is attributed to a limited number of identified MC3R selective ligands. We previously reported a spatial scanning approach of a 10-membered thioether-heterocycle ring incorporated into a chimeric peptide template that identified a lead nM MC4R ligand. Based upon those results, 17 compounds were designed and synthesized that focused upon modification in the pharmacophore domain. Notable results include the identification of a 0.13 nM potent 5800-fold mMC3R selective antagonist/slight partial agonist versus a 760 nM mMC4R full agonist (ligand 11). Biophysical experiments (2D 1H NMR and computer assisted molecular modeling) of this ligand resulted in the identification of an inverse ?-turn secondary structure in the ligand pharmacophore domain. PMID:23432160

  4. Design and synthesis of a reagent for solid-phase incorporation of the phosphothreonine mimetic (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-methyl-4-phosphonobutyric Acid (Pmab) into peptides in a bio-reversible phosphonyl-bis-pivaloyloxymethyl (POM) prodrug form

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wen-Jian; Burke, Terrence R.

    2013-01-01

    Reported herein are the synthesis and solid-phase peptide incorporation of N-Fmoc-(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-methyl-4-phosphonobutyric acid bis-pivaloyloxymethyl phopshoryl ester [Fmoc-Pmab(POM)2-OH, 2] as a phosphatase-stable phosphothreonine (pThr) mimetic bearing orthogonal protection suitable for the synthesis of Pmab-containing peptides having bio-reversible protection of the phosphonic acid moiety. This represents the first report of a bio-reversibly protected pThr mimetic in a form suitable for facile solid-phase peptide synthesis. PMID:23907438

  5. Cell Reports Histone H3R2 Symmetric Dimethylation

    E-print Network

    Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 5Present address: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Colchester in a lineage-, stage-, and allele-specific manner, with DNA double- strand breaks targeted only

  6. Back to the 3 R's: Reading, Writing, Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Rob

    Contemporary understandings and practices of adult literacy and adult basic education need to reestablish a substantial connection with ancient rhetoric as at once a political tradition, a culture of language use, a storehouse of metalanguage, and as an ensemble of pedagogic strategies and exercises. Developed in ancient Greece, rhetoric was for…

  7. Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zampiceni, John J.; Harper, Lon T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the New Shuttle Orbiter's Multi- Purpose Logistics Modulo (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger (HX) and associated MPLM cooling system. This paper presents Heat Exchanger (HX) design and performance characteristics of the system.

  8. LARC-TPI: A multi-purpose thermoplastic polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    A linear thermoplastic polyimide, LARC-TPI, was characterized and developed for a variety of high temperature applications. In its fully imidized form, this material can be used as an adhesive for bonding metals such as titanium, aluminum, copper, brass, and stainless steel. LARC-TPI was evaluated as a thermoplastic for bonding large pieces of polyimide film to produce flexible, 100 void-free laminates for flexible circuit applications. The development of LARC-TPI as a potential molding powder, composite matrix resin, high temperature film and fiber is also discussed.

  9. Molecular network topology and reliability for multipurpose diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Jalil, MA; Moongfangklang, N; Innate, K; Mitatha, S; Ali, J; Yupapin, PP

    2011-01-01

    This investigation proposes the use of molecular network topology for drug delivery and diagnosis network design. Three modules of molecular network topologies, such as bus, star, and ring networks, are designed and manipulated based on a micro- and nanoring resonator system. The transportation of the trapping molecules by light in the network is described and the theoretical background is reviewed. The quality of the network is analyzed and calculated in terms of signal transmission (ie, signal to noise ratio and crosstalk effects). Results obtained show that a bus network has advantages over star and ring networks, where the use of mesh networks is possible. In application, a thin film network can be fabricated in the form of a waveguide and embedded in artificial bone, which can be connected to the required drug targets. The particular drug/nutrient can be transported to the required targets via the particular network used. PMID:22072875

  10. One-Step Multipurpose Surface Functionalization by Adhesive Catecholamine

    E-print Network

    Kang, Sung Min

    Surface modification is one of the most important techniques in modern science and engineering. The facile introduction of a wide variety of desired properties onto virtually any material surface is an ultimate goal in ...

  11. Acoustic Requirements for a Multi-Purpose Hall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, W. Allen

    2002-01-01

    This case study examines the proposed design of a new lecture/recital hall in Centennial Hall at Lynchburg College that will be used for lectures, public events, a film studies course, and musical recitals. It explores the audio-visual challenges presented by the differing acoustical requirements for the building. (EV)

  12. Designing, Fabrication and Controlling Of Multipurpose3-DOF Robotic Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabeel, Hafiz Muhammad; Azher, Anum; Usman Ali, Syed M.; Wahab Mughal, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, we have successfully designed and developed a 3-DOF articulated Robotic Arm capable of performing typical industrial tasks such as painting or spraying, assembling and handling automobiles parts and etc., in resemblance to a human arm. The mechanical assembly is designed on SOLIDWORKS and aluminum grade 6061 -T6 is used for its fabrication in order to reduce the structure weight. We have applied inverse kinematics to determine the joint angles, equations are fed into an efficient microcontroller ATMEGA16 which performs all the calculations to determine the joint angles on the basis of given coordinates to actuate the joints through motorized control. Good accuracy was obtained with quadrature optical encoders installed in each joint to achieve the desired position and a LabVIEW based GUI is designed to provide human machine interface.

  13. Multi-Purpose Wireless Accelerometers for Civil Infrastructure Monitoring

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    MEMS accelerometer sensor board is designed to meet the specific hardware and software requirementsMulti-Purpose Wireless Accelerometers for Civil Infrastructure Monitoring ABSTRACT A new wireless of structural engineering applications. The board has four channels of accelerometers in two directions and one

  14. A multipurpose transducer for a rectifier dc motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, E. D.; Salikov, L. M.

    1983-08-01

    The rotational speed of rectifier dc motors can be controlled over a wide range by using a pulsed tachometric transducer in which the pulse repetition rate does not change significantly with the rotational speed of the motor. It is shown that such a transducer can be implemented using a mag slip, a three-phase excitation winding with a stationary magnetic core, a signal winding, and a rotating magnetic circuit comprising a plate and a ring. Such a design makes it possible to obtain information on both the rpm and the position of the rotor by using a single signal core.

  15. Multipurpose Fiber Injected-micro-spherical LIDAR System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelayem, Hossin; Jamison, Tracee

    2005-01-01

    A technological revolution is occurring in the field of fiber lasers. Over the past two years, the level of power has increased from approx. 100 watts to nearly 1 kilowatt. We are developing a novel fiber laser system, which is a satellite-based LIDAR transmitter of multi-lines. The system is made of a hollow fiber filled with micro-spheres doped with lasing materials. Each sphere has its inherent optical cavity, which makes the system a cavity free and in the same time, emits multi-laser lines for simultaneous multi-task operations. The system is also rugged, compact, lightweight, and durable. Our earlier studies on micro-spheres doped with different laser dyes demonstrated the emission of extremely fine laser lines of less than 3 A line-width, which are of interest for spectroscopic applications, sensing, imaging, and optical communications. Individual dye-doped micro-spheres demonstrated a lasing resonance peaks phenomenon in their fluorescence spectra of linear and nonlinear features that do not exist in the bulk dye solutions. Each individual micro-sphere acts as a laser system with inherent cavity, where the fluorescence line suffers multiple internal reflections within the micro-sphere and gains enough energy to become a laser line. Such resonance peaks are dependent on the sphere's morphology, size, shape, and its refractive index. These resonance peaks are named structural resonance, whispering modes or whispering gallery modes, creeping waves, circumferential waves, surfaces modes, and virtual modes. All of these names refer to the same phenomenon of morphology dependent resonance (MDR), which has already been described and predicted precisely by electromagnetic theory and Lorentz-Mie theory since 1908. The resonance peaks become more obvious when the particle size approaches and exceeds the wavelength of the laser used and the relative index of the particle is greater than that of the surrounding medium. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  16. Experimental multi-purpose passive solar heating device. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ireland, W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The design, construction, and monitoring of a solar greenhouse addition are presented. The addition was built over the patio and garage housings of a commercial business. Also designed and built was a hot water preheat system. Records of fuel oil consumption and degree days were kept and a 36.5 percent increase in the efficiency of heating oil use was the result achieved.

  17. Sorghum - a versatile, multi-purpose biomass crop

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.W.; Jolts, E.J.; Miller, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sorghums are versatile, energy-efficient plants that exhibit excellent potentials for multi-product use. Grain sorghum, although already a major feed and food crop, offers promise as a source of starch and sugar for fermentation alcohol, as well as a number of fiber products. Sweet sorghum, a variety rich in extractable fermentable sugars, is now in limited production, but can be a major sugar, grain, forage, fuel and industrial products raw material. Sorghums can be grown in virtually every state. The need for multi-product crops to improve agricultural land productivities and to offset increasing cultural costs is detailed. Results of continuing plant breeding work to enhance sorghum varieties for multiple uses are discussed.

  18. Multi-Purpose Reefs - A Decade of Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, S.; Borrero, J. C.; Hearin, J.

    2011-12-01

    Offshore submerged structures for coastal protection and artificial reefs for enhancing local marine biodiversity and/or attracting sea life have been utilized for centuries. Indeed, the first known use of artificial reef structures for habitat enhancement dates back to 2000 BC on the south west coast of India. However, it was not until the 1960's that multi- purpose reefs (MPRs) intended combine coastal protection, eco-enhancement and surfing were first proposed. Through the 1970's and 1980's the concept of MPR's was advanced through the seminal works of James 'Kimo' Walker who pioneered the area of surfing science and developed the first methods for quantification of a surfing break. Design studies for artificial reefs primarily for surfing were undertaken for the construction of the world's first artificial surfing reef built in Perth in 1998, as well as for artificial reefs in California and the Queensland Gold Coast MPR in Australia. More than a decade on, seven reefs have now been constructed at locations around the world with differing levels of success. and a great deal has been learned about the functionality of and potential applications for these structures. This poster provides a brief update on the performance of these structures, summarizing the large volume of monitoring data available for many of these projects. This includes data on shoreline protection and beach response, ecological enhancement, habitat restoration and improvement of recreational amenities. We discuss several projects with respect to the above topics as well as some of the lessons learned in the light of future MPR developments. This poster considers the performance of MPR's in three primary areas of functionality: coastal protection, ecological enhancement and surfing enhancement. We also discuss some of the lessons learned and applied as understanding of these structures has increased.

  19. Algorithms star in multipurpose systems (real-time operating systems)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-24

    Important aspects of real-time operating systems are examined. These aspects include the multitasking schedules and queues; interrupt handling; protocols, intertask communication and monitors; and methods of reducing overheads. The discussion is illustrated with mentions of actual systems. 1 ref.

  20. ARGO at SINGAO: a multipurpose Astrophysical Radiation Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, O.; Linskey, J.; Scarsi, L.

    1992-11-01

    A presentation is given of an experimental facility designed for the study of the Primary Cosmic Radiation. The ARGO (Astrophysical Radiation and Gamma Observatory) detector consists of a continuous carpet (120×120m2) of Resistive Plate Counters, capable of registering the arrival of individual particles in the EAS front with timing in the ns range and position accuracy in the order of cm's; the carpet is complemented by an underneath muon tracking multilayer of Limited Streamer Tubes of equal size. ARGO, located at mountain altitude, is conceived to operate with two main objectives: a) as a VHE-UHE Gamma ray telescope intercepting substantially the full Shower front and sized to extend upward (to >= 100 TeV) the upper energy limit of the air-Cerenkov telescopes set up at 10-20 TeV (Crab source). b) Operating as EAS front interceptor at distance from the shower core, ARGO is capable of providing relatively complete and detailed informations on both the electron and muon population in the EAS; the shower front coverage added to the function of muon tracking hodoscope, gives to ARGO the unique characteristics of a ``WIDE ENERGY RANGE TELESCOPE (WERT)'' [1] for the Primary Cosmic Rays, capable of ``fertilizing'' large areas (increasing with shower size) and providing complete data on individual events from the rather well known region at the low energy range (1014 - 1015) eV up to the presently high energy detectable limit at > 1019 eV. The project described is proposed by a Consortium of Italian Universities and Research Institutes (S.I.N.G.A.O.) for a location in Southern Italy, at the Castelgrande Plateau [2].

  1. WND-CHARM: Multi-purpose image classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Lior; Orlov, Nikita; Eckley, D. Mark; Macura, Tomasz; Johnston, Josiah; Goldberg, Ilya

    2013-12-01

    WND-CHARM quantitatively analyzes morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. It computes a large set (up to ~2700) of image features for each image based on the WND-CHARM algorithm. It can then split the images into training and test sets and classify them. The software extracts the image content descriptor from raw images, image transforms, and compound image transforms. The most informative features are then selected, and the feature vector of each image is used for classification and similarity measurement using Fisher discriminant scores and a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis. WND-CHARM's results comparable favorably to the performance of task-specific algorithms developed for tested datasets. The simple user interface allows researchers who are not knowledgeable in computer vision methods and have no background in computer programming to apply image analysis to their data.

  2. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOEpatents

    Ury, Michael G. (Bethesda, MD); Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Wooten, Robert D. (Rockville, MD)

    1999-01-01

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

  3. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOEpatents

    Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

    1999-02-02

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

  4. [Plastid stromules as specific elements of the multipurpose endoplasmic reticulum].

    PubMed

    Velikanov, G A; Belova, L P; Il'ina, T M

    2014-01-01

    It is supposed, that the compromise between all groups of researchers of stromules can be reached if to accept, that an external membrane of stromules together with an external membrane of initial plastid are the specific domain of endoplasmic reticulum. Such domain co-operates with other membranes of a cell by means of membrane contact sites with free permeability for small molecules (presumably to 1.5 KDa). PMID:25509422

  5. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Mioara; Ene, Mihaela

    2007-08-01

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services—industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006.

  6. Multipurpose 5-MeV linear induction accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birx, D. L.; Hawkins, S. A.; Poor, S. E.; Reginato, L. L.; Smith, M. W.

    1984-06-01

    Although linear induction accelerators (LIAs) are quite reliable by most standards, they are limited in repeating rate, average power, and reliability because the final stage of energy delivery is based on spark gap performance. In addition, they have a low duty factor of operation. To provide a higher burst rate and greater reliability, new technology was used to develop a magnetic pulse compression scheme that eliminates all spark gaps and exceeds requirements. The magnetic drive system are tailored to drive induction cells from a few kA to over 10 kA at 500 kV, with average beam power levels in the megawatts. This new 5-MeV, 2.5-kA LIA under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be used for the development of high brightness sources and will provide a test bed for the new technology, which should lead to LIAs that surpass the radio frequency linacs for efficiency and reliability, as well as fit other industrial applications, such as sewage sterilization.

  7. Multipurpose 5-MeV linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L. Smith, M.W.

    1984-06-11

    Although linear induction accelerators (LIAs) are quite reliable by most standards, they are limited in repeating rate, average power, and reliability because the final stage of energy delivery is based on spark gap performance. In addition, they have a low duty factor of operation. To provide a higher burst rate and greater reliability, the researchers used new technology to develop a magnetic pulse compression scheme that eliminates all spark gaps and exceeds requirements. The paper describes the scheme. The magnetic drive system can be tailored to drive induction cells from a few kA to over 10 kA at 500 kV, with average beam power levels in the megawatts. This new 5-MeV, 2.5-kA LIA under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be used for the development of high brightness sources and will provide a test bed for the new technology, which should lead to LIAs that surpass the radio frequency linacs for efficiency and reliability, as well as fit other industrial applications, such as sewage sterilization.

  8. Team Virtual Discussion Board: Toward Multipurpose Written Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Randolph T.; Stowers, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors provide a brief description of written (letter) assignments that use student pairs in a virtual Blackboard-based discussion board. The authors begin their discourse with the purposes for employing this teaching and learning method: (1) To allow students to function in a team structure; (2) To provide written knowledge…

  9. Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Camera Asset Planning: Imagery Previsualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaulieu, K.

    2014-01-01

    Using JSC-developed and other industry-standard off-the-shelf 3D modeling, animation, and rendering software packages, the Image Science Analysis Group (ISAG) supports Orion Project imagery planning efforts through dynamic 3D simulation and realistic previsualization of ground-, vehicle-, and air-based camera output.

  10. RoboGlove - A Robonaut Derived Multipurpose Assistive Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, Myron; Ihrke, C. A.; Bridgwater, L. B.; Davis, D. R.; Linn, D. M.; Laske, E. A.; Ensley, K. G.; Lee, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The RoboGlove is an assistive device that can augment human strength, endurance or provide directed motion for use in rehabilitation. RoboGlove is a spinoff of the highly successful Robonaut 2 (R2) system developed as part of a partnership between General Motors and NASA. This extremely lightweight device employs an actuator system based on the R2 finger drive system to transfer part or the entire grasp load from human tendons to artificial ones contained in the glove. Steady state loads ranging from 15 to 20 lbs. and peaks approaching 50 lbs. are achievable. The technology holds great promise for use with space suit gloves to reduce fatigue during space walks. Tactile sensing, miniaturized electronics, and on-board processing provide sufficient flexibility for applications in many industries. The following describes the design, mechanical/electrical integration, and control features of the glove.

  11. Overview of bacterial cellulose composites: a multipurpose advanced material.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nasrullah; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Park, Joong Kon

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has received substantial interest owing to its unique structural features and impressive physico-mechanical properties. BC has a variety of applications in biomedical fields, including use as biomaterial for artificial skin, artificial blood vessels, vascular grafts, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and wound dressing. However, pristine BC lacks certain properties, which limits its applications in various fields; therefore, synthesis of BC composites has been conducted to address these limitations. A variety of BC composite synthetic strategies have been developed based on the nature and relevant applications of the combined materials. BC composites are primarily synthesized through in situ addition of reinforcement materials to BC synthetic media or the ex situ penetration of such materials into BC microfibrils. Polymer blending and solution mixing are less frequently used synthetic approaches. BC composites have been synthesized using numerous materials ranging from organic polymers to inorganic nanoparticles. In medical fields, these composites are used for tissue regeneration, healing of deep wounds, enzyme immobilization, and synthesis of medical devices that could replace cardiovascular and other connective tissues. Various electrical products, including biosensors, biocatalysts, E-papers, display devices, electrical instruments, and optoelectronic devices, are prepared from BC composites with conductive materials. In this review, we compiled various synthetic approaches for BC composite synthesis, classes of BC composites, and applications of BC composites. This study will increase interest in BC composites and the development of new ideas in this field. PMID:24053844

  12. National RF Test Facility as a multipurpose development tool

    SciTech Connect

    McManamy, T.J.; Becraft, W.R.; Berry, L.A.; Blue, C.W.; Gardner, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Loring, C.M. Jr.; Moeller, F.A.; Ponte, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Additions and modifications to the National RF Test Facility design have been made that (1) focus its use for technology development for future large systems in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), (2) expand its applicability to technology development in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies (ECRF) at 60 GHz, (3) provide a facility for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) 60-GHz ring physics studies, and (4) permit engineering studies of steady-state plasma systems, including superconducting magnet performance, vacuum vessel heat flux removal, and microwave protection. The facility will continue to function as a test bed for generic technology developments for ICRF and the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF). The upgraded facility is also suitable for mirror halo physics experiments.

  13. Ephus: multipurpose data acquisition software for neuroscience experiments.

    PubMed

    Suter, Benjamin A; O'Connor, Timothy; Iyer, Vijay; Petreanu, Leopoldo T; Hooks, Bryan M; Kiritani, Taro; Svoboda, Karel; Shepherd, Gordon M G

    2010-01-01

    Physiological measurements in neuroscience experiments often involve complex stimulus paradigms and multiple data channels. Ephus (http://www.ephus.org) is an open-source software package designed for general-purpose data acquisition and instrument control. Ephus operates as a collection of modular programs, including an ephys program for standard whole-cell recording with single or multiple electrodes in typical electrophysiological experiments, and a mapper program for synaptic circuit mapping experiments involving laser scanning photostimulation based on glutamate uncaging or channelrhodopsin-2 excitation. Custom user functions allow user-extensibility at multiple levels, including on-line analysis and closed-loop experiments, where experimental parameters can be changed based on recently acquired data, such as during in vivo behavioral experiments. Ephus is compatible with a variety of data acquisition and imaging hardware. This paper describes the main features and modules of Ephus and their use in representative experimental applications. PMID:21960959

  14. Multipurpose Advanced 'inherently' Safe Reactor (MARS): Core design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Golfier, H.; Poinot, C.; Delpech, M.; Mignot, G.

    2006-07-01

    In the year 2005, in collaboration with CEA, the University of Rome 'La Sapienza' investigated a new core model with the aim at increasing the performances of the reference one, by extending the burn-up to 60 GWD/t in the case of multi-loading strategy and investigating the characteristics and limitations of a 'once-through' option, in order to enhance the proliferation resistance. In the first part of this paper, the objectives of this study and the methods of calculation are briefly described, while in the second part the calculation results are presented. (authors)

  15. Wireless capsule endoscopy: from diagnostic devices to multipurpose robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Moglia, Andrea; Menciassi, Arianna; Schurr, Marc Oliver; Dario, Paolo

    2007-04-01

    In the recent past, the introduction of miniaturised image sensors with low power consumption, based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, has allowed the realisation of an ingestible wireless capsule for the visualisation of the small intestine mucosa. The device has received approval from Food and Drug Administration and has gained momentum since it has been more successful than traditional techniques in the diagnosis of small intestine disorders. In 2004 an esophagus specific capsule was launched, while a solution for colon is still under development. However, present solutions suffer from several limitations: they move passively by exploiting peristalsis, are not able to stop intentionally for a prolonged diagnosis, they receive power from an internal battery with short length, and their usage is restricted to one organ, either small bowel or esophagus. However the steady progresses in many branches of engineering, including microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), are envisaged to affect the performances of capsular endoscopy. The near future foreshadows capsules able to pass actively through the whole gastrointestinal tract, to retrieve views from all organs and to perform drug delivery and tissue sampling. In the long term, the advent of robotics could lead to autonomous medical platforms, equipped with the most advanced solutions in terms of MEMS for therapy and diagnosis of the digestive tract. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE): after a description on the current status, we present the most promising solutions. PMID:17160703

  16. Economic study of multipurpose advanced high-speed transport configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A nondimensional economic examination of a parametrically-derived set of supersonic transport aircraft was conducted. The measure of economic value was surcharged relative to subsonic airplane tourist-class yield. Ten airplanes were defined according to size, payload, and speed. The price, range capability, fuel burned, and block time were determined for each configuration, then operating costs and surcharges were calculated. The parameter with the most noticeable influence on nominal surcharge was found to be real (constant dollars) fuel price increase. A change in SST design Mach number from 2.4 to Mach 2.7 showed a very small surcharge advantage (on the order of 1 percent for the faster aircraft). Configuration design compromises required for an airplane to operate overland at supersonic speeds without causing sonic boom annoyance result in severe performance penalties and require high (more than 100 percent) surcharges.

  17. Thermal expansion of phosphates with the NaZr2(PO4)3 structure containing lanthanides and zirconium: R 0.33Zr2(PO4)3 ( R = Nd, Eu, Er) and Er0.33(1- x) Zr0.25 x Zr2(PO4)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volgutov, V. Yu.; Orlova, A. I.

    2015-09-01

    Phosphates R 0.33Zr2(PO4)3 ( R = Nd, Eu, or Er) and Er0.33(1- ?)Zr0.25Zr2(PO4)3 ( ? = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0) of the NaZr2(PO4)3 family have been synthesized and investigated by high-temperature X-ray diffraction. The crystallochemical approach is used to obtain compounds with expected small and controllable thermal-expansion parameters. Phosphates with close-to-zero thermal-expansion parameters, including those with low thermal-expansion anisotropy, have been obtained: Nd0.33Zr2(PO4)3 with ? a =-2.21 × 10-6 °?-1, ? c = 0.81 × 10-6 °?-1, and ?? = 3.02 × 10-6 °?-1 and Er0.08Zr0.19Zr2(PO4)3 with ? a =-1.86 × 10-6 °?-1, ? c = 1.73 × 10-6 °?-1, and ?? = 3.58 × 10-6 °?-1.

  18. Luminescence and magnetic properties of novel nanoparticle-sheathed 3D Micro-Architectures of Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Ln3+ (R = Gd3+, La3+), (Ln = Eu, Tb, Dy) for bifunctional application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Rajagopalan; Thirumalai, Jagannathan; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we report the successful synthesis of novel nanoparticle-sheathed bipyramid-like and almond-like Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Ln3+ (R = Gd3+, La3+), (Ln = Eu, Tb, Dy) 3D hierarchical microstructures through a simple disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Na2EDTA) facilitated hydrothermal method. Interestingly, time-dependent experiments confirm that the assembly-disassembly process is responsible for the formation of self-aggregated 3D architectures via Ostwald ripening phenomena. The resultant products are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), and magnetic measurements. The growth and formation mechanisms of the self-assembled 3D micro structures are discussed in detail. To confirm the presence of all the elements in the microstructure, the energy loss induced by the K, L shell electron ionization is observed in order to map the Fe, Gd, Mo, O, and Eu components. The photo luminescence properties of Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5 doped with Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+ are investigated. The room temperature and low temperature magnetic properties suggest that the interaction between the local-fields introduced by the magnetic Fe3+ ions and the R3+ (La, Gd) ions in the dodecahedral sites determine the magnetism in Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Eu3+. This work provides a new approach to synthesizing the novel Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Ln3+ for bi-functional magnetic and luminescence applications.

  19. Spectroscopic studies (FTIR, FT-Raman and UV), potential energy surface scan, normal coordinate analysis and NBO analysis of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl) piperidine-3,4,5-triol by DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Isac Paulraj, E; Muthu, S

    2013-05-01

    This work presents the characterization of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidine-3,4,5-triol (abbreviated as HEHMPT) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm(-1)) and FT-Raman spectrum (4000-100 cm(-1)) in solid phase was recorded for HEHMPT. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the HEHMPT that dissolved in water was recorded in the range of 100-400 nm. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained from B3LYP and M06-2X with 6-31G(d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA), experimental results and potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. The stable geometry of the compound has been determined from the potential energy surface scan. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by NBO analysis. The molecule orbital contributions were studied by using the total (TDOS), partial (PDOS), and overlap population (OPDOS) density of states. The electronic properties like UV spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO energies were reported. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer interactions taking place within the molecule. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. PMID:23454843

  20. Effect of DPC 333 [(2R)-2-{(3R)-3-amino-3-[4-(2-methylquinolin-4-ylmethoxy)phenyl]-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl}-N-hydroxy-4-methylpentanamide], a human tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme inhibitor, on the disposition of methotrexate: a transporter-based drug-drug interaction case study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Garner, C Edwin; Xiong, Hao; Hu, Hanbo; Richards, Lauren E; Brouwer, Kim L R; Duan, Jingwu; Decicco, Carl P; Maduskuie, Thomas; Shen, Helen; Lee, Frank W; Gan, Liang-Shang

    2007-06-01

    DPC 333 [(2R)-2-{(3R)-3-amino-3-[4-(2-methylquinolin-4-ylmethoxy)phenyl]-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl}-N-hydroxy-4-methylpentanamide] is a potent human tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme inhibitor with potential therapeutic implications for rheumatoid arthritis. Methotrexate (MTX), a drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is eliminated primarily unchanged via renal and biliary excretion in humans as well as in rats and dogs. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of DPC 333 on the disposition of MTX. In dogs, DPC 333 administered orally at 1.7 mg/kg 15 min before the intravenous administration of [14C]MTX (0.5 mg/kg) did not alter the plasma concentration-time profile of MTX; however, the total amount of radioactivity excreted in urine increased from 58.7% to 92.2% of the dose, and the renal clearance increased from 1.8 ml/min/kg to 2.9 ml/min/kg, suggesting a decrease in MTX disposition via biliary excretion. The biliary excretion of MTX was investigated in isolated perfused livers prepared from wild-type and TR(-) [multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2)-deficient] Wistar rats in the absence and presence of DPC 333. Mrp2-mediated biliary excretion of MTX was confirmed with 95.8% and 5.1% of MTX recovered in the bile of wild-type and TR(-) Wistar rats, respectively. DPC 333 at an initial perfusate concentration of 50 microM completely blocked the biliary excretion of MTX, but not the clearance from perfusate, in both wild-type and TR(-) rats. These results suggest that the enhanced renal elimination of MTX may be due to the potent inhibition of biliary excretion and active renal reabsorption by DPC 333 and/or its metabolites. PMID:17332143

  1. Exchange coupling in niobocene trihydrides, Nb(C{sub 5}H{sub 3}RR{prime}){sub 2}H{sub 3}, and their adducts with copper triad cations, [(Nb(C{sub 5}H{sub 3}RR{prime}){sub 2}H{sub 3}){sub 2}M]{sup +} (R = R{prime} = H; R = H, R{prime} = SiMe{sub 3}; R = R{prime} = SiMe{sub 3}; M = Cu, Ag, Au)

    SciTech Connect

    Antinolo, A.; Carrillo-Hermosilla, F.; Fernandez-Baeza, J.

    1996-12-18

    The reactions of Nb(C{sub 5}H{sub 3}RR{prime}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2} with Red-Al followed by hydrolysis yield Nb(C{sub 5}H{sub 3}RR{prime}){sub 2}H{sub 3} (R=R{prime} = H, 1; R = H, R{prime} = SiMe{sub 3}, 2; R = R{prime} = SiMe{sub 3}, 3). These compounds react with Lewis acidic coinage cationic species, namely, [Cu(MeCN){sub 4}]PF{sub 6}, AgBF{sub 4}, and {open_quotes}Au(THT)PF{sub 6}{close_quotes}, prepared in situ from AuCl(THT) and TIPF{sub 6} in a 2 to 1 ratio to yield the adducts [(Nb(C{sub 5}H{sub 3}RR{prime}){sub 2}H{sub 3}){sub 2}M]{sup +} (M = Cu, R = R{prime} = H, 7; R = H, R{prime} = SiMe{sub 3}, 8; R = R{prime} = SiMe{sub 3}, 9; M = Ag, R = H, R{prime} = SiMe{sub 3}, 10; R = R{prime} = SiMe{sub 3}, 11; M = Au, R = R{prime} = H, 12; R = H, R{prime} = SiMe{sub 3}, 13; R = R{prime} = SiMe{sub 3}, 14). Like 1, but unlike the corresponding tantalum derivatives Ta(C{sub 5}H{sub 3}RR{prime}){sub 2}H{sub 3} (R = R{prime} = H, 4; R = H, R{prime} = SiMe{sub 3}, 5; R = R{prime} SiMe{sub 3}, 6), 2 and 3 show exchange couplings in their high-field {sup 1}H NMR spectra due to a hydride tunneling phenomenon. The magnitudes of exchange couplings are larger in the cases of 2 and 3 than in the case of 1 as a result of the decrease of electron density upon increasing the number of SiMe{sub 3} substituents on the Cp ring. The addition of a Lewis acidic cation results in the observation of an AB{sub 2} pattern for the hydrides at room temperature, which splits at low temperature into an ABC one in agreement with a fluxional behavior of the cation which binds to two hydrides of each niobium center.

  2. Ultrafast Atomic Diffusion Inducing a Reversible (2 ?{3 }× 2 ?{3 })R 30 ° ?(?{3 }× ?{3 }) R 30 ° Transition on Sn /Si (111 )? B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srour, W.; Trabada, Daniel G.; Martínez, J. I.; Flores, F.; Ortega, J.; Abuín, M.; Fagot-Revurat, Y.; Kierren, B.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Malterre, D.; Tejeda, A.

    2015-05-01

    Dynamical phase transitions are a challenge to identify experimentally and describe theoretically. Here, we study a new reconstruction of Sn on silicon and observe a reversible transition where the surface unit cell divides its area by a factor of 4 at 250 ° C . This phase transition is explained by the 24-fold degeneracy of the ground state and a novel diffusive mechanism, where four Sn atoms arranged in a snakelike cluster wiggle at the surface exploring collectively the different quantum mechanical ground states.

  3. Ultrafast Atomic Diffusion Inducing a Reversible (2sqrt[3]×2sqrt[3])R30°?(sqrt[3]×sqrt[3])R30° Transition on Sn/Si(111)?B.

    PubMed

    Srour, W; Trabada, Daniel G; Martínez, J I; Flores, F; Ortega, J; Abuín, M; Fagot-Revurat, Y; Kierren, B; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A; Malterre, D; Tejeda, A

    2015-05-15

    Dynamical phase transitions are a challenge to identify experimentally and describe theoretically. Here, we study a new reconstruction of Sn on silicon and observe a reversible transition where the surface unit cell divides its area by a factor of 4 at 250 °C. This phase transition is explained by the 24-fold degeneracy of the ground state and a novel diffusive mechanism, where four Sn atoms arranged in a snakelike cluster wiggle at the surface exploring collectively the different quantum mechanical ground states. PMID:26024183

  4. Broadcast Evaluation Report Number Two: Cumbria Case Study, E221: TV3 R6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Margaret

    The Open University of Great Britain is an open-enrollment, home-based educational system in which the majority of the instruction is conducted via broadcasts and correspondence. One radio program, one television program, and the related readings from a course on decision-making in the British Education System were evaluated to see if they: 1)…

  5. Low-energy electron diffraction study of Si(111)-(?3x ?3)R30? -B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, K. E.; Huang, Y. T.; Diehl, R. D.; Tu, Weison; Mulugeta, Daniel; Snijders, P. C.; Weitering, H. H.

    2014-03-01

    Metal-semiconductor interfaces are important for the function and manufacture of advanced electronics, such as those used in computers, tablets and phones. They also exhibit many interesting physical phenomena that are interesting from a fundamental point of view, including exotic phases and phase transitions. This study involves the analysis and modeling of the surface structure of a thin film of boron on the Si(111) surface. The addition of metal atoms to the surface of Si(111) simplifies its structure by removing a ``rippling'' that is present on the clean surface. The low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) data were measured at a surface temperature of 80 K at ORNL. The LEED analysis utilized the SATLEED analysis programs. The results are similar to those obtained in an earlier LEED study for this interface, but the precision is higher due to the larger dataset employed., The results of this study will be compared to other studies of this and similar systems. We acknowledge the Eberly College of Science for funding this project. González, Guo, Ortega, Flores, Weitering. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 115501 (2009)

  6. Self-organization of S adatoms on Au(111): ?3R30° rows at low coverage

    SciTech Connect

    Walen, Holly; Liu, Da -Jiang; Oh, Junepyo; Lim, Hyunseob; Evans, J. W.; Kim, Yousoo; Thiel, P. A.

    2015-07-06

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we observe an adlayer structure that is dominated by short rows of S atoms, on unreconstructed regions of a Au(111) surface. This structure forms upon adsorption of low S coverage (less than 0.1 monolayer) on a fully reconstructed cleansurface at 300 K, then cooling to 5 K for observation. The rows adopt one of three orientations that are rotated by 30° from the close-packed directions of the Au(111) substrate, and adjacent S atoms in the rows are separated by ?3 times the surface lattice constant, a. Monte Carlo simulations are performed on lattice-gas models, we derived using a limited cluster expansion based on density functional theory energetics. Furthermore, models which include long-range pairwise interactions (extending to 5a), plus selected trio interactions, successfully reproduce the linear rows of S atoms at reasonable temperatures.

  7. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING PHASE 3 RESTRUCTURED (3R)

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-03-30

    In the early 90's GE recognized the need to introduce new technology to follow on to the ''F'' technology the Company introduced in 1988. By working with industry and DOE, GE helped shape the ATS program goal of demonstrating a gas turbine, combined-cycle system using natural gas as the primary fuel that achieves the following targets: system efficiency exceeding 60% lower heating value basis; environmental superiority under full-load operating conditions without the use of post-combustion emissions controls, environmental superiority includes limiting NO{sub 2} to less than 10 parts per mission by volume (dry basis) at 15% oxygen; busbar energy costs that are 10% less than current state-of-the-art turbine systems meeting the same environmental requirements; fuel-flexible designs operating on natural gas but also capable of being adapted to operate on coal-based, distillate, or biomass fuels; reliability-availability-maintainability (RAM) that is equivalent to modern advanced power generation systems; and commercial systems that could enter the market in the year 2000.

  8. Interactive Visualization for Singular Fibers of Functions f : R(3) ? R(2).

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Daisuke; Saeki, Osamu; Carr, Hamish; Wu, Hsiang-Yun; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Duke, David; Takahashi, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Scalar topology in the form of Morse theory has provided computational tools that analyze and visualize data from scientific and engineering tasks. Contracting isocontours to single points encapsulates variations in isocontour connectivity in the Reeb graph. For multivariate data, isocontours generalize to fibers-inverse images of points in the range, and this area is therefore known as fiber topology. However, fiber topology is less fully developed than Morse theory, and current efforts rely on manual visualizations. This paper presents how to accelerate and semi-automate this task through an interface for visualizing fiber singularities of multivariate functions [Formula: see text]. This interface exploits existing conventions of fiber topology, but also introduces a 3D view based on the extension of Reeb graphs to Reeb spaces. Using the Joint Contour Net, a quantized approximation of the Reeb space, this accelerates topological visualization and permits online perturbation to reduce or remove degeneracies in functions under study. Validation of the interface is performed by assessing whether the interface supports the mathematical workflow both of experts and of less experienced mathematicians. PMID:26529738

  9. Akimotoite to perovskite phase transition in MgSiO3 R. M. Wentzcovitch,1

    E-print Network

    Stixrude, Lars

    for the increase in other thermodynamic properties across the phase transition. This ab initio calculation Tectonophysics: Earth's interior--composition and state (1212). Citation: Wentzcovitch, R. M., L. Stixrude, B. B of the entropy change DS that determines this slope since DV and dP invariably have opposite signs. Systematic

  10. Perspectives on pathway perturbation: Focused research to enhance 3R objectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) and in silico technologies are emerging as 21st century tools for hazard identification. Computational methods that strategically examine cross-species conservation of protein sequence/structural information for chemical molecular targets ...

  11. AB||CD AD||BC (1) (1) = (2)(3) R-{0}

    E-print Network

    Wotzlaw, Lorenz

    + -- DC). Ð×Ó ×Ø {M} (DB AC)º × ÓÐ Ø Ö Ø× Ð Ø¸ ÒÒ × Ò Û Ø Ö × Ð Ñ ÒØ Ò Ö Ë Ò ØØÑ Ò ¸ ×Ó Û Ö DB = AC = -- MC = 1/2 - AC ÙÒ -- DM = -- MB = 1/2 -- DBº Ð×Ó ×Ø - AB = -- AM + -- MB = -- MC + -- DM = -- DC. Ò ÐÓ Ö Ð¹ Ð ÐÓ Ö ÑÑ = - AB = -- DC¸ -- AD = -- BCº µ Ê ØÙÒ Ò Ö ÓÒ Ð Ò × Ò - AC = - AB + -- BC = - AB

  12. Difference in Reactivity of Cyclopentadienyltitanium Fluorides and Chlorides Using AlR3 (R ) Me, Et)

    E-print Network

    Müller, Peter

    titanium atoms, two aluminum atoms, and four bridging fluorine atoms. Introduction Metallocene complexes, of which the oxidation state may exert a significant influence on the catalyst perfor- mance.2 Attempts

  13. Enhancing the 3 R's of Resilience, Retention, and Reform through Middle School Faculty Professional Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas, Fern

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the influences that one professional learning community had on teacher resilience, teacher retention, and school reform initiatives. Teachers at a low performing, urban middle school in the Southeastern United States implemented professional learning communities as a reform initiative to assist with staff development. This…

  14. Stereoselective cathodic synthesis of 8-substituted (1R,3R,4S)-menthylamines

    PubMed Central

    Edinger, Carolin; Kulisch, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Summary The electrochemical generation of menthylamines from the corresponding menthone oximes equipped with an additional substituent in position 8 is described. Due to 1,3-diaxial interactions a pronounced diastereoselectivity for the menthylamines is found. PMID:25815083

  15. Teaching the 3 R's through the 3 C's: Connecting Curriculum & Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karner, Terrence R., Jr.; Knapp, Clifford E.; Simmert, R. Larry; Carlson, Pamela; Criswell, Marquiette R.; Arroz, Marie; Geocaris, Claudia; Roth-Longe, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for class activities that integrate community resources and local contexts into curriculum and instruction. Activities include field trips to a historic one-room schoolhouse, a local track meet, a beauty salon, and local manufacturing companies; explorations of local water supply systems and community history and sociology;…

  16. J.Org. Chem. 1986,51,4311-4314 4311 3, R = H OCH3

    E-print Network

    Chickos, James S.

    and Varga2to give 3B. The proton NMR spectra of 3A and 3B were recorded at 270MHz and 31Pspectra at 162 MHz of this isomer (3B)was confirmed by X-ray analysis (see stereo diagram).1° ""0. Y o 7 Y o 7 %-The proton NMR with proton decoupling. The spectra from preparation 3B clearlyshow that the hydroxyl group is in the axial

  17. Magnetochromic effect in multiferroic R In 1 ? x Mn x O 3 ( R = Tb , Dy)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, P.; Holinsworth, B. S.; O'Neal, K. R.; Brinzari, T. V.; Mazumdar, D.; Topping, C. V.; Luo, X.; Cheong, S.-W.; Singleton, J.; McGill, S.; et al

    2015-05-26

    We combined high field magnetization and magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate spin-charge coupling in Mn-substituted rare-earth indium oxides of chemical formula RIn??xMnxO? (R=Tb, Dy). The edge states, on-site Mn³?d to d excitations, and rare-earth f-manifold excitations all track the magnetization energy due to dominant Zeeman interactions. The field-induced modifications to the rare-earth excitations are quite large because spin-orbit coupling naturally mixes spin and charge, suggesting that the next logical step in the design strategy should be to bring spin-orbit coupling onto the trigonal bipyramidal chromophore site with a 4 or 5d center.

  18. Structural Domain Switching by Magnetic Fields in RAl3C3 (R = Rare Earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Takeshi; Hayashi, Yuya; Takai, Shun; Otsubo, Toru; Matsuda, Saori; Ochiai, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Hexagonal-to-orthorhombic structural transitions in RAl3C3 have been studied by X-ray diffraction for R = Yb, Tm, Er, Dy, and Lu. We report how orthorhombic domains are controlled by adjusting external magnetic fields. It is shown that orthorhombic domains in RAl3C3 can be aligned by the field when the R ion is magnetic. It is also shown that a single-domain state can be switched to another single-domain state by the field even in paramagnetic states with small induced moments. For R = Lu, however, it was not possible to change the multidomain state by a field of up to 70 kOe. We discuss that domain selection and switching are caused by magnetic anisotropies in the orthorhombic phase of RAl3C3. We also propose an idea to explain the field-induced antiferromagnetism revealed by Khalyavin et al. [Phys. Rev. B 87, 220406(R) (2013)].

  19. Degradation of acid scarlet 3R with CuO/SiO2 hollow sphere catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, F.; Zhong, J.; Wang, L.; Wang, K.; Hua, D. X.

    2015-07-01

    Silica-supported copper catalyst materials have been synthesized via an incipient wetness impregnation. The resulting samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation of reactive azo dye solutions by this catalyst was also investigated. The effects of various operating conditions on decolorization performance were evaluated, namely hydrogen peroxide dosage, initial pH, catalyst loading and initial dye concentration. The results indicated that by using 34 mmol/L of H2O2 and 6.0 g L-1 of the catalyst at 60°C, pH 3.5, 97% of decolorization efficiency was achieved within 90 min. CuO/SiO2 hollow sphere is shown a promising catalyst for degradation of azo dye aqueous solution by Fenton-like processes.

  20. TEMPORARY CHANGE REQUEST TCR NO. ES & HD 5008, Sect 5, Chapt. 3, R4-002

    E-print Network

    Biewer, Theodore

    : ES & HD 5008, Section 5, Chap. 3 Revision No.: 4 Document Title: "Fire Protection Engineering" Reason&H DIRECTIVES ES&HD 5008 SECTION 5, CHAPTER 3 Fire Protection Engineering Approved Date: 1/31/06 Revision 4 Page 1 of 3 CHAPTER 3, FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING 3.1 FIRE PROTECTION CRITERIA and REQUIREMENTS 3

  1. Determination of the Absolute Configuration of (-)-(3R)-O--D-Glucopyranosyloxy-5-phenylpentanoic

    E-print Network

    Rüedi, Peter

    of the hydroxy ester 3 on Chiralcel OD-H (hexane/2-propanol 12:1) gave a single peak (k = 3.52) suggesting and their methyl esters (3 and ent-3).2­4 For that reason, the stereochemical outcome of enantioselective on Chiralcel OD-H, 5 µ (Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd.), 250 × 4.6 mm with hex- ane/2-propanol (12:1), flow

  2. Influence of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on ventilatory thresholds related to endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Pasqua, Leonardo A; Bueno, Salomão; Artioli, Guilherme G; Lancha, Antônio H; Matsuda, Monique; Marquezini, Mônica V; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Bertuzzi, Rômulo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the association between ACTN3 polymorphism and physiological parameters related to endurance performance. A total of 150 healthy male volunteers performed a maximal incremental running test to determine the speeds corresponding to ventilatory threshold (VT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Participants were genotyped and divided into terciles based on the analysed variables. Genotype frequencies were compared through ?(2) test between lower and higher terciles, with the lowest or highest values of each analysed variable. ACTN3 XX genotype was over-represented in higher tercile for VT and RCP. Odds ratio also showed significantly higher chances of XX individuals to be in higher tercile compared to RR (7.3) and RR + RX (3.5) for VT and compared to RR genotype (8.1) and RR + RX (3.4) for RCP. Thus, XX individuals could attain the VT and RCP at higher speeds, suggesting that they are able to sustain higher running speeds in lower exercise intensity domains. It could result in higher lipid acids oxidation, saving muscle glycogen and delaying the fatigue during prolonged exercises, which could be the advantage mechanism of this genotype to endurance performance. PMID:25939605

  3. Open Access Available online http://breast-cancer-research.com/content/10/3/R53

    E-print Network

    Ringnér, Markus

    Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, Klinikgatan 26, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden-initiating properties with stem cell-like and invasive features, although it is unclear whether their presence within of this phenotype and that other breast cancer stem cell markers remain to be identified. Introduction Human breast

  4. Self-organization of S adatoms on Au(111): ?3R30° rows at low coverage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Walen, Holly; Liu, Da -Jiang; Oh, Junepyo; Lim, Hyunseob; Evans, J. W.; Kim, Yousoo; Thiel, P. A.

    2015-07-06

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we observe an adlayer structure that is dominated by short rows of S atoms, on unreconstructed regions of a Au(111) surface. This structure forms upon adsorption of low S coverage (less than 0.1 monolayer) on a fully reconstructed cleansurface at 300 K, then cooling to 5 K for observation. The rows adopt one of three orientations that are rotated by 30° from the close-packed directions of the Au(111) substrate, and adjacent S atoms in the rows are separated by ?3 times the surface lattice constant, a. Monte Carlo simulations are performed on lattice-gas models, we derivedmore »using a limited cluster expansion based on density functional theory energetics. Furthermore, models which include long-range pairwise interactions (extending to 5a), plus selected trio interactions, successfully reproduce the linear rows of S atoms at reasonable temperatures.« less

  5. A 3R compliant testing strategy to predict chronic fish toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    To ensure an ecologically relevant basis for environmental quality standards, whole-organism vertebrate tests are considered most suitable. Currently, the fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD 210), which involves an exposure up to one - two months, is used to estimate chronic ...

  6. R34D1NG W0RD5 W1TH NUMB3R5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Manuel; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Letter identities and number identities are usually thought to imply different cortical mechanisms. Specifically, the left fusiform gyrus responds more to letters than to digits (T. A. Polk et al., 2002). However, a widely circulated statement on the internet illustrates that it is possible to use numbers (leet digits) as parts of words, 4ND TH3…

  7. A Science Service Feature 7 'JiiYTHE?7EATK!3R ?

    E-print Network

    on the sea, the &-rk clouds Preach, thickening as they come, and rain begins t o fall from them. nind the rind suddenly weakens t o a calm i n the eye of the storm; falling from i t s greatest violence, showing the blue sky by b Y and the stars by night; but the waves roll and toss, and i n cvm more dreaded

  8. Dosimetry issues for an ultra-high flux beam and multipurpose research reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source is a new user facility for all fields of neutron research, including neutron beam experiments, materials analysis, materials testing, and isotope production. The complement and layout of the experimental facilities have been determined sufficiently, at a conceptual design level, to make reliable cost and schedule estimates. The source of neutrons will be a heavy water reactor, constructed largely of aluminum, with an available thermal neutron flux 5--10 times higher than existing research reactors. Among the dosimetry issues to be faced are damage prediction and surveillance for component life attainment; measurement of fluence and spectra in regions where both change substantially over a distance of a few centimeters; and characterization and measurement of the radiation field in the research areas around the neutron beam experiments.

  9. Enhanced Growth of Multipurpose Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) Using Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Sebuliba, Esther; Nyeko, Phillip; Majaliwa, Mwanjalolo; Eilu, Gerald; Kizza, Charles Luswata; Ekwamu, Adipala

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effect of selected arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi genera and their application rates for enhanced Calliandra growth in Uganda. The performance of Calliandra under different types and rates of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi inoculation was assessed in the greenhouse using sterilized Mabira soils. Four dominant genera were isolated from the rhizosphere of sorghum in the laboratory. Calliandra seeds were grown in pots and the seed coating method of application was used at concentrations of 0 spores, 30 spores and 50 spores. Each treatment was replicated three times. All Calliandra inoculated seedlings showed improved seedling growth (in terms of height and shoot dry matter weight) compared to the control (P < 0.05) except with the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi mixture treated Calliandra at 50 spores rate. Glomus sp. and Acaulospora sp. had significant influence on the height of Calliandra, while AMF mixture performed best in terms of shoot dry weight (P < 0.05). This study provides a good scope for commercially utilizing the efficient strains of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi for beneficial effects in the primary establishment of slow growing seedlings ensuring better survival and improved growth. PMID:23365530

  10. Zwitterionic Nanofibers of Super-Glue for Transparent and Biocompatible Multi-Purpose Coatings.

    PubMed

    Mele, Elisa; Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Bayer, Ilker S; Ciofani, Gianni; Genchi, Giada G; Ceseracciu, Luca; Davis, Alexander; Papadopoulou, Evie L; Barthel, Markus J; Marini, Lara; Ruffilli, Roberta; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2015-01-01

    Here we show that macrozwitterions of poly(ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate), commonly called Super Glue, can easily assemble into long and well defined fibers by electrospinning. The resulting fibrous networks are thermally treated on glass in order to create transparent coatings whose superficial morphology recalls the organization of the initial electrospun mats. These textured coatings are characterized by low liquid adhesion and anti-staining performance. Furthermore, the low friction coefficient and excellent scratch resistance make them attractive as solid lubricants. The inherent texture of the coatings positively affects their biocompatibility. In fact, they are able to promote the proliferation and differentiation of myoblast stem cells. Optically-transparent and biocompatible coatings that simultaneously possess characteristics of low water contact angle hysteresis, low friction and mechanical robustness can find application in a wide range of technological sectors, from the construction and automotive industries to electronic and biomedical devices. PMID:26357936

  11. Design of a Customized Multipurpose Nano-Enabled Implantable System for In-Vivo Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Juanola-Feliu, Esteve; Miribel-Català, Pere Ll.; Páez Avilés, Cristina; Colomer-Farrarons, Jordi; González-Piñero, Manel; Samitier, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this paper reviews the current development and key issues on implantable multi-sensor devices for in vivo theranostics. Afterwards, the authors propose an innovative biomedical multisensory system for in vivo biomarker monitoring that could be suitable for customized theranostics applications. At this point, findings suggest that cross-cutting Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) could improve the overall performance of the system given that the convergence of technologies in nanotechnology, biotechnology, micro&nanoelectronics and advanced materials permit the development of new medical devices of small dimensions, using biocompatible materials, and embedding reliable and targeted biosensors, high speed data communication, and even energy autonomy. Therefore, this article deals with new research and market challenges of implantable sensor devices, from the point of view of the pervasive system, and time-to-market. The remote clinical monitoring approach introduced in this paper could be based on an array of biosensors to extract information from the patient. A key contribution of the authors is that the general architecture introduced in this paper would require minor modifications for the final customized bio-implantable medical device. PMID:25325336

  12. MultiPurpose Infrastructure for Delivering and Supporting Mobile ContextAware Applications

    E-print Network

    Miguel López (University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain juanmi@diei.udl.cat) Montserrat Sendín (University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain msendin@diei.udl.cat) Abstract: The use of contextual information in mobile devices to react to changes in the context in order to adequately adapt the system's behaviour and the User

  13. Multi-Purpose Infrastructure for Delivering and Supporting Mobile Context-Aware Applications

    E-print Network

    Miguel López (University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain juanmi@diei.udl.cat) Montserrat Sendín (University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain msendin@diei.udl.cat) Abstract: The use of contextual information in mobile devices to react to changes in the context in order to adequately adapt the system's behaviour and the User

  14. Mitigating hydrologic alterations caused by hydropeaking through modified releasing rules for a multi-purpose reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, S. P.; Palokangas, C.

    2011-12-01

    The St. Louis River begins in Hoyt Lakes, Minnesota and enters Lake Superior between Duluth, Minnesota and Superior, Wisconsin. The Partridge River and the Embarrass River are two of its main tributaries. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits are issued for surface water dischargers under the Clean Water Act. The Permit Compliance System (PCS) and the Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a tool allowing public access to information contained in NPDES permits. Along the way to Lake Superior, 19 facilities list the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, part of the St. Louis River estuary, or one of its tributaries as a receiving water. Of these 19 locations, four report discharging heavy metals into the receiving water. Copper and Lead are the metals most frequently discharged.

  15. High Bandwidth, Multi-Purpose Passive Radar Receiver Design For Aerospace and Geoscience Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertatschitsch, Laura

    Passive radar permits inexpensive and stealthy detection and tracking of aerospace and geoscience targets. Transmitters of opportunity such as commercial FM broadcast, DTV broadcast, and cell phone towers are already illuminating many populated areas with continuous power. Passive radar receivers can be located at a distance from the transmitter, and can sense this direct transmission as well as any reflections from ground clutter, aircraft, ionospheric turbulence and meteor trails. The 100% duty cycle allows for long coherent integration, increasing the sensitivity of these instruments greatly. Traditional radar receivers employ analog front end downconverters to translate the radio frequency spectrum to an intermediate frequency (IF) for sampling and signal processing. Such downconverters limit the spectrum available for study, and can introduce nonlinearities which limit the detectability of weak signals in the presence of strong signals. With suitably fast digitizers one can bypass the downconversion stage completely. Very fast digitizers may have relatively few bits, but precision is recovered in subsequent signal processing. We present a new passive radar receiver designed to utilize a broad spectrum of commercial transmitters without the use of a front end analog downconverter. The receiver centers around a Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH) board developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) group. Fast sampling rates (8-bit samples as fast as 3 GSps) combined with 640 multiply/addition operations on the Virtex-5 FPGA centered on the ROACH allows for coherent processing of broad spectrum and dynamic decision-making on one device all while sharing a single front end, putting this device on the cutting edge of wideband receiver technology. The radar is also designed to support mobile operation. It fits within a 19'' rack, it is equipped with solid state hard drives, and can run off an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) for up to 1 hour of continuous operation. In this document we provide technical details of the hardware, firmware, and software of the system and design strategies and decisions. We cover the topic of coherent processing for passive radar, specifically an overview of the cross-ambiguity function as a detection mechanism. While the applications of a system like this are incredibly broad, the initial validation and performance analysis was applied specifically to detection of aircraft using Digital Television (DTV) broadcast as an illuminator. We present results of both stationary and mobile operation. In stationary operation, the same helicopter has been detected using two different DTV transmissions. Early mobile operation results show the Doppler-spread ground clutter and possible detection of aircraft. In addition to the fully-functional aircraft detection signal chain, alternative FPGA designs are presented with modes for fast sampling on two antennas or four antennas, with access to an aggregate 240 MHz of spectrum, with 8-bit samples. At these extremely high data rates, moderate data loss occurs while saving this data to disk, but as detailed within this document, it can be accounted for and the effects minimalized, still allowing for detection of aircraft. With these modes, FM transmission and DTV transmission can be captured synchronously from a single antenna and digitizer feed, an exciting result that offers promise for both aerospace and geoscience applications.

  16. Renaissance robotics : novel applications of multipurpose robotic arms spanning design fabrication, utility, and art

    E-print Network

    Keating, Steven J. (Steven John)

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates, defines, and expands on the use of robotic arms in digital fabrication, design, and art through methods including 3D printing, milling, sculpting, functionally graded fabrication, construction-scale ...

  17. Designing I*CATch: A Multipurpose, Education-Friendly Construction Kit for Physical and Wearable Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngai, Grace; Chan, Stephen C. F.; Leong, Hong Va; Ng, Vincent T. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the design and development of i*CATch, a construction kit for physical and wearable computing that was designed to be scalable, plug-and-play, and to provide support for iterative and exploratory learning. It consists of a standardized construction interface that can be adapted for a wide range of soft textiles or electronic…

  18. Optimal operation of a multipurpose multireservoir system in the Eastern Nile River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goor, Q.; Halleux, C.; Mohamed, Y.; Tilmant, A.

    2010-10-01

    The upper Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia is a largely untapped resource despite its huge potential for hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. Controversies exist as to whether the numerous infrastructural development projects that are on the drawing board in Ethiopia will generate positive or negative externalities downstream in Sudan and Egypt. This study attempts at (1) examining the (re-)operation of infrastructures, in particular the proposed reservoirs in Ethiopia and the High Aswan Dam and (2) assessing the economic benefits and costs associated with the storage infrastructures in Ethiopia and their spatial and temporal distribution. To achieve this, a basin-wide integrated hydro-economic model has been developed. The model integrates essential hydrologic, economic and institutional components of the river basin in order to explore both the hydrologic and economic consequences of various policy options and planned infrastructural projects. Unlike most of the deterministic economic-hydrologic models reported in the literature, a stochastic programming formulation has been adopted in order to: (i) understand the effect of the hydrologic uncertainty on management decisions, (ii) determine allocation policies that naturally hedge against the hydrological risk, and (iii) assess the relevant risk indicators. The study reveals that the development of four mega dams in the upper part of the Blue Nile Basin would change the drawdown refill cycle of the High Aswan Dam. Should the operation of the reservoirs be coordinated, they would enable an average annual saving of at least 2.5 billion m3 through reduced evaporation losses from the Lake Nasser. Moreover, the new reservoirs (Karadobi, Beko-Abo, Mandaya and Border) in Ethiopia would have significant positive impacts on hydropower generation and irrigation in Ethiopia and Sudan: at the basin scale, the annual energy generation is boosted by 38.5 TWh amongst which 14.2 TWh due to storage. Moreover, the regulation capacity of the above mentioned reservoirs would enable an increase of the Sudanese irrigated area by 5.5%.

  19. Optimal operation of a multipurpose multireservoir system in the Eastern Nile River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goor, Q.; Halleux, C.; Mohamed, Y.; Tilmant, A.

    2010-07-01

    The upper Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia is a largely untapped resource despite its huge potential for hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. Controversies exist as to whether the numerous infrastructural development projects that are on the drawing board in Ethiopia will generate positive or negative externalities downstream in Sudan and Egypt. This study attempts at 1) examining the (re-)operation of infrastructures, in particular the proposed reservoirs in Ethiopia and the High Aswan Dam and 2) assessing the economic benefits and costs associated with the storage infrastructures in Ethiopia and their spatial and temporal distribution. To achieve this, a basin-wide integrated hydro-economic model has been developed. The model integrates essential hydrologic, economic and institutional components of the river basin in order to explore both the hydrologic and economic consequences of various policy options and planned infrastructural projects. Unlike most of the deterministic economic-hydrologic models reported in the literature, a stochastic programming formulation has been adopted in order to: i) understand the effect of the hydrologic uncertainty on management decisions, ii) determine allocation policies that naturally hedge against the hydrological risk, and iii) assess the relevant risk indicators. The study reveals that the development of four mega dams in the upper part of the Blue Nile Basin would change the drawdown refill cycle of the High Aswan Dam. Should the operation of the reservoirs be coordinated, they would enable an average annual saving of at least 2.5 billion m3 through reduced evaporation losses from the Lake Nasser. Moreover, the new reservoirs (Karadobi, Beko-Abo, Mandaya and Border) in Ethiopia would have significant positive impacts on hydropower generation and irrigation in Ethiopia and Sudan: at the basin scale, the annual energy generation is boosted by 38.5 TWh amongst which 14.2 TWh due to storage. Moreover, the regulation capacity of the above mentioned reservoirs would enable an increase of the Sudanese irrigated area by 5.5%.

  20. From INSET Centres to Multipurpose Education Centres: Experiences from the Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutshekwane, Alex

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of broader policy change and practices on in-service teacher education (INSET) in the Limpopo province. The author argues that name changes from INSET to staff development to continuous teacher professional development or continuous professional development to capacity building and training tend to generalise…

  1. Multipurpose DVD pick-up scanner for analysis of microfluidics and micromechanical structures.

    PubMed

    Yim, V; Lee, S Y; Kim, S; Park, J Y

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidics has become increasingly prevalent and has founded widespread use in various applications such as biomedical applications (diagnostics, therapeutics, and cell/tissue engineering), inkjet head, and fuel cells etc. The issue of inspection and characterization of microfluidics has emerged as a major consideration in design, fabrication, and optical detection of devices. In this paper, we characterize the mixing flow pattern by diffusion, when two flows are combined in microchannel, using an optical scanner based on a DVD pick-up module, which is widely used in optical storage. Using Cy5.5 dye, we measure the fluorescent intensity that represents fluidic characteristics in Y-microchannel with 1 mum resolution and compare experimental results with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation ones. Si based microstructures are measured using different optical reflective paths to the optical scanner with respect to the surface topologies. It is shown that the proposed optical scanner can be effectively and versatilely used to observe microfluidic characteristics and to measure the surface profiles of microstructures, being a cost-effective alternative device to conventional epifluorescent microscopes using high resolution CCD camera and interferometers. PMID:19163274

  2. Design, commissioning and operating experience of the PSI KA-IV multipurpose helium refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amstutz, Markus; Baumann, Hans U.; Clerc, Roger; Gloor, Walter; Kurtcuoglu, Kirkor; Löhlein, Karl; Schulze, Reinhard M.; Zichy, János A.; Ziegler, Bruno

    Early in 1991 the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland commissioned its fourth helium liquefier/refrigerator. The facility is used for cooling superconducting magnets, purification and liquefaction of helium. It provides 4000 W of refrigeration at ca. 60 K and 900 W at 4.5 K without nitrogen precooling. Its main features are: Reciprocating compressor with labyrinth pistons, three expansion turbines with dynamic gas bearings, fully automatic operation based on a programmable logic controller and graphic process visualization. The paper describes the operating requirements, the refrigerator, the control concept designed to optimize the performance, and finally the operating experience gained during start up and half a year of operation.

  3. AlAA 92-0980 Design of Multipurpose Spacecraft BUS

    E-print Network

    differences in orbit, yaw axis control, attitude pointing, and thermal control requirements. The AVHRR payload orbit. The AVHRR payload requires fine yaw control. Therefore, either the solar array needs to have two preliminary design of a multi-mission spacecraft bus for meteorological and communications payloads

  4. Zwitterionic Nanofibers of Super-Glue for Transparent and Biocompatible Multi-Purpose Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, Elisa; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.; Bayer, Ilker S.; Ciofani, Gianni; Genchi, Giada G.; Ceseracciu, Luca; Davis, Alexander; Papadopoulou, Evie L.; Barthel, Markus J.; Marini, Lara; Ruffilli, Roberta; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2015-09-01

    Here we show that macrozwitterions of poly(ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate), commonly called Super Glue, can easily assemble into long and well defined fibers by electrospinning. The resulting fibrous networks are thermally treated on glass in order to create transparent coatings whose superficial morphology recalls the organization of the initial electrospun mats. These textured coatings are characterized by low liquid adhesion and anti-staining performance. Furthermore, the low friction coefficient and excellent scratch resistance make them attractive as solid lubricants. The inherent texture of the coatings positively affects their biocompatibility. In fact, they are able to promote the proliferation and differentiation of myoblast stem cells. Optically-transparent and biocompatible coatings that simultaneously possess characteristics of low water contact angle hysteresis, low friction and mechanical robustness can find application in a wide range of technological sectors, from the construction and automotive industries to electronic and biomedical devices.

  5. A multi-purpose ultrasonic streaming mixer for integrated magnetic bead ELISAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandhoff, Lukas; Zirath, Helene; Salas, Mariugenia; Haller, Anna; Peham, Johannes; Wiesinger-Mayr, Herbert; Spittler, Andreas; Schnetz, Guntram; Lang, Walter; Vellekoop, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    We present an ultrasonic streaming mixer for disposable and on-chip magnetic bead ELISAs. The ultrasonic transducer is placed at system-level to keep cost per chip as low as possible, and is coupled to the chip by means of a solid ultrasonic horn. The system provides mixing of liquids, as well as dispersion of the superparamagnetic beads in the ELISA. Additionally it can be used clean the chamber surface from nonspecifically bound proteins during the washing steps in the ELISA protocol. Using our system the time for the ELISA protocol has been greatly reduced down to 30?min.

  6. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reset when or before the user lets go of the lighter. (5) The child-resistant mechanism of a multi... used; and either (iii) Automatically reset when or before the user lets go of the lighter when the hands-free function is not used; or (iv) Automatically reset when or before the user lets go of...

  7. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaker, Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.

    2007-12-01

    In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, it is the only sub-basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). This lack of data represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. Therefore, the new research icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS will be equipped with drilling facilities to fulfil the needs of the IODP for a -Mission-Specific Platform- to drill in deep, permanently ice-covered ocean basins. This icebreaker must be also powerful enough to maintain station against the drifting sea-ice cover and will have to be equipped with a dynamic positioning system. This new icebreaker would be conceived as an optimized science platform from the keel up and will allow conducting long, international and interdisciplinary expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean during all seasons of the year. In a long-term perspective the AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research vessel as well as a polar drill ship. The construction of AURORA BOREALIS requires several new technical implementations, such as advanced dynamic positioning and deep-sea drilling under a closed sea-ice cover and two moon pools (7 x 7 m), and will provide an extended technical potential and knowledge for marine technology. The scientific and technical details will be presented.

  8. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaking Deep-Sea Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.; Azzolini, R.

    2009-04-01

    Future breakthroughs in scientific deep-sea drilling critically depend on our ability to perform field expeditions with state-of-the-art technologies and modern infrastructures. This will require major investments, both in terms of generating new, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. Diverse models for science operations are presently projected, also within the context of scientific needs after the current phase of the IODP will come to an end. In spite of its critical role in global climate and tectonic evolution, the Arctic Ocean is one of the most unexplored ocean basins of the world, its geologic and paleo-environmental history remaining largely unknown. Restricted by circulating sea ice, scientific drilling has been slow to arrive in the Arctic Ocean. This lack of data remains and represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. We here report on the finalised technical planning of a new European research icebreaker and deep-sea drilling vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, designed with an all-season capability of endurance in permanently ice-covered waters. The icebreaker will be able to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins primarily during the more favorable summer seasons in order to fulfill the needs of the IODP or its eventual successor as a Mission-Specific Platform. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced polar research vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments within the next 35-40 years. It will feature the highest attainable icebreaker classification, considerably surpassing in performance all currently operating research icebreakers. New technological features to be implemented include a novel hull design and specialized dynamic positioning systems for operations under closed sea-ice cover conditions with up to 2.5 m ice thickness, combined with advanced ice-forecasting support. The vessel is planned to operate routinely without ice management support by additional icebreakers, thus reducing operational costs for scientific drilling in polar regions considerably. Two moon-pools (7x7 m each) will allow routine deployment of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) in ice conditions. A dedicated deep-sea drilling rig with full weather protection will enable sampling of the ocean floor in water depths between 100 and 5000 m with more than 1000 m penetration under polar conditions. The modular arrangement of science space with hangars, the possibility to flexibly equip the ship with laboratory or supply containers and with helicopters, addresses the needs of diverse disciplines in marine research. This icebreaker will allow to stage long international, interdisciplinary drilling expeditions in the central Arctic. In a long-term perspective, AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research and a scientific drilling vessel.

  9. The Construction and Maintenance Plan for a Grand Banks Multi-Purpose Pipeline

    E-print Network

    Bruneau, Steve

    30 Inch Export Pipeline #12;Grand Banks Pipeline Profile and Wall Thickness 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 External Anticorrosion Coating Internal Epoxy Flow Coating API 5L X70 Grade Steel Reinforced Concrete av. / 305 m max. Pipeline Outside Diameter 30 inch Steel Grade API 5L X70 Grade Wall Thickness 0

  10. Sustainable multipurpose biorefineries for third-generation biofuels and value-added co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern biorefinery facilities conduct many types of processes, including those producing advanced biofuels, commodity chemicals, biodiesel, and value-added co-products such as sweeteners and bioinsecticides, with many more co-products, chemicals and biofuels on the horizon. Most of these processes ...

  11. Powerful, multi-purpose platform assists miners and enables mining in hazardous

    E-print Network

    Nourbakhsh, Illah

    Technologies Detects failing mechanical and vulcanized splices in conveyor belts. Prevents costly unscheduled belt downtime. CONVEYOR BELT INSPECTION Robotic mining vehicles plan routes, avoid obstacles, and follow the rules of the road. Safer, more efficient, less equipment damage. AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES Reports

  12. Multi-purpose 805 MHz Pillbox RF Cavity for Muon Acceleration Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.; Chan, Kwok-Chi Dominic; Jason, Andrew; Miyadera, Haruo; Turchi, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    An 805 MHz RF pillbox cavity has been designed and constructed to investigate potential muon beam acceleration and cooling techniques. The cavity can operate at vacuum or under pressure to 100 atmospheres, at room temperature or in a liquid nitrogen bath at 77 K. The cavity is designed for easy assembly and disassembly with bolted construction using aluminum seals. The surfaces of the end walls of the cavity can be replaced with different materials such as copper, aluminum, beryllium, or molybdenum, and with different geometries such as shaped windows or grid structures. Different surface treatments such as electro polished, high-pressure water cleaned, and atomic layer deposition are being considered for testing. The cavity has been designed to fit inside the 5-Tesla solenoid in the MuCool Test Area at Fermilab. Current status of the cavity prepared for initial conditioning and operation in the external magnetic field is discussed.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MESS: Multi-purpose Exoplanet Simulation System (Bonavita+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonavita, M.; Chauvin, G.; Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Janson, M.; Beuzit, J. L.; Kasper, M.; Mordasini, C.

    2011-11-01

    All the IDL routines needed to run the MESS code are included, together with a script providing an example of its use, and all the necessary input files. Save all the file in the same directory, or add the directory where the .pro files are extracted to your IDL path. A step by step tutorial, further examples and newer versions of the code can be downloaded from www.messthecode.com Please send an email to info@messthecode.com for any suggestion/request. (2 data files).

  14. Novel laboratory approaches to multi-purpose aquatic bioregenerative closed-loop food production systems.

    PubMed

    Blum, V; Andriske, M; Kreuzberg, K; Paassen, U; Schreibman, M P; Voeste, D

    1998-01-01

    Based on the construction principle of the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) two novel combined animal-plant production systems were developed in laboratory scale the first of which is dedicated to mid-term operation in closed state up to two years. In principle both consist of the "classic" C.E.B.A.S. subcomponents: animal tank (Zoological Component), plant cultivators (Botanical Component), ammonia converting bacteria filter (Microbial Component) and data acquisition/control unit (Electronical Component). The innovative approach in the first system is the utilization of minimally three aquatic plant cultivators for different species. In this one the animal tank has a volume of about 160 liters and is constructed as an "endless-way system" surrounding a central unit containing the heat exchanger and the bacteria filter with volumes of about 1.5 liters each. A suspension plant cultivator (1 liter) for the edible duckweed Wolffia arrhiza is externally connected. The second plant cultivator is a meandric microalgal bioreactor for filamentous green algae. The third plant growth facility is a chamber with about 2.5 liters volume for cultivation of the "traditional" C.E.B.A.S. plant species, the rootless buoyant Ceratophyllum demersum. Both latter units are illuminated with 9 W fluorescent lamps. In the current experiment the animal tank contains the live-bearing teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri and the small pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata because their physiological adaptation to the closed system conditions is well known from many previous C.E.B.A.S. experiments. The water temperature is maintained at 25 degrees C and the oxygen level is regulated between 4 and 7 mg/l by switching on and off the plant cultivator illuminations according to a suitable pattern thus utilizing solely the oxygen produced by photosynthesis. The animals and the microorganisms of filter and biofilm provide the plants with a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide. Oxygen concentration, pH value, temperature and redox potential are on-line recorded. Ion concentrations and numbers of living germs in the system water are determined twice monthly in the laboratory from samples taken from a special "sample removal module"; the sample volume is automatically replaced from an reservoir container. A rotatory pump produces a water flow of about 38 l/min. For a similar smaller test system with approx. 10 l volume developed from the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI-MODULE a novel indirect solar energy supply is tested which has a buffer capacity to maintain the system for 7 days in darkness under central European climate conditions also in winter. It contains only a single plant cultivator which is operated with Wollfia arrhiza. This lemnacean plant is able to produce large amounts of plant biomass in a short time by vegetative reproduction via daughter fronds. This easy-to-handle apparatus is dedicated to be operative more than 4 month. The experimental animals and microorganisms are the same as in the large system. The paper provides detailed information on the system construction principles and the biological, physical and chemical data of the initial phase of the test runs of both systems with the main focus on the large one. PMID:11541608

  15. Novel laboratory approaches to multi-purpose aquatic bioregenerative closed-loop food production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Paassen, U.; Schreibman, M. P.; Voeste, D.

    Based on the construction principle of the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) two novel combined animal-plant production systems were developed in laboratory scale the first of which is dedicated to mid-term operation in closed state up to two years. In principle both consist of the "classic" C.E.B.A.S. subcomponents: animal tank (Zoological Component), plant cultivators (Botanical Component), ammonia converting bacteria filter (Microbial Component) and data acquisition/control unit (Electronical Component). The innovative approach in the first system is the utilization of minimally three aquatic plant cultivators for different species. In this one the animal tank has a volume of about 160 liters and is constructed as an "endless-way system" surronding a central unit containing the heat exchanger and the bacteria filter with volumes of about 1.5 liters each. A suspension plant cultivator (1 liter) for the edible duckweed Wolffia arrhiza is externally connected. The second plant cultivator is a meandric microalgal bioreactor for filamentous green algae. The third plant growth facilitiy is a chamber with about 2.5 liters volume for cultivation of the "traditional" C.E.B.A.S. plant species, the rootless buoyant Ceratophyllum demersum. Both latter units are illuminated with 9 W fluorescent lamps. In the current experiment the animal tank contains the live-bearing teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri and the small pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata because their physiological adaptation to the closed system conditions is well known from many previous C.E.B.A.S. experiments. The water temperature is maintained at 25 °C and the oxygen level is regulated between 4 and 7 mg/1 by switching on and off the plant cultivator illuminations according to a suitable pattern thus utilizing solely the oxygen produced by photosynthesis. The animals and the micoorganisms of filter and bioflim provide the plants with a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide. Oxygen concentration, pH value, temperature and redox potential are on-line recorded. Ion concentrations and numbers of living germs in the system water are determined twice monthly in the laboratory from samples taken from a special "sample removal module"; the sample volume is automatically replaced from an reservoir container. A rotatory pump produces a water flow of about 38 l/min. For a similar smaller test system with approx. 10 I volume developed from the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI-MODULE a novel indirect solar energy supply is tested which has a buffer capacity to maintain the system for 7 days in darkness under central European climate conditions also in winter. It contains only a single plant cultivator which is operated with Wollfla arrhiza. This lemnacean plant is able to produce large amounts of plant biomass in a short time by vegetative reproduction via daughter fronds. This easy-to-handle apparartus is dedicated to be operative more than 4 month. The experimental animals and microorganisms are the same as in the large system. The paper provides detailed information on the system construction principles and the biological, physical and chemical data of the initial phase of the test runs of both systems with the main focus on the large one.

  16. A Multi-Purpose Modular Electronics Integration Node for Exploration Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Edward; Papale, William; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David; Hawes, Kevin; Stankiewicz, Tom

    2013-01-01

    As NASA works to develop an effective integrated portable life support system design for exploration Extravehicular activity (EVA), alternatives to the current system s electrical power and control architecture are needed to support new requirements for flexibility, maintainability, reliability, and reduced mass and volume. Experience with the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has demonstrated that the current architecture, based in a central power supply, monitoring and control unit, with dedicated analog wiring harness connections to active components in the system has a significant impact on system packaging and seriously constrains design flexibility in adapting to component obsolescence and changing system needs over time. An alternative architecture based in the use of a digital data bus offers possible wiring harness and system power savings, but risks significant penalties in component complexity and cost. A hybrid architecture that relies on a set of electronic and power interface nodes serving functional models within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is proposed to minimize both packaging and component level penalties. A common interface node hardware design can further reduce penalties by reducing the nonrecurring development costs, making miniaturization more practical, maximizing opportunities for maturation and reliability growth, providing enhanced fault tolerance, and providing stable design interfaces for system components and a central control. Adaptation to varying specific module requirements can be achieved with modest changes in firmware code within the module. A preliminary design effort has developed a common set of hardware interface requirements and functional capabilities for such a node based on anticipated modules comprising an exploration PLSS, and a prototype node has been designed assembled, programmed, and tested. One instance of such a node has been adapted to support testing the swingbed carbon dioxide and humidity control element in NASA s advanced PLSS 2.0 test article. This paper will describe the common interface node design concept, results of the prototype development and test effort, and plans for use in NASA PLSS 2.0 integrated tests.

  17. An Energy Analysis Of A Large, Multipurpose Educational Building In A Hot Climate 

    E-print Network

    Kamranzadeh, Vahideh

    2012-02-14

    In this project a steady-state building load for Constant Volume Terminal Reheat (CVTR), Dual Duct Constant Volume (DDCV) and Dual Duct Variable Air Volume (DDVAV) systems for the Zachry Engineering Building has been ...

  18. 76 FR 32391 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2007 Dodge Durango Multipurpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ...manufactured for the Mexican market (Mexican market 2007 Dodge Durango MPV), that...Wallace Environmental Testing Laboratories, Inc. of Houston, Texas...whether nonconforming Mexican market 2007 Dodge Durango MPV's...

  19. Feasibility of frequency-modulated wireless transmission for a multi-purpose MEMS-based accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Sabato, Alessandro; Feng, Maria Q

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology have made wireless MEMS accelerometers an attractive tool for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of civil engineering structures. To date, sensors' low sensitivity and accuracy--especially at very low frequencies--have imposed serious limitations for their application in monitoring large-sized structures. Conventionally, the MEMS sensor's analog signals are converted to digital signals before radio-frequency (RF) wireless transmission. The conversion can cause a low sensitivity to the important low-frequency and low-amplitude signals. To overcome this difficulty, the authors have developed a MEMS accelerometer system, which converts the sensor output voltage to a frequency-modulated signal before RF transmission. This is achieved by using a Voltage to Frequency Conversion (V/F) instead of the conventional Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC). In this paper, a prototype MEMS accelerometer system is presented, which consists of a transmitter and receiver circuit boards. The former is equipped with a MEMS accelerometer, a V/F converter and a wireless RF transmitter, while the latter contains an RF receiver and a F/V converter for demodulating the signal. The efficacy of the MEMS accelerometer system in measuring low-frequency and low-amplitude dynamic responses is demonstrated through extensive laboratory tests and experiments on a flow-loop pipeline. PMID:25198003

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal chest pain: design of a multi-purpose trial

    PubMed Central

    Stochkendahl, Mette J; Christensen, Henrik W; Vach, Werner; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Haghfelt, Torben; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background Acute chest pain is a major health problem all over the western world. Active approaches are directed towards diagnosis and treatment of potentially life threatening conditions, especially acute coronary syndrome/ischemic heart disease. However, according to the literature, chest pain may also be due to a variety of extra-cardiac disorders including dysfunction of muscles and joints of the chest wall or the cervical and thoracic part of the spine. The diagnostic approaches and treatment options for this group of patients are scarce and formal clinical studies addressing the effect of various treatments are lacking. Methods/Design We present an ongoing trial on the potential usefulness of chiropractic diagnosis and treatment in patients dismissed from an acute chest pain clinic without a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The aims are to determine the proportion of patients in whom chest pain may be of musculoskeletal rather than cardiac origin and to investigate the decision process of a chiropractor in diagnosing these patients; further, to examine whether chiropractic treatment can reduce pain and improve physical function when compared to advice directed towards promoting self-management, and, finally, to estimate the cost-effectiveness of these procedures. This study will include 300 patients discharged from a university hospital acute chest pain clinic without a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome or any other obvious cardiac or non-cardiac disease. After completion of the clinic's standard cardiovascular diagnostic procedures, trial patients will be examined according to a standardized protocol including a) a self-report questionnaire; b) a semi-structured interview; c) a general health examination; and d) a specific manual examination of the muscles and joints of the neck, thoracic spine, and thorax in order to determine whether the pain is likely to be of musculoskeletal origin. To describe the patients status with regards to ischemic heart disease, and to compare and indirectly validate the musculoskeletal diagnosis, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is performed in all patients 2–4 weeks following discharge. Descriptive statistics including parametric and non-parametric methods will be applied in order to compare patients with and without musculoskeletal chest pain in relation to their scintigraphic findings. The decision making process of the chiropractor will be elucidated and reconstructed using the CART method. Out of the 300 patients 120 intended patients with suspected musculoskeletal chest pain will be randomized into one of two groups: a) a course of chiropractic treatment (therapy group) of up to ten treatment sessions focusing on high velocity, low amplitude manipulation of the cervical and thoracic spine, mobilisation, and soft tissue techniques. b) Advice promoting self-management and individual instructions focusing on posture and muscle stretch (advice group). Outcome measures are pain, physical function, overall health, self-perceived treatment effect, and cost-effectiveness. Discussion This study may potentially demonstrate that a chiropractor is able to identify a subset of patients suffering from chest pain predominantly of musculoskeletal origin among patients discharged from an acute chest pain clinic with no apparent cardiac condition. Furthermore knowledge about the benefits of manual treatment of patients with musculoskeletal chest pain will inform clinical decision and policy development in relation to clinical practice. Trial registration NCT00462241 and NCT00373828 PMID:18377636