Sample records for 3r multipurpose

  1. Multipurpose Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents K-12 and college multipurpose rooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm,…

  2. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  3. Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

  4. Multipurpose hardened spacecraft insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steimer, Carlos H.

    1990-01-01

    A Multipurpose Hardened Spacecraft Multilayer Insulation (MLI) system was developed and implemented to meet diverse survivability and performance requirements. Within the definition and confines of a MLI assembly (blanket), the design: (1) provides environmental protection from natural and induced nuclear, thermal, and electromagnetic radiation; (2) provides adequate electrostatic discharge protection for a geosynchronous satellite; (3) provides adequate shielding to meet radiated emission needs; and (4) will survive ascent differential pressure loads between enclosed volume and space. The MLI design is described which meets these requirements and design evolution and verification is discussed. The application is for MLI blankets which closeout the area between the laser crosslink subsystem (LCS) equipment and the DSP spacecraft cabin. Ancillary needs were implemented to ease installation at launch facility and to survive ascent acoustic and vibration loads. Directional venting accommodations were also incorporated to avoid contamination of LCS telescope, spacecraft sensors, and second surface mirrors (SSMs).

  5. Multipurpose Compact Spectrometric Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Bocarov, Viktor; Cermak, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; Stekl, Ivan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2009-11-09

    A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is multipurpose device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.

  6. Novel multipurpose timer for laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisler, W. J.; Klein, P. D.

    1969-01-01

    Multipurpose digital delay timer simultaneously controls both a buffer pump and a fraction-collector. Timing and control may be in 30-second increments for up to 15 hours. Use of glassware and scintillation vials make it economical.

  7. Multipurpose Scribing and Drawing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Two-part tool reconfigured for variety of jobs. Tool performs several functions useful in layout. Lines, curves, and angles made visible as either bright scribe marks or as dark pencil (or ink) marks. Multipurpose tool speeds up laying out of patterns on sheet metal, wood, plastic, or paper. Tool is carried in pocket, then quickly assembled for service as height gauge, pair of dividers, protractor, surface gauge, or square.

  8. Multi-purpose satellite bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakoda, Daniel; Agrawal, Brij N.

    1991-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Satellite bus (MPS) can be used for a number of payloads which may require different orbits, pointing accuracy, and electrical power consumption. Specifically, it was designed to accommodate the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and an EHF communication payload, both of which have a three-year life. The estimated beginning-of-life weight of the MPS bus is 150 kg. It can be launched by either the Pegasus ALV or the Taurus SSLV. Configuration requirements for the different missions are discussed.

  9. Multipurpose Watermarking for Image Authentication and Protection

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    Multipurpose Watermarking for Image Authentication and Protection Chun­Shien Lu and Hong­Yuan Mark­2­27824814 E­mail: flcs, liaog@iis.sinica.edu.tw Abstract We propose a novel multipurpose watermarking scheme, in which robust and fragile watermarks are simultaneously embedded, for copyright protection and content

  10. The Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelupessy, F. I.; van Elteren, A.; de Vries, N.; McMillan, S. L. W.; Drost, N.; Portegies Zwart, S. F.

    2013-09-01

    We present the open source Astrophysical Multi-purpose Software Environment (AMUSE), a component library for performing astrophysical simulations involving different physical domains and scales. It couples existing codes within a Python framework based on a communication layer using MPI. The interfaces are standardized for each domain and their implementation based on MPI guarantees that the whole framework is well-suited for distributed computation. It includes facilities for unit handling and data storage. Currently it includes codes for gravitational dynamics, stellar evolution, hydrodynamics and radiative transfer. Within each domain the interfaces to the codes are as similar as possible. We describe the design and implementation of AMUSE, as well as the main components and community codes currently supported and we discuss the code interactions facilitated by the framework. Additionally, we demonstrate how AMUSE can be used to resolve complex astrophysical problems by presenting example applications. http://www.amusecode.org The current version of the code is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/557/A84

  11. Multipurpose top for liquid helium Dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, R. S.; Anderholm, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multipurpose top was fabricated for liquid helium Dewar flask which guards against flash vaporization of liquid helium and allows boiling temperature of liquid helium to be lowered by reduction of ambient pressure in Dewar flask. Device is rugged and simple, and does not require frequent calibrations or adjustments.

  12. Miniaturized multipurpose dual UHF RFID band antenna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ali Babar; L. Ukkonen; L. Sydanheimo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the design, development and performance of a miniaturized multipurpose dual band planar antenna is discussed. This dual band antenna is destined to work on two UHF RFID bands, which are, 433MHz and the European RFID band (865MHz–868MHz). The main objective to design such an antenna was to have an antenna design having a small size, with an

  13. Typical Features of a Multipurpose Reservoir Simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Quandalle; J. C. Sabathier

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a new three-dimensional (3D), three-phase, multipurpose reservoir simulator. An extensive description is given of the dual-porosity facility. Three user-selected options available for computing the material transfers between matrix and fractures are developed and discussed. The most sophisticated option accurately accounts for the capillary, gravity, and viscous forces. A simplified thermodynamical package is also presented and examples are

  14. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? A...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects based on the uses...

  17. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? A...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects based on the uses...

  18. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? A...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects based on the uses...

  19. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? A...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects based on the uses...

  20. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. 864.5425 Section...Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification...multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device...

  1. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. 864.5425 Section...Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification...multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device...

  2. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. 864.5425 Section...Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification...multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device...

  3. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. 864.5425 Section...Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification...multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device...

  4. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. 864.5425 Section...Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification...multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device...

  5. Multipurpose Cryptographic Primitive Petr Susil and Serge Vaudenay

    E-print Network

    Candea, George

    Multipurpose Cryptographic Primitive ARMADILLO3 Petr Susil and Serge Vaudenay EPFL, Lausanne of the multipurpose cryp- tographic primitive ARMADILLO3 and analyses its security. The AR- MADILLO3 family is oriented on small hardware such as smart cards and RFID chips. The original design ARMADILLO and its

  6. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank. 9 figs.

  7. MINIS: Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS) was developed in response to the need for a data management system capable of operation on several different minicomputer systems. The desired system had to be capable of performing the functions of a LANDSAT photo descriptive data retrieval system while remaining general in terms of other acceptable user definable data bases. The system also had to be capable of performing data base updates and providing user-formatted output reports. The resultant MINI System provides all of these capabilities and several other features to complement the data management system. The MINI System is currently implemented on two minicomputer systems and is in the process of being installed on another minicomputer system. The MINIS is operational on four different data bases.

  8. pVHL: A Multipurpose Adaptor Protein

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ian J. Frew (Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich; Institute of Cell Biology REV)

    2008-06-17

    Mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene VHL occur in various inherited and sporadically occurring tumors. The protein encoded by VHL—pVHL—bears no known enzymatic activities but interacts with numerous protein partners. With the identification of distinct pVHL-containing multiprotein complexes, a refined portrait of pVHL tumor suppressor function has arisen. In general, pVHL acts as a multipurpose adaptor protein that controls a diverse array of gene expression programs, as well as extracellular matrix assembly and microtubule-based processes, by linking various target proteins to appropriate enzymatic activities. These findings provide an evermore complex but coherent view of how pVHL functions molecularly and of the consequences of dysregulation of these diverse molecular activities on tumor formation.

  9. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank.

  10. MYRRHA: A multipurpose nuclear research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeten, P.; Schyns, M.; Fernandez, Rafaël; De Bruyn, Didier; Van den Eynde, Gert

    2014-12-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a multipurpose research facility currently being developed at SCK•CEN. MYRRHA is based on the ADS (Accelerator Driven System) concept where a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical reactor are coupled. MYRRHA will demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling these three components at a reasonable power level to allow operation feedback. As a flexible irradiation facility, the MYRRHA research facility will be able to work in both critical as subcritical modes. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for GEN IV and fusion reactors, and radioisotope production for medical and industrial applications. MYRRHA will be cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic and will play an important role in the development of the Pb-alloys technology needed for the LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) GEN IV concept. MYRRHA will also contribute to the study of partitioning and transmutation of high-level waste. Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) can be completed in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, so both critical reactors and subcritical ADS are potential candidates as dedicated transmutation systems. However critical reactors heavily loaded with fuel containing large amounts of MA pose reactivity control problems, and thus safety problems. A subcritical ADS operates in a flexible and safe manner, even with a core loading containing a high amount of MA leading to a high transmutation rate. In this paper, the most recent developments in the design of the MYRRHA facility are presented.

  11. Multipurpose soft contact lens care in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Toshida, Hiroshi; Kadota, Yoshiaki; Suto, Chikako; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the use of multipurpose lens care products via an online survey conducted among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in Japan. Methods The subjects were 1000 men and women aged 15–44 years who reported that they cleaned their SCL by using multipurpose solution at least twice a week. Via the internet, they were asked questions about SCL care, the use of a rubbing step when cleaning SCL, cleaning and replacing lens cases, and recommended SCL care methods. Results Of the 1000 SCL wearers enrolled, 94.3% performed lens care every day lenses were worn, 64.2% reported rubbing the lenses every time, 57.9% rubbed the lenses for at least 10 seconds per side, and 64.7% reported they rubbed the lenses on both sides. Further, 61.2% reported that they had been given an explanation of SCL cleaning at an eye clinic or contact lens store. Only 49.8% of subjects reported that they cleaned the lens case every time and 61.7% replaced the case within 3 months. Only 19.5% had been given an explanation about lens case care. Half of the subjects reported they had been given no recommendation to use specific SCL care products or could not remember whether or not they had. The most common reason for the recommendation was good compatibility with their type of lens. Conclusion More education is needed in Japan regarding methods of SCL care to ensure correct lens cleaning with inclusion of a rubbing step, as well as sufficient cleaning and replacement of the lens case. Of particular interest is the finding that many subjects were not given an explanation about proper SCL care and lens case cleaning and replacement at the time of lens purchase or prescription. PMID:22291454

  12. Introducing DC:0-3R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the revised and updated "Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, Revised Edition (DC:0-3R)." The authors describe the impetus for developing the original diagnostic classification system for children from birth to age 3 in the 1980s. There was a need for a diagnostic…

  13. Design and fabrication of a multipurpose compliant nanopositioning architecture

    E-print Network

    Panas, Robert M. (Robert Matthew)

    2013-01-01

    This research focused on generating the knowledge required to design and fabricate a high-speed application flexible, low average cost multipurpose compliant nanopositioner architecture with high performance integrated ...

  14. 50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? Yes...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities. A...

  15. 50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? Yes...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities. A...

  16. 50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? Yes...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities. A...

  17. 50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? 80...agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities? Yes...wildlife agency must allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities. A...

  18. 47 CFR 14.5 - Waivers-Multipurpose Services and Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Waivers-Multipurpose Services and Equipment. 14.5 Section 14.5 Telecommunication...TO ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Scope... Waivers—Multipurpose Services and Equipment. (a) Waiver. (1) On...

  19. Antibody-based concepts for multipurpose prevention technologies

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Because of the versatility and specificity of monoclonal antibodies, they are candidates for multipurpose prevention technologies when formulated as topical (gels, films, rings) or injectable drugs and as vaccines. This review focuses on antibody-based proof of concept studies for the human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus and sperm. Opportunities and challenges in antibody evasion/resistance, manufacturing, regulatory, and pharmacoeconomics are discussed. This article is based on a presentation at the “Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies,” held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188703

  20. Metamodels for Planar 3R Workspace Optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C. J. (Cameron J.)

    2002-01-01

    Robotic workspace optimization is a central element of robot system design. To formulate the optimization problem, the complex relationships between design variables, tuning parameters, and performance indices need to be accurately and efficiently represented. The nature of the relationships suggests that metamodels, or models of the models, should be used to derive suitable objective functions. A comparison of two metamodeling techniques for robotic workspace optimization problems for several trial cases suggests that non-uniform rational B-spline models, derived from computer graphics and computer-aided design techniques, are as suitable as response surface models to solve planar 3R workspace optimization problems. Promising nonlinear modeling results with B-spline models suggest future work is justified and performance gains can be realized.

  1. Multipurpose portable system for environmental, industrial, and medical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abel Rolando Sierra

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation is about the research carried on developing an MPS (Multipurpose Portable System) which consists of an instrument and many accessories. The instrument is portable, hand-held, and rechargeable battery operated, and it measures temperature, absorbance, and concentration of samples by using optical principles. The system also performs auxiliary functions like incubation and mixing. This system can be used in

  2. User acceptance of Malaysian government multipurpose smartcard applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Loo; Paul H. P. Yeow; S. C. Chong

    2009-01-01

    The study explores the extent of user acceptance of the national identity card (NIC) and driving license (DL) applications embedded in the Malaysian government multipurpose smartcard (called MyKad). A research framework was developed based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. Two hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed to respondents in the Multimedia Super Corridor, Malaysia.

  3. New generation of radiacs: small computerized multipurpose radiation monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Umbarger, C.J.; Bjarke, G.O.; Erkkila, B.H.; Trujillo, F.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Health Division at Los Alamos has developed a multipurpose radiation monitoring device that is computer-controlled, lightweight (3 lb), includes multiple radiation detectors running simultaneously, and is simple to use. LCD displays indicate the various radiation parameters in both alphanumeric and graphics format. Internal batteries allow 100 hours of use.

  4. Multipurpose community telecenters for rural development in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid Mahmood

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to: assess the situation of rural population in Pakistan and information facilities available to them including telecommunications, computers and public libraries; document the community information initiatives in terms of objectives, institutional framework, staff, services, use, finance, technology and lessons learned; understand challenges and opportunities regarding the establishment of multipurpose community telecenters (MCTs) in rural areas

  5. A multipurpose fiber-fed VPHG spectrograph for LAMOST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongtian Zhu; Zhongwen Hu; Qingfeng Zhang; Lei Wang; Jianing Wang

    2006-01-01

    A multipurpose fiber-fed double-beam Schmidt spectrograph using VPHG (volume phase holographic gratings) is under construction for LAMOST (The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope). There are 16 such spectrographs (hereafter referred to as LRSs) for the project. The spectrographs are designed with wavelength coverage from 370 to 900 nm, with spectral resolutions of 1000-10000, and with multi-object capability over

  6. The 3R polymorph of CaSi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedumkandathil, Reji; Benson, Daryn E.; Grins, Jekabs; Spektor, Kristina; Häussermann, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    The Zintl phase CaSi2 commonly occurs in the 6R structure where puckered hexagon layers of Si atoms are stacked in an AA?BB?CC? fashion. In this study we show that sintering of CaSi2 in a hydrogen atmosphere (30 bar) at temperatures between 200 and 700 °C transforms 6R-CaSi2 quantitatively into 3R-CaSi2. In the 3R polymorph (space group R-3m (no. 166), a=3.8284(1), c=15.8966(4), Z=3) puckered hexagon layers are stacked in an ABC fashion. The volume per formula unit is about 3% larger compared to 6R-CaSi2. First principles density functional calculations reveal that 6R and 3R-CaSi2 are energetically degenerate at zero Kelvin. With increasing temperature 6R-CaSi2 stabilizes over 3R because of its higher entropy. This suggests that 3R-CaSi2 should revert to 6R at elevated temperatures, which however is not observed up to 800 °C. 3R-CaSi2 may be stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects. Quantitative and reproducible bulk synthesis of the rare 3R polymorph of CaSi2. Clarification of the energetic relation between 3R and conventional 6R form. 3R-CaSi2 is presumably stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects.

  7. Multi-purposed aerospace system MAKS and its outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozino-Lozinskii, G. E.; Kosinskii, Iu. M.; Skorodelov, V. A.; Plokhikh, V. P.

    1992-08-01

    The characteristics of a Russian multipurpose reusable system for two-stage orbit injections, named MAKS, are described and compared with those of Ariane V/Hermes, H2/Hope, Sanger-2, An-225/Interim HOTOL, NASP, and X-30. MAKS system comprises two stages: the basic aircraft An-225 for the first stage and a reusable orbital spacecraft with a disposable external fuel tank for the second. MAKS will have the capability of injecting into orbit payloads weighing between 7 and 9 tons.

  8. The Construction and Maintenance Plan for a Grand Banks Multi-Purpose Pipeline

    E-print Network

    Bruneau, Steve

    The Construction and Maintenance Plan for a Grand Banks Multi-Purpose Pipeline D.W. (Don) Wilson, Director, North Atlantic Pipeline Partners, L.P. NOIA 2000 Conference June, 2000 #12;Grand Banks Multi-Purpose Pipeline Route January 2000 Grand Banks of Newfoundland Newfoundland Come by Chance St. John's Argentia 50o

  9. Large-Scale Mutagenesis of the Yeast Genome Using a Tn7-Derived Multipurpose Transposon

    E-print Network

    Gerstein, Mark

    Large-Scale Mutagenesis of the Yeast Genome Using a Tn7-Derived Multipurpose Transposon Anuj Kumar-Macdonald et al. 1997). Transposon mutagenesis is scalable and, therefore, equally effective as applied insertional library of yeast genomic DNA generated by in vitro mutagenesis with a multipurpose element derived

  10. 1) Title of the paper: A MULTI-PURPOSE OBJECTIVE QUALITY METRIC FOR IMAGE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the performance of the CPA metric. The new metric includes the most important steps of Human Vi- sual System (HVSCover Page 1) Title of the paper: A MULTI-PURPOSE OBJECTIVE QUALITY METRIC FOR IMAGE WATERMARKING 2 Multi-purpose Objective Quality Metric for Image Watermarking}, booktitle = {IEEE International

  11. The effect of up-armoring of the high-mobility multi-purpose

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    The effect of up-armoring of the high-mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) on the off of the effect of up-armoring on the off-road performance of a prototypical high-mobility multipurpose-wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The paper seeks to investigate the up-armoring effect on the vehicle performance under

  12. Design of Multilayer Insulation for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlow, Weston A.

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is a critical component for future, long term space missions. These missions will require the storage of cryogenic fuels for extended periods of time with little to no boil-off and MLI is vital due to its exceptional radiation shielding properties. Several MLI test articles were designed and fabricated which explored methods of assembling and connecting blankets, yielding results for evaluation. Insight gained, along with previous design experience, will be used in the design of the replacement blanket for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is slated for upcoming tests. Future design considerations are discussed which include mechanical testing to determine robustness of such a system, as well as cryostat testing of samples to give insight to the loss of thermal performance of sewn panels in comparison to the highly efficient, albeit laborious application of the original MHTB blanket.

  13. A multipurpose fiber-fed VPHG spectrograph for LAMOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongtian; Hu, Zhongwen; Zhang, Qingfeng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jianing

    2006-06-01

    A multipurpose fiber-fed double-beam Schmidt spectrograph using VPHG (volume phase holographic gratings) is under construction for LAMOST (The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope). There are 16 such spectrographs (hereafter referred to as LRSs) for the project. The spectrographs are designed with wavelength coverage from 370 to 900 nm, with spectral resolutions of 1000-10000, and with multi-object capability over a 5 degrees field of view. Each spectrograph will be accommodating 250 fibers of 320 microns diameter (corresponding 3.3 arcsecs). The 200 mm diameter collimated beam is split into two separate channels. The blue channel is optimized for 370nm-590nm, and the red channel for 570nm-900nm. The LRS can work in several varied resolution modes. The optical design and performance is described. The spectrograph is of simple design with moderate image quality and good throughput. Progress on the construction of LRS is reported as well.

  14. Multipurpose prevention technologies: the future of HIV and STI protection.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Romero, José A; Deal, Carolyn; Herold, Betsy C; Schiller, John; Patton, Dorothy; Zydowsky, Thomas; Romano, Joe; Petro, Christopher D; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-07-01

    Every day, more than 1 million people are newly infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can lead to morbidity, mortality, and an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Existing prevention and management strategies, including behavior change, condom promotion, and therapy have not reduced the global incidence and prevalence, pointing to the need for novel innovative strategies. This review summarizes important issues raised during a satellite session at the first HIV Research for Prevention (R4P) conference, held in Cape Town, on October 31, 2014. We explore key STIs that are challenging public health today, new biomedical prevention approaches including multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs), and the scientific and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome to make combination prevention tools a reality. PMID:25759332

  15. Multipurpose Uninhabited Air Vehicle (UAV) design and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barquero, Juan P.

    A multipurpose Uninhabited Air Vehicle was designed and built for the NASA University Research Center. It is capable of carrying a payload of up to 14 lbs with an estimated endurance of 3 hours. This thesis will describe the work that was completed on the aerodynamic and preliminary structural design of the air vehicle. It will be demonstrated how the size and configuration of the airframe were chosen based on the design requirements. The detailed design process will be described to achieve initial performance and mission requirements. Although the URC has successfully constructed airframes in the past, it is the intention of this thesis to also take a different approach on alternative construction methods in an effort to reduce cost and improve aircraft performance.

  16. Plant Cell Monogr (3) R. Malh: The Pollen Tube

    E-print Network

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    Plant Cell Monogr (3) R. Malhó: The Pollen Tube DOI 10.1007/7089_043/Published online: 26 January 2006 © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006 Ions and Pollen Tube Growth Peter K. Hepler1 (u) · Alenka, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA Abstract Ions play a crucial role in the control of pollen tube growth

  17. A classification of 3R regional manipulator singularities and geometries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel W. Burdick

    1991-01-01

    3R manipulator singularities and geometries based on genericity are categorized. A recursive application of screw theory is used to generate singular configurations and provide a geometric interpretation of nongenericity. A generic manipulator classification scheme based on homotopy class is introduced. Nongeneric geometries are interpreted as bifurcations of generic geometries with respect to kinematic parameter values. Some conjectures on the classes

  18. Proceedings of the 3 r d Conferenceon Decision and Control

    E-print Network

    Proceedings of the 3 r d Conferenceon Decision and Control Lake Buena Vista, FL - December 1994 WM-13 1130 Static Output Feedback: A Survey V.L. Syrmos' Dpt. of Electr. Engineering University, or determine that such a feed- back does not exist. This paper attempts to survey the state of knowledge

  19. AVCOAT Density Characterization for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E. D.; Santos, J. A.; Bose, D.; Vander Kam, J.

    2014-06-01

    Post flight TPS analysis will be conducted on the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. The material characterization includes density profiling through the AVCOAT TPS thickness. Results help to further development more accurate TPS response models.

  20. Development of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) coatings for multipurpose mechanical pump seals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Kovalchenko; J. W. Elam; A. Erdemir; J. A. Carlisle; O. Auciello; J. A. Libera; M. J. Pellin; D. M. Gruen; J. N. Hryn

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and performance of silicon carbide (SiC) shaft seals on multipurpose mechanical pumps are improved by applying a protective coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). UNCD exhibits extreme hardness (97GPa), low friction (0.1 in air) and outstanding chemical resistance. Consequently, the application of UNCD coatings to multipurpose mechanical pump seals can reduce frictional energy losses and eliminate the downtime and

  1. Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a crew will be living and working in microgravity, interfacing with their physical environment. Without optimum restraints and mobility aids (R&MA' s), the crewmembers may be handicapped for perfonning some of the on-orbit tasks. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity area and may cause prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Thus, determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment are crucial to astronauts' well-being and productivity. The purpose of this project is to develop requirements and guidelines, and conceptual designs, for an ergonomically designed multi-purpose crew restraint. In order to achieve this goal, the project would involve development of functional and human factors requirements, design concept prototype development, analytical and computer modeling evaluations of concepts, two sets of micro gravity evaluations and preparation of an implementation plan. It is anticipated that developing functional and design requirements for a multi-purpose restraint would facilitate development of ergonomically designed restraints to accommodate the off-nominal but repetitive tasks, and minimize the performance degradation due to lack of optimum setup for onboard task performance. In addition, development of an ergonomically designed restraint concept prototype would allow verification and validation of the requirements defined. To date, we have identified "unique" tasks and areas of need, determine characteristics of "ideal" restraints, and solicit ideas for restraint and mobility aid concepts. Focus group meetings with representatives from training, safety, crew, human factors, engineering, payload developers, and analog environment representatives were key to assist in the development of a restraint concept based on previous flight experiences, the needs of future tasks, and crewmembers' preferences. Also, a catalog with existing IVA/EVA restraint and mobility aids has been developed. Other efforts included the ISS crew debrief data on restraints, compilation of data from MIR, Skylab and ISS on restraints, and investigating possibility of an in-flight evaluation of current restraint systems. Preliminary restraint concepts were developed and presented to long duration crewmembers and focus groups for feedback. Currently, a selection criterion is being refined for prioritizing the candidate concepts. Next steps include analytical and computer modeling evaluations of the selected candidate concepts, prototype development, and microgravity evaluations.

  2. ON DIRECT PRODUCT SUBGROUPS OF SO3(R)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIEGO RATTAGGI

    Let G1× G2 be a subgroup of SO3(R) such that the two factors G1 and G2 are non-trivial groups. We show that if G1 × G2 is not abelian, then one factor is the (abelian) group of order 2, and the other factor is non- abelian and contains an element of order 2. There exist finite and infinite such non-abelian

  3. M3R AESA technology for extended air defence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odile Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This focuses on the M3R Active Electronically Steered Antenna (AESA) System and will describe how this AESA is a step toward a fully digitized antenna with a receiver and an A\\/D-converter behind every antenna element and a full digital beam forming without using analogue sub arrays. First, it will be explained why Extended Air Defence (that is Air and Missile

  4. M3R AESA technology for Extended Air Defence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odile Adrian; Surface Radar

    2008-01-01

    This paper focus on the M3R active electronically steered antenna (AESA) system and will describe how this AESA is a step towards a fully digitized antenna with a receiver and an A\\/D-converter behind every antenna element and a full digital beam forming without using analogue sub arrays. First, it will be explained why extended air defence (that is Air and

  5. Coupling Algorithm for Sp(3 , R) Irreducible Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Germaine-Fuller, James F.; McCoy, Anna E.; Caprio, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    The nuclear symplectic model based on Sp(3 , R) - the smallest algebra that contains both the shell model Hamiltonian and the rotor algebra - connects the microscopic shell model to collective rotational behavior and naturally extends the Elliot SU(3) model to multiple shells. However, Sp(3 , R) is only an approximate symmetry of the nucleus which can be broken by spin-orbit interactions, tensor force interactions, and pairing. The Hamiltonians in most physical situations will break Sp(3 , R) symmetry, causing their eigenstates to become linear combinations of symplectic irreducible representations (irreps). Calculations with those eigenstates will then involve multiple irreps. We report a computer algorithm for enumerating the irreps that arise from the coupling of two symplectice irreps and evaluating their multiplicities in the product. This should assist in performing such multi-irrep calculations and facilitate computing symplectic coupling coefficients. Supported by the US NSF under Grant NSF-PHY05-52843, the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-95ER-40934, and the Research Corporation for Science Advancement under a Cottrell Scholar Award.

  6. Multipurpose explosive (MPX) drum-shaped packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    In fiscal year 1993, the Transportation Management Division of the US Department of Energy sponsored an engineering study, completed by Westinghouse Hanford Company, to examine the viability of a generic packaging design able to satisfy multiple explosives packaging needs. Engineering study results indicated that a box-shaped and drum-shaped (allowable outer packaging shapes) multipurpose explosive (MPX) packaging would mitigate the impact of US Department of Transportation (DOT) Docket HM-181. The MPX packaging concept was for a multi-modal, reusable outer packaging to facilitate the transport of prepackaged solid explosives, most of which are in obsolete pre-HM-181 specification packagings, inside of the MPX packaging. This document sets forth the design criteria for the drum-shaped MPX packaging. These design criteria delineate minimum functional and regulation mandated requirements for the MPX drum-shaped packaging. Functional requirements are derived from US Department of Energy site personnel involved in explosives manufacturing and shipping. Regulatory requirements are derived from DOT and International Air Transport Association transport regulations, enabling the MPX packaging to be used by commercial carriers in either highway or air transportation modes.

  7. STS-102 Onboard Photograph Inside Multipurpose Logistics Module, Leonardo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Pilot James M. Kelly (left) and Commander James D. Wetherbee for the STS-102 mission, participate in the movement of supplies inside Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). In this particular photograph, the two are handling a film magazine for the IMAX cargo bay camera. The primary cargo of the STS-102 mission, the Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth station assembly flight, the STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  8. Multipurpose Logistics Module, Leonardo, Rests in Discovery's Payload Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This in-orbit close up shows the Italian Space Agency-built multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), Leonardo, the primary cargo of the STS-102 mission, resting in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth station assembly flight and NASA's 103rd overall flight, STS-102 launched March 8, 2001 for an almost 13 day mission.

  9. Multipurpose active pixel sensor (APS)-based microtracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl C.; Zhu, David Q.

    1998-12-01

    A new, photon-sensitive, imaging array, the active pixel sensor (APS) has emerged as a competitor to the CCD imager for use in star and target trackers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has undertaken a program to develop a new generation, highly integrated, APS-based, multipurpose tracker: the Programmable Intelligent Microtracker (PIM). The supporting hardware used in the PIM has been carefully selected to enhance the inherent advantages of the APS. Adequate computation power is included to perform star identification, star tracking, attitude determination, space docking, feature tracking, descent imaging for landing control, and target tracking capabilities. Its first version uses a JPL developed 256 X 256-pixel APS and an advanced 32-bit RISC microcontroller. By taking advantage of the unique features of the APS/microcontroller combination, the microtracker will achieve about an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass and power consumption compared to present state-of-the-art star trackers. It will also add the advantage of programmability to enable it to perform a variety of star, other celestial body, and target tracking tasks. The PIM is already proving the usefulness of its design concept for space applications. It is demonstrating the effectiveness of taking such an integrated approach in building a new generation of high performance, general purpose, tracking instruments to be applied to a large variety of future space missions.

  10. World: A multipurpose GPS-network computer package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafarend, Erik W.; Lindlohr, Wolfgang

    WORLD is a multipurpose package to compute geodetic positions in geometry and gravity space. Here undifferenced GPS carrier beat phase observations are processed in the free network mode, namely by the prototype program called PUMA. Within two alternative model formulations, the classical Gauß-Markov Model and the so-called Mixed Model, simultaneously estimated / predicted parameters are those of type (i) Cartesian ground station coordinates (geodetic positioning), (ii) Cartesian satellite coordinates (orbit determination), (iii) receiver- and satellite-specific bias terms, (iv) initial epoch ambiguities and (v) proportional tropospheric corrections. The Mixed Model parameters appear from linearization as a point of stochastic prior information. Namely the weight matrices of stochastic prior information, e.g. for orbit parameters, is assumed to be known. Estimators of type BLUE and predictors of type inhom BLIP and hom BLUP are used. Chapter four discusses in all detail the real analysis of GPS satellite networks of free type. Most notable are the estimated bias terms ?, ?, ?, in a twofold classification model. The operability of PUMA is demonstrated by the use of multistation phase observations (Wild-Magnavox WM 101-receivers) in a local Berlin network (six station network). It is documented that in spite of the advanced phase observation modelling an internal relative baseline accuracy (utmost length 30 km) of the order of 3 to 5 ppm is achievable. In addition, the influence of orbital prior information on ground station measures, point position as well as accuracy, is demonstrated.

  11. Nonclinical safety evaluation of boric acid and a novel borate-buffered contact lens multi-purpose solution, Biotrue™ multi-purpose solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Lehmann; Megan E. Cavet; Mary E. Richardson

    Multipurpose solutions (MPS) often contain low concentrations of boric acid as a buffering agent. Limited published literature has suggested that boric acid and borate-buffered MPS may alter the corneal epithelium; an effect attributed to cytotoxicity induced by boric acid. However, this claim has not been substantiated. We investigated the effect of treating cells with relevant concentrations of boric acid using

  12. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

  13. Emergy evaluation perspectives of a multipurpose dam proposal in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daeseok; Park, Seok Soon

    2002-11-01

    The 'emergy' concept was used to evaluate the economy of Korea and the contributions of a multipurpose dam proposal to the real wealth of the Korean economy. Emergy is defined as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a product or service. The indices for Korea calculated from the emergy evaluation were close to those of developed countries. Even though its monetary balance of payments was negative in 1997, the economy of Korea showed positive balance in trade when exports and imports were expressed in emergy. The emergy evaluation showed that the Korean economy places a large stress on its environment. Water supply and generation of electricity were the most important contributions of the proposed dam in terms of emergy; 46.5 and 45.1% of the total benefit, respectively. Flood control contributed 8.4% of the total benefit. Major costs associated with the proposed dam were from sediments (33.2% of the total cost), construction services (22.8%), and social disruption of the region (21.6%). In terms of emergy, the ratio of benefits to costs of the proposed dam was 2.78 if sediments are not included, and 1.86 if sediments are included, which result in more benefits than costs in both cases. The benefit to cost ratio of the dam was larger than that of the current system (1.42) without the dam whether sediments are included in the total cost or not. The environmental stress of the proposed dam was considerably lower than that of the Korean economy, but the dam might increase stress on local environment. PMID:12448407

  14. kVp estimate intercomparison between Unfors XI, Radcal 4075 and a new CDTN multipurpose instrument.

    PubMed

    Baptista Neto, A T; Oliveira, B B; Faria, L O

    2015-06-01

    In this work we compare the kVp estimate between CDTN multipurpose instrument, UnforsXI and Radcal 4075 meters under different combinations of voltage and filtration. The non-invasively measurements made using x-ray diagnostic and interventional radiology devices show similar tendencies to increase the kVp estimate when aluminum filters are placed in the path of the x-ray beam. The results reveal that the kVp estimate made by the CDTN multipurpose instrument is always satisfactory for highly filtered beam intensities. PMID:25481523

  15. Aligning product development and user perspectives: social-behavioural dimensions of multipurpose prevention technologies.

    PubMed

    Brady, M; Tolley, E

    2014-10-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies provide a compelling response to the multiple and reinforcing sexual and reproductive health risks faced by women globally. To ensure that this potential is realised, product-specific characteristics and their social-behavioural correlates must be considered early in the product development process. This paper provides an overview of the key user-related social and behavioural dimensions of three broad categories of multipurpose prevention technologies: 1) sustained release vaginal rings, 2) pericoital vaginal products, and 3) co-formulated or co-administered injectables. The authors build upon the broad parameters of Target Product Profiles for such products, aligning them with user perspective considerations. PMID:25335843

  16. Evaluation of the gait performance of above-knee amputees while walking with 3R20 and 3R15 knee joints

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, AliReza; Karimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The performance of the subjects with above-knee amputation is noticeably poorer than normal subjects. Various types of components have been designed to compensate their performance. Among various prosthetic components, the knee joint has great influence on the function. Two types of knee joints (3R15, 3R20) have been used broadly for above-knee prostheses. However, there is not enough research to highlight the influence of these joints on the gait performance of the subjects. Therefore, an aim of this research was to investigate the performance of the above-knee amputees while walking with 3R15 and 3R20 knee joints. Materials and Methods: 7 above-knee amputees were recruited in this research study. They were asked to walk with a comfortable speed to investigate the gait function of the subjects with 3 cameras 3D motion analysis system (Kinematrix system). The difference between the performances of the subjects with these joints was compared by use of paired t-test. Results: The results of this study showed that, the performances of the subjects with 3R20 were better than that with 3R15. The walking speed of the subjects with 3R20 was 66.7 m/min compared to 30.4 m/min (P-value = 0.045). Moreover; the symmetry of walking with 3R20 was more than that with 3R15, based on the spatio- temporal gait parameters values (P-value <0.05). Conclusion: The difference between the performances of the subjects with 3R20 and 3R15 knee joints was related to the walking speed, which improved while walking with 3R20 joint. PMID:23267378

  17. Tear cytokine response to multipurpose solutions for contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Kalsow, Carolyn M; Reindel, William T; Merchea, Mohinder M; Bateman, Kirk M; Barr, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An increased risk of corneal infiltrative events has been noted with the use of certain contact lenses and multipurpose solutions (MPS). This study was designed to evaluate tear cytokine assay as a sensitive, objective, and quantitative measure of the ocular surface response to contact lens/MPS and to consider the assay’s clinical relevance in the context of other measures of ocular surface response. Methods Two MPS, ReNu® Fresh™ (RNF) and Opti-Free® RepleniSH (OFR), were used with daily wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses in a randomized, prospective crossover study involving 26 subjects. Clinical data collection (conjunctival hyperemia, ocular surface sensitivity, solution induced corneal staining (SICS) test score, and subjective responses) and tear cytokine assays were conducted masked. Responses were tracked as change from baseline throughout the experimental schedule. Results Similar response patterns for several inflammatory cytokines were seen throughout both phases: subjects who received OFR in Phase I had mean tear concentrations that were generally higher than those of the RNF Phase I group. OFR Phase I subjects had significant (P < 0.01) increases over baseline at day 1 and/or following washout for 13 cytokines (cc chemokine ligands [CCL] 3, CCL5, CCL11, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], interferon [INF]-?, interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-?). These changes were not observed in RNF Phase I subjects, even though SICS test scores increased. Phase I OFR subjects also had increased dryness, while RNF Phase I subjects had decreased bulbar hyperemia. No changes were detected with respect to limbal hyperemia or surface sensitivity thresholds. Conclusion The tear cytokine assay can detect and differentiate contact lens/MPS induced increases in inflammatory cytokines. Changes in cytokine levels were consistent with measurement of hyperemia and dryness but not with SICS scores, thereby suggesting a proinflammatory response to OFR compared to RNF that is not related to SICS test score. Tear cytokine profiles may be useful for reconciling clinical relevance of test results and in revealing signaling involved in the development of corneal infiltrative events. PMID:23847409

  18. Dynamic versus static allocation policies in multipurpose multireservoir systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.; van der Zaag, P.

    2007-12-01

    As the competition for water is likely to increase in the near future due to socioeconomic development and population growth, water resources managers will face hard choices when allocating water between competing users. Because water is a vital resource used in multiple sectors, including the environment, the allocation is inherently a political and social process, which is likely to become increasingly scrutinized as the competition grows between the different sectors. Since markets are usually absent or ineffective, the allocation of water between competing demands is achieved administratively taking into account key objectives such as economic efficiency, equity and maintaining the ecological integrity. When crop irrigation is involved, water is usually allocated by a system of annual rights to use a fixed, static, volume of water. In a fully-allocated basin, moving from a static to a dynamic allocation process, whereby the policies are regularly updated according to the hydrologic status of the river basin, is the first step towards the development of river basin management strategies that increase the productivity of water. More specifically, in a multipurpose multireservoir system, continuously adjusting release and withdrawal decisions based on the latest hydrologic information will increase the benefits derived from the system. However, the extent to which such an adjustment can be achieved results from complex spatial and temporal interactions between the physical characteristics of the water resources system (storage, natural flows), the economic and social consequences of rationing and the impacts on natural ecosystems. The complexity of the decision-making process, which requires the continuous evaluation of numerous trade-offs, calls for the use of integrated hydrologic-economic models. This paper compares static and dynamic management approaches for a cascade of hydropower-irrigation reservoirs using stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) formulations. As its name indicates, SDDP is an extension of SDP that removes the curse of dimensionality found in discrete SDP and can therefore be used to analyze large-scale water resources systems. For the static approach, the multiobjective (irrigation-hydropower) optimization problem is solved using the constraint method, i.e. net benefits from hydropower generation are maximized and irrigation water withdrawals are additional constraints. In the dynamic approach, the SDDP model seeks to maximize the net benefits of both hydropower and irrigation crop production. A cascade of 8 reservoirs in the Turkish and Syrian parts of the Euphrates river basin is used as a case study.

  19. Recommendations for Use of SQ3R in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Ronald C.; Hensley, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed descriptions found in 12 introductory psychology textbooks on the recommended use of SQ3R for improving reading in order to determine whether such descriptions reflect issues and concerns found in the SQ3R literature. We classified sample questions to determine the types of questions that are suggested to guide use of SQ3R. A majority…

  20. Multipurpose electric furnace system. [for use in Apollo-Soyuz Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazelsky, R.; Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Johnson, R. A.; Mchugh, J. P.; Foust, H. C.; Piotrowski, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    A multipurpose electric furnace system of advanced design for space applications was developed and tested. This system is intended for use in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program. It consists of the furnace, control package and a helium package for rapid cooldown.

  1. AlAA 92-0980 Design of Multipurpose Spacecraft BUS

    E-print Network

    . The spacecraft bus uses three- axis stabilization consisting of three reaction wheel system. The electric power differences in orbit, yaw axis control, attitude pointing, and thermal control requirements. The AVHRR payloadAlAA 92-0980 Design of Multipurpose Spacecraft BUS 6. N. Agrawal Naval Postgraduate School Monterey

  2. Development of a multipurpose fruit and vegetable processor for a manned mission to Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Voit; M. R. Santos; R. Paul Singh

    2006-01-01

    Current plans for long duration space missions anticipate the need for self-sustaining habitats, which would include plants for food and atmospheric reprocessing. Growth of food, in turn, necessitates a food processing element. A multipurpose fruit and vegetable processor (MFVP) was designed and built for this purpose by comparing potential technologies using equivalent system mass (ESM) impact, a NASA metric. As

  3. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL NUMBER DENSITIES FOR MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER CRITICALITY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Thomas

    1996-01-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the number densities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be used in criticality evaluations of the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) waste packages. The objective of this analysis is to provide material number density information which will be referenced by future MPC criticality design analyses, such as for those supporting the Conceptual Design Report.

  4. Powerful, multi-purpose platform assists miners and enables mining in hazardous

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Abhinav

    levels. Improves mine safety, efficiency and productivity. HIGH-MOBILITY MINING PLATFORM Robotic Mining Visual sensors help operators align machines and measure progress. Improves mine safety, efficiencyPowerful, multi-purpose platform assists miners and enables mining in hazardous areas and at deeper

  5. Integrating three representation models in fuzzy multipurpose decision making based on fuzzy preference relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Chiclana; F. Herrera; E. Herrera-Viedma

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study a fuzzy multipurpose decision making problem, where the information about the alternatives provided by the experts can be of a diverse nature. the information can be represented by means of preference orderings, utility functions and fuzzy preference relations, and our objective is to establish a general model which cover all possible representations.

  6. Engineering a Multi-Purpose Test Collection for Web Retrieval Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Peter; Craswell, Nick; Hawking, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes a test collection that was developed as a multi-purpose testbed for experiments on the Web in distributed information retrieval, hyperlink algorithms, and conventional ad hoc retrieval. Discusses inter-server connectivity, integrity of server holdings, inclusion of documents related to a wide spread of likely queries, and distribution of…

  7. A Multipurpose Audio Watermarking Algorithm Based on Vector Quantization in DCT Domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jixin Liu; Zheming Lu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a novel multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm is proposed based on Vector Quantization (VQ) in Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain using the codeword labeling and index-bit constrained method. By using this algorithm, it can fulfill the requirements of both the copyright protection and content integrity authentication at the same time for the multimedia artworks. The robust watermark is

  8. MFOX-Technology, transceiver design and performance. [Multipurpose Fiber Optic Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Channin, Donald J.

    1987-01-01

    The multipurpose fiber optic transceiver (MFOX) family of fiber-optic transceivers will provide standard, military-qualified off-the-shelf transmitters and receivers for ground-based tactical fiber-optic communications. The author describes these units and their capabilities for diverse military applications.

  9. DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE-STEEL CERMETS FOR SPENT-NUCLEAR-FUEL MULTIPURPOSE CASKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W. Forsberg; M. Jonathan Haire

    An alternative spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management system is proposed for the U.S. Department of Energy and utility SNF that uses multipurpose casks made of a depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermet. The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is designed for SNF received in transport casks. The SNF assemblies or SNF in baskets are transferred to repository waste packages that, in turn,

  10. A Model for a Linked System of Multi-Purpose Reservoirs with Stochastic Inflows and Demands

    E-print Network

    Curry, G. L.; Helm, J. C.; Clark, R. A.

    In Chapter I of this report a model of a single multi-purpose reservoir with stochastic inflows is addressed. The objective of the model is the development of an optimal operating policy for given time sequence of minimum and maximum reservoir...

  11. A HIGH-PERFORMANCE MULTI-PURPOSE DSP ARCHITECTURE FOR SIGNAL PROCESSING RESEARCH

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    A HIGH-PERFORMANCE MULTI-PURPOSE DSP ARCHITECTURE FOR SIGNAL PROCESSING RESEARCH Scott A. Morrison@ecel.ufl.edu ABSTRACT This paper presents a powerful and flexible Digital Signal Processing (DSP) architecture based on the Texas Instruments TMS320VC33 DSP and high speed PCI bus. The DSP board provides a convenient, flexible

  12. Integrating stand and landscape decisions for multi-purposes of forest harvesting

    E-print Network

    Song, Bo

    . An index called Priority Order is used to sort out all the selected forest stands with the three optionsIntegrating stand and landscape decisions for multi-purposes of forest harvesting Guofan Shaoa of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, Georgetown, SC 29442, USA Abstract Forests

  13. Engineering a multi-purpose test collection for Web retrieval experiments

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    quantities of dark matter (Bailey, Craswell, & Hawking, 2000) due to Web page access restrictions, to lackEngineering a multi-purpose test collection for Web retrieval experiments Peter Bailey a,*, Nick methods for the Web has been restricted by the lack of a test collection capable of supporting experiments

  14. Multipurpose Mobility Services for the Future Internet Francisco A. Gonzalez-Horta, 1

    E-print Network

    Mejia-Alvarez, Pedro

    1 Multipurpose Mobility Services for the Future Internet Francisco A. Gonzalez-Horta, 1 Pedro Mejia Internet. Current solutions provide mobility services, such as seamless mobility, adaptive mobility, always mobility 1. Introduction The Future Internet denotes a communication system that is present anywhere

  15. Zone Management of Multi-Purpose Use of Groundwater Via Spatial Variability Analysis of Water Quality and Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C. P.; Chen, C. F.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is comprehensively used for irrigation, aquaculture and public water supply in Pingtung plain. Establishing a sound management plan of multi-purpose groundwater utilization in Pingtung plain is imperial for water resources sustainability. When extracting groundwater for such multi-purpose use, the major concerns are to assure the meets for the different water quality standards for various water use sectors demand and minimizing the pumping impacts on aquifers. The groundwater quality and hydrogeological conditions play important roles in multi-purpose groundwater utilization. Management and effective use of groundwater typically face great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study combines the variability of groundwater quality and hydrological condition to propose zonal management of multi-purpose use of groundwater in Pingtung plain. Based on the water quality standards for various groundwater utilization sectors, the integration of hydrochemical parameters are used to delineate most appropriate zones of various groundwater utilization sectors. For evaluation of hydrogeological condition, transmissivity which represents the ability of water transmitted in aquifer is adopted to determine the most suitable zones of groundwater extraction. Based on the analytical results of the water quality parameters and transmissivity in combination with actual groundwater utilization, a zonal management plan of multi-purpose groundwater utilization is established. The framework in this project can provide an effective tool for government administrator establishing a zonal management of multi-purpose groundwater utilization in Pingtung plain.

  16. Multipurpose Controller with EPICS integration and data logging: BPM application for ESS Bilbao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, I.; del Campo, M.; Echevarria, P.; Jugo, J.; Etxebarria, V.

    2013-10-01

    This work presents a multipurpose configurable control system which can be integrated in an EPICS control network, this functionality being configured through a XML configuration file. The core of the system is the so-called Hardware Controller which is in charge of the control hardware management, the set up and communication with the EPICS network and the data storage. The reconfigurable nature of the controller is based on a single XML file, allowing any final user to easily modify and adjust the control system to any specific requirement. The selected Java development environment ensures a multiplatform operation and large versatility, even regarding the control hardware to be controlled. Specifically, this paper, focused on fast control based on a high performance FPGA, describes also an application approach for the ESS Bilbao's Beam Position Monitoring system. The implementation of the XML configuration file and the satisfactory performance outcome achieved are presented, as well as a general description of the Multipurpose Controller itself.

  17. Smart Aggregates: a Distributed Intelligent Multi-purpose Sensor Network (DIMSN) for Civil Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gangbing Song; Haichang Gu; Y. L. Mo

    2007-01-01

    Early-age strength monitoring, impact detection, and structural health monitoring are important issues for concrete structures, especially concrete infrastructures such as bridges. A distributed intelligent multi-purpose sensor network (DIMSN) using innovative piezoelectric-based smart aggregates is proposed in this paper to address these important issues. The smart aggregate is fabricated by embedding a water-proofed piezoelectric patch into a small concrete block. The

  18. Performance evaluation of the BSRC multi-purpose bio-climatic roof

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Waewsak; J. Hirunlabh; J. Khedari; U. C. Shin

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental investigation of the performance of a new multi-purpose bio-climatic roof (BCR) developed by our teamwork (The Building Scientific Research Center, BSRC). The innovative functions of this BSRC-BCR are to decrease daily heat gain through the roof fabrics, to induce significant air ventilation rate, which improves the thermal comfort of residents, to ensure appropriate daylighting without

  19. Development of a high-current microwave ion source for Korean Multipurposed Accelerator (abstract)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Hwang; I. S. Hong; H. J. Kim; G. S. Eom; Y. S. Cho; B. H. Choi

    1998-01-01

    A high-current, proton linear accelerator, named as Korean multipurposed accelerator (KOMAC), is being proposed mainly for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). High-current, low emittance continuous power (cw) linear accelerators favor electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave ion sources as an injector (Ref. 1). Recently, these microwave sources are developed and constructed by several institutes especially

  20. Assessment of fodder quality of leaves of multipurpose trees in subtropical humid climate of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chander Datt; M. Datta; N. P. Singh

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of 12 species (Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia procera, Dalbergia sissoo, Gliricidia maculata, Leucaena leucocephala, Samanea saman, Azadirachta\\u000a indica, Eucalyptus hybrida, Gmelina arborea, Michelia champaca, Morus alba, and Tectona grandis) of Multipurpose trees and shrubs (MPTs) grown in the agroforestry arboretum were evaluated for their nutritional characteristics\\u000a in terms of proximate composition, cell wall constituents, total tannins, major (Ca and

  1. Engineering a multi-purpose test collection for Web retrieval experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bailey; Nick Craswell; David Hawking

    2003-01-01

    Past research into text retrieval methods for the Web has been restricted by the lack of a test collection capable of supporting experiments which are both realistic and reproducible. The 1.69 million document WT10g collection is proposed as a multi-purpose testbed for experiments with these attributes, in distributed IR, hyperlink algorithms and conventional ad hoc retrieval.WT10g was constructed by selecting

  2. The design and experiment of multi-purpose miscellaneous crops harvester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Ji-liang; Wang Jian-zheng

    2010-01-01

    In view of the mechanization degree of miscellaneous crops harvest is in bad situation at present, 4GL-1.80 multi-purpose miscellaneous crops harvester is designed . The results of the field test and the productivity experiment show that the average velocity is 1.0~1.2 m\\/s, the transportation tape speed is 2.09 m\\/s, cutting height is 45 mm, the average oil consumption is 1.37kg\\/hm2,

  3. Multi-purpose sulphur-sodium cell and mockup battery of twelve cells for electric car

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. V. Nikolaev; V. I. Vbyvanets; V. S. Suganeev; D. N. Dzhalandinov; A. P. Belousenko; V. N. Fedorova

    1996-01-01

    The report provides results of electrical tests of multipurpose cells and electric car mockup battery of twelve cells. It is shown that, sulphur-sodium accumulators, being produced at STC “ISTOK”, have adequate reliability in testing under electric car batteries conditions. They withstand discharge current of up to 1.0 A\\/cm2 density and demonstrate consistent characteristics at operating current densities of 0.1-0.3 A\\/cm2.

  4. Growth of ten multipurpose tree species on acid soils in Sangmelima, Cameroon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Duguma; J. Tonye; J. Kanmegne; T. Manga; T. Enoch

    1994-01-01

    Ten multipurpose tree species were planted both in monoculture and intercropped withArachis hypogea (groundnut) in a randomized complete block with three replications. The vigrou, biomass, nutrient content, and coppicing percentage of the trees were evaluated. Intercropping with groundnuts during the establishment phase did not affect subsequent growth and development of the species.Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Calliandra calothyrsus andParaserianthes

  5. The Multi-Module, Multi-Resolution (M3 R) SPECT System

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    the challenges presented by M3R's unique system design. This work involved the development of a fast maximum apertures for certain tasks [3]. M3R has proven itself as a useful research tool, enabling the evaluation and improvement of SPECT apertures and serving as a testbed for a variety of image-quality studies. References [1

  6. CSF3R and CALR mutations in paediatric myeloid disorders and the association of CSF3R mutations with translocations, including t(8; 21).

    PubMed

    Sano, Hitoshi; Ohki, Kentaro; Park, Myoung-Ja; Shiba, Norio; Hara, Yusuke; Sotomatsu, Manabu; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Taga, Takashi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Tawa, Akio; Horibe, Keizo; Adachi, Souichi; Hayashi, Yasuhide

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) and calreticulin (CALR) genes have been reported in a proportion of adults with myeloproliferative disease. However, little is known about CSF3R or CALR mutations in paediatric myeloid disorders. We analysed CSF3R exons 14 and 17, and CALR exon 9, using direct sequencing in samples of paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML; n = 521), juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML; n = 40), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 20) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET; n = 21). CSF3R mutations were found in 10 (1·92%) of 521 patients with AML; two in exon 14 (both missense mutations resulting in p.T618I) and eight in exon 17 (three frameshift mutations: p.S715X, p.Q774R, and p.S783Q; and five novel missense mutations: p.Q754K, p.R769H, p.L777F, p.T781I, and S795R). All of the patients with mutations in CSF3R exon 17 had chromosomal translocations, including four with t(8;21). At the time of reporting, seven of these ten patients are alive; three have died, due to side effects of chemotherapy. No CSF3R mutations were found in cases of MDS, JMML or ET. The only mutation found in the CALR gene was a frameshift (p.L367 fs) in one ET patient. We discuss the potential impact of these findings for the leukaemogenesis and clinical features of paediatric myeloid disorders. PMID:25858548

  7. The structural analysis of Cu(111)-Te ?{3}×?{3}R30° and 2?{3}×2?{3}R30° surface phases by quantitative LEED and DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, M.; Chaudhuri, A.; Pussi, K.; Hesp, D.; McLeod, I. M.; Dhanak, V. R.; King, M. O.; Kadodwala, M.; MacLaren, D. A.

    2014-04-01

    The chemisorption of tellurium on atomically clean Cu(111) surface has been studied under ultra-high vacuum conditions. At room temperature, the initial stage of growth was an ordered 2?{3}×2?{3}R30° phase (0.08 ML). An ordered ?{3}×?{3}R30° phase is formed at 0.33 ML coverage of Te. The adsorption sites of the Te atoms on the Cu(111) surface at 0.08 ML and 0.33 ML coverages are explored by quantitative low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and density functional theory (DFT). Our results indicate that substitutional surface alloy formation starts at very low coverages.

  8. The Multi-Purpose Detector for NICA heavy-Ion Collider at JINR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogachevsky, O. V.

    2012-05-01

    The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is designed to study heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna. Its main components located inside a superconducting solenoid are a tracking system composed of a silicon microstrip vertex detector followed by a large volume time-projection chamber, a time-of-flight system for particle identification and a barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. A zero degree hadron calorimeter is designed specifically to measure the energy of spectators. In this paper, all parts of the apparatus are described and their tracking and particle identification parameters are discussed in some detail.

  9. Accumulation of spatial charge in the time projection chamber of a multipurpose detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merts, S. P.; Razin, S. V.; Rogachevskii, O. V.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a numerical simulation of the process of spatial positive charge accumulation in the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of the multipurpose detector (MPD) at Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). Based on the spatial distribution of the charges, the problem of calculating the potential of the electrostatic field created by these charges has been solved. The radial, angular, and axial distortions in the electron motions from the point of ionization to the readout planes are calculated.

  10. The Multi-Purpose Detector for JINR heavy-ion collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razin, Stepan

    2014-07-01

    The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is designed to study heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna. The detector will comprise a superconducting solenoid equipped with three dimensional tracking system composed of a silicon microstrip vertex detector followed by a large volume time-projection chamber and a particle identification system based on time-of flight measurements and calorimetry. In this paper a few parts of apparatus are described and their tracking and particle identification parameters are discussed in some detail.

  11. Neutronics analysis of the proposed 25-MW leu TRIGA Multipurpose Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nurdin, M.; Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    More than two years ago the government of Indonesia announced plans to purchase a research reactor for the Puspiptek Research Center in Serpong Indonesia to be used for isotope production, materials testing, neutron physics measurements, and reactor operator training. Reactors using low-enriched uranium (LEU) plate-type and rod-type fuel elements were considered. This paper deals with the neutronic evaluation of the rod-type 25-MW LEU TRIGA Multipurpose Research Reactor (MPRR) proposed by the General Atomic Company of the United States of America.

  12. Materials Processing Facility and Multipurpose Furnace System - Skylab Experiments M512 and M518

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This photograph shows the Skylab Materials Processing Facility (M512) and the Multipurpose Furnace System (M518). This facility, located in the Multiple Docking Adapter, was developed for Skylab and accommodated 14 different experiments that were carried out during the three marned missions. The abilities to melt and mix without the contaminating effects of containers, to suppress thermal convection and buoyancy in fluids, and to take advantage of electrostatic and magnetic forces and otherwise masked by gravitation opened the way to new knowledge of material properties and processes. This beginning would ultimately lead to the production of valuable new materials for use on Earth.

  13. Materials Processing Facility and Multipurpose Furnace System - Skylab Experiments M512 and M518

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This photograph shows the Skylab Materials Processing Facility (M512) and the Multipurpose Furnace System (M518). This facility, located in the Multiple Docking Adapter, was developed for Skylab,and accommodated 14 different experiments that were carried out during the three marned missions. The abilities to melt and mix without the contaminating effects of containers, to suppress thermal convection and buoyancy in fluids, and to take advantage of electrostatic and magnetic forces and otherwise masked by gravitation opened the way to new knowledge of material properties and processes. This beginning would ultimately lead to the production of valuable new materials for use on Earth.

  14. Multi-purpose grating spectrograph for the 4-meter European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; Collados, M.; Feller, A.; Gelly, B.; Grauf, B.; Hirzberger, J.; López Ariste, A.; Lopez, R. L.; Mein, P.; Sayéde, F.

    2012-09-01

    This communication presents a family of spectrographs designed for the European Solar Telescope. They can operate in four different configurations: a long slit standard spectrograph (LsSS), two devices based on subtractive double pass (TUNIS and MSDP) and one based on an integral field, multi-slit, multi-wavelength configuration. The combination of them composes the multi-purpose grating spectrograph of EST, focused on supporting the different science cases of the solar photosphere and chromosphere in the spectral range from 3900 Å to 23000 Å. The different alternatives are made compatible by using the same base spectrographs and different selectable optical elements corresponding to specific subsystems of each configuration.

  15. The Multi-Purpose Detector for NICA heavy-Ion Collider at JINR

    SciTech Connect

    Rogachevsky, O. V., E-mail: rogachevsky@jinr.ru [JINR, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory on High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is designed to study heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna. Its main components located inside a superconducting solenoid are a tracking system composed of a silicon microstrip vertex detector followed by a large volume time-projection chamber, a time-of-flight system for particle identification and a barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. A zero degree hadron calorimeter is designed specifically to measure the energy of spectators. In this paper, all parts of the apparatus are described and their tracking and particle identification parameters are discussed in some detail.

  16. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hoertkorn, T.R. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

  17. Enhanced electrochemical oxidation of Acid Red 3R wastewater with iron phosphomolybdate supported catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yue, Lin; Shi, Feng; Guo, Jianbo; Yang, Jingliang; Lian, Jing; Luo, Xiao; Guo, Yankai

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of Acid Red 3R (AR3R) was investigated with the new catalyst of iron phosphomolybdate (FePMo12) supported on modified molecular sieves type 4 Å (4A) as packing materials in the reactor. The results of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction indicated that the heteropolyanion had a Keggin structure. The optimal conditions for decolorization of simulated AR3R wastewater were as follows: current density 35 mA/cm(2), initial pH 4.0, airflow 0.08 m(3)/hour and inter-electrode distance 3.0 cm. With the addition of NaCl to the system, the decolorization efficiency increased. But Na2SO4 had a negative effect on the decolorization efficiency, which was attributed to the negative salt effect. The degradation mechanisms of AR3R were also discussed in detail. PMID:25812093

  18. Experimental Demonstration of Optical TTL Based Selective-3R in OLS Network Testbed with Label Rewriting

    E-print Network

    Kolner, Brian H.

    . The proof-of-principle experiment demonstrates the proposed selective-3R scheme in a 10 Gb/s 3-node OLS shows the experimental setup. At OLS Node-1, the subcarrier-multiplexed transmitter (SCM Tx) in a two

  19. Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990). Appendix A3-R

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    Techniques in use at the Hanford Reservation as of March, 1990 for the analysis of liquids and radioactive effluents are described. Limitations and applications of the techniques are included. This report is Appendix A3-R.

  20. GL(3,R) gauge theory of gravity coupled with an electromagnetic field

    E-print Network

    Rolando Gaitan; Frank Vera

    2006-08-11

    Consistency of $GL(3,R)$ gauge theory of gravity coupled with an external electromagnetic field, is studied. It is shown that possible restrictions on Maxwell field can be avoided through introduction of auxiliary fields.

  1. High-Performance Optical 3R Regeneration for Scalable Fiber Transmission System Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zuqing; Funabashi, Masaki; Pan, Zhong; Paraschis, Loukas; Harris, David L.; Ben Yoo, S. J.

    2007-02-01

    This paper proposes and demonstrates optical 3R regeneration techniques for high-performance and scalable 10-Gb/s transmission systems. The 3R structures rely on monolithically integrated all-active semiconductor optical amplifier-based Mach Zehnder interferometers (SOA-MZIs) for signal reshaping and optical narrowband filtering using a Fabry Pérot filter (FPF) for all-optical clock recovery. The experimental results indicate very stable operation and superior cascadability of the proposed optical 3R structure, allowing error-free and low-penalty 10-Gb/s [pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) 223 - 1] return-to-zero (RZ) transmission through a record distance of 1 250 000 km using 10 000 optical 3R stages. Clock-enhancement techniques using a SOA-MZI are then proposed to accommodate the clock performance degradations that arise from dispersion uncompensated transmission. Leveraging such clock-enhancement techniques, we experimentally demonstrate error-free 125 000-km RZ dispersion uncompensated transmission at 10 Gb/s (PRBS 223 - 1) using 1000 stages of optical 3R regenerators spaced by 125-km large-effective-area fiber spans. To evaluate the proposed optical 3R structures in a relatively realistic environment and to investigate the tradeoff between the cascadability and the spacing of the optical 3R, a fiber recirculation loop is set up with 264- and 462-km deployed fiber. The field-trial experiment achieves error-free 10-Gb/s RZ transmission using PRBS 223} - 1 through 264 000-km deployed fiber across 1000 stages of optical 3R regenerators spaced by 264-km spans.

  2. Genotypic and Phenotypic Heterogeneity in the U3R Region of HIV Type 1 Subtype C

    PubMed Central

    Mates, Jessica M.; Kumar, Surender B.; Bazan, Jose; Mefford, Megan; Voronkin, Igor; Handelman, Samuel; Mwapasa, Victor; Ackerman, William; Janies, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Approximately 20% of all HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) occurs in utero (IU). In a chronic HIV infection, HIV-1 exists as a complex swarm of genetic variants, and following IU MTCT, viral genomic diversity is restricted through a mechanism that remains to be described. The 5? U3R region of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) contains multiple transcription factor (TF) binding sites and regulates viral transcription. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sequence polymorphisms in the U3R region of LTR are associated with IU MTCT. To this end, we used single template amplification to isolate 517 U3R sequences from maternal, placental, and infant plasma derived from 17 HIV-infected Malawian women: eight whose infants remained HIV uninfected (NT) and nine whose infants became HIV infected IU. U3R sequences show pairwise diversities ranging from 0.2% to 2.3%. U3R sequences from one participant contained two, three, or four putative NF-?B binding sites. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicated that U3R sequences from eight of nine IU participants were consistent with placental compartmentalization of HIV-1 while only one of eight NT cases was consistent with such compartmentalization. Specific TF sequence polymorphisms were not significantly associated with IU MTCT. To determine if replication efficiency of the U3R sequences was associated with IU MTCT, we cloned 90 U3R sequences and assayed promoter activity in multiple cell lines. Although we observed significant, yet highly variable promoter activity and TAT induction of promoter activity in the cell lines tested, there was no association between measured promoter activity and MTCT status. Thus, we were unable to detect a promoter genotype or phenotype associated with IU MTCT. PMID:23826737

  3. Targeted H3R26 deimination specifically facilitates estrogen receptor binding by modifying nucleosome structure.

    PubMed

    Guertin, Michael J; Zhang, Xuesen; Anguish, Lynne; Kim, Sohyoung; Varticovski, Lyuba; Lis, John T; Hager, Gordon L; Coonrod, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Transcription factor binding to DNA in vivo causes the recruitment of chromatin modifiers that can cause changes in chromatin structure, including the modification of histone tails. We previously showed that estrogen receptor (ER) target gene activation is facilitated by peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2)-catalyzed histone H3R26 deimination (H3R26Cit). Here we report that the genomic distributions of ER and H3R26Cit in breast cancer cells are strikingly coincident, linearly correlated, and observed as early as 2 minutes following estradiol treatment. The H3R26Cit profile is unlike that of previously described histone modifications and is characterized by sharp, narrow peaks. Paired-end MNase ChIP-seq indicates that the charge-neutral H3R26Cit modification facilitates ER binding to DNA by altering the fine structure of the nucleosome. Clinically, we find that PAD2 and H3R26Cit levels correlate with ER expression in breast tumors and that high PAD2 expression is associated with increased survival in ER+ breast cancer patients. These findings provide insight into how transcription factors gain access to nucleosomal DNA and implicate PAD2 as a novel therapeutic target for ER+ breast cancer. PMID:25211228

  4. Targeted H3R26 Deimination Specifically Facilitates Estrogen Receptor Binding by Modifying Nucleosome Structure

    PubMed Central

    Anguish, Lynne; Kim, Sohyoung; Varticovski, Lyuba; Lis, John T.; Hager, Gordon L.; Coonrod, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor binding to DNA in vivo causes the recruitment of chromatin modifiers that can cause changes in chromatin structure, including the modification of histone tails. We previously showed that estrogen receptor (ER) target gene activation is facilitated by peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2)-catalyzed histone H3R26 deimination (H3R26Cit). Here we report that the genomic distributions of ER and H3R26Cit in breast cancer cells are strikingly coincident, linearly correlated, and observed as early as 2 minutes following estradiol treatment. The H3R26Cit profile is unlike that of previously described histone modifications and is characterized by sharp, narrow peaks. Paired-end MNase ChIP-seq indicates that the charge-neutral H3R26Cit modification facilitates ER binding to DNA by altering the fine structure of the nucleosome. Clinically, we find that PAD2 and H3R26Cit levels correlate with ER expression in breast tumors and that high PAD2 expression is associated with increased survival in ER+ breast cancer patients. These findings provide insight into how transcription factors gain access to nucleosomal DNA and implicate PAD2 as a novel therapeutic target for ER+ breast cancer. PMID:25211228

  5. A potent antibrowning agent from pine needles of Cedrus deodara: 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue; Wu, Yan-Ping; Qiu, Jing-Hong; Zhong, Kai; Gao, Hong

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on finding the novel antibrowning agents from the pine needles of Cedrus deodara and studying its antibrowning effect. By bioassay guide of tyrosinase inhibitory activity, the main active compound was isolated and purified from 50% methanol extract of pine needles of C. deodara through macroporous resin Diaion HP-20 column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on mass and nuclear magnetic resonance data, the active compound was identified as 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin, which showed the potent monophenolase and diphenolase inhibitory activities. Moreover, 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin exhibited a strong ABTS radical scavenging activity with a dose-dependent manner. The antibrowning efficacy of 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin was evaluated by monitoring the changes of L*, a*, and b* values and total color difference (?E) on fresh-cut apple slices. It was found that 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin was effective in inhibiting the browning of apple slices treated with a concentration as low as 0.05% at 25 °C for 24 h. Its antibrowning effect was significantly better than ascorbic acid (0.5%) alone. Furthermore, 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin showed a good synergistic antibrowning effect with ascorbic acid. This is the first report that 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin from pine needles of C. deodara may be used as a potential antibrowning agent in protecting against food browning. PMID:25163933

  6. A new method of modeling the working mode of the multipurpose isochronous cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyan, I. N.

    2006-12-01

    The method of modeling the working mode is based on the selection of currents in concentric trim coils of the multipurpose isochronous cyclotron for the formation of the required magnetic field at a certain level of the main coil current. The traditional method of selecting currents is based on finding the solution for all concentric trim coils simultaneously. As a rule, after setting the calculated working mode, it is necessary to perform control measurement of the magnetic field and repeat the calculation to obtain the desired working mode. The new method of selecting currents is based on finding the solution for each separate concentric trim coil. The concentric trim coils are taken in turn in a specified order. A number of experiments on handling the proton beam in the range of working acceleration radii with an output energy between 45 and 60 MeV, performed using the multipurpose isochronous cyclotron AIC144 at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakov showed that the new method of obtaining the desired working mode does not require control measurements of magnetic fields, which testifies the high accuracy of the calculation.

  7. Development of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) coatings for multipurpose mechanical pump seals.

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalchenko, A. M.; Elam, J. W.; Erdemir, A.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Libera, J. A.; Pellin, M. J.; Gruen, D. M.; Hryn, J. N. (Materials Science Division); (Georgia Inst. of Tech.)

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and performance of silicon carbide (SiC) shaft seals on multipurpose mechanical pumps are improved by applying a protective coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). UNCD exhibits extreme hardness (97 GPa), low friction (0.1 in air) and outstanding chemical resistance. Consequently, the application of UNCD coatings to multipurpose mechanical pump seals can reduce frictional energy losses and eliminate the downtime and hazardous emissions from seal failure and leakage. In this study, UNCD films were prepared by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition utilizing an argon/methane gas mixture. Prior to coating, the SiC seals were subjected to mechanical polishing using different grades of micron-sized diamond powder to produce different starting surfaces with well-controlled surface roughnesses. Following this roughening process, the seals were seeded by mechanical abrasion with diamond nanopowder, and subsequently coated with UNCD. The coated seals were subjected to dynamic wear testing performed at 3600 RPM and 100 psi for up to 10 days during which the seals were periodically removed and inspected. The UNCD-coated seals were examined using Raman microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and adhesion testing before and after the wear testing. These analyses revealed that delamination of the UNCD films was prevented when the initial SiC seal surface had an initial roughness >0.1 {micro}m. In addition, the UNCD surfaces showed no measurable wear as compared to approximately 0.2 {micro}m of wear for the untreated SiC surfaces.

  8. A Self-Timed Multipurpose Delay Sensor for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, Carlos Gómez; Ituero, Pablo; López-Vallejo, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel self-timed multi-purpose sensor especially conceived for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The aim of the sensor is to measure performance variations during the life-cycle of the device, such as process variability, critical path timing and temperature variations. The proposed topology, through the use of both combinational and sequential FPGA elements, amplifies the time of a signal traversing a delay chain to produce a pulse whose width is the sensor's measurement. The sensor is fully self-timed, avoiding the need for clock distribution networks and eliminating the limitations imposed by the system clock. One single off- or on-chip time-to-digital converter is able to perform digitization of several sensors in a single operation. These features allow for a simplified approach for designers wanting to intertwine a multi-purpose sensor network with their application logic. Employed as a temperature sensor, it has been measured to have an error of ±0.67 °C, over the range of 20–100 °C, employing 20 logic elements with a 2-point calibration. PMID:24361927

  9. Measuring QoS in class-based IP networks using multipurpose colored probing patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Solange R.; Carvalho, Paulo M.; Freitas, Vasco L.

    2004-09-01

    Multiclass IP networks open new dimensions and challenges on active monitoring as efficient strategies of in-band probing are required to sense each class performance without causing noticeable side-effects on real traffic. In our study, we provide new insights on how to perform efficiently active monitoring in these networks, suggesting the use of light and multipurpose probing streams able to capture simultaneously the behavior of multiple QoS metrics of each class. Considering one-way-delay, jitter and loss metrics, we explore different spatial-temporal characteristics of probing, focusing on finding patterns adjusted to each class measurement requirements. We demonstrate that commonly used probing streams fail to capture these metrics simultaneously and we propose novel colored probing patterns able to increase multipurpose active monitoring efficiency. As test environment, we consider a diffserv domain where admission control resorts to feedback from edge-to-edge active monitoring to dynamically control hard real-time, soft real-time and elastic traffic classes. Comparing graphically and statistically the probing and passive measurement outcome of each class, the obtained results show that despite being difficult to match the scale and shape of multiple metrics, a single and properly colored probing stream can capture close and simultaneously the behavior of one-way-delay, jitter and loss, for low in-band probing rates.

  10. Nearest and next-nearest superexchange interactions in orthorhombic perovskite manganites RMnO3 (R=rare earth)

    E-print Network

    Min, Byung Il

    -type magnetic orders observed in orthorhombic perovskite manganites RMnO3 R: rare-earth element , we have of orthorhombic rare-earth man- ganites RMnO3 R: rare-earths are very complicated, espe- cially for R with smallNearest and next-nearest superexchange interactions in orthorhombic perovskite manganites RMnO3 (R=rare

  11. Skeletal Muscle IP3R1 Receptors Amplify Physiological and Pathological Synaptic Calcium Signals

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haipeng; Bhattacharyya, Bula; Lin, Hong; Gomez, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Ca2+ release from internal stores is critical for mediating both normal and pathological intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Recent studies suggest that the inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor mediates Ca2+ release from internal stores upon cholinergic activation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in both physiological and pathological conditions. Here we report that the type I IP3 receptor (IP3R1) -mediated Ca2+ release plays a crucial role in synaptic gene expression, development and neuromuscular transmission, as well as mediating degeneration during excessive cholinergic activation. We found that IP3R1-mediated Ca2+ release plays a key role in early development of the NMJ, in homeostatic regulation of neuromuscular transmission, and in synaptic gene expression. Reducing IP3R1-mediated Ca2+ release via siRNA knockdown or IP3R blockers in C2C12 cells decreased calpain activity, and prevented agonist-induced AChR cluster dispersal. In fully developed NMJ in adult muscle, IP3R1 knockdown or blockade effectively increased synaptic strength at pre- and postsynaptic sites, by increasing both quantal release and expression of AChR subunits and other NMJ-specific genes, in a pattern resembling muscle denervation. Moreover, in two mouse models of cholinergic overactivity and NMJ Ca2+ overload, anti-cholinesterase toxicity and the slow-channel myasthenic syndrome (SCS), IP3R1 knockdown eliminated NMJ Ca2+ overload, pathological activation of calpain and caspase proteases, and markers of DNA damage at subsynaptic nuclei, and improved both neuromuscular transmission and clinical measures of motor function. Thus, blockade or genetic silencing of muscle IP3R1 may be an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic strategy in SCS and other conditions of excitotoxicity or Ca2+ overload. PMID:22031873

  12. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  13. 3C3R Modified PBL Pediatric Teaching of Chinese Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Haihong; Qian, Jihong; Wang, Lianwen; Yuan, Xiaojun; Chen, Yi; Wu, Weilan; Chen, Yan; Sun, Kun

    2013-01-01

    A Content, Context, Connection and Researching, Reasoning, Reflecting (3C3R) model is a conceptual framework for problem-based learning (PBL) problem design. We introduced the 3C3R-PBL method into a pediatric teaching plan, and evaluated its effectiveness and feasibility. The 3C3R model was applied in a pediatric problem design teaching plan “why the lips turn purple when a baby is crying”. All students were assigned either into a traditional PBL course or into a 9-step 3C3R model PBL course (3C3R-PBL). The performance outcomes of both groups were compared. For the PBL group, the proportion of students scoring ?4 for content, context, and problem design connection, was 90.8%, 80.3%, and 64.5% respectively, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 71.4%, and 28.6%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ?4 was 81.6%, 55.3%, and 40.8%, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 100%, and 57.1%. The learning difficulty was not considered high with only 31.6% of students and 42.9% of tutors rating the task as difficult. For the 3C3R-PBL group, the proportion of students scoring content, context, and connection, ?4 was 100%, 98.4%, and 90.5%, while for tutors it was 100%, 100%, 83.3%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ?4 was 95.2%, 88.9%, and 76.2%, while for tutors it was 100% for all 3 R components. Students and tutors were convinced by the content, case context, research process and reasoning process of both teaching plans, while scores for connection and reflecting were significantly improved when the PBL plan was amended by a 3C3R model (p<0.05) and the case learning difficulty was statistically increased (p<0.05). The 3C3R model, evaluated for the first time in China, was helpful for effective and reliable problem design in a pediatric PBL teaching plan for Chinese students. PMID:23667610

  14. Abolished InsP3R2 function inhibits sweat secretion in both humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Klar, Joakim; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Baig, Shahid M.; Tariq, Muhammad; Johansson, Anna C.V.; Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Naveed Altaf; Ameur, Adam; Sugiura, Kotomi; Feuk, Lars; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Dahl, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    There are 3 major sweat-producing glands present in skin; eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands. Due to the high rate of secretion, eccrine sweating is a vital regulator of body temperature in response to thermal stress in humans; therefore, an inability to sweat (anhidrosis) results in heat intolerance that may cause impaired consciousness and death. Here, we have reported 5 members of a consanguineous family with generalized, isolated anhidrosis, but morphologically normal eccrine sweat glands. Whole-genome analysis identified the presence of a homozygous missense mutation in ITPR2, which encodes the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2), that was present in all affected family members. We determined that the mutation is localized within the pore forming region of InsP3R2 and abrogates Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ release by InsP3R2 in clear cells of the sweat glands is important for eccrine sweat production. Itpr2–/– mice exhibited a marked reduction in sweat secretion, and evaluation of sweat glands from Itpr2–/– animals revealed a decrease in Ca2+ response compared with controls. Together, our data indicate that loss of InsP3R2-mediated Ca2+ release causes isolated anhidrosis in humans and suggest that specific InsP3R inhibitors have the potential to reduce sweat production in hyperhidrosis. PMID:25329695

  15. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscle power in male Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi; Min, Seok-ki; Ueda, Dai; Igawa, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscular power in Japanese collegiate athletes by analyzing the mean and peak power results of a 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) with respect to the ACTN3 R577X genotype in 253 Japanese athletes (144 men and 109 women). Each athlete performed a 30-second WAnT with a resistance equal to 7.5% of his or her body weight. Genotyping for the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan approach. The ACTN3 R577X genotypes exhibited a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution in our population. The relative and absolute mean power results of the 30-second WAnT did not differ significantly among the genotypes. However, the relative peak power result of the WAnT was significantly higher in the R-allele-dominant model groups than in the XX group in male but not female athletes. These results suggest that the ACTN3 R allele is associated with the relative peak power during the WAnT in male Japanese collegiate athletes. PMID:24343324

  16. Superior thermoelectric response in the 3R phases of hydrated NaxRhO2

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Y.; Singh, N.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory is used to investigate the thermoelectric properties of the 3R phases of NaxRhO2 for different Na vacancy configurations and concentrations. As compared to the analogous 2H phases, the modified stacking of the atomic layers in the 3R phases reduces the interlayer coupling. As a consequence, the 3R phases are found to be superior in the technologically relevant temperature range. The Rh orbitals still govern the valence band maxima and therefore determine the transport properties. A high figure of merit of 0.35 is achieved in hydrated Na0.83RhO2 at 580?K by water intercalation, which is 34% higher than in the non-hydrated phase. PMID:24633155

  17. No association between ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and elite judo athletic status.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Yvert, Thomas; de Diego, Alfonso; Santiago, Catalina; Díaz de Durana, Alfonso L; Carratalá, Vicente; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro

    2013-09-01

    The authors compared ACTN3 R577X genotype and allele frequencies in the majority of all-time-best Spanish judo male athletes (n = 108) and 343 ethnically matched nonathletic men. No between-groups differences were found in allele (P = .077) or genotype distributions (P = .178). Thus, the R577X polymorphism was not significantly associated with the status of being an elite judo athlete, at least in the Spanish population. The contribution of genetics to sports-related phenotype traits is undeniable with some genotypes, of which ACTN3 R577X is currently the leading candidate, partly distinguishing individuals predisposed to either endurance or power sports. However, few athletic events can be categorized as purely power or endurance based. Although genetic testing (ie, for ACTN3 R577X) is already being marketed to predict sports talent and potential of young children, its usefulness is still questionable, at least in competitive judo. PMID:23348074

  18. Autism-linked neuroligin-3 R451C mutation differentially alters hippocampal and cortical synaptic function.

    PubMed

    Etherton, Mark; Földy, Csaba; Sharma, Manu; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Liu, Xinran; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Malenka, Robert C; Südhof, Thomas C

    2011-08-16

    Multiple independent mutations in neuroligin genes were identified in patients with familial autism, including the R451C substitution in neuroligin-3 (NL3). Previous studies showed that NL3(R451C) knock-in mice exhibited modestly impaired social behaviors, enhanced water maze learning abilities, and increased synaptic inhibition in the somatosensory cortex, and they suggested that the behavioral changes in these mice may be caused by a general shift of synaptic transmission to inhibition. Here, we confirm that NL3(R451C) mutant mice behaviorally exhibit social interaction deficits and electrophysiologically display increased synaptic inhibition in the somatosensory cortex. Unexpectedly, however, we find that the NL3(R451C) mutation produced a strikingly different phenotype in the hippocampus. Specifically, in the hippocampal CA1 region, the NL3(R451C) mutation caused an ?1.5-fold increase in AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission, dramatically altered the kinetics of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses, induced an approximately twofold up-regulation of NMDA receptors containing NR2B subunits, and enhanced long-term potentiation almost twofold. NL3 KO mice did not exhibit any of these changes. Quantitative light microscopy and EM revealed that the NL3(R451C) mutation increased dendritic branching and altered the structure of synapses in the stratum radiatum of the hippocampus. Thus, in NL3(R451C) mutant mice, a single point mutation in a synaptic cell adhesion molecule causes context-dependent changes in synaptic transmission; these changes are consistent with the broad impact of this mutation on murine and human behaviors, suggesting that NL3 controls excitatory and inhibitory synapse properties in a region- and circuit-specific manner. PMID:21808020

  19. Multi-purpose sulfur-sodium cell and mockup battery of twelve cells for electric car

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, Yu.V.; Vybyvanets, V.I.; Suganeev, V.S.; Dzhalandinov, D.N.; Belousenko, A.P.; Fedorova, V.N. [State Research Inst. of Scientific Industrial Association, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The report provides results of electrical tests of multipurpose cells and electric car mockup battery of twelve cells. It is shown that, sulfur-sodium accumulators, being produced at STC ISTOK, have adequate reliability in testing under electric car batteries conditions. They withstand discharge current of up to 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} density and demonstrate consistent characteristics at operating current densities of 0.1--0.3 A/cm{sup 2}. Results are represented on safety tests, including those with deliberately destroyed electrolyte. The mockup battery can operate according to the electrical car driving runs, the mockup characteristics here do not deteriorate when transmitting up to 50 A current.

  20. Transportation system benefits of early deployment of a 75-ton multipurpose canister system

    SciTech Connect

    Wankerl, M.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schmid, S.P. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In 1993 the US Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) began developing two multipurpose canister (MPC) systems to provide a standardized method for interim storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at commercial nuclear power plants. One is a 75-ton concept with an estimated payload of about 6 metric tons (t) of SNF, and the other is a 125-ton concept with an estimated payload of nearly 11 t of SNF. These payloads are two to three times the payloads of the largest currently certified US rail transport casks, the IF-300. Although is it recognized that a fully developed 125-ton MPC system is likely to provide a greater cost benefit, and radiation exposure benefit than the lower-capacity 75-ton MPC, the authors of this paper suggest that development and deployment of the 75-ton MPC prior to developing and deploying a 125-ton MPC is a desirable strategy. Reasons that support this are discussed in this paper.

  1. Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

  2. Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  3. Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  4. PROGRAPE-1 A Programmable, Multi-Purpose Computer for Many-Body Simulations

    E-print Network

    Hamada, T; Kawai, A; Makino, J; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Kawai, Atsushi; Makino, Junichiro

    1999-01-01

    We have developed PROGRAPE-1 (PROgrammable GRAPE-1), a programmable multi-purpose computer for many-body simulations. The main difference between PROGRAPE-1 and "traditional" GRAPE systems is that the former uses FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chips as the processing elements, while the latter rely on the hardwired pipeline processor specialized to gravitational interactions. Since the logic implemented in FPGA chips can be reconfigured, we can use PROGRAPE-1 to calculate not only gravitational interactions but also other forms of interactions such as van der Waals force, hydrodynamical interactions in SPH calculation and so on. PROGRAPE-1 comprises two Altera EPF10K100 FPGA chips, each of which contains nominally 100,000 gates. To evaluate the programmability and performance of PROGRAPE-1, we implemented a pipeline for gravitational interaction similar to that of GRAPE-3. One pipeline fitted into a single FPGA chip, which operated at 16 MHz clock. Thus, for gravitational interaction, PROGRAPE-1 provide...

  5. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type II (InsP3R-II) is reduced in obese mice, but metabolic homeostasis is preserved in mice lacking InsP3R-II.

    PubMed

    Feriod, Colleen N; Nguyen, Lily; Jurczak, Michael J; Kruglov, Emma A; Nathanson, Michael H; Shulman, Gerald I; Bennett, Anton M; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2014-12-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type II (InsP3R-II) is the most prevalent isoform of the InsP3R in hepatocytes and is concentrated under the canalicular membrane, where it plays an important role in bile secretion. We hypothesized that altered calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling may be involved in metabolic dysfunction, as InsP3R-mediated Ca(2+) signals have been implicated in the regulation of hepatic glucose homeostasis. Here, we find that InsP3R-II, but not InsP3R-I, is reduced in the livers of obese mice. In our investigation of the functional consequences of InsP3R-II deficiency, we found that organic anion secretion at the canalicular membrane and Ca(2+) signals were impaired. However, mice lacking InsP3R-II showed no deficits in energy balance, glucose production, glucose tolerance, or susceptibility to hepatic steatosis. Thus, our results suggest that reduced InsP3R-II expression is not sufficient to account for any disruptions in metabolic homeostasis that are observed in mouse models of obesity. We conclude that metabolic homeostasis is maintained independently of InsP3R-II. Loss of InsP3R-II does impair secretion of bile components; therefore, we suggest that conditions of obesity would lead to a decrease in this Ca(2+)-sensitive process. PMID:25315698

  6. Quark-Monopole Potentials from Supersymmetric SL(3,R) Deformed IIB Supergravity

    E-print Network

    Changhyun Ahn

    2006-08-22

    We recompute the quark-monopole potential from supersymmetric SL(3,R) deformation of IIB supergravity background dual to deformed Coulomb branch flow of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The marginal deformations strengthen the Coulombic attraction between quarks and monopoles.

  7. SOAR versus SQ3R: A Test of Two Study Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairam, Dharma; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Rogers-Kasson, Sarah; Patterson-Hazley, Melissa; Marxhausen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Although researchers have long investigated ways to improve study habits and raise achievement, few studies compare study strategy systems with one another. No study to date has compared the long popular SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) system with the more modern SOAR (Select, Organize, Associate, Regulate) system. This study…

  8. 2 Climate dynamics of a hard snowball Earth 3 R. T. Pierrehumbert

    E-print Network

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2 Climate dynamics of a hard snowball Earth 3 R. T. Pierrehumbert 4 Department of Geophysical-covered (``hard snowball'') Earth is 7 examined using a series of general circulation model simulations. The aim hard snowball Earth is found to be nearly 30 K short of deglaciation, even at .2 bars. The 16 very cold

  9. Akimotoite to perovskite phase transition in MgSiO3 R. M. Wentzcovitch,1

    E-print Network

    Stixrude, Lars

    Akimotoite to perovskite phase transition in MgSiO3 R. M. Wentzcovitch,1 L. Stixrude,2 B. B. Karki; published 25 May 2004. [1] The akimotoite to perovskite phase transition of MgSiO3 is shown by first to the larger density of states of low frequency vibrations in the perovskite phase. Such vibrations consist

  10. Benefits of Student-Generated Note Packets: A Preliminary Investigation of SQ3R Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlston, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Minimal research to date has evaluated the impact of Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review (SQ3R) implementation (i.e., surveying prior to reading, generating questions, reading to answer said questions, reciting, and reviewing information) on content retention and student performance. Existing research is anecdotal or lacks ecological validity. The…

  11. ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and performance phenotypes in young Chinese male soldiers.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xuya; Zhang, Fu; Zhang, Li; Huang, Changlin

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) is absent in 18% of healthy Caucasian individuals owing to homozygosity for a premature stop codon (X) at amino acid 577 (rs1815739). Previous studies have shown a strong association between ACTN3 genotype and human athletic performance. In a study of 452 young Chinese male soldiers, we examined the distribution of ACTN3 genotypes and alleles and analysed the association between ACTN3 genotypes and athletic performance. We found that the frequencies of the ACTN3 R577X genotype (RR 39.8%, RX 43.4%, and XX 16.8%) and R577X allele (R 61.5%, X 38.5%) in young Chinese males were not significantly different from those in Caucasians. We only observed a significant association (P = 0.025) between ACTN3 R577X genotypes and grip strength. Participants with the XX genotype displayed significantly lower handgrip strength than individuals with the RR genotype (P = 0.021), but the difference between XX and RX means (P = 0.258) and that between RR and RX means (P = 0.42) was not significant. We did not observe a strong association between the ACTN3 R577X genotypes and sprint phenotypes or endurance phenotypes. In conclusion, our results indicate that the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is most strongly associated with grip strength in young Chinese male soldiers. PMID:22224919

  12. The ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with muscle function in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Shou; Min, Seok-Ki; Lee, Kihyuk; Sakamaki-Sunaga, Mikako; Okamoto, Takanobu; Nakazato, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    Homozygosity for the common nonsense polymorphism R577X in the ?-actinin-3 gene (ACTN3) causes complete ?-actinin-3 deficiency in fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers. This study investigated whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism affects fitness status using a battery of tests in a large Japanese cohort. In the present study, 1227 subjects (age: 25-85 years) were genotyped for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) using a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay (Applied Biosystems). All subjects were divided into 2 groups based on their age (<55 years and ?55 years). All subjects completed a questionnaire about exercise habits and were subjected to a battery of tests to assess their fitness status (including grip strength test, chair stand test, and 8-foot walking test). A significant association between the ACTN3 R577X genotype and chair stand test performance was observed in the group of men ?55 using ANCOVA adjusted for age and exercise habits (p = 0.036). The ACTN3 R577X genotype accounted for 2.5% of the variability in the results of the chair stand test among men in the ?55 age group. Moreover, for the ?55 age group, performance in the chair stand test was lower among those with the XX genotype than among those with the RR genotype (p = 0.024) or RX genotype (p = 0.005), unlike results for the <55 age group. No significant difference was noted for hand grip strength or 8-foot walking time. Thus, our results suggest that the ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with lower-extremity muscle function in the Japanese population. PMID:25761735

  13. TACR3 mutations disrupt NK3R function through distinct mechanisms in GnRH-deficient patients

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Sekoni D.; Abreu, Ana Paula; Xu, Shuyun; Muyide, Titilayo; Gianetti, Elena; Tusset, Cintia; Carroll, Jessica; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Carroll, Rona S.; Kaiser, Ursula B.

    2014-01-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) and its G-protein-coupled receptor, NK3R, have been implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH release; however, little is known about the structure-function relationship of this ligand-receptor pair. Moreover, loss-of-function NK3R mutations cause GnRH deficiency in humans. Using missense mutations in NK3R we previously identified in patients with GnRH deficiency, we demonstrate that Y256H and Y315C NK3R mutations in the fifth and sixth transmembrane domains (TM5 and TM6), resulted in reduced whole-cell (79.3±7.2%) or plasma membrane (67.3±7.3%) levels, respectively, compared with wild-type (WT) NK3R, with near complete loss of inositol phosphate (IP) signaling, implicating these domains in receptor trafficking, processing, and/or stability. We further demonstrate in a FRET-based assay that R295S NK3R, in the third intracellular loop (IL3), bound NKB but impaired dissociation of Gq-protein subunits from the receptor compared with WT NK3R, which showed a 10.0 ± 1.3% reduction in FRET ratios following ligand binding, indicating activation of Gq-protein signaling. Interestingly, R295S NK3R, identified in the heterozygous state in a GnRH-deficient patient, also interfered with dissociation of G proteins and IP signaling from wild-type NK3R, indicative of dominant-negative effects. Collectively, our data illustrate roles for TM5 and TM6 in NK3R trafficking and ligand binding and for IL3 in NK3R signaling.—Noel, S. D., Abreu, A. P., Xu, S., Muyide, T., Gianetti, E., Tusset, C., Carroll, J., Latronico, A. C., Seminara, S. B., Carroll, R. S., Kaiser, U. B. TACR3 mutations disrupt NK3R function through distinct mechanisms in GnRH-deficient patients. PMID:24376026

  14. New General Continuous-Time State?Task Network Formulation for Short-Term Scheduling of Multipurpose Batch Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos T. Maravelias; Ignacio E. Grossmann

    2003-01-01

    A new continuous time MILP model for the short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants is presented. The proposed model relies on the State Task Network (STN) and addresses the general problem of batch scheduling, accounting for resource (utility) constraints, variable batch sizes and processing times, various storage policies (UIS\\/FIS\\/NIS\\/ZW), batch mixing\\/splitting, and sequence- dependent changeover times. The key features of

  15. A new continuous-time state task network formulation for short term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos T. Maravelias; Ignacio E. Grossmann

    2003-01-01

    A new continuous-time MILP model for the short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants is presented. The proposed model relies on the idea of the State Task Network (STN) and addresses the general problem of batch scheduling, accounting for resources other than equipment (utilities), variable batch sizes and processing times, various storage policies (UIS\\/FIS\\/NIS\\/ZW) and batch splitting\\/mixing. Compared to other general

  16. Determination of amoebicidal activities of multipurpose contact lens solutions by using a most probable number enumeration technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara K. Beattie; David V. Seal; Alan Tomlinson; Angus K. McFadyen; Anthony M. Grimason

    2003-01-01

    Six multipurpose contact lens solutions [All-in-One, All-in-One (Light), ReNu MultiPlus, Optifree Express, Complete, and Solo-care soft] were tested for their efficacies against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts by using a most probable number (MPN) technique for amoebic enumeration. Against trophozoites, All-in-One, ReNu Multiplus, and Optifree Express achieved total kill (log reduction of >3) after the manufacturer's minimum recommended disinfection time

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Peterson; R. Wheeler

    2002-01-01

    Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module

  18. TACR3 mutations disrupt NK3R function through distinct mechanisms in GnRH-deficient patients.

    PubMed

    Noel, Sekoni D; Abreu, Ana Paula; Xu, Shuyun; Muyide, Titilayo; Gianetti, Elena; Tusset, Cintia; Carroll, Jessica; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Seminara, Stephanie B; Carroll, Rona S; Kaiser, Ursula B

    2014-04-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) and its G-protein-coupled receptor, NK3R, have been implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH release; however, little is known about the structure-function relationship of this ligand-receptor pair. Moreover, loss-of-function NK3R mutations cause GnRH deficiency in humans. Using missense mutations in NK3R we previously identified in patients with GnRH deficiency, we demonstrate that Y256H and Y315C NK3R mutations in the fifth and sixth transmembrane domains (TM5 and TM6), resulted in reduced whole-cell (79.3±7.2%) or plasma membrane (67.3±7.3%) levels, respectively, compared with wild-type (WT) NK3R, with near complete loss of inositol phosphate (IP) signaling, implicating these domains in receptor trafficking, processing, and/or stability. We further demonstrate in a FRET-based assay that R295S NK3R, in the third intracellular loop (IL3), bound NKB but impaired dissociation of Gq-protein subunits from the receptor compared with WT NK3R, which showed a 10.0 ± 1.3% reduction in FRET ratios following ligand binding, indicating activation of Gq-protein signaling. Interestingly, R295S NK3R, identified in the heterozygous state in a GnRH-deficient patient, also interfered with dissociation of G proteins and IP signaling from wild-type NK3R, indicative of dominant-negative effects. Collectively, our data illustrate roles for TM5 and TM6 in NK3R trafficking and ligand binding and for IL3 in NK3R signaling. PMID:24376026

  19. (-)-(2S,3R,Z)-Nakinadine A: first asymmetric synthesis and absolute configuration assignment.

    PubMed

    Davies, Stephen G; Fletcher, Ai M; Roberts, Paul M; Shah, Rushabh S; Thompson, Amber L; Thomson, James E

    2014-03-01

    Mannich-type reaction of methyl phenylacetate with the N-tert-butylsulfinyl imine derived from (R)-tert-butylsulfinamide and (Z)-14-(pyridin-3'-yl)tetradec-11-enal has been used as the key step in the first asymmetric synthesis of (-)-nakinadine A. Both the 2,3-syn- and 2,3-anti-diastereoisomers were prepared; comparison of spectroscopic and specific rotation data facilitated assignment of the absolute (2S,3R,Z)-configuration within the natural product. (-)-(2S,3R,Z)-Nakinadine A was prepared in 10 steps from 11-bromoundecan-1-ol, in 10% overall yield, 97:3 dr [(Z):(E) ratio], and >98% ee. PMID:24564566

  20. Validation of Cryo-EM Structure of IP3R1 Channel

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Stephen C.; Flanagan, John; Popova, Olga B.; Chiu, Wah; Ludtke, Steven J.; Serysheva, Irina I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary About a decade ago, three electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) single particle reconstructions of IP3R1 were reported at low resolution. Disturbingly, these structures bore little similarity to one another, even at the level of quaternary structure. Recently, we published an improved structure of IP3R1 at ~1 nm resolution. However, this structure did not bear any resemblance to any of the three previously published structures, leading to the question of why the new structure should be considered more reliable than the original three. Here we apply several methods, including class-average/map comparisons, tilt-pair validation, and use of multiple refinement software packages, to give strong evidence for the reliability of our recent structure. The map resolution and feature resolvability are assessed with the ‘gold standard’ criterion. This approach is generally applicable to assessing the validity of cryo-EM maps of other molecular machines. PMID:23707684

  1. An activating mutation in the CSF3R gene induces a hereditary chronic neutrophilia

    PubMed Central

    Plo, Isabelle; Zhang, Yanyan; Le Couédic, Jean-Pierre; Nakatake, Mayuka; Boulet, Jean-Michel; Itaya, Miki; Smith, Steven O.; Debili, Najet; Constantinescu, Stefan N.; Louache, Fawzia; de Botton, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    We identify an autosomal mutation in the CSF3R gene in a family with a chronic neutrophilia. This T617N mutation energetically favors dimerization of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor transmembrane domain, and thus, strongly promotes constitutive activation of the receptor and hypersensitivity to G-CSF for proliferation and differentiation, which ultimately leads to chronic neutrophilia. Mutant hematopoietic stem cells yield a myeloproliferative-like disorder in xenotransplantation and syngenic mouse bone marrow engraftment assays. The survey of 12 affected individuals during three generations indicates that only one patient had a myelodysplastic syndrome. Our data thus indicate that mutations in the CSF3R gene can be responsible for hereditary neutrophilia mimicking a myeloproliferative disorder. PMID:19620628

  2. 3'-R/S-hydroxyvoacamine, a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from Tabernaemontana divaricata.

    PubMed

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Schripsema, Jan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2013-04-15

    Guided by the acetylcholinesterase inhibiting activity, the bisindole alkaloid 3'-R/S-hydroxyvoacamine was isolated from a stem extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata, a plant used in Thailand in traditional rejuvenation remedies for improving the memory. The structure of the alkaloid was elucidated by extensive use of NMR spectroscopy and the complete assignment of the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra is reported. The alkaloid acted as a non-competitive inhibitor against AChE with an IC50 value of 7.00±1.99 ?M. An HPLC method was developed for the quantitative analysis of the AChE inhibitor. It suggested that there was 12.4% (w/w) of 3'-R/S-hydroxyvoacamine in the alkaloid enriched fraction of T. divaricata stem. PMID:23375813

  3. PIK3R1 Mutations Cause Syndromic Insulin Resistance with Lipoatrophy

    PubMed Central

    Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Auclair, Martine; Duplomb, Laurence; Caron-Debarle, Martine; Avila, Magali; St-Onge, Judith; Le Merrer, Martine; Le Luyer, Bernard; Héron, Delphine; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Bitoun, Pierre; Petit, Jean-Michel; Odent, Sylvie; Amiel, Jeanne; Picot, Damien; Carmignac, Virginie; Thevenon, Julien; Callier, Patrick; Laville, Martine; Reznik, Yves; Fagour, Cédric; Nunes, Marie-Laure; Capeau, Jacqueline; Lascols, Olivier; Huet, Frédéric; Faivre, Laurence; Vigouroux, Corinne; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    Short stature, hyperextensibility of joints and/or inguinal hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething delay (SHORT) syndrome is a developmental disorder with an unknown genetic cause and hallmarks that include insulin resistance and lack of subcutaneous fat. We ascertained two unrelated individuals with SHORT syndrome, hypothesized that the observed phenotype was most likely due to de novo mutations in the same gene, and performed whole-exome sequencing in the two probands and their unaffected parents. We then confirmed our initial observations in four other subjects with SHORT syndrome from three families, as well as 14 unrelated subjects presenting with syndromic insulin resistance and/or generalized lipoatrophy associated with dysmorphic features and growth retardation. Overall, we identified in nine affected individuals from eight families de novo or inherited PIK3R1 mutations, including a mutational hotspot (c.1945C>T [p.Arg649Trp]) present in four families. PIK3R1 encodes the p85?, p55?, and p50? regulatory subunits of class IA phosphatidylinositol 3 kinases (PI3Ks), which are known to play a key role in insulin signaling. Functional data from fibroblasts derived from individuals with PIK3R1 mutations showed severe insulin resistance for both proximal and distal PI3K-dependent signaling. Our findings extend the genetic causes of severe insulin-resistance syndromes and provide important information with respect to the function of PIK3R1 in normal development and its role in human diseases, including growth delay, Rieger anomaly and other ocular affections, insulin resistance, diabetes, paucity of fat, and ovarian cysts. PMID:23810378

  4. Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration scheme with improved scalability using TOAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Shankar, Raji; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2006-10-01

    A novel re-timing, re-amplifying, and re-shaping (3R) regeneration system is proposed to process multiple WDM (wavelengthdivision-multiplexing) channels simultaneously. Its re-timing capability is investigated by both simulation and experiment with polarizationscrambling method at 10 Gb/s bit rate. Jitter tolerance up to 0.8 UIpp is demonstrated with BER improvement and floor breaking ability.

  5. Open Access Available online http://breast-cancer-research.com/content/7/3/R357

    E-print Network

    Gould, Michael N.

    Open Access Available online http://breast-cancer-research.com/content/7/3/R357 R357 Vol 7 No 3 breast cancer Stephanie E Nelson1, Michael N Gould1,2, John M Hampton3 and Amy Trentham-Dietz3,4 1Mc Cancer Research 2005, 7:R357-R364 (DOI 10.1186/bcr1004) This article is online at: http://breast-cancer

  6. All-Optical Tb\\/S 3R Wavelength Conversion Using Dispersion-Managed Light Bullets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Gao; Kelvin H. Wagner; Robert R. McLeod

    2008-01-01

    We present an all-optical wavelength converter that can operate at a very-high-switching rate with simultaneous reshaping, retiming, and regenerating (3R) capabilities based on nonlinear interactions between dispersion-managed (DM) (3+1)-dimensional optical solitons (light bullets). Numerical simulations have been performed to demonstrate the generation of the DM light bullets and the spatial dragging interaction between solitons with different colors for ultrafast wavelength

  7. ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprinting in elite Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Mikami, E; Fuku, N; Murakami, H; Tsuchie, H; Takahashi, H; Ohiwa, N; Tanaka, H; Pitsiladis, Y P; Higuchi, M; Miyachi, M; Kawahara, T; Tanaka, M

    2014-02-01

    The ACTN3 R577X genotype has been found to associate with sprint/power phenotypes in all elite athlete cohorts investigated. This association has not been extensively studied in elite Asian athletes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association between the ACTN3 R577X genotype and elite Japanese track and field athlete status. 299 elite Japanese track and field athletes (134 sprint/power athletes; 165 endurance/middle-power athletes) and 649 Japanese controls were genotyped for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism. All athletes were of national or international level. Sprint/power athletes showed a higher frequency of RR + RX genotype than controls (111/134 [82.8%] vs. 478/649 [73.7%], P = 0.025 under the R-dominant model), while there was no significant difference between endurance/middle-power athletes and controls (126/165 [76.4%] vs. 478/649 [73.7%], P = 0.48 under the R-dominant model). Sprinters with the RR + RX genotype had significantly faster personal best times for the 100?m than those with XX genotype (10.42 ± 0.05?s vs. 10.64 ± 0.09?s, P = 0.042); no such association was found in the 400?m sprinters (47.02 ± 0.36?s vs. 47.56 ± 0.99?s, P = 0.62). ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with sprint/power performance in elite Japanese track and field athletes, especially short sprint performance. PMID:23868678

  8. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism across three groups of elite male European athletes.

    PubMed

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Femia, Pedro; Pushkarev, Vladimir P; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Dyatlov, Dmitry A; Lekontsev, Evgeny V; Kulikov, Leonid M; Birk, Ruth; Bishop, David J; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) is a strong candidate to influence elite athletic performance. Yet, controversy exists in the literature owing to between-studies differences in the ethnic background and sample size of the cohorts, the latter being usually low, which makes comparisons difficult. In this case:control genetic study we determined the association between elite athletic status and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism within three cohorts of European Caucasian men, i.e. Spanish, Polish and Russian [633 cases (278 elite endurance and 355 power athletes), and 808 non-athletic controls]. The odds ratio (OR) of a power athlete harbouring the XX versus the RR genotype compared with sedentary controls was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34-0.48; P=0.006]. We also observed that the OR of an endurance athlete having the XX versus the RR genotype compared with power athletes was 1.88 (95%CI: 1.07-3.31; P=0.028). In endurance athletes, the OR of a "world-class" competitor having the XX genotype versus the RR+RX genotype was 3.74 (95%CI: 1.08-12.94; P=0.038) compared with those of a lower ("national") competition level. No association (P>0.1) was noted between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and competition level (world-class versus national-level) in power athletes. Our data provide comprehensive support for the influence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on elite athletic performance. PMID:22916217

  9. Flexible architecture of IP3R1 by Cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Ludtke, Steven J; Tran, Thao P; Ngo, Que T; Moiseenkova-Bell, Vera Yu; Chiu, Wah; Serysheva, Irina I

    2011-08-10

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) play a fundamental role in generating Ca2+ signals that trigger many cellular processes in virtually all eukaryotic cells. Thus far, the three-dimensional (3D) structure of these channels has remained extremely controversial. Here, we report a subnanometer resolution electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a fully functional type 1 IP3R from cerebellum in the closed state. The transmembrane region reveals a twisted bundle of four ? helices, one from each subunit, that form a funnel shaped structure around the 4-fold symmetry axis, strikingly similar to the ion-conduction pore of K+ channels. The lumenal face of IP3R1 has prominent densities that surround the pore entrance and similar to the highly structured turrets of Kir channels. 3D statistical analysis of the cryo-EM density map identifies high variance in the cytoplasmic region. This structural variation could be attributed to genuine structural flexibility of IP3R1. PMID:21827954

  10. Flexible Architecture of IP3R1 by Cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Ludtke, Steven J.; Tran, Thao P.; Ngo, Que T.; Moiseenkova-Bell, Vera Yu.; Chiu, Wah; Serysheva, Irina I.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) play a fundamental role in generating Ca2+ signals that trigger many cellular processes in virtually all eukaryotic cells. So far, the three-dimensional (3D) structure of these channels has remained extremely controversial. Here, we report a subnanometer resolution electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a fully functional type 1 IP3R from cerebellum in the closed state. The transmembrane region reveals a twisted bundle of four ?-helices, one from each subunit, that form a funnel shaped structure around the 4-fold symmetry axis, strikingly similar to the ion-conduction pore of K+ channels. The lumenal face of IP3R1 has prominent densities that surround the pore entrance and similar to the highly structured turrets of Kir channels. 3D statistical analysis of the cryo-EM density map identifies high variance in the cytoplasmic region. This structural variation could be attributed to genuine structural flexibility of IP3R1. PMID:21827954

  11. Simple Method to Genotype the ACTN3 r577x Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Schadock, Ines; Schneider, Augusto; Silva, Elton Dias; Buchweitz, Marcia Rubia Duarte; Correa, Marcio Nunes; Pesquero, Joao Bosco; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Araujo, Ronaldo Carvalho; Barros, Carlos Castilho

    2015-05-01

    The alpha-actinin-3 r577x polymorphism (rs1815739) is one of the most important polymorphisms associated with athletic performance. This single-nucleotide mutation leads to a premature stop codon, resulting in a nonfunctional protein product. The presence of the dominant R allele is associated with full power skeletal muscle contraction. Homozygosity for the X allele is correlated with more efficient energy disposure. Restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the standard methods used to genotype this polymorphism, but they are expensive and require special equipments. Here, we present a simple and cost-efficient method to genotype the ACTN3 r577x polymorphism by a single PCR. External primers yield a 690-bp product that indicates the template quality. Internal primers produce a 413-bp product if the R allele is present and a 318-bp product if the X allele is present. Our four-primer genotyping PCR was validated by the standard real-time PCR, generally used to genotype this single-nucleotide polymorphism, demonstrating the accuracy of this method. This protocol is perfect for small- or large-scale cohort genotyping of the ACTN3 r577x polymorphism. PMID:25831089

  12. Two dimensional valley electrons and excitons in the noncentrosymmetric 3R MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Ryosuke; Ochi, Masayuki; Bordacs, Sandor; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokura, Yoshinori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Arita, Ryotaro

    2015-03-01

    Possible control of the valley-dependent spin polarization in transition-metal dichalcogenides has been a hot topic as the valleytronics. Through the recent great progress based on the monolayer systems, people's interest is shifting to multilayered polytypes. The centrosymmetric 2H-stacked systems have been much studied for switching of the valley-dependent spin polarization. On the other hand, some of the authors [Suzuki et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 611 (2014)] have successfully fabricated the noncentrosymmetric 3R-stacked MoS2 multilayer and demonstrated the valley polarization independent of the number of layers. On the basis of this success, we further examined the valley electronic states in the 3R-MoS2 and found their novel two-dimensional properties utilizable for the valleytronics [Akashi et al., submitted.]. Namely, interlayer hopping of the valley electrons was proved to be zero as a consequence of a quantum-interference effect caused by the 3R-stacking geometry. In the talk, we report the results of the reflectivity measurement and analysis with an anisotropic hydrogen atomic model and show that the zero hopping causes 2D-hydrogen-like spectral series and confinement of the wave function within a single layer of the valley exciton. Present address: The University of Tokyo.

  13. NASA and ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen E.; Grantier, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    (1) ESA decided in its Council Meeting in March 2011 to partially offset the European ISS obligations after 2015 with different means than ATVs; (2) The envisioned approach is based on a barter element(s) that would generate cost avoidance on the NASA side; (3) NASA and ESA considered a number of Barter options, NASA concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter with the most interest;. (4) A joint ESA - NASA working group was established in May 2011 to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage; (5)The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin; and (6) The project is currently in phase B1 with the objective to prepare a technical and programmatic proposal for an ESA MPCV-SM development. This proposal will be one element of the package that ESA plans submit to go forward for approval by European Ministers in November 2012.

  14. Application of a multipurpose unequal probability stream survey in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, S.W.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.; Denver, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A stratified, spatially balanced sample with unequal probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of unusual but significant environmental settings to support empirical modeling of the factors affecting those conditions. The design and field application of the survey are discussed in light of these multiple objectives. A probability (random) sample of 175 first-order nontidal streams was selected for synoptic sampling of water chemistry and benthic and riparian ecology during late winter and spring 2000. Twenty-five streams were selected within each of seven hydrogeologic subregions (strata) that were delineated on the basis of physiography and surficial geology. In each subregion, unequal inclusion probabilities were used to provide an approximately even distribution of streams along a gradient of forested to developed (agricultural or urban) land in the contributing watershed. Alternate streams were also selected. Alternates were included in groups of five in each subregion when field reconnaissance demonstrated that primary streams were inaccessible or otherwise unusable. Despite the rejection and replacement of a considerable number of primary streams during reconnaissance (up to 40 percent in one subregion), the desired land use distribution was maintained within each hydrogeologic subregion without sacrificing the probabilistic design.

  15. Neural network predictions of acoustical parameters in multi-purpose performance halls.

    PubMed

    Cheung, L Y; Tang, S K

    2013-09-01

    A detailed binaural sound measurement was carried out in two multi-purpose performance halls of different seating capacities and designs in Hong Kong in the present study. The effectiveness of using neural network in the predictions of the acoustical properties using a limited number of measurement points was examined. The root-mean-square deviation from measurements, statistical parameter distribution matching, and the results of a t-test for vanishing mean difference between simulations and measurements were adopted as the evaluation criteria for the neural network performance. The audience locations relative to the sound source were used as the inputs to the neural network. Results show that the neural network training scheme using nine uniformly located measurement points in each specific hall area is the best choice regardless of the hall setting and design. It is also found that the neural network prediction of hall spaciousness does not require a large amount of training data, but the accuracy of the reverberance related parameter predictions increases with increasing volume of training data. PMID:23967937

  16. Cultural Resource Investigations for a Multipurpose Haul Road on the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Cameron Brizzee; Hollie Gilbert; Clayton Marler; Julie Braun Williams

    2010-08-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a multipurpose haul road to transport materials and wastes between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and other Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site facilities. The proposed road will be closed to the public and designed for limited year-round use. Two primary options are under consideration: a new route south of the existing T-25 power line road and an upgrade to road T-24. In the Spring of 2010, archaeological field surveys and initial coordination and field reconnaissance with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes were completed to identify any resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed road construction and to develop recommendations to protect any listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The investigations showed that 24 archaeological resources and one historic marker are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation south of the T-25 powerline road and 27archaeological resources are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation along road T-24. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both road corridors. This report outlines recommendations for additional investigations and protective measures that can be implemented to minimize adverse impacts to the identified resources.

  17. Newly Elaborated Multipurpose Polymer Electrolyte Encompassing RTILs for Smart Energy-Efficient Devices.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jijeesh R; Porcarelli, Luca; Bella, Federico; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2015-06-17

    Profoundly ion-conducting, self-standing, and tack-free ethylene oxide-based polymer electrolytes encompassing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) with specific amounts of lithium salt are successfully prepared via a rapid and easily upscalable process including a UV irradiation step. All prepared materials are thoroughly characterized in terms of their physical, chemical, and morphological properties and eventually galvanostatically cycled in lab-scale lithium batteries (LIBs) exploiting a novel direct polymerization procedure to get intimate electrode/electrolyte interfacial characteristics. The promising multipurpose characteristics of the newly elaborated materials are demonstrated by testing them in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), where the introduction of the iodine/iodide-based redox mediator in the polymer matrix assured the functioning of a lab-scale test cell with conversion efficiency exceeding 6% at 1 sun. The reported results enlighten the promising prospects of the material to be successfully implemented as stable, durable, and efficient electrolyte in next-generation energy conversion and storage devices. PMID:26020809

  18. MATISSE: Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Antonelli, L. A.

    In planetary sciences, design, assemble and launch onboard instruments are only preliminary steps toward the final aim of converting data into scientific knowledge, as the real challenge is the data analysis and interpretation. Up to now data have been generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e. common ftp servers where the user can manually search for data browsing directories organized in a time order manner. However, as datasets to be stored and searched become particularly large, this latter task absorbs a great part of the time, subtracting time to the real scientific work. In order to reduce the time spent to search and analyze data MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), a new set of software tools developed together with the scientific teams of the instruments involved, is under development at ASDC (ASI Science Data Center), whose experience in space missions data management is well known (e.g., \\citealt{verrecchia07,pittori09,giommi09,massaro11}) and its features and aims will be presented here.

  19. Evaluation of Suited and Unsuited Human Functional Strength Using Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazadeh, Fred

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the planned summer research was to develop a procedure to determine the isokinetic functional strength of suited and unsuited participants in order to estimate the coefficient of micro-gravity suit on human strength. To accomplish this objective, the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility's Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic dynamometer (MMID) was used. Development of procedure involved selection and testing of seven routines to be tested on MMID. We conducted the related experiments and collected the data for 12 participants. In addition to the above objective, we developed a procedure to assess the fatiguing characteristics of suited and unsuited participants using EMG technique. We collected EMG data on 10 participants while performing a programmed routing on MMID. EMG data along with information on the exerted forces, effector speed, number of repetitions, and duration of each routine were recorded for further analysis. Finally, gathering and tabulation Of data for various human strengths for updating of MSIS (HSIS) strength requirement, which started in summer 2003, also continued.

  20. A new NASA LaRC Multi-Purpose Prepregging Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Dixon, D.; Johnston, N. J.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-purpose prepregging machine has been designed and built for NASA Langley Research Center. The machine has numerous advantages over existing units due to its various modular components. Each of these can be used individually or simultaneously depending on the required prepregging method. A reverse roll coater provides the ability to prepare thin films from typical hot-melt thermoset formulations. Also, if necessary, the design allows direct fiber impregnation within the reverse roll coater gap. Included in the impregnation module is a solution dip tank allowing the fabrication of thermoplastic prepregs from solution. The proceeding modules within the unit consist of four nip stations, two hot-plates, a hot-sled option and a high temperature oven. This paper describes the advantages of such a modular construction and discusses the various processing combinations available to the prepregger. A variety of high performance prepreg material systems were produced on IM7 (Hercules) carbon fiber. These included LaRC RP46, a PMR-type resin processed from methanol and two polyamide acids, LaRC IA and LaRC ITPI, prpregged from N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP). Parameters involved in the production of these prepreg materials are presented as are the mechanical properties of the resulting good quality laminates. A brief introduction into the existing prepregging science is presented. Topics relating to solution prepregging are identified with a focus on the current research effort and its future development.

  1. Galen: a third generation terminology tool to support a multipurpose national coding system for surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Trombert-Paviot, B; Rodrigues, J M; Rogers, J E; Baud, R; van der Haring, E; Rassinoux, A M; Abrial, V; Clavel, L; Idir, H

    1999-01-01

    GALEN has developed a new generation of terminology tools based on a language independent concept reference model using a compositional formalism allowing computer processing and multiple reuses. During the 4th framework program project Galen-In-Use we applied the modelling and the tools to the development of a new multipurpose coding system for surgical procedures (CCAM) in France. On one hand we contributed to a language independent knowledge repository for multicultural Europe. On the other hand we support the traditional process for creating a new coding system in medicine which is very much labour consuming by artificial intelligence tools using a medically oriented recursive ontology and natural language processing. We used an integrated software named CLAW to process French professional medical language rubrics produced by the national colleges of surgeons into intermediate dissections and to the Grail reference ontology model representation. From this language independent concept model representation on one hand we generate controlled French natural language to support the finalization of the linguistic labels in relation with the meanings of the conceptual system structure. On the other hand the classification manager of third generation proves to be very powerful to retrieve the initial professional rubrics with different categories of concepts within a semantic network. PMID:10725030

  2. DISMANTLING OF THE UPPER RPV COMPONENTS OF THE KARLSRUHE MULTI-PURPOSE RESEARCH REACTOR (MZFR), GERMANY

    SciTech Connect

    Prechtl, E.; Suessdorf, W.

    2003-02-27

    The Multi-purpose Research Reactor was a pressurized-water reactor cooled and moderated with heavy water. It was built from 1961 to 1966 and went critical for the first time on 29 September 1965. After nineteen years of successful operation, the reactor was de-activated on 3 May 1984. The reactor had a thermal output of 200 MW and an electrical output of 50 MW. The MZFR not only served to supply electrical power, but also as a test bed for: - research into various materials for reactor building (e. g. zirkaloy), - the manufacturing and operating industry to gain experience in erection and operation, - training scientific and technical reactor staff, and - power supply (first nuclear combined-heat-and-power system, 1979-1984). The experience gained in operating the MZFR was very helpful for the development and operation of power reactors. At first, safe containment and enclosure of the plant was planned, but then it was decided to dismantle the plant completely, step by step, in view o f the clear advantages of this approach. The decommissioning concept for the complete elimination of the plant down to a green-field site provides for eight steps. A separate decommissioning license is required for each step. As part of the dismantling, about 72,000 Mg [metric tons] of concrete and 7,200 Mg of metal (400 Mg RPV) must be removed. About 700 Mg of concrete (500 Mg biological shield) and 1300 Mg of metal must be classified as radioactive waste.

  3. Software-programmable continuous-flow multi-purpose lab-on-a-chip

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Ahmed M.; Thakur, Raviraj; Madren, Seth; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Thottethodi, Mithuna; Vijaykumar, T. N.; Wereley, Steven T.; Jacobson, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Current lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices are assay-specific and are custom-built for each single experiment. Performing an experiment requires scientists or engineers to go through the time-consuming process of designing, fabricating, and testing a chip before conducting the actual experiment. This prolonged cycle can take months to complete, increasing effort and cost and reducing productivity. Similarly, minor modifications to an assay protocol re-incur the overheads of the design cycle. In this paper, we develop a multi-purpose, software-programmableLab-on-a-Chip (SPLoC), where the user simply writes or downloads a program for each experiment. We describe the components necessary to realize the SPLoC, which include a high-level programming language, an abstract instruction set, a runtime and control system, and a microfluidic device. We describe two key features of our high-level language compiler, and describe a novel variable-volume variable-ratio mixer. Finally, we demonstrate our SPLoC on four diverse, real-world assays. PMID:24436691

  4. Multipurpose ultra and superhydrophobic surfaces based on oligodimethylsiloxane-modified nanosilica.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Raquel; Tiemblo, Pilar; Hoyos, Mario; González-Arellano, Camino; García, Nuria; Berglund, Lars; Synytska, Alla

    2014-11-12

    Nonfluorinated hydrophobic surfaces are of interest for reduced cost, toxicity, and environmental problems. Searching for such surfaces together with versatile processing, A200 silica nanoparticles are modified with an oligodimethylsiloxane and used by themselves or with a polymer matrix. The goal of the surface modification is controlled aggregate size and stable suspensions. Characterization is done by NMR, microanalysis, nitrogen adsorption, and dynamic light scattering. The feasibility of the concept is then demonstrated. The silica aggregates are sprayed in a scalable process to form ultrahydrophobic and imperceptible coatings with surface topographies of controlled nanoscale roughness onto different supports, including nanofibrillated cellulose. To improve adhesion and wear properties, the organosilica was mixed with polymers. The resulting composite coatings are characterized by FE-SEM, AFM, and contact angle measurements. Depending on the nature of the polymer, different functionalities can be developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate) leads to almost superhydrophobic and highly transparent coatings. Composites based on commercial acrylic car paint show "pearl-bouncing" droplet behavior. A light-emitting polyfluorene is synthesized to prepare luminescent and water repellent coatings on different supports. The interactions between polymers and the organosilica influence coating roughness and are critical for wetting behavior. In summary, the feasibility of a facile, rapid, and fluorine-free hydrophobization concept was successfully demonstrated in multipurpose antiwetting applications. PMID:25275966

  5. Megaton Modular Multi-Purpose Neutrino Detector for a Program of Physics in the Homestake DUSEL

    E-print Network

    Diwan, M V; Marciano, W; Viren, B; Svoboda, R; Frati, W; Lande, K; Mann, A K; Van Berg, R; Klein, J R

    2003-01-01

    This is a preliminary version of a formal proposal by the 3M collaboration to construct a megaton, modular, multipurpose (3M) neutrino detector for a program of experiments in neutrino physics. The detector components will be located in chambers approximately 7000 ft below the Earth's surface in the Homestake Mine at Lead, South Dakota, to carry out experiments on neutrino oscillations directed toward the principal experimental goal of the program, viz., the issue of CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector of elementary particles, an issue that has been the subject of study in the quark sector for several decades. The principal physics goal of this program also requires a moderately intense neutrino beam from an accelerator located a long distance from the detector array, such as the 2540 km distance of BNL from Homestake. The construction plan for that neutrino beam is at http://nwg.phy.bnl.gov/. Other experimental searches that do not require the accelerator-generated beam can be carried out with the 3...

  6. REBOUND: An open-source multi-purpose N-body code for collisional dynamics

    E-print Network

    Rein, Hanno

    2011-01-01

    REBOUND is a new multi-purpose N-body code which is freely available under an open-source license. It was designed for collisional dynamics such as planetary rings but can also solve the classical N-body problem. It is highly modular and can be customized easily to work on a wide variety of different problems in astrophysics and beyond. REBOUND comes with three symplectic integrators: leap-frog, the symplectic epicycle integrator (SEI) and a Wisdom-Holman mapping (WH). It supports open, periodic and shearing-sheet boundary conditions. REBOUND can use a Barnes-Hut tree to calculate both self-gravity and collisions. These modules are fully parallelized with MPI as well as OpenMP. The former makes use of a static domain decomposition and a distributed essential tree. Two new collision detection modules based on a plane-sweep algorithm are also implemented. The performance of the plane-sweep algorithm is superior to a tree code for simulations in which one dimension is much longer than the other two and in simula...

  7. Megaton Modular Multi-Purpose Neutrino Detector for a Program of Physics in the Homestake DUSEL

    E-print Network

    M. V. Diwan; R. L. Hahn; W. Marciano; B. Viren; R. Svoboda; W. Frati; K. Lande; A. K. Mann; R. Van Berg; J. R. Klein

    2003-06-26

    This is a preliminary version of a formal proposal by the 3M collaboration to construct a megaton, modular, multipurpose (3M) neutrino detector for a program of experiments in neutrino physics. The detector components will be located in chambers approximately 7000 ft below the Earth's surface in the Homestake Mine at Lead, South Dakota, to carry out experiments on neutrino oscillations directed toward the principal experimental goal of the program, viz., the issue of CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector of elementary particles, an issue that has been the subject of study in the quark sector for several decades. The principal physics goal of this program also requires a moderately intense neutrino beam from an accelerator located a long distance from the detector array, such as the 2540 km distance of BNL from Homestake. The construction plan for that neutrino beam is at http://nwg.phy.bnl.gov/. Other experimental searches that do not require the accelerator-generated beam can be carried out with the 3M detector independently of and at the same time as the neutrino oscillation and CP-invariance violation measurements are in progress. They are searches for Proton Decay, UHE Neutrinos, and Supernovae Neutrinos.

  8. Wave-atoms-based multipurpose scheme via perceptual image hashing and watermarking.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Fu, Qi-Kai; Cheng, Lee-Ming

    2012-09-20

    This paper presents a novel multipurpose scheme for content-based image authentication and copyright protection using a perceptual image hashing and watermarking strategy based on a wave atom transform. The wave atom transform is expected to outperform other transforms because it gains sparser expansion and better representation for texture than other traditional transforms, such as wavelet and curvelet transforms. Images are decomposed into multiscale bands with a number of tilings using the wave atom transform. Perceptual hashes are then extracted from the features of tiling in the third scale band for the purpose of content-based authentication; simultaneously, part of the selected hashes are designed as watermarks, which are embedded into the original images for the purpose of copyright protection. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme shows great performance in content-based authentication by distinguishing the maliciously attacked images from the nonmaliciously attacked images. Moreover, watermarks extracted from the proposed scheme also achieve high robustness against common malicious and nonmalicious image-processing attacks, which provides excellent copyright protection for images. PMID:23033026

  9. Assessing marginal water values in multipurpose multireservoir systems via stochastic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Pinte, D.; Goor, Q.

    2008-12-01

    The International Conference on Water and the Environment held in Dublin in 1992 emphasized the need to consider water as an economic good. Since water markets are usually absent or ineffective, the value of water cannot be directly derived from market activities but must rather be assessed through shadow prices. Economists have developed various valuation techniques to determine the economic value of water, especially to handle allocation issues involving environmental water uses. Most of the nonmarket valuation studies reported in the literature focus on long-run policy problems, such as permanent (re)allocations of water, and assume that the water availability is given. When dealing with short-run allocation problems, water managers are facing complex spatial and temporal trade-offs and must therefore be able to track site and time changes in water values across different hydrologic conditions, especially in arid and semiarid areas where the availability of water is a limiting and stochastic factor. This paper presents a stochastic programming approach for assessing the statistical distribution of marginal water values in multipurpose multireservoir systems where hydropower generation and irrigation crop production are the main economic activities depending on water. In the absence of a water market, the Lagrange multipliers correspond to shadow prices, and the marginal water values are the Lagrange multipliers associated with the mass balance equations of the reservoirs. The methodology is illustrated with a cascade of hydroelectric-irrigation reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin in Turkey and Syria.

  10. Software-programmable continuous-flow multi-purpose lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmed M; Thakur, Raviraj; Madren, Seth; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Thottethodi, Mithuna; Vijaykumar, T N; Wereley, Steven T; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2013-11-01

    Current lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices are assay-specific and are custom-built for each single experiment. Performing an experiment requires scientists or engineers to go through the time-consuming process of designing, fabricating, and testing a chip before conducting the actual experiment. This prolonged cycle can take months to complete, increasing effort and cost and reducing productivity. Similarly, minor modifications to an assay protocol re-incur the overheads of the design cycle. In this paper, we develop a multi-purpose, software-programmableLab-on-a-Chip (SPLoC), where the user simply writes or downloads a program for each experiment. We describe the components necessary to realize the SPLoC, which include a high-level programming language, an abstract instruction set, a runtime and control system, and a microfluidic device. We describe two key features of our high-level language compiler, and describe a novel variable-volume variable-ratio mixer. Finally, we demonstrate our SPLoC on four diverse, real-world assays. PMID:24436691

  11. Risk Analysis of Multipurpose Reservoir Real-time Operation based on Probabilistic Hydrologic Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of the risk for reservoir real-time operation is a hard task owing to the difficulty of accurate description of inflow uncertainties. The ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, which outputs a lot of inflow scenarios or traces, does well in depicting the inflow not only the marginal distribution but also their corrections. This motivates us to analyze the reservoir operating risk by inputting probabilistic hydrologic forecasting into reservoir real-time operation. The proposed procedure involves: (1) based upon the Bayesian inference, two alternative techniques, the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), are implemented for producing probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, respectively, (2) the reservoir risk is defined as the ratio of the number of traces that excessive (or below) the critical value to the total number of traces, and (3) a multipurpose reservoir operation model is build to produce Pareto solutions for trade-offs between risks and profits with the inputted probabilistic hydrologic forecasting. With a case study of the China's Three Gorges Reservoir, it is found that the reservoir real-time operation risks can be estimated and minimized based on the proposed methods, and this is great potential benefit in decision and choosing the most realistic one.

  12. Application of probabilistic hydrologic forecasting for risk analysis of multipurpose reservoir real-time operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of the risk for reservoir real-time operation is a hard task owing to the difficulty of accurate description of inflow uncertainties. The ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting depicts the inflow not only the marginal distributions but also their corrections by producing inflow scenarios. This motivates us to analyze the reservoir real-time operating risk with ensemble-based hydrologic forecasting inputs. The proposed procedure involves: (1) based upon the Bayesian inference, the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is implemented to produce ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, (2) the reservoir risk is defined as the ratio of the number of scenarios that excessive the critical value to the total number of scenarios, (3) a multipurpose reservoir operation model is built and solved using scenario optimization to produce Pareto solutions for trade-offs between risks and profits. With a case study of the China's Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) for the 2010 and 2012 floods, it is found that the reservoir real-time operation risks can be estimated directly and minimized based on the proposed methods, and is easy of implementation by the reservoir operators.

  13. Development of JSTAMP-Works/NV and HYSTAMP for Multipurpose Multistage Sheet Metal Forming Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu

    2005-08-01

    Since 1996, Japan Research Institute Limited (JRI) has been providing a sheet metal forming simulation system called JSTAMP-Works packaged the FEM solvers of LS-DYNA and JOH/NIKE, which might be the first multistage system at that time and has been enjoying good reputation among users in Japan. To match the recent needs, "faster, more accurate and easier", of process designers and CAE engineers, a new metal forming simulation system JSTAMP-Works/NV is developed. The JSTAMP-Works/NV packaged the automatic healing function of CAD and had much more new capabilities such as prediction of 3D trimming lines for flanging or hemming, remote control of solver execution for multi-stage forming processes and shape evaluation between FEM and CAD. On the other way, a multi-stage multi-purpose inverse FEM solver HYSTAMP is developed and will be soon put into market, which is approved to be very fast, quite accurate and robust. Lastly, authors will give some application examples of user defined ductile damage subroutine in LS-DYNA for the estimation of material failure and springback in metal forming simulation.

  14. Development of JSTAMP-Works/NV and HYSTAMP for Multipurpose Multistage Sheet Metal Forming Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu [Japan Research Institute, Ltd. (Japan)

    2005-08-05

    Since 1996, Japan Research Institute Limited (JRI) has been providing a sheet metal forming simulation system called JSTAMP-Works packaged the FEM solvers of LS-DYNA and JOH/NIKE, which might be the first multistage system at that time and has been enjoying good reputation among users in Japan. To match the recent needs, 'faster, more accurate and easier', of process designers and CAE engineers, a new metal forming simulation system JSTAMP-Works/NV is developed. The JSTAMP-Works/NV packaged the automatic healing function of CAD and had much more new capabilities such as prediction of 3D trimming lines for flanging or hemming, remote control of solver execution for multi-stage forming processes and shape evaluation between FEM and CAD.On the other way, a multi-stage multi-purpose inverse FEM solver HYSTAMP is developed and will be soon put into market, which is approved to be very fast, quite accurate and robust.Lastly, authors will give some application examples of user defined ductile damage subroutine in LS-DYNA for the estimation of material failure and springback in metal forming simulation.

  15. Comparing utilitarian and hedonic usefulness to user intention in multipurpose information systems.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ja-Chul; Fan, Liu; Suh, Yung Ho; Lee, Sang-Chul

    2010-06-01

    This research studies the differences between productivity-oriented (or utilitarian) and entertainment-oriented (or hedonic) usefulness for a multipurpose information system in user acceptance models, as information systems can be high or low in both hedonic and utilitarian attributes. Accordingly, perceived usefulness (PU) is divided into perceived utilitarian usefulness (PUU) and perceived hedonic usefulness (PHU) to provide a better understanding of users' intention for accepting IT. To test the proposed model more effectively, this research targets instant messaging (IM), which is an extremely popular and increasingly important communication system, both utilitarian and hedonic in nature. This research compares the difference across two groups: students for hedonic purpose and employees for utilitarian purpose. We conclude that the proposed model, which distinguishes between utilitarian and hedonic usefulness, is more effective than previous models in which the usefulness was not distinguished. Both PUU and PHU have an effect on intention to use. Employees consider PUU more important in their intention to use IM, while students are more influenced by PHU. PMID:20557248

  16. MYRRHA a multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abderrahim, H. A.; Baeten, P. [SCK CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2012-07-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator driven system (ADS) in development at SCK-CEN. MYRRHA is able to work both in subcritical (ADS) as in critical mode. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for generation IV (GEN IV) systems, material developments for fusion reactors, radioisotope production and industrial applications, such as Si-doping. MYRRHA will also demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling the three components (accelerator, spallation target and subcritical reactor) at reasonable power level to allow operation feedback, scalable to an industrial demonstrator and allow the study of efficient transmutation of high-level nuclear waste. MYRRHA is based on the heavy liquid metal technology and so it will contribute to the development of lead fast reactor (LFR) technology and in critical mode, MYRRHA will play the role of European technology pilot plant in the roadmap for LFR. In this paper the historical evolution of MYRRHA and the rationale behind the design choices is presented and the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system is described. (authors)

  17. INITIAL WASTE PACKAGE PROBABILISTIC CRITICALITY ANALYSIS: MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER WITH DISPOSAL CONTAINER (TBV)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Massari

    1995-10-06

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide an assessment of the present waste package design from a criticality risk standpoint. The specific objectives of this initial analysis are to: (1) Establish a process for determining the probability of waste package criticality as a function of time (in terms of a cumulative distribution function, probability distribution function, or expected number of criticalities in a specified time interval) for various waste package concepts; (2) Demonstrate the established process by estimating the probability of criticality as a function of time since emplacement for an intact multi-purpose canister waste package (MPC-WP) configuration; (3) Identify the dominant sequences leading to waste package criticality for subsequent detailed analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to document and demonstrate the developed process as it has been applied to the MPC-WP. This revision is performed to correct deficiencies in the previous revision and provide further detail on the calculations performed. This analysis is similar to that performed for the uncanistered fuel waste package (UCF-WP, B00000000-01717-2200-00079).

  18. PROGRAPE-1: A Programmable, Multi-Purpose Computer for Many-Body Simulations

    E-print Network

    Tsuyoshi Hamada; Toshiyuki Fukushige; Atsushi Kawai; Junichiro Makino

    1999-07-08

    We have developed PROGRAPE-1 (PROgrammable GRAPE-1), a programmable multi-purpose computer for many-body simulations. The main difference between PROGRAPE-1 and "traditional" GRAPE systems is that the former uses FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chips as the processing elements, while the latter rely on the hardwired pipeline processor specialized to gravitational interactions. Since the logic implemented in FPGA chips can be reconfigured, we can use PROGRAPE-1 to calculate not only gravitational interactions but also other forms of interactions such as van der Waals force, hydrodynamical interactions in SPH calculation and so on. PROGRAPE-1 comprises two Altera EPF10K100 FPGA chips, each of which contains nominally 100,000 gates. To evaluate the programmability and performance of PROGRAPE-1, we implemented a pipeline for gravitational interaction similar to that of GRAPE-3. One pipeline fitted into a single FPGA chip, which operated at 16 MHz clock. Thus, for gravitational interaction, PROGRAPE-1 provided the speed of 0.96 Gflops-equivalent. PROGRAPE will prove to be useful for wide-range of particle-based simulations in which the calculation cost of interactions other than gravity is high, such as the evaluation of SPH interactions.

  19. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruytenberg, T.; Webb, A. G.; Beenakker, J. W. M.

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points.

  20. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Ruytenberg, T; Webb, A G; Beenakker, J W M

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points. PMID:25222861

  1. Characterization of a flatworm inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) reveals a role in reproductive physiology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaolong; Chan, John D.; Marchant, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca2+channels that elevate cytoplasmic Ca2+ in response to the second messenger IP3. Here, we describe the identification and in vivo functional characterization of the planarian IP3R, the first intracellular Ca2+ channel to be defined in flatworms. A single IP3R gene in Dugesia japonica encoded a 2666 amino acid protein (Dj.IP3R) that shared well conserved structural features with vertebrate IP3R counterparts. Expression of an NH2-terminal Dj.IP3R region (amino acid residues 223–585) recovered high affinity 3H-IP3 binding (0.9 ± 0.1 nM) which was abolished by a single point mutation of an arginine residue (R495L) important for IP3 coordination. In situ hybridization revealed that Dj.IP3R mRNA was most strongly expressed in the pharynx and optical nerve system as well as the reproductive system in sexualized planarians. Consistent with this observed tissue distribution, in vivo RNAi of Dj.IP3R resulted in a decreased egg-laying behavior suggesting Dj.IP3R plays an upstream role in planarian reproductive physiology. PMID:23481272

  2. Error-free 31-hop cascaded operation of an optical packet switching router with all-optical 3R regeneration

    E-print Network

    Kolner, Brian H.

    Error-free 31-hop cascaded operation of an optical packet switching router with all-optical 3R of an optical-label switching router. The all-optical 3R regeneration enables error-free 31-hop cascaded packet for its applicability in the next generation optical Internet. OLS routers must maintain high

  3. Textbook Reading Systems The SQ3R is a systematic method designed for studying a textbook. Developed by

    E-print Network

    Romano, Raquel

    Textbook Reading Systems 1. SQ3R The SQ3R is a systematic method designed for studying a textbook reading system which has been successfully used by many students. SURVEY: Glance over the headings in the chapter to see the few big points that will be developed . Also read the final summary paragraph

  4. Structure determination of Ag,,111...,, 3 3...R30-Sb by low-energy electron diffraction E. A. Soares*

    E-print Network

    Soares, Edmar Avellar

    of Sb on Ag 111 were stud- ied using coaxial impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy CAICISS-ray diffraction and medium energy ion scattering studies of the related Cu(111)( 3 3)R30°-Sb surface. I 2 3)R30°-Sb. Neon ion CAICISS data were used to distinguish between over- layer and substitutional

  5. Mutations in MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 cause pleiotropic developmental defects and preferential down-regulation of multiple G2/M-specific genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Haga, Nozomi; Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Takamasa; Maeo, Kenichiro; Kubo, Minoru; Ohtani, Misato; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Demura, Taku; Nakamura, Kenzo; Jürgens, Gerd; Ito, Masaki

    2011-10-01

    R1R2R3-Myb proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved class of Myb family proteins important for cell cycle regulation and differentiation in eukaryotic cells. In plants, this class of Myb proteins are believed to regulate the transcription of G2/M phase-specific genes by binding to common cis-elements, called mitosis-specific activator (MSA) elements. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 act as transcriptional activators and positively regulate cytokinesis by activating the transcription of KNOLLE, which encodes a cytokinesis-specific syntaxin. Here, we show that the double mutation myb3r1 myb3r4 causes pleiotropic developmental defects, some of which are due to deficiency of KNOLLE whereas other are not, suggesting that multiple target genes are involved. Consistently, microarray analysis of the double mutant revealed altered expression of many genes, among which G2/M-specific genes showed significant overrepresentation of the MSA motif and a strong tendency to be down-regulated by the double mutation. Our results demonstrate, on a genome-wide level, the importance of the MYB3R-MSA pathway for regulating G2/M-specific transcription. In addition, MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 may have diverse roles during plant development by regulating G2/M-specific genes with various functions as well as genes possibly unrelated to the cell cycle. PMID:21862669

  6. The Pure Rotational Spectrum of Tis (X^{3}?_r) in all Three Spin Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, R. L.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2009-06-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of TiS in the X^{3}?_r ground state has been measured using millimeter-wave direct absorption techniques. This species was created by the reaction of hydrogen sulfide gas with titanium vapor produced in a Broida oven which was modified to withstand the extreme temperatures required to melt this metal. Eight transitions have been recorded, each consisting of three spin components. No lambda-doubling was observed, as expected for a ? state. The data were fit with a Hund's case(a) Hamiltonian and spectroscopic constants have been determined. The results from this study, as well as a comparison to past optical data will be presented.

  7. Superconducting solenoid magnet for the Multi-Purpose Detector at the NICA facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunzarov, Zh; Dodokhov, V.; Efremov, A.; Golovatyuk, V.; Ionaites, V.; Kekelidze, V.; Kovalchuk, O.; Koshurnikov, E.; Lobanov, Yu; Makarov, A.; Ochrimenko, V.; Vodopyanov, A.

    2014-09-01

    The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is a 4? spectrometer to be used for studying charged hadrons, electrons and photons generated in heavy ion collisions at energies provided by the NICA collider of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna). A constituent part of MPD is a solenoid magnet with superconducting NbTi coil and steel flux return yoke. The magnet is intended for providing a highly homogeneous magnetic field of 0.5 T in an aperture of 4596 mm in diameter to ensure the transverse momentum resolution within the range of 0.1–3 GeV/c at NICA. The mass of the magnet is eight hundred tons. Structurally, the MPD magnet yoke is a cylindrical barrel-like structure, which consists of 24 beams that return the magnetic flux of the coil, two support rings, two poles and two support cradles that carry the total weight of the detector. The stainless cryostat with the superconducting coil is rigidly fixed inside the yoke barrel. The structural arrangement of the yoke guarantees high rigidity of the whole magnet and will ensure the required field homogeneity and integral of the radial magnetic induction component in the TPC region after subsequent withdrawals of the poles and multiple movements of the magnet to the assembly site for updating or repair. The coil is a one-layer solenoid made of an aluminum stabilized superconductor. The conductor is wound onto inside the aluminum support cylinder. The cooling method chosen for the MPD magnet is based on the forced two-phase helium flow using a helium refrigerator. The coil conductor is cooled indirectly via the thermal contact with the aluminum cylinder and heat removal through the cylinder to the aluminum tube with circulated liquid helium. In this paper the details of the technical design and results of the magnetic and mechanical calculations are presented.

  8. Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R; Hurlburt, Jennifer A; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs). IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of women’s health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not disrupt intercourse or have high rates of expulsion. Herein, we reviewed the microbicide and MPT IVRs currently in development, with a focus on the clinical aspects of IVR assessment and the challenges facing microbicide and MPT IVR product development, clinical testing, and implementation. The information in this review was drawn from PubMed searches and a recent microbicide/MPT product development workshop organized by CONRAD. PMID:24174884

  9. Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R; Hurlburt, Jennifer A; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs). IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of women's health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not disrupt intercourse or have high rates of expulsion. Herein, we reviewed the microbicide and MPT IVRs currently in development, with a focus on the clinical aspects of IVR assessment and the challenges facing microbicide and MPT IVR product development, clinical testing, and implementation. The information in this review was drawn from PubMed searches and a recent microbicide/MPT product development workshop organized by CONRAD. PMID:24174884

  10. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Hemant; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S. Erik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Wattjes, Alix C. [Electronic and Mechanical Support Division (DEMO), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan [Materials Innovation Institute, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 degree sign C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degree sign in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10{sup -5} mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degree sign C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 deg. C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 deg. C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

  11. GALEN: a third generation terminology tool to support a multipurpose national coding system for surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Trombert-Paviot, B; Rodrigues, J M; Rogers, J E; Baud, R; van der Haring, E; Rassinoux, A M; Abrial, V; Clavel, L; Idir, H

    2000-09-01

    Generalised architecture for languages, encyclopedia and nomenclatures in medicine (GALEN) has developed a new generation of terminology tools based on a language independent model describing the semantics and allowing computer processing and multiple reuses as well as natural language understanding systems applications to facilitate the sharing and maintaining of consistent medical knowledge. During the European Union 4 Th. framework program project GALEN-IN-USE and later on within two contracts with the national health authorities we applied the modelling and the tools to the development of a new multipurpose coding system for surgical procedures named CCAM in a minority language country, France. On one hand, we contributed to a language independent knowledge repository and multilingual semantic dictionaries for multicultural Europe. On the other hand, we support the traditional process for creating a new coding system in medicine which is very much labour consuming by artificial intelligence tools using a medically oriented recursive ontology and natural language processing. We used an integrated software named CLAW (for classification workbench) to process French professional medical language rubrics produced by the national colleges of surgeons domain experts into intermediate dissections and to the Grail reference ontology model representation. From this language independent concept model representation, on one hand, we generate with the LNAT natural language generator controlled French natural language to support the finalization of the linguistic labels (first generation) in relation with the meanings of the conceptual system structure. On the other hand, the Claw classification manager proves to be very powerful to retrieve the initial domain experts rubrics list with different categories of concepts (second generation) within a semantic structured representation (third generation) bridge to the electronic patient record detailed terminology. PMID:10978911

  12. HyBIS - a low cost, multi-purpose, modular vehicle for detailed ocean mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huehnerbach, V.; Murton, B.; Berndt, C.; Garrard, J.; Wollatz-Vogt, M.; Wetzel, G.; Matthiessen, T.

    2013-12-01

    HyBIS is a low-cost, multi-purpose, highly maneuverable, fibre-optic controlled survey and sampling robotic underwater vehicle (RUV) capable of diving to 6000m. Built in the UK by Hydro-Lek Ltd. in collaboration with the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, it has proven itself during recent discoveries of the deepest hydrothermal vents in the world, at 5100m deep in the Cayman Trough in the Caribbean and habitat mapping of seamounts in the Atlantic and Indian oceans . The vehicle has a modular design, with the top module being a command and power system that comprises power management, cameras, lights, hydraulics, thrusters and telemetry. The lower module can alternatively be a clam-shell sampling grab, a manipulator-arm and tool sled, a winch for instrument recovery, or an ocean bottom seismometer deployment module. Unlike a conventional ROV, HyBIS does not have any floatation, rather it is suspended by its umbilical cable directly from the ship. The advantage of direct suspension is that HyBIS can recover or deploy a payload of up to 700kg, although this comes at the price of reduced maneuverability compared to a 'normal' ROV. During its four years of service, HyBIS has, so far, accumulated an impressive list of achievements: recording over 450 hours of HD video footage, thousands of HD still images, collected geological, biological samples, as well as fluids and gas from over 40 different sites. It has also recovered two different seabed landers containing scientific equipment worth over £300k, and placed Ocean Bottom Seismometers onto the seafloor.

  13. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, R.; Popa, F.; Popa, B.; Zachia-Zlatea, D.

    2010-08-01

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  14. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hemant; Wattjes, Alix C; Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S Erik

    2009-12-01

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 degrees C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degrees in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10(-5) mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degrees C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 degrees C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 degrees C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation. PMID:20059134

  15. A mini review on biological activities of pyridazinone derivatives as antiulcer, antisecretory, antihistamine and particularly against histamine H3R.

    PubMed

    Asif, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Pyridazinone derivatives and their related analoges were introduced for gastric antiulcer and antisecretory activities. Selected compounds were applied to ulcer models and showed their antiulcer and anti secretary activities. Some pyridazinone compounds are recently reported as H3R antagonists. Some amine analogs of pyridazinones, pyridazinone- phenethylamines and 4,5-fused pyridazinones showed histamine H3R antagonist activity with significant affinity for rat and human H3R. These pyridazinone analogs also showed excellent selectivity and metabolic stability, with adequate pharmacokinetics. PMID:25429662

  16. Surface structure analysis of Ni(111)-(3×3)R30°Pb by impact-collision ion-scattering spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Umezawa; Shigemitsu Nakanishi; Takahiro Yumura; Walter M. Gibson; Masatoshi Watanabe; Yoshiaki Kido; Shunya Yamamoto; Yasushi Aoki; Hiroshi Naramoto

    1997-01-01

    Impact-collision ion-scattering spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy have been used to analyze the Ni\\\\{111\\\\}-(3×3)R30°-Pb structure. It was found that annealing Pb-covered Ni surfaces with an initial coverage of 0.45 ML gives rise to a stable Ni\\\\{111\\\\}-(3×3)R30°-Pb structure. The experimental data and computer simulations support a structural model for the Ni\\\\{111\\\\}-(3×3)R30°-Pb structure in which Pb atoms displace part

  17. Determination of Amoebicidal Activities of Multipurpose Contact Lens Solutions by Using a Most Probable Number Enumeration Technique

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Tara K.; Seal, David V.; Tomlinson, Alan; McFadyen, Angus K.; Grimason, Anthony M.

    2003-01-01

    Six multipurpose contact lens solutions [All-in-One, All-in-One (Light), ReNu MultiPlus, Optifree Express, Complete, and Solo-care soft] were tested for their efficacies against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts by using a most probable number (MPN) technique for amoebic enumeration. Against trophozoites, All-in-One, ReNu Multiplus, and Optifree Express achieved total kill (log reduction of >3) after the manufacturer's minimum recommended disinfection time (MMRDT), with the remaining solutions failing to reach a log reduction of 1. After 24 h of exposure, all solutions proved trophozoiticidal, achieving, with the exception of Complete (log reduction of 3.13), total kill. Against cysts, All-in-One gave a log reduction of >3 within the MMRDT, with all other solutions failing to achieve a log reduction of 1. After 24 h of exposure, All-in-One achieved total kill of cysts (log reduction of 3.74), ReNu MultiPlus gave a log reduction of 3.15, and the remaining solutions reached log reductions of between 1.09 and 2.27. The MPN technique provides a simple, reliable, and reproducible method of amoebic enumeration that depends on simply establishing the presence or absence of growth on culture plates inoculated with a series of dilutions and determining the MPN of amoebae present from statistical tables. By use of this technique, two of the multipurpose solutions tested, ReNu MultiPlus and Optifree Express, demonstrated effective trophozoiticidal activities within the recommended disinfection times; however, only All-in-One proved effective against both trophozoites and cysts over the same time period. This MPN technique, which uses axenically produced trophozoites and mature, double-walled cysts, has the potential to form the basis of a national standard for amoebicidal efficacy testing of multipurpose contact lens disinfecting solutions. PMID:12843032

  18. Multipurpose modular experimental station for the DiProI beamline of Fermi@Elettra free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersoli, Emanuele; Capotondi, Flavio; Cocco, Daniele; Zangrando, Marco; Kaulich, Burkhard; Menk, Ralf H.; Locatelli, Andrea; Mentes, Tevfik O.; Spezzani, Carlo; Sandrin, Gilio; Bacescu, Daniel M.; Kiskinova, Maya; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars; Chapman, Henry N.; Nelson, A. J.; Frank, Matthias; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Woods, Bruce W.; Bogan, Michael J.; Hajdu, Janos

    2011-04-01

    We present a compact modular apparatus with a flexible design that will be operated at the DiProI beamline of the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser (FEL) for performing static and time-resolved coherent diffraction imaging experiments, taking advantage of the full coherence and variable polarization of the short seeded FEL pulses. The apparatus has been assembled and the potential of the experimental setup is demonstrated by commissioning tests with coherent synchrotron radiation. This multipurpose experimental station will be open to general users after installation at the Fermi@Elettra free electron laser in 2011.

  19. Design and fabrication of a multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Hun; Chai, Kil Byoung; Jang, Siwon; Choe, Wonho [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won-Ha; Kim, Junghee; Seo, Dongcheol; Lee, Jongha [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Bogatu, I. N.; Kim, Jin-Soo [FAR-TECH, Inc., 10350 Science Center Drive, Building 14, Suite 150, San Diego, California 92121-1136 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system was developed for measuring two-dimensional x-ray emissivity profile, electron temperature, Ar impurity transport, and total radiation power. A remotely controlled filter wheel was designed with three different choices of filters. The electron temperature profile can be determined from the ratio of two channels having different thickness of Be layer, and the Ar impurity concentration transport can be determined from a pair of Ar Ross filters (CaF{sub 2} and NaCl thin films). Without any filters, this diagnostic system can also be used as a bolometer.

  20. Multipurpose modular experimental station for the DiProI beamline of Fermi-Elettra free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersoli, Emanuele; Capotondi, Flavio; Cocco, Daniele; Kaulich, Burkhard; Menk, Ralf H.; Locatelli, Andrea; Mentes, Tevfik O.; Spezzani, Carlo; Sandrin, Gilio; Bacescu, Daniel M.; Kiskinova, Maya [Fermi, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, SS 14 - km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Zangrando, Marco [Fermi, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, SS 14 - km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); IOM CNR, Laboratorio TASC, SS 14 - km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam [Photon Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars [Centre for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Chapman, Henry N. [Centre for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); University of Hamburg, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Nelson, A. J.; Frank, Matthias [Physical and Life Sciences, LLNL, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2011-04-15

    We present a compact modular apparatus with a flexible design that will be operated at the DiProI beamline of the Fermi-Elettra free electron laser (FEL) for performing static and time-resolved coherent diffraction imaging experiments, taking advantage of the full coherence and variable polarization of the short seeded FEL pulses. The apparatus has been assembled and the potential of the experimental setup is demonstrated by commissioning tests with coherent synchrotron radiation. This multipurpose experimental station will be open to general users after installation at the Fermi-Elettra free electron laser in 2011.

  1. The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Fitness in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Chelsea L.; Connors, Kimberly E.; Klein, Matthias S.; Johnsen, Virginia L.; Shearer, Jane; Vogel, Hans J.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Many, Gina M.; Barfield, Whitney; Hoffman, Eric P.; Kraus, William E.; Hittel, Dustin S.

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity for a premature stop codon (X) in the ACTN3 “sprinter” gene is common in humans despite the fact that it reduces muscle size, strength and power. Because of the close relationship between skeletal muscle function and cardiometabolic health we examined the influence of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism over cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young adults (n = 98 males, n = 102 females; 23 ± 4.2 years) from our Assessing Inherent Markers for Metabolic syndrome in the Young (AIMMY) study. Both males and females with the RR vs XX genotype achieved higher mean VO2 peak scores (47.8 ± 1.5 vs 43.2 ±1.8 ml/O2/min, p = 0.002) and exhibited higher resting systolic (115 ± 2 vs 105 ± mmHg, p = 0.027) and diastolic (69 ± 3 vs 59 ± 3 mmHg, p = 0.005) blood pressure suggesting a role for ACTN3 in the maintenance of vascular tone. We subsequently identified the expression of alpha-actinin 3 protein in pulmonary artery smooth muscle, which may explain the genotype-specific differences in cardiovascular adaptation to acute exercise. In addition, we utilized targeted serum metabolomics to distinguish between RR and XX genotypes, suggesting an additional role for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in human metabolism. Taken together, these results identify significant cardiometabolic effects associated with possessing one or more functional copies of the ACTN3 gene. PMID:26107372

  2. Characteristics of the (\\\\sqrt{3}×\\\\sqrt{3})R30\\\\circ Superstructure of Graphite by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bai An; Seiji Fukuyama; Kiyoshi Yokogawa; Masamichi Yoshimura

    2000-01-01

    The bias-voltage- and the tunneling-current-dependent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of the (\\\\sqrt{3}×\\\\sqrt{3})R30\\\\circ superstructure of graphite formed near defects produced by Ar+-irradiation on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite annealed at 1373 K were investigated. The (\\\\sqrt{3}×\\\\sqrt{3})R30\\\\circ superstructure of graphite is gradually changed to a triangular structure and the area of the superstructure becomes smaller with increasing bias voltage or decreasing tunneling

  3. All-Optical 3R Burst-Mode Reception at 40 Gb\\/s Using Four Integrated MZI Switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George T. Kanellos; Dimitris Petrantonakis; Dimitris Tsiokos; Paraskevas Bakopoulos; Panagiotis Zakynthinos; Nikos Pleros; Dimitris Apostolopoulos; Graeme Maxwell; Alistair Poustie; Hercules Avramopoulos

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical retime, reshape, reamplify (3R) burst-mode receiver (BMR) operating error-free with a 40-Gb\\/s variable-length asynchronous optical data packets that exhibit up to 9-dB packet-to-packet power variation. The circuit is completely based upon hybrid integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometric (MZI) switches as it employs four cascaded MZIs, each one performing a different functionality. The 3R burst-mode reception is achieved with

  4. A Cu(1 1 1)(?3×?3)R30°Sb structure by impact collision ion-scattering spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Umezawa; H. Takaoka; S. Hirayama; S. Nakanishi; W. M. Gibson

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the structures of Cu(111)(?3×?3)R30°-Sb using time of flight-impact collision ion-scattering spectroscopy. The experimental data and computer simulations support a structural model for the Cu(111)(?3×?3)R30°-Sb structure in which Sb atoms displace up to 1\\/3 of the first layer of Cu atoms and incorporate them into the first Cu layer with the Sb atoms displaced outward 0.40 Å with

  5. Effects of BmKIT3R gene transfer on the development and survival of silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Xie, Min; Zhang, Xing; Yu, Xiaohua; Gong, Chengliang

    2011-12-01

    To verify the effects of gain-of-function mutation of the BmKIT3(R) gene (from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch) on the development and survival rate of insects and to explore a novel strategy for pest control, the effects of BmKIT3(R) gene transfer on the development and survival rate of silkworms were investigated. A novel transgenic vector derived from the piggyBac transposon with the BmKIT3(R) gene controlled by the Bmhsp20.4 promoter was transferred into silkworm eggs. Transgenic silkworms were obtained after screening with GFP and G418 antibiotics and verification by PCR and dot hybridization. The results showed that the oviposition number decreased by 18.9%, and the hatching and final survival rates were approximately 63% and 47.5%, respectively. Some 18.9% of surviving pupae died before developing into moths in the G3 generation. A specific band corresponding to BmKIT3(R) was detected for transgenic silkworms by Western blotting. This indicates that the Bmhsp 20.4 promoter has constitutive expression activity. The significant decrease in the survival rate suggests that pest population numbers could be effectively controlled by using BmKIT3(R) gene transfer. Furthermore, it can be speculated that pupal development to moths could be blocked if BmKIT3(R) were specially expressed in the pupal stage and reeling with fresh cocoons was performed. PMID:21890407

  6. Csf3r mutations in mice confer a strong clonal HSC advantage via activation of Stat5

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fulu; Kunter, Ghada; Krem, Maxwell M.; Eades, William C.; Cain, Jennifer A.; Tomasson, Michael H.; Hennighausen, Lothar; Link, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental property of leukemic stem cells is clonal dominance of the bone marrow microenvironment. Truncation mutations of CSF3R, which encodes the G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR), are implicated in leukemic progression in patients with severe congenital neutropenia. Here we show that expression of a truncated mutant Csf3r in mice confers a strong clonal advantage at the HSC level that is dependent upon exogenous G-CSF. G-CSF–induced proliferation, phosphorylation of Stat5, and transcription of Stat5 target genes were increased in HSCs isolated from mice expressing the mutant Csf3r. Conversely, the proliferative advantage conferred by the mutant Csf3r was abrogated in myeloid progenitors lacking both Stat5A and Stat5B, and HSC function was reduced in mice expressing a truncated mutant Csf3r engineered to have impaired Stat5 activation. These data indicate that in mice, inappropriate Stat5 activation plays a key role in establishing clonal dominance by stem cells expressing mutant Csf3r. PMID:18292815

  7. NASA Planning for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Orion Ground Processing Team was originally formed by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Constellation (Cx) Project Office's Orion Division to define, refine and mature pre-launch and post-landing ground operations for the Orion human spacecraft. The multidisciplined KSC Orion team consisted of KSC civil servant, SAIC, Productivity Apex, Inc. and Boeing-CAPPS engineers, project managers and safety engineers, as well as engineers from Constellation's Orion Project and Lockheed Martin Orion Prime contractor. The team evaluated the Orion design configurations as the spacecraft concept matured between Systems Design Review (SDR), Systems Requirement Review (SRR) and Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The team functionally decomposed prelaunch and post-landing steps at three levels' of detail, or tiers, beginning with functional flow block diagrams (FFBDs). The third tier FFBDs were used to build logic networks and nominal timelines. Orion ground support equipment (GSE) was identified and mapped to each step. This information was subsequently used in developing lower level operations steps in a Ground Operations Planning Document PDR product. Subject matter experts for each spacecraft and GSE subsystem were used to define 5th - 95th percentile processing times for each FFBD step, using the Delphi Method. Discrete event simulations used this information and the logic network to provide processing timeline confidence intervals for launch rate assessments. The team also used the capabilities of the KSC Visualization Lab, the FFBDs and knowledge of the spacecraft, GSE and facilities to build visualizations of Orion pre-launch and postlanding processing at KSC. Visualizations were a powerful tool for communicating planned operations within the KSC community (i.e., Ground Systems design team), and externally to the Orion Project, Lockheed Martin spacecraft designers and other Constellation Program stakeholders during the SRR to PDR timeframe. Other operations planning tools included Kaizen/Lean events, mockups and human factors analysis. The majority of products developed by this team are applicable as KSC prepares 21st Century Ground Systems for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Launch System.

  8. Multipurpose contrast enhancement on epiphyseal plates and ossification centers for bone age assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The high variations of background luminance, low contrast and excessively enhanced contrast of hand bone radiograph often impede the bone age assessment rating system in evaluating the degree of epiphyseal plates and ossification centers development. The Global Histogram equalization (GHE) has been the most frequently adopted image contrast enhancement technique but the performance is not satisfying. A brightness and detail preserving histogram equalization method with good contrast enhancement effect has been a goal of much recent research in histogram equalization. Nevertheless, producing a well-balanced histogram equalized radiograph in terms of its brightness preservation, detail preservation and contrast enhancement is deemed to be a daunting task. Method In this paper, we propose a novel framework of histogram equalization with the aim of taking several desirable properties into account, namely the Multipurpose Beta Optimized Bi-Histogram Equalization (MBOBHE). This method performs the histogram optimization separately in both sub-histograms after the segmentation of histogram using an optimized separating point determined based on the regularization function constituted by three components. The result is then assessed by the qualitative and quantitative analysis to evaluate the essential aspects of histogram equalized image using a total of 160 hand radiographs that are implemented in testing and analyses which are acquired from hand bone online database. Result From the qualitative analysis, we found that basic bi-histogram equalizations are not capable of displaying the small features in image due to incorrect selection of separating point by focusing on only certain metric without considering the contrast enhancement and detail preservation. From the quantitative analysis, we found that MBOBHE correlates well with human visual perception, and this improvement shortens the evaluation time taken by inspector in assessing the bone age. Conclusions The proposed MBOBHE outperforms other existing methods regarding comprehensive performance of histogram equalization. All the features which are pertinent to bone age assessment are more protruding relative to other methods; this has shorten the required evaluation time in manual bone age assessment using TW method. While the accuracy remains unaffected or slightly better than using unprocessed original image. The holistic properties in terms of brightness preservation, detail preservation and contrast enhancement are simultaneous taken into consideration and thus the visual effect is contributive to manual inspection. PMID:23565999

  9. Effect of contact lens material on cytotoxicity potential of multipurpose solutions using human corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tanti, N.C.; Crockett, B.; Mansour, L.; Jones, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Multipurpose solutions (MPS) are used daily to clean and disinfect silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lenses. This in vitro study was undertaken to identify the potential for interaction between MPS, SiHy surface treatments, and lens materials, which may lead to changes in the response of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) to MPS-soaked lenses. Methods The MPS tested were renu fresh (formerly known as ReNu MultiPlus; ReNu), OptiFree Express (OFX), OptiFree RepleniSH, SoloCare Aqua, and Complete Moisture Plus. The SiHy materials evaluated were lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, comfilcon A, galyfilcon A, and balafilcon A (BA). MPS-soaked lenses were placed on top of adherent HCEC. The effect of MPS dilutions (0.1 to 10% final concentration in medium) was also characterized. Cell viability, adhesion phenotype and caspase activation were studied after 24-h cell exposure. OFX released from lenses was determined using UV absorbance. Results A significant reduction in viability (between 30 to 50%) was observed with cells exposed to lenses soaked in ReNu and OFX. A significant downregulation of ?3 and ?1 integrins, with integrin expression ranging from 60% to 75% of control (cells with no lens), was also observed with OFX and ReNu-soaked lenses. With the exception of BA, all other lenses soaked in OFX resulted in significant caspase activation, whereby over 18% of cells stained positive for caspases. Minimal caspase activation was observed in cells exposed to ReNu and Solo soaked lenses. For both OFX and ReNu, exposing cells to at least a 5% dilution had a significant effect on viability and integrin expression. While Complete and Solo did not lead to reduction in viability, cells exposed to a 10% dilution showed reduced integrin expression down to less than 70% of control value. Comparing cell response to diluted MPS solutions and various MPS-soaked lenses showed that it is not possible to reliably use cell response to MPS dilution alone to assess MPS biocompatibility. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the reaction of HCEC to MPS are affected by the type of lenses the MPS is released from and may potentially be influenced by the surface treatment (or lack of it) of SiHy materials. PMID:22219641

  10. Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run. PMID:22555388

  11. Fifth International Poplar Symposium: 'Poplars and willows: from research models to multipurpose trees for a bio-based society'.

    PubMed

    Tognetti, Roberto; Massacci, Angelo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia

    2011-12-01

    Carefully managed tree plantations offer an opportunity for sustainable biomass production. In recent years, the responses of the Salicaceae to environmental constraints have increasingly been investigated at different levels of biological integration, giving rise to a physiological approach to the function of trees in environmental restoration and monitoring. Significant progress has been achieved by the poplar and willow community in understanding targeted characteristics of complex tree stress responses. The Fifth International Poplar Symposium brought together experts in this area, with the main objective being to improve, coordinate and communicate existing national research on the biological and environmental dimension of multifunctional poplar and willow plantations. The secondary objective was to develop a network of research scientists and extension workers to provide scientific support for subjects interested in using fast-growing poplar and willow species for tree-related environmental projects. The ultimate goal was to build up services for the multipurpose tree plantation network on local-level management in order to obtain maximized benefits from tree crops. The purpose was also to maximize the synergy between local knowledge and global-level processes that require information on multipurpose tree crop production. PMID:22158009

  12. Magnetochromic effect in multiferroic R In1 -xMnxO3 (R =Tb , Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.; Holinsworth, B. S.; O'Neal, K. R.; Brinzari, T. V.; Mazumdar, D.; Topping, C. V.; Luo, X.; Cheong, S.-W.; Singleton, J.; McGill, S.; Musfeldt, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    We combined high field magnetization and magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate spin-charge coupling in Mn-substituted rare-earth indium oxides of chemical formula R In1 -xMnxO3 (R =Tb , Dy). The edge states, on-site Mn3 +d to d excitations, and rare-earth f -manifold excitations all track the magnetization energy due to dominant Zeeman interactions. The field-induced modifications to the rare-earth excitations are quite large because spin-orbit coupling naturally mixes spin and charge, suggesting that the next logical step in the design strategy should be to bring spin-orbit coupling onto the trigonal bipyramidal chromophore site with a 4 or 5 d center.

  13. The T3R alpha gene encoding a thyroid hormone receptor is essential for post-natal development and thyroid hormone production.

    PubMed Central

    Fraichard, A; Chassande, O; Plateroti, M; Roux, J P; Trouillas, J; Dehay, C; Legrand, C; Gauthier, K; Kedinger, M; Malaval, L; Rousset, B; Samarut, J

    1997-01-01

    The diverse functions of thyroid hormones are thought to be mediated by two nuclear receptors, T3R alpha1 and T3R beta, encoded by the genes T3R alpha and T3R beta respectively. The T3R alpha gene also produces a non-ligand-binding protein T3R alpha2. The in vivo functions of these receptors are still unclear. We describe here the homozygous inactivation of the T3R alpha gene which abrogates the production of both T3R alpha1 and T3R alpha2 isoforms and that leads to death in mice within 5 weeks after birth. After 2 weeks of life, the homozygous mice become progressively hypothyroidic and exhibit a growth arrest. Small intestine and bones showed a strongly delayed maturation. In contrast to the negative regulatory function of the T3R beta gene on thyroid hormone production, our data show that the T3R alpha gene products are involved in up-regulation of thyroid hormone production at weaning time. Thus, thyroid hormone production might be balanced through a positive T3R alpha and a negative T3R beta pathway. The abnormal phenotypes observed on the homozygous mutant mice strongly suggest that the T3R alpha gene is essential for the transformation of a mother-dependent pup to an 'adult' mouse. These data define crucial in vivo functions for thyroid hormones through a T3R alpha pathway during post-natal development. PMID:9250685

  14. The Role of Multipurpose C.A.Es: The Institutional and Staff Perspectives 1974-1975. C.A.T. Education Monograph No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, D. J.; Hermann, G. D.

    The attitudes and ideologies of staff and institutional administrators concerning the role of the multipurpose colleges of advanced education in tertiary education in Australia were investigated. The data for the investigation were gathered using two different questionnaires sent to academic staff in civil and mechanical engineering, architecture…

  15. THE FEASIBILITY OF A COOPERATIVELY OWNED MULTIPURPOSE, MULTICHANNEL, CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION SYSTEM FOR INSTRUCTION, MATERIALS DISTRIBUTION, AND ADMINISTRATIVE DATA HANDLING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCLUER, V.C.; AND OTHERS

    A FEASIBILITY STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DESIGN AND EVALUATE A MULTIPURPOSE TELEVISION SYSTEM FOR (1) DIRECT INSTRUCTION, (2) TRANSMISSION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS, AND (3) ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS OF A GROUP OF NEIGHBORING PUBLIC SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN A LARGE URBAN-SUBURBAN AREA. THE STUDY INCLUDED A DETAILED INVESTIGATION OF EQUIPMENT. THE SYSTEM…

  16. Impact of assay selection and study design on the outcome of cytotoxicity testing of medical devices: The case of multi-purpose vision care solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Lehmann; Mary E. Richardson

    2010-01-01

    Medical device biocompatibility testing usually includes a cytotoxicity component. Assay selection and protocol design often depend on a specific testing standard rather than on the characteristics of the medical device. To better understand the impact of assay selection on study outcome of unstructured medical devices, we evaluated contact lens multi-purpose solutions (MPS) in the agar diffusion, direct contact and two

  17. A Multipurpose Apparatus to Measure Viscosity and Surface Tension of Solutions: The Measurement of the Molecular Cross-Sectional Area of N-Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin Zhang; Shouxin Liu; Booxin Li; Na An; Fan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    A multipurpose apparatus that can be used to measure the viscosity of solution by the Ostwald method and the surface tension of solution by the drop-weight method or by the capillary-rise method is developed. The apparatus is convenient for in-situ preparation of solutions of different concentrations and avoids the error that frothing of the…

  18. Activity Theory as a Methodology for Assessing Users' Intentions: Design of a Multipurpose Information System to Support Collaborative Youth Services Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Zappen

    Design of a complex, multipurpose youth-services information system has to engage diverse user groups, including government sponsors, youth-services managers and workers, and their various constituents. Activity theory helps to explain how the intentions and motives of these diverse user groups can be identified and introduced into the system throughout the design cycle, from analysis of a problematic situation through the

  19. Understanding multi-purpose hybrid voluntary organizations: The contributions of theories on civil society, social movements and non-profit organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeheskel Hasenfeld; Benjamin Gidron

    2005-01-01

    The paper offers a theoretical framework to study the conditions that lead to the emergence of multi-purpose hybrid voluntary organizations and the factors that influence their ability to mobilize resources and enlist commitment. These organizations are characterized by four interrelated attributes: (a) they set out as their mission to uphold and promote cultural values that are typically at variant with

  20. Optimization and Validation of a Neutralizing Antibody Assay for HIV-1 in A3R5 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Daniell, Xiaoju; Todd, Christopher A.; Bilska, Miroslawa; Martelli, Amanda; LaBranche, Celia; Perez, Lautaro G.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C.; Rountree, Wes; Denny, Thomas N.; Montefiori, David C.

    2014-01-01

    A3R5 is a human CD4+ lymphoblastoid cell line that was engineered to express CCR5 and is useful for the detection of weak neutralizing antibody responses against tier 2 strains of HIV-1. Here we describe the optimization and validation of the HIV-1 neutralizing antibody assay that utilizes A3R5 cells, performed in compliance with Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines. The assay utilizes Renilla luciferase-expressing replication competent infectious molecular clones (IMC) encoding heterologous env genes from different HIV-1 clades. Key assay validation parameters tested included specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and quantitation, specificity, linearity and range, and robustness. Plasma samples demonstrated higher non-specific activity than serum samples in the A3R5 assay. This assay can tolerate a wide range of virus input but is more sensitive to cell concentration. The higher sensitivity of the A3R5 assay in neutralization responses to tier 2 strains of HIV-1 makes it complementary to, but not a substitute for the TZM-bl assay. The validated A3R5 assay is employed as an endpoint immunogenicity test for vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies against tier 2 strains of HIV-1, and to identify correlates of protection in HIV-1 vaccine trials conducted globally. PMID:24607608

  1. Astrocyte IP3R2-dependent Ca2+ signaling is not a major modulator of neuronal pathways governing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Petravicz, Jeremy; Boyt, Kristen M.; McCarthy, Ken D.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-dependent release of gliotransmitters by astrocytes is reported to play a critical role in synaptic transmission and be necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and other forms of synaptic modulation that are correlates of learning and memory. Further, physiological processes reported to be dependent on Ca2+ fluxes in astrocytes include functional hyperemia, sleep, and regulation of breathing. The preponderance of findings indicate that most, if not all, receptor dependent Ca2+ fluxes within astrocytes are due to release of Ca2+ through IP3 receptor/channels in the endoplasmic reticulum. Findings from several laboratories indicate that astrocytes only express IP3 receptor type 2 (IP3R2) and that a knockout of IP3R2 obliterates the GPCR-dependent astrocytic Ca2+ responses. Assuming that astrocytic Ca2+ fluxes play a critical role in synaptic physiology, it would be predicted that elimination of astrocytic Ca2+ fluxes would lead to marked changes in behavioral tests. Here, we tested this hypothesis by conducting a broad series of behavioral tests that recruited multiple brain regions, on an IP3R2 conditional knockout mouse model. We present the novel finding that behavioral processes are unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signals. IP3R2 cKO animals display no change in anxiety or depressive behaviors, and no alteration to motor and sensory function. Morris water maze testing, a behavioral correlate of learning and memory, was unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R2-mediated Ca2+-signaling. Therefore, in contrast to the prevailing literature, we find that neither receptor-driven astrocyte Ca2+ fluxes nor, by extension, gliotransmission is likely to be a major modulating force on the physiological processes underlying behavior. PMID:25429263

  2. New RMnO3+? (R=Y, Ho; ??0.35) phases with modulated structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkkima, Outi; Malo, Sylvie; Hervieu, Maryvonne; Rautama, Eeva-Leena; Karppinen, Maarit

    2015-01-01

    A series of hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Y, Ho-Lu) compounds are first annealed in various highly oxidizing conditions to show that for the largest R constituents, Y and Ho, it is possible to load the phases with large amounts of excess oxygen. Within the oxygen-annealed samples we identify new heavily-oxygenated phases, that is, YMnO3.35 and HoMnO3.34. The former is then thoroughly characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction. These studies evidence a hexagonal sub-cell (aS?3.578 Å (aH /?{ 3}), cS?11.18 Å, space group P63mc) and satellites, associated with two modulation vectors q?1 *? 0.41 a?S *+ 0.41b? S * + 1 / 3 c?S* and q?2* = (1 / 2). The results are interpreted by the formation of a modulated composite structure, resulting from the evolution of the hexagonal parent YMnO3+? structure toward a reduced pyrochlore-type structure Y2Mn2O7-x, in long- and short-range ordering.

  3. The association between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and noncontact acute ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xuya; Li, Zongyu; Cao, Xuecheng; Xie, Chen; Gu, Mingyong; Chen, Pei; Yang, Xiaoqing; Cai, Jinfang

    2015-09-01

    Ankle sprains are one of the most severe musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries during physical activity. Although many risk factors have been offered, it is unclear why some individuals develop noncontact ankle sprains when participating in comparable levels of physical exertion under identical environmental conditions and others do not. The ACTN3 gene that encodes the ?-actinin-3 protein, which is, only expressed in the Z line of fast glycolytic muscle fibres was found to associate with power/strength performance. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether the ACTN3 gene polymorphism is associated with noncontact acute ankle sprains. One hundred and forty-two participants with clinically diagnosed noncontact acute ankle sprains as well as 280 physically active controls participants without any history of ankle sprains were included in this case-control genetic association study. The RR genotype (odds ratio (OR) = 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.32-0.65, P = 0.011) and R allele (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.37-0.68, P = 0.002) of the ACTN3 were significantly low-represented in the acute ankle sprains group compared with the control group. The ACTN3 R577X is associated with acute ankle sprains in Chinese participants in this study. This is the first study to suggest that an individual with a RR genotype is at a decreased risk of acute ankle sprains. PMID:25687200

  4. Higher frequency of the ACTN3 R allele + ACE DD genotype in Japanese elite wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Min, Seok-ki; Ueda, Dai; Igawa, Shoji; Nakazato, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the association between the ACTN3 and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotypes and the performance of 135 Japanese elite male wrestlers. Fifty-two wrestlers had participated in world championships, including the Olympic Games, or had placed first in Japanese national championships and were classified as "international." The remaining 83 wrestlers were classified as "national." The control group consisted of 333 healthy Japanese college students majoring in physical education. In the ACTN3 genotype distribution, a significant difference between the international and control groups was observed (p < 0.05). The ACE genotype distribution and allele frequency of all wrestlers significantly differed from those of the control subjects (p < 0.001). As compared with the control group, the odds ratio of the ACTN3 R allele + ACE DD genotype being international or national was 3.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.10-7.03) or 1.37 (95% CI, 0.79-2.36), respectively. Our data suggest that the combination of ACTN3 and ACE gene polymorphisms is associated with the athletic status of Japanese elite wrestlers. PMID:22996021

  5. Multipurpose optic-electronic autocollimators for measuring deformations of the axle with a millimeter wave range radiotelescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyakhin, Igor; Molev, Fedor; Konyakhin, Alexey; Li, Renpu

    2015-02-01

    The improved autocollimators for measuring angular deformations of the large constructions as support tube of mirror and elevation axle of the radio telescopes are analyzed. Two new types of the reflector for autocollimator are researched. The first type of the reflectors is the tetrahedral reflector with flat reflecting sides and invariant axis. The autocollimator with tetrahedral reflector is used for the measuring 3-D deformations as roll, pitch and yaw angular deviations. The second type of the reflector is the composition of the anamorphic wedge system and ordinary cube-corner retroreflector. This reflector generates the narrow beam, as result the work distance and the range of measurement of the roll angle increase. Technical characteristics of the experimental setups of new reflectors are presented. Features of the tetrahedral reflector and anamorphic system as the reflectors for multipurpose autocollimator are discussed.

  6. A Multipurpose Penetrator Probe for Heat-flow, Thermal Properties, and Climatic-cycle Studies on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, P.; Smrekar, S. E.; Clarke, T. C.

    1996-03-01

    Shallow, sub-surface temperature data can be used to determine heat flow (a critical parameter for understanding the thermal structure of a planet), thermal properties (required for heat-flow determinations, used as calibration for thermal remote sensing studies, and very sensitive to the presence of water or ice in the regolith), and a record of past-surface temperature variations (typically for the last annual cycle before measurement). Measurements of this type were made on the Moon at the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 landing sites by drilling holes and placing temperature sensors into the holes. Penetrator probes (free-falling missiles that penetrate up to a few meters into the regolith) were first developed for military purposes to emplace sensors to monitor troop movements and have the advantage that no drilling equipment is required to access the subsurface. We are developing of multipurpose penetrator probes for subsurface temperature and thermal property measurements with special reference to application to Mars.

  7. Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Active Thermal Control and Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in 2014. The development of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the completing the components which are on EFT1. Additional development work has been done to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation for a flight tests in of EM1 in 2017 and in and EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2012 to April 2013.

  8. Multipurpose end-station for coherent diffraction imaging and scattering at FERMI@Elettra free-electron laser facility.

    PubMed

    Capotondi, Flavio; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Bencivenga, Filippo; Manfredda, Michele; Mahne, Nicola; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Svetina, Cristian; Zangrando, Marco; Demidovich, Alexander; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Danailov, Miltcho; Masciovecchio, Claudio; Kiskinova, Maya

    2015-05-01

    The Diffraction and Projection Imaging (DiProI) beamline at FERMI, the Elettra free-electron laser (FEL), hosts a multi-purpose station that has been opened to users since the end of 2012. This paper describes the core capabilities of the station, designed to make use of the unique features of the FERMI-FEL for performing a wide range of static and dynamic scattering experiments. The various schemes for time-resolved experiments, employing both soft X-ray FEL and seed laser IR radiation are presented by using selected recent results. The ongoing upgrade is adding a reflection geometry setup for scattering experiments, expanding the application fields by providing both high lateral and depth resolution. PMID:25931067

  9. On a Pulkova Catalogue of 11506 AGK3R Stars in the Declination Zone from +25DEG to +90DEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturina, G. D.; Varina, V. A.; Zverev, M. S.

    1987-09-01

    A new reduction of AGK3R stars declinations as obtained from Pulkovo meridian observations has been made. The final Pulkovo catalogue of ? and ? in the FK4 system is in the data bank of the computer EC-1033 of the Pulkovo Observatory and can be also obtained from the Institute of Scientific and Technical Information (VINITI).

  10. ACTN3 R577X polymorphism does not influence explosive leg muscle power in elite volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J R; Fernández del Valle, M; Verde, Z; Díez-Vega, I; Santiago, C; Yvert, T; Rodríguez-Romo, G; Gómez-Gallego, F; Molina, J J; Lucia, A

    2011-12-01

    We examined the association of R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) in the ?-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene with "explosive" leg muscle power performance in a group of male and female elite volleyball players (n=66, 31 men, 35 women) and in a group of non-athletic male and female young adults (n=334, 243 men, 91 women). We assessed power performance by means of the vertical squat and counter-movement jump tests. We also determined whether the genotypic frequencies of the ACTN3 R577X genotypes differed between groups. We did not observe any effect of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on study phenotypes in both groups, regardless of gender (all P>0.05). Genotype frequencies were similar between volleyball and control groups (P=0.095). Moreover, we did not find an association between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and the likelihood of being an elite volleyball player using the dominant (RR vs RX+XX) and the recessive model (RR+RX vs XX). In summary, these findings suggest that the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism does not influence explosive leg muscle power in elite volleyball players. PMID:20561285

  11. Washout of tritium from 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-L-aspartate in the aspartase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, B.M.; Cook, P.F.

    1987-05-01

    Bacterial aspartase catalyzes the reversible conversion of L-aspartate to fumarate and ammonia. Recent studies that made use of deuterium and /sup 15/N isotope effects suggested a carbanion intermediate mechanism in which C-N bond cleavage is rate determining. This could result in removal of a proton from the 3R position of aspartate at a rate of faster than the elimination of ammonia. 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-Aspartate was prepared enzymatically using aspartase from fumarate, ammonia and /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and aspartate isolated via chromatography on Dowex 50W x 8 at pH 1, eluting with 2N pyridine. The rate of /sup 3/H washout from this aspartate was then measured as a function of aspartate concentration and compared to the rate of production of fumarate. Tritium does washout of aspartate at a rate faster than fumarate is formed but the proton is apparently not rapidly equilibrated with solvent. The tritium washout experiments were supplemented using 3R-3(/sup 2/H)-aspartate prepared as above with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O replacing /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and monitoring the appearance of 3R-3(/sup 1/H)-aspartate via /sup 1/H-NMR. Results confirm the tritium washout results. Data are discussed in terms of the carbanion mechanism.

  12. Design and control of a novel type of actuator for the Isoglide T3R1 Parallel Robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Donca; D. C. Popa; R. Balan; V. Iancu; M. Manic

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with a new type of actuator which can be used for the driving of an Isoglide T3R1 Parallel Robot. The proposed machine is a linear transverse flux motor operating based on the variable reluctance principle. The topology of the motor is presented. A 3D finite element method analysis is carried out on a small dimension structure, evidencing

  13. Enhanced fullerene–Au(111) coupling in (2?3 × 2?3)R30° superstructures with intermolecular interactions

    PubMed Central

    Paßens, Michael; Waser, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Summary Disordered and uniform (2?3 × 2?3)R30° superstructures of fullerenes on the Au(111) surface have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. It is shown that the deposition and growth process of a fullerene monolayer on the Au(111) surface determine the resulting superstructure. The supply of thermal energy is of importance for the activation of a Au vacancy forming process and thus, one criterion for the selection of the respective superstructure. However, here it is depicted that a vacancy–adatom pair can be formed even at room temperature. This latter process results in C60 molecules that appear slightly more bright in scanning tunnelling microscopy images and are identified in disordered (2?3 x 2?3)R30° superstructures based on a detailed structure analysis. In addition, these slightly more bright C60 molecules form uniform (2?3 x 2?3)R30° superstructures, which exhibit intermolecular interactions, likely mediated by Au adatoms. Thus, vacancy–adatom pairs forming at room temperature directly affect the resulting C60 superstructure. Differential conductivity spectra reveal a lifting of the degeneracy of the LUMO and LUMO+1 orbitals in the uniform (2?3 x 2?3)R30° superstructure and in addition, hybrid fullerene–Au(111) surface states suggest partly covalent interactions. PMID:26199846

  14. Interaction Between ACE I/D and ACTN3 R557X Polymorphisms in Polish Competitive Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Grenda, Agata; Leo?ska-Duniec, Agata; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Ficek, Krzysztof; Król, Pawe?; Ci?szczyk, Pawe?; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2014-09-29

    We hypothesized that the ACE ID / ACTN3 R577X genotype combination was associated with sprint and endurance performance. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the interaction between both ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and sprint and endurance performance in swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit (Sigma, Germany). All samples were genotyped using a real-time poly- merase chain reaction. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X genotype frequencies met Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both swimmers and controls. When the two swimmer groups, long distance swimmers (LDS) and short distance swimmers (SDS), were compared with control subjects in a single test, a significant association was found only for the ACE polymorphism, but not for ACTN3. Additionally, four ACE/ACTN3 combined genotypes (ID/RX, ID/XX, II/RX and II/XX) were statistically significant for the LDS versus Control comparison, but none for the SDS versus Control comparison. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms did not show any association with sprint swimming, taken individually or in combination. In spite of numerous previous reports of associations with athletic status or sprint performance in other sports, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism, in contrast to ACE I/D, was not significantly associated with elite swimming status when considered individually. However, the combined analysis of the two loci suggests that the co-occurrence of the ACE I and ACTN3 X alleles may be beneficial to swimmers who compete in long distance races. PMID:25414746

  15. The multi-module, multi-resolution system (M3R): A novel small-animal SPECT system

    PubMed Central

    Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and built an inexpensive, high-resolution, tomographic imaging system, dubbed the multi-module, multi-resolution system, or M3R. Slots machined into the system shielding allow for the interchange of pinhole plates, enabling the system to operate over a wide range of magnifications and with virtually any desired pinhole configuration. The flexibility of the system allows system optimization for specific imaging tasks and also allows for modifications necessary due to improved detectors, electronics, and knowledge of system construction (e.g., system sensitivity optimization). We provide an overview of M3R, focusing primarily on system design and construction, aperture construction, and calibration methods. Reconstruction algorithms will be described and reconstructed images presented. PMID:17441245

  16. Tellurium(0) as a ligand: synthesis and characterization of 2-pyridyltellurolates of platinum(II) and structures of [Pt{2-Te-3-(R)C5H3N}2Te(PR'3)] (R = H or Me).

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Rohit Singh; Kedarnath, G; Wadawale, Amey; Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro; Arratia-Perez, Ramiro; Jain, Vimal K; Kaim, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    Treatment of toluene solutions of the ditellurides [Te(2){C(5)H(3)N(R)-3}(2)] (R = H or Me) with [Pt(PPh(3))(4)] yielded two types of complexes, [Pt{2-Te-3-(R)C(5)H(3)N}(2)(PPh(3))(2)] (1a-d) as the major products and [Pt{2-Te-3-(R)C(5)H(3)N}(2)Te(PPh(3))] (2a-d) as minor products. The above complexes can also be obtained by the reaction of [PtCl(2)(PR'(3))(2)] (PR'(3) = PPh(3) or PPh(2)(2-C(5)H(4)N)) with 2 equiv of Na(2-Te-C(5)H(3)R). The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and UV-vis, NMR ((1)H and (31)P), and (in part) XPS spectroscopy. The molecular structures of [Pt(2-Te-C(5)H(4)N)(2)Te(PPh(3))] (2a) and [Pt{2-Te-C(5)H(3)(Me)N}(2)Te(PPh(3))] (2b) were established by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both complexes exhibit a distorted square-planar configuration at the platinum(II) centers. The two mutually trans positioned 2-pyridinetellurolate ligands [2-Te-C(5)H(3)(R)N] coordinate to the central platinum atom in a monodentate fashion through the tellurium atoms. The tellurium(0) atom adopts a "bent T" configuration as it is bridging the 2-Te- C(5)H(3)(R)N molecules via N-Te-N bonds (166 degrees angle) and coordinates to Pt(II) in the trans position to PPh(3). The novel bis(pyridine)tellurium(0) arrangement resembles the bis(pyridine)iodonium structure. The calculated NICS indices and ELF functions clearly show that the compounds 2a and 2b are aromatic in the region defined by the Te-C-N-Te-Pt five-membered rings. PMID:20369824

  17. MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Joel E.

    MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME ~ I T U D I N of the endemicity of malaria will be essential i n a population which is t o receive an acceptable malaria vaccine another." V. Nabokov (1972, p. 8) Abstract A research project on malaria i n the Garki d i s t r i c

  18. Preparation and luminescent properties of CaAl 2O 4:Eu 3+,R + (R=Li, Na, K) phosphors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanghuan LI; Tao LONG; Yanhua SONG; Guimei GAO; Jijing XU; Baichao AN; Shucai GAN; Guangyan HONG

    2010-01-01

    CaAl2O4:Eu3+, R+ (R=Li+, Na+, K+) red phosphors were synthesized by solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) were employed to characterize their structural and luminescent properties. It was found that the optimal sintering temperature and sintering time were 1200 °C and 4 h, respectively. The optimal concentration of doped Eu3+ was 3 mol.%. Furthermore, under ultraviolet excitation

  19. Solid waste management associated with the development of 3R initiatives: case study in major urban areas of Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ngo Kim Chi; Pham Quoc Long

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the application and progress of the Reduce-Reuse-Recycle (3R) initiative and its\\u000a gradual implementation and development in solid waste management in Vietnam through the study of the municipal solid waste\\u000a management (MSWM) systems of eight major urban cities and provinces. The resulting survey and studies showed that there are\\u000a big challenges for MSWM

  20. Zone center phonons of the orthorhombic RMnO3 (R = Pr, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho) perovskites

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Hem Chandra

    2008-01-01

    A short range force constant model (SRFCM) has been applied for the first time to investigate the phonons in RMnO3 (R = Pr, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho) perovskites in their orthorhombic phase. The calculations with 17 stretching and bending force constants provide good agreement for the observed Raman frequencies. The infrared frequencies have been assigned for the first time. PACS Codes: 36.20.Ng, 33.20.Fb, 34.20.Cf

  1. PHONON DEPENDENCE ON THERMAL PROPERTIES OF RGaO3(R = La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveen, Atahar; Gaur, N. K.

    2012-03-01

    We have systematically investigated the effect of phonons on elastic, thermal and cohesive properties for rare earth gallates RGaO3(R = La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd) by means of a Rigid Ion Model after modifying its framework to incorporate the van der Waals interactions. Besides that, we have calculated the temperature dependence of the specific heat for the present orthogallates. The results on bulk modulus, Debye temperature and specific heat reproduce well with the available experimental data.

  2. ASXL1 mutations are frequent and prognostically detrimental in CSF3R-mutated chronic neutrophilic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Michelle A; Pardanani, Animesh; Hanson, Curtis A; Lasho, Terra L; Finke, Christy M; Belachew, Alem A; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2015-07-01

    Colony stimulating factor 3 receptor gene (CSF3R) mutations have recently been associated with chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL). Fourteen patients with CSF3R-mutated CNL (median age 67 years; 57% males) were screened for additional mutations; 8 (57%) and 5 (38%) harbored an ASXL1 and/or SETBP1 mutation (two patients expressed both), respectively. Two patients developed blastic transformation, both SETBP1-mutated and ASXL1-unmutated, whereas two other cases evolved into chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), both ASXL1-mutated and SETBP1-unmutated. Median survival was 23.2 months (10 deaths documented). On multivariable analysis mutated ASXL1 (P?=?0.009; HR 19.6, 95% CI 2.1-184.1) and thrombocytopenia (P?=?0.005; HR 28.8, 95% CI 2.8-298.2) were independently predictive of shortened survival. This study provides information on the natural history of CSF3R-mutated CNL and identifies mutant ASXL1 and thrombocytopenia as risk factors for survival. The study also suggests pathogenetic roles for SETBP1 and ASXL1 mutations in disease evolution into blast phase disease and CMML, respectively. Am. J. Hematol. 90:653-656, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25850813

  3. Error-free 1,001-hop Cascaded Operation of an Optical-label Switching Router with Optical 3R Regeneration

    E-print Network

    Kolner, Brian H.

    Error-free 1,001-hop Cascaded Operation of an Optical-label Switching Router with Optical 3R-label switching router. The optical 3R regeneration using wavelength conversion and synchronous modulation leads networking is desired. The OLS routers must maintain high signal quality beyond a very large number

  4. Full-scale prototype of the circular track detector for the multipurpose detector facility at the NICA acceleration complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, G. S.; Boguslavskii, I. V.; Grigalashvili, N.; Davkov, V. I.; Davkov, K. I.; Zhukov, I. A.; Zinchenko, A. I.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Lysan, V. M.; Myalkovskiy, V. V.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Topilin, N. D.; Shabunov, A. V.; Cholakov, V. D.

    2012-03-01

    The development of the NICA heavy ion collider, which is now under way, assumes the development of a Multipurpose Detector (MPD), including an end-cap tracker (EC) (which can be a wheel-type tracker based on thin-wall drift tubes (straws) similar to the inner detector of the transition radiation tracker (TRT) in the ATLAS experiment). The identical front and back tracker modules mounted behind the TPC are to ensure the detection of Au-Au ion collision products in the pseudorapidity range from 1.4 to 2.1 with good track parameters of reconstructed events. Each module will contain 60 circular straw planes and maximum straw occupancy will be no higher than 0.2 particle per collision. The NICA EC is substantially different from its analogue and requires a certain amount of R&D. The first results from applying new technology to make a full-scale prototype of the circular EC detector for NICA are presented.

  5. Environmental factors influencing survival of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a multipurpose constructed treatment wetland in southern California.

    PubMed

    Walton, William E; Wirth, Margaret C; Workman, Parker D

    2007-06-01

    Survival of the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, differed among marshes in a demonstration 9.9-ha multipurpose constructed treatment wetland designed to improve the quality of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in southern California. At a mean loading rate of 3.3 kg NH4-N ha(-1) d(-1) (6 kg total N ha(-1) d(-1)), the suitability of the wetland to support a population of sticklebacks was estimated to be low. The development of potentially toxic levels of un-ionized ammonia, particularly during periods when pH increased concomitantly with oxygen generation by phytoplankton biomass > 300 mg chlorophyll a liter(-1), and disinfection by-products were associated with lowered survivorship of sentinel fish. Moreover, the high oxygen demand from nitrification of NH4-N created daily periods of low dissolved oxygen concentration (6-16 h at < 2 mg liter(-1)) in the open water areas of the shallow marshes. Low dissolved oxygen concentration in open water zones of the seven marshes during a part of each day and persistent anaerobic conditions in the emergent vegetation rendered the majority of the wetland's substrate surface unavailable for successful reproduction by sticklebacks. The potential sites for Gasterosteus to replace mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki, as a biological control agent against mosquitoes are probably limited to comparatively cool-water habitats with high water quality, such as riverine wetlands. PMID:17633430

  6. Iodine Tagging Velocimetry and Mechanism in the Hypersonic Near Wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balla, R. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a new molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) method for velocity measurements of high speed flow. It demonstrates offbody Iodine Tagging Velocimetry (ITV) in the hypersonic near wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) model. Experiments are performed in the NASA-Langley 31-inch Mach 10 air wind tunnel. A 0.5% I2 / N2 mixture is seeded on the leeward backshell of the model using a pressure tap. I2 laser-induced fluorescence is excited along a 5.5 mm line using an ArF excimer laser near 193 nm. Results indicate I2 absorbs at least 2 photons to produce iodine ions and electrons. These recombine as the tagged region is displaced downstream to produce I (2P3/2) whose emission is monitored at 206 nm. Results at P0 = 2.41 MPa (350 psi), T0 = 990K, and 10 micro-sec transit times produce velocities from 630-820 m/sec across the I2 seeded jet at a distance of 38.2 mm (25.5 jet diameters) downstream from the jet orifice. Maximum wake jet velocities near the shear layer are 59% of freestream velocity.

  7. Design and investigations of the superconducting magnet system for the multipurpose superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Tinschert, K; Lang, R; Mäder, J; Rossbach, J; Spädtke, P; Komorowski, P; Meyer-Reumers, M; Krischel, D; Fischer, B; Ciavola, G; Gammino, S; Celona, L

    2012-02-01

    The production of intense beams of heavy ions with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) is an important request at many accelerators. According to the ECR condition and considering semi-empirical scaling laws, it is essential to increase the microwave frequency together with the magnetic flux density of the ECRIS magnet system. A useful frequency of 28 GHz, therefore, requires magnetic flux densities above 2.2 T implying the use of superconducting magnets. A cooperation of European institutions initiated a project to build a multipurpose superconducting ECRIS (MS-ECRIS) in order to achieve an increase of the performances in the order of a factor of ten. After a first design of the superconducting magnet system for the MS-ECRIS, the respective cold testing of the built magnet system reveals a lack of mechanical performance due to the strong interaction of the magnetic field of the three solenoids with the sextupole field and the magnetization of the magnetic iron collar. Comprehensive structural analysis, magnetic field calculations, and calculations of the force pattern confirm thereafter these strong interactions, especially of the iron collar with the solenoidal fields. The investigations on the structural analysis as well as suggestions for a possible mechanical design solution are given. PMID:22380166

  8. Development of the Carbon Cycle Column Radiometer (C3R) for ASCENDS CO and CH4 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diskin, G. S.; Crawford, J. H.; Sachse, G. W.; Gordley, L. L.; Burton, J.; McHugh, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    This poster describes the development of a new passive remote sensor, the Carbon Cycle Column Radiometer (C3R), for measuring CO and CH4 column abundance in support of the ASCENDS NRC Decadal Survey mission. In order to understand sources and sinks of CO2, as well as the carbon cycle in general, measurements of CO and CH4 are required with high sensitivity in the planetary boundary layer. No passive sensor concept has demonstrated, through either analysis or actual measurement, the ability to sense CO or CH4 to the spatial and temporal quality demanded by the ASCENDS mission. To meet the ASCENDS requirements, we are developing a non-conventional gas filter correlation radiometer (GFCR), the C3R, which will provide high sensitivity all the way to the surface. C3R allows these measurements to be made for a very small footprint (~250 m dia.) concentric with ASCENDS laser observations of CO2. Dominated by reflected sunlight, nadir measurements in the 2.3 µm region have relatively constant sensitivity with altitude, thus offering sensitivity in the important planetary boundary layer, the primary source region of these gases. Measurement challenges at 2.3 µm include: (1) high surface albedo variability (2) CO and CH4 bands overlapping with water vapor (H2O) and each other; and (3) a weak CO band (~100 times weaker than its fundamental mid-IR band). The C3R instrument differs from a conventional GFCR in three primary ways: (1) the use of a focal plane array (FPA) detector in a non-imaging configuration which allows photon noise-limited detection, field of view scrambling and signal flat-fielding; (2) long-path correlation cells improve sensitivity throughout the atmosphere, including high sensitivity in the boundary layer; and (3) removal of interfering gas and spectral albedo effects by a novel technique. The poster will illustrate the optomechanical design (shown in Figure 1) and current state of hardware development, instrument performance modeling results, and plans for continuing development and testing of the instrument. Figure 1. Optical/physical design of the C3R sensor prototype.

  9. The NASA Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) System For GPM Ground Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, V.; Schwaller, Mathew; Vega, Manuel; Carswell, James; Vijay Mishra, Kumar; Nguyen, Cuong; Meneghini, Robert; Peterson, Walt

    2010-05-01

    Following on the successful introduction of single-frequency (Ku-Band) weather radar onboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite in 1997, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission attempts to advance further the goal of making global scale precipitation observations by deploying the next generation of satellite-borne weather radars. The GPM satellite will carry a Ka-Ku band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) that can make measurements of parameters directly related to the microphysics of precipitation (such as raindrop size distribution). The Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) is a ground validation radar, as a part of the GPM Ground Validation (GV) program, to enable both physical validation support in terms of understanding the microphysical description of the observations as well as algorithm retrieval implications. This paper provides a scientific and technical overview of the D3R system as well as major challenges. The preferred frequency bands of operation for precipitation surveillance in ground radar systems have been nearly non-attenuating frequencies (such as S-, C-band) or short-range measurements of attenuating frequencies (as in X band). However, it is not practical to use traditional ground radar frequencies for precipitation observations in space-borne radars. The GPM mission has embarked on a dual-frequency approach at Ku- and Ka-band for characterizing precipitation. Moving to higher frequencies to observe precipitation though has its own challenges namely, attenuation due to precipitation and reduced Doppler velocity Nyquist limits. Ground radar measurements enjoy the advantage of coincident microphysical observations available to interpret radar signatures but they are currently unavailable at Ku- and Ka-band. An important broader science goal of the NASA D3R is to enhance the database of dual-frequency radar observations on the ground, in conjunction with existing observations, in order to provide a dataset for physical validation basis. Another major advantage of the ground radar observations is the ability to use dual-polarization techniques to yield enhanced microphysical characterization similar to what has been done at lower frequencies. In addition, self-consistency of dual-polarization and dual-frequency observations presents an enhanced level of interpretation, while also providing independent rainfall estimates on the ground. With the ground-based D3R, an independent estimation of hydrometeor classification and drop size distribution retrievals can be done to understand the error structure of retrievals. The dual-frequency ground-based radar provides for various options, including polarimetry and Doppler capabilities. Hence, the name D3R or Dual-frequency Dual-polarized Doppler Radar. Another important engineering aspect of a dual-frequency system is the level of "integration". This can range from a design where two separate radar units operate independently to the one that employs a common reference system for dual-transmitters on a single dual-frequency aperture. The first generation version of the D3R falls somewhere in the middle, i.e., a common platform transmitter illuminating two distinct but aligned antennas. Most of the engineering challenges stem from making precipitation measurements on the ground at a highly attenuating frequency. In order to support the development, extensive numerical evaluations have been carried out to document the extinction statistics of propagation through precipitation. One of the novel aspects of this system is that it employs a solid-state transceiver which supports the deployment in different climactic locations. Thirdly, the dual-frequency dual-polarization operation at higher frequencies involves non-Rayleigh scattering mechanisms and presents different precipitation signatures compared to the conventional S- or C- band observations. The expected observations for this radar based on such scattering and precipitation models are also presented in this paper.

  10. Strategic focus on 3R principles reveals major reductions in the use of animals in pharmaceutical toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Öberg, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

  11. Phase and structural behavior of SmAlO{sub 3}–RAlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ohon, N. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera Street, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Vasylechko, L., E-mail: crystal-lov@polynet.lviv.ua [Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera Street, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Prots, Yu.; Schmidt, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Continuous solid solutions exist in the SmAlO{sub 3}–RAlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd) systems. • Lattice parameter crossover was found in solid solutions Sm{sub 1?x}R{sub x}AlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd). • Thermally induced lattice crossovers occur in Sm{sub 0.9}R{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3} at elevated temperatures. • First-order structural phase transition Pbnm?R3{sup ¯}c was found in Sm{sub 1?x}R{sub x}AlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd). • Phase diagram of the systems SmAlO{sub 3}–EuAlO{sub 3} and SmAlO{sub 3}–GdAlO{sub 3} has been constructed. - Abstract: Phase and structural behavior in the SmAlO{sub 3}–RAlO{sub 3} (R = Eu, Gd) systems has been studied in a whole concentration range by means of laboratory X-ray diffraction, in situ synchrotron powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis techniques. Continuous solid solutions with orthorhombic perovskite structure have been found in both systems. Peculiarity of the solid solutions of Sm{sub 1?x}Eu{sub x}AlO{sub 3} and Sm{sub 1?x}Gd{sub x}AlO{sub 3} is the existence of two lattice parameter crossovers in each system occurred at x{sub Eu} = 0.07 and 0.62 and at x{sub Gd} = 0.04 and 0.33, respectively. The temperature induced lattice crossovers in the Sm{sub 0.9}Eu{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3} and Sm{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}AlO{sub 3} samples have been found at 387 and 922 K and at 501 and 894 K. First-order reversible structural phase transformations Pbnm?R3{sup ¯}c have been detected in both systems at the elevated temperatures. The temperatures of these transitions increase linearly with the decreasing of the samarium content. Phase diagrams of the pseudo-binary systems SmAlO{sub 3}–EuAlO{sub 3} and SmAlO{sub 3}–GdAlO{sub 3} have been constructed.

  12. Multiferroic hexagonal ferrites (h-RFeO3, R = Y, Dy-Lu): a brief experimental review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoshan; Wang, Wenbin

    2014-08-01

    Hexagonal ferrites (h-RFeO3, R = Y, Dy-Lu) have recently been identified as a new family of multiferroic complex oxides. The coexisting spontaneous electric and magnetic polarizations make h-RFeO3 rare-case ferroelectric ferromagnets at low temperature. Plus the room-temperature multiferroicity and the predicted magnetoelectric effect, h-RFeO3 are promising materials for multiferroic applications. Here we review the structural, ferroelectric, magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of h-RFeO3. The thin film growth is also discussed because it is critical in making high quality single crystalline materials for studying intrinsic properties.

  13. All-optical 3R regeneration using a single fiber-optical parametric oscillator with idler feedback control circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Feng; Wu, Bao-Jian; Zhou, Xing-Yu; Wang, Li-Hui; Qiu, Kun

    2014-03-01

    All-optical clock recovery and data regeneration are simultaneously achieved by use of a single fiber-optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) with idler feedback control circuit for the first time. A return-to-zero (RZ) 3R regeneration is experimentally demonstrated by optimizing the operating parameters of the FOPO. Experimental results show that the performance of extinction ratio and timing jitter for the regenerated signal are improved in terms of transfer function slopes of 1.9 and 0.16, respectively, and the maximal receiver sensitivity improvement is up to 3.42 dB.

  14. Effect of moist vs. dry bonding to normal vs. caries-affected dentin with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, M; Sano, H; Zheng, L; Tagami, J; Pashley, D H

    1999-07-01

    Recent research in dentin bonding demonstrated the superiority of moist bonding over dry bonding on normal dentin, but it is unclear if this technique is also superior in bonding to caries-affected dentin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the SEM appearance and bond strength of Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (SMPP) to normal vs. caries-affected dentin bonded under moist vs. dry conditions, with and without polyalkenoic acid in the primer. Extracted carious human third molars were ground down by means of 600-grit SiC paper until the carious dentin no longer stained with caries detector solution. The flat surfaces were then primed, bonded, and built up with resin composite. After soaking in water for 1 day, the teeth were serially sectioned vertically into 5 or 6 slabs 0.7 mm thick. The bonded caries-affected areas were isolated by means of an ultrafine diamond bur to create an hourglass configuration with a cross-sectional area of 0.9 mm2. Bonded normal dentin was isolated the same way. Each specimen was attached to a Bencor device and tested in tension to failure. SMPP bonds to dry, normal dentin were only half as strong (21+/-10 MPa, x +/- SD) as those made to moist, normal dentin (42+/-9 MPa, p<0.01). There was no significant difference between bonds made to normal vs. caries-affected dentin by means of the moist technique (42+/-9 vs. 48+/-4 MPa, respectively). Removal of the polyalkenoic acid from the primer lowered (p<0.05) the bond strength of SMPP to caries-affected dentin (38+/-8 MPa). The benefits of moist bonding extend to caries-affected dentin. The polyalkenoic acid in the SMPP primer contributes to the high bond strength that can be achieved to caries-affected dentin. PMID:10403456

  15. Metabolism of Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Rhesus Monkeys: Identification of (3R,6?R)- and (3R,6?S)-3?-Dehydro-lutein as Common Metabolites and Comparison to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Gesa I.; Hoeller, Ulrich; Schierle, Joseph; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Schalch, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are xanthophylls that can be found highly concentrated in the macula of the retina. They are thought to protect the macula through their role as blue-light filters and because of their antioxidant and singlet oxygen quenching properties. Examination of metabolites unique to lutein and zeaxanthin such as 3?-dehydro-lutein, and of their stereochemistry may provide insight to the mechanism by which they are formed and by which they exert protection. To evaluate the formation of such metabolites, eleven monkeys were raised on a xanthophyll-free diet, and supplemented with pure lutein or pure zeaxanthin (2.2 mg/kg body weight/d). The period of supplementation ranged between 12 to 92 weeks. At study start and throughout the study, serum samples were taken and analyzed for xanthophylls using different HPLC systems. Xanthophyll metabolites were identified using UV/VIS and HR-MS detection. Lutein and zeaxanthin metabolites were found in detectable amounts with 3?-dehydro-lutein being a common metabolite of both. Using chiral-phase HPLC, two diastereomers, (3R,6?R)-3?-dehydro-lutein and (3R,6?S)-3?-dehydro-lutein, were identified and shown to be present in nearly equimolar amounts. A pathway for their formation from either lutein or zeaxanthin is proposed. These finding were comparable to results obtained with human plasma. PMID:18582588

  16. The effects of phosphoric acid, sodium hypochlorite, ferric oxalate and Scotchbond Multipurpose on the rate of pressure change across dentine: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Ng, L P; Wilson, P R

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of dentine treatment on dentine permeability of crown preparations treated with phosphoric acid, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and then ferric oxalate (Sensodyne sealant) or bis-phenol-A-diglycidyldimethacrylate (BIS-GMA) and hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) resin combination (Scotchbond Multipurpose). Thirty human premolars received full crown preparations (stage A), were then acid etched (stage B) and subsequently the pulp chamber flushed with NaOCl (stage C). They were then randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 was treated with Scotchbond Multipurpose and group 2 with 6% ferric oxalate (Sensodyne sealant) (stage D). Both groups were acid etched a second time (stage E) as the final step in the sequence. The rise in pressure in the pulp chamber because of the transmission of saline from the pressure chamber through cut dentine was recorded by a pressure transducer after each of the stages described (A to E). The mean rate of pressure change across dentine (Pa s(-1)) for each measurement point (A to E) (n = 30) were A = 2.3; B = 9.8; C = 16; D = 2.1; E = 3.1. Acid etching and NaOCl were both effective in producing significant increases in the rate of pressure change across dentine (P < 0.05). Sensodyne sealant and Scotchbond Multipurpose are both effective dentine sealants and there is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in their abilities in sealing dentine. Acid etching-sealed dentine produced a significant increase in the rate of pressure change across dentine (P < 0.05). The sealing of dentine appears to be a sensible consideration following crown preparations on vital teeth. PMID:15899020

  17. [Decolorization of reactive blue P-3R with microsphere-supported binuclear Manganese complex as a novel heterogeneous CWPO catalyst].

    PubMed

    Song, Min; Zhang, Lin-Ping; Zhong, Yi; Xu, Hong; Mao, Zhi-Ping

    2015-03-01

    Binuclear manganese complex (MnL), with high catalytic activity, was encapsulated into ethyl cellulose microspheres via a microencapsulation technique. The characterization of the catalyst through ICP, UV-VIS, SEM and TEM revealed that MnL was well distributed within the ethyl cellulose matrix. The results of UV-VIS confirmed the structural integrity of MnL after the encapsulation process. The MnL loaded microspheres exhibited an excellent catalytic property in the oxidative decolorization of Reactive Blue P-3R, which was used to simulate the dyestuff wastewater. The dye solution was completely decolorized under the catalyzing action of these microspheres. What's more, these MnL loaded microspheres could be reused for at least 4 times and the decolorization degree of Reactive Blue P-3R was maintained above 70%. The results demonstrated the potential application of the microsphere-supported MnL as a novel heterogeneous CWPO catalyst for the decolorization of wastewater containing dyestuff. PMID:25929067

  18. Paper 34-CK2005-Revised manuscript for MMT CK'05 Special issue AN EXHAUSTIVE STUDY OF THE WORKSPACE TOPOLOGIES OF ALL 3R

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OF THE WORKSPACE TOPOLOGIES OF ALL 3R ORTHOGONAL MANIPULATORS WITH GEOMETRIC SIMPLIFICATIONS Mazen Zein, Philippe, rue de la Noe ­ BP 92101 44321 Nantes Cedex 3 France e-mail: Mazen.Zein@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr ABSTRACT

  19. Two solvers for tractable temporal constraints with preferences F. Rossi 1 , K.B. Venable 1 , L. Khatib 2;3 , P. Morris 3 , R. Morris 3

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Francesca

    . Khatib 2;3 , P. Morris 3 , R. Morris 3 1 Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, University of Padova classes of problems (Khatib et al. 2001b)) and make some assumptions for both tractability and efficiency

  20. Discovery of a new class of non-imidazole oxazoline-based histamine H(3) receptor (H(3)R) inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Célanire, Sylvain; Wijtmans, Maikel; Christophe, Bernard; Collart, Philippe; de Esch, Iwan; Dassesse, Donald; Delaunoy, Christel; Denonne, Frédéric; Durieu, Véronique; Gelens, Edith; Gillard, Michel; Lallemand, Bénédicte; Lamberty, Yves; Lebon, Florence; Nicolas, Jean-Marie; Quéré, Luc; Snip, Erwin; Vanbellinghen, Alain; Van Houtvin, Nathalie; Verbois, Valérie; Timmerman, Henk; Talaga, Patrice; Leurs, Rob; Provins, Laurent

    2009-07-01

    H(3)R inverse agonists based on an aminopropoxy-phenyloxazoline framework constitute highly valuable druglike lead compounds that display efficacy in a mouse model of recognition memory. PMID:19405064

  1. Genetic and bioinformatic analyses of the expression and function of PI3K regulatory subunit PIK3R3 in an Asian patient gastric cancer library

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While there is strong evidence for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) involvement in cancer development, there is limited information about the role of PI3K regulatory subunits. PIK3R3, the gene that encodes the PI3K regulatory subunit p55?, is over-expressed in glioblastoma and ovarian cancers, but its expression in gastric cancer (GC) is not known. We thus used genetic and bioinformatic approaches to examine PIK3R3 expression and function in GC, the second leading cause of cancer mortality world-wide and highly prevalent among Asians. Methods Primary GC and matched non-neoplastic mucosa tissue specimens from a unique Asian patient gastric cancer library were comprehensively profiled with platforms that measured genome-wide mRNA expression, DNA copy number variation, and DNA methylation status. Function of PIK3R3 was predicted by IPA pathway analysis of co-regulated genes with PIK3R3, and further investigated by siRNA knockdown studies. Cell proliferation was estimated by crystal violet dye elution and BrdU incorporation assay. Cell cycle distribution was analysed by FACS. Results PIK3R3 was significantly up-regulated in GC specimens (n?=?126, p?3R3 promoted cellular growth and proliferation. Knockdown of PIK3R3 decreased the growth of GC cells, induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, decreased retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation, cyclin D1, and PCNA expression. Conclusion Using a combination of genetic, bioinformatic, and molecular biological approaches, we showed that PIK3R3 was up-regulated in GC and promoted cell cycle progression and proliferation; and thus may be a potential new therapeutic target for GC. PMID:22876838

  2. Lead optimization of thiazolo[5,4-c]piperidines: 3-cyclobutoxy linker as a key spacer for H(3)R inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Provins, Laurent; Denonne, Frédéric; Célanire, Sylvain; Christophe, Bernard; Defays, Sabine; Delaunoy, Christel; Delporte, Marie-Laure; Demaude, Thierry; Durieu, Véronique; Gillard, Michel; Hubert, Delphine; Lamberty, Yves; Lorent, Geneviève; Valade, Anne; Vanbellinghen, Alain; Van Houtvin, Nathalie

    2012-12-01

    The simpler, the better: H(3) histamine receptor (H(3)R) are of interest as therapeutic targets in cognitive and somnolence disorders. Here, lead optimization of H(3)R inverse agonists bearing a thiazolo[5,4-c]piperidine group gave rise to a clinical candidate with a much simpler unprecedented benzamide scaffold, displaying decreased hERG activity while maintaining high brain receptor occupancies. PMID:23042668

  3. Vibrational circular dichroism in the CH stretching region of (+)-3(R)-methylcyclohexanone and chiral deuteriated isotopomers

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, T.B.; Kallmerten, J.; Lipp, E.D.; Young, D.A.; Nafie, L.A.

    1988-02-03

    The CH stretching Raman, FTIR, and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of 3(R)-methylcyclohexanone and its chiral 2,2,6,6-d/sub 4/, 4,4-d/sub 2/, 5,5-d/sub 2/ and methyl-d/sub 3/ isotopomers, and the Raman and FTIR spectra of racemic 3-methylcyclohexanone-3-d/sub 1/ are presented and analyzed. Fourier self-deconvolution has been applied to the FTIR spectra to artificially enhance the resolution in order to determine individual band frequencies. Band assignments have been obtained on the basis of the spectra changes occurring due to selective deuteriation and from an analysis of the strong Fermi resonance interactions. The VCD spectral features of the five chiral isotopomers can all be understood in terms of the coupling of pairs of chirally oriented CH oscillators on adjacent carbon atoms and the removal of the degeneracy in the methyl modes.

  4. Differing Evolutionary Histories of the ACTN3*R577X Polymorphism among the Major Human Geographic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Carlos Eduardo G.; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Hünemeier, Tábita

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that the functional ACTN3*R577X polymorphism might have evolved due to selection in Eurasian human populations. To test this possibility we surveyed all available population-based data for this polymorphism and performed a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of its genetic diversity, in order to assess the action of adaptive and random mechanisms on its variation across human geographical distribution. The derived 577X allele increases in frequency with distance from Africa, reaching the highest frequencies on the American continent. Positive selection, detected by an extended haplotype homozygosisty test, was consistent only with the Eurasian data, but simulations with neutral models could not fully explain the results found in the American continent. It is possible that particularities of Native American population structure could be responsible for the observed allele frequencies, which would have resulted from a complex interaction between selective and random factors. PMID:25706920

  5. Differing evolutionary histories of the ACTN3*R577X polymorphism among the major human geographic groups.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Carlos Eduardo G; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Hünemeier, Tábita

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that the functional ACTN3*R577X polymorphism might have evolved due to selection in Eurasian human populations. To test this possibility we surveyed all available population-based data for this polymorphism and performed a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of its genetic diversity, in order to assess the action of adaptive and random mechanisms on its variation across human geographical distribution. The derived 577X allele increases in frequency with distance from Africa, reaching the highest frequencies on the American continent. Positive selection, detected by an extended haplotype homozygosisty test, was consistent only with the Eurasian data, but simulations with neutral models could not fully explain the results found in the American continent. It is possible that particularities of Native American population structure could be responsible for the observed allele frequencies, which would have resulted from a complex interaction between selective and random factors. PMID:25706920

  6. Boar spermatozoa successfully predict mitochondrial modes of toxicity: implications for drug toxicity testing and the 3R principles.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Carrillo, A; Edebert, I; Garside, H; Cotgreave, I; Rigler, R; Loitto, V; Magnusson, K E; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2015-04-01

    Replacement of animal testing by in vitro methods (3-R principles) requires validation of suitable cell models, preferably obtained non-invasively, defying traditional use of explants. Ejaculated spermatozoa are highly dependent on mitochondrial production and consumption of ATP for their metabolism, including motility display, thus becoming a suitable model for capturing multiple modes of action of drugs and other chemicals acting via mitochondrial disturbance. In this study, a hypothesis was tested that the boar spermatozoon is a suitable cell type for toxicity assessment, providing a protocol for 3R-replacement of animals for research and drug-testing. Boar sperm kinetics was challenged with a wide variety of known frank mito-toxic chemicals with previously shown mitochondrial effects, using a semi-automated motility analyser allied with real-time fluorescent probing of mitochondrial potential (MitoTracker & JC-1). Output of this sperm assay (obtained after 30 min) was compared to cell viability (ATP-content, data obtained after 24-48 h) of a hepatome-cell line (HepG2). Results of compound effects significantly correlated (P<0.01) for all sperm variables and for most variables in (HepG2). Dose-dependent decreases of relative ATP content in HepG2 cells correlated to sperm speed (r=0.559) and proportions of motile (r=0.55) or progressively motile (r=0.53) spermatozoa. The significance of the study relies on the objectivity of computerized testing of sperm motility inhibition which is comparable albeit of faster output than somatic cell culture models. Sperm suspensions, easily and painlessly obtained from breeding boars, are confirmed as suitable biosensors for preclinical toxicology screening and ranking of lead compounds in the drug development processes. PMID:25624015

  7. Multipurpose hyperspectral imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral i...

  8. Multipurpose smart hydrogel systems.

    PubMed

    Samchenko, Yu; Ulberg, Z; Korotych, O

    2011-10-14

    This paper represents the review of the last investigations in the field of smart polymeric hydrogels and our contribution to this matter. New hydrogel systems and nanocomposites based on acrylic monomers (acrylamide, acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, N-isopropylacrylamide etc.) with incorporated nanosized colloidal silver, hydroxyapatite and carbon nanotubes with a new set of properties have been obtained and examined. These systems can sharply change their characteristics when minor external physical (electric and magnetic fields, temperature etc.) or chemical (pH, ionic strength) stimuli are applied. Such stimulus-responsive polymeric systems are very promising from the standpoint of different medical applications, especially for the development of intelligent drug delivery systems. On the base of designed hydrogel iontophoretic transdermal therapeutic systems, endoprosthesis for the replacement of bone tissue and hydrogel burns coatings with immobilized mesenchymal cells were obtained and tested. PMID:21782148

  9. Multipurpose smart hydrogel systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Samchenko; Z. Ulberg; O. Korotych

    2011-01-01

    This paper represents the review of the last investigations in the field of smart polymeric hydrogels and our contribution to this matter. New hydrogel systems and nanocomposites based on acrylic monomers (acrylamide, acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, N-isopropylacrylamide etc.) with incorporated nanosized colloidal silver, hydroxyapatite and carbon nanotubes with a new set of properties have been obtained and examined. These systems can

  10. ACADEMIC, ADMINISTRATIVE & MULTIPURPOSE BUILDINGS

    E-print Network

    Boyce, Richard L.

    Power Plant 16 Regents Hall (RH) 17 Soccer Stadium 18 Steely Library (SL) -Eva G. Farris Special for Special Ed. (245 Johns Hill Rd.) 30 Small Business Development Center (305 Johns Hill Rd.) 31 Talent

  11. Multipurpose composite flywheel

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, B.R.

    1984-11-01

    The twin disk composite flywheel shows that the techniques that were developed at Rocketdyne to successfully design, fabricate, and test high-speed rotating machinery (turbopumps) for rocket engines could be used to develop advanced flywheels. This flywheel not only demonstrates that successful mating of metal flywheel characteristics (high torque and ruggedness) and composite flywheel characteristics (lightweight and high energy density) can be achieved, but the unique design lends itself to easy adaptation to other configurations.

  12. Expression of the embryonal isoform (0N/3R) of the microtubule-associated protein tau in the adult rat central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Bullmann, Torsten; Härtig, Wolfgang; Holzer, Max; Arendt, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein expressed predominantly in neurons. The transcript of the tau gene is alternatively spliced. Resulting isoforms contain three or four microtubule-binding repeats. The shortest tau isoform contains only three repeats (3R) and is expressed at birth. Previous data on rodents suggested that this isoform is no longer expressed during adulthood. It is replaced by tau isoforms containing four repeats (4R). The adult 4R tau isoforms bind to microtubules with higher affinity than 3R tau isoforms. Therefore, this isoform switch may reflect a need for more dynamic microtubules during development. Recently, we observed in rats that the 3R tau isoform is transiently expressed in adult neurogenesis. Subsequently, we performed an immunohistochemical labeling of the 3R tau isoform on serial sections of the adult rat brain. Interestingly, the 3R tau isoform is not only expressed in neuronal precursor cells. It is also present in mature neurons of the olfactory bulb, magnocellular neurosecretory system, posterolateral hypothalamus, locus coeruleus, raphe nucleus, solitary nucleus, medial septum and diagonal band, olfactory tuberculus, and piriform/olfactory cortex. This expression pattern is similar to that observed for the polysialylated form of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) and the microtubule-associated proteins doublecortin and collapsin response mediating protein (CRMP-4/TUC-4/Ulip-1), which are also highly expressed during early development. The retention of a juvenile phenotype in some neurons might be associated with a functionally significant neuronal plasticity. PMID:20503426

  13. Automatic sorting of toxicological information into the IUCLID (International Uniform Chemical Information Database) endpoint-categories making use of the semantic search engine Go3R.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Hareng, Lars; Wareing, Britta; Langsch, Angelika; Zschunke, Matthias; Alvers, Michael R; Landsiedel, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge-based search engine Go3R, www.Go3R.org, has been developed to assist scientists from industry and regulatory authorities in collecting comprehensive toxicological information with a special focus on identifying available alternatives to animal testing. The semantic search paradigm of Go3R makes use of expert knowledge on 3Rs methods and regulatory toxicology, laid down in the ontology, a network of concepts, terms, and synonyms, to recognize the contents of documents. Search results are automatically sorted into a dynamic table of contents presented alongside the list of documents retrieved. This table of contents allows the user to quickly filter the set of documents by topics of interest. Documents containing hazard information are automatically assigned to a user interface following the endpoint-specific IUCLID5 categorization scheme required, e.g. for REACH registration dossiers. For this purpose, complex endpoint-specific search queries were compiled and integrated into the search engine (based upon a gold standard of 310 references that had been assigned manually to the different endpoint categories). Go3R sorts 87% of the references concordantly into the respective IUCLID5 categories. Currently, Go3R searches in the 22 million documents available in the PubMed and TOXNET databases. However, it can be customized to search in other databases including in-house databanks. PMID:24389116

  14. IP3R1 deficiency in the cerebellum/brainstem causes basal ganglia-independent dystonia by triggering tonic Purkinje cell firings in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hisatsune, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Hirono, Moritoshi; Yamaguchi, Naohide; Sugawara, Takeyuki; Ogawa, Naoko; Ebisui, Etsuko; Ohshima, Toshio; Yamada, Masahisa; Hensch, Takao K.; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The type 1 inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) is a Ca2+ channel on the endoplasmic reticulum and is a predominant isoform in the brain among the three types of IP3Rs. Mice lacking IP3R1 show seizure-like behavior; however the cellular and neural circuit mechanism by which IP3R1 deletion causes the abnormal movements is unknown. Here, we found that the conditional knockout mice lacking IP3R1 specifically in the cerebellum and brainstem experience dystonia and show that cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) firing patterns were coupled to specific dystonic movements. Recordings in freely behaving mice revealed epochs of low and high frequency PC complex spikes linked to body extension and rigidity, respectively. Remarkably, dystonic symptoms were independent of the basal ganglia, and could be rescued by inactivation of the cerebellum, inferior olive or in the absence of PCs. These findings implicate IP3R1-dependent PC firing patterns in cerebellum in motor coordination and the expression of dystonia through the olivo-cerebellar pathway. PMID:24109434

  15. Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide Production are Involved in Systemic Drought Tolerance Induced by 2R,3R-Butanediol in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Cho, Song-Mi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Anderson, Anne J; Kim, Young Cheol

    2013-12-01

    2R,3R-Butanediol, a volatile compound produced by certain rhizobacteria, is involved in induced drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana through mechanisms involving stomatal closure. In this study, we examined the involvement of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide in induced drought tolerance, because these are signaling agents in drought stress responses mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). Fluorescence-based assays showed that systemic nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production was induced by 2R,3R-butanediol and correlated with expression of genes encoding nitrate reductase and nitric oxide synthase. Co-treatment of 2R,3R-butanediol with an inhibitor of nitrate reductase or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase lowered nitric oxide production and lessened induced drought tolerance. Increases in hydrogen peroxide were negated by co-treatment of 2R,3R-butanediol with inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, or peroxidase. These findings support the volatile 2R,3R-butanediol synthesized by certain rhizobacteria is an active player in induction of drought tolerance through mechanisms involving nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production. PMID:25288971

  16. The CaV2.3 R-Type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channel in Mouse Sleep Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Siwek, Magdalena Elisabeth; Müller, Ralf; Henseler, Christina; Broich, Karl; Papazoglou, Anna; Weiergräber, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are key elements in mediating thalamocortical rhythmicity. Low-voltage activated (LVA) CaV 3 T-type Ca2+ channels have been related to thalamic rebound burst firing and to generation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. High-voltage activated (HVA) CaV 1 L-type Ca2+ channels, on the opposite, favor the tonic mode of action associated with higher levels of vigilance. However, the role of the HVA Non-L-type CaV2.3 Ca2+ channels, which are predominantly expressed in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN), still remains unclear. Recently, CaV2.3?/? mice were reported to exhibit altered spike-wave discharge (SWD)/absence seizure susceptibility supported by the observation that CaV2.3 mediated Ca2+ influx into RTN neurons can trigger small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+-channel type 2 (SK2) currents capable of maintaining thalamic burst activity. Based on these studies we investigated the role of CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels in rodent sleep. Methods: The role of CaV2.3 Ca2+ channels was analyzed in CaV2.3?/? mice and controls in both spontaneous and artificial urethane-induced sleep, using implantable video-EEG radiotelemetry. Data were analyzed for alterations in sleep architecture using sleep staging software and time-frequency analysis. Results: CaV2.3 deficient mice exhibited reduced wake duration and increased slow-wave sleep (SWS). Whereas mean sleep stage durations remained unchanged, the total number of SWS epochs was increased in CaV2.3?/? mice. Additional changes were observed for sleep stage transitions and EEG amplitudes. Furthermore, urethane-induced SWS mimicked spontaneous sleep results obtained from CaV2.3 deficient mice. Quantitative Real-time PCR did not reveal changes in thalamic CaV3 T-type Ca2+ channel expression. The detailed mechanisms of SWS increase in CaV2.3?/? mice remain to be determined. Conclusions: Low-voltage activated CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels in the thalamocortical loop and extra-thalamocortical circuitries substantially regulate rodent sleep architecture thus representing a novel potential target for pharmacological treatment of sleep disorders in the future. Citation: Siwek ME, Müller R, Henseler C, Broich K, Papazoglou A, Weiergräber M. The CaV2.3 R-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel in mouse sleep architecture. SLEEP 2014;37(5):881-892. PMID:24790266

  17. Belford proactive flood solutions: scientific evidence to influence local and national policy by multi-purpose runoff management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, M.; Quinn, P. F.; Jonczyk, J.

    2010-12-01

    The increased risk from flooding continues to be of concern to governments all around the world and flood protection is becoming more of a challenge. In the UK, climate change projections indicate more extremes within the weather systems. In addition, there is an increased demand for using land in urban areas beside channels. These developments both put pressure on our flood defences and there is a need for new solutions to managing flood risk. There is currently support within the England and Wales Environment Agency for sustainable flood management solutions such as storage ponds, wetlands, beaver dams and willow riparian features (referred to here as Runoff Attenuation Features, or RAFs). However the effectiveness of RAFs are not known at the catchment scale since they have only really been trailed at the plot scale. These types of mitigation measure can offer benefits to water quality and create ecological habitats. The village of Belford, situated in the Belford Burn catchment (6km2), northern England, has suffered from numerous flood events. In addition, the catchment suffers from water quality issues within the channel and high sediment loads are having an impact on the ecology of the nearby estuary. There was a desire by the Local Environment Agency Flood Levy team to deliver an alternative catchment-based solution to the problem. With funding from the Northumbria Regional Flood Defence Committee, the Environment Agency North East Local Levy team and Newcastle University have created a partnership to address the flood problem trailing soft engineered RAF’s at the catchment scale. The partnership project, “Belford proactive flood solutions” is testing novel techniques in reducing flood risk in small sub-catchments for the Environment Agency. The project provides the information needed to understand whether the multi-functional mitigation measures are working at the sub-catchment scale. Data suggest that the mitigation measures present have delayed the overall travel time of the flood peak in the catchment by 33%. The current maximum flood storage capacity of all the features stands at around 15,000 m3. The evidence also suggests that a dam like in-stream mitigation measure can significantly reduce sediment load. Other benefits of some mitigation features include large increase in the population of water voles over the past two years. The scheme also acts as a demonstration site for interested stakeholders where they can learn about this approach to flood risk management and see the multipurpose benefits. As the project has progressed and lessons have been learnt, it has been possible to develop a runoff management toolkit for implementing these mitigation measures in other catchments of similar size. Already, the local Environment Agency has utilised the tools and recently applied similar mitigation measures to other catchments. On-going modelling exercises in the project are using the data to explore the up-scaling of the features to larger catchments.

  18. Assessing interactions between Ghsr and Mc3r reveals a role for AgRP in the expression of food anticipatory activity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Girardet, Clemence; Mavrikaki, Maria; Southern, Mark R; Smith, Roy G; Butler, Andrew A

    2014-12-01

    The stomach hormone ghrelin and hypothalamic melanocortin neurons belong to a gut-brain circuit controlling appetite and metabolic homeostasis. Mice lacking melanocortin-3 receptor (Mc3rKO) or growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GhsrKO) genes exhibit attenuated food anticipatory activity (FAA), a rise in locomotor activity anticipating mealtime, suggesting common circuitry regulating anticipatory responses to nutrient loading. To investigate the interaction between Ghsrs and Mc3rs, we compared food anticipatory responses in GhsrKO, Mc3rKO, and double Ghsr;Mc3r knockout (DKO) mice subjected to a hypocaloric restricted feeding (RF) protocol in constant dark or 12-hour light, 12-hour dark settings. DKO are viable, exhibiting no overt behavioral or metabolic phenotypes in ad libitum or fasting conditions. FAA was initially attenuated in all mutant strains in constant darkness. However, GhsrKO eventually exhibited a robust food anticipatory response, suggesting compensation. Mc3rKO and DKO did not compensate, indicating a continued requirement for Mc3rs in maintaining the expression of FAA in situations of RF. Abnormal regulation of hypothalamic agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/Npy) neurons previously observed during fasting may contribute to attenuated FAA in Mc3rKO. AgRP and Npy expression measured 1 hour before food presentation correlated positively with FAA. Absence of Mc3rs (but not Ghsrs) was associated with lower AgRP/Npy expression, suggesting attenuated responses to signals of negative energy balance. These observations support the importance of Mc3rs as modulators of anticipatory responses to feeding, with mice able to compensate for loss of Ghsrs. The behavioral deficits of Mc3rKO displayed during RF may be partially explained by reduced hunger sensations owing to abnormal regulation of orexigenic AgRP/Npy neurons. PMID:25211592

  19. Operation and maintenance of a new hazardous waste multi-purpose rotary kiln incinerator (system) in compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency and Louisiana (US) regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fontenot, M.M. Jr. [Novartis Crop Protection, Inc., Gabriel, LA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The proper management of hazardous and non-hazardous waste generated by modern society will continue to be a challenge for the world. Waste minimization and recycling practices will play a significant role in reducing the amount of waste to be managed. Total elimination of all waste in present day society is unlikely to occur in the future. Therefore, generators must take a proactive and responsible care approach to manage their wastes. An effective treatment operation to manage combustible waste is incineration. Properly designed, high efficiency waste incineration systems are very effective treatment solutions for waste management, particularly when compared to land disposal alternatives. High temperature incineration provides a permanent solution for destroying combustible waste and eliminate harmful or toxic organic constituents in the waste. The Novartis Crop Protection, Inc., St. Gabriel Facility, top environmental priority in the management of waste is to minimize waste at the source. The remaining wastes are recycled, detoxified, and/or incinerated. Land disposal of waste is the last resort for waste management. To achieve the St. Gabriel Facility waste management priorities, a new multi-purpose rotary kiln incinerator was constructed in 1992--93. The incinerator is the first of its kind constructed and permitted in the State of Louisiana since the promulgation of RCRA. The final operating conditions under RCRA were obtained from the regulatory agencies in 1996. This paper will discuss the operating and maintenance programs that were implemented for the new multi-purpose rotary kiln incinerator system to meet the RCRA permit conditions. A review of the preventative maintenance programs (i.e., equipment, monitors, analyzers), computer control, waste analysis, tracking of key parameters, operational cost and equipment reliability of the incinerator system will be presented.

  20. Expression of 1N3R-Tau Isoform Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Inducing S Phase Arrest in N2a Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gong-Ping; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Li, Xiao-Guang; Liu, En-Jie; Zeng, Juan; Chai, Da-Min; Yao, Wen-Long; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein implicated in neurodegenerative tauopathies. Six tau isoforms are generated from a single gene through alternative splicing of exons 2, 3 and 10 in human brain. Differential expression of tau isoforms has been detected in different brain areas, during neurodevelopment and in neurodegenerative disorders. However, the biological significance of different tau isoforms is not clear. Here, we investigated the individual effect of six different isoforms of tau on cell proliferation and the possible mechanisms by transient expression of eGFP-labeled tau isoform plasmid in N2a cells. Our study showed the transfection efficiency was comparable between different isoforms of tau by examining GFP expression. Compared with other isoforms, we found expression of 1N3R-tau significantly inhibited cell proliferation by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and BrdU incorporation. Flow cytometry analysis further showed expression of 1N3R-tau induced S phase arrest. Compared with the longest isoform of tau, expression of 1N3R-tau induced cyclin E translocation from the nuclei to cytoplasm, while it did not change the level of cell cycle checkpoint proteins. These data indicate that 1N3R-tau inhibits cell proliferation through inducing S phase arrest. PMID:25822823

  1. THE ALPHA-ACTININ-3 (ACTN3) R577X POLYMORPHISM INFLUENCES KNEE EXTENSOR PEAK POWER RESPONSE TO STRENGTH TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism has been associated with muscle power performance in cross-sectional studies. We examined baseline knee extensor concentric peak power (PP) and PP change with 10 weeks of unilateral knee extensor strength training (ST) using pneumatic resistance machines in 71 older men...

  2. Variational Bayes for Elaborate Distributions BY M.P. WAND1, J.T. ORMEROD2, S.A. PADOAN3 & R. FR UHWIRTH4

    E-print Network

    Sydney, University of

    Variational Bayes for Elaborate Distributions BY M.P. WAND1, J.T. ORMEROD2, S.A. PADOAN3 & R. FR develop strategies for variational Bayes approximate inference for models con- taining elaborate Extreme Value distribution; Quadrature; Skew Normal Distribution. 1 Introduction Variational Bayes refers

  3. A Quasi-Experimental Study of Adolescent Learning Using the SQ3R Strategy Instruction with Web-Based Learning Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzniczak, Lizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the effects of strategy instruction on lower and higher-level learning in the hypertext format of a WebQuest. The SQ3R and Classification/Categorization study strategies were used to investigate the effects of comprehension in a recall and essay task. Two hundred fifty-four eighth-grade…

  4. Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models for pharmaceuticals and chemicals: expert opinions on the state of affairs and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bakker, Wieger E; Beken, Sonja; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Koëter, Herman B W M; Krul, Cyrille

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and chemicals are subjected to regulatory safety testing accounting for approximately 25% of laboratory animal use in Europe. This testing meets various objections and has led to the development of a range of 3R models to Replace, Reduce or Refine the animal models. However, these models must overcome many barriers before being accepted for regulatory risk management purposes. This paper describes the barriers and drivers and options to optimize this acceptance process as identified by two expert panels, one on pharmaceuticals and one on chemicals. To untangle the complex acceptance process, the multilevel perspective on technology transitions is applied. This perspective defines influences at the micro-, meso- and macro level which need alignment to induce regulatory acceptance of a 3R model. This paper displays that there are many similar mechanisms within both sectors that prevent 3R models from becoming accepted for regulatory risk assessment and management. Shared barriers include the uncertainty about the value of the new 3R models (micro level), the lack of harmonization of regulatory requirements and acceptance criteria (meso level) and the high levels of risk aversion (macro level). In optimizing the process commitment, communication, cooperation and coordination are identified as critical drivers. PMID:24534000

  5. Ultrafast electron dynamics and recombination at the Ge(1 1 1):Sn(?{3}×?{3})R30° surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Månsson, M.; Tjernberg, O.; Göthelid, M.; Grishin, M. A.; Claesson, T.; Karlsson, U. O.

    2008-03-01

    We present the first study revealing the electronic structure and electron dynamics of the excited adatom state at the Ge(1 1 1):Sn(?{3}×?{3})R30° surface. By the use of time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, the normally unoccupied electronic structure of the partly empty Sn adatom can be probed. From the angle-resolved data we conclude that the adatom electrons at the Ge:Sn surface are more delocalized than at the clean Ge(1 1 1)c(2×8) surface. A unique pump-and-probe technique, based on a pulsed femtosecond laser-system, has also allowed us to study the recombination process of the excited state. We connect the recombination process of the excited electrons to the coherent fluctuations of the Sn adatoms. As a result we present an estimate for the time between each collective and coherent adatom flip ?t=9 ps, i.e. an adatom switching frequency ??0.1 THz. We find that our results, contrary to scanning tunneling microscopy measurements [F. Ronci, S. Colonna, S.D. Thorpe, A. Cricenti, G. Le Lay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 156101], agree very well with values extracted from molecular dynamics simulations found in the literature [J. Avila, A. Mascaraque, E.G. Michel, M.C. Asensio, G. Le Lay, J. Ortega, R. Pérez, F. Flores, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 442; D. Farias, W. Kaminski, J. Lobo, J. Ortega, E. Hulpke, R. Perez, F. Flores, E.G. Michel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 16103].

  6. Upregulation of MicroRNA-126 Contributes to Endothelial Progenitor Cell Function in Deep Vein Thrombosis via Its Target PIK3R2.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyou; Wang, Wenbin; Yu, Xiaobin; Li, Wendong; Kong, Lingshang; Qian, Aimin; Li, Chenglong; Li, Xiaoqiang

    2015-08-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common complication of surgery. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are recruited into resolving venous thrombi. In this report, we investigated the effects of miR-126 on EPCs function and venous thrombus resolution. We demonstrated that overexpression of miR-126 enhanced EPCs' migration and tubulogenic activity in vitro, and promoted EPCs' homing and thrombus resolving in vivo. Moreover, we identified that miR-126 directly targeted PIK3R2 and affected PI3K/Akt signaling axis. Overall, our findings demonstrated that miR-126 promoted EPCs function through suppressing PIK3R2 expression and modulation of miR-126 may represent a potential therapeutic intervention for treating DVT. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1613-1623, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25652288

  7. Influence of ionic sizes of rare earths on thermoelectric properties of perovskite-type rare earth cobalt oxides RCoO 3 (R = Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Hashimoto; Takafumi Kusunose; Tohru Sekino

    2009-01-01

    Perovskite-type rare earth cobalt oxide RCoO3 (R=Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy) ceramics were prepared by reaction sintering of corresponding metal oxide powders, and their thermoelectric performances were evaluated up to 873K. The electrical conductivity of RCoO3 increased with increasing temperature while the Seebeck coefficient decreased, which was a typical semiconducting characteristic. The conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient also depend on the

  8. Single-Particle and Collective Mode Couplings Associated with 1-and 2-Directional Electronic Ordering in Metallic RTe3 (R Ho; Dy; Tb)

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Ian

    Ordering in Metallic RTe3 (R ¼ Ho; Dy; Tb) R. V. Yusupov,1,* T. Mertelj,1 J.-H. Chu,2 I. R. Fisher,2 and D) electronically driven charge-density wave (CDW) ordering in metallic RTe3 is investigated as a function of rare and is not clear. Layered rare-earth tritelluride compounds (RTe3, where R is a rare-earth ion) shown schematically

  9. Magnetic properties of the charge density wave compounds RTe3 (R=Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm)

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Ian

    Magnetic properties of the charge density wave compounds RTe3 (R=Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy July 2008 The antiferromagnetic transition is investigated in the rare-earth R tritelluride RTe3 family structure. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.78.012410 PACS number s : 71.45.Lr, 72.15. v, 75.50.Ee The RTe3 family

  10. Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}: Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and thermal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Fomina, Irina, E-mail: fomina@igic.ras.ru [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 31, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Dobrokhotova, Zhanna; Aleksandrov, Grygory [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 31, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Emelina, Anna; Bykov, Mikhail [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1/3, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Malkerova, Irina [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 31, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Bogomyakov, Artem [International Tomography Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya Str. 3a, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Puntus, Lada [Kotel'nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Mokhovaya Str. 11-7, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Novotortsev, Vladimir; Eremenko, Igor [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 31, 119991 Moscow, GSP-1 (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    The new 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} (1), where Piv=OOCBu{sup t-}, was synthesized in high yield (>95%) by the reaction of thulium acetate with pivalic acid in air at 100 Degree-Sign S. According to the X-ray diffraction data, the metal atoms in compound 1 are in an octahedral ligand environment unusual for lanthanides. The magnetic and luminescence properties of polymer 1, it's the solid-phase thermal decomposition in air and under argon, and the thermal behavior in the temperature range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S were investigated. The vaporization process of complex 1 was studied by the Knudsen effusion method combined with mass-spectrometric analysis of the gas-phase composition in the temperature range of 570-680 K. - Graphical Abstract: Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic, luminescence properties, the thermal behavior and the volatility for the compound {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} were investigated. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized the coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tm atoms in polymer have the coordination number 6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer exhibits blue-color emission at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer shows high thermal stability and volatility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer has no phase transitions in the range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S.

  11. Dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric properties of RCa 4O(BO 3) 3 ( R=rare-earth elements) crystals with monoclinic structure of point group m

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Shimizu; Takashi Nishida; Hiroaki Takeda; Tadashi Shiosaki

    2009-01-01

    Rare-earth calcium oxoborate RCa4O(BO3)3 (R=La, Gd, Y) piezoelectric single crystals were successfully grown by a conventional RF-heating Czochralski (Cz) technique. They belong to the monoclinic system with point group m, and have 27 independent material constants. We developed the determination scheme (cuts and vibration modes) of the material constants in point group m. Their material constants were evaluated on the

  12. Induced systemic resistance against three foliar diseases of Agrostis stolonifera by (2R,3R)-butanediol or an isoparaffin mixture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Cortes-Barco; T. Hsiang; P. H. Goodwin

    2010-01-01

    Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is a type of plant defense mechanism typically activated by non- pathogenic root-associated microorganisms and systemic priming of gene expression in response to subsequent pathogen challenge. ISR was found to be activated by PC1, a mixture of food-grade synthetic isoparaffins, and (2R,3R)-butanediol, a volatile organic compound produced by bacteria. In controlled environment tests, application of PC1

  13. Study of magnetic properties of copolymer of 3-dodecylthiophene and 2,3-R,R-thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G ???k; F Šerše?; L Dlhá?; I ?erve?; A Staško; D Végh

    2002-01-01

    The EPR spectroscopy and the measurement of AC magnetic susceptibility (?), magnetization and of specific heat capacity were used to study magnetic properties of the copolymer (COP) of 3-dodecylthiophene (DDT) and 2,3-R,R-thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine (TTP). The copolymer exhibits antiferromagnetic properties at the Nèel temperature of ca. 38K. At maximum complex, magnetic susceptibility achieved value of 6.5×10?6m3kg?1. That behaviour was ascribed to the

  14. Transition between the 1 x 1 and ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} surface structures of GaN in the vapor-phase environment

    SciTech Connect

    Munkholm, A.; Thompson, C.; Stephenson, G. B.; Eastman, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Fini, P.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.

    2000-01-12

    Out-of-plane structures of the GaN(0001) surface in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) environment have been determined using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering. The authors measured 11{bar 2}{ell} crystal truncation rod intensities at a variety of temperatures and ammonia partial pressures on both sides of the 1 x 1 to ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} surface phase transition. The out-of-plane structure of the ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} phase appears to be nearly independent of temperature below the transition, while the structure of the 1 x 1 phase changes increase rapidly as the phase transition is approached from above. A model for the structure of the 1 x 1 phase with a partially-occupied top Ga layer agrees well with the data. The observed temperature dependence is consistent with a simple model of the equilibrium between the vapor phase and the surface coverage of Ga and N. In addition, the authors present results on the kinetics of reconstruction domain coarsening following a quench into the ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} phase field.

  15. Simulation of the effects of operating lakes Mendota, Monona, and Waubesa, south-central Wisconsin, as multipurpose reservoirs to maintain dry-weather flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krug, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    A digital reservoir routing model was used to simulate the operation of Lakes Mendota, Monona, and Waubesa, south-central Wisconsin for various levels of minimum release. Twenty-five years of record (1970?94) were used in model simulation. The amount of water available to maintain streamflow and lake levels during dry periods has declined because of extensive pumping of ground water for municipal use and diversion of the effluent around the lakes. The goal of the simulation was to determine whether using the lakes as multipurpose reservoirs to maintain flow during periods of low flow would appreciably lower the lake levels. The model results indicated that it would be possible to maintain a minimum flow of 36 cubic feet per second in all but the driest years simulated (1970, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1989, and 1991) without lowering the lake levels more than they have been lowered from 1970 to 1994 under current operating conditions. Maintaining minimum flow would require detailed computations to guide the operation of the dams during the year.

  16. Constitutive cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) activation by Alzheimer's disease presenilin-driven inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Marioly; Cárdenas, César; Mei, Lijuan; Cheung, King-Ho; Foskett, J. Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in presenilins (PS) account for most early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Accumulating evidence suggests that disrupted Ca2+ signaling may play a proximal role in FAD specifically, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) more generally, but its links to the pathogenesis of AD are obscure. Here we demonstrate that expression of FAD mutant PS constitutively activates the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and CREB target gene expression in cultured neuronal cells and AD mouse models. Constitutive CREB activation was associated with and dependent on constitutive activation of Ca2+/CaM kinase kinase ? and CaM kinase IV (CaMKIV). Depletion of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores or plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate and pharmacologic inhibition or knockdown of the expression of the inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) Ca2+ release channel each abolished FAD PS-associated constitutive CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation. CREB and CaMKIV phosphorylation and CREB target gene expression, including nitric oxide synthase and c-fos, were enhanced in brains of M146V-KI and 3xTg-AD mice expressing FAD mutant PS1 knocked into the mouse locus. FAD mutant PS-expressing cells demonstrated enhanced cell death and sensitivity to A? toxicity, which were normalized by interfering with the InsP3R–CAMKIV–CREB pathway. Thus, constitutive CREB phosphorylation by exaggerated InsP3R Ca2+ signaling in FAD PS-expressing cells may represent a signaling pathway involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:21784978

  17. Multi-time scale Climate Informed Stochastic Hybrid Simulation-Optimization Model (McISH model) for Multi-Purpose Reservoir System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, M.; Lall, U.

    2013-12-01

    In order to mitigate the impacts of climate change, proactive management strategies to operate reservoirs and dams are needed. A multi-time scale climate informed stochastic model is developed to optimize the operations for a multi-purpose single reservoir by simulating decadal, interannual, seasonal and sub-seasonal variability. We apply the model to a setting motivated by the largest multi-purpose dam in N. India, the Bhakhra reservoir on the Sutlej River, a tributary of the Indus. This leads to a focus on timing and amplitude of the flows for the monsoon and snowmelt periods. The flow simulations are constrained by multiple sources of historical data and GCM future projections, that are being developed through a NSF funded project titled 'Decadal Prediction and Stochastic Simulation of Hydroclimate Over Monsoon Asia'. The model presented is a multilevel, nonlinear programming model that aims to optimize the reservoir operating policy on a decadal horizon and the operation strategy on an updated annual basis. The model is hierarchical, in terms of having a structure that two optimization models designated for different time scales are nested as a matryoshka doll. The two optimization models have similar mathematical formulations with some modifications to meet the constraints within that time frame. The first level of the model is designated to provide optimization solution for policy makers to determine contracted annual releases to different uses with a prescribed reliability; the second level is a within-the-period (e.g., year) operation optimization scheme that allocates the contracted annual releases on a subperiod (e.g. monthly) basis, with additional benefit for extra release and penalty for failure. The model maximizes the net benefit of irrigation, hydropower generation and flood control in each of the periods. The model design thus facilitates the consistent application of weather and climate forecasts to improve operations of reservoir systems. The decadal flow simulations are re-initialized every year with updated climate projections to improve the reliability of the operation rules for the next year, within which the seasonal operation strategies are nested. The multi-level structure can be repeated for monthly operation with weekly subperiods to take advantage of evolving weather forecasts and seasonal climate forecasts. As a result of the hierarchical structure, sub-seasonal even weather time scale updates and adjustment can be achieved. Given an ensemble of these scenarios, the McISH reservoir simulation-optimization model is able to derive the desired reservoir storage levels, including minimum and maximum, as a function of calendar date, and the associated release patterns. The multi-time scale approach allows adaptive management of water supplies acknowledging the changing risks, meeting both the objectives over the decade in expected value and controlling the near term and planning period risk through probabilistic reliability constraints. For the applications presented, the target season is the monsoon season from June to September. The model also includes a monthly flood volume forecast model, based on a Copula density fit to the monthly flow and the flood volume flow. This is used to guide dynamic allocation of the flood control volume given the forecasts.

  18. Rapid synthesis of ?-Fe2O3/rGO nanocomposites by microwave autoclave as superior anodes for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jia; Wang, Yun-Xiao; Chou, Shu-Lei; Li, Hui-Jun; Liu, Hua-Kun; Wang, Jia-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    ?-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized within 15 min through a facile, environmentally friendly microwave hydrothermal method. From field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, it can be determined that the ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, around 50 nm in diameter, are uniformly anchored on the graphene nanosheets. The as-obtained ?-Fe2O3/rGO nanocomposites were applied as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries, which could deliver capacity of ?310 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles at 100 mA g-1.

  19. Effects of BmKIT 3 R gene transfer on pupal development of Bombyx mori Linnaeus using a Gal4/UAS binary transgenic system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Kun; Cao, Guang-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Xue, Ren-Yu; Gong, Cheng-Liang

    2012-03-28

    The pupal stage of the silkworm Bombyx mori Linnaeus lasts for approximately two weeks. However, prolongation of pupal duration would reduce the labor required to process and dry fresh cocoons. This study investigated the effects of BmKIT(3)(R) gene (from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch) transfer on the pupal development of B. mori using a Gal4/UAS binary transgenic system. Gal4 driven by a pupa-specific promoter BmWCP4 (from a B. mori wing-cuticle protein gene) or PDP (from a B. mori cocoonase gene), and BmKIT(3)(R) driven by a UAS cis-acting element were used to construct novel piggyBac-derived plasmids containing a neomycin-resistance gene (neo) controlled by the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) ie-1 (immediate-early gene) promoter and a green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) under the control of the B. mori actin 3 (A3) promoter. The vector was transferred into silkworm eggs by sperm-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic silkworms were produced after screening for neo and gfp genes, and gene transfer was verified by polymerase chain reaction and dot-blot hybridization. The larval development of the hybrid progeny of Gal4- and UAS-transgenic silkworms was similar to that of normal silkworms, but some pupae failed to metamorphose into moths, and the development of surviving pupae was arrested as a result of BmKIT(3)(R) expression. Moreover, Gal4 driven by the BmWCP4 promoter delayed pupal development more effectively than that driven by the PDP promoter in the Gal4/UAS binary transgenic system. Pupal durations of hybrid transgenic silkworm progeny with BmWCP4 and PDP promoters were approximately 5, 2, and 4 days longer, respectively, compared to corresponding normal silkworms, BmWCP4/Gal4, and UAS/BmKIT(3)(R) transgenic silkworms, respectively. These results suggest new avenues of research for prolonging the pupal duration of silkworms. PMID:22429285

  20. Thermoanalytical Study of O,O'-Dibenzoyl-(2R,3R)Tartaric Acid Supramolecular Compounds. Part I. Investigation of compounds with water, achiral alcohols and phenols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Illés; Cs. Kassai; Gy. Pokol; J. Madarász; E. Fogassy; D. Kozma

    2000-01-01

    Thermal behaviour of O,O'-dibenzoyl-(2R,3R)-tartaric acid (DBTA), its monohydrate, and its potential supramolecular compounds\\u000a with achiral alcohols and phenols were investigated with TG, DSC, EGD. The structural differences among the anhydrous DBTA,\\u000a its monohydrate, and the supramolecular derivatives were investigated with X-ray powder diffraction. The thermal behaviour\\u000a of DBTA-supramoleculars with isopropyl, tert-butyl, and 5-cyclohexyl alcohols is found to be similar to

  1. Development of a new single-bottle multi-purpose primer for bonding to dental porcelain, alumina, zirconia, and dental gold alloy.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Kunio; Tanaka, Hisaki; Fujii, Toshihide; Deguchi, Mikito; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the bonding efficacy of a combined primer application which comprised a silane coupling agent, an acidic adhesive monomer, and a dithiooctanoate monomer, as well as the influence of shelf life on bonding. Five experimental primers (coded as Si-P-SS-1 to Si-P-SS-4, and Si-SS as the control) were prepared using 20.0-40.0 wt% 3-methacryloyloxypropyltriethoxysilane (3-MPTES), 0-7.44 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA), and 0.50 wt% 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT). After 24-hour storage at 23°C (Initial) and 2-month storage at 50°C (Aged), tensile bond strengths (TBSs) of a resin cement (ResiCem, Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan) to primer-treated porcelain, alumina, zirconia, and Au alloy were measured. With the Initial and Aged primers of Si-P-SS-1 to Si-P-SS-3, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean TBSs (MPa) [porcelain: 21.7-29.2; alumina: 21.4-25.3; zirconia: 20.3-24.5; and Au alloy: 23.4-27.6] among these three primers (p>0.05), but they were significantly higher than that of the control primer (p<0.05). The experimental primers Si-P-SS-1 to Si-P-SS-3 demonstrated good potential as multi-purpose primers: they had good shelf lives as single-bottle primer systems and were thus able to exhibit good bond strength to all the adherends tested after 2-month storage under accelerated aging conditions. PMID:21778608

  2. Possible magnetic ground state of the half doped perovskite compound R 0.5Ce 0.5CoO 3 (R=Ca, Sr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuntian, Hu; Xiu'e, Zhang; Yonggang, Kang

    2010-02-01

    By using the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation and the real-space recursion method, we have investigated various magnetic structures in an enlarged double cell of the half doped compound R 0.5Ce 0.5CoO 3 (R=Ca, Sr). These include the low-spin state (LS:t2g5eg1), the intermediate-spin state (IS:t2g4.5eg1.5), and the high-spin state (HS:t2g4eg2) as well as all possible combinations among these three states. The densities of states are computed and stabilities of various states are analyzed as functions of the model parameters. For a fixed Hund's coupling j, it is shown that the ground state of R 0.5Ce 0.5CoO 3 (R=Ca, Sr) transforms from the antiferromagnetic high-spin state to the ferromagnetically ordered high-spin low-spin state as the crystal-field splitting Dq increases.

  3. Association of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I/D and ?-actinin-3 R577X Genotypes with Growth Factors and Physical Fitness in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Cheun, Wookwang; Byun, Jayoung; Joo, Youngsik

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the differences in aerobic and anaerobic exercise ability and growth-related indicators, depending on the polymorphism of the ACE and the ACTN3 genes, to understand the genetic influence of exercise ability in the growth process of children. The subjects of the study consisted of elementary school students (n=856, age 10.32±0.07 yr). The anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors were compared among groups of the ACE I/D or the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms. There were no significant differences between the anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors for the ACE gene ID or the ACTN3 gene R577X polymorphism. However, the DD type of ACE gene was highest in the side step test (p<0.05), and the DD type was significantly higher than the II+ID type (p<0.05) in the early bone age. The combined group of the ACE gene II+ID and the ACTN3 gene XX type significantly showed lower early bone age (p< 0.05). This study did not find any individual or compounding effects of the polymorphism in the ACE I/D or the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on the anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors of Korean children. However, the exercise experience and the DD type of the ACE gene may affect the early maturity of the bones. PMID:25729275

  4. Heterozygous splice mutation in PIK3R1 causes human immunodeficiency with lymphoproliferation due to dominant activation of PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Carrie L.; Zhang, Yu; Venida, Anthony; Wang, Ying; Hughes, Jason; McElwee, Joshua; Butrick, Morgan; Matthews, Helen; Price, Susan; Biancalana, Matthew; Wang, Xiaochuan; Richards, Michael; Pozos, Tamara; Barlan, Isil; Ozen, Ahmet; Rao, V. Koneti; Su, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), which generate PIP3 as a signal for cell growth and proliferation, exist as an intracellular complex of a catalytic subunit bound to a regulatory subunit. We and others have previously reported that heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD encoding the p110? catalytic PI3K subunit cause a unique disorder termed p110?-activating mutations causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency (PASLI) disease. We report four patients from three families with a similar disease who harbor a recently reported heterozygous splice site mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the p85?, p55?, and p50? regulatory PI3K subunits. These patients suffer from recurrent sinopulmonary infections and lymphoproliferation, exhibit hyperactive PI3K signaling, and have prominent expansion and skewing of peripheral blood CD8+ T cells toward terminally differentiated senescent effector cells with short telomeres. The PIK3R1 splice site mutation causes skipping of an exon, corresponding to loss of amino acid residues 434–475 in the inter-SH2 domain. The mutant p85? protein is expressed at low levels in patient cells and activates PI3K signaling when overexpressed in T cells from healthy subjects due to qualitative and quantitative binding changes in the p85?–p110? complex and failure of the C-terminal region to properly inhibit p110? catalytic activity. PMID:25488983

  5. Effect of pressure on octahedral distortions in RCrO3 (R = Lu, Tb, Gd, Eu, Sm): the role of R-ion size and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinu Bhadram, Venkata; Swain, Diptikanta; Dhanya, R.; Polentarutti, Maurizio; Sundaresan, A.; Narayana, Chandrabhas

    2014-04-01

    The effect of rare-earth ion size on the octahedral distortions in rare-earth chromites (RCrO3, R = Lu, Tb, Gd, Eu, Sm) crystallizing in the orthorhombic structure has been studied using Raman scattering and synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction up to 20 GPa. From our studies on RCrO3 we found that the octahedral tilts (distortions) increase with pressure. This is contrary to the earlier report which suggests that in LaCrO3, the distortions decrease with pressure leading to a more ordered phase at high pressure. Here, we observe that the rate of increase in distortion decreases with the increase in R-ion radii. This occurs due to the reduction in the compression of RO12 polyhedra with a corresponding increase in the compression of the CrO6 octahedra with increasing R-ion radii. From the Raman studies, we predict a critical R-ion radii, above which we expect the distortions in RCrO3 to reduce with increasing pressure leading to what is observed in the case of LaCrO3. These Raman results are consistent with our pressure dependent structural studies on RCrO3 (R = Gd, Eu, Sm). Also, our results suggest that the pressure dependence of Néel temperature, T NCr, (where the Cr3+ spin orders) in RCrO3 is mostly affected by the compressions of Cr-O bonds rather than the alteration of octahedral tilts.

  6. Diastereomeric complex of ( R/ S)-piperidine-3-carboxylic acid with (2 R,3 R)-tartaric acid: Structural, spectroscopic and computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoszak-Adamska, E.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Jaskólski, M.; Szafran, M.

    2011-07-01

    2:2 Complex of ( R) and ( S)-piperidine-3-carboxylic acids (P3C) with (2 R,3 R) -tartaric acid (TA), 1, has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopies, and by DFT calculations. The crystals of 1 are monoclinic, space group P2 1. The crystal structure is formed by two distinct P3CH +·TA - components, A and B, linked by an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond of 2.603(2) Å. The A and B components differ in the absolute configuration of the C(3) atom of P3CH +; ( S) in A and ( R) in B. The piperidinium-3-carboxylic acid and (2 R,3 R)-semi-tartrate anion moieties of the components A and B are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds of 2.517(1) and 2.535(1) Å, respectively. In A and B the piperidinium rings adopt the chair conformation with the carboxyl group in the equatorial position. The structures of the monomers of P3CH +·TA -, 3A and 3B, as well as of a dimer 2, have been optimized by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach. The chemical shift assignments were based on two-dimensional 1H- 1H and 1H- 13C experiments.

  7. THE EVOLUTION OF PLASMA PARAMETERS ON A CORONAL SOURCE SURFACE AT 2.3 R{sub Sun} DURING SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, L.; Panasyuk, A. V.; Kohl, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lamy, P., E-mail: lstrachan@cfa.harvard.edu [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR6110 CNRS/Universite de Provence, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2012-01-20

    We analyze data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory to produce global maps of coronal outflow velocities and densities in the regions where the solar wind is undergoing acceleration. The maps use UV and white light coronal data obtained from the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer and the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph, respectively, and a Doppler dimming analysis to determine the mean outflow velocities. The outflow velocities are defined on a sphere at 2.3 R{sub Sun} from Sun-center and are organized by Carrington Rotations during the solar minimum period at the start of solar cycle 23. We use the outflow velocity and density maps to show that while the solar minimum corona is relatively stable during its early stages, the shrinkage of the north polar hole in the later stages leads to changes in both the global areal expansion of the coronal hole and the derived internal flux tube expansion factors of the solar wind. The polar hole areal expansion factor and the flux tube expansion factors (between the coronal base and 2.3 R{sub Sun }) start out as super-radial but then they become more nearly radial as the corona progresses away from solar minimum. The results also support the idea that the largest flux tube expansion factors are located near the coronal hole/streamer interface, at least during the deepest part of the solar minimum period.

  8. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    PubMed

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-05-13

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. PMID:24824168

  9. High density gradients in the (square root 3 x square root 3)R30 degrees-CO layer on Ru(0001).

    PubMed

    Jakob, P

    2004-05-15

    The coverage regime just beyond 0.33 ML, representative of a perfectly ordered (square root 3 x square root 3)R30 degrees-CO layer on Ru(0001), has been investigated using infrared-absorption spectroscopy. Different isotopic mixtures of CO have been employed to derive a profound understanding of structural properties of such layers. It is found that extra CO molecules incorporated into the (square root 3 x square root 3)R30 degrees-CO layer affect their nearest neighbor molecules only, and the associated density gradient extends over no more than a few angstroms. Contrary to existing belief, the model system CO on Ru(0001) does not represent a case of an unusually shallow adsorption potential corrugation. Rather, CO experiences an exceptionally strong site preference when adsorbed on Ru(0001). Annealing causes the local distortion of the overlattice to propagate laterally, most probably in a density wave-like manner. Incipient motion on the atomic scale thereby has been detected by means of isotopic labeling of inequivalent molecules within the high density areas. All major conclusions are based on observations of (isotopically labeled) minority CO species which feature negligible dynamical lateral coupling. The majority CO species, on the other hand, provide laterally averaged, unspecific information on the status of the layer. PMID:15267865

  10. Reduced inhibitory gate in the barrel cortex of Neuroligin3R451C knock?in mice, an animal model of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that interacting with presynaptic neurexins ensure the cross?talk between pre? and postsynaptic specializations. Rare mutations in neurexin–neuroligin genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One of these, the R451C mutation of the gene encoding for Neuroligin3 (Nlgn3), has been found in patients with familial forms of ASDs. Animals carrying this mutation (NL3R451C knock?in mice) exhibit impaired social behaviors, reminiscent of those observed in ASD patients, associated with major alterations in both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission, which vary among different brain regions and at different developmental stages. Here, pair recordings from parvalbumin? (PV) expressing basket cells and spiny neurons were used to study GABAergic synaptic signaling in layer IV barrel cortex of NL3R451C mutant mice. We found that the R451C mutation severely affects the probability of GABA release from PV?expressing basket cells, responsible for controlling via thalamo?cortical inputs the feed?forward inhibition. No changes in excitatory inputs to parvalbumin?positive basket cells or spiny neurons were detected. These data clearly show that primary targets of the NL3 mutation are PV?expressing basket cells, independently of the brain region where they are localized. Changes in the inhibitory gate of layer IV somatosensory cortex may alter sensory processing in ASD patients leading to misleading sensory representations with difficulties to combine pieces of information into a unified perceptual whole. PMID:25347860

  11. Structure determination of the ({radical} (3) {times}{radical} (3) )R30{degree} boron phase on the Si(111) surface using photoelectron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertel, P.; Paggel, J.J.; Hasselblatt, M.; Horn, K.; Fernandez, V.; Schaff, O.; Weaver, J.H.; Bradshaw, A.M. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany)] [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Woodruff, D.P. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Rotenberg, E. [Advanced Light Source, MS2-400, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Advanced Light Source, MS2-400, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Denlinger, J. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    A quantitative structural analysis of the system Si(111)({radical} (3) {times}{radical} (3) )R30{degree}-B has been performed using photoelectron diffraction in the scanned energy mode. We confirm that the substitutional S{sub 5} adsorption site is occupied and show that the interatomic separations to the three nearest-neighbor Si atoms are 1.98({plus_minus}0.04) {Angstrom}thinsp, 2.14({plus_minus}0.13) {Angstrom}thinsp, and 2.21({plus_minus}0.12) {Angstrom}thinsp. These correspond to the silicon atom immediately below the boron atom, the adatom immediately above, and the three atoms to which it is coordinated symmetrically in the first layer. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Binary structure of the two-domain (3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase from rat peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 at 2.38 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Haapalainen, Antti M; Koski, M Kristian; Qin, Yong Mei; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Glumoff, Tuomo

    2003-01-01

    The crystal structure of (3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase of rat peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 (MFE-2) was solved at 2.38 A resolution. The catalytic entity reveals an alpha/beta short chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) fold and the conformation of the bound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) found in other SDR enzymes. Of great interest is the separate COOH-terminal domain, which is not seen in other SDR structures. This domain completes the active site cavity of the neighboring monomer and extends dimeric interactions. Peroxisomal diseases that arise because of point mutations in the dehydrogenase-coding region of the MFE-2 gene can be mapped to changes in amino acids involved in NAD(+) binding and protein dimerization. PMID:12517343

  13. Computational Analysis of mRNA Expression Profiles Identifies the ITG Family and PIK3R3 as Crucial Genes for Regulating Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2014-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu). TNBC has worse clinical outcomes than other breast cancer subtypes. However, the key molecules and mechanisms of TNBC migration remain unclear. In this study, we compared two normalized microarray datasets from GEO database between Asian (GSE33926) and non-Asian populations (GSE46581) to determine the molecules and common pathways in TNBC migration. We demonstrated that 16 genes in non-Asian samples and 9 genes in Asian samples are related to TNBC migration. In addition, our analytic results showed that 4 genes, PIK3R3, ITGB1, ITGAL, and ITGA6, were involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Our results indicated potential genes that link to TNBC migration. This study may help identify novel therapeutic targets for drug development in cancer therapy. PMID:24982892

  14. Structure and magnetic properties of RNi (R = Gd, Tb, Dy, Sm) and R 6M 1.67Si 3 (R = Ce, Gd, Tb; M = Ni, Co) hydrides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. L. Yaropolov; A. S. Andreenko; S. A. Nikitin; S. S. Agafonov; V. P. Glazkov; V. N. Verbetsky

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports the influence of hydrogen absorption on the structure and magnetic properties of intermetallic compounds RNi (R=Gd, Tb, Dy, Sm) and R6M1.67Si3 (R=Ce, Gd, Tb; M=Ni, Co). It is demonstrated that the ternary hydrides GdNiH3.2, TbNiH3.4, DyNiH3.4, and SmNiH3.7 have similar CrB-type orthorhombic structures. In the structures of TbNiD3.4 and DyNiD3.4, deuterium atoms occupy tetrahedral 8f-interstices [R3Ni], trigonal

  15. Ferromagnetism and charge ordering in (LaR) 0.5(CaSr) 0.5MnO 3 (R=Nd, Eu,Tb) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuberkar, D. G.; Rana, D. S.; Thaker, C. M.; Mavani, K. R.; C. Kundaliya, Darshan; Malik, S. K.

    2004-05-01

    Structural, electrical and magnetic measurements on half-doped (LaR) 0.5(CaSr) 0.5MnO 3 (R=Nd, Eu and Tb) samples have been carried out to study the effect of average A-site cation radius (< rA>) and size mismatch on charge-ordering and magnetic properties. The Eu-doped composition has the smallest (< rA>) and shows coexistence of charge ordering and ferromagnetism, which points towards phase separation. The Tb- and Nd-doped samples do not exhibit charge ordering, and ferromagnetic-metallic behavior of these samples may be attributed to the effect of large < rA> and large size mismatch at the A-site.

  16. Seismic electric precursors observed prior to the 6.3R EQ of July 1st 2009, Greece and their use in short-term earthquake prediction

    E-print Network

    Thanassoulas, C; Verveniotis, G; Zymaris, N

    2009-01-01

    The normalized raw data of the Earth's electric field, monitored at PYR, ATH, HIO monitoring sites in Greece, are studied as far as it concerns the presence of electric seismic precursors. Electric preseismic pulses, plateau-like anomalous electric field and Very Long Period (VLP) anomalies were detected prior to the occurrence of the July 1st, 2009 large (Ms = 6.3R) EQ in Greece. Further processing of the same data revealed the true form of the generated preseimic potential thus providing an indirect estimation of the time window of the occurrence of the large EQ. Finally, by correlating, at pairs, the anomalous electric field from all monitoring sites it is possible to calculate the "strange attractor like" seismic electric precursor that provides a time window for the occurrence of the large EQ and utilizes the determination not only of the regional seismogenic area that has been activated but also a more precise epicenter too.

  17. Association of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism with glucose tolerance and gene expression of sarcomeric proteins in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E; Benziane, Boubacar; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2015-03-01

    A common polymorphism (R577X) in the ?-actinin (ACTN) 3 gene, which leads to complete deficiency of a functional protein in skeletal muscle, could directly influence metabolism in the context of health and disease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that states of glucose tolerance are associated with the ACTN3 R577X genotype. We analyzed the prevalence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in people with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and measured muscle-specific ?-actinin 2 and 3 mRNA and protein abundance in skeletal muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we investigated the protein abundance of the myosin heavy chain isoforms and the components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in skeletal muscle from people with NGT or T2D. mRNA of selected sarcomeric z-disk proteins was also assessed. Although the prevalence of the ACTN3 577XX genotype was higher in T2D patients, genotype distribution was unrelated to metabolic control or obesity. ACTN2 and ACTN3 mRNA expression and protein abundance was unchanged between NGT and T2D participants. Protein abundance of mitochondrial complexes II and IV was related to genotype and glucose tolerance status. Gene expression of sarcomeric z-disk proteins was increased in skeletal muscle from NGT participants with the ACTN3 577XX genotype. While genetic variation in ACTN3 does not influence metabolic control, genotype does appear to influence gene expression of other sarcomeric proteins, which could contribute to the functional properties of skeletal muscle and the fatigue-resistant phenotype associated with the R577X polymorphism. PMID:25780092

  18. Residence Halls Academic, Administrative & Multipurpose

    E-print Network

    Moore, Paul A.

    Shuttle Stop N Under Construction Parking Lots LOT 12 LOT 12 LOT V LOT 18 LOT 18 LOT 5 LOT R LOT S LOT 8 LOT W LOT H LOT Y LOT J LOT 3 LOT F LOT E LOT 11 LOT 4 LOT Q LOT B LOT P LOT 15 LOT 23 LOT A LOT G LOT N LOT O LOT 1 LOT 16 LOT C LOT X LOT 10 LOT L LOT U LOT 24 LOT 20 LOT 13 LOT I LOT D LOT 21 LOT 2

  19. MultiPurpose University High

    E-print Network

    Learned, John

    Gateway House Frear Hall Wa ahila Faculty Housing Hale Aloha Lehua Tower Hale Aloha IlimaTower Hale Aloha Cafeteria Hale Aloha Mokihana Tower Hale Aloha Lokelani Tower Business Administration VISITOR P ARKING

  20. Configurable Multi-Purpose Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencia, J. Emilio; Forney, Chirstopher; Morrison, Robert; Birr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Advancements in technology have allowed the miniaturization of systems used in aerospace vehicles. This technology is driven by the need for next-generation systems that provide reliable, responsive, and cost-effective range operations while providing increased capabilities such as simultaneous mission support, increased launch trajectories, improved launch, and landing opportunities, etc. Leveraging the newest technologies, the command and telemetry processor (CTP) concept provides for a compact, flexible, and integrated solution for flight command and telemetry systems and range systems. The CTP is a relatively small circuit board that serves as a processing platform for high dynamic, high vibration environments. The CTP can be reconfigured and reprogrammed, allowing it to be adapted for many different applications. The design is centered around a configurable field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device that contains numerous logic cells that can be used to implement traditional integrated circuits. The FPGA contains two PowerPC processors running the Vx-Works real-time operating system and are used to execute software programs specific to each application. The CTP was designed and developed specifically to provide telemetry functions; namely, the command processing, telemetry processing, and GPS metric tracking of a flight vehicle. However, it can be used as a general-purpose processor board to perform numerous functions implemented in either hardware or software using the FPGA s processors and/or logic cells. Functionally, the CTP was designed for range safety applications where it would ultimately become part of a vehicle s flight termination system. Consequently, the major functions of the CTP are to perform the forward link command processing, GPS metric tracking, return link telemetry data processing, error detection and correction, data encryption/ decryption, and initiate flight termination action commands. Also, the CTP had to be designed to survive and operate in a launch environment. Additionally, the CTP was designed to interface with the WFF (Wallops Flight Facility) custom-designed transceiver board which is used in the Low Cost TDRSS Transceiver (LCT2) also developed by WFF. The LCT2 s transceiver board demodulates commands received from the ground via the forward link and sends them to the CTP, where they are processed. The CTP inputs and processes data from the inertial measurement unit (IMU) and the GPS receiver board, generates status data, and then sends the data to the transceiver board where it is modulated and sent to the ground via the return link. Overall, the CTP has combined processing with the ability to interface to a GPS receiver, an IMU, and a pulse code modulation (PCM) communication link, while providing the capability to support common interfaces including Ethernet and serial interfaces boarding a relatively small-sized, lightweight package.

  1. Multipurpose integrated active contact lenses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babak Parviz

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few decades, conventional contact lenses have been used to correct vision. Advances in manufacturing have changed the lens material: first from glass to the polymers used in gas-permeable contacts, and then to the current highly engineered hydrogels used in soft contact lenses. Recent ad- vances in nano and microfabrication—enabling the construction of exceedingly small electronic, photonic, and

  2. Application of a novel integrated toxicity testing strategy incorporating "3R" principles of animal research to evaluate the safety of a new agrochemical sulfoxaflor.

    PubMed

    Terry, Claire; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Saghir, Shakil; Marty, Sue; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Billington, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Plant protection products (PPPs) and the active substance(s) contained within them are rigorously and comprehensively tested prior to registration to ensure that human health is not impacted by their use. In recent years, there has been a widespread drive to have more relevant testing strategies (e.g., ILSI/HESI-ACSA and new EU Directives), which also take account of animal welfare, including the 3R (replacement, refinement, and reduction) principles. The toxicity potential of one such new active substance, sulfoxaflor, a sulfoximine insecticide (CAS #946578-00-3), was evaluated utilizing innovative testing strategies comprising: (1) an integrated testing scheme to optimize information obtained from as few animals as possible (i.e., 3R principles) through modifications of standard protocols, such as enhanced palatability study design, to include molecular endpoints, additional neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity parameters in a subchronic toxicity study, and combining multiple test guidelines into one study protocol; (2) generation of toxicokinetic data across dose levels, sexes, study durations, species, strains and life stages, without using satellite animals, which was a first for PPP development, and (3) addition of prospective mode of action (MoA) endpoints within repeat dose toxicity studies as well as proactive inclusion of specific MoA studies as an integral part of the development program. These novel approaches to generate key data early in the safety evaluation program facilitated informed decision-making on the need for additional studies and contributed to a more relevant human health risk assessment. This supplement also contains papers which describe in more detail the approach taken to establish the MoA and human relevance framework related to toxicities elicited by sulfoxaflor in the mammalian toxicology studies: developmental toxicity in rats mediated via the fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ( Ellis-Hutchings et al. 2014 ); liver tumors in rodents mediated via CAR/PXR ( LeBaron et al. 2014 ); and Leydig cell tumors in Fischer 344 rats ( Rasoulpour et al. 2014 ). PMID:24832550

  3. The influence of ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We studied the influence of the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms (single or combined) on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training. Methods One hundred and thirty-nine healthy older Caucasian women participated in this study (age: 65.5?±?8.2 years, body mass: 67.0?±?10.0 kg and height: 1.57?±?0.06 m). Walking speed (S10) performance and functional capacity assessed by the “get-up and go” (GUG) mobility test were measured at baseline (T1) and after a consecutive 12-week period of high-speed power training (40-75% of one repetition maximum in arm and leg extensor exercises; 3 sets 4–12 reps, and two power exercises for upper and lower extremity). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples, and genotyping analyses were performed by PCR methods. Genotype distributions between groups were compared by Chi-Square test and the gains in physical performance were analyzed by two-way, repeated-measures ANOVA. Results There were no significant differences between genotype groups in men or women for adjusted baseline phenotypes (P?>?0.05). ACE I/D and ACTN3 polymorphisms showed a significant interaction genotype-training only in S10 (P?=?0.012 and P?=?0.044, respectively) and not in the GUG test (P?=?0.311 and P?=?0.477, respectively). Analyses of the combined effects between genotypes showed no other significant differences in all phenotypes (P?3 R577X polymorphisms are likely candidates in the modulation of exercise-related gait speed phenotype in older women but not a significant influence in mobility traits. PMID:24313907

  4. PIK3R1 negatively regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem-like phenotype of renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Youcheng; Yang, Zhao; Xu, Abai; Dong, Pei; Huang, Yi; Liu, Huan; Li, Feida; Wang, Haifeng; Xu, Qian; Wang, Yongqiang; Sun, Da; Zou, Yong; Zou, Xiaowen; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Duo; Liu, Hongjie; Wu, Xun; Zhang, Meng; Fu, Yu; Cai, Zhiming; Liu, Chunxiao; Wu, Song

    2015-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway has been identified as an important pathway in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We have reported a nonsense mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the regulatory subunit of PI3K, in a metastatic RCC (mRCC), while the mutation was absent in the corresponding primary RCC (pRCC). To identify the function of PIK3R1 in RCC, we examined its expression in normal kidney, pRCC and mRCC by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of PIK3R1 significantly decreased in pRCC and was further reduced in mRCC compared with normal tissue. Besides, its expression levels were negatively correlated with T-category of tumor stage. Additionally, 786-O and A-704 cells with PIK3R1 depletion introduced by CRISPR/Cas9 system displayed enhanced proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and acquired a stem-like phenotype. Moreover, the PIK3R1 depletion promoted the phosphorylation of AKT in the cells. The knockdown of AKT by shRNA reduced p-GSK3? and CTNNB1 expression in the cells, while the depletion of CTNNB1 impaired stem-like phenotype of the cells. Overall, PIK3R1 down-regulation in RCC promotes propagation, migration, EMT and stem-like phenotype in renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 pathway, and may contribute to progression and metastasis of RCC. PMID:25757764

  5. Structural investigation of nanocrystalline graphene grown on (6?3 × 6?3)R30°-reconstructed SiC surfaces by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, T.; Dubslaff, M.; Oliveira, M. H., Jr.; Hanke, M.; Fromm, F.; Seyller, T.; Nemec, L.; Blum, V.; Scheffler, M.; Lopes, J. M. J.; Riechert, H.

    2013-12-01

    Growth of nanocrystalline graphene films on (6?3 × 6?3)R30°-reconstructed SiC surfaces was achieved by molecular beam epitaxy, enabling the investigation of quasi-homoepitaxial growth. The structural quality of the graphene films, which is investigated by Raman spectroscopy, increases with growth time. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy proves that the SiC surface reconstruction persists throughout the growth process and that the synthesized films consist of sp2-bonded carbon. Interestingly, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements show that the graphene domains possess one single in-plane orientation, are aligned to the substrate, and offer a noticeably contracted lattice parameter of 2.450 Å. We correlate this contraction with theoretically calculated reference values (all-electron density functional calculations based on the van der Waals corrected Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional) for the lattice parameter contraction induced in ideal, free-standing graphene sheets by: substrate-induced buckling, the edges of limited-size flakes and typical point defects (monovacancies, divacancies, Stone-Wales defects).

  6. Raman spectra of R{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R—rare earth) sesquioxides with C-type bixbyite crystal structure: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Abrashev, M. V., E-mail: mvabr@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Todorov, N. D. [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Geshev, J. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2014-09-14

    Raman spectra of R{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R—Sc, Er, Y, Ho, Gd, Eu, and Sm) powders with C-type bixbyite crystal structure are measured. With the help of these data and ones, previously published for other oxides from the same structural family, general dependencies of the frequencies of the Raman peaks on the cubic crystal unit cell parameter are constructed. Using these dependencies and knowing the symmetry of the peaks for one of the oxides, determined from previous single-crystal measurements, it is possible to find out the symmetry of the peaks from the spectra of all compounds. It was found that the frequency of the six lowest frequency peaks scales with the square root of the mass of the rare earth showing that mainly R ions take part in these vibrations. These results agree with performed here lattice dynamical calculations. The anomalous softening of the frequency of some peaks in the spectra of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} is discussed.

  7. Resolving lineage assignation on Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates classified by spoligotyping with a new high-throughput 3R SNPs based method.

    PubMed

    Abadia, Edgar; Zhang, Jian; dos Vultos, Tiago; Ritacco, Viviana; Kremer, Kristin; Aktas, Elif; Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Refregier, Guislaine; van Soolingen, Dick; Gicquel, Brigitte; Sola, Christophe

    2010-10-01

    We developed a new multiplexed-PCR assay to accurately classify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates at the sublineage level by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This method relies on 7 SNPs located in different genes of the MTC strains (recC, rec0, recR, ligB, ligC, alkA, and mgtC). Most of these genes are involved in replication, repair and recombination (3R) functions of M. tuberculosis strains, four of the mutations are synonymous, and thus neutral. Genes were chosen as a first empirical approach to assess the congruence between spoligotyping-based phylogeographical classification and SNP typing. This scheme efficiently classifies most of MTC phylogeographical groups: (1) confirming and identifying new sublineage-specific SNPs, (2) unraveling phylogenetical relationships between spoligotyping-defined MTC sublineages, (3) appropriately assigning sublineages to some spoligotypes and reassigning sublineages to other mis-labeled spoligotype signatures. This study opens the way to a more meaningful taxonomic, evolutionary and epidemiological classification. It also allows evaluation of spoligotype-signature significance towards a more comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus in MTC. PMID:20624486

  8. Molecular and crystal structures of 4'-hydroxy derivative of (3R,6R)-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-2-(4-phenylbenzylidene)cyclohexanone

    SciTech Connect

    Kutulya, L. A., E-mail: kutulya@isc.kharkov.com [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Scientific and Technological Corporation 'Institute for Single Crystals' (Ukraine); Kulishov, V. I. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine); Shishkina, S. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Scientific and Technological Corporation 'Institute for Single Crystal,' (Ukraine); Tolochko, A. S. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine); Roshal', A. D.; Shishkin, O. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Scientific and Technological Corporation 'Institute for Single Crystals' (Ukraine)

    2008-05-15

    The molecular and crystal structures of the 4-hydroxy derivative of (3R,6R)-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-2-(4-phenylbenzylidene)cyclohexanone are determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Single crystals are orthorhombic, a = 9.147(2) A, b = 12.959(2) A, c = 15.695(5) A, V = 1860.4(7) A{sup 3}, Z = 4, and space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. The cyclohexanone ring in the crystal structure has an asymmetric chair conformation. The puckering parameters are as follows: the puckering amplitude S is 0.91, and the puckering angles {theta} and {psi} are equal to 20.2{sup o} and 10.4{sup o}, respectively. It is established that the enone fragment and the cyclohexanone ring in molecules are flattened considerably. In the crystal structure, the molecules are linked by the hydrogen bonds (bond length, 1.85 A). The structural features and the strength of the hydrogen bonds for the compound under investigation and its analogue with one benzene ring are compared using the X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopic data.

  9. Origins of bad metal conductivity and the insulator-metal transition in the rare-earth nickelates (RNiO3, R = rare earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, Rafael; Ha, Sieu; Silevitch, Daniel; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2014-03-01

    For most metals increasing temperature (T) or disorder quickens electron scattering. This scattering time hypothesis informs the Drude model of electronic conductivity. However, for so-called bad metals with very low conductivity this hypothesis predicts scattering times so short as to conflict with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Bad metal conductivity has remained a puzzle since its discovery in the 1980s in high T superconductors. Here we introduce the rare-earth nickelates (RNiO3, R = rare earth) as a class of bad metals. We study SmNiO3 thin films using infrared (IR) spectroscopy while varying T and disorder. We show that the interaction between lattice distortions and Ni-O bond covalence explains both the bad metal conductivity and the insulator-metal transition (IMT) in the nickelates. It does so by shifting spectral weight over the large energy scale established by the Ni-O orbital interaction, thus enabling very low conductivity while preserving the Drude model and without violating the uncertainty principle.

  10. Inhibition of human pyridoxal kinase by 2-acetyl-4-((1R,2S,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI).

    PubMed

    Elsinghorst, Paul W; di Salvo, Martino L; Parroni, Alessia; Contestabile, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    2-Acetyl-4-((1R,2S,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI) is observed as a minor contaminant in caramel food colourings (E?150c). Feeding experiments with rodents have revealed a significant lymphopenic effect that has been linked to the presence of THI in these food colourings. Pyridoxal kinase inhibition by THI has been suggested, but not demonstrated, as a mode of action as it leads to lowered levels of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, which are known to cause lymphopenia. Recently, THI was also shown to inhibit sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase causing comparable immunosuppressive effects and derivatives of THI are being developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in humans. Interestingly, sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase activity depends on pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, which in turn is provided by pyridoxal kinase. This report shows that THI does inhibit pyridoxal kinase with competitive and mixed-type non-competitive behaviour towards its two substrates, pyridoxal and ATP, respectively. The corresponding inhibition constants are in the low millimolar range. PMID:24899377

  11. Metabolic engineering of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain capable of simultaneously utilizing glucose and galactose to produce enantiopure (2R,3R)-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiazhang; Chao, Ran; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-05-01

    2,3-Butanediol (BDO) is an important chemical with broad industrial applications and can be naturally produced by many bacteria at high levels. However, the pathogenicity of these native producers is a major obstacle for large scale production. Here we report the engineering of an industrially friendly host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce BDO at high titer and yield. By inactivation of pyruvate decarboxylases (PDCs) followed by overexpression of MTH1 and adaptive evolution, the resultant yeast grew on glucose as the sole carbon source with ethanol production completely eliminated. Moreover, the pdc- strain consumed glucose and galactose simultaneously, which to our knowledge is unprecedented in S. cerevisiae strains. Subsequent introduction of a BDO biosynthetic pathway consisting of the cytosolic acetolactate synthase (cytoILV2), Bacillus subtilis acetolactate decarboxylase (BsAlsD), and the endogenous butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH1) resulted in the production of enantiopure (2R,3R)-butanediol (R-BDO). In shake flask fermentation, a yield over 70% of the theoretical value was achieved. Using fed-batch fermentation, more than 100g/L R-BDO (1100mM) was synthesized from a mixture of glucose and galactose, two major carbohydrate components in red algae. The high titer and yield of the enantiopure R-BDO produced as well as the ability to co-ferment glucose and galactose make our engineered yeast strain a superior host for cost-effective production of bio-based BDO from renewable resources. PMID:24525332

  12. Isotopologue profiling of triterpene formation under physiological conditions. Biosynthesis of lupeol-3-(3'-R-hydroxy)-stearate in Pentalinon andrieuxii.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M; Yam-Puc, Alejandro; Knispel, Nihat; Schramek, Nicholas; Huber, Claudia; Graßberger, Christoph; Ramírez-Torres, Fabiola G; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Hiebert-Giesbrecht, Mickel R; Chan-Bacab, Manuel J; Godoy-Hernández, Gregorio; Bacher, Adelbert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    The biosynthesis of lupeol-3-(3'R-hydroxy)-stearate (procrim b, 1) was investigated in the Mexican medicinal plant Pentalinon andrieuxii by (13)CO2 pulse-chase experiments. NMR analyses revealed positional enrichments of (13)C2-isotopologues in both the triterpenoid and the hydroxystearate moieties of 1. Five of the six isoprene units reflected a pattern with [1,2-(13)C2]- and [3,5-(13)C2]-isotopologues from the respective C5-precursors, IPP and DMAPP, whereas one isoprene unit in the ring E of 1 showed only the [3,5-(13)C2]-connectivity of the original C5-precursor, due to rearrangement of the dammarenyl cation intermediate during the cyclization process. The presence of (13)C2-isotopologues was indicative of [(13)C2]acetyl-CoA being the precursor units in the formation of the fatty acid moiety and of the triterpene via the mevalonate route. The observed labeling pattern was in agreement with a chair-chair-chair-boat conformation of the (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene precursor during the cyclization process, suggesting that the lupeol synthase from P. andrieuxii is of the same type as that from Olea europea and Taraxacum officinale, but different from that of Arabidopsis thaliana. The study shows that (13)CO2 pulse-chase experiments are powerful in elucidating, under in vivo conditions and in a single experiment, the biosynthesis of complex plant products including higher terpenes. PMID:24606167

  13. [3] R.M. Colomb and C.Y.C. Chung. Very fast decision table execution of propositional expert systems. Proceedings of the 8th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    ­ versity, New Brunswick, NJ, March 1992. [11] T.A. Nguyen, W.A. Perkins, T.J. Laffey, D. Pecora. Knowledge­ 14 ­ [3] R.M. Colomb and C.Y.C. Chung. Very fast decision table execution of propositional expert--676. [4] R. Dechter and J. Pearl. Structure identification in relational data. Artificial Intelli­ gence

  14. Synthesis of New 6-{[?-(Dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones and Evaluation of their Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activities.

    PubMed

    Berest, Galina G; Voskoboynik, Olexiy Y; Kovalenko, Sergiy I; Nosulenko, Inna S; Antypenko, Lyudmyla M; Antypenko, Olexii M; Shvets, Volodymyr M; Katsev, Andriy M

    2012-01-01

    Several novel 6-thio-3-R-2-oxo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-based compounds containing an ?-(dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)]alkyl fragment were synthesized to examine their anticancer activity. Some of the 6-{[?-(hetero-cyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (3.1-3.10) were obtained by the nucleophilic substitution of 6-[?-halogenalkyl]thio-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (2.1-2.8) with azaheterocycles. Alternatively, compounds 3.1-3.22 were synthesized by alkylation of 3-R-6-thio-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones potassium salts (1.1-1.4) with (2-chloroethyl)-N,N-dialkylamine hydrochlorides or 1-(2-chloroethyl)heterocycle hydrochlorides. The structures of compounds were elucidated by (1)H, (13)C NMR, LC-MS and EI-MS analysis. Then anticancer and antibacterial, bioluminescence inhibition of Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 activities of the substances were tested in vitro. It was found that compound 3.18 possessed a wide range of anticancer activity against 27 cell lines of cancer: non-small cell lung, colon, CNS, ovarian, renal, prostate, breast, melanoma and leukemia (log GI(50) < -5.65). The "structure-activity" relationship was discussed. COMPARE analysis for synthesized anticancer active compounds was performed. PMID:22396903

  15. Synthesis of New 6-{[?-(Dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones and Evaluation of their Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Berest, Galina G.; Voskoboynik, Olexiy Y.; Kovalenko, Sergiy I.; Nosulenko, Inna S.; Antypenko, Lyudmyla M.; Antypenko, Olexii M.; Shvets, Volodymyr M.; Katsev, Andriy M.

    2012-01-01

    Several novel 6-thio-3-R-2-oxo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-based compounds containing an ?-(dialkylamino(heterocyclyl)]alkyl fragment were synthesized to examine their anticancer activity. Some of the 6-{[?-(hetero-cyclyl)alkyl]thio}-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (3.1–3.10) were obtained by the nucleophilic substitution of 6-[?-halogenalkyl]thio-3-R-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones (2.1–2.8) with azaheterocycles. Alternatively, compounds 3.1–3.22 were synthesized by alkylation of 3-R-6-thio-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones potassium salts (1.1–1.4) with (2-chloroethyl)-N,N-dialkylamine hydrochlorides or 1-(2-chloroethyl)heterocycle hydrochlorides. The structures of compounds were elucidated by 1H, 13C NMR, LC–MS and EI-MS analysis. Then anticancer and antibacterial, bioluminescence inhibition of Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 activities of the substances were tested in vitro. It was found that compound 3.18 possessed a wide range of anticancer activity against 27 cell lines of cancer: non-small cell lung, colon, CNS, ovarian, renal, prostate, breast, melanoma and leukemia (log GI50 < ?5.65). The “structure-activity” relationship was discussed. COMPARE analysis for synthesized anticancer active compounds was performed. PMID:22396903

  16. VOLCANIC ASH RECORD IN THE SIPLE DOME ICE CORE N.W. Dunbar1, A. Kurbatov2, G.A. Zielinski2, W.C. McIntosh1, P. B. Price3, R. C. Bay3

    E-print Network

    Price, P. Buford

    Intosh1, P. B. Price3, R. C. Bay3 1. Department of Earth and Environmental Science and New Mexico Bureau of Geology, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM, 87801 (nelia@nmt.edu) 2. Climate Change Institute, University in the Transantarctic Mountains and sub-Antarctic Islands. A few layers in the upper part of the core appear

  17. Synchrotron X-ray imaging of the electron density in RFeO3 (R = Y, Ho) using an APD detector.

    PubMed

    Streltsov, V A; Ishizawa, N; Kishimoto, S

    1998-09-01

    Structure factors for small hydrothermally grown yttrium and holmium orthoferrites, RFeO(3) (R = Y, Ho), were measured with focused synchrotron radiation at wavelengths of 0.70 and 0.84 A using both scintillation and high-speed avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors. Resulting APD Deltarho images showed striking correlations between aspherical electron densities around Fe and rare-earth metals. Approximate high symmetry in the Deltarho images indicates that cations deform the electron density far more strongly than the O atoms. The Ho-Fe magnetic interactions appear to affect the electron density distribution of the Fe atoms and the magnetic phase transitions. Space group Pnma, orthorhombic, YFeO3 (APD): Mr = 192.76, a = 5.5931 (3), b = 7.6102 (4), c = 5.2806 (3) A, V = 224.77 (2) A(3), Z = 4, Dx = 5.695 Mg m(-3), mu(0.84) = 15.56 mm(-1), F(000) = 356, T = 293 K, R = 0.045, wR = 0.073, S = 4.83 (9) for 1282 unique reflections; HoFeO3 (APD): Mr = 268.78, a = 5.5922 (3), b = 7.6157 (5), c = 5.2798 (3) A, V = 224.86 (2) A(3), Z = 4, D(x) = 7.939 Mg m(-3), mu(0.84) = 61.98 mm(-1), F(000) = 356, T = 293 K, R = 0.036, wR = 0.037, S = 3.07 (6) for 1284 unique reflections. PMID:16687839

  18. Cloning and sequencing of the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein 3r-encoding gene of Enterococcus hirae S185: modular design and structural organization of the protein.

    PubMed Central

    Piras, G; Raze, D; el Kharroubi, A; Hastir, D; Englebert, S; Coyette, J; Ghuysen, J M

    1993-01-01

    The clinical isolate Enterococcus hirae S185 has a peculiar mode of resistance to penicillin in that it possesses two low-affinity penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs): the 71-kDa PBP5, also found in other enterococci, and the 77-kDa PBP3r. The two PBPs have the same low affinity for the drug and are immunochemically related to each other. The PBP3r-encoding gene has been cloned and sequenced, and the derived amino acid sequence has been compared by computer-assisted hydrophobic cluster analysis with that of the low-affinity PBP5 of E. hirae R40, the low-affinity PBP2' of Staphylococcus aureus, and the PBP2 of Escherichia coli used as the standard of reference of the high-M(r) PBPs of class B. On the basis of the shapes, sizes, and distributions of the hydrophobic and nonhydrophobic clusters along the sequences and the linear amino acid alignments derived from this analysis, the dyad PBP3r-PBP5 has an identity index of 78.5%, the triad PBP3r-PBP5-PBP2' has an identity index of 29%, and the tetrad PBP3r-PBP5-PBP2'-PBP2 (of E. coli) has an identity index of 13%. In spite of this divergence, the low-affinity PBPs are of identical modular design and possess the nine amino acid groupings (boxes) typical of the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of the high-M(r) PBPs of class B. At variance with the latter PBPs, however, the low-affinity PBPs have an additional approximately 110-amino-acid polypeptide stretch that is inserted between the amino end of the N-terminal domain and the carboxy end of the membrane anchor. While the enterococcal PBP5 gene is chromosome borne, the PBP3r gene appears to be physically linked to the erm gene, which confers resistance to erythromycin and is known to be plasmid borne in almost all the Streptococcus spp. examined. Images PMID:8491705

  19. Angle-resolved photoemission study of the evolution of band structure and charge density wave properties in RTe3 (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, and Dy)

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Ian

    properties in RTe3 (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, and Dy) V. Brouet,1,2,3 W. L. Yang,2,3 X. J. Zhou,2,3 Z. Hussain a detailed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy ARPES investigation of the RTe3 family, which sets unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k space. An additional advantage of RTe3

  20. THE 1000 BRIGHTEST HIPASS GALAXIES: NEWLY CATALOGED GALAXIES E. RyanWeber, 1,2 B. S. Koribalski, 2 L. StaveleySmith, 2 H. Jerjen, 3 R. C. KraanKorteweg, 4 S. D. Ryder, 5

    E-print Network

    Zwaan, Martin

    . Schro Ë? der, 16 I. M. Stewart, 16,2 F. Stootman, 8 M. Waugh, 1 R. L. Webster, 1 A. E. Wright, 2 and M. A tidal tails or bridges between galaxies are only detected in H i (see, e.g., Koribalski 1996; Ryder et L. Staveley­Smith, 2 H. Jerjen, 3 R. C. Kraan­Korteweg, 4 S. D. Ryder, 5 D. G. Barnes, 6 W. J. G. de

  1. Does the ACE I\\/D polymorphism, alone or in combination with the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism, influence muscle power phenotypes in young, non-athletic adults?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Rodriguez-RomoJonatan; Jonatan R. Ruiz; Catalina Santiago; Carmen Fiuza-Luces; Marta González-Freire; Félix Gómez-Gallego; María Morán; Alejandro Lucia

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the association of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene (ACE) insertion\\/deletion (I\\/D) polymorphism, alone or in combination with the ?-actinin-3 gene (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism, with jumping (vertical squat and counter-movement jump tests) and sprint ability (30 m dash) in non-athletic,\\u000a healthy young adults [N = 281 (214 male), mean (SD) age 21 (2) years]. We did not observe any effect of the ACE

  2. New myocardial imaging agents: synthesis of 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid by decomposition of a 3,3-(1. 5-Pentanediyl)triazene precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Elmaleh, D.R.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-06-29

    Methods have been developed for the rapid, regiospecific introduction of iodine into the para position of the terminal phenyl ring of 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid via the HI decomposition of a 3,3-(1,5-pentanediyl)triazene derivative of the p-amino substrate. The syntheses and physical properties of the triazene intermediate, 1-(4-(13(R,S)-methyl-14-carboxytetradecyl)phenyl)-3,3-(1,5-pentanediyl)triazene, and 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid are described. Radioiodinated methyl-branched long-chain fatty acids such as 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid are of interest as myocardial imaging agents as a result of the pronounced uptake and prolonged heart retention, which appears to result from the inhibition of fatty acid metabolism. Iodine was introduced into the para position of the terminal phenyl ring by treatment of the triazene intermediate at 0-5/sup 0/C with HI which was generated by in situ treatment of sodium iodide in acetone with trifluoroacetic acid. The triazene intermediate decomposed to yield exclusively the p-iodophenyl product in good yield (> 50%). These results suggest that the decomposition of the 3,3-(1,5-pentanediyl)triazene derivative of terminal phenyl long-chain fatty acids is an attractive method for the preparation of high specific activity regiospecific radioiodinated agents. 22 references.

  3. Synthesis and biological activity of novel N-cycloalkyl-(cycloalkylaryl)-2-[(3-R-2-oxo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-6-yl)thio]acetamides.

    PubMed

    Berest, Galyna G; Voskoboynik, Olexii Yu; Kovalenko, Sergiy I; Antypenko, Olexii M; Nosulenko, Inna S; Katsev, Andrii M; Shandrovskaya, Olena S

    2011-12-01

    In this paper the novel N-cycloalkyl-(cycloalkylaryl)-2-[(3-R-2-oxo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-6-yl)thio]acetamides synthesis by aminolysis of activated by thionyl chloride or carbonyldiimidazole [(3-R-2-oxo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazolin-6-yl)-thio]acetic acids and alkylation of the 3-R-6-thio-6,7-dihydro-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazoline-2-ones potassium salts with N-cycloalkyl-(cycloalkylaryl)-2-chloroacetamides are proposed. The structures of compounds are determined by (1)H, (13)C NMR, LC-MS and EI-MS analysis. The in vitro anticancer, antibacterial activity and Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 bioluminescence inhibition of synthesized compounds were revealed. SAR results were discussed. Compound 4.10 was found to be the most anticancer active one, selectively influenced on the non-small cell lung and CNS cancer cell lines, especially on the HOP-92 (log GI(50) = -6.01) and U251 (log GI(50) = -6.00). PMID:22051065

  4. ACE I/D and ACTN3 R/X polymorphisms as potential factors in modulating exercise-related phenotypes in older women in response to a muscle power training stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana; Costa, Aldo M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Silva, António J; Bastos, Estela; Marques, Mário C

    2013-10-01

    Genetic variation of the human ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms subsequent to 12 weeks of high-speed power training on maximal strength (1RM) of the arm and leg muscles, muscle power performance (counter-movement jump), and functional capacity (sit-to-stand test) was examined in older Caucasian women [n = 139; mean age 65.5 (8.2) years; 67.0 (10.0) kg and 1.57 (0.06) m]. Chelex 100 was used for DNA extraction, and genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP methods. Muscular strength, power, and functional testing were conducted at baseline (T1) and after 12 weeks (T2) of high-speed power training. At baseline, the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R/X polymorphisms were not associated with muscle function or muscularity phenotypes in older Caucasian women. After the 12-week high-speed training program, subjects significantly increased their muscular and functional capacity performance (p < 0.05). For both polymorphisms, significant genotype-training interaction (p < 0.05) was found in all muscular performance indices, except for 1RM leg extension in the ACE I/D (p = 0.187). Analyses of the combined effects between genotypes showed significant differences in all parameters (p < 0.05) in response to high-speed power training between the power (ACTN3 RR + RX & ACE DD) versus "non-power" muscularity-oriented genotypes (ACTN3 XX & ACE II + ID)]. Our data suggest that the ACE and ACTN3 genotypes (single or combined) exert a significant influence in the muscle phenotypes of older Caucasian women in response to high-speed power training. Thus, the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R/X polymorphisms are likely factors in modulating exercise-related phenotypes in older women, particularly in response to a resistance training stimuli. PMID:22855367

  5. Efficacy of palonosetron (PAL) compared to other serotonin inhibitors (5HT 3 R) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic (MoHE) treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Engel Ayer Botrel; Otávio Augusto C. Clark; Luciana Clark; Luciano Paladini; Enéas Faleiros; Bruna Pegoretti

    2011-01-01

    Objective  The objective of this work is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials comparing\\u000a a single intravenous dose of palonosetron (PAL) 0.25 mg with other 5-HT3R in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic (MoHE) chemotherapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Several databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and CENTRAL. The primary endpoints were the incidence\\u000a of acute and delayed nausea

  6. Expression of poly-3-(R)-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymerase and acyl-CoA-transacylase in plastids of transgenic potato leads to the synthesis of a hydrophobic polymer, presumably medium-chain-length PHAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Romano; Bernard Witholt; Gerrit Eggink; Hans Mooibroek

    2005-01-01

    Medium-chain-length poly-3-( R)-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) belong to the group of microbial polyesters. The minimum gene-set for the accumulation of mcl-PHAs from de novo fatty acid biosynthesis has been identified in prokaryotes [B. Rehm et al. (1998) J. Biol Chem 273:24044–24051] as consisting of the Pha-C1 polymerase and the ACP-CoA-transacylase. In this paper, the synthesis of mcl-PHAs has been attempted in transgenic

  7. Effect of rye Secale cereale L. chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony expression in hybrid combinations between ( Hordeum L.)Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and wheat-rye substitution lines T. aestivum L.- S. cereale L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Pershina; T. S. Rakovtseva; L. I. Belova; E. P. Devyatkina; O. G. Silkova; L. A. Kravtsova; A. I. Shchapova

    2007-01-01

    The effect of rye chromosomes on polyembryony was studied for reciprocal hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and five wheat T. aestivum L. (cultivar Saratovskaya 29)-rye Secale cereale L. (cultivar Onokhosikaya) substitution lines: 1R(1D), 2R(2D), 3R(3B), 5R(5A), and 6R(6A), and for direct hybrid combinations\\u000a between the [H. marinum ssp. gussoneanum (H. geniculatum All.)]-T. aestivum alloplasmic

  8. Crystal structure, morphotropic phase transition and luminescence in the new cyclosilicates Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Y, Eu-Lu

    SciTech Connect

    Tyutyunnik, Alexander P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, UB RAS, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Leonidov, Ivan I., E-mail: ivanleonidov@ihim.uran.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, UB RAS, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Surat, Ludmila L.; Berger, Ivan F.; Zubkov, Vladimir G. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, UB RAS, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-15

    A new series of promising luminescent materials, cyclosilicates Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Y, Eu-Lu, has been synthesized via a solid-state reaction. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction studies show that these oxides crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system (S.G. C2/c, Z=4) and have a morphotropic phase transition between Er and Tm compounds followed by a step-like change of the unit cell constants. Isolated [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] rings located in layers are basic building units and stack with Sr/R layers along the [1 0 1{sup Macron }] direction. The rare earth atoms are distributed among three independent Sr/R sites coordinated by 8, 7 and 6 oxygen atoms, and the Sr-R populations change from mixed to 0.5/0.5 over site (1) and full occupation of sites (2) and (3) by Sr and R, respectively, at the transition. Changes of the conformation and mutual arrangement of [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] rings, as well as exchange of oxygen atoms from the first and the second coordination sphere of two Sr/R sites also feature the phase transition. Luminescence in Sr{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} under ultraviolet (UV) excitation has been discussed. - Graphical abstract: The change of the [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] ring conformation in Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Eu, Er, Tm and Lu. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new group of cyclosilicates Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Y, Eu-Lu, was first synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolated [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] rings located in layers are basic building units and stack with Sr/R layers along the [1 0 1{sup Macron }] direction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rare earth atoms are distributed among three independent Sr/R sites coordinated by 6, 7 and 8 oxygen ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A step-like change of the unit cell parameters is observed in the Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2} structure for R=Er{yields}Tm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} demonstrates intense multiband orange-red photoluminescence.

  9. Temperature dependences of air-broadening, air-narrowing and line-mixing coefficients of the methane ?3 R(6) manifold lines-Application to in-situ measurements of atmospheric methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghysels, M.; Gomez, L.; Cousin, J.; Tran, H.; Amarouche, N.; Engel, A.; Levin, I.; Durry, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have revisited the spectroscopy of the R(6) manifold of the ?3 band of methane which is particularly suitable for in situ laser monitoring of CH4. For that purpose, a home-made Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser emitting at 3.24 ?m has been coupled to a cryogenically-cooled optical cell to investigate the temperature dependences of the air-broadening, the air-narrowing and the air-mixing coefficients of these ?3 R(6) manifold transitions. The temperatures of the measurements range from 213.5 K to room temperature. These are typically the temperatures found in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. Finally, the measured spectroscopic parameters have been used to process the in-situ methane absorption spectra recorded by a balloon-borne laser diode spectrometer.

  10. Sex Pheromone of the Pine Sawfly Macrodiprion nemoralis (Hymenoptera : Diprionidae): Identification of (2S,3R,7R,9S)-3,7,9-Trimethyl-2-tridecanol as the Precursor for the Active Pheromone Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassgren, A.-B.; Bergström, G.; Sierpinski, A.; Anderbrant, O.; Högberg, H.-E.; Hedenström, E.

    The main component of the sex pheromone precursor in females of Macrodiprion nemoralis was identified as a threo-3,7,9-trimethyl-2-tridecanol isomer, approximately 800pg per female, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Comparison of mass spectrometric ion chromatograms showed that the natural compound in the female extract has the same retention time and mass spectrum as one of the two synthetic threo peaks. The acetate of the synthetic 16-isomer mixture caught a large number of males in the field, confirming the structure of the active pheromone. Comparison of gas chromatograms of the natural female extract with the eight synthetic threo stereoisomers showed that the pheromone is the (2S,3R,7R,9S)-stereoisomer of 3,7,9-trimethyl-2-tridecyl acetate.

  11. Field-induced abrupt change in magnetization of the manganite compounds (LaR)0.45 (CaSr)0.55 Mn O3 ( R=Eu and Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, D. S.; Kuberkar, D. G.; Malik, S. K.

    2006-02-01

    The ABO3 type manganites (LaR)0.45(CaSr)0.55MnO3 ( R=Eu3+ —a nonmagnetic ion and Tb3+ —a magnetic ion) which possess large A-site size-disorder, exhibit metamagnetic transitions as a function of magnetic field. Below a certain crossover temperature and depending on the magnetic field sweep rate, the metamagnetic transition transforms from a broad to sharp step-like transitions. This crossover temperature increases on increasing the field sweep rate. The effect of field sweep rate on the critical field of metamagnetic steps decreases with decreasing temperature. This along with the magnetic relaxation and specific heat data provide clear evidence on the contribution of spin-lattice coupling in determining the transformation from smooth to sharp magnetic transitions. These studies also suggest that the A-site magnetism has no important role in transformation from reversible to irreversible magnetization.

  12. Effect of size disorder on the magnetic and transport properties of the (LaR) 0.55(CaSr) 0.45MnO 3 (R=Nd, Sm & Tb) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, D. S.; Mavani, K. R.; Kundaliya, D. C.; Kuberkar, D. G.; Malik, S. K.

    2006-05-01

    Electrical resistivity, magnetization and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements have been performed on ABO 3-type (LaR) 0.55(CaSr) 0.45MnO 3 (R=Nd, Sm and Tb) compounds, in which A-site size disorder varies but tolerance factor remains constant. The insulator-metal (I-M) transition temperature ( Tp) and the Curie temperature ( TC) of these compounds decrease from ?170 K for R=Nd to ?120 K for R= Tb, which is consistent with increasing size disorder. All the samples exhibit maximum in MR at Tp and an MR of 70-80% at 5 K. The reduced Tp and TC and enhanced MR in these compounds vis-`a-vis the Tp and TC of ?230 K of the standard La 0.55Ca 0.45MnO 3 compound, may be attributed to the local structural distortions induced by enhanced A-site size-disorder.

  13. Participation of the Cl-/HCO(3)- exchangers SLC26A3 and SLC26A6, the Cl- channel CFTR, and the regulatory factor SLC9A3R1 in mouse sperm capacitation.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Julio C; Hernández-González, Enrique O; Wertheimer, Eva; Visconti, Pablo E; Darszon, Alberto; Treviño, Claudia L

    2012-01-01

    Sperm capacitation is required for fertilization and involves several ion permeability changes. Although Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) are essential for capacitation, the molecular entities responsible for their transport are not fully known. During mouse sperm capacitation, the intracellular concentration of Cl(-) ([Cl(-)](i)) increases and membrane potential (Em) hyperpolarizes. As in noncapacitated sperm, the Cl(-) equilibrium potential appears to be close to the cell resting Em, opening of Cl(-) channels could not support the [Cl(-)](i) increase observed during capacitation. Alternatively, the [Cl(-)](i) increase might be mediated by anion exchangers. Among them, SLC26A3 and SLC26A6 are good candidates, since, in several cell types, they increase [Cl(-)](i) and interact with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl(-) channel present in mouse and human sperm. This interaction is known to be mediated and probably regulated by the Na(+)/H(+) regulatory factor-1 (official symbol, SLC9A3R1). Our RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, Western blot, and immunoprecipitation data indicate that SLC26A3, SLC26A6, and SLC9A3R1 are expressed in mouse sperm, localize to the midpiece, and interact between each other and with CFTR. Moreover, we present evidence indicating that CFTR and SLC26A3 are involved in the [Cl(-)](i) increase induced by db-cAMP in noncapacitated sperm. Furthermore, we found that inhibitors of SLC26A3 (Tenidap and 5099) interfere with the Em changes that accompany capacitation. Together, these findings indicate that a CFTR/SLC26A3 functional interaction is important for mouse sperm capacitation. PMID:21976599

  14. Participation of the Cl?/HCO3? Exchangers SLC26A3 and SLC26A6, the Cl? Channel CFTR, and the Regulatory Factor SLC9A3R1 in Mouse Sperm Capacitation1

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Julio C.; Hernández-González, Enrique O.; Wertheimer, Eva; Visconti, Pablo E.; Darszon, Alberto; Treviño, Claudia L.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sperm capacitation is required for fertilization and involves several ion permeability changes. Although Cl? and HCO3? are essential for capacitation, the molecular entities responsible for their transport are not fully known. During mouse sperm capacitation, the intracellular concentration of Cl? ([Cl?]i) increases and membrane potential (Em) hyperpolarizes. As in noncapacitated sperm, the Cl? equilibrium potential appears to be close to the cell resting Em, opening of Cl? channels could not support the [Cl?]i increase observed during capacitation. Alternatively, the [Cl?]i increase might be mediated by anion exchangers. Among them, SLC26A3 and SLC26A6 are good candidates, since, in several cell types, they increase [Cl?]i and interact with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl? channel present in mouse and human sperm. This interaction is known to be mediated and probably regulated by the Na+/H+ regulatory factor-1 (official symbol, SLC9A3R1). Our RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, Western blot, and immunoprecipitation data indicate that SLC26A3, SLC26A6, and SLC9A3R1 are expressed in mouse sperm, localize to the midpiece, and interact between each other and with CFTR. Moreover, we present evidence indicating that CFTR and SLC26A3 are involved in the [Cl?]i increase induced by db-cAMP in noncapacitated sperm. Furthermore, we found that inhibitors of SLC26A3 (Tenidap and 5099) interfere with the Em changes that accompany capacitation. Together, these findings indicate that a CFTR/SLC26A3 functional interaction is important for mouse sperm capacitation. PMID:21976599

  15. Quarkonia as a multi-purpose tool

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2010-12-21

    Quarkonia can be a very useful tool for understanding the medium in which they are produced and pass through. However, their usefulness as a tool depends on how well certain aspects of their behavior in cold matter are understood.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MULTIPURPOSE THERMAL SPRAYING SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor A. Gorlach; Daniela Ghelase; Nelson Mandela

    Many components and structures require protection against corrosion, oxidization, excessive heat and wear. This is achieved by applying various types of coatings on the component base material, hence providing the necessary protection and improving performance of aircraft systems. For example, the application of the thermal barrier coatings (TBC), in the last decade, on the aircraft turbine blades, vanes and combustors

  17. Stormwater management and multipurpose infrastructure networks

    E-print Network

    Vecchio, Ann-Ariel (Ann-Ariel Nichiko)

    2012-01-01

    In urban planning and design, natural systems are a key element of explorations about how to design for sustainability. As part of these efforts, academics and practitioners have also begun to explore the ways in which the ...

  18. Skylab M518 multipurpose furnace convection analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeois, S. V.; Spradley, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis was performed of the convection which existed on ground tests and during skylab processing of two experiments: vapor growth of IV-VI compounds growth of spherical crystals. A parallel analysis was also performed on Skylab experiment indium antimonide crystals because indium antimonide (InSb) was used and a free surface existed in the tellurium-doped Skylab III sample. In addition, brief analyses were also performed of the microsegregation in germanium experiment because the Skylab crystals indicated turbulent convection effects. Simple dimensional analysis calculations and a more accurate, but complex, convection computer model, were used in the analysis.

  19. Dual-Channel Multi-Purpose Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Content, David

    2009-01-01

    A dual-channel telescope allows for a wide-field telescope design wit h a good, narrow field channel of fewer surfaces for shorter-wavelen gth or planet-finding applications. The design starts with a Korsch three-mirror-anastigmat (TMA) telescope that meets the mission criter ia for image quality over a wide field of view. The internal image a t the Cassegrain focus is typically blurry due to the aberration bala ncing among the three mirrors. The Cassegrain focus is then re-optim ized on the axis of the system where the narrow field channel instru ment is picked off by bending the primary mirror.

  20. Two Multipurpose Thermochemical Experiments for General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, R. A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two experiments designed to provide concepts on the difference between heat and temperature and also bond energy. Investigates both a neutralization experiment and a ligation experiment. Notes inexpensive chemicals are used along with simple equipment. Discusses the sharing of lab results for a single class value. (MVL)

  1. A Multipurpose Device for Some Hydrostatics Questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore Ganci

    2008-01-01

    A number of well-known hydrostatics problems dealing with Archimedes' principle concern a loaded boat floating in a pool.1-4 Examples of this sort of problem include: 1. (a) If a stone is thrown overboard from a boat floating in a pool, does the water level in the pool rise, fall, or remain unchanged? (b) If a hole is made in the

  2. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial...task-specific lubricants, such as chain and cable lubricants and gear lubricants, are not included in this item. (b)...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial...task-specific lubricants, such as chain and cable lubricants and gear lubricants, are not included in this item. (b)...

  4. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial...task-specific lubricants, such as chain and cable lubricants and gear lubricants, are not included in this item. (b)...

  5. 7 CFR 2902.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial...task-specific lubricants, such as chain and cable lubricants and gear lubricants, are not included in this item. (b)...

  6. Spacecraft design project multipurpose satellite bus MPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellman, Lyle; Riley, John; Szostak, Michael; Watkins, Joseph; Willhelm, Joseph; Yale, Gary

    1990-01-01

    The thrust of this project was to design not a single spacecraft, but to design a multimission bus capable of supporting several current payloads and unnamed, unspecified future payloads. Spiraling costs of spacecraft and shrinking defense budgets necessitated a fresh look at the feasibility of a multimission spacecraft bus. The design team chose two very diverse and different payloads, and along with them two vastly different orbits, to show that multimission spacecraft buses are an area where indeed more research and effort needs to be made. Tradeoffs, of course, were made throughout the design, but optimization of subsystem components limited weight and volume penalties, performance degradation, and reliability concerns. Simplicity was chosen over more complex, sophisticated and usually more efficient designs. Cost of individual subsystem components was not a primary concern in the design phase, but every effort was made to chose flight tested and flight proven hardware. Significant cost savings could be realized if a standard spacecraft bus was indeed designed and purchased in finite quantities.

  7. A multi-purpose computing center: FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Fermilab Computing Center is described with a special emphasis given to the scientific computing systems and the data storage and archiving systems. The scope and focus of this paper is the Fermilab scientific computing facility. It does not cover, or does not cover very well, related issues such as data Grids, cloud computing and storage, commercial storage, data integrity, authorization, access rates, and novel storage technologies. These are all important considerations in discussing data centers and should be kept in mind when one explores issues related to computing centers and long-term data storage.

  8. Sustainable multipurpose tree production systems for Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.Y.; Kilpatrick, K.J.

    1988-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing methods for producing reforestation plating stock, fuel, and fodder in a sustainable manner in Nepal. This project, in cooperation with the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation of Nepal, is sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID). Several production systems are being evaluated for the Mid-Hills Region of Nepal. To provide sustainable biomass production and ecological management of the fragile Mid-Hills Region, the production systems must simultaneously satisfy the physiological requirements of the plants, the symbiotic requirements of the plant and the microorganisms in its rhizosphere, the physicochemical requirements of nutrient and water cycling, and the climatic and topographic constraints.

  9. Multi-Purpose Satellites Constellations Propagator Toolkit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Nicolai; M. Lucente; G. Piantieri; T. Rossi; M. De Sanctis; M. Ruggieri; P. Salvini

    2007-01-01

    Since ancient times explaining the motion of celestial bodies has been a must and a challenge for scientists. Many people in history, from Ptolomaeus to Copernicus, from Brahe to Kepler, from Galileo to Newton up to Lagrange and Einstein, have investigated the motion of planets, giving birth to celestial mechanics. Orbital mechanics is based on the same laws applied to

  10. Multipurpose Active\\/Passive Motion Compensation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Sullivan; M. Davenport; R. Clements

    1984-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled active\\/passive motion compensation system has been developed for deploying a variety of geotechnical in-situ testing devices with mobile drilling rigs from low-cost service vessels. The light-weight rotary heave compensator incorporates a hydraulic motor as the compensator actuator and a servo-controlled closed loop pump to reduce the air storage and power requirements. Unique features of the system are the

  11. Megaton Modular Multi-Purpose Neutrino Detector

    E-print Network

    Alfred K. Mann

    2001-08-21

    This brief note outlines a detector for the Homestake Laboratory and the physics experiments that might be done with it. The note might go on record as a letter of intent to be converted to a formal proposal at a later time.

  12. Cost-reducing multipurpose microfilm card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. V.

    1970-01-01

    Microfilm-aperture card is printed in the same format on both sides which enables the use of one card for mounting films that are ''right reading'' on both the base side and the emulsion side. This reduces the number of microfilm-card formats.

  13. 7 CFR 2902.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...50 Section 2902.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT...

  14. Confronting Global Issues: A Multipurpose IR Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellman, Stephen M.; Turan, Kursad

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an international relations simulation that focuses on threats of transnational insurgent organizations, the future of the Iraqi regime, and the effect of globalization on foreign policies. It contains both the Simulation Director's Guide and the Participant's Guide. The guides explain the steps taken to run the simulation…

  15. Multipurpose transportable missile-space complex 'Start'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonov, Y.; Andryushin, V.

    1993-06-01

    Space-launcher of the Start family are reviewed focusing on differences between space-launchers and battle missiles, possible payload delivery schemes, and peculiarities of the fundamental and design schemes of a space launcher and ballistic missile. It is pointed out that a process of ICBM transformation into space launchers should be analyzed taking into account differences in operating conditions and the choice of the fundamental and design solutions.

  16. Continuous Commisssioning of a Multipurpose Facility 

    E-print Network

    Yagua, C.; Wei, G.; Napper, G.; Turner, D.; Effinger, M.; Shahsavary, F.

    2009-01-01

    , storage areas, restrooms, and a few offices. The building was designed to accommodate up to 5500 people for sporting events, commencement exercises, and meetings. The commissioning process identified many energy saving opportunities, including a critical...

  17. Multipurpose active/passive motion compensation system

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.A.; Clements, R.E.; Davenport, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    A microprocessor-controlled active/passive motion compensation system has been developed for deploying a variety of geotechnical in-situ testing devices with mobile drilling rigs from low-cost service vessels. The light-weight rotary heave compensator incorporates a hydraulic motor as the compensator actuator and a servo-controlled closed loop pump to reduce the air storage and power requirements. Unique features of the system are the use of inertial sensors to measure three components of boat motion, the ability to run the system in active/passive or passive modes, and the ability to automatically lower the drillstring at a constant velocity while maintaining motion compensation. Quantitative measurements made during sea trials offshore California yielded motion compensation accuracy approaching 98 percent which is much better than the compensation achieved with passive systems. Results are presented from offshore in-situ testing with a cone penetrometer, a vane shear device, and a suspension PS logger. The system can also be used for other offshore applications.

  18. Knowledge mapping: A multipurpose task analysis tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timm J. Esque

    1988-01-01

    A tool was developed to increase the objectivity and accuracy of task difficulty ratings for job design. The tool, knowledge\\u000a mapping, involves identifying specific types of prerequisite knowledge for a given task and then assessing the difficulty\\u000a of each type. The tool was applied in a semiconductor manufacturing environment and yielded valuable information not only\\u000a for job design, but also

  19. Creating a multipurpose digital institutional repository

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne A. Cohen; Deborah J. Schmidle

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss DigitalCommons@ILR, a product of the Martin P. Catherwood Library and the School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper recounts the development of DigitalCommons@ILR and examines local policies and procedures. In addition, the paper addresses the issues of choosing a institutional repository platform, creating partnership with

  20. [Effect of rye Secale cereale L. chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony expression in hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and wheat T. aestivum L.-rye S. cereale L. substitution lines].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Rakovtseva, T S; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Silkova, O G; Kravtsova, L A; Shchapova, A I

    2007-07-01

    The effect of rye chromosomes on polyembryony was studied for reciprocal hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and five wheat T. aestivum L. (cultivar Saratovskaya 29)-rye Secale cereale L. (cultivar Onokhoiskaya) substitution lines: IR(1D), 2R(2D), 3R(3B), 5R(5A), and 6R(6A), and for direct hybrid combinations between the [H. marinum ssp. gussoneanum (H. geniculatum All.)]-T. aestivum alloplasmic recombinant line and the wheat-rye substitution lines 1R (1A), 1R (1D), and 3R(3B). Chromosomes 1R and 3R of rye cultivar Onokhoiskaya proved to affect the expression of polyembryony in the hybrid combinations that involved the alloplasmic recombinant lines of common wheat as maternal genotypes. Based on this finding, polyembryony was regarded as a phenotypic expression of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions where an important role is played by rye chromosomes 1R and 3R and the H. vulgare cytoplasm. Consideration is given to the association between the effect of rye chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony in the [(Hordeum)-T. aestivum x wheat-rye substitution lines] hybrid combinations and their stimulating effect on the development on angrogenic embryoids in isolated anther cultures of the wheat-rye substitution lines. PMID:17899814

  1. Modeling the combined impacts of climate and socio-economic change on water quality, availability and consumption in a multi-purpose reservoir: an application to the Xarrama basin, southern Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacinto, Rita; Nunes, João Pedro; Santos, Juliana

    2014-05-01

    The water resources sector is one of the most vulnerable to climate change. In southern Europe, an increase of water scarcity is expected, combined with a higher frequency and length of severe droughts. Water management in these regions is already a challenge, and several severe droughts occurred there during the last decades, such as the severe droughts of 2005 and 2012 in Portugal, which have highlighted existing vulnerabilities and led to the disruption of part of water supplies. Furthermore, the evolution of socio-economic conditions and even climate change could cause changes to population and land-uses, with the potential to increase pressures on existing resources. The threat of scarcer water resources highlights the need to understand these vulnerabilities and act to reduce them, adapting to the impacts of future climate and land use changes. In fact, water resources governance has been pointed as a key challenge in the present and in the future, as it builds capacity on how to deal with stress and uncertainties generated by climatic variability and global change. Project ERLAND is focused on assessing the eco-hydrological impacts of climate change in Portugal, and therefore water scarcity and droughts are an important focal point on this research. One of the study areas is the Xarrama river basin in southern Portugal, which feeds the multi-purpose Vale do Gaio reservoir used for irrigation and urban water supplies, coupled with a small hydroelectric generating capacity. Currently it experiences some water quality problems and there is already the need of water transfers from other reservoirs to maintain supplies and quality. This is combined with ongoing land-use changes, where irrigated vineyards and olive groves have started to replace traditional rainfed pastures and cereal cultivation. The exposition and vulnerability of the Xarrama basin and the Vale do Gaio reservoir is being addressed for present and future conditions. Future climate scenarios were downscaled from existing Global Circulation Model forecasts. Socioeconomic scenarios for population and land use change were downscaled from European-level forecasts based on local tendencies from recent decades. All these scenarios are being included in the SWAT eco-hydrological model; population is used as a proxy for water consumption and effluent production, while land use changes lead to different water consumptions (both before water reaches the reservoir, and from water uptakes for irrigation) and nutrient exports. The model also allows for the simplified simulation of lower water availability and nutrient inputs on water quality. This approach combines hydrologic and socioeconomic scenarios in an integrated modeling framework, which will allow an evaluation of best planning practices for land use and water management. It will present relevant data for local stakeholders and managers, while demonstrating the utility and added value of including future socioeconomic scenarios in the evaluation of global change impacts and the design of adaptation measures.

  2. C-C and C-Heteroatom Bond Dissociation Energies in CH3R?C(OH)2: Energetics for Photocatalytic Processes of Organic Diolates on TiO2 Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tsang-Hsiu; Dixon, David A.; Henderson, Michael A.

    2010-08-26

    The bond energies of a range of gem-diols, CH3R?C(OH)2 (R? = H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO2, CF3, CH3CH2, CH3CH2CH2, CH3CH2CH2CH2, ((CH3)2)CH, (CH3)3C, ((CH3)2CH)CH2, (CH3CH2)(CH3)CH, C6H5 (CH3CH2)(CH3)CH) which serve as models for binding to a surface have been studied with density functional theory (DFT) and the molecular orbital G3(MP2) methods to provide thermodynamic data for the analysis of the photochemistry of ketones on TiO2. The ultraviolet (UV) photon-induced photodecomposition of adsorbed acetone and 3,3-dimethylbutanone on the rutile TiO2 (110) surface have been investigated with photon stimulated desorption (PSD) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The C-CH3 and C-C(R?) bond dissociation energies in CH3R?C(OH)2 were predicted, and our calculated bond dissociation energies are in excellent agreement with the available experimental values. We used a series of isodemic reactions to provide small corrections to the various bond dissociation energies. The calculated bond dissociation energies are in agreement with the observed photodissociation processes except for R? = CF3, suggesting that these processes are under thermodynamic control. For R? = CF3, reaction dynamics also play a role in determining the photodissociation mechanism. The gas phase Brönsted acidities of the gem-diols were calculated. For three molecules, R? = Cl, Br, and NO2, loss of a proton leads to the formation of a complex of acetic acid with the anion Cl-, Br-, and NO2-. The acidities of these three species are very high with the former two having acidities comparable to CF3SO3H. The ketones (R?RC(=O)) are weak Lewis acids except where addition of OH- leads to the dissociation of the complex to form an anion bonded to acetic acid, R' = NO2, Cl, and Br. The X-C bond dissociation energies for a number of X-CO2- species were calculated and these should be useful in correlating with photochemical reactivity studies.

  3. Co-existence of ac and bc-cycloidal phases, giant magnetocapacitance and polarization in the multiferroic R0.5Dy0.5MnO3 (R = Eu and Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athinarayanan, Sundaresan; de, Chandan

    2015-03-01

    In the cycloidal RMnO3 (R = Tb and Dy) multiferroic compounds, the cycloidal spin propagates along the bc plane and polarization appears along c-direction. In the case of GdMnO3, it appears that the cycloidal plane is along the ab plane and the polarization points in the a-direction. In my talk, I will demonstrate the emergence of these two cycloidal ordered phases with temperature and their co-existence from the measurements of pyroelectric current and dielectric properties in mixed rare-earth compounds, Eu0.5Dy0.5MnO3 and Gd0.5Dy0.5MnO3. The obtained value of polarization is in the same order of magnitude as in the E-type magnetic multiferroic (HoMnO3). Further, these compound show giant magnetic field enhancement of ferroelectric polarization (up to +150% in Gd0.5Dy0.5MnO3) in contrast to TbMnO3 (up to -10%). Also, the value of magneto-capacitance is nearly twenty times higher than that of TbMnO3. We attribute this high value of polarization and magneto-capacitance to the coexistence of ab and bc cycloidal phases. The isothermal current observed upon change of magnetic field with time, demonstrates giant magnetoelectric coupling for a number of cycle without any training effect.

  4. Pressure dependence of the metal-insulator transition in the charge-transfer oxides RNiO3 (R=Pr,Nd,Nd0.7La0.3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obradors, X.; Paulius, L. M.; Maple, M. B.; Torrance, J. B.; Nazzal, A. I.; Fontcuberta, J.; Granados, X.

    1993-05-01

    We have investigated the pressure dependence (up to 20 kbar) of the metal-insulator (MI) transition displayed by the orthorhombic perovskites RNiO3 (R=Nd, Pr, and Nd0.7La0.3) by means of electrical resistance measurements. The transition temperature decreases under pressure, with a common rate of decrease of dTMI/dP=-4.2 K/kbar, in spite of differences in TMI (100-200 K). On the basis of the structural effects associated with the application of pressure in these orthorhombic perovskites, we conclude that the metallic phase is stabilized by pressure because the bandwidth increases and hence the charge-transfer gap is reduced. This decrease with pressure of the charge-transfer gap in the RNiO3 perovskites is in contrast to the dependence predicted and observed in the layered cuprates where the charge-transfer energy dominates the bandwidth effects. In addition, our experiments show that the first-order phase transformation occurring at TMI is inhibited by pressure, and hence a larger proportion of metallic phase occurs, which leads to an apparent reentrant metallic behavior at low temperature.

  5. ATPA induced GluR5-containing kainite receptor S-nitrosylation via activation of GluR5-Gq-PLC-IP(3)R pathway and signalling module GluR5·PSD-95·nNOS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Jian; Li, Chong; Zhang, Guang-Yi

    2012-12-01

    GluR5-containing kainite receptor (GluR5-KAR) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of nervous system diseases, while S-nitrosylation exerts a variety of effects on biological systems. However, the mechanism of GluR5-KAR S-nitrosylation is still unclear up to now. Here our researches found that GluR5-KAR selective agonist ATPA stimulation activated the nonclassical GluR5-KAR-Gq-PLC-IP(3)R pathway and the signalling module GluR5·PSD-95·nNOS (the former is more important), led to Ca(2+) release from intracellular calcium stores endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cytoplasm and extracellular calcium indrawal, respectively, which further resulted in nNOS activation and GluR5-KAR S-nitrosylation, and then inhibited GluR5-mediated whole-cell current attenuation and induced apoptosis in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Clarification of the primary mechanisms of GluR5-KAR S-nitrosylation induced by ATPA and identification of critical cysteine for GluR5-2a S-nitrosylation (Cys231 and Cys804) open up a brand-new field for revealing downstream signalling pathway of GluR5-KAR and its molecular characteristics, exploring the pathogenesis of neurological diseases and searching for promising therapies. PMID:23000395

  6. Effect of the cation size on the framework structures of magnesium tungstate, A4Mg(WO4)3 (A = Na, K), R2Mg2(WO4)3 (R = Rb, Cs).

    PubMed

    Han, Shujuan; Wang, Ying; Jing, Qun; Wu, Hongping; Pan, Shilie; Yang, Zhihua

    2015-03-28

    A series of alkali metal magnesium tungstates, A4Mg(WO4)3 (A = Na, K), R2Mg2(WO4)3 (R = Rb, Cs), were synthesized from a high temperature solution, and their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Interestingly, Na4Mg(WO4)3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, while K4Mg(WO4)3 having an identical stoichiometry with Na4Mg(WO4)3, exhibits a different framework structure belonging to triclinic symmetry with the space group P1[combining macron]. Isostructural Rb2Mg2(WO4)3 and Cs2Mg2(WO4)3 crystallize in the space group P213 of cubic symmetry and reveal a three dimensional framework composed of isolated WO4 tetrahedra, MgO6 octahedra and RO12 (R = Rb, Cs) polyhedra. The effect of the alkali metal cation size on the framework structures of magnesium tungstate has been discussed in detail. In addition, the infrared spectra, as well as the UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy data, are reported. The first-principles theoretical studies are also carried out to aid the understanding of electronic structures and linear optical properties. PMID:25715112

  7. Inhibition of sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: discovery of (E)-1-(4-((1R,2S,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)ethanone oxime (LX2931) and (1R,2S,3R)-1-(2-(isoxazol-3-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)butane-1,2,3,4-tetraol (LX2932).

    PubMed

    Bagdanoff, Jeffrey T; Donoviel, Michael S; Nouraldeen, Amr; Carlsen, Marianne; Jessop, Theodore C; Tarver, James; Aleem, Saadat; Dong, Li; Zhang, Haiming; Boteju, Lakmal; Hazelwood, Jill; Yan, Jack; Bednarz, Mark; Layek, Suman; Owusu, Iris B; Gopinathan, Suma; Moran, Liam; Lai, Zhong; Kramer, Jeff; Kimball, S David; Yalamanchili, Padmaja; Heydorn, William E; Frazier, Kenny S; Brooks, Barbara; Brown, Philip; Wilson, Alan; Sonnenburg, William K; Main, Alan; Carson, Kenneth G; Oravecz, Tamas; Augeri, David J

    2010-12-23

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) has been characterized as a novel target for the treatment of autoimmune disorders using genetic and pharmacological methods. Medicinal chemistry efforts targeting S1PL by direct in vivo evaluation of synthetic analogues of 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1(R),2(S),3(R),4-tetrahydroxybutyl)-imidazole (THI, 1) led to the discovery of 2 (LX2931) and 4 (LX2932). The immunological phenotypes observed in S1PL deficient mice were recapitulated by oral administration of 2 or 4. Oral dosing of 2 or 4 yielded a dose-dependent decrease in circulating lymphocyte numbers in multiple species and showed a therapeutic effect in rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Phase I clinical trials indicated that 2, the first clinically studied inhibitor of S1PL, produced a dose-dependent and reversible reduction of circulating lymphocytes and was well tolerated at dose levels of up to 180 mg daily. Phase II evaluation of 2 in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis is currently underway. PMID:21090716

  8. MicroRNA-193a-3p and -5p suppress the metastasis of human non-small-cell lung cancer by downregulating the ERBB4/PIK3R3/mTOR/S6K2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Li, J; Yan, M; Liu, L; Lin, H; Zhao, F; Sun, L; Zhang, Y; Cui, Y; Zhang, F; Li, J; He, X; Yao, M

    2015-01-22

    The metastatic cascade is a complex and multistep process with many potential barriers. Recent evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, by comparing the miRNA expression profiles of SPC-A-1sci (high metastatic) and SPC-A-1 (weakly metastatic) cells, we demonstrated that the downregulation and function of miR-193a-3p and miR-193a-5p in NSCLC metastasis and the expression of these miRNAs was suppressed in NSCLC compared with corresponding non-tumorous tissues. Decreased miR-193a-3p/5p expression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, functional assays showed that the overexpression of miR-193a-3p/5p inhibited NSCLC cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and lung metastasis formation in vivo. In addition, we discovered that ERBB4 and S6K2 were the direct targets of miR-193a-3p and that PIK3R3 and mTOR were the direct targets of miR-193a-5p in NSCLC. We also observed that miR-193a-3p/5p could inactivate the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Thus, miR-193a-3p/5p functions as a tumor suppressor and has an important role in NSCLC metastasis through ERBB signaling pathway. PMID:24469061

  9. (1S,2S,3R,4S,5R,7S,8S,10R,13S)-2-Debenzoyl-10-deacetyl-2-(3-fluoro­benzo­yl)-7,10-bis­(2,2,2-trichloro­eth­oxy­carbon­yl)baccatin III ethyl acetate monosolvate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Xie, Cheng; Chang, Jun; Lu, Hong-Fu; Sun, Xun

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C35H37Cl6FO14·C4H8O2·H2O, the absolute configurations (1S,2S,3R,4S,5R,7S,8S,10R,13S) for the nine chiral centres of the mol­ecule has been determined. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H?O and O—H?Cl hydrogen bonds. PMID:21522314

  10. Structure-Activity Relationships of Peptides Incorporating a Bioactive Reverse-Turn Heterocycle at the Melanocortin Receptors: Identification of a 5,800-fold Mouse Melanocortin-3 Receptor (mMC3R) Selective Antagonist/Partial Agonist versus the Mouse Melanocortin-4 Receptor (mMC4R)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anamika; Dirain, Marvin; Witek, Rachel; Rocca, James R.; Edison, Arthur S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    The melanocortin-3 (MC3) and melanocortin-4 (MC4) receptors regulate energy homeostasis, food intake, and associated physiological conditions. The MC4R has been studied extensively. Less is known about specific physiological roles of the MC3R. A major obstacle to this lack of knowledge is attributed to a limited number of identified MC3R selective ligands. We previously reported a spatial scanning approach of a 10-membered thioether-heterocycle ring incorporated into a chimeric peptide template that identified a lead nM MC4R ligand. Based upon those results, 17 compounds were designed and synthesized that focused upon modification in the pharmacophore domain. Notable results include the identification of a 0.13 nM potent 5800-fold mMC3R selective antagonist/slight partial agonist versus a 760 nM mMC4R full agonist (ligand 11). Biophysical experiments (2D 1H NMR and computer assisted molecular modeling) of this ligand resulted in the identification of an inverse ?-turn secondary structure in the ligand pharmacophore domain. PMID:23432160

  11. Design and synthesis of a reagent for solid-phase incorporation of the phosphothreonine mimetic (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-methyl-4-phosphonobutyric Acid (Pmab) into peptides in a bio-reversible phosphonyl-bis-pivaloyloxymethyl (POM) prodrug form

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wen-Jian; Burke, Terrence R.

    2013-01-01

    Reported herein are the synthesis and solid-phase peptide incorporation of N-Fmoc-(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-methyl-4-phosphonobutyric acid bis-pivaloyloxymethyl phopshoryl ester [Fmoc-Pmab(POM)2-OH, 2] as a phosphatase-stable phosphothreonine (pThr) mimetic bearing orthogonal protection suitable for the synthesis of Pmab-containing peptides having bio-reversible protection of the phosphonic acid moiety. This represents the first report of a bio-reversibly protected pThr mimetic in a form suitable for facile solid-phase peptide synthesis. PMID:23907438

  12. R E L AT R I O D E AT I V I D A D E S 2 0 1 0 . 2 0 1 1 3 R E L AT R I O D E AT I V I D A D E S 2 0 1 0 . 2 0 1 1

    E-print Network

    R E L AT Ó R I O D E AT I V I D A D E S 2 0 1 0 . 2 0 1 1 3 R E L AT Ó R I O D E AT I V I D A D E #12;R E L AT Ó R I O D E AT I V I D A D E S 2 0 1 0 . 2 0 1 14 R E L AT Ó R I O D E AT I V I D A D E S 2 0 1 0 . 2 0 1 1 Organização, elaboração, revisão e edição de textos Eduardo Moraes Arraut, Fabiano

  13. Design and synthesis of a reagent for solid-phase incorporation of the phosphothreonine mimetic (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-methyl-4-phosphonobutyric acid (Pmab) into peptides in a bio-reversible phosphonyl-bis-pivaloyloxymethyl (POM) prodrug form.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wen-Jian; Burke, Terrence R

    2013-11-01

    Reported herein are the synthesis and solid-phase peptide incorporation of N-Fmoc-(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-methyl-4-phosphonobutyric acid bis-pivaloyloxymethyl phosphoryl ester [Fmoc-Pmab(POM)2-OH, 2] as a phosphatase-stable phosphothreonine (pThr) mimetic bearing orthogonal protection suitable for the synthesis of Pmab-containing peptides having bio-reversible protection of the phosphonic acid moiety. This represents the first report of a bio-reversibly protected pThr mimetic in a form suitable for facile solid-phase peptide synthesis. PMID:23907438

  14. Examining the Chirality, Conformation and Selective Kinase Inhibition of 3-((3R,4R)-4-methyl-3-(methyl(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)piperidin-1-yl)-3-oxopropanenitrile (CP-690,550)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jian-kang; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Deflorian, Francesca; Chen, Zhi; Perreira, Melissa; Pesu, Marko; Smith, Jeremy; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Liu, Eric H.; Leister, William; Costanzi, Stefano; O’Shea, John J.; Thomas, Craig J.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we examine the significance that stereochemistry plays within the clinically relevant Janus Kinase 3 (Jak3) inhibitor CP-690,550. A synthesis of all four enantiopure stereoisomers of the drug was carried out and an examination of each compound revealed that only the enantiopure 3R, 4R isomer was capable of blocking Stat5 phosphorylation (Jak3 dependent). Each compound was profiled across a panel of over 350 kinases which revealed a high level of selectivity for the Jak family kinases for these related compounds. Each stereoisomer retained a degree of binding to Jak3 and Jak2 and the 3R, 4S and 3S, 4R stereoisomers were further revealed to have binding affinity for selected members of the STE7 and STE20 subfamily of kinases. Finally, an appraisal of the minimum energy conformation of each stereoisomer and molecular docking at Jak3 was performed in an effort to better understand each compounds selectivity and potency profiles. PMID:19053756

  15. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Mioara; Ene, Mihaela

    2007-08-01

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services—industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006.

  16. Acoustic Requirements for a Multi-Purpose Hall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, W. Allen

    2002-01-01

    This case study examines the proposed design of a new lecture/recital hall in Centennial Hall at Lynchburg College that will be used for lectures, public events, a film studies course, and musical recitals. It explores the audio-visual challenges presented by the differing acoustical requirements for the building. (EV)

  17. A multipurpose holographic optical wedge: Theory, design, and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Novikov

    2000-01-01

    Theory, design, and some applications of a holographic wedge are considered. The device is an optical wedge inside which a\\u000a transmission or reflection Bragg grating is recorded. Application to wavelength-division multiplexing in optical-fiber data\\u000a transmission lines is discussed. An experiment on a reflection-grating holographic wedge is reported.

  18. Plasmonic nanoantennas for multipurpose particle manipulation and enhanced optical magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxworthy, Brian James

    This dissertation explores the near-field enhancement and confinement properties of arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas (BNAs) for plasmonic optical trapping. Using BNAs as a model system, the delicate interplay between optical and thermally induced forces in plasmonic nanotweezers is investigated over a broad parameter spacing including bowtie array spacing, adhesion layer materials, nanostructure orientation, composition of the fluid trapping media, optical polarization, input optical power, and trapped-particle diameter. Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that plasmon-induced convection drives experimentally observed phase-like behavior in plasmonic nanotweezers, and further, that this process can be used to engineer trapping tasks including dexterous single-particle trapping, trapping and manipulation of large self-assembled particle clusters using a single input beam, and particle sorting. The crucial role of an optically-absorptive substrate material for developing the requisite micron-per-second fluid flows for these phenomena is confirmed both theoretically and experimentally. In addition, this dissertation details the first experimental demonstration of plasmonic nanotweezers using an ultrafast, femtosecond (fs) pulsed input source. The fs pulses are shown to increase trapping performance in both the Rayleigh and Mie size regimes, where particle diameters are much smaller and greater than the incident illumination wavelength, respectively. This augmentation of forces enables plasmonic trapping of 80 nm to 1.2 mum diameter, metallic and dielectric particles with as little as 50 muW of input optical power. Moreover, the nonlinear optical response of trapped species can be probed during the trapping event, which opens doors for increased particle diagnostics in plasmonic optical trapping. An interesting particle fusing behavior is described whereby above a 60--75 muW power threshold, both metallic and dielectric particles spontaneously fuse to the BNA surface, likely by means of fs-augmented near-field gradient forces. Using this particle-fusing behavior as inspiration, a novel class of "capped" nanoantennas is designed, and their plasmonic response is theoretically investigated. The specific example of capped-bowtie nanoantennas (c-BNAs) is chosen, and it is shown that the c-BNAs have the unique ability to simultaneously enhance both magnetic and electric fields by more than three and four orders of magnitude, respectively. This ability improves on currently available designs that enhance magnetic fields at the expense of a mitigated electric response. The spectral response of the c-BNAs is dominated by two distinct resonant peaks: one in the visible (VIS) and one in the near-infrared (NIR), and the spectral behavior of the c-BNAs is examined as a function of cap thickness, bowtie gap spacing, and c-BNA array spacing. Finally, a new pillar-bowtie nanoantenna (p-BNA) design, comprising Au BNA arrays suspended on 500 nm tall SiO2 pillars, is introduced as a candidate system to show, for the first time, that the mechanical degree of freedom (DOF) can be used to create in situ reconfigurable plasmonic nanoantennas. Reconfigurability is achieved using electron-beam manipulation in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), whereby the electron beam induces strong electromagnetic gradient forces in the p-BNA gap that causes the two arms to deform toward the common gap center. In characterizing this behavior as a function of SEM accelerating voltage and magnification, design curves are produced that enable controlled, repeatable fabrication of nanoantennas with gap sizes as small as 5 nm by actuation of the mechanical DOF of the pillars. As a proof of this novel design principle, the optical response of two, 10 x 10 modified p-BNA regions comprising 5- and 15-nm gap antennas is characterized using spatially localized reflection spectroscopy based on a supercontinuum optical source. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  19. Project of multi-purpose optical tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonova, Diana; Janpaule, Inese; Rubans, Augusts; Zarins, Ansis

    2015-04-01

    Current status of a new optical astrogeodetic instrument design project is reported. The instrument is intended for both ranging and positional observations of satellites, space debris and near-Earth objects (NEO). It includes twin 42 cm off-the-shelf optical systems on an Alt-Alt mount. One optical system will be dedicated to SLR functionality - fitted with transmitted beam collimator and reflected pulse detector. The other optical system will have CCD matrix for simultaneous image acquisition, it can be used either for visual tracking purposes or for astrometric position determination. Other combinations of measuring equipment are possible. Intended positioning accuracy is within a few arcseconds to ensure accurate tracking of satellites for SLR purposes. Operational tests are expected to start in the end of 2015.

  20. Designing, Fabrication and Controlling Of Multipurpose3-DOF Robotic Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabeel, Hafiz Muhammad; Azher, Anum; Usman Ali, Syed M.; Wahab Mughal, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, we have successfully designed and developed a 3-DOF articulated Robotic Arm capable of performing typical industrial tasks such as painting or spraying, assembling and handling automobiles parts and etc., in resemblance to a human arm. The mechanical assembly is designed on SOLIDWORKS and aluminum grade 6061 -T6 is used for its fabrication in order to reduce the structure weight. We have applied inverse kinematics to determine the joint angles, equations are fed into an efficient microcontroller ATMEGA16 which performs all the calculations to determine the joint angles on the basis of given coordinates to actuate the joints through motorized control. Good accuracy was obtained with quadrature optical encoders installed in each joint to achieve the desired position and a LabVIEW based GUI is designed to provide human machine interface.

  1. Ergonomical valorization of working spaces in multipurpose ships.

    PubMed

    Seif, Mehdi; Degiuli, Nastija; Mufti?, Osman

    2003-06-01

    In this work it is shown how anthropological data are among the most needed factors in ergonomical valorization of crew working spaces. Ship's working or living environment involves many unique human factors, which should be specially considered in our case as limitation of crew space. In this work we have chosen ships of different years of construction to prove this tendency. As a micro study, the work posture analysis using the pulling force experiment is performed in order to determine lumbar moment, intra-abdominal pressure as a measure of evaluating and comparing different crew work positions. As a macro-study, the "crew work posture analysis" was carried out by the use of the data collected from real cases. The most probable work postures in different spaces of a ship are classified and after some corrections of the work place the profile and its grade were determined. The "statistical analysis for real ship's spaces" is also performed, as well as another macro study, in order to show some real designed ship spaces from the point of view of the allocated volume. PMID:12974170

  2. Arduino: a low-cost multipurpose lab equipment.

    PubMed

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Typical experiments in psychological and neurophysiological settings often require the accurate control of multiple input and output signals. These signals are often generated or recorded via computer software and/or external dedicated hardware. Dedicated hardware is usually very expensive and requires additional software to control its behavior. In the present article, I present some accuracy tests on a low-cost and open-source I/O board (Arduino family) that may be useful in many lab environments. One of the strengths of Arduinos is the possibility they afford to load the experimental script on the board's memory and let it run without interfacing with computers or external software, thus granting complete independence, portability, and accuracy. Furthermore, a large community has arisen around the Arduino idea and offers many hardware add-ons and hundreds of free scripts for different projects. Accuracy tests show that Arduino boards may be an inexpensive tool for many psychological and neurophysiological labs. PMID:22037977

  3. Ecophysiology of 8 woody multipurpose species from semiarid northeastern Mexico

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . 1 and 2. Photosynthe- sis and transpiration rates are means of the data for the most humid on a Vertisol. Photosyn- thesis and transpiration were recorded with a portable Li-6200 (McDermitt, 1987 rate (pmol'm-2's-1) over transpiration rate (mmol'm-2's-1). Water potentials were taken with a pressure

  4. ELEFANT: a user-friendly multipurpose geodynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, C.

    2014-07-01

    A new finite element code for the solution of the Stokes and heat transport equations is presented. It has purposely been designed to address geological flow problems in two and three dimensions at crustal and lithospheric scales. The code relies on the Marker-in-Cell technique and Lagrangian markers are used to track materials in the simulation domain which allows recording of the integrated history of deformation; their (number) density is variable and dynamically adapted. A variety of rheologies has been implemented including nonlinear thermally activated dislocation and diffusion creep and brittle (or plastic) frictional models. The code is built on the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian kinematic description: the computational grid deforms vertically and allows for a true free surface while the computational domain remains of constant width in the horizontal direction. The solution to the large system of algebraic equations resulting from the finite element discretisation and linearisation of the set of coupled partial differential equations to be solved is obtained by means of the efficient parallel direct solver MUMPS whose performance is thoroughly tested, or by means of the WISMP and AGMG iterative solvers. The code accuracy is assessed by means of many geodynamically relevant benchmark experiments which highlight specific features or algorithms, e.g., the implementation of the free surface stabilisation algorithm, the (visco-)plastic rheology implementation, the temperature advection, the capacity of the code to handle large viscosity contrasts. A two-dimensional application to salt tectonics presented as case study illustrates the potential of the code to model large scale high resolution thermo-mechanically coupled free surface flows.

  5. A multi-purpose toll collection plaza model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Junga

    1990-01-01

    A recent application of automatic vehicle identification (AVI) technology enables traffic to flow through a toll collection plaza in a more expedient manner. Simulation is used by the AVI vendor as a means to better engineering controller equipment and to optimize the hardware\\/software combinations required for a given plaza. Simulation coupled with animation can be used by the AVI vendor

  6. VarietyCash: a Multipurpose Electronic Payment System

    E-print Network

    Garay, Juan A.

    Mondex [14], stored­value cards are used. ffl Atomicity: The system should be fair and robust and stored­value card based payment mecha­ nisms, with transferability between them, hence the name. 1 service provider) or the merchant has information about the identity of the buyer. ffl Account

  7. Bio-inspired enol-degradation for multipurpose oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Mo; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Wen; Zhang, Weiran; Li, Minjie; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2014-11-14

    Inspired by the enol-degradation of luciferin, a new oxygen sensor with oppositely changed color and fluorescence has been designed. This new reaction-based dual mode sensor can not only be used as a highly selective instant "fluorescence on" oxygen probe, but also as a freshness indicator of food or food materials by using its property of time-adjustable color fading. PMID:25234330

  8. Wireless capsule endoscopy: from diagnostic devices to multipurpose robotic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Moglia; Arianna Menciassi; Marc Oliver Schurr; Paolo Dario

    2007-01-01

    In the recent past, the introduction of miniaturised image sensors with low power consumption, based on complementary metal\\u000a oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, has allowed the realisation of an ingestible wireless capsule for the visualisation\\u000a of the small intestine mucosa. The device has received approval from Food and Drug Administration and has gained momentum\\u000a since it has been more successful than

  9. In vitro micropropagation of Gymnema sylvestre – A multipurpose medicinal plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Komalavalli; M. V. Rao

    2000-01-01

    The nature of the explant, seedling age, medium type, plant growth regulators, complex extracts (casein hydrolysate, coconut\\u000a milk, malt extract and yeast extract) and antioxidants (activated charcoal, ascorbic acid, citric acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone)\\u000a markedly influenced in vitro propagation of Gymnema sylvestre. A maximum number of shoots (57.2) were induced from 30 day old seedling axillary node explants on Murashige and

  10. Multipurpose ANSYS FE procedure for welding processes simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Capriccioli; Paolo Frosi

    2009-01-01

    ANSYS FE procedures and 3D models for thermal and mechanical simulation of both Laser and TIG welding processes are presented. The special features are the applicability to a non uniform gap and the use of a fast iterative procedure that assures the constancy of the fixed maximum temperature along the single pass and between each pass and the following, apart

  11. One-Step Multipurpose Surface Functionalization by Adhesive Catecholamine

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Min; Hwang, Nathaniel S.; Yeom, Jihyeon; Park, Sung Young; Messersmith, Phillip B.; Choi, Insung S.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Surface modification is one of the most important techniques in modern science and engineering. The facile introduction of a wide variety of desired properties onto virtually any material surface is an ultimate goal in surface chemistry. To achieve this goal, the incorporation of structurally diverse molecules onto any material surface is an essential capability for ideal surface modification. Here, we present a general strategy of surface modification, in which many diverse surfaces can be functionalized by immobilizing a wide variety of molecules. This strategy functionalizes surfaces by a one-step immersion of substrates in a one-pot mixture of a molecule and a catecholamine surface modification agent. This one-step procedure for surface modification represents a standard protocol to control interfacial properties. PMID:23580891

  12. The Videodisc: A Multi-Purpose Instructional Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Robert V.

    This discussion of the laser videodisk begins by noting that it is an extremely high density visual storage medium that can supply instructors with vast visual warehouses to supplement instruction, whether through conventional group presentations or via individualized computer assisted instruction. Major features of the medium are then described…

  13. Multipurpose Dissociation Cell for Enhanced ETD of Intact Protein Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Christopher M.; Russell, Jason D.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Westphall, Michael S.; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C.; Coon, Joshua J.; Syka, John E. P.

    2013-06-01

    We describe and characterize an improved implementation of ETD on a modified hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument. Instead of performing ETD in the mass-analyzing quadrupole linear ion trap (A-QLT), the instrument collision cell was modified to enable ETD. We partitioned the collision cell into a multi-section rf ion storage and transfer device to enable injection and simultaneous separate storage of precursor and reagent ions. Application of a secondary (axial) confinement voltage to the cell end lens electrodes enables charge-sign independent trapping for ion-ion reactions. The approximately 2-fold higher quadrupole field frequency of this cell relative to that of the A-QLT enables higher reagent ion densities and correspondingly faster ETD reactions, and, with the collision cell's longer axial dimensions, larger populations of precursor ions may be reacted. The higher ion capacity of the collision cell permits the accumulation and reaction of multiple full loads of precursor ions from the A-QLT followed by FT Orbitrap m/z analysis of the ETD product ions. This extends the intra-scan dynamic range by increasing the maximum number of product ions in a single MS/MS event. For analyses of large peptide/small protein precursor cations, this reduces or eliminates the need for spectral averaging to achieve acceptable ETD product ion signal-to-noise levels. Using larger ion populations, we demonstrate improvements in protein sequence coverage and aggregate protein identifications in LC-MS/MS analysis of intact protein species as compared to the standard ETD implementation.

  14. Team Virtual Discussion Board: Toward Multipurpose Written Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Randolph T.; Stowers, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors provide a brief description of written (letter) assignments that use student pairs in a virtual Blackboard-based discussion board. The authors begin their discourse with the purposes for employing this teaching and learning method: (1) To allow students to function in a team structure; (2) To provide written knowledge…

  15. Outline of multipurpose utilization of geothermal resources in China

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.Y.; Wang, J.Y.; Wang, J.; Huang, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    China is rich in geothermal resources. The lower temperature limit of geothermal waters in China is defined as 25/sup 0/C. The thermal waters are categorized into three groups: low (25/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/C), medium (60/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C) and high (> 100/sup 0/C) temperature thermal water. Xizang (Tibet), Taiwan and Yunnan are the most promising regions for the development of high temperature geothermal energy. Medium-low temperature water is more efficient for direct use. Since 1977, six experimental geothermal power stations have been set up throughout the country. In Beijing (Peking), Tianjin and other places thermal water has been used for space heating, industrial processing, agriculture, horticulture, and therapeutic sanatoriums, etc.

  16. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOEpatents

    Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

    1999-02-02

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

  17. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOEpatents

    Ury, Michael G. (Bethesda, MD); Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Wooten, Robert D. (Rockville, MD)

    1999-01-01

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

  18. Model primary content type for multipurpose internet mail extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.; Parks, C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this memo is to propose an update to Internet RFC 2045 to include a new primary content-type to be known as `model`. RFC 2045 [1] describes mechanisms for specifying and describing the format of Internet Message Bodies via content-type/subtype pairs. We believe that `model` defines a fundamental type of content with unique presentational, hardware, and processing aspects. Various subtypes of this primary type are immediately anticipated but will be covered under separate documents.

  19. A New Multipurpose Comprehensive Database for Handwritten Dari Recognition

    E-print Network

    Suen, Ching Y.

    of Dari speakers living as refuges/immigrants [1]. Dari and Farsi languages use almost the same type of the first comprehensive database for research and development on handwritten recognition of Dari language the creation of the first comprehensive and standard handwritten database of Dari language. Dari, also known

  20. Monitoring microbial sulfate reduction in porous media using multipurpose electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi Zhang; Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis; Lee Slater; Rory Doherty

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in the application of electrode-based measurements for monitoring microbial processes in the Earth using biogeophysical methods. In this study, reactive electrode measurements were combined to electrical geophysical measurements during microbial sulfate reduction occurring in a column of silica beads saturated with natural river water. Electrodic potential (EP), self potential (SP) and complex conductivity signals were recorded

  1. LARC-TPI: A multi-purpose thermoplastic polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    A linear thermoplastic polyimide, LARC-TPI, was characterized and developed for a variety of high temperature applications. In its fully imidized form, this material can be used as an adhesive for bonding metals such as titanium, aluminum, copper, brass, and stainless steel. LARC-TPI was evaluated as a thermoplastic for bonding large pieces of polyimide film to produce flexible, 100 void-free laminates for flexible circuit applications. The development of LARC-TPI as a potential molding powder, composite matrix resin, high temperature film and fiber is also discussed.

  2. CRDOCK: an ultrafast multipurpose protein-ligand docking tool.

    PubMed

    Cortés Cabrera, Álvaro; Klett, Javier; Dos Santos, Helena G; Perona, Almudena; Gil-Redondo, Rubén; Francis, Sandrea M; Priego, Eva M; Gago, Federico; Morreale, Antonio

    2012-08-27

    An ultrafast docking and virtual screening program, CRDOCK, is presented that contains (1) a search engine that can use a variety of sampling methods and an initial energy evaluation function, (2) several energy minimization algorithms for fine tuning the binding poses, and (3) different scoring functions. This modularity ensures the easy configuration of custom-made protocols that can be optimized depending on the problem in hand. CRDOCK employs a precomputed library of ligand conformations that are initially generated from one-dimensional SMILES strings. Testing CRDOCK on two widely used benchmarks, the ASTEX diverse set and the Directory of Useful Decoys, yielded a success rate of ~75% in pose prediction and an average AUC of 0.66. A typical ligand can be docked, on average, in just ~13 s. Extension to a representative group of pharmacologically relevant G protein-coupled receptors that have been recently cocrystallized with some selective ligands allowed us to demonstrate the utility of this tool and also highlight some current limitations. CRDOCK is now included within VSDMIP, our integrated platform for drug discovery. PMID:22764680

  3. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mioara Alexandru; Mihaela Ene

    2007-01-01

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services—industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well.We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made

  4. Design and fabrication of a multi-purpose Panofsky magnet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Budnick; T. Hall; D. Li; S. Y. Lee

    1993-01-01

    A fast, flexible magnet system, consisting of a Panofsky style ferrite picture-frame magnet and pulsed power supply, has been developed. Magnet specifications are: 8 cm ×8 cm aperture, 23 cm length, 500 A pulsed\\/l60 A DC, and 1 ?s risetime. Designed for general accelerator physics studies, the magnet may be quickly converted from dipole to quadrupole or sextupole and higher

  5. RoboGlove - A Robonaut Derived Multipurpose Assistive Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, Myron; Ihrke, C. A.; Bridgwater, L. B.; Davis, D. R.; Linn, D. M.; Laske, E. A.; Ensley, K. G.; Lee, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The RoboGlove is an assistive device that can augment human strength, endurance or provide directed motion for use in rehabilitation. RoboGlove is a spinoff of the highly successful Robonaut 2 (R2) system developed as part of a partnership between General Motors and NASA. This extremely lightweight device employs an actuator system based on the R2 finger drive system to transfer part or the entire grasp load from human tendons to artificial ones contained in the glove. Steady state loads ranging from 15 to 20 lbs. and peaks approaching 50 lbs. are achievable. The technology holds great promise for use with space suit gloves to reduce fatigue during space walks. Tactile sensing, miniaturized electronics, and on-board processing provide sufficient flexibility for applications in many industries. The following describes the design, mechanical/electrical integration, and control features of the glove.

  6. Dynamic versus static allocation policies in multipurpose multireservoir systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tilmant; Q. Goor; D. Pinte; P. van der Zaag

    2007-01-01

    As the competition for water is likely to increase in the near future due to socioeconomic development and population growth, water resources managers will face hard choices when allocating water between competing users. Because water is a vital resource used in multiple sectors, including the environment, the allocation is inherently a political and social process, which is likely to become

  7. Multi?purpose trips and central place theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. H. Forster; A. C. Brummell

    1984-01-01

    Central place models assume that consumers only purchase one good of a given order during a single shopping trip. This assumption is relaxed in this paper to allow the purchase of several orders of goods on any given trip. The implications of this for Central Place Theory are then analysed. With relatively simple analytic tools and numerical examples it is

  8. 7TH sense. A multipurpose robot for military

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Srinivasavaradhan; G. Chandramouli; A. G. Maniprashanna

    2009-01-01

    In the world that has an enormous potential for conflict, militaries around the world are taking Patton's words very seriously. Right from the ancient times, the foot soldiers has fought and won the battle for the victor. However, over the past decade or so, the infantry's role has changed - the emergence of smart munitions and precision aerial bombardment has

  9. AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Greg A.; Saunders, Will; Bridges, Terry; Churilov, Vladimir; Lankshear, Allan; Dawson, John; Correll, David; Waller, Lew; Haynes, Roger; Frost, Gabriella

    2004-09-01

    The AAOmega project replaces the two 2dF spectrographs, which are mounted on the top end of the Anglo Australian Telescope, with a bench mounted double beam spectrograph covering 370 to 950nm. The 2dF positioner, field plate tumbler mechanism, and fiber retractors will be retained. The new spectrograph will be fed by 392 fibers from either of the two 2dF field plates, or by the 512 fiber Spiral integral field unit, located at the Cassegrain focus. New instrument control electronics has also been designed to drive the spectrograph. Stability will be improved by locating the spectrograph off the telescope, but the 2df fibers must be extended to thirty-eight metres length. Despite this, using fibers with improved characteristics, increased pupil diameter, volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings with articulated cameras, and more efficient coatings on optics we achieve a minimum twofold increase in throughput. We will also fit larger (4k x 2k pixel) detectors. The spectrograph comprises: a F/3.15 Schmidt collimator, incorporating a dichroic beamsplitter; interchangeable VPH gratings; and articulating red and blue F/1.3 Schmidt cameras. The beamsplitter may be exchanged with others which cut off at different wavelengths. A full suite of VPH gratings are provided to cover resolution to 8000.

  10. Molecular network topology and reliability for multipurpose diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Jalil, MA; Moongfangklang, N; Innate, K; Mitatha, S; Ali, J; Yupapin, PP

    2011-01-01

    This investigation proposes the use of molecular network topology for drug delivery and diagnosis network design. Three modules of molecular network topologies, such as bus, star, and ring networks, are designed and manipulated based on a micro- and nanoring resonator system. The transportation of the trapping molecules by light in the network is described and the theoretical background is reviewed. The quality of the network is analyzed and calculated in terms of signal transmission (ie, signal to noise ratio and crosstalk effects). Results obtained show that a bus network has advantages over star and ring networks, where the use of mesh networks is possible. In application, a thin film network can be fabricated in the form of a waveguide and embedded in artificial bone, which can be connected to the required drug targets. The particular drug/nutrient can be transported to the required targets via the particular network used. PMID:22072875

  11. Reaming Irrigator Aspirator system: early experience of its multipurpose use.

    PubMed

    Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Morell, Dan; Gudipati, Suribabu; Britten, Simon; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2011-09-01

    The evolution of contemporary intramedullary reaming systems has recently generated the Reamer Irrigator Aspirator system (RIA-Synthes®), which has progressively gained in popularity as well as in indications. The preliminary results of its use over the initial period of 18 months ata single tertiary referral centre were prospectively collected and are presented. The wide spectrum of RIA's indications have been exploited, including 7 patients with polytrauma that underwent acute femoral nailing, 8 with femoral intramedullary osteomyelitis, 9 with pathological lesions of the femoral shaft, as well as 18 patients where the RIA system has been used to harvest morselised autologous bone graft in the presence of recalcitrant atrophie non-unions and bone defects. Overall its use was proven safe and efficient, achieving aggressive medullary canal debridement, collection of adequate samples for further analysis in the infected and oncology cases, as well as impressive volumes of the osteoinductive and osteogenic reaming debris for grafting purposes. No pulmonary complications or evidence of the second hit sequelae were recorded in the polytrauma patient subgroup despite the presence of a high ISS Further controlled clinical studies should follow focused in all different applications of this reliable, user-friendly and impressively versatile system, to validate these preliminary results. PMID:21939800

  12. Ephus: Multipurpose Data Acquisition Software for Neuroscience Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Benjamin A.; O'Connor, Timothy; Iyer, Vijay; Petreanu, Leopoldo T.; Hooks, Bryan M.; Kiritani, Taro; Svoboda, Karel; Shepherd, Gordon M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Physiological measurements in neuroscience experiments often involve complex stimulus paradigms and multiple data channels. Ephus (http://www.ephus.org) is an open-source software package designed for general-purpose data acquisition and instrument control. Ephus operates as a collection of modular programs, including an ephys program for standard whole-cell recording with single or multiple electrodes in typical electrophysiological experiments, and a mapper program for synaptic circuit mapping experiments involving laser scanning photostimulation based on glutamate uncaging or channelrhodopsin-2 excitation. Custom user functions allow user-extensibility at multiple levels, including on-line analysis and closed-loop experiments, where experimental parameters can be changed based on recently acquired data, such as during in vivo behavioral experiments. Ephus is compatible with a variety of data acquisition and imaging hardware. This paper describes the main features and modules of Ephus and their use in representative experimental applications. PMID:21960959

  13. Multi-Purpose Reefs - A Decade of Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, S.; Borrero, J. C.; Hearin, J.

    2011-12-01

    Offshore submerged structures for coastal protection and artificial reefs for enhancing local marine biodiversity and/or attracting sea life have been utilized for centuries. Indeed, the first known use of artificial reef structures for habitat enhancement dates back to 2000 BC on the south west coast of India. However, it was not until the 1960's that multi- purpose reefs (MPRs) intended combine coastal protection, eco-enhancement and surfing were first proposed. Through the 1970's and 1980's the concept of MPR's was advanced through the seminal works of James 'Kimo' Walker who pioneered the area of surfing science and developed the first methods for quantification of a surfing break. Design studies for artificial reefs primarily for surfing were undertaken for the construction of the world's first artificial surfing reef built in Perth in 1998, as well as for artificial reefs in California and the Queensland Gold Coast MPR in Australia. More than a decade on, seven reefs have now been constructed at locations around the world with differing levels of success. and a great deal has been learned about the functionality of and potential applications for these structures. This poster provides a brief update on the performance of these structures, summarizing the large volume of monitoring data available for many of these projects. This includes data on shoreline protection and beach response, ecological enhancement, habitat restoration and improvement of recreational amenities. We discuss several projects with respect to the above topics as well as some of the lessons learned in the light of future MPR developments. This poster considers the performance of MPR's in three primary areas of functionality: coastal protection, ecological enhancement and surfing enhancement. We also discuss some of the lessons learned and applied as understanding of these structures has increased.

  14. One-Step Multipurpose Surface Functionalization by Adhesive Catecholamine

    E-print Network

    Kang, Sung Min

    Surface modification is one of the most important techniques in modern science and engineering. The facile introduction of a wide variety of desired properties onto virtually any material surface is an ultimate goal in ...

  15. National RF Test Facility as a multipurpose development tool

    SciTech Connect

    McManamy, T.J.; Becraft, W.R.; Berry, L.A.; Blue, C.W.; Gardner, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Loring, C.M. Jr.; Moeller, F.A.; Ponte, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Additions and modifications to the National RF Test Facility design have been made that (1) focus its use for technology development for future large systems in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), (2) expand its applicability to technology development in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies (ECRF) at 60 GHz, (3) provide a facility for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) 60-GHz ring physics studies, and (4) permit engineering studies of steady-state plasma systems, including superconducting magnet performance, vacuum vessel heat flux removal, and microwave protection. The facility will continue to function as a test bed for generic technology developments for ICRF and the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF). The upgraded facility is also suitable for mirror halo physics experiments.

  16. Feasibility of seasonal multipurpose reservoir operation in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Tibbets, Michael N

    1986-01-01

    . Ralph A. Wurbs The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the potential for increasing the beneficial use of existing reservoirs in the state of Texas through seasonal reallocations of storage capacity between flood control... study involving Waco Lake in McLennan County lead to the conlusion that seasonal rule curve operation offers significant potential for improving reservoir operations in the state in those situations in which needs for flood control and conservation...

  17. Molecular network topology and reliability for multipurpose diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Moongfangklang, N; Jalil, M A; Innate, K; Mitatha, S; Ali, J; Yupapin, P P

    2011-01-01

    This investigation proposes the use of molecular network topology for drug delivery and diagnosis network design. Three modules of molecular network topologies, such as bus, star, and ring networks, are designed and manipulated based on a micro- and nanoring resonator system. The transportation of the trapping molecules by light in the network is described and the theoretical background is reviewed. The quality of the network is analyzed and calculated in terms of signal transmission (ie, signal to noise ratio and crosstalk effects). Results obtained show that a bus network has advantages over star and ring networks, where the use of mesh networks is possible. In application, a thin film network can be fabricated in the form of a waveguide and embedded in artificial bone, which can be connected to the required drug targets. The particular drug/nutrient can be transported to the required targets via the particular network used. PMID:22072875

  18. C3R - Participatory Urban Pollution Monitoring from your Car

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Otto; John P. Rula Fabi; E. Bustamante

    Detailed on-line measurements of city air quality are nec- essary to support compliance with air quality standards and emission strategy developments and to inform both policy makers and the general public in a timely manner. Current approaches to pollution monitoring, however, rely on very small numbers of stationary nodes. Providing de- tailed air quality information is a particularly hard chal-

  19. A WORKSPACE BASED CLASSIFICATION OF 3R ORTHOGONAL MANIPULATORS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , that is, they can change their posture without meeting a singularity (Parenti and Innocenti, 1988, Burdick like parallel and intersecting joint axes (Burdick, 1995) and also nonintuitive conditions (Wenger

  20. Back to the 3 R's: Reading, Writing, Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Rob

    Contemporary understandings and practices of adult literacy and adult basic education need to reestablish a substantial connection with ancient rhetoric as at once a political tradition, a culture of language use, a storehouse of metalanguage, and as an ensemble of pedagogic strategies and exercises. Developed in ancient Greece, rhetoric was for…

  1. -A Science Service Feature WHY THEWU"U3R ?

    E-print Network

    University, UNUSUAL WORLD WEATHER Occasionally we read of a "record-breaking" flood or drouth i n some of the world. ing rather than more weather nay be the roason f o r 6018 of thc apparent increase across the equator and into Asia, I n southeastern Asia the unusua.1 b r y great floods, cs- Pecially i n

  2. Planar myocardial imaging in the baboon model with iodine-123-15-(iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) and iodine-123-15-(P-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP), using time-activity curves for evaluation of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, I C; Hugo, N; Rossouw, D; White, A; Feinendegen, L E

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare by planar myocardial scintigraphy the kinetics of iodine-123-15-(iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (123I-pPPA and 123I-oPPA), and of iodine-123-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP), firstly in normal baboons, and subsequently after blocking fatty acid oxidation by a carnitine palmitoyl transferase I(CPT1) inhibitor. The induced changes in myocardial metabolism were reflected in the dynamic behaviour of the three tracers. pPPA and oPPA to a large extent, provided information on beta-oxidation changes in the myocardium: beta-oxidation participation changed from 47% and 50%, respectively to 17% and 23% after inhibition. BMIPP provided better images and reflected largely on changed tracer incorporation into the neutral lipid pools. The beta-oxidation contributed only about 10% towards the metabolic pathway of BMIPP. The information obtained in this study could help determine the tracer of choice for SPECT, whereby myocardial viability could optimally be revealed. PMID:8547881

  3. Spectroscopic studies (FTIR, FT-Raman and UV), potential energy surface scan, normal coordinate analysis and NBO analysis of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl) piperidine-3,4,5-triol by DFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isac Paulraj, E.; Muthu, S.

    2013-05-01

    This work presents the characterization of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidine-3,4,5-triol (abbreviated as HEHMPT) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm-1) and FT-Raman spectrum (4000-100 cm-1) in solid phase was recorded for HEHMPT. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the HEHMPT that dissolved in water was recorded in the range of 100-400 nm. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained from B3LYP and M06-2X with 6-31G(d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA), experimental results and potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. The stable geometry of the compound has been determined from the potential energy surface scan. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by NBO analysis. The molecule orbital contributions were studied by using the total (TDOS), partial (PDOS), and overlap population (OPDOS) density of states. The electronic properties like UV spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO energies were reported. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer interactions taking place within the molecule. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated.

  4. Spectroscopic studies (FTIR, FT-Raman and UV), potential energy surface scan, normal coordinate analysis and NBO analysis of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl) piperidine-3,4,5-triol by DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Isac Paulraj, E; Muthu, S

    2013-05-01

    This work presents the characterization of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidine-3,4,5-triol (abbreviated as HEHMPT) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm(-1)) and FT-Raman spectrum (4000-100 cm(-1)) in solid phase was recorded for HEHMPT. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the HEHMPT that dissolved in water was recorded in the range of 100-400 nm. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained from B3LYP and M06-2X with 6-31G(d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA), experimental results and potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. The stable geometry of the compound has been determined from the potential energy surface scan. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by NBO analysis. The molecule orbital contributions were studied by using the total (TDOS), partial (PDOS), and overlap population (OPDOS) density of states. The electronic properties like UV spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO energies were reported. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer interactions taking place within the molecule. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. PMID:23454843

  5. Assessment of density functionals and paucity of non-covalent interactions in aminoylyne complexes of molybdenum and tungsten [(?(5)-C5H5)(CO)2M?EN(SiMe3)(R)] (E = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb): a dispersion-corrected DFT study.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Krishna K; Patidar, Pankaj; Bariya, Pankaj K; Patidar, Sunil K; Vishwakarma, Ravi

    2014-07-14

    Electronic, molecular structure and bonding energy analyses of the metal-aminosilylyne, -aminogermylyne, -aminostannylyne and -aminoplumbylyne complexes [(?(5)-C5H5)(CO)2M[triple bond, length as m-dash]EN(SiMe3)(Ph)] (M = Mo, W) and [(?(5)-C5H5)(CO)2Mo[triple bond, length as m-dash]GeN(SiMe3)(Mes)] have been investigated at DFT, DFT-D3 and DFT-D3(BJ) levels using BP86, PBE, PW91, RPBE, TPSS and M06-L functionals. The performance of metaGGA functionals for the geometries of aminoylyne complexes is better than GGA functionals. Significant dispersion interactions between OH, EC(O) and EH pairs appeared in the dispersion-corrected geometries. The non-covalent distances of these interactions follow the order DFT > DFT-D3(BJ) > DFT-D3. The values of Nalewajski-Mrozek bond order (1.22-1.52) and Pauling bond order (2.23-2.59) of the optimized structures at BP86/TZ2P indicate the presence of multiple bonds between metal and E atoms. The overall electronic charges transfer from transition-metal fragments to ligands. The topological analysis based on QTAIM has been performed to determine the analogy of non-covalent interactions. The strength of M[triple bond, length as m-dash]EN(SiMe3)(R) bonds has been evaluated by energy decomposition analysis. The electrostatic interactions are almost equal to orbital interactions. The M ? E ?-donation is smaller than the M ? E ?-back donation. Upon going from E = Si to E = Pb, the M-E bond orders decrease as Si > Ge > Sn > Pb, consistent with the observed geometry trends. The M-E uncorrected bond dissociation energies vary with the density functionals as RPBE < BP86 < PBE < TPSS < PW91. The largest DFT-D3 dispersion corrections to the BDEs correspond to the BP86 functional, ranging between 5.6-8.1 kcal mol(-1), which are smaller than the DFT-D3(BJ) dispersion corrections (10.1-12.0 kcal mol(-1)). The aryl substituents on nitrogen have an insignificant effect on M-E-N bending. The bending of the M-E-N bond angle has been discussed in terms of Jahn-Teller distortion. The larger noncovalent interaction and smaller absolute values of ?E(HOMO-LUMO) with the M06-L functional are responsible for lowering the M-E-N bond angle. PMID:24850167

  6. Mononuclear nickel(III) complexes [Ni(III)(OR)(P(C6H3-3-SiMe3-2-S)3)](-) (R = Me, Ph) containing the terminal alkoxide ligand: relevance to the nickel site of oxidized-form [NiFe] hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Tzung-Wen; Liaw, Wen-Feng

    2008-09-01

    The unprecedented nickel(III) thiolate [Ni (III)(OR)(P(C 6H 3-3-SiMe 3-2-S) 3)] (-) [R = Ph ( 1), Me ( 3)] containing the terminal Ni (III)-OR bond, characterized by UV-vis, electron paramagnetic resonance, cyclic voltammetry, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, were isolated from the reaction of [Ni (III)(Cl)(P(C 6H 3-3-SiMe 3-2-S) 3)] (-) with 3 equiv of [Na][OPh] in tetrahydrofuran (THF)-CH 3CN and the reaction of complex 1 with 1 equiv of [Bu 4N][OMe] in THF-CH 3OH, respectively. Interestingly, the addition of complex 1 into the THF-CH 3OH solution of [Me 4N][OH] also yielded complex 3. In contrast to the inertness of complex [Ni (III)(Cl)(P(C 6H 3-3-SiMe 3-2-S) 3)] (-) toward 1 equiv of [Na][OPh], the addition of 1 equiv of [Na][OMe] into a THF-CH 3CN solution of [Ni (III)(Cl)(P(C 6H 3-3-SiMe 3-2-S) 3)] (-) yielded the known [Ni (III)(CH 2CN)(P(C 6H 3-3-SiMe 3-2-S) 3)] (-) ( 4). At 77 K, complexes 1 and 3 exhibit a rhombic signal with g values of 2.31, 2.09, and 2.00 and of 2.28, 2.04, and 2.00, respectively, the characteristic g values of the known trigonal-bipyramidal Ni (III) [Ni (III)(L)(P(C 6H 3-3-SiMe 3-2-S) 3)] (-) (L = SePh, SEt, Cl) complexes. Compared to complexes [Ni (III)(EPh)(P(C 6H 3-3-SiMe 3-2-S) 3)] (-) [E = S ( 2), Se] dominated by one intense absorption band at 592 and 590 nm, respectively, the electronic spectrum of complex 1 coordinated by the less electron-donating phenoxide ligand displays a red shift to 603 nm. In a comparison of the Ni (III)-OMe bond length of 1.885(2) A found in complex 3, the longer Ni (III)-OPh bond distance of 1.910(3) A found in complex 1 may be attributed to the absence of sigma and pi donation from the [OPh]-coordinated ligand to the Ni (III) center. PMID:18672877

  7. Ultrafast Atomic Diffusion Inducing a Reversible (2 ?{3 }× 2 ?{3 })R 30 ° ?(?{3 }× ?{3 }) R 30 ° Transition on Sn /Si (111 )? B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srour, W.; Trabada, Daniel G.; Martínez, J. I.; Flores, F.; Ortega, J.; Abuín, M.; Fagot-Revurat, Y.; Kierren, B.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Malterre, D.; Tejeda, A.

    2015-05-01

    Dynamical phase transitions are a challenge to identify experimentally and describe theoretically. Here, we study a new reconstruction of Sn on silicon and observe a reversible transition where the surface unit cell divides its area by a factor of 4 at 250 ° C . This phase transition is explained by the 24-fold degeneracy of the ground state and a novel diffusive mechanism, where four Sn atoms arranged in a snakelike cluster wiggle at the surface exploring collectively the different quantum mechanical ground states.

  8. Ultrafast Atomic Diffusion Inducing a Reversible (2sqrt[3]×2sqrt[3])R30°?(sqrt[3]×sqrt[3])R30° Transition on Sn/Si(111)?B.

    PubMed

    Srour, W; Trabada, Daniel G; Martínez, J I; Flores, F; Ortega, J; Abuín, M; Fagot-Revurat, Y; Kierren, B; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A; Malterre, D; Tejeda, A

    2015-05-15

    Dynamical phase transitions are a challenge to identify experimentally and describe theoretically. Here, we study a new reconstruction of Sn on silicon and observe a reversible transition where the surface unit cell divides its area by a factor of 4 at 250?°C. This phase transition is explained by the 24-fold degeneracy of the ground state and a novel diffusive mechanism, where four Sn atoms arranged in a snakelike cluster wiggle at the surface exploring collectively the different quantum mechanical ground states. PMID:26024183

  9. Assessment of replicate bias in 454 pyrosequencing and a multi-purpose read-filtering tool

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Roche 454 pyrosequencing platform is often considered the most versatile of the Next Generation Sequencing technology platforms, permitting the sequencing of large genomes, the analysis of variations or the study of transcriptomes. A recent reported bias leads to the production of multiple reads for a unique DNA fragment in a random manner within a run. This bias has a direct impact on the quality of the measurement of the representation of the fragments using the reads. Other cleaning steps are usually performed on the reads before assembly or alignment. Findings PyroCleaner is a software module intended to clean 454 pyrosequencing reads in order to ease the assembly process. This program is a free software and is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. It implements several filters using criteria such as read duplication, length, complexity, base-pair quality and number of undetermined bases. It also permits to clean flowgram files (.sff) of paired-end sequences generating on one hand validated paired-ends file and the other hand single read file. Conclusions Read cleaning has always been an important step in sequence analysis. The pyrocleaner python module is a Swiss knife dedicated to 454 reads cleaning. It includes commonly used filters as well as specialised ones such as duplicated read removal and paired-end read verification. PMID:21615897

  10. A multipurpose modular system for high-resolution microscopy at high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Vass, Hugh; Black, S Lucas; Herzig, Eva M; Ward, F Bruce; Clegg, Paul S; Allen, Rosalind J

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a modular system for high-resolution microscopy at high hydrostatic pressure. The system consists of a pressurized cell of volume approximately 100 microl, a temperature controlled holder, a ram, and a piston. We have made each of these components in several versions which can be interchanged to allow a wide range of applications. Here, we report two pressure cells with pressure ranges 0.1-700 MPa and 0.1-100 MPa, which can be combined with hollow or solid rams and pistons. Our system is designed to work with fluorescent samples (using a confocal or epifluorescence microscope), but also allows for transmitted light microscopy via the hollow ram and piston. The system allows precise control of pressure and temperature (-20 to 70 degrees C), as well as rapid pressure quenching. We demonstrate its performance and versatility with two applications: time-resolved imaging of colloidal phase transitions caused by pressure changes between 0.1 and 100 MPa, and imaging the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria at 50 MPa. We also show that the isotropic-nematic phase transition of pentyl-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) liquid crystal provides a simple, convenient, and accurate method for calibrating pressure in the range 0.1-200 MPa. PMID:20515148

  11. Modular nanotransporters: a multipurpose in vivo working platform for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Slastnikova, Tatiana A; Rosenkranz, Andrey A; Gulak, Pavel V; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Lupanova, Tatiana N; Khramtsov, Yuri V; Zalutsky, Michael R; Sobolev, Alexander S

    2012-01-01

    Background Modular nanotransporters (MNT) are recombinant multifunctional polypeptides created to exploit a cascade of cellular processes, initiated with membrane receptor recognition to deliver selective short-range and highly cytotoxic therapeutics to the cell nucleus. This research was designed for in vivo concept testing for this drug delivery platform using two modular nanotransporters, one targeted to the ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?MSH) receptor overexpressed on melanoma cells and the other to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor overexpressed on several cancers, including glioblastoma, and head-and-neck and breast carcinoma cells. Methods In vivo targeting of the modular nanotransporter was determined by immuno-fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy and by accumulation of 125I-labeled modular nanotransporters. The in vivo therapeutic effects of the modular nanotransporters were assessed by photodynamic therapy studies, given that the cytotoxicity of photosensitizers is critically dependent on their delivery to the cell nucleus. Results Immunohistochemical analyses of tumor and neighboring normal tissues of mice injected with multifunctional nanotransporters demonstrated preferential uptake in tumor tissue, particularly in cell nuclei. With 125I-labeled MNT{?MSH}, optimal tumor:muscle and tumor:skin ratios of 8:1 and 9.8:1, respectively, were observed 3 hours after injection in B16-F1 melanoma-bearing mice. Treatment with bacteriochlorin p-MNT{?MSH} yielded 89%–98% tumor growth inhibition and a two-fold increase in survival for mice with B16-F1 and Cloudman S91 melanomas. Likewise, treatment of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma-bearing mice with chlorin e6- MNT{EGF} resulted in 94% tumor growth inhibition compared with free chlorin e6, with 75% of animals surviving at 3 months compared with 0% and 20% for untreated and free chlorin e6-treated groups, respectively. Conclusion The multifunctional nanotransporter approach provides a new in vivo functional platform for drug development that could, in principle, be applicable to any combination of cell surface receptor and agent (photosensitizers, oligonucleotides, radionuclides) requiring nuclear delivery to achieve maximum effectiveness. PMID:22346349

  12. Low-complexity multi-purpose IP Core for quantized Discrete Cosine and integer transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Chia Sun; Philipp Donner; J. Gotze

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a low-complexity and highly-integrated IP core for image\\/video transformations is presented. It is possible to perform quantized 8times8 DCT and quantized 8times8\\/4times4 integer transforms on the presented reconfigurable architecture using only shift and add operations. The XVID experimental and FPGA synthesis results show that the proposed architecture not only achieves multiplierless video transformations efficiently, but also retains

  13. Feasibility Study of a Multi-Purpose Computer Program for Optimizing Heat Rates in Power Cycles 

    E-print Network

    Menuchin, Y.; Singh, K. P.; Hirota, N.

    1981-01-01

    A study of currently available commercial codes which evaluate the thermal performance of turbine cycles in power plants is presented. The analytical basis, capabilities, and possible applications of these codes are described. A survey of some user...

  14. Multi-purpose presentation techniques for geoscientific data in various media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rink, Karsten; Bilke, Lars

    2014-05-01

    The intuitive presentation of the progression of complex geoscientific phenomena is often an underrated part of the modelling- and simulation workflow. Compiling such a presentation allows to easily communicate progress in joint research projects between participants with different backgrounds. Also, adequate 3D visualisations are usually easier to understand when presenting research results to stakeholders as well as the general public and critical information is conveyed in a more comprehensible manner. We established a workflow that is based on integration and preprocessing of multiple geoscientific data sets in a suitable framework such as the OpenGeoSys Data Explorer or ParaView. After choosing an adequate visual representation of the data in these frameworks, custom-made interfaces are employed to export the data to presentation frameworks. For instance, using the Unity 3D Engine allows to implement interaction techniques such as adding camera paths, concentrating on specific subsets of the data or scene, blending multiple data sets, etc. While a general sequence of the presentation can be predefined, interactive navigation is still possible and allows to focus on particular interests of the audience. Established interfaces and frameworks allow to display existing presentations in multiple ways, including virtual reality environments, novel hardware such as head-mounted displays like the Occulus Rift, or even websites presenting 3D content. Furthermore, the content can be redistributed as an executable for use on arbitrary machines. This versatility enables the use of prepared presentations for a multitude of occasions including exchange of intermediary result to partners in cooperate projects, reports at conferences, the defense of research projects, or use in training courses or for tutorials.

  15. High Bandwidth, Multi-Purpose Passive Radar Receiver Design For Aerospace and Geoscience Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertatschitsch, Laura

    Passive radar permits inexpensive and stealthy detection and tracking of aerospace and geoscience targets. Transmitters of opportunity such as commercial FM broadcast, DTV broadcast, and cell phone towers are already illuminating many populated areas with continuous power. Passive radar receivers can be located at a distance from the transmitter, and can sense this direct transmission as well as any reflections from ground clutter, aircraft, ionospheric turbulence and meteor trails. The 100% duty cycle allows for long coherent integration, increasing the sensitivity of these instruments greatly. Traditional radar receivers employ analog front end downconverters to translate the radio frequency spectrum to an intermediate frequency (IF) for sampling and signal processing. Such downconverters limit the spectrum available for study, and can introduce nonlinearities which limit the detectability of weak signals in the presence of strong signals. With suitably fast digitizers one can bypass the downconversion stage completely. Very fast digitizers may have relatively few bits, but precision is recovered in subsequent signal processing. We present a new passive radar receiver designed to utilize a broad spectrum of commercial transmitters without the use of a front end analog downconverter. The receiver centers around a Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH) board developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) group. Fast sampling rates (8-bit samples as fast as 3 GSps) combined with 640 multiply/addition operations on the Virtex-5 FPGA centered on the ROACH allows for coherent processing of broad spectrum and dynamic decision-making on one device all while sharing a single front end, putting this device on the cutting edge of wideband receiver technology. The radar is also designed to support mobile operation. It fits within a 19'' rack, it is equipped with solid state hard drives, and can run off an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) for up to 1 hour of continuous operation. In this document we provide technical details of the hardware, firmware, and software of the system and design strategies and decisions. We cover the topic of coherent processing for passive radar, specifically an overview of the cross-ambiguity function as a detection mechanism. While the applications of a system like this are incredibly broad, the initial validation and performance analysis was applied specifically to detection of aircraft using Digital Television (DTV) broadcast as an illuminator. We present results of both stationary and mobile operation. In stationary operation, the same helicopter has been detected using two different DTV transmissions. Early mobile operation results show the Doppler-spread ground clutter and possible detection of aircraft. In addition to the fully-functional aircraft detection signal chain, alternative FPGA designs are presented with modes for fast sampling on two antennas or four antennas, with access to an aggregate 240 MHz of spectrum, with 8-bit samples. At these extremely high data rates, moderate data loss occurs while saving this data to disk, but as detailed within this document, it can be accounted for and the effects minimalized, still allowing for detection of aircraft. With these modes, FM transmission and DTV transmission can be captured synchronously from a single antenna and digitizer feed, an exciting result that offers promise for both aerospace and geoscience applications.

  16. Renaissance robotics : novel applications of multipurpose robotic arms spanning design fabrication, utility, and art

    E-print Network

    Keating, Steven J. (Steven John)

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates, defines, and expands on the use of robotic arms in digital fabrication, design, and art through methods including 3D printing, milling, sculpting, functionally graded fabrication, construction-scale ...

  17. Space Propulsion Research Facility (B-2): An Innovative, Multi-Purpose Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald M.; Weaver, Harold F.; Kudlac, Maureen T.; Maloney, Christian T.; Evans, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is designed to hot fire rocket engines or upper stage launch vehicles with up to 890,000 N force (200,000 lb force), after environmental conditioning of the test article in simulated thermal vacuum space environment. As NASA s third largest thermal vacuum facility, and the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of propellant, it is uniquely suited to support developmental testing associated with large lightweight structures and Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, as well as non-traditional propulsion test programs such as Electric and In-Space propulsion. B-2 has undergone refurbishment of key subsystems to support the NASA s future test needs, including data acquisition and controls, vacuum, and propellant systems. This paper details the modernization efforts at B-2 to support the Nation s thermal vacuum/propellant test capabilities, the unique design considerations implemented for efficient operations and maintenance, and ultimately to reduce test costs.

  18. Performance of AAOmega: the AAT multi-purpose fibre-fed spectrograph

    E-print Network

    R. Sharp; W. Saunder; G. Smith; V. Churilov; D. Correll; J. Dawson; T. Farrel; G. Frost; R. Haynes; R. Heald; A. Lankshear; D. Mayfield; L. Waller; D. Whittard

    2006-06-07

    AAOmega is the new spectrograph for the 2dF fibre-positioning system on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. It is a bench-mounted, double-beamed design, using volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and articulating cameras. It is fed by 392 fibres from either of the two 2dF field plates, or by the 512 fibre SPIRAL integral field unit (IFU) at Cassegrain focus. Wavelength coverage is 370 to 950nm and spectral resolution 1,000-8,000 in multi-Object mode, or 1,500-10,000 in IFU mode. Multi-object mode was commissioned in January 2006 and the IFU system will be commissioned in June 2006. The spectrograph is located off the telescope in a thermally isolated room and the 2dF fibres have been replaced by new 38m broadband fibres. Despite the increased fibre length, we have achieved a large increase in throughput by use of VPH gratings, more efficient coatings and new detectors - amounting to a factor of at least 2 in the red. The number of spectral resolution elements and the maximum resolution are both more than doubled, and the stability is an order of magnitude better. The spectrograph comprises: an f/3.15 Schmidt collimator, incorporating a dichroic beam-splitter; interchangeable VPH gratings; and articulating red and blue f/1.3 Schmidt cameras. Pupil size is 190mm, determined by the competing demands of cost, obstruction losses, and maximum resolution. A full suite of VPH gratings has been provided to cover resolutions 1,000 to 7,500, and up to 10,000 at particular wavelengths.

  19. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...operation can occur; (ii) Have a manual mechanism for turning off the flame when the hands-free function is used; and...Automatically reset when or before the user lets go of the lighter after turning off the flame when the hands-free feature is...

  20. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...operation can occur; (ii) Have a manual mechanism for turning off the flame when the hands-free function is used; and...Automatically reset when or before the user lets go of the lighter after turning off the flame when the hands-free feature is...

  1. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...operation can occur; (ii) Have a manual mechanism for turning off the flame when the hands-free function is used; and...Automatically reset when or before the user lets go of the lighter after turning off the flame when the hands-free feature is...

  2. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...operation can occur; (ii) Have a manual mechanism for turning off the flame when the hands-free function is used; and...Automatically reset when or before the user lets go of the lighter after turning off the flame when the hands-free feature is...

  3. Pre-design of MYRRHA, A Multipurpose Accelerator Driven System for Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    D'hondt, P.; Abderrahim, H. Aiet; Kupschus, P.; Malambu, E.; Aoust, Th.; Benoit, Ph.; Sobolev, V.; Tichelen, K. van; Arien, B.; Vermeersch, F.; Jongen, Y.; Ternier, S.; Vandeplassche, D. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCKCEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); IBA, Chemin du Cyclotron, rue J.E. Lenoir 6, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2003-08-26

    One of the main SCKCEN research facility, namely BR2, is nowadays arriving at an age of 40 years just like the major materials testing reactors (MTR) in the world and in Europe (i.e. BR2 (B-Mol), HFR (EU-Petten), OSIRIS (F-Saclay), R2 (S-Studsvik)). The MYRRHA facility in planning has been conceived as potentially replacing BR2 and to be a fast spectrum facility complementary to the thermal spectrum RJH (Reacteur Jules Horowitz) facility, in planning in France. This situation would give Europe a full research capability in terms of nuclear R and D. Furthermore, the disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from industrial nuclear energy production has still to find a fully satisfactory solution, especially in terms of environmental and social acceptability. Scientists are looking for ways to drastically reduce (by a factor of 100 or more) the radio-toxicity of the High Level Waste (HLW) to be stored in a deep geological repository. This can be achieved via burning of minor actinides (MA) and to a less extent of long-lived fission products (LLFP) in Accelerator Driven Systems. The MYRRHA project contribution will be in helping to demonstrate the ADS concept at reasonable power level and the demonstration of the technological feasibility of MA and LLFP transmutation under real conditions.

  4. HiBrowse: multi-purpose statistical analysis of genome-wide chromatin 3D organization

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Jonas; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Gundersen, Sveinung; Lien, Tonje G.; Trengereid, Kai; Hovig, Eivind

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Recently developed methods that couple next-generation sequencing with chromosome conformation capture-based techniques, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, allow for characterization of genome-wide chromatin 3D structure. Understanding the organization of chromatin in three dimensions is a crucial next step in the unraveling of global gene regulation, and methods for analyzing such data are needed. We have developed HiBrowse, a user-friendly web-tool consisting of a range of hypothesis-based and descriptive statistics, using realistic assumptions in null-models. Availability and implementation: HiBrowse is supported by all major browsers, and is freely available at http://hyperbrowser.uio.no/3d. Software is implemented in Python, and source code is available for download by following instructions on the main site. Contact: jonaspau@ifi.uio.no Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24511080

  5. Small High Performance Ultra Wideband UHF Multipurpose Planar Antenna A. Babar* (1)

    E-print Network

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    Wideband antenna [1], resonating on a wide range of commonly used Ultra High Frequency (UHF) bands. The antenna's bandwidth ranges from 1.22GHz to above 3GHz. The ultra wide bandwidth was achieved by dispersing electronics and other communication devices. The antenna covers most of the ultra high frequency (UHF) band

  6. Optimal operation of a multipurpose multireservoir system in the Eastern Nile River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Goor; C. Halleux; Y. Mohamed; A. Tilmant

    2010-01-01

    The upper Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia is a largely untapped resource despite its huge potential for hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. Controversies exist as to whether the numerous infrastructural development projects that are on the drawing board in Ethiopia will generate positive or negative externalities downstream in Sudan and Egypt. This study attempts at (1) examining the (re-)operation

  7. Optimal operation of a multipurpose multireservoir system in the Eastern Nile River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Goor; C. Halleux; Y. Mohamed; A. Tilmant

    2010-01-01

    The upper Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia is a largely untapped resource despite its huge potential for hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. Controversies exist as to whether the numerous infrastructural development projects that are on the drawing board in Ethiopia will generate positive or negative externalities downstream in Sudan and Egypt. This study attempts at 1) examining the (re-)operation

  8. Four health data networks illustrate the potential for a shared national multipurpose big-data network.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Lesley H; Brown, Jeffrey; Platt, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Information in electronic health data that are drawn from large populations of patients is transforming health care, public health practice, and clinical research. This article describes our experience in developing data networks that repurpose electronic health records and administrative data. The four programs we feature are the Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel program (which focuses on medical product safety), the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet, comparative effectiveness research), the National Institutes of Health's Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Distributed Research Network (biomedical research), and ESPnet (public health surveillance). Challenges to these uses of electronic health data include understanding the factors driving the collection, coding, and preservation of the data; the extensive customization of different systems that collect similar data; the fragmentation of the US health care delivery system and its records; and privacy and proprietary considerations. We view these four programs as examples of the first stage in the development of a shared national big-data resource that leverages the investments of many agencies and organizations for the benefit of multiple networks and users. PMID:25006144

  9. Production tools to manufacture straw chambers used in multipurpose detector for NICA-MPD project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekelidze, V. D.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Topilin, N. D.

    2012-03-01

    We describe a new approach in the production of technological devices to manufacture high-precision holes in the ring elements of submodules of the Straw EC Tracker with a precision position relative to each other and the assembly table for pasting the ring frame elements of the submodules with thin-film drift tubes according to the strict requirements for their diameters.

  10. 76 FR 32391 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2007 Dodge Durango Multipurpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ...Selection and Rims for Motor Vehicles Other than Passenger Cars...Control Systems, 135 Light Vehicle Brake Systems, 138 Tire Pressure...Glazing Materials, 206 Door Locks and Door Retention Components...Petitioner also contends that the vehicle is capable of being...

  11. A control system for automated multi-purpose vehicles for manufacturing applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Peco; J. Mikael Eklund

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a system to control Autonomously Guided Vehicles (AGVs) in a flexible manufacturing setting allowing numerous vehicles to make informed decisions amongst themselves as well as between the governing computer system(s). These decisions allow work order acceptance, path planning, navigation, and traffic management to be autonomously operated - rather than pre-programmed as are the traditional methods. This paper

  12. Development of a multi-purpose, pulsed-laser system for solar cell processing applications

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.; Hansen, B.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Lehrer, W.M. (EG and G, Inc., Wellesley, MA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of a versatile Nd:YAG pulsed laser system developed at Sandia for solar cell processing applications. The results of statistically-based, multi-factor experiments used to characterize the influence of laser-system process variables on patterns produced in silicon wafers and silicon-oxide layers are presented and an initial assessment of laser-grooved solar cell processing conditions is given. 9 refs., 29 figs.

  13. A multipurpose interactive system for promoting and assessing the learning of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picciarelli, Vittorio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Stella, Rosa

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an interactive system designed to facilitate the effective management of both knowledge consolidation and (self-)assessment of the progress made in the learning of physics by upper secondary school students. Via a specific multiple-choice test database, the system proposes several learning paths designed and implemented in an e-learning Moodle environment. In addition to describing the features of the system and the different modes which may be chosen by both teachers and students, the paper discusses the quantitative results obtained in a pre-/post-test carried out in several secondary schools in Apulia, Italy.

  14. Pre-design of MYRRHA, A Multipurpose Accelerator Driven System for Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'hondt, P.; Abderrahim, H. Aït; Kupschus, P.; Malambu, E.; Aoust, Th.; Benoit, Ph.; Sobolev, V.; Van Tichelen, K.; Arien, B.; Vermeersch, F.; Jongen, Y.; Ternier, S.; Vandeplassche, D.

    2003-08-01

    One of the main SCK•CEN research facility, namely BR2, is nowadays arriving at an age of 40 years just like the major materials testing reactors (MTR) in the world and in Europe (i.e. BR2 (B-Mol), HFR (EU-Petten), OSIRIS (F-Saclay), R2 (S-Studsvik)). The MYRRHA facility in planning has been conceived as potentially replacing BR2 and to be a fast spectrum facility complementary to the thermal spectrum RJH (Réacteur Jules Horowitz) facility, in planning in France. This situation would give Europe a full research capability in terms of nuclear R&D. Furthermore, the disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from industrial nuclear energy production has still to find a fully satisfactory solution, especially in terms of environmental and social acceptability. Scientists are looking for ways to drastically reduce (by a factor of 100 or more) the radio-toxicity of the High Level Waste (HLW) to be stored in a deep geological repository. This can be achieved via burning of minor actinides (MA) and to a less extent of long-lived fission products (LLFP) in Accelerator Driven Systems. The MYRRHA project contribution will be in helping to demonstrate the ADS concept at reasonable power level and the demonstration of the technological feasibility of MA and LLFP transmutation under real conditions.

  15. Novel laboratory approaches to multi-purpose aquatic bioregenerative closed-loop food production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Paassen, U.; Schreibman, M. P.; Voeste, D.

    Based on the construction principle of the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) two novel combined animal-plant production systems were developed in laboratory scale the first of which is dedicated to mid-term operation in closed state up to two years. In principle both consist of the "classic" C.E.B.A.S. subcomponents: animal tank (Zoological Component), plant cultivators (Botanical Component), ammonia converting bacteria filter (Microbial Component) and data acquisition/control unit (Electronical Component). The innovative approach in the first system is the utilization of minimally three aquatic plant cultivators for different species. In this one the animal tank has a volume of about 160 liters and is constructed as an "endless-way system" surronding a central unit containing the heat exchanger and the bacteria filter with volumes of about 1.5 liters each. A suspension plant cultivator (1 liter) for the edible duckweed Wolffia arrhiza is externally connected. The second plant cultivator is a meandric microalgal bioreactor for filamentous green algae. The third plant growth facilitiy is a chamber with about 2.5 liters volume for cultivation of the "traditional" C.E.B.A.S. plant species, the rootless buoyant Ceratophyllum demersum. Both latter units are illuminated with 9 W fluorescent lamps. In the current experiment the animal tank contains the live-bearing teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri and the small pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata because their physiological adaptation to the closed system conditions is well known from many previous C.E.B.A.S. experiments. The water temperature is maintained at 25 °C and the oxygen level is regulated between 4 and 7 mg/1 by switching on and off the plant cultivator illuminations according to a suitable pattern thus utilizing solely the oxygen produced by photosynthesis. The animals and the micoorganisms of filter and bioflim provide the plants with a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide. Oxygen concentration, pH value, temperature and redox potential are on-line recorded. Ion concentrations and numbers of living germs in the system water are determined twice monthly in the laboratory from samples taken from a special "sample removal module"; the sample volume is automatically replaced from an reservoir container. A rotatory pump produces a water flow of about 38 l/min. For a similar smaller test system with approx. 10 I volume developed from the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI-MODULE a novel indirect solar energy supply is tested which has a buffer capacity to maintain the system for 7 days in darkness under central European climate conditions also in winter. It contains only a single plant cultivator which is operated with Wollfla arrhiza. This lemnacean plant is able to produce large amounts of plant biomass in a short time by vegetative reproduction via daughter fronds. This easy-to-handle apparartus is dedicated to be operative more than 4 month. The experimental animals and microorganisms are the same as in the large system. The paper provides detailed information on the system construction principles and the biological, physical and chemical data of the initial phase of the test runs of both systems with the main focus on the large one.

  16. A novel multipurpose mini-endoscope for frontal sinus endoscopy "sinus view".

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Bozzato, Victoria; Bozzato, Alessandro; Papaspyrou, George; Schick, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopic frontal sinus surgery has been proven to enable the treatment of most frontal sinus pathologies but may be challenging for the surgeon in regard to the variable frontal sinus anatomy. Frontal sinus drainage identification and frontal sinus visualization are an essential part of successful frontal sinus surgery. We demonstrate a novel modular mini-endoscopic system for frontal sinus surgery. Fifty-two patients (37 male, 15 female) with a chronic rhino-sinusitis were enrolled. In this study, all patients were subjected to standard endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery with use of the fibre optic endoscope "Sinus View" (1.1 mm diameter, 10,000 pixels, irrigation channel and additional working channel) accessing the frontal sinus. A frontal sinus drainage type I in 38 cases, a frontal sinus drainage type IIa in 9 cases and a frontal sinus drainage type IIb in 5 cases according to Draf were performed. The modular mini-endoscopic system "Sinus view" was used to identify frontal sinus drainage in ten patients before ethmoidectomy and in the remaining patients (N = 42) after ethmoidectomy. Visualization of the frontal sinus drainage or the frontal sinus itself was easily carried out after irrigation. A clear identification of the frontal sinus by illumination was achieved in all cases. In addition the working channel of the endoscope was successfully used to perform visualized balloon dilatation at the frontal sinus drainage or for biopsy. The endonasal visualization of the frontal sinus drainage and frontal sinus itself is facilitated by also using a modular mini-endoscope with the option to use the working channel of the endoscope for biopsy or balloon dilatation. PMID:25182389

  17. The XP spaceplane: A near term multi-purpose suborbital RLV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Charles J.

    2007-06-01

    This paper will describe the history, technology and design features of the XP spaceplane being developed by Rocketplane Ltd. in Oklahoma. The XP is a four seat fighter-sized spaceplane that uses turbojets for takeoff and landing and a liquid oxygen/kerosene rocket engine for main propulsion during its ascent to a 100 km apogee suborbital space flight. The XP is intended to serve a variety of markets including suborbital tourist flights, intermediate duration microgravity research, remote sensing, astronomy, and microsatellite launch missions. Changes in vehicle configuration and flight profile for serving each of these markets will be described. The prototype XP will have its rollout ceremony at the end of 2007 and will begin test flights in early 2008. Commercial space flight operations are expected to begin in fall 2008 with tourist flights and microgravity research flights being the early customer base. The spaceplane's flight systems, safety systems, and operating procedures will be reviewed. In addition, key elements of the Rocketplane business and financial model will be discussed.

  18. An Energy Analysis Of A Large, Multipurpose Educational Building In A Hot Climate 

    E-print Network

    Kamranzadeh, Vahideh

    2012-02-14

    conducted using manual methods [2] such as degree day, equivalent full load cooling, and bin heating/cooling methods [3] [4]. In the early 1970s, computer simulations replaced manual methods for load calculations and building simulations. Computer... generation of computer simulation methods consisted of simplified and comprehensive methods [5]. The simplified methods for energy analysis are based on the modified bin method. In modified bin method, building loads are calculated as time- dependent...

  19. In vitro propagation of Litsea cubeba (Lours.) Pers., a multipurpose tree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Mao; A. Wetten; M. F. Fay; P. D. S. Caligari

    2000-01-01

    A rapid clonal propagation system has been developed for Litsea cubeba. Following investigation of a range of cytokinins and a variety of explant sources (shoot tip, node, leaf and petiole) it\\u000a was established that 6-benzyladenine with shoot tip explants gave optimal multiple-shoot induction. In vitro rooting on growth-regulator-free\\u000a medium was possible and over 100 plantlets were successfully weaned to the

  20. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaking Deep-Sea Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.; Azzolini, R.

    2009-04-01

    Future breakthroughs in scientific deep-sea drilling critically depend on our ability to perform field expeditions with state-of-the-art technologies and modern infrastructures. This will require major investments, both in terms of generating new, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. Diverse models for science operations are presently projected, also within the context of scientific needs after the current phase of the IODP will come to an end. In spite of its critical role in global climate and tectonic evolution, the Arctic Ocean is one of the most unexplored ocean basins of the world, its geologic and paleo-environmental history remaining largely unknown. Restricted by circulating sea ice, scientific drilling has been slow to arrive in the Arctic Ocean. This lack of data remains and represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. We here report on the finalised technical planning of a new European research icebreaker and deep-sea drilling vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, designed with an all-season capability of endurance in permanently ice-covered waters. The icebreaker will be able to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins primarily during the more favorable summer seasons in order to fulfill the needs of the IODP or its eventual successor as a Mission-Specific Platform. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced polar research vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments within the next 35-40 years. It will feature the highest attainable icebreaker classification, considerably surpassing in performance all currently operating research icebreakers. New technological features to be implemented include a novel hull design and specialized dynamic positioning systems for operations under closed sea-ice cover conditions with up to 2.5 m ice thickness, combined with advanced ice-forecasting support. The vessel is planned to operate routinely without ice management support by additional icebreakers, thus reducing operational costs for scientific drilling in polar regions considerably. Two moon-pools (7x7 m each) will allow routine deployment of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) in ice conditions. A dedicated deep-sea drilling rig with full weather protection will enable sampling of the ocean floor in water depths between 100 and 5000 m with more than 1000 m penetration under polar conditions. The modular arrangement of science space with hangars, the possibility to flexibly equip the ship with laboratory or supply containers and with helicopters, addresses the needs of diverse disciplines in marine research. This icebreaker will allow to stage long international, interdisciplinary drilling expeditions in the central Arctic. In a long-term perspective, AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research and a scientific drilling vessel.