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1

Multipurpose Rooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college multipurpose rooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

2

Multipurpose Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

Gordon, Douglas

2010-01-01

3

Privatized multipurpose reactor initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and

1995-01-01

4

Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

2014-01-01

5

Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

6

Multipurpose hardened spacecraft insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Multipurpose Hardened Spacecraft Multilayer Insulation (MLI) system was developed and implemented to meet diverse survivability and performance requirements. Within the definition and confines of a MLI assembly (blanket), the design: (1) provides environmental protection from natural and induced nuclear, thermal, and electromagnetic radiation; (2) provides adequate electrostatic discharge protection for a geosynchronous satellite; (3) provides adequate shielding to meet radiated emission needs; and (4) will survive ascent differential pressure loads between enclosed volume and space. The MLI design is described which meets these requirements and design evolution and verification is discussed. The application is for MLI blankets which closeout the area between the laser crosslink subsystem (LCS) equipment and the DSP spacecraft cabin. Ancillary needs were implemented to ease installation at launch facility and to survive ascent acoustic and vibration loads. Directional venting accommodations were also incorporated to avoid contamination of LCS telescope, spacecraft sensors, and second surface mirrors (SSMs).

Steimer, Carlos H.

1990-01-01

7

Multipurpose Compact Spectrometric Unit  

SciTech Connect

A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is multipurpose device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.

Bocarov, Viktor; Cermak, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; Stekl, Ivan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

2009-11-09

8

Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

1991-01-01

9

Novel multipurpose timer for laboratories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multipurpose digital delay timer simultaneously controls both a buffer pump and a fraction-collector. Timing and control may be in 30-second increments for up to 15 hours. Use of glassware and scintillation vials make it economical.

Eisler, W. J.; Klein, P. D.

1969-01-01

10

Multi-purpose seismic transducer  

SciTech Connect

A multi-purpose seismic transducer includes a first seismic sensor having a first transfer function. A transfer-function shaping filter is coupled to the output of the first seismic sensor. The filter is adjustable to shape the first transfer function to match a plurality of different second transfer functions.

Hall, E.M.

1981-02-24

11

Multipurpose Scribing and Drawing Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-part tool reconfigured for variety of jobs. Tool performs several functions useful in layout. Lines, curves, and angles made visible as either bright scribe marks or as dark pencil (or ink) marks. Multipurpose tool speeds up laying out of patterns on sheet metal, wood, plastic, or paper. Tool is carried in pocket, then quickly assembled for service as height gauge, pair of dividers, protractor, surface gauge, or square.

Ellis, J. M.

1986-01-01

12

21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food...Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists...

2010-04-01

13

Brexpiprazole: another multipurpose antipsychotic drug?  

PubMed

Brexpiprazole (also known as OPC-34712 or Lu-AF41156) is a novel molecular compound chemically and structurally similar to aripiprazole. This drug is currently under review by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a monotherapy for schizophrenia and an adjunct to antidepressant medication for major depressive disorder. Additional clinical trials include studies of brexpiprazole in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, and for agitation associated with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Brexpiprazole is an example that illustrates how pharmacological drug diversity may be translated to multipurpose uses. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(4), 23-25.]. PMID:25856810

Howland, Robert H

2015-04-01

14

An inexpensive, multipurpose physical pendulum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pendulum is a highly versatile tool for teaching physics. Many special purpose pendula for student experiments have been described.1-4 In this paper, I describe an inexpensive, multipurpose physical pendulum that can function as both a variable gravity and ballistic pendulum. I designed the apparatus for use in a rotational dynamics unit of the AP Physics C mechanics course. The use of a bike wheel hub pivot allows for low-friction, rugged operation that yields results commensurate with those obtained with much more expensive pendula available on the market (typically 500 per unit5), placing these types of experiments within reach of the teacher on a restricted budget.

Schultz, David

2012-10-01

15

Multipurpose system for ecological monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moscow Research Television Institute has conducted theoretical and experimental researches concerning the integration of image sensors operating in different ranges on board of vehicles. On the base of these researches a prototype of multipurpose system for ecological monitoring is made. The scope of the system: ecological monitoring of each and water surface, control of sources of pollution and zones of ecological disasters; monitoring of oil, gaz and other pipelines; and control of forests and arable land and so on. The combination of technical means operating in visible, IR and SHF bands allows to gather of the information at any time of day, night or season in different meteorological conditions. The use of high resolution image sensors and the large coverage zone of the substrate surface (up to nine altitudes of aircraft) allows to obtain a large volume of information per one sortie of aircraft. The video information is displayed on board of aircraft together with geographical coordinates and auxiliary data. For obtaining the information in real time at the terrestrial site the wideband RF link is provided. The Multipurpose System for Ecological Monitoring may be used in different on-board complexes of various aircraft (manned or unmanned), planes and copters.

Berezansky, Vladimir M.

1997-08-01

16

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.57 Multipurpose lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial settings to prevent friction or rust. Greases,...

2012-01-01

17

7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.57 Multipurpose lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication under a variety of conditions and in a variety of industrial settings to prevent friction or rust. Greases,...

2013-01-01

18

A multipurpose facility for metallographic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper outlines the design concept and capabilities of a computer-controlled multipurpose facility for simultaneous investigation of the microstructure, electrical resistivity, thermal expansion coefficient, melting point, and thermal analysis of refractory and rare metals on just one specimen of small size. The facility consists of several units, including a vacuum unit, working chambers, heating unit, recording of parameters, and a

E. M. Savitskii; I. V. Burov; K. P. Bondarenko; L. M. Telnova; V. I. Vybornov; N. A. Tomilin; M. E. Naidich; O. V. Diufel

1975-01-01

19

Multipurpose top for liquid helium Dewar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multipurpose top was fabricated for liquid helium Dewar flask which guards against flash vaporization of liquid helium and allows boiling temperature of liquid helium to be lowered by reduction of ambient pressure in Dewar flask. Device is rugged and simple, and does not require frequent calibrations or adjustments.

Murphy, R. S.; Anderholm, J. R.

1972-01-01

20

Multipurpose watermarking for image authentication and protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel multipurpose watermarking scheme, in which robust and fragile watermarks aresimultaneously embedded, for copyright protection and content authentication. By quantizing a hostimage's wavelet coefficients as masking threshold units (MTUs), two complementary watermarks areembedded using cocktail watermarking and they can be blindly extracted without access to the hostimage. For the purpose of image protection, the new scheme guarantees

Chun-Shien Lu; Hong-yuan Mark Liao

2001-01-01

21

Multipurpose ROV system for underwater monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents achievements of the Underwater Team at the Faculty of Maritime Technology of the Szczecin Technical University in the field of designing the equipment destined for the underwater monitoring. The multipurpose remotely operated vehicle system is described. Technical specification, some laboratory tank test results, research techniques, operational range, experience and development trends have been discussed.

Graczyk, T. [Technical Univ. of Szczecin (Poland)

1995-12-31

22

Multipurpose Watermarking Based on Multiscale Curvelet Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipurpose watermarking for content authentication and copyright verification are accomplished by using the multiscale curvelet transform. A curvelet transform gains better and sparser representation than most traditional multiscale transforms. In this paper, an image is decomposed into multiscale coefficients with a dyadic number of wedges constructed from a variety of neighboring scales. Image hash is designed to extract image features

Chune Zhang; L. L. Cheng; Zhengding Qiu; Lee-ming Cheng

2008-01-01

23

THE MULTI-PURPOSE RESEARCH REACTOR (MZFR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 50-Mw electrical multi-purpose research reactor being built at the ; Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center is a heavy-water pressurized reactor. The ; construction of the entire installation and of the planned experimental ; facilities is described. In order to assess the economic possibilities of this ; reactor, an attempt is made to show, with the aid of an arnual balance

Ziegler

1962-01-01

24

21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

25

21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

26

21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

27

21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

28

Radiation aspects of the Redox multipurpose dissolver incident  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a record of the radiation and contamination effect of the Redox multipurpose dissolver incident and the steps taken after the incident to control the contamination. The new multipurpose dissolver was installed in R cell in March, 1960. It was used successfully until the evening of April 17, 1960, at which time some of the uranium metal ignited

Uebelacker

1960-01-01

29

pVHL: A Multipurpose Adaptor Protein  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene VHL occur in various inherited and sporadically occurring tumors. The protein encoded by VHL—pVHL—bears no known enzymatic activities but interacts with numerous protein partners. With the identification of distinct pVHL-containing multiprotein complexes, a refined portrait of pVHL tumor suppressor function has arisen. In general, pVHL acts as a multipurpose adaptor protein that controls a diverse array of gene expression programs, as well as extracellular matrix assembly and microtubule-based processes, by linking various target proteins to appropriate enzymatic activities. These findings provide an evermore complex but coherent view of how pVHL functions molecularly and of the consequences of dysregulation of these diverse molecular activities on tumor formation.

Ian J. Frew (Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich; Institute of Cell Biology REV)

2008-06-17

30

Reactive Scheduling in Multipurpose Batch Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scheduling is an important operation in process industries for improving resource utilization resulting in direct economic benefits. It has a two-fold objective of fulfilling customer orders within the specified time as well as maximizing the plant profit. Unexpected disturbances such as machine breakdown, arrival of rush orders and cancellation of orders affect the schedule of the plant. Reactive scheduling is generation of a new schedule which has minimum deviation from the original schedule in spite of the occurrence of unexpected events in the plant operation. Recently, Shaik & Floudas (2009) proposed a novel unified model for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants using unit-specific event-based continuous time representation. In this paper, we extend the model of Shaik & Floudas (2009) to handle reactive scheduling.

Narayani, A.; Shaik, Munawar A.

2010-10-01

31

Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-04

32

MINIS: Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS) was developed in response to the need for a data management system capable of operation on several different minicomputer systems. The desired system had to be capable of performing the functions of a LANDSAT photo descriptive data retrieval system while remaining general in terms of other acceptable user definable data bases. The system also had to be capable of performing data base updates and providing user-formatted output reports. The resultant MINI System provides all of these capabilities and several other features to complement the data management system. The MINI System is currently implemented on two minicomputer systems and is in the process of being installed on another minicomputer system. The MINIS is operational on four different data bases.

1976-01-01

33

Multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a design for a multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer capable of measuring optical radiation ranging in intensity from the subvisual light levels associated with night sky airglow emissions to the intense flux levels of direct sunlight. The instrument has twelve interference filters for wavelength selection, a 2.5/sup 0/ field of view for nighttime observations, and a 1.5/sup 0/ field of view for daytime observations. A photomultiplier tube is used as the low light-level detector, and a silicon-PIN photodiode serves as the insolation detector. A particular measurement sequence is programmed into the instrument and can be modified by reading a cassette tape in the field. Normal operation is fully automatic.

Kleckner, E.W.; Michalsky, J.J.; Smith, L.L.; Schmelzer, J.R.; Severtsen, R.H.; Berndt, J.L.

1981-11-01

34

Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor  

DOEpatents

The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank. 9 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1997-03-11

35

Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor  

DOEpatents

The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

36

Multipurpose soft contact lens care in Japan  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the use of multipurpose lens care products via an online survey conducted among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in Japan. Methods The subjects were 1000 men and women aged 15–44 years who reported that they cleaned their SCL by using multipurpose solution at least twice a week. Via the internet, they were asked questions about SCL care, the use of a rubbing step when cleaning SCL, cleaning and replacing lens cases, and recommended SCL care methods. Results Of the 1000 SCL wearers enrolled, 94.3% performed lens care every day lenses were worn, 64.2% reported rubbing the lenses every time, 57.9% rubbed the lenses for at least 10 seconds per side, and 64.7% reported they rubbed the lenses on both sides. Further, 61.2% reported that they had been given an explanation of SCL cleaning at an eye clinic or contact lens store. Only 49.8% of subjects reported that they cleaned the lens case every time and 61.7% replaced the case within 3 months. Only 19.5% had been given an explanation about lens case care. Half of the subjects reported they had been given no recommendation to use specific SCL care products or could not remember whether or not they had. The most common reason for the recommendation was good compatibility with their type of lens. Conclusion More education is needed in Japan regarding methods of SCL care to ensure correct lens cleaning with inclusion of a rubbing step, as well as sufficient cleaning and replacement of the lens case. Of particular interest is the finding that many subjects were not given an explanation about proper SCL care and lens case cleaning and replacement at the time of lens purchase or prescription. PMID:22291454

Toshida, Hiroshi; Kadota, Yoshiaki; Suto, Chikako; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

2012-01-01

37

MYRRHA: A multipurpose nuclear research facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a multipurpose research facility currently being developed at SCK•CEN. MYRRHA is based on the ADS (Accelerator Driven System) concept where a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical reactor are coupled. MYRRHA will demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling these three components at a reasonable power level to allow operation feedback. As a flexible irradiation facility, the MYRRHA research facility will be able to work in both critical as subcritical modes. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for GEN IV and fusion reactors, and radioisotope production for medical and industrial applications. MYRRHA will be cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic and will play an important role in the development of the Pb-alloys technology needed for the LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) GEN IV concept. MYRRHA will also contribute to the study of partitioning and transmutation of high-level waste. Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) can be completed in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, so both critical reactors and subcritical ADS are potential candidates as dedicated transmutation systems. However critical reactors heavily loaded with fuel containing large amounts of MA pose reactivity control problems, and thus safety problems. A subcritical ADS operates in a flexible and safe manner, even with a core loading containing a high amount of MA leading to a high transmutation rate. In this paper, the most recent developments in the design of the MYRRHA facility are presented.

Baeten, P.; Schyns, M.; Fernandez, Rafaël; De Bruyn, Didier; Van den Eynde, Gert

2014-12-01

38

Design and fabrication of a multipurpose compliant nanopositioning architecture  

E-print Network

This research focused on generating the knowledge required to design and fabricate a high-speed application flexible, low average cost multipurpose compliant nanopositioner architecture with high performance integrated ...

Panas, Robert M. (Robert Matthew)

2013-01-01

39

A Closer Look at SQ3R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1940s, teachers in upper grade classrooms have been asking students to "survey, question, read, recite, and review" chapters in their content area textbooks. Known as SQ3R, many teachers have long believed that this study strategy helps students make sense of unfamiliar informational text, or that it at least provides a structured…

Huber, Jennifer A.

2004-01-01

40

Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar-powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is, therefore, beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multipurpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of using solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year-long effort by a group of eight students, divided into four teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a lightweight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structural design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion were governed by weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is an MPRPV weighing 35 N that cruises at 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 12.5 percent-efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were researched and tested during the design process.

1991-01-01

41

New generation of radiacs: small computerized multipurpose radiation monitors  

SciTech Connect

The Health Division at Los Alamos has developed a multipurpose radiation monitoring device that is computer-controlled, light weight (3 lb), includes multiple radiation detectors running simultaneously, and is simple to use. This multipurpose radiac is generic in nature and can use any of the standard radiation detectors such as NaI, /sup 3/He, LET proportional gas counters, solid state surface barrier detectors, etc. LCD displays indicate the various radiation parameters in both alphanumeric and graphics format. Internal batteries allow 100 hours of use.

Umbarger, C.J.; Bjarke, G.O.; Erkkila, B.H.; Trujillo, F.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.

1982-01-01

42

Antibody-based concepts for multipurpose prevention technologies  

PubMed Central

Because of the versatility and specificity of monoclonal antibodies, they are candidates for multipurpose prevention technologies when formulated as topical (gels, films, rings) or injectable drugs and as vaccines. This review focuses on antibody-based proof of concept studies for the human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus and sperm. Opportunities and challenges in antibody evasion/resistance, manufacturing, regulatory, and pharmacoeconomics are discussed. This article is based on a presentation at the “Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies,” held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188703

Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry

2014-01-01

43

MULTIPURPOSE GELLING AGENT AND ITS APPLICATION TO SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Previously, a blend of materials was formulated that would spontaneously gel a wide variety of hazardous liquids. This blend, known as the Multipurpose Gelling Agent (MGA), has been optimized to obtain a balanced formulation that will effectively gel and immobilize most spilled h...

44

OCRWM Bulletin: Westinghouse begins designing multi-purpose canister  

SciTech Connect

This publication consists of two parts: OCRWM (Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management) Bulletin; and Of Mountains & Science which has articles on the Yucca Mountain project. The OCRWM provides information about OCRWM activities and in this issue has articles on multi-purpose canister design, and transportation cask trailer.

NONE

1995-09-01

45

Fatigue life evaluation in composite rotor blade of multipurpose helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of fatigue life and strength of the composite rotor blade for multipurpose helicopter was studied using a residual strength degradation concept. A flight-by-flight load spectrum was introduced on the basis of FELIX standard data. The composite structure analysis was performed to obtain the local stress near blade root in laminate skin and glass roving spar where fatigue damage

Jung-Ho Kwon; Kyung-Jung Hwang; Seok-Soo Kim; Pan-Jo Kim; Choon-Sam Kim

2002-01-01

46

Multi-purpose three-dimensional body form  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a multi-purpose body form that could be used to develop different types of garments by putting body skins with ease on the standard body form. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Free form deformation method was used to generate a virtual model upon the basis of the averaged wire frame. The virtual model was

Sun Mi Park; Kueng Mi Choi; Yun Ja Nam; Young-A Lee

2011-01-01

47

Multipurpose community telecenters for rural development in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to: assess the situation of rural population in Pakistan and information facilities available to them including telecommunications, computers and public libraries; document the community information initiatives in terms of objectives, institutional framework, staff, services, use, finance, technology and lessons learned; understand challenges and opportunities regarding the establishment of multipurpose community telecenters (MCTs) in rural areas

Khalid Mahmood

2005-01-01

48

Metamodels for Planar 3R Workspace Optimization.  

SciTech Connect

Robotic workspace optimization is a central element of robot system design. To formulate the optimization problem, the complex relationships between design variables, tuning parameters, and performance indices need to be accurately and efficiently represented. The nature of the relationships suggests that metamodels, or models of the models, should be used to derive suitable objective functions. A comparison of two metamodeling techniques for robotic workspace optimization problems for several trial cases suggests that non-uniform rational B-spline models, derived from computer graphics and computer-aided design techniques, are as suitable as response surface models to solve planar 3R workspace optimization problems. Promising nonlinear modeling results with B-spline models suggest future work is justified and performance gains can be realized.

Turner, C. J. (Cameron J.)

2002-01-01

49

Engineered Serratia marcescens for efficient (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol production.  

PubMed

(3R)-Acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol are important pharmaceutical intermediates. However, until now, the quantity of natural microorganisms with the ability to produce single configuration of optically pure (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol is rare. In this study, a meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by the slaC gene from Serratia marcescens MG1 was identified for meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. Inactivation of the slaC gene could significantly decrease meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol and result in a large quantity of (3R)-acetoin accumulation. Furthermore, a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by the bdhA gene from Bacillus subtilis 168 was introduced into the slaC mutant strain of Serratia marcescens MG1. Excess (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase could accelerate the reaction from (3R)-acetoin to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and lead to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol accumulation. In fed-batch fermentation, the excess (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase expression strain could produce 89.81 g/l (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol with a productivity of 1.91 g/l/h at 48 h. These results provided potential applications for (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol production. PMID:25663525

Bai, Fangmin; Dai, Lu; Fan, Jiying; Truong, Ngoctu; Rao, Ben; Zhang, Liaoyuan; Shen, Yaling

2015-05-01

50

25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements § 36.103 What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? Homeliving programs must provide adequate areas for sleeping, study, recreation, and related activities....

2010-04-01

51

25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements § 36.103 What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? Homeliving programs must provide adequate areas for sleeping, study, recreation, and related activities....

2011-04-01

52

Programmable Thermostat Module Upgrade for the Multipurpose Logistics Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-121/ULF 1.1 mission was the maiden flight of the programmable thermostat module (PTM) system used to control the 28 V shell heaters on the multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM). These PTMs, in conjunction with a data recorder module (DRM), provide continuous closed loop temperature control and data recording of MPLM on-orbit heater operations. This Technical Memorandum discusses the hardware design, development, test, and verification (DDT&V) activities performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as well as the operational implementation and mission performance.

Clark, D. W.; Glasgow, S. d.; Reagan, S. E.; Presson, K. H.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

2007-01-01

53

A multipurpose model of Hermes-Columbus docking mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the foreseen missions of the HERMES spacevehicle is the servicing to the Columbus Free Flying Laboratory (MTFF). Docking between the two spacecraft is a critical operation in which the Docking Mechanism (DM) has a major role. In order to analyze and assess robustness of initially selected concepts and to identify suitable implementation solutions, through the investigation of main parameters involved in the docking functions, a multipurpose model of DM was developed and tested. This paper describes the main design features as well as the process of calibrating and testing.

Gonzalez-Vallejo, J. J.; Fehse, W.; Tobias, A.

1992-01-01

54

77 FR 67732 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2009 Porsche Cayenne S Multipurpose...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2009 Porsche Cayenne S Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles...for a decision that nonconforming 2009 Porsche Cayenne S multipurpose passenger vehicles...S.-certified version of the 2009 Porsche Cayenne S MPV) and they are capable...

2012-11-13

55

Disinfecting action of a new multi-purpose disinfection solution for contact lenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disinfection activity of a new multipurpose disinfection solution (OPTI-FREE® Express® with ALDOX™) was compared to several other contact lens disinfecting solutions. The new solution is preserved with polyquaternium-1 and myristamidopropyl dimethylamine. The other solutions included 3% hydrogen peroxide systems and multipurpose solutions (MPS) preserved with polyhexamethylene biguanide. The products were tested for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa,

Ruth A. Rosenthal; William M. Bell; Robert Abshire

1999-01-01

56

The 3R polymorph of CaSi2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zintl phase CaSi2 commonly occurs in the 6R structure where puckered hexagon layers of Si atoms are stacked in an AA?BB?CC? fashion. In this study we show that sintering of CaSi2 in a hydrogen atmosphere (30 bar) at temperatures between 200 and 700 °C transforms 6R-CaSi2 quantitatively into 3R-CaSi2. In the 3R polymorph (space group R-3m (no. 166), a=3.8284(1), c=15.8966(4), Z=3) puckered hexagon layers are stacked in an ABC fashion. The volume per formula unit is about 3% larger compared to 6R-CaSi2. First principles density functional calculations reveal that 6R and 3R-CaSi2 are energetically degenerate at zero Kelvin. With increasing temperature 6R-CaSi2 stabilizes over 3R because of its higher entropy. This suggests that 3R-CaSi2 should revert to 6R at elevated temperatures, which however is not observed up to 800 °C. 3R-CaSi2 may be stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects. Quantitative and reproducible bulk synthesis of the rare 3R polymorph of CaSi2. Clarification of the energetic relation between 3R and conventional 6R form. 3R-CaSi2 is presumably stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects.

Nedumkandathil, Reji; Benson, Daryn E.; Grins, Jekabs; Spektor, Kristina; Häussermann, Ulrich

2015-02-01

57

Comparison of the SAO and AGK3R star catalogues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SAO star catalog positions from the GC and the AGK2 and Yale photographic catalogs are compared with the AGK3R catalog. Both catalogs are alleged to be on the system of the FK4. When the differences are considered as accidental errors, the mean errors deduced for positions from the SAO at the epoch 1958.5 range from 0.61 seconds to 0.25 seconds. The systematic differences in right ascension between SAO and AGK3R positions to the north of 60 deg declination indicate that each SAO source represents the FK4 somewhat differently than the AGK3R.

Scott, F. P.; Smith, C. A., Jr.

1971-01-01

58

Development of a multipurpose hand controller for JEMRMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype multipurpose hand controller for the JEMRMS (Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System) was developed. The hand controller (H/C) is an orthogonal type, with 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) and small size. The orthogonal type H/C is very simple for coordinate transformations and can easily control any type of manipulators. In fact, the JEMRMS is planned to have two manipulators controlled by a common H/C at this stage. The H/C was able to be used as a rate control joystick and a force reflection master arm, using an experimental 6 DOF manipulator. Good maneuverability was confirmed in the verification test. The orthogonal type H/C is suitable for use as a common H/C for the two manipulators of the JEMRMS.

Matsuhira, Nobuto; Iikura, Shoichi; Asakura, Makoto; Shinomiya, Yasuo

1990-01-01

59

Design of Multilayer Insulation for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multilayer insulation (MLI) is a critical component for future, long term space missions. These missions will require the storage of cryogenic fuels for extended periods of time with little to no boil-off and MLI is vital due to its exceptional radiation shielding properties. Several MLI test articles were designed and fabricated which explored methods of assembling and connecting blankets, yielding results for evaluation. Insight gained, along with previous design experience, will be used in the design of the replacement blanket for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is slated for upcoming tests. Future design considerations are discussed which include mechanical testing to determine robustness of such a system, as well as cryostat testing of samples to give insight to the loss of thermal performance of sewn panels in comparison to the highly efficient, albeit laborious application of the original MHTB blanket.

Marlow, Weston A.

2011-01-01

60

Multipurpose Panel Display Device Investigation. [technology assessment and product development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multipurpose panel was developed to provide a flexible control and a LED display panel with easily changeable nomenclature for use in applications where panel space is limited, but where a number of similar subsystems must be controlled, or where basic panel nomenclature and functions must be changed rapidly, as in the case of between mission changes of space shuttle payloads. In the first application, panel area limitations are overcome by time sharing a central control panel among several subsystems. In the latter case, entire control panel changes are effected by simply replacing a memory module, thereby reducing the extent of installation and checkout procedures between missions. Several types of control technologies (other than LED's) which show potential in meeting criteria for overcoming limitations of the panel are assessed.

Sliwa, R.

1977-01-01

61

Nonpoint source pollution management for the multipurpose dam watersheds.  

PubMed

Main pollution sources in multipurpose dam watersheds in Korea are highland fields, stream banks, livestock farms, roads, and construction sites. Specifically, highland fields are the major nonpoint pollution sources. Excessive organic chemicals such as fertilizer and pesticide can be exuded from the land, and the area is likely to be eroded by heavy rain. Fallow, conservative cultivation, and covering can be alternatives for soil protection and reinforcement. In addition to these, construction of detour waterways and improvement of irrigation method can minimize the impact of runoff. In the case of slope in 15% degree or more, prohibiting cultivation and restoring the surface is preferred to improving cultivation method in order to control nonpoint pollution sources efficiently. PMID:18547938

Choi, J-Y

2008-01-01

62

Development of a new contact lens multipurpose solution: Comparative analysis of microbiological, biological and clinical performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAntimicrobial, cytotoxicity and clinical performance of a new soft contact lens multi-purpose solution (COMPLETE® RevitaLens) based on polyquaternium-1 and alexidine dihydrochloride (NuMPS) was evaluated.

Simon Kilvington; Ling Huang; Eugenia Kao; Charles H. Powell

2010-01-01

63

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Acacia senegal (L.) Willd., a multipurpose arid and  

E-print Network

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Acacia senegal (L.) Willd, France Abstract Acacia senegal is a multipurpose African tree that improves the soil fertility of the markers to detect genetic diversity in this species. Keywords: Acacia senegal, conservation, genetic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro...

2010-04-01

65

77 FR 38766 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...S. organizations. The International Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose...ability to determine which international organizations are most suited...identifying and verifying potential international buyers of U.S. goods and...exporting experience, marketing, events and...

2012-06-29

66

The 3 R's: Reference and Research Library Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New York State Reference and Research Resources Program (3R's) is a statewide program designed to serve the research community by ensuring speedy access to advanced research library materials for students and faculty in institutions of higher education, as well as for research workers in business and industry in the State. The program was…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Library Development.

67

General Guidelines for Sustainable Purchasing 3R's -Reduce, Reuse, Recycle  

E-print Network

......................................................... 3R's - Reduce, Reuse, Recycle In order to conserve natural resources and to protect the environment considerations o Made of recycled materials, maximizing post-consumer content. o Remanufactured products, such as laser toner cartridges, tires, furniture, equipment and automotive parts whenever practicable and cost

Jiang, Huiqiang

68

Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a crew will be living and working in microgravity, interfacing with their physical environment. Without optimum restraints and mobility aids (R&MA' s), the crewmembers may be handicapped for perfonning some of the on-orbit tasks. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity area and may cause prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Thus, determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment are crucial to astronauts' well-being and productivity. The purpose of this project is to develop requirements and guidelines, and conceptual designs, for an ergonomically designed multi-purpose crew restraint. In order to achieve this goal, the project would involve development of functional and human factors requirements, design concept prototype development, analytical and computer modeling evaluations of concepts, two sets of micro gravity evaluations and preparation of an implementation plan. It is anticipated that developing functional and design requirements for a multi-purpose restraint would facilitate development of ergonomically designed restraints to accommodate the off-nominal but repetitive tasks, and minimize the performance degradation due to lack of optimum setup for onboard task performance. In addition, development of an ergonomically designed restraint concept prototype would allow verification and validation of the requirements defined. To date, we have identified "unique" tasks and areas of need, determine characteristics of "ideal" restraints, and solicit ideas for restraint and mobility aid concepts. Focus group meetings with representatives from training, safety, crew, human factors, engineering, payload developers, and analog environment representatives were key to assist in the development of a restraint concept based on previous flight experiences, the needs of future tasks, and crewmembers' preferences. Also, a catalog with existing IVA/EVA restraint and mobility aids has been developed. Other efforts included the ISS crew debrief data on restraints, compilation of data from MIR, Skylab and ISS on restraints, and investigating possibility of an in-flight evaluation of current restraint systems. Preliminary restraint concepts were developed and presented to long duration crewmembers and focus groups for feedback. Currently, a selection criterion is being refined for prioritizing the candidate concepts. Next steps include analytical and computer modeling evaluations of the selected candidate concepts, prototype development, and microgravity evaluations.

Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

2004-01-01

69

Mutations in PIK3R1 Cause SHORT Syndrome  

PubMed Central

SHORT syndrome is a rare, multisystem disease characterized by short stature, anterior-chamber eye anomalies, characteristic facial features, lipodystrophy, hernias, hyperextensibility, and delayed dentition. As part of the FORGE (Finding of Rare Disease Genes) Canada Consortium, we studied individuals with clinical features of SHORT syndrome to identify the genetic etiology of this rare disease. Whole-exome sequencing in a family trio of an affected child and unaffected parents identified a de novo frameshift insertion, c.1906_1907insC (p.Asn636Thrfs?18), in exon 14 of PIK3R1. Heterozygous mutations in exon 14 of PIK3R1 were subsequently identified by Sanger sequencing in three additional affected individuals and two affected family members. One of these mutations, c.1945C>T (p.Arg649Trp), was confirmed to be a de novo mutation in one affected individual and was also identified and shown to segregate with the phenotype in an unrelated family. The other mutation, a de novo truncating mutation (c.1971T>G [p.Tyr657?]), was identified in another affected individual. PIK3R1 is involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade and, as such, plays an important role in cell growth, proliferation, and survival. Functional studies on lymphoblastoid cells with the PIK3R1 c.1906_1907insC mutation showed decreased phosphorylation of the downstream S6 target of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. Our findings show that PIK3R1 mutations are the major cause of SHORT syndrome and suggest that the molecular mechanism of disease might involve downregulation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. PMID:23810382

Dyment, David A.; Smith, Amanda C.; Alcantara, Diana; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A.; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Curry, Cynthia J.; Temple, I. Karen; Reardon, William; Mansour, Sahar; Haq, Mushfequr R.; Gilbert, Rodney; Lehmann, Ordan J.; Vanstone, Megan R.; Beaulieu, Chandree L.; Majewski, Jacek; Bulman, Dennis E.; O’Driscoll, Mark; Boycott, Kym M.; Innes, A. Micheil

2013-01-01

70

A novel multipurpose modular mini-endoscope for otology.  

PubMed

Transtympanic access to the round window membrane (RWM) for drug delivery is in the focus of otology and has stimulated development of various endoscopes. These endoscopes are tasked to enable best visualization at a low diameter and to offer a working channel for various instruments. The specific aspect of sterilization is a major issue especially in regard to the diameter of the endoscope with its integrated working channel. We evaluated a new multi-purpose modular semi-rigid optical fiber endoscope (10,000 pixel resolution) for minimal invasive middle ear endoscopy focusing on access to the RWM and micro instruments in 12 cadaver specimens. Microscopic visualization was compared to endoscopy. With the modular mini ear endoscope (MMEE) we were able to visualize the RWM in 3 specimens directly and in 8 specimens after removal of a mucous membrane using micro instruments. A bony overhang prevented visualization of the RWM in one case. The endoscope enabled minimal invasive RWM access initially in a higher number of cases compared to microscope investigation. The designed MMEE is suited to access transtympanic the round window membrane even in situations of an obstructed round window niche. The modular concept of the endoscope is attractive for different types of indications, various instruments and with regard to the aspects of sterilization. Experiences in humans are the next necessary step to define the possible role of this endoscope in otology. PMID:25318687

Bozzato, Alessandro; Bozzato, Victoria; Al Kadah, Basel; Schick, Bernhard

2014-12-01

71

Developing Multipurpose Reproductive Health Technologies: An Integrated Strategy  

PubMed Central

Women worldwide confront two frequently concurrent reproductive health challenges: the need for contraception and for protection from sexually transmitted infections, importantly HIV/AIDS. While conception and infection share the same anatomical site and mode of transmission, there are no reproductive health technologies to date that simultaneously address that reality. Relevant available technologies are either contraceptive or anti-infective, are limited in number, and require different modes of administration and management. These “single-indication” technologies do not therefore fully respond to what is a substantial reproductive health need intimately linked to pivotal events in many women's lives. This paper reviews an integrated attempt to develop multipurpose prevention technologies—“MPTs”—products explicitly designed to simultaneously address the need for both contraception and protection from sexually transmitted infections. It describes an innovative and iterative MPT product development strategy with the following components: identifying different needs for such technologies and global variations in reproductive health priorities, defining “Target Product Profiles” as the framework for a research and development “roadmap,” collating an integrated MPT pipeline and characterizing significant pipeline gaps, exploring anticipated regulatory requirements, prioritizing candidates for problem-solving and resource investments, and implementing an ancillary advocacy agenda to support this breadth of effort. PMID:23533733

Harrison, P. F.; Hemmerling, A.; Romano, J.; Whaley, K. J.; Young Holt, B.

2013-01-01

72

Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.  

PubMed

In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

2013-11-30

73

Experimental Demonstration of an Optical-Label-Switching Router Architecture Supporting Selective 3R Regeneration  

E-print Network

Communications 1. Introduction Optical-label-switching (OLS) is an attractive technology geared towards seamless previous OLS router architecture in [2], and designates one input port as the 3R regeneration port. When the label content and forward it to the 3R port through the loop-back fiber. One 3R line-card in the 3R port

Kolner, Brian H.

74

Multi-purpose greenhouse of changeable geometry (MGCG)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frames of scientific program of National Cosmic Agency of Ukraine the multipurpose greenhouse is being developed. It is destined for the performance of biological and biotechnological experiments as well as for planting of fast growing vegetable cultures for crew ration enrichment and positive psychological influence under the conditions of long-term flight in the international space station or in other cosmic flying objects. Main principle of greenhouse arrangement is the existence of unified modules. Their sets and combinations permit to form executively different space greenhouse configurations. The minimal structural greenhouse unit suitable either for construction of total configuration or for autonomous functioning, is a carrying composite platform (CCP). The experimental vegetative module (EVM) and the module, supporting microclimate needed inside EVM, are launched to CCP. The amount of these modules and their configuration depend on quantity and complexity of tasks to be solved as well as on duration of their performance. These modules form the experimental block. Four modules of much larger sizes, which form experimentally technological block, are used for further studies of objectives approved in the experimental block. The technologies developed for growing plants are used in the third, technological block, which is a one large vegetative module. All three greenhouse blocks can be changed in their sizes in three dimensions, and function either in a complete greenhouse structure, or autonomously. The control is performed from a board computer, or, if necessary, it is governed with automation devices placed on a front panel of blocks. All three blocks are pulled out along the directing base into the station passage, and this makes free access to the base modules, convenient work with them, and à good survey.

Kordium, V.; Kornejchuk, A.

75

Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees on the fur farmlands in the Jebel Marra highlands, Western Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the traditional agroforestry systems based on Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees as practised by the sedentary Fur people on the lower slopes and highlands of the Jebel Marra massif, Sudan. The basic agrosilvopastoral system consists of terraced village fields, where semipermanent rainfed cropping of staple millet and other subsistence crops takes place under stands of multipurpose

S. Miehe

1986-01-01

76

kVp estimate intercomparison between Unfors XI, Radcal 4075 and a new CDTN multipurpose instrument.  

PubMed

In this work we compare the kVp estimate between CDTN multipurpose instrument, UnforsXI and Radcal 4075 meters under different combinations of voltage and filtration. The non-invasively measurements made using x-ray diagnostic and interventional radiology devices show similar tendencies to increase the kVp estimate when aluminum filters are placed in the path of the x-ray beam. The results reveal that the kVp estimate made by the CDTN multipurpose instrument is always satisfactory for highly filtered beam intensities. PMID:25481523

Baptista Neto, A T; Oliveira, B B; Faria, L O

2014-11-26

77

Tear cytokine response to multipurpose solutions for contact lenses  

PubMed Central

Purpose An increased risk of corneal infiltrative events has been noted with the use of certain contact lenses and multipurpose solutions (MPS). This study was designed to evaluate tear cytokine assay as a sensitive, objective, and quantitative measure of the ocular surface response to contact lens/MPS and to consider the assay’s clinical relevance in the context of other measures of ocular surface response. Methods Two MPS, ReNu® Fresh™ (RNF) and Opti-Free® RepleniSH (OFR), were used with daily wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses in a randomized, prospective crossover study involving 26 subjects. Clinical data collection (conjunctival hyperemia, ocular surface sensitivity, solution induced corneal staining (SICS) test score, and subjective responses) and tear cytokine assays were conducted masked. Responses were tracked as change from baseline throughout the experimental schedule. Results Similar response patterns for several inflammatory cytokines were seen throughout both phases: subjects who received OFR in Phase I had mean tear concentrations that were generally higher than those of the RNF Phase I group. OFR Phase I subjects had significant (P < 0.01) increases over baseline at day 1 and/or following washout for 13 cytokines (cc chemokine ligands [CCL] 3, CCL5, CCL11, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], interferon [INF]-?, interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-?). These changes were not observed in RNF Phase I subjects, even though SICS test scores increased. Phase I OFR subjects also had increased dryness, while RNF Phase I subjects had decreased bulbar hyperemia. No changes were detected with respect to limbal hyperemia or surface sensitivity thresholds. Conclusion The tear cytokine assay can detect and differentiate contact lens/MPS induced increases in inflammatory cytokines. Changes in cytokine levels were consistent with measurement of hyperemia and dryness but not with SICS scores, thereby suggesting a proinflammatory response to OFR compared to RNF that is not related to SICS test score. Tear cytokine profiles may be useful for reconciling clinical relevance of test results and in revealing signaling involved in the development of corneal infiltrative events. PMID:23847409

Kalsow, Carolyn M; Reindel, William T; Merchea, Mohinder M; Bateman, Kirk M; Barr, Joseph T

2013-01-01

78

Dynamic versus static allocation policies in multipurpose multireservoir systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the competition for water is likely to increase in the near future due to socioeconomic development and population growth, water resources managers will face hard choices when allocating water between competing users. Because water is a vital resource used in multiple sectors, including the environment, the allocation is inherently a political and social process, which is likely to become increasingly scrutinized as the competition grows between the different sectors. Since markets are usually absent or ineffective, the allocation of water between competing demands is achieved administratively taking into account key objectives such as economic efficiency, equity and maintaining the ecological integrity. When crop irrigation is involved, water is usually allocated by a system of annual rights to use a fixed, static, volume of water. In a fully-allocated basin, moving from a static to a dynamic allocation process, whereby the policies are regularly updated according to the hydrologic status of the river basin, is the first step towards the development of river basin management strategies that increase the productivity of water. More specifically, in a multipurpose multireservoir system, continuously adjusting release and withdrawal decisions based on the latest hydrologic information will increase the benefits derived from the system. However, the extent to which such an adjustment can be achieved results from complex spatial and temporal interactions between the physical characteristics of the water resources system (storage, natural flows), the economic and social consequences of rationing and the impacts on natural ecosystems. The complexity of the decision-making process, which requires the continuous evaluation of numerous trade-offs, calls for the use of integrated hydrologic-economic models. This paper compares static and dynamic management approaches for a cascade of hydropower-irrigation reservoirs using stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) formulations. As its name indicates, SDDP is an extension of SDP that removes the curse of dimensionality found in discrete SDP and can therefore be used to analyze large-scale water resources systems. For the static approach, the multiobjective (irrigation-hydropower) optimization problem is solved using the constraint method, i.e. net benefits from hydropower generation are maximized and irrigation water withdrawals are additional constraints. In the dynamic approach, the SDDP model seeks to maximize the net benefits of both hydropower and irrigation crop production. A cascade of 8 reservoirs in the Turkish and Syrian parts of the Euphrates river basin is used as a case study.

Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.; van der Zaag, P.

2007-12-01

79

Evaluation of the gait performance of above-knee amputees while walking with 3R20 and 3R15 knee joints  

PubMed Central

Background: The performance of the subjects with above-knee amputation is noticeably poorer than normal subjects. Various types of components have been designed to compensate their performance. Among various prosthetic components, the knee joint has great influence on the function. Two types of knee joints (3R15, 3R20) have been used broadly for above-knee prostheses. However, there is not enough research to highlight the influence of these joints on the gait performance of the subjects. Therefore, an aim of this research was to investigate the performance of the above-knee amputees while walking with 3R15 and 3R20 knee joints. Materials and Methods: 7 above-knee amputees were recruited in this research study. They were asked to walk with a comfortable speed to investigate the gait function of the subjects with 3 cameras 3D motion analysis system (Kinematrix system). The difference between the performances of the subjects with these joints was compared by use of paired t-test. Results: The results of this study showed that, the performances of the subjects with 3R20 were better than that with 3R15. The walking speed of the subjects with 3R20 was 66.7 m/min compared to 30.4 m/min (P-value = 0.045). Moreover; the symmetry of walking with 3R20 was more than that with 3R15, based on the spatio- temporal gait parameters values (P-value <0.05). Conclusion: The difference between the performances of the subjects with 3R20 and 3R15 knee joints was related to the walking speed, which improved while walking with 3R20 joint. PMID:23267378

Taheri, AliReza; Karimi, Mohammad Taghi

2012-01-01

80

Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R) blended cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R) as a cement replacement material has been studied. Four FC3R-blended cements were prepared by the replacement of Portland cement by FC3R in the 6–20% range by mass. Chemical, physical and mechanical properties of the FC3R-blended cements were compared to those of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Chemical and mechanical tests suggested important

J Payá; J Monzó; M. V Borrachero

2001-01-01

81

Accelerated carbonation of cement pastes partially substituted with fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerated carbonation tests have been carried out on Portland cement pastes and pastes partially substituted with a spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R) to investigate possible differences between the composition of FC3R\\/cement and plain cement matrices. Cement\\/FC3R pastes have been tested by thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction analyses. This study has revealed that the incorporation of FC3R on pastes produces a

E. Zornoza; P. Garcés; J. Monzó; M. V. Borrachero; J. Payá

2009-01-01

82

Multipurpose Ukus Camera with an Image Tube for Astronomical Photography - Part One - General Description  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multipurpose camera with an image-tube for astronomical photography has been designed at the Main Astronomical Observatory of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences. The block diagram of the camera is given. First observations with the camera have been made.

V. L. Kuznetsov; E. I. Laptev; Y. I. Malakhov; A. M. Mechetin; M. H. Rodriguez; Y. O. Romanyuk; O. A. Svyatogorov; M. G. Sosonkin; L. M. Shulman

1984-01-01

83

Development of a bottle-free multipurpose incubator for generating various bacterial culture conditions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a multipurpose incubator, without the gas cylinders (bottles) which are required for H2 and CO2 supplementation. In our bottle-free multipurpose incubator, the H2 and CO2 were generated by chemical reactions induced within the chamber. The reaction between sodium borohydride and acetic acid at a molar ratio of 1:1 was used to generate H2, according to the following formula: 4NaBH4 + 2CH3COOH + 7H2O --> 2CH3COONa + Na2B4(O7) + 16H2, whereas the other reaction, citric acid and sodium bicarbonate at a 1:1 molar ratio, was used to generate CO2, according to the following formula: C6H8(O7) + 3NaHCO3 --> Na3(C6H5(O7)) + 3H2O + 3CO2. Five species of obligate anaerobic bacteria, one strain of capnophilic bacterium, and one strain of microaerophilic bacterium were successfully cultured in the presence of their respective suitable conditions, all of which were successfully generated by our bottle-free multipurpose incubator. We conclude that, due to its greater safety, versatility, and significantly lower operating costs, this bottle-free multipurpose incubator can be used for the production of fastidious bacterial cultures, and constitutes a favorable step above existing anaerobic incubators. PMID:15765054

Yang, Nam Woong; Lim, Yong

2005-02-01

84

SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL NUMBER DENSITIES FOR MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER CRITICALITY CALCULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the number densities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be used in criticality evaluations of the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) waste packages. The objective of this analysis is to provide material number density information which will be referenced by future MPC criticality design analyses, such as for those supporting the Conceptual Design Report.

D. A. Thomas

1996-01-12

85

Breeding status of tung tree (Vernicia sp.) in China, a multipurpose oilseed crop with industrial uses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a developing country with the world’s largest population, China faces a serious challenge in satisfying its continuously increasing energy demands. Tung trees (Vernicia sp., especially V. fordii and V. montana), are multipurpose, perennial plants belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The unique ...

86

A Model for a Linked System of Multi-Purpose Reservoirs with Stochastic Inflows and Demands  

E-print Network

In Chapter I of this report a model of a single multi-purpose reservoir with stochastic inflows is addressed. The objective of the model is the development of an optimal operating policy for given time sequence of minimum and maximum reservoir...

Curry, G. L.; Helm, J. C.; Clark, R. A.

87

Testing basic performance of a very small wind turbine designed for multi-purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very small wind turbine system for multi-purposes was developed and its performance was reported in this paper. The rotor diameter of the turbine is 500mm. The tests of the energy output, turbine speed, power coefficient, and torque of turbine were carried out for a wide rage of free stream velocity. The flow around the wind turbine and the influence

Hiroyuki Hirahara; M. Zakir Hossain; Masaaki Kawahashi; Yoshitami Nonomura

2005-01-01

88

A Multi-purpose Tactile Vest for Astronauts in the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 10 day taxiflight to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2004, Dutch astronaut André Kuipers is scheduled to test a multi-purpose vibro- tactile vest. The main application of the vest is supporting the astronaut's orien- tation awareness. To this end, we employ an artificial gravity vector analogy. The location of vibration on the torso indicates the direction of

Jan B. F. van Erp; Hendrik A. H. C van Veen

2003-01-01

89

Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP2) Facility as  

E-print Network

Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP2) Facility as a Steady State Application and Technology, NFRC, Korea #12;Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan AbstractAbstract Half experiment is described. #12;Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan OutlinesOutlines · Renovation for HANBIT

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

90

The Aquatic Sciences Laboratory is a multipurpose research lab operated by the Montana Water  

E-print Network

species and disease research. The Aquatic Sciences Laboratory is ideal for research involving aquatic nuisance or invasive species. Its design, an artifact of its whirling disease origins, guaranteesThe Aquatic Sciences Laboratory is a multipurpose research lab operated by the Montana Water Center

Maxwell, Bruce D.

91

Design of HMI for multipurpose electrocardiography using higher level language (Visual C++)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to introduce a new multipurpose human machine interface (HMI) designed using higher level language. Unlike any other software, wherein if hardware is changed; there is a need to bring subsequent change in the software; this HMI can be used as a general purpose software for ECG analysis with any kind of hardware. The same

Chandrashekhar Ghule; D. G. Wakde; G. S. Virdi

2009-01-01

92

A computerized and integrated approach for heat exchanger network design in multipurpose batch plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant savings in the utility cost of batch plants can be obtained by heat integration. In this study, an integrated mathematical programming approach is developed for the determination of the cost optimal heat exchanger network for multipurpose batch chemical plants. A single step, interactive computer program (BatcHEN) which is developed for the determination of the campaigns (i.e. the set of

M. Bozan; F. Borak

2001-01-01

93

Engineering a Multi-Purpose Test Collection for Web Retrieval Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a test collection that was developed as a multi-purpose testbed for experiments on the Web in distributed information retrieval, hyperlink algorithms, and conventional ad hoc retrieval. Discusses inter-server connectivity, integrity of server holdings, inclusion of documents related to a wide spread of likely queries, and distribution of…

Bailey, Peter; Craswell, Nick; Hawking, David

2003-01-01

94

CORE SIM: A multi-purpose neutronic tool for research and education Christophe Demazire  

E-print Network

CORE SIM: A multi-purpose neutronic tool for research and education Christophe Demazière Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Division of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 suited for research and education. Some of the many benchmark cases used to validate the tool are briefly

Demazière, Christophe

95

APPLICATION OF A MULTIPURPOSE UNEQUAL-PROBABILITY STREAM SURVEY IN THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A stratified random sample with unequal-probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for data from the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of un...

96

Chemical composition and degradation characteristics of foliage of some African multipurpose trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of foliage from multipurpose leguminous trees (MPT) which had been selected as potential feed supplements for ruminants were examined for their chemical composition and in situ degradation characteristics, and were compared with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay and teff (Eragrostis abyssinica) straw. Organic matter (OM), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), nitrogen, neutral detergent nitrogen, acid detergent lignin

S. M El hassan; A Lahlou Kassi; C. J Newbold; R. J Wallace

2000-01-01

97

The trigeneration cycle as a way to create multipurpose stationary power plants based on conversion of aeroderivative turbofan engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A schematic cycle is considered, and thermodynamic analysis is performed to substantiate the possibility of creating multipurpose industrial power plants, operating on a trigeneration cycle, based on production-type turbofan engines.

Varaksin, A. Yu.; Arbekov, A. N.; Inozemtsev, A. A.

2014-10-01

98

Disinfecting action of a new multi-purpose disinfection solution for contact lenses.  

PubMed

The disinfection activity of a new multipurpose disinfection solution (OPTI-FREE Express with ALDOX) was compared to several other contact lens disinfecting solutions. The new solution is preserved with polyquaternium-1 and myristamidopropyl dimethylamine. The other solutions included 3% hydrogen peroxide systems and multipurpose solutions (MPS) preserved with polyhexamethylene biguanide. The products were tested for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, and Aspergillus fumigatus. OPTI-FREE Express provided a broader range of antimicrobial activity than the MPS. It provided activity similar to that demonstrated by 3% hydrogen peroxide systems, but unlike the hydrogen peroxide system tested, it also prevented re growth of the organisms during extended storage. PMID:16303414

Rosenthal, R A; Bell, W M; Abshire, R

1999-01-01

99

Multipurpose Wetlands Phase II/III: final design and ongoing research investigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD), the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and the National Biological Survey (NBS), in consultation with other governmental agencies, the academic community, and environmental groups, are involved in a cooperative wetlands research and demonstration effort. This report reflects progress through the first 3 years of a 5-year program. The goal of the Multipurpose Wetlands Research and Demonstration Project is to evaluate and expand the use of reclaimed water and contaminated ground water through the incorporation of multipurpose constructed wetlands into EMWD's total water resources management program. The focus of the wetlands is the development of design, construction, and operation criteria that will provide a cost-effective and innovative alternative for managing water resources and provide other public benefits in arid areas. The program also recognizes the fact that naturally-occurring wetlands, both coastal and inland, have been disappearing at an alarming rate.

Babbitt, Bruce; Beard, Daniel P.; Hancock, Lawrence F.

1994-01-01

100

Multipurpose Controller with EPICS integration and data logging: BPM application for ESS Bilbao  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a multipurpose configurable control system which can be integrated in an EPICS control network, this functionality being configured through a XML configuration file. The core of the system is the so-called Hardware Controller which is in charge of the control hardware management, the set up and communication with the EPICS network and the data storage. The reconfigurable nature of the controller is based on a single XML file, allowing any final user to easily modify and adjust the control system to any specific requirement. The selected Java development environment ensures a multiplatform operation and large versatility, even regarding the control hardware to be controlled. Specifically, this paper, focused on fast control based on a high performance FPGA, describes also an application approach for the ESS Bilbao's Beam Position Monitoring system. The implementation of the XML configuration file and the satisfactory performance outcome achieved are presented, as well as a general description of the Multipurpose Controller itself.

Arredondo, I.; del Campo, M.; Echevarria, P.; Jugo, J.; Etxebarria, V.

2013-10-01

101

Subjective and objective measures of corneal staining related to multipurpose care systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An objective, digital-imaging method of measuring corneal staining was evaluated in 24 subjects wearing soft contact lenses. The method was used to compare the clinical performance of common multipurpose care systems (MPS) for soft contact lens care. Subjects used three different MPS, one containing polyquaternium-1 (PQ) and two containing polyhexanide (PX1 and PX2), for 2 weeks in a randomised, single-masked

Nicola Pritchard; Graeme Young; Sarah Coleman; Chris Hunt

2003-01-01

102

The multipurpose time-of-flight neutron reflectometer “Platypus” at Australia's OPAL reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this manuscript we describe the major components of the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer at the 20MW OPAL reactor in Sydney, Australia. Platypus is a multipurpose spectrometer for the characterisation of solid thin films, materials adsorbed at the solid–liquid interface and free-liquid surfaces. It also has the capacity to study magnetic thin films using spin-polarised neutrons. Platypus utilises a white

M. James; A. Nelson; S. A. Holt; T. Saerbeck; W. A. Hamilton; F. Klose

2011-01-01

103

Litter dynamics of six multipurpose trees in a homegarden in Southern Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipurpose trees, the integral components of homegardens, contribute significantly to the closed nutrient cycling processes\\u000a and sustainability of the ecosystem. Although, the litter production and probable nutrient returns via litter in homegardens\\u000a have been documented, quantification and characterization of the decomposition and bioelement release from the litter have\\u000a received relatively little scientific attention. The objective of the present study is

Sheeba Rebecca Isaac; M. Achuthan Nair

2006-01-01

104

Performance test on PELICAN - a multi-purpose time of flight cold neutron spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pelican, a direct geometry multi-purpose cold neutron spectrometer has recently been commissioned at the Bragg Institute, ANSTO. The energy resolution and flux at the sample position as a function of neutron wavelength has been evaluated and time focusing at selected energy transfers has also been demonstrated. Several test experiments of quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scatterings have been performed and these have indicated the realisation of the design specifications and performance of the instrument.

Yu, Dehong; Mole, Richard. A.; Kearley, Gordon J.

2015-01-01

105

Comparative growth performance of some multipurpose trees and shrubs grown at Machakos, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth rates of 29 multipurpose trees grown in an agroforestry arboretum for six years at a sub-humid to semi-arid climatic\\u000a zone are presented. Exotic species such as Grevillea robusta, Sesbania grandiflora, Leucaena leucocephala, Cassia siamea and Sesbania sesban, some of which were outside their traditional climatic zones, had higher diameters, heights and bole volumes\\/tree (upto 130%\\u000a more in certain cases)

Bashir Jama; P. K. R. Nair; P. W. Kurira

1989-01-01

106

The status of H-ion source development for Korea multipurpose accelerator complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10 mA CW H-ion source using a transformer coupled plasma source for Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) is under development. The H-ion source for KOMAC is a radio-frequency (rf), volume type, H-source using the transformer coupled plasma with an outside antenna. In the past experiment of H- ion extraction, the total current of an H-beam of 3mA without cesium

G. H. Lee; I. S. Hong; J. A. Park; Y. S. Hwang

2003-01-01

107

Multi-purpose sulphur-sodium cell and mockup battery of twelve cells for electric car  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report provides results of electrical tests of multipurpose cells and electric car mockup battery of twelve cells. It is shown that, sulphur-sodium accumulators, being produced at STC “ISTOK”, have adequate reliability in testing under electric car batteries conditions. They withstand discharge current of up to 1.0 A\\/cm2 density and demonstrate consistent characteristics at operating current densities of 0.1-0.3 A\\/cm2.

Yu. V. Nikolaev; V. I. Vbyvanets; V. S. Suganeev; D. N. Dzhalandinov; A. P. Belousenko; V. N. Fedorova

1996-01-01

108

Multipurpose oil-bearing plants tolerant of arid or semiarid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-six plant species from Arizona were examined for their multipurpose oil-producing potential. Whole-plant samples, excluding\\u000a roots, were analyzed for “oil,” “polyphenol,” “hydrocarbon” and apparent protein contents as well as for botanical features.\\u000a Oil fractions of species that yielded at least 3.0% oil (dry, ash-free plant basis) were analyzed for classes of lipid constituents.\\u000a After saponification of these oils, contents of

M. E. Carr; B. S. Phillips; M. O. Bagby

1985-01-01

109

Feasibility Study of a Multi-Purpose Computer Program for Optimizing Heat Rates in Power Cycles  

E-print Network

FEASIBILITY STUDY OF A MULTI-PURPOSE COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR OPTIMIZING HEAT RATES IN POWER CYCLES Y. Menuchin K.P. Singh Joseph Oat Corporation Camden, NJ ABSTRACT A study of currently available commercial codes which evaluate the thermal... to fossil fired plants. Skyrocketing fuel costs of fossil as well as nuclear fuels call for greater awareness to achieve better thermal efficiencies in operating plants. For example, improvement of only 0.5% in current heat rate of an average size unit...

Menuchin, Y.; Singh, K. P.; Hirota, N.

1981-01-01

110

In vitro propagation of a multipurpose leguminous tree ( Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.) using nodal explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pterocarpus marsupium (Bijasal) is a valuable multipurpose forest tree. The regeneration rate in natural habitat is low and the tree is overexploited.\\u000a An in vitro propagation protocol has been developed from nodal explants obtained from in vitro raised 18-day-old axenic seedlings.\\u000a The highest shoot regeneration frequency (85%), maximum number of multiple shoots (8.6) as well as length (4.8 cm) were induced

Mohd Kashif Husain; Mohammad Anis; Anwar Shahzad

2008-01-01

111

Palatability of wilted and dried multipurpose tree species fed to sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palatability indices of dry and wilted 18 multipurpose tree species (MPTs) were determined using 12 wethers and 12 bucks (mean ± SD liveweight 17.5 ± 1.24 kg and 20.5 ± 1.46 kg, respectively), blocked into two groups on liveweight and age, housed in a roofed and half-walled shed with individual feeding pens. The 18 MPTs were randomly grouped into sets

R. J. Kaitho; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J. van Bruchem; J. Hanson

1997-01-01

112

Engineering a multi-purpose test collection for Web retrieval experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research into text retrieval methods for the Web has been restricted by the lack of a test collection capable of supporting experiments which are both realistic and reproducible. The 1.69 million document WT10g collection is proposed as a multi-purpose testbed for experiments with these attributes, in distributed IR, hyperlink algorithms and conventional ad hoc retrieval.WT10g was constructed by selecting

Peter Bailey; Nick Craswell; David Hawking

2003-01-01

113

Multipurpose Prevention Technologies: Biomedical Tools to Prevent HIV-1, HSV-2, and Unintended Pregnancies  

PubMed Central

Statistics clearly show an unmet need for highly effective contraception, especially in less developed countries. Many of these countries are at the core of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and show very high prevalence rates for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as that caused by HSV-2. A woman at risk of unintended pregnancy due to unprotected intercourse is also at risk for HIV/STI. Owing to their causative interrelationship, combining protection against these conditions will result in enhanced prevention and health benefits. Existing multipurpose prevention modalities such as condoms and physical barriers, albeit efficacious, face cultural hurdles that have so far hindered their widespread use. Success has recently been demonstrated in large clinical trials, demonstrating proof of concept of microbicides in reducing the incidence of HIV-1 and HSV-2 among at-risk populations. The challenge heretofore is to refine these products to make them more potent, convenient, accessible, and acceptable. Potent antiviral drugs released topically in the female reproductive tract by innovative delivered systems and formulations will provide safe, effective, and acceptable multipurpose prevention tools. This paper provides an overview of existing and novel approaches to multipurpose prevention strategies. PMID:21836811

Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R.; Doncel, Gustavo F.

2011-01-01

114

Short synthesis of chiral tentacled porphyrins using pyrrolylmagnesiumbromide and (3 R)-(+)-citronellal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction between pyrrolylmagnesiumbromide and (3R)-(+)-citronellal produced porphyrin 1 with four chains at the meso carbons, each one bearing a stereogenic centre at C-2 and a double bond at C-5. 4?-Fluoro-phenyldipyrrylmethanebismagnesiumbromide 4 with (3R)-(+)-citronellal gave rise to porphyrin 2 with two stereogenic chains.

Mara Cornia; Silvia Capacchi; Simonetta Porcari; Pieralberto Tarasconi

1997-01-01

115

Experimental Demonstration of Optical TTL Based Selective-3R in OLS Network Testbed with Label Rewriting  

E-print Network

Experimental Demonstration of Optical TTL Based Selective-3R in OLS Network Testbed with Label in an OLS testbed with OLS routers, which intelligently apply 3R only when necessary. The experiment-label-switching (OLS) is an attractive technology that enables seamless integration of data and optical networking

Kolner, Brian H.

116

32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense... Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) EC24OC91.021 EC24OC91.022...

2014-07-01

117

32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense... Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) EC24OC91.021 EC24OC91.022...

2012-07-01

118

32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense... Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) EC24OC91.021 EC24OC91.022...

2011-07-01

119

32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense... Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) EC24OC91.021 EC24OC91.022...

2010-07-01

120

32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense... Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) EC24OC91.021 EC24OC91.022...

2013-07-01

121

Work continues on Leonardo, the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, in the Space Station Processing Faci  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility work on Leonardo, the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) built by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). The MPLM, a reusable logistics carrier, will be the primary delivery system used to resupply and return International Space Station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Leonardo is the first of three MPLM carriers for the International Space Station. It is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Mission STS-102, targeted for June 2000. Leonardo shares space in the SSPF with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), targeted for launch in September 1999, and Destiny, the U.S. Lab module, targeted for mission STS-98 in late April 2000.

1999-01-01

122

Pharmacokinetics of a Multipurpose Pod-Intravaginal Ring Simultaneously Delivering Five Drugs in an Ovine Model  

PubMed Central

Multipurpose technologies that simultaneously protect from sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy are urgently needed. Pod-intravaginal rings (IVRs) formulated with the antiretroviral agents (ARVs) tenofovir, nevirapine, and saquinavir and the contraceptives etonogestrel and estradiol were evaluated in sheep. Steady-state concentrations were maintained for 28 days with controlled, sustained delivery. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that pod IVRs can deliver three ARVs from different mechanistic classes and a progestin-estrogen combination over the wide range needed for putative preventative efficacy. PMID:23752507

Moss, John A.; Malone, Amanda M.; Smith, Thomas J.; Kennedy, Sean; Nguyen, Cali; Vincent, Kathleen L.; Motamedi, Massoud

2013-01-01

123

Pharmacokinetics of a multipurpose pod-intravaginal ring simultaneously delivering five drugs in an ovine model.  

PubMed

Multipurpose technologies that simultaneously protect from sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy are urgently needed. Pod-intravaginal rings (IVRs) formulated with the antiretroviral agents (ARVs) tenofovir, nevirapine, and saquinavir and the contraceptives etonogestrel and estradiol were evaluated in sheep. Steady-state concentrations were maintained for 28 days with controlled, sustained delivery. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that pod IVRs can deliver three ARVs from different mechanistic classes and a progestin-estrogen combination over the wide range needed for putative preventative efficacy. PMID:23752507

Moss, John A; Malone, Amanda M; Smith, Thomas J; Kennedy, Sean; Nguyen, Cali; Vincent, Kathleen L; Motamedi, Massoud; Baum, Marc M

2013-08-01

124

Programmable Thermostat Module Upgrade for the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-121/ULF1.1 mission was the maiden flight of the Programmable Thermostat Module (PTM) system used to control the 28 V shell heaters on the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). These PTMs, in conjunction with a Data Recorder Module (DRM), provide continuous closed loop temperature control and data recording of MPLM on-orbit heater operations. This paper will discuss the hardware design, development, test and verification (DDT&V) activities performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as well as the operational implementation and mission performance.

Clark, Dallas; Glasgow, Shaun; Reagan, Shawn; Presson, Keith; Howard, David; Smith, Dennis

2007-01-01

125

Ethical issues for late-stage trials of multipurpose prevention technologies for HIV and pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) designed to simultaneously prevent pregnancy and HIV could provide urgently needed tools to address unmet sexual and reproductive health needs of women worldwide. Late-stage clinical trials will be complex given the need to demonstrate efficacy for HIV and contraceptive indications simultaneously from a single product. Currently, HIV and pregnancy prevention trials have distinctive design features that will need to be reconciled in MPT trials. This article identifies several ethical issues uniquely associated with this research that will benefit from future deliberation and guidance to ensure that this globally important research can proceed efficiently and expeditiously. PMID:25113651

Cohen, Jessica A.; Mastroianni, Anna C.; Macklin, Ruth

2014-01-01

126

A self-timed multipurpose delay sensor for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs).  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel self-timed multi-purpose sensor especially conceived for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The aim of the sensor is to measure performance variations during the life-cycle of the device, such as process variability, critical path timing and temperature variations. The proposed topology, through the use of both combinational and sequential FPGA elements, amplifies the time of a signal traversing a delay chain to produce a pulse whose width is the sensor's measurement. The sensor is fully self-timed, avoiding the need for clock distribution networks and eliminating the limitations imposed by the system clock. One single off- or on-chip time-to-digital converter is able to perform digitization of several sensors in a single operation. These features allow for a simplified approach for designers wanting to intertwine a multi-purpose sensor network with their application logic. Employed as a temperature sensor, it has been measured to have an error of  ±0.67 °C, over the range of 20-100 °C, employing 20 logic elements with a 2-point calibration. PMID:24361927

Osuna, Carlos Gómez; Ituero, Pablo; López-Vallejo, Marisa

2013-01-01

127

A Self-Timed Multipurpose Delay Sensor for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel self-timed multi-purpose sensor especially conceived for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The aim of the sensor is to measure performance variations during the life-cycle of the device, such as process variability, critical path timing and temperature variations. The proposed topology, through the use of both combinational and sequential FPGA elements, amplifies the time of a signal traversing a delay chain to produce a pulse whose width is the sensor's measurement. The sensor is fully self-timed, avoiding the need for clock distribution networks and eliminating the limitations imposed by the system clock. One single off- or on-chip time-to-digital converter is able to perform digitization of several sensors in a single operation. These features allow for a simplified approach for designers wanting to intertwine a multi-purpose sensor network with their application logic. Employed as a temperature sensor, it has been measured to have an error of ±0.67 °C, over the range of 20–100 °C, employing 20 logic elements with a 2-point calibration. PMID:24361927

Osuna, Carlos Gómez; Ituero, Pablo; López-Vallejo, Marisa

2014-01-01

128

Lessons learnt from sexual and reproductive health and HIV linkages for multipurpose prevention technology service delivery.  

PubMed

Provision of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services that meet the complex and diverse needs of women, in particular, within resource-constrained settings, is often exacerbated by separate and uncoordinated reproductive health (RH) and HIV policies and programmes. A Rapid Assessment Tool for Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV Linkages was developed to assess bi-directional linkages between SRH and HIV at policy, systems and service delivery levels, as well as to identify gaps and contribute to the development of country-specific action plans. Findings from the implementation of this Assessment Tool are of particular relevance to the successful delivery and uptake of multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs), which are products in the development pipeline addressing multiple SRH needs of women, including HIV. The findings highlight the need for better coordination between SRH and HIV programmes in countries; support and training for healthcare providers on SRH, HIV and human rights; supporting SRH and HIV integration at the service delivery level through relevant policies, strategic and operational plans; and strengthening logistics and supplies systems to provide a combination approach to prevention. These lessons learnt could help programme managers and service providers to better understand the strategies for positioning multipurpose prevention products in national policy and service contexts. PMID:25335845

Lusti-Narasimhan, M; Collins, L; Hopkins, J

2014-10-01

129

Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990). Appendix A3-R  

SciTech Connect

Techniques in use at the Hanford Reservation as of March, 1990 for the analysis of liquids and radioactive effluents are described. Limitations and applications of the techniques are included. This report is Appendix A3-R.

Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

1993-05-01

130

PIK3R1 underexpression is an independent prognostic marker in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The present study focused on the prognostic roles of PIK3CA and PIK3R1 genes and additional PI3K pathway-associated genes in breast cancer. Methods The mutational and mRNA expression status of PIK3CA, PIK3R1 and AKT1, and expression status of other genes involved in the PI3K pathway (EGFR, PDK1, PTEN, AKT2, AKT3, GOLPH3, WEE1, P70S6K) were assessed in a series of 458 breast cancer samples. Results PIK3CA mutations were identified in 151 samples (33.0%) in exons 1, 2, 9 and 20. PIK3R1 mutations were found in 10 samples (2.2%) and underexpression in 283 samples (61.8%). AKT1 mutations were found in 15 samples (3.3%) and overexpression in 116 samples (25.3%). PIK3R1 underexpression tended to mutual exclusivity with PIK3CA mutations (p = 0.00097). PIK3CA mutations were associated with better metastasis-free survival and PIK3R1 underexpression was associated with poorer metastasis-free survival (p = 0.014 and p = 0.00028, respectively). By combining PIK3CA mutation and PIK3R1 expression status, four prognostic groups were identified with significantly different metastasis-free survival (p = 0.00046). On Cox multivariate regression analysis, the prognostic significance of PIK3R1 underexpression was confirmed in the total population (p = 0.0013) and in breast cancer subgroups. Conclusions PIK3CA mutations and PIK3R1 underexpression show opposite effects on patient outcome and could become useful prognostic and predictive factors in breast cancer. PMID:24229379

2013-01-01

131

Genotypic and Phenotypic Heterogeneity in the U3R Region of HIV Type 1 Subtype C  

PubMed Central

Abstract Approximately 20% of all HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) occurs in utero (IU). In a chronic HIV infection, HIV-1 exists as a complex swarm of genetic variants, and following IU MTCT, viral genomic diversity is restricted through a mechanism that remains to be described. The 5? U3R region of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) contains multiple transcription factor (TF) binding sites and regulates viral transcription. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sequence polymorphisms in the U3R region of LTR are associated with IU MTCT. To this end, we used single template amplification to isolate 517 U3R sequences from maternal, placental, and infant plasma derived from 17 HIV-infected Malawian women: eight whose infants remained HIV uninfected (NT) and nine whose infants became HIV infected IU. U3R sequences show pairwise diversities ranging from 0.2% to 2.3%. U3R sequences from one participant contained two, three, or four putative NF-?B binding sites. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicated that U3R sequences from eight of nine IU participants were consistent with placental compartmentalization of HIV-1 while only one of eight NT cases was consistent with such compartmentalization. Specific TF sequence polymorphisms were not significantly associated with IU MTCT. To determine if replication efficiency of the U3R sequences was associated with IU MTCT, we cloned 90 U3R sequences and assayed promoter activity in multiple cell lines. Although we observed significant, yet highly variable promoter activity and TAT induction of promoter activity in the cell lines tested, there was no association between measured promoter activity and MTCT status. Thus, we were unable to detect a promoter genotype or phenotype associated with IU MTCT. PMID:23826737

Mates, Jessica M.; Kumar, Surender B.; Bazan, Jose; Mefford, Megan; Voronkin, Igor; Handelman, Samuel; Mwapasa, Victor; Ackerman, William; Janies, Daniel

2014-01-01

132

Testing in Aquatic Ecotoxicology: What Are the Scientific Conditions for the ‘3R’ Concept?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we will evaluate how and if a 3R based approach can be applied in testing of ecotoxicity of chemicals. The\\u000a 3R approach (reduce-refine-replace) is a strategy to reduce or totally abolish the use of experimental animals in favour of\\u000a alternative methods. We review the current status of alternatives in aquatic ecotoxicology and how well they perform in

Peter Pärt; Argelia Castaño; Bengt-Erik Bengtsson

133

Targeted H3R26 Deimination Specifically Facilitates Estrogen Receptor Binding by Modifying Nucleosome Structure  

PubMed Central

Transcription factor binding to DNA in vivo causes the recruitment of chromatin modifiers that can cause changes in chromatin structure, including the modification of histone tails. We previously showed that estrogen receptor (ER) target gene activation is facilitated by peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2)-catalyzed histone H3R26 deimination (H3R26Cit). Here we report that the genomic distributions of ER and H3R26Cit in breast cancer cells are strikingly coincident, linearly correlated, and observed as early as 2 minutes following estradiol treatment. The H3R26Cit profile is unlike that of previously described histone modifications and is characterized by sharp, narrow peaks. Paired-end MNase ChIP-seq indicates that the charge-neutral H3R26Cit modification facilitates ER binding to DNA by altering the fine structure of the nucleosome. Clinically, we find that PAD2 and H3R26Cit levels correlate with ER expression in breast tumors and that high PAD2 expression is associated with increased survival in ER+ breast cancer patients. These findings provide insight into how transcription factors gain access to nucleosomal DNA and implicate PAD2 as a novel therapeutic target for ER+ breast cancer. PMID:25211228

Anguish, Lynne; Kim, Sohyoung; Varticovski, Lyuba; Lis, John T.; Hager, Gordon L.; Coonrod, Scott A.

2014-01-01

134

Targeted H3R26 deimination specifically facilitates estrogen receptor binding by modifying nucleosome structure.  

PubMed

Transcription factor binding to DNA in vivo causes the recruitment of chromatin modifiers that can cause changes in chromatin structure, including the modification of histone tails. We previously showed that estrogen receptor (ER) target gene activation is facilitated by peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2)-catalyzed histone H3R26 deimination (H3R26Cit). Here we report that the genomic distributions of ER and H3R26Cit in breast cancer cells are strikingly coincident, linearly correlated, and observed as early as 2 minutes following estradiol treatment. The H3R26Cit profile is unlike that of previously described histone modifications and is characterized by sharp, narrow peaks. Paired-end MNase ChIP-seq indicates that the charge-neutral H3R26Cit modification facilitates ER binding to DNA by altering the fine structure of the nucleosome. Clinically, we find that PAD2 and H3R26Cit levels correlate with ER expression in breast tumors and that high PAD2 expression is associated with increased survival in ER+ breast cancer patients. These findings provide insight into how transcription factors gain access to nucleosomal DNA and implicate PAD2 as a novel therapeutic target for ER+ breast cancer. PMID:25211228

Guertin, Michael J; Zhang, Xuesen; Anguish, Lynne; Kim, Sohyoung; Varticovski, Lyuba; Lis, John T; Hager, Gordon L; Coonrod, Scott A

2014-09-01

135

Multipurpose Compound  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

1983-01-01

136

Reserve carbohydrate levels in the boles and structural roots of five multipurpose tree species in a seasonally dry tropical climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to know the seasonal cycles of reserve carbohydrates in agroforestry trees because their ability to sprout after cutting may depend on reserve carbohydrate levels. Such information is lacking for tropical agroforestry trees. Reserve carbohydrate trends were examined in uncut, 12-year-old multipurpose trees in the seasonally dry climate of Ibadan, Nigeria. Species included Dactyladenia barteri, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena

C. R Latt; P. K. R Nair; B. T Kang

2001-01-01

137

Potential of nine multipurpose tree species to reduce saline groundwater tables in the lower Amu Darya River region of Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the potential of nine multipurpose tree species for afforestation of degraded land in the Khorezm region, Central Asia, particularly their suitability for biodrainage i.e., lowering the elevated groundwater table through the transpirative capacity of plantations. For this purpose water use (WU), water use efficiency (WUE) and tree physiological factors influencing transpiration were assessed during two consecutive years.

Asia Khamzina; John P. A. Lamers; Christopher Martius; Martin Worbes; Paul L. G. Vlek

2006-01-01

138

(1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonance assignments for 3rC and 3rCWP: amyloidogenic variants of imunoglobulin ? 3 light-chain.  

PubMed

Primary amyloidosis (AL) is the most common amyloid systemic disease and it is characterized by the deposition of immunoglobulin light-chain amyloid fibers in different organs, causing organ failure. The germ-line lambda 3 immunoglobulin light-chain proteins have been correlated with the AL condition. Two mutants have been derived from this germ-line, the single mutant C34Y (3rC) and the triple mutant C34Y, W35A and P7D (3rCWP), presenting a remarkable difference in amyloid fibril formation propensities in vitro. Here we report the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of these proteins, as the first step to use solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to get a better understanding of the amyloid fibril formation differences between these two mutants. PMID:24816896

Gil-Rodríguez, Paloma; Amero, Carlos

2015-04-01

139

3C3R Modified PBL Pediatric Teaching of Chinese Medical Students  

PubMed Central

A Content, Context, Connection and Researching, Reasoning, Reflecting (3C3R) model is a conceptual framework for problem-based learning (PBL) problem design. We introduced the 3C3R-PBL method into a pediatric teaching plan, and evaluated its effectiveness and feasibility. The 3C3R model was applied in a pediatric problem design teaching plan “why the lips turn purple when a baby is crying”. All students were assigned either into a traditional PBL course or into a 9-step 3C3R model PBL course (3C3R-PBL). The performance outcomes of both groups were compared. For the PBL group, the proportion of students scoring ?4 for content, context, and problem design connection, was 90.8%, 80.3%, and 64.5% respectively, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 71.4%, and 28.6%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ?4 was 81.6%, 55.3%, and 40.8%, while for tutors, it was 71.4%, 100%, and 57.1%. The learning difficulty was not considered high with only 31.6% of students and 42.9% of tutors rating the task as difficult. For the 3C3R-PBL group, the proportion of students scoring content, context, and connection, ?4 was 100%, 98.4%, and 90.5%, while for tutors it was 100%, 100%, 83.3%; for researching, reasoning, and reflecting, the proportion of students scoring ?4 was 95.2%, 88.9%, and 76.2%, while for tutors it was 100% for all 3 R components. Students and tutors were convinced by the content, case context, research process and reasoning process of both teaching plans, while scores for connection and reflecting were significantly improved when the PBL plan was amended by a 3C3R model (p<0.05) and the case learning difficulty was statistically increased (p<0.05). The 3C3R model, evaluated for the first time in China, was helpful for effective and reliable problem design in a pediatric PBL teaching plan for Chinese students. PMID:23667610

Xue, Haihong; Qian, Jihong; Wang, Lianwen; Yuan, Xiaojun; Chen, Yi; Wu, Weilan; Chen, Yan; Sun, Kun

2013-01-01

140

Transportation system benefits of early deployment of a 75-ton multipurpose canister system  

SciTech Connect

In 1993 the US Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) began developing two multipurpose canister (MPC) systems to provide a standardized method for interim storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at commercial nuclear power plants. One is a 75-ton concept with an estimated payload of about 6 metric tons (t) of SNF, and the other is a 125-ton concept with an estimated payload of nearly 11 t of SNF. These payloads are two to three times the payloads of the largest currently certified US rail transport casks, the IF-300. Although is it recognized that a fully developed 125-ton MPC system is likely to provide a greater cost benefit, and radiation exposure benefit than the lower-capacity 75-ton MPC, the authors of this paper suggest that development and deployment of the 75-ton MPC prior to developing and deploying a 125-ton MPC is a desirable strategy. Reasons that support this are discussed in this paper.

Wankerl, M.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schmid, S.P. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

141

MATISSE: Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In planetary sciences, design, assemble and launch onboard instruments are only preliminary steps toward the final aim of converting data into scientific knowledge, as the real challenge is the data analysis and interpretation. Up to now data have been generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e. common ftp servers where the user can manually search for data browsing directories organized in a time order manner. However, as datasets to be stored and searched become particularly large, this latter task absorb a great part of the time, subtracting time to the real scientific work. In order to reduce the time spent to search and analyze data MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), a new set of software tools developed together with the scientific teams of the instruments involved, is under development at ASDC (ASI Science Data Center), whose experience in space missions data management is well known (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4]).

Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Antonelli, L. A.

2013-09-01

142

Elaborate control over the morphology and structure of mercapto-functionalized mesoporous silicas as multipurpose carriers.  

PubMed

In this article, mercapto-functionalized helical mesoporous silica nanorods have been synthesized by a one-step co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. Process parameters, including MPTS concentration, stirring time and added volume of ethanol as co-solvent, were both carefully and accurately regulated, and obtained results showed that these parameters all had large effects on the morphology and structure of products. Furthermore, the helical mesoporous silica nanorods were successfully employed as multipurpose carriers for Au nanoparticles (NPs) and CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) by in situ formation and post-loading, respectively. In a preliminary catalytic test, Au NPs as small as ca. 0.6 nm in the helical mesoporous silica nanorods after calcination showed much enhanced catalytic activity for reduction of methylene blue (MB(+)). PMID:20730188

Du, Xin; He, Junhui

2010-10-14

143

Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

2005-01-01

144

Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launched on July 26 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

2005-01-01

145

Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.

2013-01-01

146

Abolished InsP3R2 function inhibits sweat secretion in both humans and mice  

PubMed Central

There are 3 major sweat-producing glands present in skin; eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands. Due to the high rate of secretion, eccrine sweating is a vital regulator of body temperature in response to thermal stress in humans; therefore, an inability to sweat (anhidrosis) results in heat intolerance that may cause impaired consciousness and death. Here, we have reported 5 members of a consanguineous family with generalized, isolated anhidrosis, but morphologically normal eccrine sweat glands. Whole-genome analysis identified the presence of a homozygous missense mutation in ITPR2, which encodes the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2), that was present in all affected family members. We determined that the mutation is localized within the pore forming region of InsP3R2 and abrogates Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ release by InsP3R2 in clear cells of the sweat glands is important for eccrine sweat production. Itpr2–/– mice exhibited a marked reduction in sweat secretion, and evaluation of sweat glands from Itpr2–/– animals revealed a decrease in Ca2+ response compared with controls. Together, our data indicate that loss of InsP3R2-mediated Ca2+ release causes isolated anhidrosis in humans and suggest that specific InsP3R inhibitors have the potential to reduce sweat production in hyperhidrosis. PMID:25329695

Klar, Joakim; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Baig, Shahid M.; Tariq, Muhammad; Johansson, Anna C.V.; Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Naveed Altaf; Ameur, Adam; Sugiura, Kotomi; Feuk, Lars; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Dahl, Niklas

2014-01-01

147

Abolished InsP3R2 function inhibits sweat secretion in both humans and mice.  

PubMed

There are 3 major sweat-producing glands present in skin; eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands. Due to the high rate of secretion, eccrine sweating is a vital regulator of body temperature in response to thermal stress in humans; therefore, an inability to sweat (anhidrosis) results in heat intolerance that may cause impaired consciousness and death. Here, we have reported 5 members of a consanguineous family with generalized, isolated anhidrosis, but morphologically normal eccrine sweat glands. Whole-genome analysis identified the presence of a homozygous missense mutation in ITPR2, which encodes the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2), that was present in all affected family members. We determined that the mutation is localized within the pore forming region of InsP3R2 and abrogates Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ release by InsP3R2 in clear cells of the sweat glands is important for eccrine sweat production. Itpr2-/- mice exhibited a marked reduction in sweat secretion, and evaluation of sweat glands from Itpr2-/- animals revealed a decrease in Ca2+ response compared with controls. Together, our data indicate that loss of InsP3R2-mediated Ca2+ release causes isolated anhidrosis in humans and suggest that specific InsP3R inhibitors have the potential to reduce sweat production in hyperhidrosis. PMID:25329695

Klar, Joakim; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Baig, Shahid M; Tariq, Muhammad; Johansson, Anna C V; Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Naveed Altaf; Ameur, Adam; Sugiura, Kotomi; Feuk, Lars; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Dahl, Niklas

2014-11-01

148

The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscle power in male Japanese athletes.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscular power in Japanese collegiate athletes by analyzing the mean and peak power results of a 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) with respect to the ACTN3 R577X genotype in 253 Japanese athletes (144 men and 109 women). Each athlete performed a 30-second WAnT with a resistance equal to 7.5% of his or her body weight. Genotyping for the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan approach. The ACTN3 R577X genotypes exhibited a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution in our population. The relative and absolute mean power results of the 30-second WAnT did not differ significantly among the genotypes. However, the relative peak power result of the WAnT was significantly higher in the R-allele-dominant model groups than in the XX group in male but not female athletes. These results suggest that the ACTN3 R allele is associated with the relative peak power during the WAnT in male Japanese collegiate athletes. PMID:24343324

Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi; Min, Seok-ki; Ueda, Dai; Igawa, Shoji

2014-07-01

149

Delivery of multipurpose prevention drug combinations from electrospun nanofibers using composite microarchitectures  

PubMed Central

Background Electrospun drug-eluting fabrics have enormous potential for the delivery of physicochemically diverse drugs in combination by controlling the underlying material chemistry and fabric microarchitecture. However, the rationale for formulating drugs at high drug loading in the same or separate fibers is unknown but has important implications for product development and clinical applications. Methods Using a production-scale free-surface electrospinning instrument, we produced electrospun nanofibers with different microscale geometries for the co-delivery of tenofovir (TFV) and levonorgestrel (LNG) – two lead drug candidates for multipurpose prevention of HIV acquisition and unintended pregnancy. We investigated the in vitro drug release of TFV and LNG combinations from composites that deliver the two drugs from the same fiber (combined fibers) or from separate fibers in a stacked or interwoven architecture. For stacked composites, we also examined the role that fabric thickness has on drug-release kinetics. We also measured the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the drugs delivered alone and in combination. Results Herein, we report on the solution and processing parameters for the free-surface electrospinning of medical fabrics with controlled microarchitecture and high drug loading (up to 20 wt%). We observed that in vitro release of the highly water-soluble TFV, but not the water-insoluble LNG, was affected by composite microarchitecture, fabric thickness, and drug content. Finally, we showed that the drug-loaded nanofibers are noncytotoxic and that the antiviral activity of TFV is preserved through the electrospinning process and when combined with LNG. Conclusion Electrospun fabrics with high drug loading create multicomponent systems that benefit from the independent control of the nanofibrous microarchitecture. Our findings are significant because they will inform the design and production of composite electrospun fabrics for the co-delivery of physicochemically diverse drugs that may be useful for multipurpose prevention. PMID:24971008

Blakney, Anna K; Krogstad, Emily A; Jiang, Yonghou H; Woodrow, Kim A

2014-01-01

150

CSF3R, SETBP1 and CALR mutations in chronic neutrophilic leukemia.  

PubMed

The WHO 2008 definition of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is based on clinical and laboratory parameters but not on molecular abnormalities. Mutations in CSF3R, SETBP1 and CALR are reported in patients with chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL). However, because CNL is rare, there are few large studies of this issue. We sequenced these genes in 14 patients who met the WHO-criteria of CNL. 8 subjects had CSF3R(T618I), 6 SETBP1 mutations and 1 a CALR mutation. Our data suggest mutation analysis of CSF3R, SETBP1 and CALR should be included in the diagnostic criteria for CNL. These data may also have therapy implications. PMID:25316523

Cui, Yajuan; Li, Bing; Gale, Robert Peter; Jiang, Qian; Xu, Zefeng; Qin, Tiejun; Zhang, Peihong; Zhang, Yue; Xiao, Zhijian

2014-01-01

151

Superior thermoelectric response in the 3R phases of hydrated NaxRhO2  

PubMed Central

Density functional theory is used to investigate the thermoelectric properties of the 3R phases of NaxRhO2 for different Na vacancy configurations and concentrations. As compared to the analogous 2H phases, the modified stacking of the atomic layers in the 3R phases reduces the interlayer coupling. As a consequence, the 3R phases are found to be superior in the technologically relevant temperature range. The Rh orbitals still govern the valence band maxima and therefore determine the transport properties. A high figure of merit of 0.35 is achieved in hydrated Na0.83RhO2 at 580?K by water intercalation, which is 34% higher than in the non-hydrated phase. PMID:24633155

Saeed, Y.; Singh, N.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

2014-01-01

152

Comparison of ICD10 and DC: 0-3R Diagnoses in Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare diagnoses of patients from a special outpatient department for infants,\\u000a toddlers and preschoolers. Specifically, overlap, age and gender differences according to the two classification systems DC:\\u000a 0-3R and ICD-10 were examined. 299 consecutive children aged 0–5;11 years received both ICD-10 and DC: 0-3R diagnoses. All\\u000a ICD-10 diagnoses were given prospectively at

Monika EquitFrank; Frank Paulus; Pia Fuhrmann; Justine Niemczyk; Alexander von Gontard

153

1 WHY THE 9JEATH!3R 1 Mailed Feb. 6, ---_________I--------  

E-print Network

- 1 WHY THE 9JEATH!3R 1 Mailed Feb. 6, ---_________I-------- A Science Service Feature Released called because they shine at ni,yht I-that have been found bY ~ ~ X u r a t e Photographic measurements naintained by Prof. Stoermer for Photographing auroras gave an average height of 51 miles. trails, many

154

Difference in Reactivity of Cyclopentadienyltitanium Fluorides and Chlorides Using AlR3 (R ) Me, Et)  

E-print Network

Difference in Reactivity of Cyclopentadienyltitanium Fluorides and Chlorides Using AlR3 (R ) Me, Et*TiF2Me)(AlMe2F) (2b), respec- tively, whereas under thermal conditions the reduced titanium species Cp titanium atoms, two aluminum atoms, and four bridging fluorine atoms. Introduction Metallocene complexes

Müller, Peter

155

SOAR versus SQ3R: A Test of Two Study Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although researchers have long investigated ways to improve study habits and raise achievement, few studies compare study strategy systems with one another. No study to date has compared the long popular SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) system with the more modern SOAR (Select, Organize, Associate, Regulate) system. This study…

Jairam, Dharma; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Rogers-Kasson, Sarah; Patterson-Hazley, Melissa; Marxhausen, Kim

2014-01-01

156

Benefits of Student-Generated Note Packets: A Preliminary Investigation of SQ3R Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimal research to date has evaluated the impact of Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review (SQ3R) implementation (i.e., surveying prior to reading, generating questions, reading to answer said questions, reciting, and reviewing information) on content retention and student performance. Existing research is anecdotal or lacks ecological validity. The…

Carlston, David L.

2011-01-01

157

Comparison of ICD-10 and DC: 0-3R Diagnoses in Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare diagnoses of patients from a special outpatient department for infants, toddlers and preschoolers. Specifically, overlap, age and gender differences according to the two classification systems DC: 0-3R and ICD-10 were examined. 299 consecutive children aged 0-5;11 years received both ICD-10 and…

Equit, Monika; Paulus, Frank; Fuhrmann, Pia; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander

2011-01-01

158

A Counterpart of the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa Soliton Hierarchy Associated with so(3,R)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A counterpart of the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa (WKI) soliton hierarchy, associated with so(3;R), is presented through the zero curvature formulation. Its spectral matrix is defined by the same linear combination of basis vectors as the WKI one, and its Hamiltonian structures yielding Liouville integrability are furnished by the trace identity

Ma, Wen-Xiu; Manukure, Solomon; Zheng, Hong-Chan

2014-09-01

159

We Do Not Dream of the 3 R's: Implications for the Nature of Dreaming Mentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines the extent to which dream recall involves the “3 R's” (reading, writing, and arithmetic). Two separate studies were done. In the first study, two scorers rated, on a blind basis, a total of 456 written dream reports, available from five previous studies. There was perfect agreement between the two scorers. They agreed that there were no instances

Ernest Hartmann

2000-01-01

160

The ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with muscle function in a Japanese population.  

PubMed

Homozygosity for the common nonsense polymorphism R577X in the ?-actinin-3 gene (ACTN3) causes complete ?-actinin-3 deficiency in fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers. This study investigated whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism affects fitness status using a battery of tests in a large Japanese cohort. In the present study, 1227 subjects (age: 25-85 years) were genotyped for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) using a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay (Applied Biosystems). All subjects were divided into 2 groups based on their age (<55 years and ?55 years). All subjects completed a questionnaire about exercise habits and were subjected to a battery of tests to assess their fitness status (including grip strength test, chair stand test, and 8-foot walking test). A significant association between the ACTN3 R577X genotype and chair stand test performance was observed in the group of men ?55 using ANCOVA adjusted for age and exercise habits (p = 0.036). The ACTN3 R577X genotype accounted for 2.5% of the variability in the results of the chair stand test among men in the ?55 age group. Moreover, for the ?55 age group, performance in the chair stand test was lower among those with the XX genotype than among those with the RR genotype (p = 0.024) or RX genotype (p = 0.005), unlike results for the <55 age group. No significant difference was noted for hand grip strength or 8-foot walking time. Thus, our results suggest that the ACTN3 R577X genotype is associated with lower-extremity muscle function in the Japanese population. PMID:25761735

Kikuchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Shou; Min, Seok-Ki; Lee, Kihyuk; Sakamaki-Sunaga, Mikako; Okamoto, Takanobu; Nakazato, Koichi

2015-04-01

161

Reinvestigation of the electrochemical lithium intercalation in 2H- and 3R-NbS2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layered sulfides, 2H-Li0.7NbS2 (s.g.: P63/mmc) and 3R-NbS2 (s.g: R3m) were synthesized and characterized as electrode materials for a lithium-ion battery. 2H-NbS2 has been known as a poor electrode material for Li+-intercalation. However, both 2H-Li0.7NbS2 and 3R-NbS2 show reversible charge/discharge reactions based on the Nb(IV)/Nb(III) redox couple. They present distinctive differences in the voltage curves as a result of local structural differences. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests between 1.0 and 3.0 V versus Li showed that discharge capacities were 169.5 mAh g-1 for 2H-LixNbS2 and 169.0 mAh g-1 for 3R-LixNbS2 at 0.05 C rate and room temperature. At 10 C rate, 2H-LixNbS2 delivered a discharge capacity of 84.0 mAh g-1 while 3R-LixNbS2 kept 74.9 mAh g-1. After 200 cycles at 1 C, 9% of capacity fade was observed for 2H-LixNbS2 (from 141.5 to 129.4 mAh g-1) and 3R-LixNbS2 showed 14% fade from 139.4 to 120.1 mAh g-1. The key to improvement of the electrochemical performance of the 2H-LixNbS2 electrode is an initial synthesis of Li0.7NbS2.

Liao, Youhao; Park, Kyu-Sung; Singh, Preetam; Li, Weishan; Goodenough, John B.

2014-01-01

162

Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

2009-01-01

163

Amoebicidal activity of a preserved contact lens multipurpose disinfecting solution compared to a disinfectinn\\/neutralisation peroxide system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amoebicidal activity of a contact lens multipurpose disinfecting solution (MPDS) containing polyquaternium-1 and myristamidopropyl dimethylamine was compared to a disinfection\\/neutralisation peroxide system against Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites and cysts. A quantitative microtitre method was used to evaluate the solutions. The MPDS showed similar amoebicidal activity to the disinfection\\/neutralisation peroxide system against the trophozoites of both species and

Sally L. Buck; Ruth A. Rosenthal; Robert L. Abshire

1998-01-01

164

Profiling selected phytochemicals and nutrients in different tissues of the multipurpose tree Moringa oleifera L., grown in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this new study was to determine the types and levels of major phytochemicals (non-nutrients) and nutrients in the different tissues from vegetative and flowering Moringa oleifera L. an important multipurpose crop. Rhamnose and acetyl-rhamnose-substituted glucosinolates were found in all of the M. oleifera tissues with different profiles depending on the tissue. In addition the tissues of M.

Newton K. Amaglo; Richard N. Bennett; Rosario B. Lo Curto; Eduardo A. S. Rosa; Vincenzo Lo Turco; Angela Giuffrida; Alberto Lo Curto; Francesco Crea; Gladys M. Timpo

2010-01-01

165

Simultaneous infrared-visible imager\\/spectrograph: a multipurpose instrument for the Magdalena Ridge Observatory 2.4 meter telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Simultaneous Infrared-Visible Imager\\/Spectrograph (SIRVIS) is a planned multi-purpose instrument for the Magdalena Ridge Observatory 2.4 m telescope located west of Socorro, NM. The primary science drivers are asteroid studies, the rapid response to astrophysical transient phenomena and observations of artificial targets such as satellites. For asteroid science, the wavelength range 0.39-2.5 mum gives the most mineralogically diagnostic information on

M. B. Vincent; E. V. Ryan

2006-01-01

166

Scavenger receptor BI: A multi-purpose player in cholesterol and steroid metabolism  

PubMed Central

Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is an important member of the scavenger receptor family of integral membrane glycoproteins. This review highlights studies in SR-BI knockout mice, which concern the role of SR-BI in cholesterol and steroid metabolism. SR-BI in hepatocytes is the sole molecule involved in selective uptake of cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoprotein (HDL). SR-BI plays a physiological role in binding and uptake of native apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins by hepatocytes, which identifies SR-BI as a multi-purpose player in lipid uptake from the blood circulation into hepatocytes in mice. In adrenocortical cells, SR-BI mediates the selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters, which is efficiently coupled to the synthesis of glucocorticoids (i.e. corticosterone). SR-BI knockout mice suffer from adrenal glucocorticoid insufficiency, which suggests that functional SR-BI protein is necessary for optimal adrenal steroidogenesis in mice. SR-BI in macrophages plays a dual role in cholesterol metabolism as it is able to take up cholesterol associated with HDL and apoB-containing lipoproteins and can possibly facilitate cholesterol efflux to HDL. Absence of SR-BI is associated with thrombocytopenia and altered thrombosis susceptibility, which suggests a novel role for SR-BI in regulating platelet number and function in mice. Transgenic expression of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in humanized SR-BI knockout mice normalizes hepatic delivery of HDL-cholesteryl esters. However, other pathologies associated with SR-BI deficiency, i.e. increased atherosclerosis susceptibility, adrenal glucocorticoid insufficiency, and impaired platelet function are not normalized, which suggests an important role for SR-BI in cholesterol and steroid metabolism in man. In conclusion, generation of SR-BI knockout mice has significantly contributed to our knowledge of the physiological role of SR-BI. Studies using these mice have identified SR-BI as a multi-purpose player in cholesterol and steroid metabolism because it has distinct roles in reverse cholesterol transport, adrenal steroidogenesis, and platelet function. PMID:21157967

Hoekstra, Menno; Berkel, Theo JC Van; Eck, Miranda Van

2010-01-01

167

Pleiotropic effects of TaMYB3R1 on plant development and response to osmotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we isolated and characterized TaMYB3R1, a MYB3R gene, from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In vitro assays showed that the TaMYB3R1 protein is localized to the nucleus, and functions as an MSA-binding transcriptional activator. Expression of TaMYB3R1 is induced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stress, which encouraged us to further investigate its function in planta. In the present study, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaMYB3R1. Compared with wild-type plants, the transgenic lines produced more rosette leaves, and thus more inflorescences, but the plants showed delayed development at the reproductive stage. The TaMYB3R1 protein also functions in the osmotic stress response. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stresses, and the tolerance phenotype was conveyed by limiting transpiration through increasing stomatal closure as well as reducing water loss. In addition, TaMYB3R1 influenced the expression of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent responsive genes, implicating TaMYB3R1 in diverse osmotic stress-response mechanisms in Arabidopsis. Our study sheds light on novel functions of a plant MYB3R protein. PMID:25560188

Cai, Hongsheng; Tian, Shan; Dong, Hansong; Guo, Changhong

2015-03-10

168

Subjective and objective measures of corneal staining related to multipurpose care systems.  

PubMed

An objective, digital-imaging method of measuring corneal staining was evaluated in 24 subjects wearing soft contact lenses. The method was used to compare the clinical performance of common multipurpose care systems (MPS) for soft contact lens care. Subjects used three different MPS, one containing polyquaternium-1 (PQ) and two containing polyhexanide (PX1 and PX2), for 2 weeks in a randomised, single-masked (investigator) crossover study. Corneal staining induced with the three MPS was analysed using an image-processing program (ImageTool, UTHSCSA Version 2, University of Texas, USA). Conjunctival hyperaemia and papillae were also evaluated. The intraclass correlation coefficient was similar with image analysis to that of investigator grading (0.876, 0.879, respectively). Significant differences in staining response were detected using the objective method. There was significantly less staining area with polyquaternium-1 (PQ) than polyhexanide (PQ: 0.12 mm(2), PX2: 0.91 mm(2)). Inferior palpebral papillae were significantly greater with PX2 than with PQ (1.0, 0.7 (0-4), respectively). The technique was shown to be an effective method of evaluating different corneal staining responses. Bilateral corneal staining in three or more quadrants is useful in the diagnosis of MPS-related staining. PMID:16303491

Pritchard, Nicola; Young, Graeme; Coleman, Sarah; Hunt, Chris

2003-03-01

169

Evaluation of Suited and Unsuited Human Functional Strength Using Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic Dynamometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the planned summer research was to develop a procedure to determine the isokinetic functional strength of suited and unsuited participants in order to estimate the coefficient of micro-gravity suit on human strength. To accomplish this objective, the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility's Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic dynamometer (MMID) was used. Development of procedure involved selection and testing of seven routines to be tested on MMID. We conducted the related experiments and collected the data for 12 participants. In addition to the above objective, we developed a procedure to assess the fatiguing characteristics of suited and unsuited participants using EMG technique. We collected EMG data on 10 participants while performing a programmed routing on MMID. EMG data along with information on the exerted forces, effector speed, number of repetitions, and duration of each routine were recorded for further analysis. Finally, gathering and tabulation Of data for various human strengths for updating of MSIS (HSIS) strength requirement, which started in summer 2003, also continued.

Aghazadeh, Fred

2005-01-01

170

High-current ion source development for the Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) project has been initiated to develop and build a high current proton/H- linear accelerator capable of delivering an 1 GeV cw proton beam with an intensity of 20 mA in the final stage. The major proton beam will be used for nuclear-waste transmutation, energy production, and nuclear physics experiments while utilizing the minor negative hydrogen beam for basic science research and medical therapy. A Duoplasmatron proton source for the KOMAC linear accelerator has been built at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The hydrogen beam currents of up to 50 mA at the extraction voltage of 50 kV are routinely obtained. A low normalized rms emittance of 0.2 ? mm mrad and a proton fraction of over 80% are obtained in this source. With the 100% duty factor of ion source operation, the arc filaments of the source have survived over 40 h. Except for the filament lifetime, the achieved parameters of the proton beam source are satisfying most requirements of the KOMAC ion source. The ion sources can extract the 10 mA nitrogen beam and 3 mA argon beam for the industrial surface modification processes.

Cho, Y. S.; Choi, B. H.; Hong, I. S.; Hwang, Y. S.

2000-02-01

171

A compact light-weighted and multi-purpose calibration unit for LINC-NIRVANA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory and on-sky experience suggests that the integration of big astronomical instruments, specially of a complex interferometric system, is a challenging process. LINC-NIRVANA is the Fizeau interferometric imager for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Simulating the final operating environment of every system component has shown how critical is the presence of flexures, vibrations and thermal expansion. Assembling and aligning the opto-mechanical sub-systems will require an absolute reference which is not affected by static displacements or positioning errors. A multi-purpose calibration unit has been designed to ensure the quality of the alignment of optics and detectors and the reliability of the mechanical setup. This new compact and light-weighted unit is characterized by sophisticated kinematics, simple mechanical design and composite materials. In addition, the reduced number of motorized axis improves the stiffness and lowers the angular displacements due to moving parts. The modular concept integrates several light sources to provide the proper calibration reference for the different sub-systems of LINC-NIRVANA. For the standard alignment of the optics an absolute reference fiber will be used. For flatfielding of the detectors the unit provides an integrating sphere, and a special rotating multi-fiber plate (infrared and visible) is used to calibrate the advanced adaptive optics and the fringe-tracking systems. A module to control non-common path aberrations (Flattening of Deformable Mirrors) is also provided.

De Bonis, Fulvio; Bertram, Thomas; Labadie, Lucas; Egner, Sebastian; Bizenberger, Peter; Hofferbert, Ralph; Eckart, Andreas; Kuerster, Martin; Herbst, Tom

2010-07-01

172

The multipurpose time-of-flight neutron reflectometer “Platypus” at Australia's OPAL reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this manuscript we describe the major components of the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer at the 20 MW OPAL reactor in Sydney, Australia. Platypus is a multipurpose spectrometer for the characterisation of solid thin films, materials adsorbed at the solid-liquid interface and free-liquid surfaces. It also has the capacity to study magnetic thin films using spin-polarised neutrons. Platypus utilises a white neutron beam ( ?=2-20 Å) that is pulsed using boron-coated disc chopper pairs; thus providing the capacity to tailor the wavelength resolution of the pulses to suit the system under investigation. Supermirror optical components are used to focus, deflect or spin-polarise the broad bandwidth neutron beams, and typical incident spectra are presented for each configuration. A series of neutron reflectivity datasets are presented, indicating the quality and flexibility of this spectrometer. Minimum reflectivity values of <10 -7 are observed; while maximum thickness values of 325 nm have been measured for single-component films and 483 nm for a multilayer system. Off-specular measurements have also been made to investigate in-plane features as opposed to those normal to the sample surface. Finally, the first published studies conducted using the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer are presented.

James, M.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; Saerbeck, T.; Hamilton, W. A.; Klose, F.

2011-03-01

173

DISMANTLING OF THE UPPER RPV COMPONENTS OF THE KARLSRUHE MULTI-PURPOSE RESEARCH REACTOR (MZFR), GERMANY  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-purpose Research Reactor was a pressurized-water reactor cooled and moderated with heavy water. It was built from 1961 to 1966 and went critical for the first time on 29 September 1965. After nineteen years of successful operation, the reactor was de-activated on 3 May 1984. The reactor had a thermal output of 200 MW and an electrical output of 50 MW. The MZFR not only served to supply electrical power, but also as a test bed for: - research into various materials for reactor building (e. g. zirkaloy), - the manufacturing and operating industry to gain experience in erection and operation, - training scientific and technical reactor staff, and - power supply (first nuclear combined-heat-and-power system, 1979-1984). The experience gained in operating the MZFR was very helpful for the development and operation of power reactors. At first, safe containment and enclosure of the plant was planned, but then it was decided to dismantle the plant completely, step by step, in view o f the clear advantages of this approach. The decommissioning concept for the complete elimination of the plant down to a green-field site provides for eight steps. A separate decommissioning license is required for each step. As part of the dismantling, about 72,000 Mg [metric tons] of concrete and 7,200 Mg of metal (400 Mg RPV) must be removed. About 700 Mg of concrete (500 Mg biological shield) and 1300 Mg of metal must be classified as radioactive waste.

Prechtl, E.; Suessdorf, W.

2003-02-27

174

MATISSE: Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In planetary sciences, design, assemble and launch onboard instruments are only preliminary steps toward the final aim of converting data into scientific knowledge, as the real challenge is the data analysis and interpretation. Up to now data have been generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e. common ftp servers where the user can manually search for data browsing directories organized in a time order manner. However, as datasets to be stored and searched become particularly large, this latter task absorbs a great part of the time, subtracting time to the real scientific work. In order to reduce the time spent to search and analyze data MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), a new set of software tools developed together with the scientific teams of the instruments involved, is under development at ASDC (ASI Science Data Center), whose experience in space missions data management is well known (e.g., \\citealt{verrecchia07,pittori09,giommi09,massaro11}) and its features and aims will be presented here.

Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Antonelli, L. A.

175

Amoebicidal efficacy of a novel multi-purpose disinfecting solution: first findings.  

PubMed

Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause a sight-threatening corneal infection, Acanthamoeba keratitis, mostly in contact lens wearers. The use of ineffective contact lens disinfecting solutions is one of the most important risk factors for this infection. This study concerns a new multi-purpose contact lens disinfecting solution, OPTI-FREE® PureMoist®, tested for its efficacy against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts by using the most probable number technique for amoebic enumeration. Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 50373 and an environmental strain of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 isolated from tap water in Istanbul were used during the experiments. OPTI-FREE® PureMoist® achieved total kill (more than a 3-log reduction) of trophozoites of both strains before the manufacturer-recommended disinfection time (6h). In contrast, this solution had limited cysticidal activity against the ATCC strain but more against the environmental strain, with log reductions of 0.75 and 2.20, respectively, after 6h of exposure. PMID:24858922

Ustüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

2014-11-01

176

A new NASA LaRC Multi-Purpose Prepregging Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-purpose prepregging machine has been designed and built for NASA Langley Research Center. The machine has numerous advantages over existing units due to its various modular components. Each of these can be used individually or simultaneously depending on the required prepregging method. A reverse roll coater provides the ability to prepare thin films from typical hot-melt thermoset formulations. Also, if necessary, the design allows direct fiber impregnation within the reverse roll coater gap. Included in the impregnation module is a solution dip tank allowing the fabrication of thermoplastic prepregs from solution. The proceeding modules within the unit consist of four nip stations, two hot-plates, a hot-sled option and a high temperature oven. This paper describes the advantages of such a modular construction and discusses the various processing combinations available to the prepregger. A variety of high performance prepreg material systems were produced on IM7 (Hercules) carbon fiber. These included LaRC RP46, a PMR-type resin processed from methanol and two polyamide acids, LaRC IA and LaRC ITPI, prpregged from N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP). Parameters involved in the production of these prepreg materials are presented as are the mechanical properties of the resulting good quality laminates. A brief introduction into the existing prepregging science is presented. Topics relating to solution prepregging are identified with a focus on the current research effort and its future development.

Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Dixon, D.; Johnston, N. J.

1993-01-01

177

Cultural Resource Investigations for a Multipurpose Haul Road on the Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a multipurpose haul road to transport materials and wastes between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and other Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site facilities. The proposed road will be closed to the public and designed for limited year-round use. Two primary options are under consideration: a new route south of the existing T-25 power line road and an upgrade to road T-24. In the Spring of 2010, archaeological field surveys and initial coordination and field reconnaissance with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes were completed to identify any resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed road construction and to develop recommendations to protect any listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The investigations showed that 24 archaeological resources and one historic marker are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation south of the T-25 powerline road and 27archaeological resources are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation along road T-24. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both road corridors. This report outlines recommendations for additional investigations and protective measures that can be implemented to minimize adverse impacts to the identified resources.

Brenda R. Pace; Cameron Brizzee; Hollie Gilbert; Clayton Marler; Julie Braun Williams

2010-08-01

178

A multipurpose camera system for monitoring K?lauea Volcano, Hawai'i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe a low-cost, compact multipurpose camera system designed for field deployment at active volcanoes that can be used either as a webcam (transmitting images back to an observatory in real-time) or as a time-lapse camera system (storing images onto the camera system for periodic retrieval during field visits). The system also has the capability to acquire high-definition video. The camera system uses a Raspberry Pi single-board computer and a 5-megapixel low-light (near-infrared sensitive) camera, as well as a small Global Positioning System (GPS) module to ensure accurate time-stamping of images. Custom Python scripts control the webcam and GPS unit and handle data management. The inexpensive nature of the system allows it to be installed at hazardous sites where it might be lost. Another major advantage of this camera system is that it provides accurate internal timing (independent of network connection) and, because a full Linux operating system and the Python programming language are available on the camera system itself, it has the versatility to be configured for the specific needs of the user. We describe example deployments of the camera at K?lauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, to monitor ongoing summit lava lake activity. 

Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim R.; Lee, Lopaka; Moniz, Cyril J.

2015-01-01

179

Honeycomblike large area LaB6 plasma source for Multi-Purpose Plasma facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP2) facility has been renovated from Hanbit mirror device [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 686 (2003)] by adopting the same philosophy of diversified plasma simulator (DiPS) [Chung et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46, 354 (2006)] by installing two plasma sources: LaB6 (dc) and helicon (rf) plasma sources; and making three distinct simulators: divertor plasma simulator, space propulsion simulator, and astrophysics simulator. During the first renovation stage, a honeycomblike large area LaB6 (HLA-LaB6) cathode was developed for the divertor plasma simulator to improve the resistance against the thermal shock fragility for large and high density plasma generation. A HLA-LaB6 cathode is composed of the one inner cathode with 4in. diameter and the six outer cathodes with 2in. diameter along with separate graphite heaters. The first plasma is generated with Ar gas and its properties are measured by the electric probes with various discharge currents and magnetic field configurations. Plasma density at the middle of central cell reaches up to 2.6×1012 cm-3, while the electron temperature remains around 3-3.5eV at the low discharge current of less than 45A, and the magnetic field intensity of 870G. Unique features of electric property of heaters, plasma density profiles, is explained comparing with those of single LaB6 cathode with 4in. diameter in DiPS.

Woo, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Kyu-Sun; You, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Lho, Taihyeop; Choh, Kwon Kook; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Yong Ho; Lee, Bongju; Yoo, Suk Jae; Kwon, Myeon

2007-10-01

180

A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points.

Ruytenberg, T.; Webb, A. G.; Beenakker, J. W. M.

2014-10-01

181

Application of a multipurpose unequal probability stream survey in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A stratified, spatially balanced sample with unequal probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of unusual but significant environmental settings to support empirical modeling of the factors affecting those conditions. The design and field application of the survey are discussed in light of these multiple objectives. A probability (random) sample of 175 first-order nontidal streams was selected for synoptic sampling of water chemistry and benthic and riparian ecology during late winter and spring 2000. Twenty-five streams were selected within each of seven hydrogeologic subregions (strata) that were delineated on the basis of physiography and surficial geology. In each subregion, unequal inclusion probabilities were used to provide an approximately even distribution of streams along a gradient of forested to developed (agricultural or urban) land in the contributing watershed. Alternate streams were also selected. Alternates were included in groups of five in each subregion when field reconnaissance demonstrated that primary streams were inaccessible or otherwise unusable. Despite the rejection and replacement of a considerable number of primary streams during reconnaissance (up to 40 percent in one subregion), the desired land use distribution was maintained within each hydrogeologic subregion without sacrificing the probabilistic design.

Ator, S.W.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.; Denver, J.M.

2003-01-01

182

Study of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been a critical need for analyzing various aspects of atmospheric corrosion and for the development of atmospheric corrosion microsensors. The project work has involved the following activities: (1) making of multielectrode corrosion monitors on dielectric substrates; (2) testing them in the laboratory for functional characteristics; (3) preparing a report on the state of the art of atmospheric corrosion sensor development around the world; and (4) corrosion testing of electrochemical changes of sensor specimens and related fog testing. The study included work on the subject of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor and this report is the annual report on work carried out on this research project. This has included studies on the development of sensors of two designs, stage 1 and stage 2, and with glass and alumina substrate, experimentation and development and characterization of the coating uniformity, aspects of corrosion monitoring, literature search on the corrosion sensors and their development. A state of the art report on atmospheric corrosion sensor development was prepared and submitted.

Diwan, Ravinder M.; Raman, A.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

1994-01-01

183

Multipurpose ultra and superhydrophobic surfaces based on oligodimethylsiloxane-modified nanosilica.  

PubMed

Nonfluorinated hydrophobic surfaces are of interest for reduced cost, toxicity, and environmental problems. Searching for such surfaces together with versatile processing, A200 silica nanoparticles are modified with an oligodimethylsiloxane and used by themselves or with a polymer matrix. The goal of the surface modification is controlled aggregate size and stable suspensions. Characterization is done by NMR, microanalysis, nitrogen adsorption, and dynamic light scattering. The feasibility of the concept is then demonstrated. The silica aggregates are sprayed in a scalable process to form ultrahydrophobic and imperceptible coatings with surface topographies of controlled nanoscale roughness onto different supports, including nanofibrillated cellulose. To improve adhesion and wear properties, the organosilica was mixed with polymers. The resulting composite coatings are characterized by FE-SEM, AFM, and contact angle measurements. Depending on the nature of the polymer, different functionalities can be developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate) leads to almost superhydrophobic and highly transparent coatings. Composites based on commercial acrylic car paint show "pearl-bouncing" droplet behavior. A light-emitting polyfluorene is synthesized to prepare luminescent and water repellent coatings on different supports. The interactions between polymers and the organosilica influence coating roughness and are critical for wetting behavior. In summary, the feasibility of a facile, rapid, and fluorine-free hydrophobization concept was successfully demonstrated in multipurpose antiwetting applications. PMID:25275966

de Francisco, Raquel; Tiemblo, Pilar; Hoyos, Mario; González-Arellano, Camino; García, Nuria; Berglund, Lars; Synytska, Alla

2014-11-12

184

MYRRHA a multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications  

SciTech Connect

MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator driven system (ADS) in development at SCK-CEN. MYRRHA is able to work both in subcritical (ADS) as in critical mode. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for generation IV (GEN IV) systems, material developments for fusion reactors, radioisotope production and industrial applications, such as Si-doping. MYRRHA will also demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling the three components (accelerator, spallation target and subcritical reactor) at reasonable power level to allow operation feedback, scalable to an industrial demonstrator and allow the study of efficient transmutation of high-level nuclear waste. MYRRHA is based on the heavy liquid metal technology and so it will contribute to the development of lead fast reactor (LFR) technology and in critical mode, MYRRHA will play the role of European technology pilot plant in the roadmap for LFR. In this paper the historical evolution of MYRRHA and the rationale behind the design choices is presented and the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system is described. (authors)

Abderrahim, H. A.; Baeten, P. [SCK CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

2012-07-01

185

Evaluation of Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and Multi-Purpose Crew Restraint Concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the scope of the Multi-purpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Spaceflights project, funded by Code U, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations on the ground and on the KC-135 to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as the design of crew restraints. The usability of multiple crew restraints was evaluated for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and for performing general purpose tasks. The purpose of the KC-135 microgravity evaluation was to: (1) to investigate the usability and effectiveness of the concepts developed, (2) to gather recommendations for further development of the concepts, and (3) to verify the validity of the existing requirements. Some designs had already been tested during a March KC-135 evaluation, and testing revealed the need for modifications/enhancements. This flight was designed to test the new iterations, as well as some new concepts. This flight also involved higher fidelity tasks in the LSG, and the addition of load cells on the gloveports.

Whitmore, Mihriban

2005-01-01

186

Wave-atoms-based multipurpose scheme via perceptual image hashing and watermarking.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel multipurpose scheme for content-based image authentication and copyright protection using a perceptual image hashing and watermarking strategy based on a wave atom transform. The wave atom transform is expected to outperform other transforms because it gains sparser expansion and better representation for texture than other traditional transforms, such as wavelet and curvelet transforms. Images are decomposed into multiscale bands with a number of tilings using the wave atom transform. Perceptual hashes are then extracted from the features of tiling in the third scale band for the purpose of content-based authentication; simultaneously, part of the selected hashes are designed as watermarks, which are embedded into the original images for the purpose of copyright protection. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme shows great performance in content-based authentication by distinguishing the maliciously attacked images from the nonmaliciously attacked images. Moreover, watermarks extracted from the proposed scheme also achieve high robustness against common malicious and nonmalicious image-processing attacks, which provides excellent copyright protection for images. PMID:23033026

Liu, Fang; Fu, Qi-Kai; Cheng, Lee-Ming

2012-09-20

187

A multipurpose quality assurance phantom for the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP).  

PubMed

In this work, the suitability and performance of a mouse-size MOSFET (Mousefet) phantom is investigated for routine quality assurance (QA) of the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). This Mousefet phantom is a simple construction consisting of five micro-MOSFETS custom integrated in a quincunx pattern within a tissue-equivalent phantom, allowing repeat/multiple QA tasks to be quickly performed in one experimental set-up. The Mousefet phantom is particularly evaluated for facilitating SARRP QA tasks which may warrant daily evaluation, including output constancy, isocenter congruency test and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image geometric accuracy. Results for the output constancy measurements showed a maximum daily variation of less than 2.6% for all MOSFETS, in consonance with observations from concurrent ion chamber measurements. It is also shown that the design of the Mousefet phantom allows the output check data to be used for prompt verification of beam energy and cone profile constancy. For the isocenter congruency test, it is demonstrated that the Mousefet phantom can detect 0.3 mm deviations of the CBCT isocenter from the radiation isocenter. Meanwhile, results for CBCT image geometric accuracy were consistently found to be within 2% of the expected value. Other CBCT image quality parameters could also be assessed in terms of image intensity constancy, noise and image uniformity. Overall, the results establish the Mousefet phantom as a simple and time-efficient multipurpose tool that could be employed effectively for routine QA of the SARRP. PMID:22491061

Ngwa, Wilfred; Tsiamas, Panagiotis; Zygmanski, Piotr; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Berbeco, Ross I

2012-05-01

188

A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points. PMID:25222861

Ruytenberg, T; Webb, A G; Beenakker, J W M

2014-10-01

189

Application of probabilistic hydrologic forecasting for risk analysis of multipurpose reservoir real-time operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative analysis of the risk for reservoir real-time operation is a hard task owing to the difficulty of accurate description of inflow uncertainties. The ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting depicts the inflow not only the marginal distributions but also their corrections by producing inflow scenarios. This motivates us to analyze the reservoir real-time operating risk with ensemble-based hydrologic forecasting inputs. The proposed procedure involves: (1) based upon the Bayesian inference, the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is implemented to produce ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, (2) the reservoir risk is defined as the ratio of the number of scenarios that excessive the critical value to the total number of scenarios, (3) a multipurpose reservoir operation model is built and solved using scenario optimization to produce Pareto solutions for trade-offs between risks and profits. With a case study of the China's Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) for the 2010 and 2012 floods, it is found that the reservoir real-time operation risks can be estimated directly and minimized based on the proposed methods, and is easy of implementation by the reservoir operators.

Liu, P.

2012-12-01

190

Risk Analysis of Multipurpose Reservoir Real-time Operation based on Probabilistic Hydrologic Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative analysis of the risk for reservoir real-time operation is a hard task owing to the difficulty of accurate description of inflow uncertainties. The ensemble-based probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, which outputs a lot of inflow scenarios or traces, does well in depicting the inflow not only the marginal distribution but also their corrections. This motivates us to analyze the reservoir operating risk by inputting probabilistic hydrologic forecasting into reservoir real-time operation. The proposed procedure involves: (1) based upon the Bayesian inference, two alternative techniques, the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), are implemented for producing probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, respectively, (2) the reservoir risk is defined as the ratio of the number of traces that excessive (or below) the critical value to the total number of traces, and (3) a multipurpose reservoir operation model is build to produce Pareto solutions for trade-offs between risks and profits with the inputted probabilistic hydrologic forecasting. With a case study of the China's Three Gorges Reservoir, it is found that the reservoir real-time operation risks can be estimated and minimized based on the proposed methods, and this is great potential benefit in decision and choosing the most realistic one.

Liu, P.

2011-12-01

191

INITIAL WASTE PACKAGE PROBABILISTIC CRITICALITY ANALYSIS: MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER WITH DISPOSAL CONTAINER (TBV)  

SciTech Connect

This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide an assessment of the present waste package design from a criticality risk standpoint. The specific objectives of this initial analysis are to: (1) Establish a process for determining the probability of waste package criticality as a function of time (in terms of a cumulative distribution function, probability distribution function, or expected number of criticalities in a specified time interval) for various waste package concepts; (2) Demonstrate the established process by estimating the probability of criticality as a function of time since emplacement for an intact multi-purpose canister waste package (MPC-WP) configuration; (3) Identify the dominant sequences leading to waste package criticality for subsequent detailed analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to document and demonstrate the developed process as it has been applied to the MPC-WP. This revision is performed to correct deficiencies in the previous revision and provide further detail on the calculations performed. This analysis is similar to that performed for the uncanistered fuel waste package (UCF-WP, B00000000-01717-2200-00079).

J.R. Massari

1995-10-06

192

Multi-criteria objective based climate change impact assessment for multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resources systems with reservoirs are expected to be sensitive to climate change. Assessment studies that analyze the impact of climate change on the performance of reservoirs can be divided in two groups: (1) Studies that simulate the operation under projected inflows with the current set of operational rules. Due to non adapted operational rules the future performance of these reservoirs can be underestimated and the impact overestimated. (2) Studies that optimize the operational rules for best adaption of the system to the projected conditions before the assessment of the impact. The latter allows for estimating more realistically future performance and adaption strategies based on new operation rules are available if required. Multi-purpose reservoirs serve various, often conflicting functions. If all functions cannot be served simultaneously at a maximum level, an effective compromise between multiple objectives of the reservoir operation has to be provided. Yet under climate change the historically preferenced compromise may no longer be the most suitable compromise in the future. Therefore a multi-objective based climate change impact assessment approach for multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems is proposed in the study. Projected inflows are provided in a first step using a physically based rainfall-runoff model. In a second step, a time series model is applied to generate long-term inflow time series. Finally, the long-term inflow series are used as driving variables for a simulation-based multi-objective optimization of the reservoir system in order to derive optimal operation rules. As a result, the adapted Pareto-optimal set of diverse best compromise solutions can be presented to the decision maker in order to assist him in assessing climate change adaption measures with respect to the future performance of the multi-purpose reservoir system. The approach is tested on a multi-purpose multi-reservoir system in a mountainous catchment in Germany. A climate change assessment is performed for climate change scenarios based on the SRES emission scenarios A1B, B1 and A2 for a set of statistically downscaled meteorological data. The future performance of the multi-purpose multi-reservoir system is quantified and possible intensifications of trade-offs between management goals or reservoir utilizations are shown.

Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels

2014-05-01

193

3'-R/S-hydroxyvoacamine, a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from Tabernaemontana divaricata.  

PubMed

Guided by the acetylcholinesterase inhibiting activity, the bisindole alkaloid 3'-R/S-hydroxyvoacamine was isolated from a stem extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata, a plant used in Thailand in traditional rejuvenation remedies for improving the memory. The structure of the alkaloid was elucidated by extensive use of NMR spectroscopy and the complete assignment of the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra is reported. The alkaloid acted as a non-competitive inhibitor against AChE with an IC50 value of 7.00±1.99 ?M. An HPLC method was developed for the quantitative analysis of the AChE inhibitor. It suggested that there was 12.4% (w/w) of 3'-R/S-hydroxyvoacamine in the alkaloid enriched fraction of T. divaricata stem. PMID:23375813

Chaiyana, Wantida; Schripsema, Jan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Okonogi, Siriporn

2013-04-15

194

A compact 3R-receiver module for short-haul SDH STM16 systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a complete 3R optical receiver module for synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) STM-16 short-haul systems, housed in a 20-pin dual-in-line (DIL) ceramic package. The module includes an InGaAs p-i-n photodiode, a commercial GaAs transimpedance amplifier, and a custom-made silicon bipolar frequency- and phase-locked loop (FPLL)-based clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit. The fiber pigtail is actively aligned to

Francesco Centurelli; Massimo Magliocco; Andrea Pallotta; Pasquale Tommasino; Alessandro Trifiletti

2001-01-01

195

Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration scheme with improved scalability using TOAD.  

PubMed

A novel re-timing, re-amplifying, and re-shaping (3R) regeneration system is proposed to process multiple WDM (wavelengthdivision-multiplexing) channels simultaneously. Its re-timing capability is investigated by both simulation and experiment with polarizationscrambling method at 10 Gb/s bit rate. Jitter tolerance up to 0.8 UIpp is demonstrated with BER improvement and floor breaking ability. PMID:19529431

Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Shankar, Raji; Prucnal, Paul R

2006-10-30

196

UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING PHASE 3 RESTRUCTURED (3R)  

SciTech Connect

This scope document defines the work scope for accomplishing the design of the GE MS7001H and MS9001H (7H and 9H) combined-cycle power systems under the original ATS Phase 3 DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-95MC31176, and incorporates changes in scope required to convert Phase 3 to the ''restructured'' Phase 3R as defined in Amendment A012 to the Cooperative Agreement.

Unknown

2000-03-17

197

Superexchange interactions in orthorhombically distorted titanates RTiO3 (R = Y, Gd, Sm and La)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from the multiorbital Hubbard model for the t2g-bands of RTiO3 (R=Y, Gd, Sm and La), where all the parameters have been derived from the first-principles electronic structure calculations, we construct an effective superexchange (SE) spin model, by treating transfer integrals as a perturbation. We consider four approximations for the SE interactions: (i) the canonical crystal-field (CF) theory, where the

I. V. Solovyev

2009-01-01

198

H3R42me2a is a histone modification with positive transcriptional effects.  

PubMed

Histone posttranslational modification leads to downstream effects indirectly by allowing or preventing docking of effector molecules, or directly by changing the intrinsic biophysical properties of local chromatin. To date, little has been done to study posttranslational modifications that lie outside of the unstructured tail domains of histones. Core residues, and in particular arginines in H3 and H4, mediate key interactions between the histone octamer and DNA in forming the nucleosomal particle. Using mass spectrometry, we find that one of these core residues, arginine 42 of histone H3 (H3R42), is dimethylated in mammalian cells by the methyltransferases coactivator arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) and protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) in vitro and in vivo, and we demonstrate that methylation of H3R42 stimulates transcription in vitro from chromatinized templates. Thus, H3R42 is a new, "nontail" histone methylation site with positive effects on transcription. We propose that methylation of basic histone residues at the DNA interface may disrupt histone:DNA interactions, with effects on downstream processes, notably transcription. PMID:23980157

Casadio, Fabio; Lu, Xiangdong; Pollock, Samuel B; LeRoy, Gary; Garcia, Benjamin A; Muir, Tom W; Roeder, Robert G; Allis, C David

2013-09-10

199

H3R42me2a is a histone modification with positive transcriptional effects  

PubMed Central

Histone posttranslational modification leads to downstream effects indirectly by allowing or preventing docking of effector molecules, or directly by changing the intrinsic biophysical properties of local chromatin. To date, little has been done to study posttranslational modifications that lie outside of the unstructured tail domains of histones. Core residues, and in particular arginines in H3 and H4, mediate key interactions between the histone octamer and DNA in forming the nucleosomal particle. Using mass spectrometry, we find that one of these core residues, arginine 42 of histone H3 (H3R42), is dimethylated in mammalian cells by the methyltransferases coactivator arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) and protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) in vitro and in vivo, and we demonstrate that methylation of H3R42 stimulates transcription in vitro from chromatinized templates. Thus, H3R42 is a new, “nontail” histone methylation site with positive effects on transcription. We propose that methylation of basic histone residues at the DNA interface may disrupt histone:DNA interactions, with effects on downstream processes, notably transcription. PMID:23980157

Casadio, Fabio; Lu, Xiangdong; Pollock, Samuel B.; LeRoy, Gary; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Muir, Tom W.; Roeder, Robert G.; Allis, C. David

2013-01-01

200

Characterization of a flatworm inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) reveals a role in reproductive physiology  

PubMed Central

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca2+channels that elevate cytoplasmic Ca2+ in response to the second messenger IP3. Here, we describe the identification and in vivo functional characterization of the planarian IP3R, the first intracellular Ca2+ channel to be defined in flatworms. A single IP3R gene in Dugesia japonica encoded a 2666 amino acid protein (Dj.IP3R) that shared well conserved structural features with vertebrate IP3R counterparts. Expression of an NH2-terminal Dj.IP3R region (amino acid residues 223–585) recovered high affinity 3H-IP3 binding (0.9 ± 0.1 nM) which was abolished by a single point mutation of an arginine residue (R495L) important for IP3 coordination. In situ hybridization revealed that Dj.IP3R mRNA was most strongly expressed in the pharynx and optical nerve system as well as the reproductive system in sexualized planarians. Consistent with this observed tissue distribution, in vivo RNAi of Dj.IP3R resulted in a decreased egg-laying behavior suggesting Dj.IP3R plays an upstream role in planarian reproductive physiology. PMID:23481272

Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaolong; Chan, John D.; Marchant, Jonathan S.

2013-01-01

201

Histone H3R2 symmetric dimethylation and histone H3K4 trimethylation are tightly correlated in eukaryotic genomes.  

PubMed

The preferential in vitro interaction of the PHD finger of RAG2, a subunit of the V(D)J recombinase, with histone H3 tails simultaneously trimethylated at lysine 4 and symmetrically dimethylated at arginine 2 (H3R2me2sK4me3) predicted the existence of the previously unknown histone modification H3R2me2s. Here, we report the in vivo identification of H3R2me2s . Consistent with the binding specificity of the RAG2 PHD finger, high levels of H3R2me2sK4me3 are found at antigen receptor gene segments ready for rearrangement. However, this double modification is much more general; it is conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution. In mouse, H3R2me2s is tightly correlated with H3K4me3 at active promoters throughout the genome. Mutational analysis in S. cerevisiae reveals that deposition of H3R2me2s requires the same Set1 complex that deposits H3K4me3. Our work suggests that H3R2me2sK4me3, not simply H3K4me3 alone, is the mark of active promoters and that factors that recognize H3K4me3 will have their binding modulated by their preference for H3R2me2s. PMID:22720264

Yuan, Chih-Chi; Matthews, Adam G W; Jin, Yi; Chen, Chang Feng; Chapman, Brad A; Ohsumi, Toshiro K; Glass, Karen C; Kutateladze, Tatiana G; Borowsky, Mark L; Struhl, Kevin; Oettinger, Marjorie A

2012-02-23

202

Demonstration of Optical TTL Based Selective-3R in OLS Network Testbed with Label Rewriting and Fiber Transmission  

E-print Network

Demonstration of Optical TTL Based Selective-3R in OLS Network Testbed with Label Rewriting an optical-TTL-based selective-3R regeneration scheme in an OLS testbed with fiber transmission. This scheme-label-switching (OLS) is a promising technology to enable the aggregation and integration of high data rate optical

Kolner, Brian H.

203

Meta-analysis of the ocular biocompatibility of a new multipurpose lens care system  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the biocompatibility of a novel multipurpose solution (MPS) with a dual disinfectant system containing polyaminopropyl biguanide and polyquaternium-1 (Biotrue®) by analysis of biomicroscopy signs and adverse events in six large clinical trials. Methods Data from six consecutive, prospective clinical trials conducted from February 2008 to March 2010 were combined for meta-analysis. Subjects used the new MPS daily for periods of 2 weeks to 6 months. Slit-lamp signs were graded at each follow-up visit using an ordinal scale (0, one; 1, trace; 2, mild; 3, moderate; 4, severe). Analysis for biocompatibility included tracking of greater than grade 2 slit-lamp findings and number of adverse events. Results A total of 1,567 subjects (3,134 eyes) and 81 clinical investigators participated in the six studies, with 1,499 subjects completing the studies. Based on subject days in the studies, there were 72,904 exposures to the MPS and 7,212 biomicroscopy examinations. The completion rate for the studies was 96.3%. Per observation incidence of any finding greater than grade 2 at the follow-up visits were: corneal staining 0.08%, limbal injection 0.04%, bulbar injection 0.04%, tarsal conjunctiva abnormality 0.09%, and neovascularization 0.01%. There were no other slit-lamp signs greater than grade 2 and no statistically significant difference between hydrogels and silicone hydrogels for any finding. There were no reports of adverse events during the trials. Conclusion Analysis of over 72,000 daily exposures and 7,212 eye examinations showed that the novel MPS exhibited excellent biocompatibility in subjects using daily wear hydrogel or silicone hydrogel lenses. PMID:24143073

Reindel, William; Merchea, Mohinder M; Rah, Marjorie J; Zhang, Lening

2013-01-01

204

Development of a new contact lens multipurpose solution: Comparative analysis of microbiological, biological and clinical performance  

PubMed Central

Purpose Antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and clinical performance of a new soft contact lens multi-purpose solution (COMPLETE® RevitaLens) based on polyquaternium-1 and alexidine dihydrochloride (NuMPS) was evaluated. Methods Antimicrobial efficacy was assessed according to ISO 14729 for both biocidal and regimen performance against bacteria and fungi. Acanthamoeba efficacy was tested along with ability to retain antimicrobial activity on partial evaporation. In vitro cytotoxicity of NuMPS and OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® MPS (MPS-3) was assessed based on ISO 10993-5 and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) methods. In addition, a 3 month, double-masked, parallel group clinical trial comparing safety and acceptability with respect to MPS-3 was conducted with 4 silicone hydrogel (SiHy) and FDA Group IV lens types. Results NuMPS showed broad antimicrobial efficacy, including Acanthamoeba, giving a 3–4 log10 reduction in viability after 6 hours contact time. NuMPS also passed ISO 14729 regimens with SiHy and etafilcon lenses for bacteria, fungi and also Acanthamoeba. The cytotoxicity of NuMPS was equivalent or better compared to MPS-3. In the clinical trial, there was no statistically significant between-group difference in corneal staining (p > 0.05). Patients using MPS-3 had more adverse events than patients using NuMPS: 11.8 % (11/93) versus 2.8 % (5/177), respectively, (p < 0.05). There were no differences noted in cleanliness or wearing comfort (p > 0.05). Conclusion Taken together, the results of these studies indicate that the NuMPS is a novel and effective soft contact lens care solution.

Kilvington, Simon; Huang, Ling; Kao, Eugenia; Powell, Charles H.

2010-01-01

205

The development of a multipurpose trap (the Nzi) for tsetse and other biting flies.  

PubMed

New trap designs for tsetse (Glossinidae), stable flies (Muscidae: Stomoxyinae), and horse flies (Tabanidae) were tested in Kenya to develop a multipurpose trap for biting flies. Many configurations and colour/fabric combinations were compared to a simplified, blue-black triangular trap to identify features of design and materials that result in equitable catches. New designs were tested against conventional traps, with a focus on Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. longipennis Corti, Stomoxys niger Macquart, and Atylotus agrestis (Wiedemann). A simple design based on minimal blue and black rectangular panels, for attraction and contrast, with a trap body consisting of an innovative configuration of netting, proved best. This 'Nzi' trap (Swahili for fly) caught as many or significantly more tsetse and biting flies than any conventional trap. The Nzi trap represents a major improvement for Stomoxyinae, including the cosmopolitan species S. calcitrans (Linnaeus), with up to eight times the catch for key African Stomoxys spp. relative to the best trap for this group (the Vavoua). Catches of many genera of Tabanidae, including species almost never caught in traps (Philoliche Wiedemann), are excellent, and are similar to those of larger traps designed for this purpose (the Canopy). Improvements in capturing biting flies were achieved without compromising efficiency for the savannah tsetse species G. pallidipes. Catches of fusca tsetse (G. longipennis and G. brevipalpis Newstead) were higher or were the same as catches in good traps for these species (NG2G, Siamese). Altogether, the objective of developing a simple, economical trap with harmonized efficiency was achieved. PMID:12241564

Mihok, S

2002-10-01

206

Universal multi-purpose airborne remote sensing system (UniMARS)  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the OSU Center for Airborne Environmental Analysis undertook a joint effort with Freseman Engineering to develop the ADAMS{copyright} (Airborne Data Acquisition and Management System, presented at 1st International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition) in parallel to its scientific research mission with NASA, Federal Agencies, and private sector of remote sensing industry. A new system called the Universal Multi-Purpose Airborne Remote Sensing System (UniMARS) is currently being developed by the authors to accommodate the increasing needs of diversified functionality required to conduct complicated scientific mission or commercial applications. The UniMARS integrates the embedded system controller, PC-104 form factor microcomputer, the RC Time Code-based video imaging system with the existing GPS and GIS technologies into a portable package weights less than 4 kg. The multi-function control system allows the research scientist or pilot to view either a moving map or the target image through a head-mounted display. The system also includes a high performance thermal video camera and the laser range finder for surface mapping. The flexible data acquisition system is accompanied by a sophisticated data processing and management system which include the support of mobile computing capability and client server database capability. The design of UniMARS allows the continuous availability of frequent, relatively low-cost data acquisition opportunities for carrying out near Earth observation, environmental monitoring, or other environmental experiments by means of using different aircraft platform. It also provide an excellent solution to ensure the data quality and integrity throughout the data acquisition and processing procedures. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Chen, C.F. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Freseman, M. [Freseman Engineering, Inc., San Jose CA (United States)

1996-11-01

207

Design for multipurpose use: an application of DfE concept in a developing economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design for Environment (DfE) has been defined as the systematic integration of environmental considerations into product and process design. And it has been discovered that material and space can be saved when several functions are integrated into a single product by taking advantage of common components. In this design and development project, a multipurpose thresher was designed based on an integrated concept of design for modularity, disassembly, demanufacturing and remanufacturing. The machine can be used to thresh various types of farm produce such as rice, sorghum, cowpea and rye by changing the concave and the cylinder (threshing drum). The configuration of the machine enables access to most of the component parts without changing the tools needed for disassembly because the same type of fasteners was used. Furthermore, the functional units (the shelling unit, the separation unit and the grading unit) were assembled into modules such that only the faulty part needs to be replaced if necessary. The design was so simplified that the operator can make the changes for different uses without any difficulty. The machine has been successfully tested with a number of these products and it is scheduled for tests with other produce like corn and peanuts. The modularity of the functional unit will facilitate multi-lifecycle use of machine and/or its component parts. The uniformity of the liaisons and simplification of the configuration will reduce both the disassembly times and maintenance cost. By this integration, the material requirements for four different machines are conserved, environmental emissions that would be associated with the manufacture, transportation and disposal of four machines are eliminated while the capital requirements by farmers for machinery are reduced to about a quarter. Consequently the total lifecycle cost is kept minimum while the eco-efficiency is maximized.

Dunmade, Israel

2004-12-01

208

Evaluation of safety and efficacy of a new multipurpose disinfecting solution on silicone hydrogel contact lenses?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new multipurpose disinfecting solution (MPDS) with a formulation that includes aloe vera on its composition. Methods This is a prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical trial with a crossover design that included seven examinations. Two different MPDSs, Avizor Alvera® (study solution) and All Clean Soft® (control solution), each were used for 1 month. Comfilcon A silicone hydrogel contact lenses were used during the trial. The main outcome variables were corneal staining and deposits on the surfaces of the contact lenses. Other parameters including ocular surface response, contact lens wettability, user satisfaction, and adverse events, were analyzed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 11980:2010 guidance for clinical investigation. Results Twenty subjects (10 women, 10 men) (mean age, 27.7 ± 5.6 years; range, 20–41) were included. No differences between both MPDSs were found in the percentage of subjects with corneal staining >0 at day 30 (study: 35%, control: 50%; p = 0.46); neither in the percentage of subjects with deposits on the surface of the contact lens >0 at day 30 (study: 26.32%, control: 52.63%; p = 0.18). The study MPDS received higher rates in comfort (study: 8.14 ± 1.09, control: 7.94 ± 0.92; p = 0.56) and satisfaction at day 30 (study: 8.63 ± 0.91, control: 8.29 ± 0.80; p = 0.19), however the scores were not significantly different with the control MPDS. Conclusions The clinical trial showed that the study MPDS is safe, efficient, and has acceptable physiologic tolerance, according to the ISO 11980:2010 guidance for clinical investigation. PMID:25649640

Pinto-Fraga, José; Blázquez Arauzo, Francisco; Urbano Rodríguez, Rubén; González-García, María J.

2014-01-01

209

HyBIS - a low cost, multi-purpose, modular vehicle for detailed ocean mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HyBIS is a low-cost, multi-purpose, highly maneuverable, fibre-optic controlled survey and sampling robotic underwater vehicle (RUV) capable of diving to 6000m. Built in the UK by Hydro-Lek Ltd. in collaboration with the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, it has proven itself during recent discoveries of the deepest hydrothermal vents in the world, at 5100m deep in the Cayman Trough in the Caribbean and habitat mapping of seamounts in the Atlantic and Indian oceans . The vehicle has a modular design, with the top module being a command and power system that comprises power management, cameras, lights, hydraulics, thrusters and telemetry. The lower module can alternatively be a clam-shell sampling grab, a manipulator-arm and tool sled, a winch for instrument recovery, or an ocean bottom seismometer deployment module. Unlike a conventional ROV, HyBIS does not have any floatation, rather it is suspended by its umbilical cable directly from the ship. The advantage of direct suspension is that HyBIS can recover or deploy a payload of up to 700kg, although this comes at the price of reduced maneuverability compared to a 'normal' ROV. During its four years of service, HyBIS has, so far, accumulated an impressive list of achievements: recording over 450 hours of HD video footage, thousands of HD still images, collected geological, biological samples, as well as fluids and gas from over 40 different sites. It has also recovered two different seabed landers containing scientific equipment worth over £300k, and placed Ocean Bottom Seismometers onto the seafloor.

Huehnerbach, V.; Murton, B.; Berndt, C.; Garrard, J.; Wollatz-Vogt, M.; Wetzel, G.; Matthiessen, T.

2013-12-01

210

Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics models used to verify no re-contact. The NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) architecture includes a highly-integrated Forward Bay Cover (FBC) jettison assembly design that combines parachutes and piston thrusters to separate the FBC from the Crew Module (CM) and avoid re-contact. A multi-disciplinary team across numerous organizations examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the FBC separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute elements, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1. Additional testing will be required to support human certification of this separation event, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust human-rated FBC separation event.

Ali, Yasmin; Chuhta, Jesse D.; Hughes, Michael P.; Radke, Tara S.

2015-01-01

211

Totally implantable total artificial heart and ventricular assist device with multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system.  

PubMed

A multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system has been developed to yield a compact, efficient, durable, and biocompatible total artificial heart (TAH) and ventricular assist device (VAD). Associated controller-driver electronics were recently miniaturized and converted into hybrid circuits. The hybrid controller consists of a microprocessor and controller, motor driver, Hall sensor, and commutation circuit hybrids. The sizing study demonstrated that all these components can be incorporated in the pumping unit of the TAH and VAD, particularly in the centerpiece of the TAH and the motor housing of the VAD. Both TAH and VAD pumping units will start when their power line is connected to either the internal power pack or the external battery unit. As a redundant driving and diagnostic port, an emergency port was newly added and will be placed in subcutaneous location. In case of system failure, the skin will be cut down, and an external motor drive or a pneumatic driver will be connected to this port to run the TAH. This will minimize the circulatory arrest time. Overall efficiency of the TAH without the transcutaneous energy transmission system was 14-18% to deliver pump outputs of 4-9 L/min against the right and left afterload pressures of 25 and 100 mm Hg. The internal power requirement ranged from 6 to 13 W. The rechargeable batteries such as NiCd or NiMH with 1 AH capacity can run the TAH for 30-45 min. The external power requirement, when TETS efficiency of 75% was assumed, ranged from 8 to 18 W. The accelerated endurance test in the 42 degrees C saline bath demonstrated stable performance over 4 months. Long-term endurance and chronic animal studies will continue toward a system with 5 years durability by the year 2000. PMID:8141662

Takatani, S; Orime, Y; Tasai, K; Ohara, Y; Naito, K; Mizuguchi, K; Makinouchi, K; Damm, G; Glueck, J; Ling, J

1994-01-01

212

Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies.  

PubMed

There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs). IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of women's health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not disrupt intercourse or have high rates of expulsion. Herein, we reviewed the microbicide and MPT IVRs currently in development, with a focus on the clinical aspects of IVR assessment and the challenges facing microbicide and MPT IVR product development, clinical testing, and implementation. The information in this review was drawn from PubMed searches and a recent microbicide/MPT product development workshop organized by CONRAD. PMID:24174884

Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R; Hurlburt, Jennifer A; Doncel, Gustavo F

2013-01-01

213

Coping with high reliabilities in multi-objective optimizations of multi-purpose reservoir systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoir systems responsible for potable water supply have commonly to be operated to meet the demands with an occurrence-based reliability higher than 99% (in contrast, the reliability e.g. of irrigation water supply may less than 90%). This requirement is not fully met in most studies which use single- or multi-objective optimization techniques for the optimization of reservoir operation problems. For dealing with very high reliabilities, long time series of several thousand years may be necessary for resilient calculations of those reliabilities using a Monte Carlo approach. However, unreasonable computational costs are the consequence. Thus, in many studies formulations of objective functions have so far been restricted to formulations that minimize an expected value or variance between various demands and the according deliveries. In this study we present a new approach to enable the explicit formulation of the reservoir performance by means of reliability in objective functions. A simulation based multi-objective optimization method is introduced that theoretically allows for highly efficient and robust optimization of operating rules over time periods of several thousand years. The technical framework of the approach comprises (i) a multivariate time series model, (ii) a new Monte-Carlo recombination technique that is capable of shortening the time series with little small loss of information (iii), a reservoir model coupled with an evolutionary optimization strategy using a box constraint handler and decision variable coding technique for constraint free optimization and (iv) a validation step. In a real case application, the multi-purpose multi-reservoir system Klingenberg - Lehnmühle - Rauschenbach (Germany) is optimized to meeting a reliability of supply in three levels of supply, ranging from 99% to 99,95%, as well as for minimizing pumping costs and to preserve water quality. It is shown that the new approach is capable of providing a resilient Pareto-front with a broad range of compromises between achievable reliabilities and the other two objectives.

Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels

2014-05-01

214

Intravaginal rings as delivery systems for microbicides and multipurpose prevention technologies  

PubMed Central

There is a renewed interest in delivering pharmaceutical products via intravaginal rings (IVRs). IVRs are flexible torus-shaped drug delivery systems that can be easily inserted and removed by the woman and that provide both sustained and controlled drug release, lasting for several weeks to several months. In terms of women’s health care products, it has been established that IVRs effectively deliver contraceptive steroids and steroids for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. A novel application for IVRs is the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genital infection. Microbicides are antiviral drugs delivered topically for HIV prevention. Recent reviews of microbicide IVRs have focused on technologies in development and optimizing ring design. IVRs have several advantages, including the ability to deliver sustained drug doses for long periods of time while bypassing first pass metabolism in the gut. IVRs are discreet, woman-controlled, and do not require a trained provider for placement or fitting. Previous data support that women and their male sexual partners find IVRs highly acceptable. Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products provide protection against unintended/mistimed pregnancy and reproductive tract infections, including HIV. Several MPT IVRs are currently in development. Early clinical testing of new microbicide and MPT IVRs will require a focus on safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Specifically, IVRs will have to deliver tissue concentrations of drugs that are pharmacodynamically active, do not cause mucosal alterations or inflammation, and do not change the resident microbiota. The emergence of resistance to antiretrovirals will need to be investigated. IVRs should not disrupt intercourse or have high rates of expulsion. Herein, we reviewed the microbicide and MPT IVRs currently in development, with a focus on the clinical aspects of IVR assessment and the challenges facing microbicide and MPT IVR product development, clinical testing, and implementation. The information in this review was drawn from PubMed searches and a recent microbicide/MPT product development workshop organized by CONRAD. PMID:24174884

Thurman, Andrea Ries; Clark, Meredith R; Hurlburt, Jennifer A; Doncel, Gustavo F

2013-01-01

215

NASA multipurpose airborne DIAL system and measurements of ozone and aerosol profiles.  

PubMed

An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed for the remote measurement of gas and aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The multipurpose DIAL system can operate from 280 to 1064 nm for measurements of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, temperature,pressure, and aerosol backscattering. The laser transmitter consists of two narrow linewidth Nd: YAG pumped dye lasers with automatic wavelength control. The DIAL wavelengths are transmitted with a 00-,usec temporal separation to reduce receiver system complexity. A coaxial receiver system is used to collect and optically separate the DIAL and aerosol lidar returns. Photomultiplier tubes detect the backscattered laser returns after optical filtering, and the analog signals from three tubes are digitized and stored on high-speed magnetic tape. Real-time gas concentration profiles or aerosol backscatter distributions are calculated and displayed for experiment control. Operational parameters for the airborne DIAL system are presented for measurements of ozone, water vapor, and aerosols in the 290-, 720-, and 600-nm wavelength regions, respectively. The first ozone profile measurements from an aircraft using the DIAL technique are discussed in this paper. Comparisons between DIAL and in situ ozone measurements show agreement to within +/-5 ppbv in the lower troposphere. Lidar aerosol data obtained simultaneously with DIAL ozone measurements are presented for a flight over Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay. DIAL system performance for profiling ozone in a tropopause folding experiment is evaluated, and the applications of the DIAL system to regional and global-scale tropospheric investigations are discussed. PMID:18195821

Browell, E V; Carter, A F; Shipley, S T; Allen, R J; Butler, C F; Mayo, M N; Siviter, J H; Hall, W M

1983-02-15

216

Multipurpose bedrock surficial, and environmental geologic maps, New River valley, southwest Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Multipurpose bedrock, surficial, and environmental geologic maps have recently been completed for portions of the Valley and Ridge province of southwest VA. The maps, at both 1:100,000 and 1:24,000 scales, show generalized and detailed bedrock geology grouped by lithology and environmental hazard associations. Also shown are a variety of alluvial, colluvial, debris flow, and landslide deposits, as well as karst features. Multidisciplinary research topics addressed during the mapping included slope evolution and geomorphology, drainage history and terrace distribution, ancient large-scale landsliding, and sinkhole development. The maps have been used by land-use planners and engineering firms in an evaluation of Appalachian paleoseismicity and to assess potential groundwater contamination and subsidence in karst areas. The maps are being used for environmental hazard assessment and site selection of a proposed large electric powerline that crosses the Jefferson National Forest. Also, the maps are proving useful in planning for a public access interpretive geologic enter focused on large-scale slope failures. Some of the largest known landslides in eastern North America took place within the map area. Field comparisons and detailed structure mapping of similar features along the Front Range of the Colorado Rockies indicate that the landslides were probably emplaced during a single catastrophic event of short duration. Although the giles County seismic zone is nearby, stability analyses of slopes in the map area have shown that failure need not have been initiated by a seismic event. Several distinct colluvial units mapped within the area of landslides document a period of extensive weathering that postdates slide emplacement. Radiocarbon dates from landslide sag ponds indicate a minimum age of 9,860 B.P. for emplacement of some of the landslides. These results indicate that pre-slide colluvial and debris flow deposits are at least Pleistocene in age.

Schultz, A. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Collins, T. (Forest Service, Roanoke, VA (United States))

1994-03-01

217

Mutations in MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 cause pleiotropic developmental defects and preferential down-regulation of multiple G2/M-specific genes in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

R1R2R3-Myb proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved class of Myb family proteins important for cell cycle regulation and differentiation in eukaryotic cells. In plants, this class of Myb proteins are believed to regulate the transcription of G2/M phase-specific genes by binding to common cis-elements, called mitosis-specific activator (MSA) elements. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 act as transcriptional activators and positively regulate cytokinesis by activating the transcription of KNOLLE, which encodes a cytokinesis-specific syntaxin. Here, we show that the double mutation myb3r1 myb3r4 causes pleiotropic developmental defects, some of which are due to deficiency of KNOLLE whereas other are not, suggesting that multiple target genes are involved. Consistently, microarray analysis of the double mutant revealed altered expression of many genes, among which G2/M-specific genes showed significant overrepresentation of the MSA motif and a strong tendency to be down-regulated by the double mutation. Our results demonstrate, on a genome-wide level, the importance of the MYB3R-MSA pathway for regulating G2/M-specific transcription. In addition, MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 may have diverse roles during plant development by regulating G2/M-specific genes with various functions as well as genes possibly unrelated to the cell cycle. PMID:21862669

Haga, Nozomi; Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Takamasa; Maeo, Kenichiro; Kubo, Minoru; Ohtani, Misato; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Demura, Taku; Nakamura, Kenzo; Jürgens, Gerd; Ito, Masaki

2011-10-01

218

Determination of the pozzolanic activity of fluid catalytic cracking residue. Thermogravimetric analysis studies on FC3R-lime pastes  

SciTech Connect

Spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R) from a petrol refinery played a pozzolanic role in portland cement system as revealed by previous experimental data. In the present study, the pozzolanic activity of FC3R was investigated by means thermogravimetry (TG) of cured lime-FC3R pastes. The influence of pozzolan/lime ratio on the pozzolanic activity was investigated. Due to the chemical composition of FC3R is similar to metakaolin (MK), and knowing that MK has a high pozzolanic activity, the latter was used as a material of comparison in this study. The scope of the study is the determination of the pozzolanic activity of FC3R and the evaluation of amount and nature of pozzolanic products. The products obtained from the reaction between FC3R components (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and calcium hydroxide (CH) have been characterized, finding that the main pozzolanic reaction product was similar to hydrated gehlenite (calcium aluminosilicate hydrate) CSH and CAH were also formed in the reaction. FC3R showed higher pozzolanic reactivity than metakaolin, for low-lime content pastes and early curing age. Thermogravimetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) became very useful techniques for evaluation of reactivity.

Paya, J.; Monzo, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Velazquez, S.; Bonilla, M

2003-07-01

219

A randomized clinical comparison of OPTI-FREE EXPRESS and ReNu MultiPLUS multipurpose lens care solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate subjective symptoms and clinical signs of tolerability and comfort in silicone and non-silicone hydrogel contact\\u000a lens (CL) wearers using two different multipurpose solution (MPS) CL care regimens.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a randomized, double-masked, contralateral, crossover, multicenter (n=9) study. One hundred and eleven subjects were enrolled in the study, and were randomly assigned either silicone hydrogel\\u000a CLs or non-silicone hydrogel

César Lipener; Rua Manoel da Nóbrega

2009-01-01

220

Design and fabrication of a multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system for KSTAR  

SciTech Connect

A multi-purpose soft x-ray array diagnostic system was developed for measuring two-dimensional x-ray emissivity profile, electron temperature, Ar impurity transport, and total radiation power. A remotely controlled filter wheel was designed with three different choices of filters. The electron temperature profile can be determined from the ratio of two channels having different thickness of Be layer, and the Ar impurity concentration transport can be determined from a pair of Ar Ross filters (CaF{sub 2} and NaCl thin films). Without any filters, this diagnostic system can also be used as a bolometer.

Lee, Seung Hun; Chai, Kil Byoung; Jang, Siwon; Choe, Wonho [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won-Ha; Kim, Junghee; Seo, Dongcheol; Lee, Jongha [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Bogatu, I. N.; Kim, Jin-Soo [FAR-TECH, Inc., 10350 Science Center Drive, Building 14, Suite 150, San Diego, California 92121-1136 (United States)

2012-10-15

221

Variable Expression of PIK3R3 and PTEN in Ewing Sarcoma Impacts Oncogenic Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Ewing Sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue affecting children and young adults. Ewing Sarcoma is driven by EWS/Ets fusion oncoproteins, which cause widespread alterations in gene expression in the cell. Dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, particularly involving IGF-1R, also plays an important role in Ewing Sarcoma pathogenesis. However, the basis of this dysregulation, including the relative contribution of EWS/Ets-dependent and independent mechanisms, is not well understood. In the present study, we identify variable expression of two modifiers of PI3K signaling activity, PIK3R3 and PTEN, in Ewing Sarcoma, and examine the consequences of this on PI3K pathway regulation and oncogenic phenotypes. Our findings indicate that PIK3R3 plays a growth-promotional role in Ewing Sarcoma, but suggest that this role is not strictly dependent on regulation of PI3K pathway activity. We further show that expression of PTEN, a well-established, potent tumor suppressor, is lost in a subset of Ewing Sarcomas, and that this loss strongly correlates with high baseline PI3K pathway activity in cell lines. In support of functional importance of PTEN loss in Ewing Sarcoma, we show that re-introduction of PTEN into two different PTEN-negative Ewing Sarcoma cell lines results in downregulation of PI3K pathway activity, and sensitization to the IGF-1R small molecule inhibitor OSI-906. Our findings also suggest that PTEN levels may contribute to sensitivity of Ewing Sarcoma cells to the microtubule inhibitor vincristine, a relevant chemotherapeutic agent in this cancer. Our studies thus identify PIK3R3 and PTEN as modifiers of oncogenic phenotypes in Ewing Sarcoma, with potential clinical implications. PMID:25603314

Niemeyer, Brian F.; Parrish, Janet K.; Spoelstra, Nicole S.; Joyal, Teresa; Richer, Jennifer K.; Jedlicka, Paul

2015-01-01

222

Site-directed mutagenesis reveals regions implicated in the stability and fiber formation of human ?3r light chains.  

PubMed

Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a disease that affects vital organs by the fibrillar aggregation of monoclonal light chains. ?3r germ line is significantly implicated in this disease. In this work, we contrasted the thermodynamic stability and aggregation propensity of 3mJL2 (nonamyloidogenic) and 3rJL2 (amyloidogenic) ?3 germ lines. Because of an inherent limitation (extremely low expression), Cys at position 34 of the 3r germ line was replaced by Tyr reaching a good expression yield. A second substitution (W91A) was introduced in 3r to obtain a better template to incorporate additional mutations. Although the single mutant (C34Y) was not fibrillogenic, the second mutation located at CDR3 (W91A) induced fibrillogenesis. We propose, for the first time, that CDR3 (position 91) affects the stability and fiber formation of human ?3r light chains. Using the double mutant (3rJL2/YA) as template, other variants were constructed to evaluate the importance of those substitutions into the stability and aggregation propensity of ?3 light chains. A change in position 7 (P7D) boosted 3rJL2/YA fibrillogenic properties. Modification of position 48 (I48M) partially reverted 3rJL2/YA fibril aggregation. Finally, changes at positions 8 (P8S) or 40 (P40S) completely reverted fibril formation. These results confirm the influential roles of N-terminal region (positions 7 and 8) and the loop 40-60 (positions 40 and 48) on AL. X-ray crystallography revealed that the three-dimensional topology of the single and double ?3r mutants was not significantly altered. This mutagenic approach helped to identify key regions implicated in ?3 AL. PMID:25505244

Villalba, Miryam I; Canul-Tec, Juan C; Luna-Martínez, Oscar D; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Rojas, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Fernández-Velasco, Daniel A; Becerril, Baltazar

2015-01-30

223

Purification of 9 N-[(1? R,3? R)- trans-3?-hydroxycyclopentanyl]adenine HCl: a combination of theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the preparation of 9N-[(1?R,3?R)-trans-3?-hydroxycyclopentanyl]adenine (1), 3N-[(1?R,3?R)-trans-3?-hydoxycyclopentanyl]adenine (2) and 7N-[(1?R,3?R)-trans-3?-hydroxycyclopentanyl]adenine (3). Calculations and titrations to predict and determine the basicity of 1, 2 and 3 are also disclosed. A method was devised to purify a mixture of silyl ethers 4, 5 and 6 via an acid wash (to remove 5; as supported by calculations and titrations) followed by

Robert Barbuch; Timothy T. Curran; David A Hay; Roy J. Vaz

1997-01-01

224

The neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3R) antagonist SB222200 prevents the apomorphine-evoked surface but not nuclear NK3R redistribution in dopaminergic neurons of the rat ventral tegmental area.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a severe condition that has been associated with functional abnormalities in dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Neurokinin-3 receptors (NK3Rs) of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides modulate the activity of VTA DA neurons and might be involved in DA abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. Recent work from our lab showed that systemic injection of the dopamine D1/D2 receptor agonist apomorphine in rats, which mimics schizophrenia-like behaviors in humans, also evoked a redistribution of NK3Rs in DA neurons of the rat VTA. In the present study, VTA microinjection of the selective NK3R antagonist SB222200 (1 nmol/0.2 ?l) or the nuclear import blocker SN50 (2 ?g/0.2 ?l) was performed in awake rats 10 min prior to systemic injection of apomorphine. VTA sections were dual immunolabeled for the NK3R (immunogold) and the dopamine synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, immunoperoxidase). Electron microscopic quantifications of somatic and dendritic densities of NK3 immunogold particles were compared in rats receiving central and systemic injections. In DA (TH-labeled) dendrites, VTA microinjection of SB222200 prevented the apomorphine-evoked decrease in surface NK3R density as well as the apomorphine-induced increase in cytoplasmic NK3R density. In contrast, VTA microinjection of SN50, but not SB222200, prevented the apomorphine-induced increase in nuclear NK3R density. VTA microinjection of SB222200 or SN50 without apomorphine had no effect on the NK3R distribution or density in TH and non-TH profiles within the VTA. In non-TH, presumably GABAergic neurons of the VTA, the NK3R densities in somata and dendrites were not significantly changed by apomorphine with or without SB222200. The results suggest that the NK3R antagonist SB222200 is effective against the apomorphine-evoked NK3R internalization in VTA DA dendrites, but does not prevent nuclear NK3R trafficking in VTA DA neurons. These results might have important implications in targeting NK3R antagonists in basic or clinical studies. PMID:23673279

Hether, S; Misono, K; Lessard, A

2013-09-01

225

Superresolution localization of single functional IP3R channels utilizing Ca2+ flux as a readout.  

PubMed

The subcellular localization of membrane Ca2+ channels is crucial for their functioning, but is difficult to study because channels may be distributed more closely than the resolution of conventional microscopy is able to detect. We describe a technique, stochastic channel Ca2+ nanoscale resolution (SCCaNR), employing Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes to localize stochastic openings and closings of single Ca2+-permeable channels within <50 nm, and apply it to examine the clustered arrangement of inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channels underlying local Ca2+ puffs. Fluorescence signals (blips) arising from single functional IP3Rs are almost immotile (diffusion coefficient<0.003 microm2 s(-1)), as are puff sites over prolonged periods, suggesting that the architecture of this signaling system is stable and not subject to rapid, dynamic rearrangement. However, rapid stepwise changes in centroid position of fluorescence are evident within the durations of individual puffs. These apparent movements likely result from asynchronous gating of IP3Rs distributed within clusters that have an overall diameter of approximately 400 nm, indicating that the nanoscale architecture of IP3R clusters is important in shaping local Ca2+ signals. We anticipate that SCCaNR will complement superresolution techniques such as PALM and STORM for studies of Ca2+ channels as it obviates the need for photoswitchable labels and provides functional as well as spatial information. PMID:20643061

Wiltgen, Steven M; Smith, Ian F; Parker, Ian

2010-07-21

226

A human immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the PIK3R1 gene  

PubMed Central

Recently, patient mutations that activate PI3K signaling have been linked to a primary antibody deficiency. Here, we used whole-exome sequencing and characterized the molecular defects in 4 patients from 3 unrelated families diagnosed with hypogammaglobulinemia and recurrent infections. We identified 2 different heterozygous splice site mutations that affect the same splice site in PIK3R1, which encodes the p85? subunit of PI3K. The resulting deletion of exon 10 produced a shortened p85? protein that lacks part of the PI3K p110-binding domain. The hypothetical loss of p85?-mediated inhibition of p110 activity was supported by elevated phosphorylation of the known downstream signaling kinase AKT in patient T cell blasts. Analysis of patient blood revealed that naive T and memory B cell counts were low, and T cell blasts displayed enhanced activation-induced cell death, which was corrected by addition of the PI3K? inhibitor IC87114. Furthermore, B lymphocytes proliferated weakly in response to activation via the B cell receptor and TLR9, indicating a B cell defect. The phenotype exhibited by patients carrying the PIK3R1 splice site mutation is similar to that of patients carrying gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD. Our results suggest that PI3K activity is tightly regulated in T and B lymphocytes and that various defects in the PI3K-triggered pathway can cause primary immunodeficiencies. PMID:25133428

Deau, Marie-Céline; Heurtier, Lucie; Frange, Pierre; Suarez, Felipe; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschke, Patrick; Cavazzana, Marina; Picard, Capucine; Durandy, Anne; Fischer, Alain; Kracker, Sven

2014-01-01

227

A human immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the PIK3R1 gene.  

PubMed

Recently, patient mutations that activate PI3K signaling have been linked to a primary antibody deficiency. Here, we used whole-exome sequencing and characterized the molecular defects in 4 patients from 3 unrelated families diagnosed with hypogammaglobulinemia and recurrent infections. We identified 2 different heterozygous splice site mutations that affect the same splice site in PIK3R1, which encodes the p85? subunit of PI3K. The resulting deletion of exon 10 produced a shortened p85? protein that lacks part of the PI3K p110-binding domain. The hypothetical loss of p85?-mediated inhibition of p110 activity was supported by elevated phosphorylation of the known downstream signaling kinase AKT in patient T cell blasts. Analysis of patient blood revealed that naive T and memory B cell counts were low, and T cell blasts displayed enhanced activation-induced cell death, which was corrected by addition of the PI3K? inhibitor IC87114. Furthermore, B lymphocytes proliferated weakly in response to activation via the B cell receptor and TLR9, indicating a B cell defect. The phenotype exhibited by patients carrying the PIK3R1 splice site mutation is similar to that of patients carrying gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD. Our results suggest that PI3K activity is tightly regulated in T and B lymphocytes and that various defects in the PI3K-triggered pathway can cause primary immunodeficiencies. PMID:25133428

Deau, Marie-Céline; Heurtier, Lucie; Frange, Pierre; Suarez, Felipe; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschke, Patrick; Cavazzana, Marina; Picard, Capucine; Durandy, Anne; Fischer, Alain; Kracker, Sven

2014-09-01

228

Effect of contact lens material on cytotoxicity potential of multipurpose solutions using human corneal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose Multipurpose solutions (MPS) are used daily to clean and disinfect silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lenses. This in vitro study was undertaken to identify the potential for interaction between MPS, SiHy surface treatments, and lens materials, which may lead to changes in the response of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) to MPS-soaked lenses. Methods The MPS tested were renu fresh (formerly known as ReNu MultiPlus; ReNu), OptiFree Express (OFX), OptiFree RepleniSH, SoloCare Aqua, and Complete Moisture Plus. The SiHy materials evaluated were lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, comfilcon A, galyfilcon A, and balafilcon A (BA). MPS-soaked lenses were placed on top of adherent HCEC. The effect of MPS dilutions (0.1 to 10% final concentration in medium) was also characterized. Cell viability, adhesion phenotype and caspase activation were studied after 24-h cell exposure. OFX released from lenses was determined using UV absorbance. Results A significant reduction in viability (between 30 to 50%) was observed with cells exposed to lenses soaked in ReNu and OFX. A significant downregulation of ?3 and ?1 integrins, with integrin expression ranging from 60% to 75% of control (cells with no lens), was also observed with OFX and ReNu-soaked lenses. With the exception of BA, all other lenses soaked in OFX resulted in significant caspase activation, whereby over 18% of cells stained positive for caspases. Minimal caspase activation was observed in cells exposed to ReNu and Solo soaked lenses. For both OFX and ReNu, exposing cells to at least a 5% dilution had a significant effect on viability and integrin expression. While Complete and Solo did not lead to reduction in viability, cells exposed to a 10% dilution showed reduced integrin expression down to less than 70% of control value. Comparing cell response to diluted MPS solutions and various MPS-soaked lenses showed that it is not possible to reliably use cell response to MPS dilution alone to assess MPS biocompatibility. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the reaction of HCEC to MPS are affected by the type of lenses the MPS is released from and may potentially be influenced by the surface treatment (or lack of it) of SiHy materials. PMID:22219641

Tanti, N.C.; Crockett, B.; Mansour, L.; Jones, L.

2011-01-01

229

Multipurpose contrast enhancement on epiphyseal plates and ossification centers for bone age assessment  

PubMed Central

Background The high variations of background luminance, low contrast and excessively enhanced contrast of hand bone radiograph often impede the bone age assessment rating system in evaluating the degree of epiphyseal plates and ossification centers development. The Global Histogram equalization (GHE) has been the most frequently adopted image contrast enhancement technique but the performance is not satisfying. A brightness and detail preserving histogram equalization method with good contrast enhancement effect has been a goal of much recent research in histogram equalization. Nevertheless, producing a well-balanced histogram equalized radiograph in terms of its brightness preservation, detail preservation and contrast enhancement is deemed to be a daunting task. Method In this paper, we propose a novel framework of histogram equalization with the aim of taking several desirable properties into account, namely the Multipurpose Beta Optimized Bi-Histogram Equalization (MBOBHE). This method performs the histogram optimization separately in both sub-histograms after the segmentation of histogram using an optimized separating point determined based on the regularization function constituted by three components. The result is then assessed by the qualitative and quantitative analysis to evaluate the essential aspects of histogram equalized image using a total of 160 hand radiographs that are implemented in testing and analyses which are acquired from hand bone online database. Result From the qualitative analysis, we found that basic bi-histogram equalizations are not capable of displaying the small features in image due to incorrect selection of separating point by focusing on only certain metric without considering the contrast enhancement and detail preservation. From the quantitative analysis, we found that MBOBHE correlates well with human visual perception, and this improvement shortens the evaluation time taken by inspector in assessing the bone age. Conclusions The proposed MBOBHE outperforms other existing methods regarding comprehensive performance of histogram equalization. All the features which are pertinent to bone age assessment are more protruding relative to other methods; this has shorten the required evaluation time in manual bone age assessment using TW method. While the accuracy remains unaffected or slightly better than using unprocessed original image. The holistic properties in terms of brightness preservation, detail preservation and contrast enhancement are simultaneous taken into consideration and thus the visual effect is contributive to manual inspection. PMID:23565999

2013-01-01

230

A Modern Explorer's Journey - using events for innovative multipurpose educational outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observations are important across the specter of geo-sciences. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. The lack of dedicated funding to support specific Science &Technology activities in support of GEOSS is one of the most important obstacles to engaging the Science &Technology communities in its implementation. Finding resources to outreach and capacity building is likewise a challenge. The continuation of GEO and GEOSS rely on political support which again is influenced by public opinions. The GEO Ministerial Summit in 2014 was an event that both needed visibility and represented an opportunity to mobilize the GEO community in producing outreach and educational material. Through the combined resources from two of GEO tasks in the GEO work plan, a multipurpose educational outreach project was planned and executed. This project addressed the following issues: How can the GEO community mobilize resources for its work plan projects in the Societal Benefit Area Water? How can we produce more educational and capacity building material? How can the GEO community support the GEO secretariat related to public relations (material and otherwise) Based on activities described in the GEO work plan, a showcase video and online campaign consisting on a series of webinars were developed and produced. The video and webinars were linked through a common reference: the water cycle. Various aspects of the water cycle ranging from general to more technical and scientific education were covered in the webinars, while the video called A Modern Explorer's Journey focused on story telling with a more emotional appeal. The video was presented to the Ministers at the GEO Ministerial Summit and distributed widely to the GEO community and through social media and articles (as embedded YouTube and more). A discussion of challenges and successes of this event-based educational outreach project will be presented. Continued use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community. Lessons learned need to be provided continuously and this project add to this material.

Lilja Bye, Bente

2014-05-01

231

NASA Planning for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Ground Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Orion Ground Processing Team was originally formed by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Constellation (Cx) Project Office's Orion Division to define, refine and mature pre-launch and post-landing ground operations for the Orion human spacecraft. The multidisciplined KSC Orion team consisted of KSC civil servant, SAIC, Productivity Apex, Inc. and Boeing-CAPPS engineers, project managers and safety engineers, as well as engineers from Constellation's Orion Project and Lockheed Martin Orion Prime contractor. The team evaluated the Orion design configurations as the spacecraft concept matured between Systems Design Review (SDR), Systems Requirement Review (SRR) and Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The team functionally decomposed prelaunch and post-landing steps at three levels' of detail, or tiers, beginning with functional flow block diagrams (FFBDs). The third tier FFBDs were used to build logic networks and nominal timelines. Orion ground support equipment (GSE) was identified and mapped to each step. This information was subsequently used in developing lower level operations steps in a Ground Operations Planning Document PDR product. Subject matter experts for each spacecraft and GSE subsystem were used to define 5th - 95th percentile processing times for each FFBD step, using the Delphi Method. Discrete event simulations used this information and the logic network to provide processing timeline confidence intervals for launch rate assessments. The team also used the capabilities of the KSC Visualization Lab, the FFBDs and knowledge of the spacecraft, GSE and facilities to build visualizations of Orion pre-launch and postlanding processing at KSC. Visualizations were a powerful tool for communicating planned operations within the KSC community (i.e., Ground Systems design team), and externally to the Orion Project, Lockheed Martin spacecraft designers and other Constellation Program stakeholders during the SRR to PDR timeframe. Other operations planning tools included Kaizen/Lean events, mockups and human factors analysis. The majority of products developed by this team are applicable as KSC prepares 21st Century Ground Systems for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Launch System.

Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

2011-01-01

232

Friction Stir Weld Application and Tooling Design for the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), commonly known as the Orion capsule, is planned to be the United States' next manned spacecraft for missions beyond low earth orbit. Following the cancellation of the Constellation program and creation of SLS (Space Launch System), the need arose for the MPCV to utilize the Delta IV Heavy rocket for a test launch scheduled for 2014 instead of the previously planned Ares I rocket. As a result, an adapter (MSA) must be used in conjunction with the MPCV to account for the variation in diameter of the launch vehicles; 5.5 meters down to 5.0 meters. Prior to ight article fabrication, a path nder (test article) will be fabricated to ne tune the associated manufacturing processes. The adapter will be comprised of an aluminum frustum (partial cone) that employs isogrid technology and circumferential rings on each end. The frustum will be fabricated by friction stir welding (FSW) three individual panels together on a Vertical Weld Tool (VWT) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Subsequently, each circumferential ring will be friction stir welded to the frustum using a Robotic Weld Tool (RWT). The irregular geometry and large mass of the MSA require that extensive tooling preparation be put into support structures for the friction stir weld. The tooling on the VWT will be comprised of a set of conveyors mounted on pre-existing stanchions so that the MSA will have the ability to be rotated after each of the three friction stir welds. The tooling requirements to friction stir weld the rings with the RWT are somewhat more demanding. To support the mass of the MSA and resist the load of the weld tool, a system of mandrels will be mounted to stanchions and assembled in a circle. The goal of the paper will be to explain the design, fabrication, and assembly of the tooling, to explain the use of friction stir welding on the MSA path nder, and also to discuss the lessons learned and modi cations made in preparation for ight article fabrication in support of the 2014 launch of the Orion MPCV.

Alcorn, John

2013-01-01

233

Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run.

Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

2013-01-01

234

Fifth International Poplar Symposium: 'Poplars and willows: from research models to multipurpose trees for a bio-based society'.  

PubMed

Carefully managed tree plantations offer an opportunity for sustainable biomass production. In recent years, the responses of the Salicaceae to environmental constraints have increasingly been investigated at different levels of biological integration, giving rise to a physiological approach to the function of trees in environmental restoration and monitoring. Significant progress has been achieved by the poplar and willow community in understanding targeted characteristics of complex tree stress responses. The Fifth International Poplar Symposium brought together experts in this area, with the main objective being to improve, coordinate and communicate existing national research on the biological and environmental dimension of multifunctional poplar and willow plantations. The secondary objective was to develop a network of research scientists and extension workers to provide scientific support for subjects interested in using fast-growing poplar and willow species for tree-related environmental projects. The ultimate goal was to build up services for the multipurpose tree plantation network on local-level management in order to obtain maximized benefits from tree crops. The purpose was also to maximize the synergy between local knowledge and global-level processes that require information on multipurpose tree crop production. PMID:22158009

Tognetti, Roberto; Massacci, Angelo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia

2011-12-01

235

Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India.  

PubMed

Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run. PMID:22555388

Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

2013-01-01

236

IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 20, OCTOBER 15, 2006 2081 Cascadability of Optical 3R Regeneration for  

E-print Network

to an input optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of 22 dB). Trans- mission with the 3R regenerator shows with a 33-dB input OSNR achieves 1000-hop cascaded error-free transmission (66 000 km in distance) with no hop-to-hop power penalties. A 264-km-spaced 3R regeneration with a 25-dB input OSNR also achieves 100

Kolner, Brian H.

237

96 $+& &%XS&~S*#* % (Fi) 28 W**+#*) .~R*%A**% #+a +4fi4ti % #+El&% 2603 % 3 R % 1 R *$v*&%%%B4+%  

E-print Network

96 $+& &%XS&~S*#* % (Fi) 28 W**+#*) .~R*%A**% #+a +4fi4ti % #+El&% 2603 % 3 R % 1 R *$v*&%%%B4+% 1?#@ % 0%) Z .&;6Fi&$X~+!fs 4 - a &4$4t* #+ fl &.s% 2603 % 3 R 2 *%%&mww¶fi% 4. (10%)Absorption of WNIS *#$.lt* $+El 4%@5 2603 % 3 R % 3 R *$&&2$%&rq4+2$ 7. (10%)The solubility-product constant for Ni2P207is 1

Huang, Haimei

238

Stereoselective synthesis of (S)-3-(methylamino)-3-((R)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)propanenitrile.  

PubMed

(S)-3-(methylamino)-3-((R)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)propanenitrile (1) is a key intermediate in the preparation of PF-00951966, (1) a fluoroquinolone antibiotic for use against key pathogens causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections including multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms. The current work describes the development of a highly efficient and stereoselective synthesis of 1 in 10 steps with an overall yield of 24% from readily available benzyloxyacetyl chloride. Two key transformations in the synthetic sequence involve (a) catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation with chiral DM-SEGPHOS-Ru(II) complex to afford ?-hydroxy amide 11b in good yield (73%) and high stereoselectivity (de 98%, ee >99%) after recrystallization and (b) S(N)2 substitution reaction with methylamine to provide diamine 14 with inversion of configuration at the 1'-position in high yield (80%), after efficient purification using a simple acid/base extraction protocol. PMID:22524537

Lall, Manjinder S; Hoge, Garrett; Tran, Tuan P; Kissel, William; Murphy, Sean T; Taylor, Clarke; Hutchings, Kim; Samas, Brian; Ellsworth, Edmund L; Curran, Timothy; Showalter, H D Hollis

2012-05-18

239

Multiferroicity in orthorhombic R Mn O3 (R =Dy ,Tb , and Gd ) under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrostatic pressure effect on multiferroic properties of rare-earth manganites R Mn O3 (R =Dy ,Tb , and Gd ) with the P b n m orthorhombic structure was investigated by using a diamond anvil cell. Under high pressure, all of these manganites were found to exhibit ferroelectricity in which spontaneous polarization (?100? C /c m2) develops along the a axis. The application of a magnetic field B along the a axis to the high-pressure ferroelectric phase causes a drastic change in the electric polarization P . Especially in GdMn O3 , the B -induced change in P reached ? P (B ) =1.3 ? C /c m2 . A possible origin of the observed R -dependent pressure effect is discussed.

Aoyama, Takuya; Iyama, Ayato; Shimizu, Katsuya; Kimura, Tsuyoshi

2015-02-01

240

Study of elastic moduli and thermal properties of RMnO3 (R = La, Nd) compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we develop a theoretical model for quantitative analysis of temperature-dependent heat capacity calculation of the magnetoresistance compounds RMnO3 (R = La, Nd). The results on heat capacity obtained by us are in good agreement with the measured values. An effective interionic interaction potential (EIoIP) with the long-range Coulomb, van der Waals (vdW) interaction and short-range repulsive interaction up to second neighbor ions within the Hafemeister and Flygare approach was formulated to estimate the Debye and Einstein temperature and was found to be consistent with the available experimental data. In addition, the properties studied are the cohesive energy, molecular force constant, Restrahlen frequency and Gruneisen parameter. After characterizing thermal properties, a systematic investigation of elastic behavior has been undertaken and it has been found that the elastic moduli are decreasing continuously with increasing temperature.

Varshney, Dinesh; Choudhary, Dinesh

2014-06-01

241

The Role of Multipurpose C.A.Es: The Institutional and Staff Perspectives 1974-1975. C.A.T. Education Monograph No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitudes and ideologies of staff and institutional administrators concerning the role of the multipurpose colleges of advanced education in tertiary education in Australia were investigated. The data for the investigation were gathered using two different questionnaires sent to academic staff in civil and mechanical engineering, architecture…

Davis, D. J.; Hermann, G. D.

242

Understanding multi-purpose hybrid voluntary organizations: The contributions of theories on civil society, social movements and non-profit organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper offers a theoretical framework to study the conditions that lead to the emergence of multi-purpose hybrid voluntary organizations and the factors that influence their ability to mobilize resources and enlist commitment. These organizations are characterized by four interrelated attributes: (a) they set out as their mission to uphold and promote cultural values that are typically at variant with

Yeheskel Hasenfeld; Benjamin Gidron

2005-01-01

243

A Multipurpose Apparatus to Measure Viscosity and Surface Tension of Solutions: The Measurement of the Molecular Cross-Sectional Area of N-Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multipurpose apparatus that can be used to measure the viscosity of solution by the Ostwald method and the surface tension of solution by the drop-weight method or by the capillary-rise method is developed. The apparatus is convenient for in-situ preparation of solutions of different concentrations and avoids the error that frothing of the…

Xin Zhang; Shouxin Liu; Booxin Li; Na An; Fan Zhang

2004-01-01

244

Nutritional and anti-nutritional characters and rumen degradability of dry matter and nitrogen for some multipurpose tree species with potential for agroforestry in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a preliminary study on the nutritional value of seven multipurpose trees (MPTs), currently showing potential use in agroforestry systems in Zimbabwe, crude protein values ranged from 189 g kg?1 DM in Flemingia macrophylla to 292 g kg?1 DM in Acacia angustissima. Acid detergent fibre (ADF) content was low especially in Sesbania sesban (99 g kg?1 DM), while ADF contents

B. H. Dzowela; L. Hove; J. H. Topps; P. L. Mafongoya

1995-01-01

245

XXX International Symposium on Macrocyclic Chemistry (ISMC), July 17 21, 2005, Dresden/Germany Multipurpose gadolinium-based ligand DO3A-EA as precursor for  

E-print Network

/Germany Multipurpose gadolinium-based ligand DO3A-EA as precursor for conjugation with organic molecules to develop contrast agents based on Gadolinium chelates in the design of relaxometric MR probes. Synthesis 1,4,7-tris-preloading approach to avoid the binding of gadolinium with calcium binding chelates. MR relaxivity of Gd-DO3A

246

The T3R alpha gene encoding a thyroid hormone receptor is essential for post-natal development and thyroid hormone production.  

PubMed Central

The diverse functions of thyroid hormones are thought to be mediated by two nuclear receptors, T3R alpha1 and T3R beta, encoded by the genes T3R alpha and T3R beta respectively. The T3R alpha gene also produces a non-ligand-binding protein T3R alpha2. The in vivo functions of these receptors are still unclear. We describe here the homozygous inactivation of the T3R alpha gene which abrogates the production of both T3R alpha1 and T3R alpha2 isoforms and that leads to death in mice within 5 weeks after birth. After 2 weeks of life, the homozygous mice become progressively hypothyroidic and exhibit a growth arrest. Small intestine and bones showed a strongly delayed maturation. In contrast to the negative regulatory function of the T3R beta gene on thyroid hormone production, our data show that the T3R alpha gene products are involved in up-regulation of thyroid hormone production at weaning time. Thus, thyroid hormone production might be balanced through a positive T3R alpha and a negative T3R beta pathway. The abnormal phenotypes observed on the homozygous mutant mice strongly suggest that the T3R alpha gene is essential for the transformation of a mother-dependent pup to an 'adult' mouse. These data define crucial in vivo functions for thyroid hormones through a T3R alpha pathway during post-natal development. PMID:9250685

Fraichard, A; Chassande, O; Plateroti, M; Roux, J P; Trouillas, J; Dehay, C; Legrand, C; Gauthier, K; Kedinger, M; Malaval, L; Rousset, B; Samarut, J

1997-01-01

247

Redox-Regulated Heterogeneous Thresholds for Ligand Recruitment among InsP3R Ca2+-Release Channels  

PubMed Central

Abstract To clarify the molecular mechanisms behind quantal Ca2+ release, the graded Ca2+ release from intracellular stores through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) channels responding to incremental ligand stimulation, single-channel patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to continuously monitor the number and open probability of InsP3R channels in the same excised cytoplasmic-side-out nuclear membrane patches exposed alternately to optimal and suboptimal cytoplasmic ligand conditions. Progressively more channels were activated by more favorable conditions in patches from insect cells with only one InsP3R gene or from cells solely expressing one recombinant InsP3R isoform, demonstrating that channels with identical primary sequence have different ligand recruitment thresholds. Such heterogeneity was largely abrogated, in a fully reversible manner, by treatment of the channels with sulfhydryl reducing agents, suggesting that it was mostly regulated by different levels of posttranslational redox modifications of the channels. In contrast, sulfhydryl reduction had limited effects on channel open probability. Thus, sulfhydryl redox modification can regulate various aspects of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, including quantal Ca2+ release, by tuning ligand sensitivities of InsP3R channels. No intrinsic termination of channel activity with a timescale comparable to that for quantal Ca2+ release was observed under any steady ligand conditions, indicating that this process is unlikely to contribute. PMID:20643058

Vais, Horia; Siebert, Adam P.; Ma, Zhongming; Fernández-Mongil, Marisabel; Foskett, J. Kevin; Mak, Don-On Daniel

2010-01-01

248

The endoplasmic reticulum gateway to apoptosis by Bcl-XL modulation of the InsP3R  

PubMed Central

Members of the Bcl-2 protein family modulate outer mitochondrial membrane permeability to control apoptosis1,2. However, these proteins also localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the functional significance of which is controversial3, 4. Here we provide evidence that anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins regulate the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) ER Ca2+ release channel resulting in increased cellular apoptotic resistance and enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetics. Anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL interacts with the carboxyl terminus of the InsP3R and sensitizes single InsP3R channels in ER membranes to low [InsP3], enhancing Ca2+ and InsP3-dependent regulation of channel activity in vitro and in vivo, reducing ER Ca2+ content and stimulating mitochondrial energetics. The pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and tBid antagonize this effect by blocking the biochemical interaction of Bcl-XL with the InsP3R. These data support a novel model in which Bcl-XL is a direct effector of the InsP3R, increasing its sensitivity to InsP3 and enabling ER Ca2+ release to be more sensitively coupled to extracellular signals. As a consequence, cells are protected against apoptosis by a more sensitive and dynamic coupling of ER to mitochondria through Ca2+-dependent signal transduction that enhances cellular bioenergetics and preserves survival. PMID:16179951

White, Carl; Li, Chi; Yang, Jun; Petrenko, Nataliya B.; Madesh, Muniswamy; Thompson, Craig B.; Foskett, J. Kevin

2010-01-01

249

Development of a multipurpose vacuum chamber for serial optical and diffraction experiments with free electron laser radiation.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a development of a multipurpose vacuum chamber which primal function is to be used in pump/probe experiments with free electron laser (FEL) radiation. The chamber is constructed for serial diffraction and serial spectroscopy allowing a fast exchange of samples during the measurement process. For the fast exchange of samples, liquid jet systems are used. Both applications, utilizing soft x-ray FEL pulses as pump and optical laser pulses as probe and vice versa are documented. Experiments with solid samples as well as the liquid jet samples are presented. When working with liquid jets, a system of automatically refilled liquid traps for capturing liquids has been developed in order to ensure stable vacuum conditions. Differential pumping stages are placed in between the FEL beamline and the experimental chamber so that working pressure in the chamber can be up to four orders of magnitude higher than the pressure in the FEL beamline. PMID:20441366

Rajkovic, I; Hallmann, J; Grübel, S; More, R; Quevedo, W; Petri, M; Techert, S

2010-04-01

250

Urban photogrammetric data base for multi-purpose cadastral-based information systems: the Riyadh city case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban information systems are economic resources that can benefit decision makers in the planning, development, and management of urban projects and resources. In this research, a conceptual model-based prototype Urban Geographic Information System (UGIS) is developed. The base maps used in developing the system and acquiring visual attributes are obtained from aerial photographs. The system is a multi-purpose parcel-based one that can serve many urban applications such as public utilities, health centres, schools, population estimation, road engineering and maintenance, and many others. A modern region in the capital city of Saudi Arabia is used for the study. The developed model is operational for one urban application (population estimation) and is tested for that particular application. The results showed that the system has a satisfactory accuracy and that it may well be promising for other similar urban applications in countries with similar demographic and social characteristics.

Al-garni, Abdullah M.

251

Rugged COTS 12.1-in. diagonal AMLCD multipurpose display for the U.S. Army's Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate cockpit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the Rotorcraft pilot's Associate (RPA) program is to enhance mission effectiveness of future combat helicopters through development and application of knowledge based associate systems for cognitive decision aiding. Enhanced mission capability is supported by an increase in pilot situational awareness made possible through the development of the associate and the integration of advanced sensors, controls, and displays. The crewstation display suite showcases ruggedized commercial of-the-shelf 12.1 inch diagonal, full color, 64 gray shade, XGA resolution AMLCDs. These multipurpose displays will be installed three abreast landscape style in the copilot gunner station of an AH-64D longbow apache helicopter for RPA system flight testing. The display program requirements and system architecture are outlined and discussed. The display unit subassembly details are provided with justification related to design level trade studies.

Pyles, Randall C.; Hetherington, Richard

1997-07-01

252

Environmental assessment for the reuse of TNX as a multi-purpose pilot plant campus at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental and safety impacts of DOE planning to allow asset reuse of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include providing for a location for the Centers of Excellence at or adjacent to SRS and entering into a cooperative agreement with a non-profit management and operations (management firm) contractor to operate and market the TNX facilities and equipment. The area (formerly TNX) would be called a Multi-Purpose Pilot Plant Campus (MPPC) and would be used: (1) as location for technology research, development, demonstration, and commercial operations; (2) to establish partnerships with industry to develop applied technologies for commercialization; and (3) serve as administrative headquarters for Centers of Excellence in the program areas of soil remediation, radioecology, groundwater contamination, and municipal solid waste minimization.

NONE

1998-07-01

253

Astrocyte IP3R2-dependent Ca2+ signaling is not a major modulator of neuronal pathways governing behavior  

PubMed Central

Calcium-dependent release of gliotransmitters by astrocytes is reported to play a critical role in synaptic transmission and be necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and other forms of synaptic modulation that are correlates of learning and memory. Further, physiological processes reported to be dependent on Ca2+ fluxes in astrocytes include functional hyperemia, sleep, and regulation of breathing. The preponderance of findings indicate that most, if not all, receptor dependent Ca2+ fluxes within astrocytes are due to release of Ca2+ through IP3 receptor/channels in the endoplasmic reticulum. Findings from several laboratories indicate that astrocytes only express IP3 receptor type 2 (IP3R2) and that a knockout of IP3R2 obliterates the GPCR-dependent astrocytic Ca2+ responses. Assuming that astrocytic Ca2+ fluxes play a critical role in synaptic physiology, it would be predicted that elimination of astrocytic Ca2+ fluxes would lead to marked changes in behavioral tests. Here, we tested this hypothesis by conducting a broad series of behavioral tests that recruited multiple brain regions, on an IP3R2 conditional knockout mouse model. We present the novel finding that behavioral processes are unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signals. IP3R2 cKO animals display no change in anxiety or depressive behaviors, and no alteration to motor and sensory function. Morris water maze testing, a behavioral correlate of learning and memory, was unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R2-mediated Ca2+-signaling. Therefore, in contrast to the prevailing literature, we find that neither receptor-driven astrocyte Ca2+ fluxes nor, by extension, gliotransmission is likely to be a major modulating force on the physiological processes underlying behavior. PMID:25429263

Petravicz, Jeremy; Boyt, Kristen M.; McCarthy, Ken D.

2014-01-01

254

UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING: PHASE 3R  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished in 2Q99.

None

1999-09-01

255

MORE REALISTIC CYCLOTRON LINE MODELS FOR ACCRETING PULSAR SPECTRA P. Kretschmar 1,3 , R. A. ArayaGochez 2 , I. Kreykenbohm 3 , J. Wilms 3 , R. Staubert 3 ,  

E-print Network

1 MORE REALISTIC CYCLOTRON LINE MODELS FOR ACCRETING PULSAR SPECTRA P. Kretschmar 1,3 , R. A. Araya results of a project to analyze spectra of accreting X­ray pulsars modeling the cyclotron line fea­ tures­ drical. These model spectra are compared with RXTE spectra showing cyclotron line features. We discuss

Barnstedt, Jürgen

256

Overexpression of IL-3R? on CD34+CD38? stem cells defines leukemia-initiating cells in Fanconi anemia AML  

PubMed Central

Patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) have a high risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we attempted to identify cell-surface markers for leukemia-initiating cells in FA-AML patients. We found that the IL-3 receptor-? (IL-3R?) is a promising candidate as an leukemia-initiating cell-specific antigen for FA-AML. Whereas IL-3R? expression is undetectable on normal CD34+CD38? HSCs, it is overexpressed on CD34+CD38? cells from FA patients with AML. We examined the leukemia-initiating cell activity of IL-3R?–positive FA-AML cells in a “humanized” FA xenotransplant model in which we separated AML cells into IL-3R?–positive and IL-3R?–negative CD34 fractions and transplanted them into irradiated recipient mice. In all 3 FA-AML samples, only IL-3R?–positive cells showed significant levels of engraftment and developed leukemia in the recipient mice. The FA CD34+IL-3R?+ blasts isolated from leukemic mice exhibited hypersensitivity to IL-3 deprivation and JAK2-STAT5 overactivation after IL-3 treatment. Finally, treatment of FA CD34+IL-3R?+ blasts with an IL-3R?–neutralizing antibody inhibited IL-3–mediated proliferation and STAT5 activation. These results demonstrate that IL-3R? is a cell-surface marker present on FA-AML leukemia-initiating cells and may be a valuable therapeutic target. PMID:21330473

Li, Xu-E; Sipple, Jared

2011-01-01

257

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 748 - BIS-748P, BIS-748P-A; Item Appendix, and BIS-748P-B; End-User Appendix; Multipurpose Application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...End-User Appendix; Multipurpose Application Instructions No. Supplement No. 1 to part 748 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...AND DOCUMENTATION Pt. 748, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to part 748—BIS-748P, BIS-748P-A;...

2011-01-01

258

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 748 - BIS-748P, BIS-748P-A; Item Appendix, and BIS-748P-B; End-User Appendix; Multipurpose Application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...End-User Appendix; Multipurpose Application Instructions No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 748 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...AND DOCUMENTATION Pt. 748, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 748—BIS-748P, BIS-748P-A;...

2010-01-01

259

The Effects of Keyword Cues and 3R Strategy on Children's e-Book Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various studies have found that electronic books (e-books) promote learning, but few works have examined the use of e-books along with an adaptive reading strategy for children. The current study implemented a method to extract keyword cues from e-books to support e-book reading with the read, recite and review (3R) strategy, and then examined the…

Liang, T.-H.

2015-01-01

260

Three Reductions, Three Gains (3R3G) Technology in South Vietnam: Searching for Evidence of Economic Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the “Three Reductions, Three Gains” (3R3G) project is to reduce production costs, improve farmers’ health, and protect the environment in irrigated rice production in Vietnam through the reduced use of seeds, nitrogen fertilizer, and pesticides. It was developed by the International Rice Research Institute and introduced to farmers in South Vietnam by the Ministry of Agriculture and

Zenaida M. Huelgas; Deborah J. Templeton; Pamela Castanar

2008-01-01

261

R3-R4 deletion in the PRNP gene is associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)  

SciTech Connect

There are conflicting reports on the association of deletions in the PRNP gene on chromosome 20 with CJD, a rapidly progressive fatal spongiform encephalopathy. We accumulated data suggesting that a deletion of R3-R4 type (parts of the third and fourth repeats are deleted from the area of four repeating 24 bp sequences in the 5{prime} region of the gene) is causing CJD. Screening of 129 unaffected control individuals demonstrated presence of a deletion of R2 type in four (1.55% of the studied chromosomes), but none of them had the R3-R4 type. Of 181 screened patients with spongiform encephalopathies, two had a deletion of R3-R4 type with no other mutations in the coding sequence. Both patients had a classical rapidly progressive dementing disease and diffuse spongiform degeneration, and both cases were apparently sporadic. The same R3-R4 type of deletion was detected in three additional neuropathologically confirmed spongiform encephalopathy patients, of which two had other known pathogenic mutations in the PRNP gene: at codon 178 on the methionine allele exhibiting the phenotype of fatal familial insomnia, and codon 200 causing CJD with severe dementia; the third was a patient with iatrogenic CJD who developed the disease after treatment with growth hormone extracted from cadaveric human pituitary glands. In all cases the deletion coincided with a variant sequence at position 129 coding for methionine.

Cervenakova, L.; Brown, P.; Nagle, J. [and others

1994-09-01

262

Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined.

Ali, N. E.; Sion, H. C.

2014-02-01

263

An algorithm to compute the reachable workspace for 2R and 3R planar pair mechanical arms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel algorithmic approach to the reachable workspace determination is presented. The reachable workspace is that volume of space which the end effector can reach. The present work is restricted to special geometries which have a 2R or a 3R planar pair, but the resulting algorithm appears to be applicable to any manipulator geometry. Computation results are presented for a

Lorenzo Sciavicco; Bruno Siciliano

1988-01-01

264

CSF3R T618I is a highly prevalent and specific mutation in chronic neutrophilic leukemia.  

PubMed

Truncation mutations of the receptor cytoplasmic domain for colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF3R) are frequently seen in severe congenital neutropenia, whereas activating missense mutations affecting the extracellular domain (exon 14) have been described in hereditary neutrophilia and chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL). In order to clarify mutational frequency, specificity and phenotypic associations, we sequenced CSF3R exons 14-17 in 54 clinically suspected cases of CNL (n=35) or atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML; n=19). Central review of these cases confirmed WHO-defined CNL in 12 patients, monoclonal gammopathy (MG)-associated CNL in 5 and WHO-defined aCML in 9. A total of 14 CSF3R mutations were detected in 13 patients, including 10 with CSF3RT618I (exon 14 mutation, sometimes annotated as CSF3R T595I). CSF3RT618I occurred exclusively in WHO-defined CNL with a mutational frequency of 83% (10 of 12 cases). CSF3R mutations were not seen in aCML or MG-associated CNL. CSF3RT618I was also absent among 170 patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF; n=76) or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML; n=94). SETBP1 mutational frequencies in WHO-defined CNL, aCML, CMML and PMF were 33, 0, 7 and 3%, respectively. Four CSF3RT618I-mutated cases co-expressed SETBP1 mutations. We conclude that CSF3RT618I is a highly sensitive and specific molecular marker for CNL and should be incorporated into current diagnostic criteria. PMID:23604229

Pardanani, A; Lasho, T L; Laborde, R R; Elliott, M; Hanson, C A; Knudson, R A; Ketterling, R P; Maxson, J E; Tyner, J W; Tefferi, A

2013-09-01

265

Evaluation and selection of multipurpose tree for improving soil hydro-physical behaviour under hilly eco-system of north east India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil hydro-physical behaviour was studied under a 20-year old agroforestry plantation consisting of five multipurpose tree\\u000a species (Pinus kesiya Royle ex-Gordon, Alnus nepalensis D.Don, Parkia roxburghii G.Don, Michelia oblonga Wall. and Gmelina arboria Roxb.) maintained under normal recommended practices at Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Complex, Umiam, Meghalaya,\\u000a India. The aim was to select tree species, which could act

R. Saha; J. M. S. Tomar; P. K. Ghosh

2007-01-01

266

SCOPING EVALUATION TO EXPLORE - ROCK FALL ACCIDENT CONDITION ANALYSIS ON MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER WASTE PACKAGES CORRELATED FROM INTERLOCKING BASKET WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN ANALYSIS (SCPB: N/A)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this analysis is to correlate the results of a rock fall analysis performed for the 12 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Fuel Assembly Interlocking Basket waste package (WP) in order to determine the size of rock that can strike the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) waste packages without breaching the containment barriers. The purpose of this analysis is to document the models and methods used in the calculations.

Z, Ceylan

1995-12-08

267

The carbonation of OPC mortars partially substituted with spent fluid catalytic catalyst (FC3R) and its influence on their mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerated carbonation tests have been carried out on Portland cement mortars and pastes, partially substituted with a spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R). This study has revealed that the incorporation of FC3R on mortars produces a significant reduction of the alkaline reserve. Furthermore, it has been observed that this pozzolan also produces a reduction in the mortar porosity. When FC3R\\/cement

Emilio Zornoza; Jordi Payá; José Monzó; María V. Borrachero; Pedro Garcés

2009-01-01

268

A multicenter investigation of OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® multi-purpose disinfecting solution impact on soft contact lens patient comfort  

PubMed Central

Objective: Demonstrate that successful soft contact lens wearers using competitive multipurpose solutions report improvement in comfort with OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® Multi-Purpose Disinfecting Solution (MPDS). Methods: This 30-day, multicentered, open-label study enrolled 109 eligible soft contact lens wearers using COMPLETE® Multi-Purpose Solution (MPS) Easy Rub® or ReNu MultiPlus® MPS. The test solution (OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® MPDS) was dispensed for use in place of habitual care solutions. Subjects assessed their experience with their habitual solution (baseline) and the test solution (Day 30) using Likert-style questions. Contact lens acuity and biomicroscopy findings were recorded at each visit. Results: The test solution was associated with a statistically significant improvement in instillation comfort (P = 0.02), end of day comfort (P < 0.0001), clear vision (P < 0.0001) and overall satisfaction (P < 0.001). Subjects reported the test solution enhanced their overall lens-wearing experience more effectively than their previous solution (P < 0.0001) and that they would continue test solution use after the study (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The test solution was effective at improving comfort and overall contact lens experience compared to COMPLETE® MPS Easy Rub® or ReNu MultiPlus® MPS in successful contact lens wearers. These results indicate that changing contact lens care solutions, even in successful lens wearers, may improve comfort and overall lens-wearing experience. PMID:20169049

Corbin, Glenn S; Bennett, Linda; Espejo, Louis; Carducci, Suzanne; Sacco, Andrew; Hannigan, Robert; Schatz, Stuart

2010-01-01

269

Histamine H3-Receptor Signaling in Cardiac Sympathetic Nerves: Identification of a Novel MAPK-PLA2-COX-PGE2-EP3R Pathway  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that the histamine H3-receptor (H3R)-mediated attenuation of norepinephrine (NE) exocytosis from cardiac sympathetic nerves results not only from a G?i-mediated inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP-PKA pathway, but also from a G??i-mediated activation of the MAPK-PLA2 cascade, culminating in formation of an arachidonate metabolite with anti-exocytotic characteristics (e.g., PGE2). We report in Langendorff-perfused guinea-pig hearts and isolated sympathetic nerve endings (cardiac synaptosomes), H3R-mediated attenuation of K+-induced NE exocytosis was prevented by MAPK and PLA2 inhibitors, and by cyclooxygenase and EP3-receptor (EP3R) antagonists. Moreover, H3R activation resulted in MAPK phosphorylation in H3R-transfected SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and in PLA2 activation and PGE2 production in cardiac synaptosomes; H3R-induced MAPK phosphorylation was prevented by an anti-?? peptide. Synergism between H3R and EP3R agonists (i.e., imetit and sulprostone, respectively) suggested PGE2 may be a downstream effector of the anti-exocytotic effect of H3R activation. Furthermore, the anti-exocytotic effect of imetit and sulprostone was potentiated by the N-type Ca2+-channel antagonist ?-conotoxin GVIA, and prevented by an anti-G?? peptide. Our findings suggest an EP3R G??i-induced decrease in Ca2+ influx through N-type Ca2+-channels is involved in PGE2/EP3R-mediated attenuation of NE exocytosis elicited by H3R activation. Conceivably, activation of the G??i subunit of H3R and EP3R may also inhibit Ca2+ entry directly, independent of MAPK intervention. As heart failure, myocardial ischemia and arrhythmic dysfunction are associated with excessive local NE release, attenuation of NE release by H3R activation is cardioprotective. Thus, the uncovering of a novel H3R signaling pathway may ultimately bear therapeutic significance in hyper-adrenergic states. PMID:17266940

Levi, Roberto; Seyedi, Nahid; Schaefer, Ulrich; Estephan, Rima; Mackins, Christina J.; Tyler, Eleanor; Silver, Randi B.

2007-01-01

270

Tractable synthesis of multipurpose screening compounds with under-represented molecular features for an open access screening platform.  

PubMed

The layout of multipurpose screening libraries must address criteria for the compounds such as novelty, diversity potential, innovative design, and last but not least synthetic tractability. While academic compound collections are often innovative, novel, and highly divers, synthesis of analogs or larger substance quantities is often hampered by complex multistep syntheses with low overall yields. In addition, covalently binding compounds and interaction motifs designed to bind metal ions were discriminated against by the paradigm that these interaction types must almost inevitably lead to toxic effects. We would like to challenge this hypothesis. The lack of such interactions could be a reason for frequent failure in the disclosure of hits for hitherto undruggable target proteins using commercially available screening collections. Thus, easily synthesizable screening candidates equipped to bind covalently to nucleophiles or to metalloenzymes by chelation are under-represented in public access screening libraries. Within this work, we present the synthesis and deposition of 88 compounds with five distinct functional classes, each of which features under-represented screening motifs, for example, metal ion complexation, reversible covalent binding, or halogen bonding. The collection includes acetohydrazides, acylhydrazones, propylene glycol ethers, 2-cyanoacetamides, and 2-cyanoacrylamides. The rational for the synthesis of most of the compounds was recently published by our group and is now supplemented by additional compounds reported here for the first time. The public access disposition enables academic research groups to collectively expand the druggable space and interdisciplinary collaborate within the scientific field. PMID:24687389

Wilde, Felix; Specker, Edgar; Neuenschwander, Martin; Nazaré, Marc; Bodtke, Anja; Link, Andreas

2014-08-01

271

Environmental factors influencing survival of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a multipurpose constructed treatment wetland in southern California.  

PubMed

Survival of the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, differed among marshes in a demonstration 9.9-ha multipurpose constructed treatment wetland designed to improve the quality of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in southern California. At a mean loading rate of 3.3 kg NH4-N ha(-1) d(-1) (6 kg total N ha(-1) d(-1)), the suitability of the wetland to support a population of sticklebacks was estimated to be low. The development of potentially toxic levels of un-ionized ammonia, particularly during periods when pH increased concomitantly with oxygen generation by phytoplankton biomass > 300 mg chlorophyll a liter(-1), and disinfection by-products were associated with lowered survivorship of sentinel fish. Moreover, the high oxygen demand from nitrification of NH4-N created daily periods of low dissolved oxygen concentration (6-16 h at < 2 mg liter(-1)) in the open water areas of the shallow marshes. Low dissolved oxygen concentration in open water zones of the seven marshes during a part of each day and persistent anaerobic conditions in the emergent vegetation rendered the majority of the wetland's substrate surface unavailable for successful reproduction by sticklebacks. The potential sites for Gasterosteus to replace mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki, as a biological control agent against mosquitoes are probably limited to comparatively cool-water habitats with high water quality, such as riverine wetlands. PMID:17633430

Walton, William E; Wirth, Margaret C; Workman, Parker D

2007-06-01

272

Iodine Tagging Velocimetry and Mechanism in the Hypersonic Near Wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study demonstrates a new molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) method for velocity measurements of high speed flow. It demonstrates offbody Iodine Tagging Velocimetry (ITV) in the hypersonic near wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) model. Experiments are performed in the NASA-Langley 31-inch Mach 10 air wind tunnel. A 0.5% I2 / N2 mixture is seeded on the leeward backshell of the model using a pressure tap. I2 laser-induced fluorescence is excited along a 5.5 mm line using an ArF excimer laser near 193 nm. Results indicate I2 absorbs at least 2 photons to produce iodine ions and electrons. These recombine as the tagged region is displaced downstream to produce I (2P3/2) whose emission is monitored at 206 nm. Results at P0 = 2.41 MPa (350 psi), T0 = 990K, and 10 micro-sec transit times produce velocities from 630-820 m/sec across the I2 seeded jet at a distance of 38.2 mm (25.5 jet diameters) downstream from the jet orifice. Maximum wake jet velocities near the shear layer are 59% of freestream velocity.

Balla, R. Jeffrey

2013-01-01

273

Genetic algorithms optimization of hedging rules for operation of the multi-purpose Ubonratana Reservoir in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study has developed optimal hedging policies for the multi-purpose Ubonratana Reservoir in northeastern Thailand based on its existing rule curves. The hedging policy was applied whenever the reservoir storage falls below a critical level for each month of the year. The decision variables, i.e. the set of monthly storages defining the critical rule curve that triggers rationing and the rationing ratio, were optimized by genetic algorithm (GA). Both single stage (i.e. with one critical rule curve and one rationing ratio) and two-stage (with two critical rule curves and ratios) of the hedging policy were considered in the optimization. To test the effect of the optimized hedging policies on reservoir performance, simulations were carried out, forced alternatively with the existing rule curves (i.e. without hedging) and the two optimized hedging policies. Performance was summarized in terms of reliability (time- and volume-based) and vulnerability. The results showed that the vulnerability was significantly reduced by using the optimized hedging rules. However, the number of water shortages increased with the optimized rules, causing the time-based reliability to worsen significantly. This should not be of concern since, although the number of shortages increased, the associated shortage quantities on most of these additional occasions were small, leaving the volumetric reliability largely unchanged.

Chiamsathit, C.; Adeloye, A. J.; Soudharajan, B.

2014-09-01

274

Design and investigations of the superconducting magnet system for the multipurpose superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion sourcea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of intense beams of heavy ions with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) is an important request at many accelerators. According to the ECR condition and considering semi-empirical scaling laws, it is essential to increase the microwave frequency together with the magnetic flux density of the ECRIS magnet system. A useful frequency of 28 GHz, therefore, requires magnetic flux densities above 2.2 T implying the use of superconducting magnets. A cooperation of European institutions initiated a project to build a multipurpose superconducting ECRIS (MS-ECRIS) in order to achieve an increase of the performances in the order of a factor of ten. After a first design of the superconducting magnet system for the MS-ECRIS, the respective cold testing of the built magnet system reveals a lack of mechanical performance due to the strong interaction of the magnetic field of the three solenoids with the sextupole field and the magnetization of the magnetic iron collar. Comprehensive structural analysis, magnetic field calculations, and calculations of the force pattern confirm thereafter these strong interactions, especially of the iron collar with the solenoidal fields. The investigations on the structural analysis as well as suggestions for a possible mechanical design solution are given.

Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Mäder, J.; Roßbach, J.; Spädtke, P.; Komorowski, P.; Meyer-Reumers, M.; Krischel, D.; Fischer, B.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.

2012-02-01

275

The DET1-COP1-HY5 pathway constitutes a multipurpose signaling module regulating plant photomorphogenesis and thermomorphogenesis.  

PubMed

Developmental plasticity enables plants to respond to elevated ambient temperatures by adapting their shoot architecture. On the cellular level, the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor phytochrome interacting factor 4 (PIF4) coordinates this response by activating hormonal modules that in turn regulate growth. In addition to an unknown temperature-sensing mechanism, it is currently not understood how temperature regulates PIF4 activity. Using a forward genetic approach in Arabidopsis thaliana, we present extensive genetic evidence demonstrating that the de-etiolated 1 (DET1)-constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1)-elongated hypocotyl 5 (HY5)-dependent photomorphogenesis pathway transcriptionally regulates PIF4 to coordinate seedling growth in response to elevated temperature. Our findings demonstrate that two of the most prevalent environmental cues, light and temperature, share a much larger set of signaling components than previously assumed. Similar to the toolbox concept in animal embryonic patterning, multipurpose signaling modules might have evolved in plants to translate various environmental stimuli into adaptational growth processes. PMID:25533339

Delker, Carolin; Sonntag, Louisa; James, Geo Velikkakam; Janitza, Philipp; Ibañez, Carla; Ziermann, Henriette; Peterson, Tom; Denk, Kathrin; Mull, Steffi; Ziegler, Jörg; Davis, Seth Jon; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Quint, Marcel

2014-12-24

276

Crystal growth and magnetic property of orthorhombic RMnO 3 (R=Sm–Ho) perovskites by mild hydrothermal synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have successfully grown several RMnO3 (R=Sm–Ho) crystals by mild hydrothermal treatment of mixtures prepared from rare earth oxides, k-birnessite gel and KOH. Crystal growth of rare earth manganate perovskites was sensitive to alkalinity, temperature, filling fraction, nature of the rare earth ion and composition of initial reaction mixture. The structure of DyMnO3 by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) and of

Yan Chen; Hongming Yuan; Guanghua Li; Ge Tian; Shouhua Feng

2007-01-01

277

MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME  

E-print Network

MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME ~ I T U D I N of the endemicity of malaria will be essential i n a population which is t o receive an acceptable malaria vaccine another." V. Nabokov (1972, p. 8) Abstract A research project on malaria i n the Garki d i s t r i c

Cohen, Joel E.

278

Vibrational circular dichroism in the CH stretching region of (+)-3(R)-methylcyclohexanone and chiral deuteriated isotopomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CH stretching Raman, FTIR, and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of 3(R)-methylcyclohexanone and its chiral 2,2,6,6-dâ, 4,4-dâ, 5,5-dâ and methyl-dâ isotopomers, and the Raman and FTIR spectra of racemic 3-methylcyclohexanone-3-d⁠are presented and analyzed. Fourier self-deconvolution has been applied to the FTIR spectra to artificially enhance the resolution in order to determine individual band frequencies. Band assignments have been

T. B. Freedman; J. Kallmerten; E. D. Lipp; D. A. Young; L. A. Nafie

1988-01-01

279

Solid waste management associated with the development of 3R initiatives: case study in major urban areas of Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to describe the application and progress of the Reduce-Reuse-Recycle (3R) initiative and its\\u000a gradual implementation and development in solid waste management in Vietnam through the study of the municipal solid waste\\u000a management (MSWM) systems of eight major urban cities and provinces. The resulting survey and studies showed that there are\\u000a big challenges for MSWM

Ngo Kim Chi; Pham Quoc Long

2011-01-01

280

Dielectric and magnetic anomalies and spin frustration in hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Y, Yb, and Lu)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystals of hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Y, Yb, and Lu), where Mn ions form the triangular lattice, were investigated, focusing on their dielectric\\/magnetic anomalies as well as geometrical spin frustration. It is found that the ratio of a Weiss temperature to TN is ~10 in RMnO3, indicating the dominant role of strong geometrical frustration. The effect of geometrical frustration also appears

T. Katsufuji; S. Mori; M. Masaki; Y. Moritomo; N. Yamamoto; H. Takagi

2001-01-01

281

Dynamical low-energy electron diffraction study of graphite (0 0 0 1)-(?3×?3) R30°Xe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamical low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) was used to study the structures of graphite (0001) and graphite (0001)-(?3×?3)R30°-Xe. Natural single crystals of graphite were used in these studies, and their surface structure was found to be the same as the bulk structure. The adsorbed Xe was found to occupy the hollow sites of the honeycomb substrate at a distance of 3.59±0.04

K. Pussi; J. Smerdon; N. Ferralis; M. Lindroos; R. McGrath; R. D. Diehl

2004-01-01

282

PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression  

SciTech Connect

Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

Rajakumara, Eerappa; Wang, Zhentian; Ma, Honghui; Hu, Lulu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wu, Feizhen; Li, Haitao; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Xu, Yanhui; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Shi, Yang (MSKCC); (Constellation); (Fudan); (Tsinghua)

2011-08-29

283

Modulation of behavior by the histaminergic system: lessons from HDC-, H3R- and H4R-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Histamine, which is synthesized by histidine decarboxylase (HDC), does not only modulate the immune system, but is also acting as a neurotransmitter. Histaminergic neurons project from the tuberomamillary nucleus to numerous brain regions. Activation of presynaptic H3R inhibits the release of histamine and of non-histaminergic neurotransmitters. The phenotypes of Hdc(-/-)- and Hrh3(-/-) mice comprise behaviors related to locomotor activity, memory, cognition, anxiety, circadian rhythm, pain perception, food intake and addiction. We critically discuss these phenotypes that are probably caused by global changes of the histaminergic tone rather than by an altered stimulation of a single histamine receptor subtype. Constitutive H3R activity may add another layer of complexity by causing "histamine-independent histaminergic" processes, e.g. in Hdc(-/-) mice. We also discuss the clinical relevance of H3R- and HDC-deficient mice, e.g. the role of HDC in Tourette's syndrome. Finally, this review summarizes current knowledge on possible central H4R functions. Neuronal expression of H4R, however, is discussed controversially and a systematic behavioral characterization of Hrh4(-/-) mice is still missing. PMID:25102165

Schneider, Erich H; Neumann, Detlef; Seifert, Roland

2014-11-01

284

The Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor (IP3R) and Its Regulators: Sometimes Good and Sometimes Bad Teamwork  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Changes in the amount of calcium inside cells initiate many cellular events, including muscle contraction, hormone secretion, and cell growth. These changes can be modulated in time and space by the cell to tailor its response to the prevailing conditions. A major pathway used for the release of calcium from intracellular stores involves opening the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), a calcium channel that is part of a signaling complex with multiple binding partners. This Review, which contains 2 tables, 6 figures, and 119 references, discusses the role of specific binding partners in regulating the function of the IP3R. These studies provide information on how these channels work and form the background for the investigation of disease-induced changes in calcium release channel function. The initiation of intracellular calcium signals can depend on factors as diverse as the nonuniform distribution of a binding partner in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum or the activation of a calcium-binding protein in the cytoplasm. Once calcium signals start, they can be transient, sustained, or oscillating; these temporal aspects of the signal are regulated by similarly diverse factors. Changes in intracellular calcium regulation occur in many diseases. As more and more new regulators of the IP3R are discovered, it will be important to understand the teamwork needed to regulate and modulate this complex system.

Chi-un Choe (Yale University; Departments of Pharmacology and Cellular and Molecular Physiology REV)

2006-11-28

285

New method for the synthesis of (3 R ,7 R )-hexahydrofarnesyl bromide based on the microwave-activated regioselective enolization of homochiral phytone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short and efficient synthesis of (3R,7R)-hexahydrofarnesyl bromide ((3R,7R)-1-bromo-3,7,11-trimethyldodecane), the terpenoid synthon for the natural ?-tocopherol, has been elaborated based on the\\u000a microwave-activated regioselective enolization of homochiral phytone.

M. I. Mallyabaeva; A. Yu. Spivak; T. V. Tyumkina; O. V. Knyshenko; V. N. Odinokov

2007-01-01

286

Development of the Carbon Cycle Column Radiometer (C3R) for ASCENDS CO and CH4 Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster describes the development of a new passive remote sensor, the Carbon Cycle Column Radiometer (C3R), for measuring CO and CH4 column abundance in support of the ASCENDS NRC Decadal Survey mission. In order to understand sources and sinks of CO2, as well as the carbon cycle in general, measurements of CO and CH4 are required with high sensitivity in the planetary boundary layer. No passive sensor concept has demonstrated, through either analysis or actual measurement, the ability to sense CO or CH4 to the spatial and temporal quality demanded by the ASCENDS mission. To meet the ASCENDS requirements, we are developing a non-conventional gas filter correlation radiometer (GFCR), the C3R, which will provide high sensitivity all the way to the surface. C3R allows these measurements to be made for a very small footprint (~250 m dia.) concentric with ASCENDS laser observations of CO2. Dominated by reflected sunlight, nadir measurements in the 2.3 µm region have relatively constant sensitivity with altitude, thus offering sensitivity in the important planetary boundary layer, the primary source region of these gases. Measurement challenges at 2.3 µm include: (1) high surface albedo variability (2) CO and CH4 bands overlapping with water vapor (H2O) and each other; and (3) a weak CO band (~100 times weaker than its fundamental mid-IR band). The C3R instrument differs from a conventional GFCR in three primary ways: (1) the use of a focal plane array (FPA) detector in a non-imaging configuration which allows photon noise-limited detection, field of view scrambling and signal flat-fielding; (2) long-path correlation cells improve sensitivity throughout the atmosphere, including high sensitivity in the boundary layer; and (3) removal of interfering gas and spectral albedo effects by a novel technique. The poster will illustrate the optomechanical design (shown in Figure 1) and current state of hardware development, instrument performance modeling results, and plans for continuing development and testing of the instrument. Figure 1. Optical/physical design of the C3R sensor prototype.

Diskin, G. S.; Crawford, J. H.; Sachse, G. W.; Gordley, L. L.; Burton, J.; McHugh, M. J.

2010-12-01

287

Phosphorylation of IP3R1 and the regulation of [Ca2+]i responses at fertilization: a role for the MAP kinase pathway  

PubMed Central

A sperm-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal ([Ca2+]i) underlies the initiation of embryo development in most species studied to date. The inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1) in mammals, or its homologue in other species, is thought to mediate the majority of this Ca2+ release. IP3R1-mediated Ca2+ release is regulated during oocyte maturation such that it reaches maximal effectiveness at the time of fertilization, which, in mammalian eggs, occurs at the metaphase stage of the second meiosis (MII). Consistent with this, the [Ca2+]i oscillations associated with fertilization in these species occur most prominently during the MII stage. In this study, we have examined the molecular underpinnings of IP3R1 function in eggs. Using mouse and Xenopus eggs, we show that IP3R1 is phosphorylated during both maturation and the first cell cycle at a MPM2-detectable epitope(s), which is known to be a target of kinases controlling the cell cycle. In vitro phosphorylation studies reveal that MAPK/ERK2, one of the M-phase kinases, phosphorylates IP3R1 at at least one highly conserved site, and that its mutation abrogates IP3R1 phosphorylation in this domain. Our studies also found that activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway is required for the IP3R1 MPM2 reactivity observed in mouse eggs, and that eggs deprived of the MAPK/ERK pathway during maturation fail to mount normal [Ca2+]i oscillations in response to agonists and show compromised IP3R1 function. These findings identify IP3R1 phosphorylation by M-phase kinases as a regulatory mechanism of IP3R1 function in eggs that serves to optimize [Ca2+]i release at fertilization. PMID:17038520

Lee, Bora; Vermassen, Elke; Yoon, Sook-Young; Vanderheyden, Veerle; Ito, Junya; Alfandari, Dominique; De Smedt, Humbert; Parys, Jan B.; Fissore, Rafael A.

2010-01-01

288

Managing runoff and flow pathways in a small rural catchment to reduce flood risk with other multi-purpose benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 2000 to 2009 there have been a high number of flood events throughout Northern Europe. Meanwhile, there is a demand for land in which to construct homes and businesses on, which is encroaching on land which is prone to flooding. Nevertheless, flood defences usually protect us from this hazard. However, the severity of floods and this demand for land has increased the number of homes which have been flooded in the past ten years. Public spending on flood defences can only go so far which targets the large populations first. Small villages and communities, where in many cases normal flood defences are not cost effective, tend to wait longer for flood mitigation strategies. The Belford Burn (Northumberland, UK) catchment is a small rural catchment that drains an area of 6 km2. It flows through the village of Belford. There is a history of flooding in Belford, with records of flood events dating back to 1877. Normal flood defences are not suitable for this catchment as it failed the Environment Agency (EA) cost benefit criteria for support. There was a desire by the local EA Flood Levy Team and the Northumbria Regional Flood Defence Committee at the Environment Agency to deliver an alternative catchment-based solution to the problem. The EA North East Flood Levy team and Newcastle University have created a partnership to address the flood problem using soft engineered runoff management features. Farm Integrated Runoff Management (FIRM) plans manage flow paths directly by storing slowing and filtering runoff at source on farms. The features are multipurpose addressing water quality, trapping sediment, creating new habitats and storing and attenuating flood flow. Background rainfall and stream stage data have been collected since November 2007. Work on the first mitigation features commenced in July 2008. Since that date five flood events have occurred in the catchment. Two of these flood events caused widespread damage in other areas of the county. However, in Belford only two houses were flooded. Data from the catchment and mitigation features showed that the defence measures resulted in an increase in travel time of the peak and attenuated high flows which would have usually travelled quickly down the channel to the village. For example, the pilot feature appears to have increased the travel time of a flood peak at the top of the catchment from 20 minutes to 35 minutes over a 1 km stretch of channel. There are currently ten active mitigation features present in the catchment. More features are planned for construction this year. Early data from the catchment indicates that the runoff attenuation features are having an impact on reducing flood flows in the channel and also slowing down the flood peak. At the same time the multi-purpose aspects of the features are apparent.

Wilkinson, Mark; Welton, Phil; Kerr, Peter; Quinn, Paul; Jonczyk, Jennine

2010-05-01

289

Multipurpose Care Solution–Induced Corneal Surface Disruption and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Internalization in the Rabbit Corneal Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate the effects of a chemically preserved multipurpose contact lens care solution (MPS) on the corneal epithelial surface and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) internalization in the rabbit corneal epithelium. Methods. Rabbits were fit in one eye with a silicone hydrogel lens (balafilcon A) soaked overnight in a borate-buffered MPS (BioTrue). The contralateral eye was fit with a lens removed directly from the blister pack containing borate-buffered saline (control). Lenses were worn for 2 hours. Upon lens removal, corneas were challenged ex vivo with invasive PA strain 6487 and assessed for PA internalization. Ultrastructural changes were assessed using scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results. Scanning electron microscopy showed frank loss of surface epithelium in MPS-exposed eyes, while control eyes exhibited occasional loss of surface membranes but retention of intact junctional borders. Transmission electron microscopy data supported and extended SEM findings, demonstrating the presence of epithelial edema in MPS-treated eyes. There was a 12-fold increase in PA uptake into the corneal epithelium following wear of the MPS-treated lens compared to control (P = 0.008). Conclusions. These data demonstrate that corneal exposure to MPS during lens wear damages the surface epithelium and are consistent with our previous clinical data showing an increase in bacterial binding to exfoliated epithelial cells following MPS use with resultant increased risk for lens-mediated infection. These findings also demonstrate that the PA invasion assay may provide a highly sensitive quantitative metric for assessing the physiological impact of lens-solution biocompatibility on the corneal epithelium. PMID:24876286

Posch, Leila C.; Zhu, Meifang; Robertson, Danielle M.

2014-01-01

290

Monte Carlo simulations of gamma-ray space telescopes: a BoGEMMS multi-purpose application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the development of a BoGEMMS (Bologna Geant4 Multi-Mission Simulator) template for the background study of X-ray telescopes, a new extension is built for the simulation of a Gamma-ray space mission (e.g. AGILE, Fermi), conceived to work as a common, multi-purpose framework for the present and future electron tracking gamma-ray space telescopes. The Gamma-ray extension involves the Geant4 mass model, the physics list and, more important, the production and treatment of the simulation output. From the user point of view, the simulation set-up follows a tree structure, with the main level being the selection of the simulation framework (the general, X-ray or gamma-ray application) and the secondary levels being the detailed configuration of the geometry and the output format. The BoGEMMS application to Gamma-ray missions has been used to evaluate the instrument performances of a new generation of Gamma-ray telescopes (e.g. Gamma-Light), and a full simulation of the AGILE mission is currently under construction, to scientifically validate and calibrate the simulator with real in-space data sets. A complete description of the BoGEMMS Gamma-ray framework is presented here, with an overview of the achieved results for the potential application to present and future experiments (e.g., GAMMA-400 and Gamma-Light). The evaluation of the photon conversion efficiency to beta particle pairs and the comparison to tabulated data allows the preliminary physical validation of the overall architecture. The Gamma-ray module application for the study of the Gamma-Light instrument performances is reported as reference test case.

Fioretti, Valentina; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Tavani, Marco; Marisaldi, Martino; Sabatini, Sabina; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Trifoglio, Massimo; Gianotti, Fulvio

2014-07-01

291

Strategic Focus on 3R Principles Reveals Major Reductions in the Use of Animals in Pharmaceutical Toxicity Testing  

PubMed Central

The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Öberg, Mattias

2014-01-01

292

The Role of Combination Techniques in Maximizing the Utility of Precipitation Estimates from Several Multi-Purpose Remote-Sensing Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multi-purpose remote-sensing products from various satellites have proved crucial in developing global estimates of precipitation. Examples of these products include low-earth-orbit and geosynchronous-orbit infrared (leo- and geo-IR), Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Television Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data, and passive microwave data such as that from the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I). Each of these datasets has served as the basis for at least one useful quasi-global precipitation estimation algorithm; however, the quality of estimates varies tremendously among the algorithms for the different climatic regions around the globe.

Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

293

Cascadability properties of MZI-SOA-based all-optical 3R regenerators for RZ-DPSK signals.  

PubMed

We experimentally demonstrate 50 cascaded all-optical 3R regenerators over a 1,000 km transmission distance for 10-Gb/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) signals. The regenerator consists of integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based wavelength converters. Regenerative properties and tolerance to pattern dependent effects have been studied in terms of Q-factor measurement, and error free operation with input OSNR of 20 dB/0.1 nm has also been demonstrated. PMID:21643188

Kise, Tomofumi; Nguyen, Kimchau N; Garcia, John M; Poulsen, Henrik N; Blumenthal, Daniel J

2011-05-01

294

The fate of the 2?3 × 2?3R(30°) silicene phase on Ag(111)  

SciTech Connect

Silicon atoms deposited on Ag(111) produce various single layer silicene sheets with different buckling patterns and periodicities. Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that one of the silicene sheets, the hypothetical ?7 × ?7 silicene structure, on 2?3 × 2?3 Ag(111), is inherently highly defective and displays no long-range order. Moreover, Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal its sudden death, to end, in a dynamic fating process at ?300?°C. This result clarifies the real nature of the 2?3 × 2?3R(30°) silicene phase and thus helps to understand the diversity of the silicene sheets grown on Ag(111)

Liu, Zhi-Long; Wang, Mei-Xiao; Liu, Canhua, E-mail: canhualiu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: depadova@ism.cnr.it, E-mail: guy.lelay@univ-amu.fr; Jia, Jin-Feng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing 210093 (China); Vogt, Patrick [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Quaresima, Claudio; Ottaviani, Carlo; De Padova, Paola, E-mail: canhualiu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: depadova@ism.cnr.it, E-mail: guy.lelay@univ-amu.fr [CNR-ISM, via Fosso del Cavaliere, Rome 00133 (Italy); Olivieri, Bruno [ISAC-CNR, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, Rome (Italy); Lay, Guy Le, E-mail: canhualiu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: depadova@ism.cnr.it, E-mail: guy.lelay@univ-amu.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM UMR 7345, 13397, Marseille (France)

2014-09-01

295

Superexchange interactions in orthorhombically distorted titanates R TiO 3 ( R ?=?Y, Gd, Sm and La)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from the multiorbital Hubbard model for the t2g-bands of RTiO3 (R=\\u000aY, Gd, Sm, and La), where all parameters have been derived from the\\u000afirst-principles calculations, we construct an effective superexchange (SE)\\u000aspin model, by treating transfer integrals as a perturbation. We consider four\\u000aapproximations for the SE interactions: (i) the canonical crystal-field (CF)\\u000atheory, where the form of

I. V. Solovyev

2009-01-01

296

$\\\\rho^0-\\\\omega$ mixing in U(3)}$_L\\\\times$ U(3)$_R$ chiral theory of mesons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, U(3)$_L\\\\times$ U(3)$_R$ chiral theory of mesons is extended to\\u000athe leading order in quark mass expansion in order to evaluate the\\u000a$\\\\rho^0-\\\\omega$ mixing. It is shown that the use of path integral method to\\u000aintegrate out the quark fields naturally leads to the $\\\\rho^0-\\\\omega$ mixing\\u000avertices, and this mixing is entirely from the quark loop in this

Dao-Neng Gao; Mu-Lin Yan

1998-01-01

297

The fate of the 2?3 × 2?3R(30°) silicene phase on Ag(111)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon atoms deposited on Ag(111) produce various single layer silicene sheets with different buckling patterns and periodicities. Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that one of the silicene sheets, the hypothetical ?7 × ?7 silicene structure, on 2?3 × 2?3 Ag(111), is inherently highly defective and displays no long-range order. Moreover, Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal its sudden death, to end, in a dynamic fating process at ˜300 °C. This result clarifies the real nature of the 2?3 × 2?3R(30°) silicene phase and thus helps to understand the diversity of the silicene sheets grown on Ag(111).

Liu, Zhi-Long; Wang, Mei-Xiao; Liu, Canhua; Jia, Jin-Feng; Vogt, Patrick; Quaresima, Claudio; Ottaviani, Carlo; Olivieri, Bruno; De Padova, Paola; Lay, Guy Le

2014-09-01

298

Enantioselective decomposition of chiral alkyl bromides on Cu(6 4 3) R&S: Effects of moving the chiral center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enantioselective surface chemistry of two chiral alkyl halides, S-1-bromo-2-methylbutane and R-2-bromobutane, have been compared on the naturally chiral Cu(6 4 3) R&S surfaces. Temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy was used to quantify the yields of the various decomposition products during heating. A fraction of the adsorbed alkyl bromides desorb intact while the remainder decomposes by debromination to form either S-2-methyl-1-butyl or R-2-butyl groups on the surfaces. The S-2-methyl-1-butyl group then reacts by ?-hydride elimination to form 2-methyl-1-butene or by hydrogenation to form 2-methylbutane. The R-2-butyl group reacts by ?-hydride elimination to form butene or by hydrogenation to form butane. This surface chemistry on Cu(6 4 3) R&S is not enantioselective at low coverages but is enantioselective at high coverages. In R-2-bromobutane the chiral carbon atom coincides with the debromination reaction center while the ?-hydride elimination centers are achiral. In S-1-bromo-2-methylbutane the chiral carbon atom coincides with the ?-hydride elimination reaction center while the center for debromination is achiral. Results show that the enantioselectivities are influenced by the surface structure to a greater extent than they are by the adsorbate structure.

Rampulla, D. M.; Gellman, A. J.

2006-07-01

299

Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or health problems for humans. Other identified components from the MPLM are quite similar to those found from off gassing of construction material and laboratory reagents characterized in ground based studies with closed plant growth chambers.

Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

300

Multipurpose assessment for the quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria in fish and seawater using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction  

PubMed Central

Background This study describes the first multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay developed, as a multipurpose assessment, for the simultaneous quantification of total bacteria and three Vibrio spp. (V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. anguillarum) in fish and seawater. The consumption of raw finfish as sushi or sashimi has been increasing the chance of Vibrio outbreaks in consumers. Freshness and quality of fishery products also depend on the total bacterial populations present. Results The detection sensitivity of the specific targets for the multiplex assay was 1 CFU mL?1 in pure culture and seawater, and 10 CFU g?1 in fish. While total bacterial counts by the multiplex assay were similar to those obtained by cultural methods, the levels of Vibrio detected by the multiplex assay were generally higher than by cultural methods of the same populations. Among the natural samples without Vibrio spp. inoculation, eight out of 10 seawater and three out of 20 fish samples were determined to contain Vibrio spp. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that this multiplex assay could be useful for the rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria as a multipurpose tool for surveillance of fish and water quality as well as diagnostic method. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24752974

Kim, Ji Yeun; Lee, Jung-Lim

2014-01-01

301

Calcineurin-NFATc Regulates Type 2 Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor (InsP3R2) Expression during Cardiac Remodeling*  

PubMed Central

In heart, the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (InsP3R2) is the predominant isoform expressed and is localized in the nuclear membrane of ventricular myocytes. InsP3R2-mediated Ca2+ release regulates hypertrophy specific gene expression by modulating CaMKII?, histone deacetylase, and calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathways. InsP3R2 protein is a hypertrophy specific marker and is overexpressed in heart failure animal models and in humans. However, the regulation of InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression during cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure is not known. Here we show the transcriptional regulation of the Itpr2 gene in adult cardiomyocytes. Our data demonstrates that, InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression is activated by hypertrophic agonists and attenuated by InsP3R inhibitors 2-aminoethoxyldiphenyl borate and xestospongin-C. The Itpr2 promoter is regulated by the calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathway. NFATc1 regulates Itpr2 gene expression by directly binding to the Itpr2 promoter. The calcineurin-NFATc mediated up-regulation of the Itpr2 promoter was attenuated by cyclosporine-A. InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression was up-regulated in calcineurin-A transgenic mice and in human heart failure. Collectively, our data suggests that ITPR2 and hypertrophy specific gene expression is regulated, in part, by a positive feedback regulation between InsP3R2 and calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathways. PMID:24415751

Sankar, Natesan; deTombe, Pieter P.; Mignery, Gregory A.

2014-01-01

302

Multipurpose hyperspectral imaging system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral i...

303

Multipurpose auxiliary power unit  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a gas turbine alternately usable as an auxiliary power unit, load compressor, air turbine started or the like. It comprises: a centrifugal compressor mounted for rotation; a turbine wheel mounted for rotation; a clutch interconnecting the compressor and the turbine wheel and selectively operable to couple or decouple the compressor and the turbine wheel; and inlet to the compressor; variable inlet guide vanes in the inlet and movable between positions substantially opening and substantially closing the inlet; a compressed air outlet from the compressor; a gas inlet to the turbine wheel, a combustor interconnecting the gas inlet and the turbine wheel.

Rodgers, C.

1990-04-17

304

SNO+ Multipurpose Neutrino Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SNO+ proposes to fill the existing SNO detector with liquid scintillator. The unique location in SNOLAB, currently the worlds deepest international underground facility, will enable a variety of physics measurements from further studies of solar neutrinos (pep and CNO), to geo- and reactor neutrinos, to supernova neutrinos to the possibility of studying neutrinoless double beta decay. With the addition of ^150Nd to the liquid scintillator SNO+ is capable of a competitive next-generation search for this rare process. The physics potential and experimental sensitivities will be discussed.

Kraus, Christine

2008-10-01

305

Magnons and crystal-field transitions in hexagonal RMnO3 (R = Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Far-infrared optical transmission spectra of the antiferromagnetic resonances, or magnons, and crystal-field (CF) transitions have been studied in hexagonal RMnO3 (R = Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) single crystals. The magnon and CF frequencies, their oscillator strengths, and effective g factors have been measured using external magnetic fields up to 9 T in the temperature range between 1.5 and 100 K. The magnon frequency increases systematically with a decrease of the R ion radius. The magnetic ordering of R ions (R = Er, Tm, Yb) was observed at low temperatures T<3.5 K and in strong external magnetic fields. The observed effects are analyzed taking into account the main magnetic interactions in the system including exchange of the Mn3+ spins with R3+ paramagnetic moments.

Standard, E. C.; Stanislavchuk, T.; Sirenko, A. A.; Lee, N.; Cheong, S.-W.

2012-04-01

306

Optical properties and electronic structure of multiferroic hexagonal orthoferrites RFeO3 (R = Ho, Er, Lu)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on optical studies of the thin films of multiferroic hexagonal (P.G. 6mm) rare-earth orthoferrites RFeO3 (R = Ho, Er, Lu) grown epitaxially on a (111)-surface of ZrO2(Y2O3) substrate. The optical absorption study in the range of 0.6-5.6 eV shows that the films are transparent below 1.9 eV; above this energy four broad intense absorption bands are distinguished. The absorption spectra are analyzed taking into account the unusual fivefold coordination of the Fe3+ ion. Temperature dependence of the optical absorption at 4.9 eV shows anomaly at 124 K, which we attribute to magnetic ordering of iron sublattices.

Pavlov, V. V.; Akbashev, A. R.; Kalashnikova, A. M.; Rusakov, V. A.; Kaul, A. R.; Bayer, M.; Pisarev, R. V.

2012-03-01

307

Threonine Overproduction in Yeast Strains Carrying the HOM3-R2 Mutant Allele under the Control of Different Inducible Promoters  

PubMed Central

The HOM3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for aspartate kinase, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of the metabolic flux that leads to threonine biosynthesis. With the aim of obtaining yeast strains able to overproduce threonine in a controlled way, we have placed the HOM3-R2 mutant allele, which causes expression of a feedback-insensitive enzyme, under the control of four distinctive regulatable yeast promoters, namely, PGAL1, PCHA1, PCYC1-HSE2, and PGPH1. The amino acid contents of strains bearing the different constructs were analyzed both under repression and induction conditions. Although some differences in overall threonine production were found, a maximum of around 400 nmol/mg (dry weight) was observed. Other factors, such as excretion to the medium and activity of the catabolic threonine/serine deaminase, also affect threonine accumulation. Thus, improvement of threonine productivity by yeast cells would probably require manipulation of these and other factors. PMID:9872767

Farfán, María-José; Aparicio, Luis; Calderón, Isabel L.

1999-01-01

308

(2R,3R)-2-[(4-Chloro­phen­yl)hydroxy­meth­yl]cyclo­penta­none  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C12H13ClO2, was prepared by the direct asymmetric inter­molecular aldol reaction of cyclo­penta­none and 4-chloro­benzaldehyde catalysed by l-tryptophan in water. The absolute mol­ecular structure was determined to be a racemic twin with 91% (2R,3R) isomer and 9% of the (2S,3S) form. In the crystal structure, the mol­ecules are connected into a one-dimensional chain along the a axis through the formation of inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonds. Further, non-conventional C—H?O and C—H?? contacts are observed in the structure, which consolidate the crystal packing. PMID:21581621

Deng, Dongsheng; Liu, Ping; Fu, Weijun; Ji, Baoming

2009-01-01

309

Vibrational circular dichroism in the CH stretching region of (+)-3(R)-methylcyclohexanone and chiral deuteriated isotopomers  

SciTech Connect

The CH stretching Raman, FTIR, and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of 3(R)-methylcyclohexanone and its chiral 2,2,6,6-d/sub 4/, 4,4-d/sub 2/, 5,5-d/sub 2/ and methyl-d/sub 3/ isotopomers, and the Raman and FTIR spectra of racemic 3-methylcyclohexanone-3-d/sub 1/ are presented and analyzed. Fourier self-deconvolution has been applied to the FTIR spectra to artificially enhance the resolution in order to determine individual band frequencies. Band assignments have been obtained on the basis of the spectra changes occurring due to selective deuteriation and from an analysis of the strong Fermi resonance interactions. The VCD spectral features of the five chiral isotopomers can all be understood in terms of the coupling of pairs of chirally oriented CH oscillators on adjacent carbon atoms and the removal of the degeneracy in the methyl modes.

Freedman, T.B.; Kallmerten, J.; Lipp, E.D.; Young, D.A.; Nafie, L.A.

1988-02-03

310

Differing Evolutionary Histories of the ACTN3*R577X Polymorphism among the Major Human Geographic Groups  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that the functional ACTN3*R577X polymorphism might have evolved due to selection in Eurasian human populations. To test this possibility we surveyed all available population-based data for this polymorphism and performed a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of its genetic diversity, in order to assess the action of adaptive and random mechanisms on its variation across human geographical distribution. The derived 577X allele increases in frequency with distance from Africa, reaching the highest frequencies on the American continent. Positive selection, detected by an extended haplotype homozygosisty test, was consistent only with the Eurasian data, but simulations with neutral models could not fully explain the results found in the American continent. It is possible that particularities of Native American population structure could be responsible for the observed allele frequencies, which would have resulted from a complex interaction between selective and random factors. PMID:25706920

Amorim, Carlos Eduardo G.; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Hünemeier, Tábita

2015-01-01

311

Differing Evolutionary Histories of the ACTN3*R577X Polymorphism among the Major Human Geographic Groups.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that the functional ACTN3*R577X polymorphism might have evolved due to selection in Eurasian human populations. To test this possibility we surveyed all available population-based data for this polymorphism and performed a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of its genetic diversity, in order to assess the action of adaptive and random mechanisms on its variation across human geographical distribution. The derived 577X allele increases in frequency with distance from Africa, reaching the highest frequencies on the American continent. Positive selection, detected by an extended haplotype homozygosisty test, was consistent only with the Eurasian data, but simulations with neutral models could not fully explain the results found in the American continent. It is possible that particularities of Native American population structure could be responsible for the observed allele frequencies, which would have resulted from a complex interaction between selective and random factors. PMID:25706920

Amorim, Carlos Eduardo G; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Hünemeier, Tábita

2015-01-01

312

Study of structural, electronic and elastic properties of RPd{sub 3} (R = Lu and Sc) compounds  

SciTech Connect

The structural, electronic and elastic properties of nonmagnetic RPd{sub 3} (R = Lu and Sc) compounds, which crystallize in AuCu{sub 3}-type structure, are studied using first principles density functional theory based on full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The calculations are carried out within the PBE-GGA and WC-GGA for the exchange correlation potential. Our calculated ground state properties such as lattice constant (a0), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B’) are in good agreement with the experimental results. We first time predict the elastic constants for these compounds using different approximations of GGA. These RPd{sup 3} compounds are found to be ductile in nature in accordance with Pugh’s criteria. The computed electronic band structures and density of states show metallic character of these compounds.

Thakur, Veena, E-mail: gita-pagare@yahoo.co.in; Pagare, Gitanjali, E-mail: gita-pagare@yahoo.co.in; Chouhan, S. S., E-mail: gita-pagare@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Government M. L. B. Girls P. G. Autonomous College, Bhopal-462002 (India); Sanyal, S. P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026 (India)

2014-04-24

313

Boar spermatozoa successfully predict mitochondrial modes of toxicity: Implications for drug toxicity testing and the 3R principles.  

PubMed

Replacement of animal testing by in vitro methods (3-R principles) requires validation of suitable cell models, preferably obtained non-invasively, defying traditional use of explants. Ejaculated spermatozoa are highly dependent on mitochondrial production and consumption of ATP for their metabolism, including motility display, thus becoming a suitable model for capturing multiple modes of action of drugs and other chemicals acting via mitochondrial disturbance. In this study, a hypothesis was tested that the boar spermatozoon is a suitable cell type for toxicity assessment, providing a protocol for 3R-replacement of animals for research and drug-testing. Boar sperm kinetics was challenged with a wide variety of known frank mito-toxic chemicals with previously shown mitochondrial effects, using a semi-automated motility analyser allied with real-time fluorescent probing of mitochondrial potential (MitoTracker & JC-1). Output of this sperm assay (obtained after 30min) was compared to cell viability (ATP-content, data obtained after 24-48h) of a hepatome-cell line (HepG2). Results of compound effects significantly correlated (P<0.01) for all sperm variables and for most variables in (HepG2). Dose-dependent decreases of relative ATP content in HepG2 cells correlated to sperm speed (r=0.559) and proportions of motile (r=0.55) or progressively motile (r=0.53) spermatozoa. The significance of the study relies on the objectivity of computerized testing of sperm motility inhibition which is comparable albeit of faster output than somatic cell culture models. Sperm suspensions, easily and painlessly obtained from breeding boars, are confirmed as suitable biosensors for preclinical toxicology screening and ranking of lead compounds in the drug development processes. PMID:25624015

Vicente-Carrillo, A; Edebert, I; Garside, H; Cotgreave, I; Rigler, R; Loitto, V; Magnusson, K E; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

2015-04-01

314

Belford proactive flood solutions: scientific evidence to influence local and national policy by multi-purpose runoff management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased risk from flooding continues to be of concern to governments all around the world and flood protection is becoming more of a challenge. In the UK, climate change projections indicate more extremes within the weather systems. In addition, there is an increased demand for using land in urban areas beside channels. These developments both put pressure on our flood defences and there is a need for new solutions to managing flood risk. There is currently support within the England and Wales Environment Agency for sustainable flood management solutions such as storage ponds, wetlands, beaver dams and willow riparian features (referred to here as Runoff Attenuation Features, or RAFs). However the effectiveness of RAFs are not known at the catchment scale since they have only really been trailed at the plot scale. These types of mitigation measure can offer benefits to water quality and create ecological habitats. The village of Belford, situated in the Belford Burn catchment (6km2), northern England, has suffered from numerous flood events. In addition, the catchment suffers from water quality issues within the channel and high sediment loads are having an impact on the ecology of the nearby estuary. There was a desire by the Local Environment Agency Flood Levy team to deliver an alternative catchment-based solution to the problem. With funding from the Northumbria Regional Flood Defence Committee, the Environment Agency North East Local Levy team and Newcastle University have created a partnership to address the flood problem trailing soft engineered RAF’s at the catchment scale. The partnership project, “Belford proactive flood solutions” is testing novel techniques in reducing flood risk in small sub-catchments for the Environment Agency. The project provides the information needed to understand whether the multi-functional mitigation measures are working at the sub-catchment scale. Data suggest that the mitigation measures present have delayed the overall travel time of the flood peak in the catchment by 33%. The current maximum flood storage capacity of all the features stands at around 15,000 m3. The evidence also suggests that a dam like in-stream mitigation measure can significantly reduce sediment load. Other benefits of some mitigation features include large increase in the population of water voles over the past two years. The scheme also acts as a demonstration site for interested stakeholders where they can learn about this approach to flood risk management and see the multipurpose benefits. As the project has progressed and lessons have been learnt, it has been possible to develop a runoff management toolkit for implementing these mitigation measures in other catchments of similar size. Already, the local Environment Agency has utilised the tools and recently applied similar mitigation measures to other catchments. On-going modelling exercises in the project are using the data to explore the up-scaling of the features to larger catchments.

Wilkinson, M.; Quinn, P. F.; Jonczyk, J.

2010-12-01

315

IP3R1 deficiency in the cerebellum/brainstem causes basal ganglia-independent dystonia by triggering tonic Purkinje cell firings in mice  

PubMed Central

The type 1 inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) is a Ca2+ channel on the endoplasmic reticulum and is a predominant isoform in the brain among the three types of IP3Rs. Mice lacking IP3R1 show seizure-like behavior; however the cellular and neural circuit mechanism by which IP3R1 deletion causes the abnormal movements is unknown. Here, we found that the conditional knockout mice lacking IP3R1 specifically in the cerebellum and brainstem experience dystonia and show that cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) firing patterns were coupled to specific dystonic movements. Recordings in freely behaving mice revealed epochs of low and high frequency PC complex spikes linked to body extension and rigidity, respectively. Remarkably, dystonic symptoms were independent of the basal ganglia, and could be rescued by inactivation of the cerebellum, inferior olive or in the absence of PCs. These findings implicate IP3R1-dependent PC firing patterns in cerebellum in motor coordination and the expression of dystonia through the olivo-cerebellar pathway. PMID:24109434

Hisatsune, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Hirono, Moritoshi; Yamaguchi, Naohide; Sugawara, Takeyuki; Ogawa, Naoko; Ebisui, Etsuko; Ohshima, Toshio; Yamada, Masahisa; Hensch, Takao K.; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

2013-01-01

316

Automatic sorting of toxicological information into the IUCLID (International Uniform Chemical Information Database) endpoint-categories making use of the semantic search engine Go3R.  

PubMed

The knowledge-based search engine Go3R, www.Go3R.org, has been developed to assist scientists from industry and regulatory authorities in collecting comprehensive toxicological information with a special focus on identifying available alternatives to animal testing. The semantic search paradigm of Go3R makes use of expert knowledge on 3Rs methods and regulatory toxicology, laid down in the ontology, a network of concepts, terms, and synonyms, to recognize the contents of documents. Search results are automatically sorted into a dynamic table of contents presented alongside the list of documents retrieved. This table of contents allows the user to quickly filter the set of documents by topics of interest. Documents containing hazard information are automatically assigned to a user interface following the endpoint-specific IUCLID5 categorization scheme required, e.g. for REACH registration dossiers. For this purpose, complex endpoint-specific search queries were compiled and integrated into the search engine (based upon a gold standard of 310 references that had been assigned manually to the different endpoint categories). Go3R sorts 87% of the references concordantly into the respective IUCLID5 categories. Currently, Go3R searches in the 22 million documents available in the PubMed and TOXNET databases. However, it can be customized to search in other databases including in-house databanks. PMID:24389116

Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Hareng, Lars; Wareing, Britta; Langsch, Angelika; Zschunke, Matthias; Alvers, Michael R; Landsiedel, Robert

2014-06-01

317

Effect of variations of the size and structure of the principal alkyl group on alkene elimination from the immonium ions CH 3CH 2CH?N +(CH 3)R, CH 3CH 2CH 2CH?N +(CH 3)R and CH 3CH 2CH 2CH 2CH?N +(CH 3)R 1 1 Dedicated to Professor Henri Edouard Audier on the occasion of his 60th birthday  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactions of three homologous series of metastable immonium ions of general structure, CH3(CH2)mCH?N+(CH3)R, [m = 1–3; R = n-CnH2n+1, n = 1–10, 12, and 14, iso-C5H11, CH2CH(CH3)C2H5, neo-C5H11, and CH2CH2C(CH3)3] are reported and discussed. The first member of each homologous series is anomalous in undergoing several reactions, including elimination of molecular hydrogen and a methyl radical. In contrast, higher

Simon J Mandeville; Richard D Bowen; Moschoula A Trikoupis; Johan K Terlouw

2000-01-01

318

Comparative analysis of a putative tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, MC3R, and pseudogene sequences in cattle, African buffalo, hyena, rhinoceros and other African bovids and ruminants.  

PubMed

Studies in humans have suggested the possible involvement of melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and other components of the central melanocortin system in host defense against mycobacteria. We report a genomic DNA nucleotide sequence highly homologous to human MC3R in several bovids and non-bovid African wildlife species. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the orthologous genes of cattle and buffalo are highly homologous (89.4 and 90%, respectively) to the human MC3R gene. Sequence results also identified a typical non-functional, duplicated pseudogene, MC3RP, in 7 species from the family Bovidae. No pseudogene was found in animals outside Bovidae. The presence of the pseudogene in tuberculosis-susceptible species could have possible immunomodulatory effects on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection, as well as a considerable influence on energy metabolism and food conversion efficiency. PMID:22286663

Müller, A; Möller, M; Adams, L A; Warren, R M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

2012-01-01

319

Spalt transcription factors are required for R3/R4 specification and establishment of planar cell polarity in the Drosophila eye  

PubMed Central

Summary The establishment of planar cell polarity in the Drosophila eye requires correct specification of the R3/R4 pair of photoreceptor cells. In response to a polarizing factor, Frizzled signaling specifies R3 and induces Delta, which activates Notch in the neighboring cell, specifying it as R4. Here, we show that the spalt zinc-finger transcription factors (spalt major and spalt-related) are part of the molecular mechanisms regulating R3/R4 specification and planar cell polarity establishment. In mosaic analysis, we find that the spalt genes are specifically required in R3 for the establishment of correct ommatidial polarity. In addition, we show that spalt genes are required for proper localization of Flamingo in the equatorial side of R3 and R4, and for the upregulation of Delta in R3. These requirements are very similar to those of frizzled during R3/R4 specification. We show that spalt genes are required cell-autonomously for the expression of seven-up in R3 and R4, and that seven-up is downstream of spalt genes in the genetic hierarchy of R3/R4 specification. Thus, spalt and seven-up are necessary for the correct interpretation of the Frizzled-mediated polarity signal in R3. Finally, we show that, posterior to row seven, seven-up represses spalt in R3/R4 in order to maintain the R3/R4 identity and to inhibit the transformation of these cells to the R7 cell fate. PMID:15509769

Domingos, Pedro M.; Mlodzik, Marek; Mendes, César S.; Brown, Samara; Steller, Hermann; Mollereau, Bertrand

2005-01-01

320

Investigation of hyperfine interactions in RMO 3 (R = La, Nd; M = Cr, Fe) antiferromagnetic perovskite oxides using PAC spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local magnetic interaction at the transition metal sites in RMO3 (R = La, Nd; M = Cr, Fe) compounds has been investigated by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique using 181Hf?181Ta probe nuclei. The present measurements cover a temperature range from 10 K to 1000 K. Above the respective Néel temperature, each compound shows a unique quadrupolar frequency that decreases linearly with temperature. These interactions were assigned to the radioactive probe substituting Cr or Fe sites. Below T N , a combined electric plus magnetic hyperfine interaction was observed. The magnetic interaction revealed that the super transferred hyperfine fields on 181Ta at the Cr sites in (La,Nd)CrO3 extrapolated to 0 K, are much smaller than the corresponding values at Fe sites in (La,Nd)FeO3. This difference was attributed to different distribution of d electrons in Cr3 + (3d3) and Fe3 + (3d5) ions in each compound. As the fields for Nd compounds are smaller than those for La compounds, the role of rare-earth ions in the magnetism of these oxides is also discussed.

Carbonari, A. W.; Cavalcante, F. H. M.; Junqueira, A. C.; Leite, D. M. T.; Saxena, R. N.; Mestnik-Filho, J.

2007-07-01

321

Investigation of hyperfine interactions in RMO3 (R =La, Nd; M =Cr, Fe) antiferromagnetic perovskite oxides using PAC spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local magnetic interaction at the transition metal sites in RMO3 (R=La, Nd; M=Cr, Fe) compounds has been investigated by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique using 181Hf?181Ta probe nuclei. The present measurements cover a temperature range from 10 K to 1000 K. Above the respective Neel temperature, each compound shows a unique quadrupolar frequency that decreases linearly with temperature. These interactions were assigned to the radioactive probe substituting Cr or Fe sites. Below TN, a combined electric plus magnetic hyperfine interaction was observed. The magnetic interaction revealed that the super transferred hyperfine fields on 181Ta at the Cr sites in (La,Nd)CrO3 extrapolated to 0 K, are much smaller than the corresponding values at Fe sites in (La,Nd)FeO3. This difference was attributed to different distribution of d electrons in Cr3+ (3d3) and Fe3+ (3d5) ions in each compound. As the fields for Nd compounds are smaller than those for La compounds, the role of rare-earth ions in the magnetism of these oxides is also discussed.

Carbonari, A. W.; Cavalcante, F. H. M.; Junqueira, A. C.; Leite, D. M. T.; Saxena, R. N.; Mestnik-Filho, J.

322

The CSF3R T618I mutation causes a lethal neutrophilic neoplasia in mice that is responsive to therapeutic JAK inhibition.  

PubMed

We have recently identified targetable mutations in CSF3R (GCSFR) in 60% of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and atypical (BCR-ABL-negative) chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) patients. Here we demonstrate that the most prevalent, activating mutation, CSF3R T618I, is sufficient to drive a lethal myeloproliferative disorder in a murine bone marrow transplantation model. Mice transplanted with CSF3R T618I-expressing hematopoietic cells developed a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by overproduction of granulocytes and granulocytic infiltration of the spleen and liver, which was uniformly fatal. Treatment with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib lowered the white blood count and reduced spleen weight. This demonstrates that activating mutations in CSF3R are sufficient to drive a myeloproliferative disorder resembling aCML and CNL that is sensitive to pharmacologic JAK inhibition. This murine model is an excellent tool for the further study of neutrophilic myeloproliferative neoplasms and implicates the clinical use of JAK inhibitors for this disease. PMID:24081659

Fleischman, Angela G; Maxson, Julia E; Luty, Samuel B; Agarwal, Anupriya; Royer, Lacey R; Abel, Melissa L; MacManiman, Jason D; Loriaux, Marc M; Druker, Brian J; Tyner, Jeffrey W

2013-11-21

323

The CSF3R T618I mutation causes a lethal neutrophilic neoplasia in mice that is responsive to therapeutic JAK inhibition  

PubMed Central

We have recently identified targetable mutations in CSF3R (GCSFR) in 60% of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and atypical (BCR-ABL–negative) chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) patients. Here we demonstrate that the most prevalent, activating mutation, CSF3R T618I, is sufficient to drive a lethal myeloproliferative disorder in a murine bone marrow transplantation model. Mice transplanted with CSF3R T618I–expressing hematopoietic cells developed a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by overproduction of granulocytes and granulocytic infiltration of the spleen and liver, which was uniformly fatal. Treatment with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib lowered the white blood count and reduced spleen weight. This demonstrates that activating mutations in CSF3R are sufficient to drive a myeloproliferative disorder resembling aCML and CNL that is sensitive to pharmacologic JAK inhibition. This murine model is an excellent tool for the further study of neutrophilic myeloproliferative neoplasms and implicates the clinical use of JAK inhibitors for this disease. PMID:24081659

Fleischman, Angela G.; Maxson, Julia E.; Luty, Samuel B.; Agarwal, Anupriya; Royer, Lacey R.; Abel, Melissa L.; MacManiman, Jason D.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Druker, Brian J.

2013-01-01

324

Diastereoselective conjugate reduction with samarium diiodide: asymmetric synthesis of methyl (2S,3R)-N-acetyl-2-amino-2,3-dideuterio-3-phenylpropionate.  

PubMed

A highly diastereoselective conjugate reduction using SmI2 and D2O has been demonstrated on a homochiral benzylidene diketopiperazine template, giving methyl (2S,3R)-N-acetyl-2-amino-2,3-dideuterio-3-phenylpropionate in 93% de and 90% ee after deprotection, hydrolysis and N-acetylation. PMID:15514836

Davies, Stephen G; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto; Tamayo, Juan A; Garner, A Christopher; Smith, Andrew D

2004-11-01

325

Variational Bayes for Elaborate Distributions BY M.P. WAND1, J.T. ORMEROD2, S.A. PADOAN3 & R. FR UHWIRTH4  

E-print Network

Variational Bayes for Elaborate Distributions BY M.P. WAND1, J.T. ORMEROD2, S.A. PADOAN3 & R. FR develop strategies for variational Bayes approximate inference for models con- taining elaborate Extreme Value distribution; Quadrature; Skew Normal Distribution. 1 Introduction Variational Bayes refers

Sydney, University of

326

Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models for pharmaceuticals and chemicals: expert opinions on the state of affairs and the way forward.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and chemicals are subjected to regulatory safety testing accounting for approximately 25% of laboratory animal use in Europe. This testing meets various objections and has led to the development of a range of 3R models to Replace, Reduce or Refine the animal models. However, these models must overcome many barriers before being accepted for regulatory risk management purposes. This paper describes the barriers and drivers and options to optimize this acceptance process as identified by two expert panels, one on pharmaceuticals and one on chemicals. To untangle the complex acceptance process, the multilevel perspective on technology transitions is applied. This perspective defines influences at the micro-, meso- and macro level which need alignment to induce regulatory acceptance of a 3R model. This paper displays that there are many similar mechanisms within both sectors that prevent 3R models from becoming accepted for regulatory risk assessment and management. Shared barriers include the uncertainty about the value of the new 3R models (micro level), the lack of harmonization of regulatory requirements and acceptance criteria (meso level) and the high levels of risk aversion (macro level). In optimizing the process commitment, communication, cooperation and coordination are identified as critical drivers. PMID:24534000

Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bakker, Wieger E; Beken, Sonja; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Koëter, Herman B W M; Krul, Cyrille

2014-06-01

327

Expression of 1N3R-Tau Isoform Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Inducing S Phase Arrest in N2a Cells  

PubMed Central

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein implicated in neurodegenerative tauopathies. Six tau isoforms are generated from a single gene through alternative splicing of exons 2, 3 and 10 in human brain. Differential expression of tau isoforms has been detected in different brain areas, during neurodevelopment and in neurodegenerative disorders. However, the biological significance of different tau isoforms is not clear. Here, we investigated the individual effect of six different isoforms of tau on cell proliferation and the possible mechanisms by transient expression of eGFP-labeled tau isoform plasmid in N2a cells. Our study showed the transfection efficiency was comparable between different isoforms of tau by examining GFP expression. Compared with other isoforms, we found expression of 1N3R-tau significantly inhibited cell proliferation by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and BrdU incorporation. Flow cytometry analysis further showed expression of 1N3R-tau induced S phase arrest. Compared with the longest isoform of tau, expression of 1N3R-tau induced cyclin E translocation from the nuclei to cytoplasm, while it did not change the level of cell cycle checkpoint proteins. These data indicate that 1N3R-tau inhibits cell proliferation through inducing S phase arrest. PMID:25822823

Liu, Gong-Ping; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Li, Xiao-Guang; Liu, En-Jie; Zeng, Juan; Chai, Da-Min; Yao, Wen-Long; Wang, Jian-Zhi

2015-01-01

328

THE ALPHA-ACTININ-3 (ACTN3) R577X POLYMORPHISM INFLUENCES KNEE EXTENSOR PEAK POWER RESPONSE TO STRENGTH TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism has been associated with muscle power performance in cross-sectional studies. We examined baseline knee extensor concentric peak power (PP) and PP change with 10 weeks of unilateral knee extensor strength training (ST) using pneumatic resistance machines in 71 older men...

329

Histone H3R17me2a mark recruits human RNA Polymerase-Associated Factor 1 Complex to activate transcription  

PubMed Central

The histone coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is a coactivator for a number of transcription factors, including nuclear receptors. Although CARM1 and its asymmetrically deposited dimethylation at histone H3 arginine 17 (H3R17me2a) are associated with transcription activation, the mechanism by which CARM1 activates transcription remains unclear. Using an unbiased biochemical approach, we discovered that the transcription elongation-associated PAF1 complex (PAF1c) directly interacts with H3R17me2a. PAF1c binds to histone H3 tails harboring dimethylation at R17 in CARM1-methylated histone octamers. Knockdown of either PAF1c subunits or CARM1 affected transcription of CARM1-regulated, estrogen-responsive genes. Furthermore, either CARM1 knockdown or CARM1 enzyme-deficient mutant knockin resulted in decreased H3R17me2a accompanied by the reduction of PAF1c occupancy at the proximal promoter estrogen-responsive elements. In contrast, PAF1c knockdown elicited no effects on H3R17me2a but reduced the H3K4me3 level at estrogen-responsive elements. These observations suggest that, apart from PAF1c's established roles in directing histone modifications, PAF1c acts as an arginine methyl histone effector that is recruited to promoters and activates a subset of genes, including targets of estrogen signaling. PMID:22451921

Wu, Jiacai; Xu, Wei

2012-01-01

330

The structure of (3R)-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabZ) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Type II fatty acid biosynthesis systems are essential for membrane formation in bacteria, making the constituent proteins of this pathway attractive targets for antibacterial drug discovery. The third step in the elongation cycle of the type II fatty acid biosynthesis is catalyzed by beta-hydroxyacyl-(acyl carrier protein) (ACP) dehydratase. There are two isoforms. FabZ, which catalyzes the dehydration of (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP to trans-2-acyl-ACP, is a universally expressed component of the bacterial type II system. FabA, the second isoform, as has more limited distribution in nature and, in addition to dehydration, also carries out the isomerization of trans-2- to cis-3-decenoyl-ACP as an essential step in unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. We report the structure of FabZ from the important human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2.5 A of resolution. PaFabZ is a hexamer (trimer of dimers) with the His/Glu catalytic dyad located within a deep, narrow tunnel formed at the dimer interface. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that the obvious differences in the active site residues that distinguish the FabA and FabZ subfamilies of dehydratases do not account for the unique ability of FabA to catalyze isomerization. Because the catalytic machinery of the two enzymes is practically indistinguishable, the structural differences observed in the shape of the substrate binding channels of FabA and FabZ lead us to hypothesize that the different shapes of the tunnels control the conformation and positioning of the bound substrate, allowing FabA, but not FabZ, to catalyze the isomerization reaction. PMID:15371447

Kimber, Matthew S; Martin, Fernando; Lu, Yingjie; Houston, Simon; Vedadi, Masoud; Dharamsi, Akil; Fiebig, Klaus M; Schmid, Molly; Rock, Charles O

2004-12-10

331

Effects of Cell Cycle Inhibitors on Tau Phosphorylation in N2aTau3R Cells  

PubMed Central

Neurofibrillary tangles are one of the pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). They are composed of paired helical filaments (PHF) containing hyperphosphorylated forms of tau. Hyperphosphorylation of certain tau sites favors its dissociation from the microtubules (MT), interfering with axonal transport and compromising the function and viability of neurons. Reappearance of cell cycle proteins have been reported in neurons exhibiting tau aggregation, suggesting that an aberrant cell cycle occurs before neurons die. Cell cycle suppression in neurons is crucial to survival, thus prevention of progression through the cell cycle may offer a therapeutic approach. Using a neuroblastoma cell line overexpressing 3-repeat (3R) tau, we investigated the effects of cell cycle inhibitors on tau phosphorylation. G2/M phase inhibitors did not alter phosphorylation of tau at Ser-202 and Ser-396/404 at the lower doses, but did at higher doses. Ser-202 and Ser-396/404 are phosphorylation sites of early and late neurofibrillary tangles, respectively, in AD. Cisplatin, a G1 phase inhibitor, did not phosphorylate tau. Cyclophosphamide and phosphoramide mustard, DNA cross-linking agents, decreased tau phosphorylation at Ser-396/404 site, but increased phosphorylation at Ser-202. These studies demonstrate that the G2/M blockers have a dose-dependent effect on tau phosphorylation. This seems to be a consequence of both the disruption of MT-organization and MT-dynamics when doses are higher, but only a disruption of MT-dynamics with lower doses. These results are also in agreement with the lack of phosphorylation seen for cisplatin, another inhibitor that produces disruption of the MT-dynamics. PMID:18278567

Townsend, Kirk; Davies, Peter

2010-01-01

332

Metabolic engineering of Enterobacter cloacae for high-yield production of enantiopure (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol from lignocellulose-derived sugars.  

PubMed

Biotechnological production of biofuels is restricted by toxicity of the products such as ethanol and butanol. As its low toxicity to microbes, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), a fuel and platform bio-chemical, could be a promising alternative for biofuel production from renewable bioresources. In addition, no bacterial strains have been reported to produce enantiopure 2,3-BD using lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In this study, Enterobacter cloacae strain SDM was systematically and metabolically engineered to construct an efficient biocatalyst for production of the fuel and enantiopure bio-chemical-(2R,3R)-2,3-BD. First, the various (2R,3R)-2,3-BD dehydrogenase encoding genes were expressed in a meso-2,3-BD dehydrogenase encoding gene disrupted E. cloacae strain under native promoter Pb of the 2,3-BD biosynthetic gene cluster of E. cloacae. Then, carbon catabolite repression was eliminated via inactivation of the glucose transporter encoding gene ptsG and overexpression of a galactose permease encoding gene galP. The resultant strain could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously. To improve the efficiency of (2R,3R)-2,3-BD production, the byproduct-producing genes (ldh and frdA) were knocked out, thereby enhancing the yield of (2R,3R)-2,3-BD by 16.5% in 500-mL Erlenmeyer flasks. By using fed-batch fermentation in a 5-L bioreactor, 152.0g/L (2R,3R)-2,3-BD (purity>97.5%) was produced within 44h with a specific productivity of 3.5g/[Lh] and a yield of 97.7% from a mixture of glucose and xylose, two major carbohydrate components in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In addition, when a lignocellulosic hydrolysate was used as the substrate, 119.4g/L (2R,3R)-2,3-BD (purity>96.0%) was produced within 51h with a productivity of 2.3g/[Lh] and a yield of 95.0%. These results show that the highest records have been acquired for enantiopure (2R,3R)-2,3-BD production by a native or engineered strain from biomass-derived sugars. In addition to producing the 2,3-BD, our systematic approach might also be used in the production of other important chemicals by using lignocellulose-derived sugars. PMID:25499652

Li, Lixiang; Li, Kun; Wang, Yu; Chen, Chao; Xu, Youqiang; Zhang, Lijie; Han, Binbin; Gao, Chao; Tao, Fei; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2015-03-01

333

Astrocytic Gq-GPCR-Linked IP3R-Dependent Ca2+ Signaling Does Not Mediate Neurovascular Coupling in Mouse Visual Cortex In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Local blood flow is modulated in response to changing patterns of neuronal activity (Roy and Sherrington, 1890), a process termed neurovascular coupling. It has been proposed that the central cellular pathway driving this process is astrocytic Gq-GPCR-linked IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signaling, though in vivo tests of this hypothesis are largely lacking. We examined the impact of astrocytic Gq-GPCR and IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signaling on cortical blood flow in awake, lightly sedated, responsive mice using multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy and novel genetic tools that enable the selective manipulation of astrocytic signaling pathways in vivo. Selective stimulation of astrocytic Gq-GPCR cascades and downstream Ca2+ signaling with the hM3Dq DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) designer receptor system was insufficient to modulate basal cortical blood flow. We found no evidence of observable astrocyte endfeet Ca2+ elevations following physiological visual stimulation despite robust dilations of adjacent arterioles using cyto-GCaMP3 and Lck-GCaMP6s, the most sensitive Ca2+ indicator available. Astrocytic Ca2+ elevations could be evoked when inducing the startle response with unexpected air puffs. However, startle-induced astrocytic Ca2+ signals did not precede corresponding startle-induced hemodynamic changes. Further, neurovascular coupling was intact in lightly sedated, responsive mice genetically lacking astrocytic IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signaling (IP3R2 KO). These data demonstrate that astrocytic Gq-GPCR-linked IP3R-dependent Ca2+ signaling does not mediate neurovascular coupling in visual cortex of awake, lightly sedated, responsive mice. PMID:25253859

Bonder, Daniel E.

2014-01-01

334

A FRAMEWORK TO DEVELOP FLAW ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPURPOSE CANISTERS FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL  

SciTech Connect

A multipurpose canister (MPC) made of austenitic stainless steel is loaded with used nuclear fuel assemblies and is part of the transfer cask system to move the fuel from the spent fuel pool to prepare for storage, and is part of the storage cask system for on-site dry storage. This weld-sealed canister is also expected to be part of the transportation package following storage. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation especially if exposed to aggressive environments during possible very long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone because the construction of MPC does not require heat treatment for stress relief. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic Inservice Inspection. The external loading cases include thermal accident scenarios and cask drop conditions with the contribution from the welding residual stresses. The determination of acceptable flaw size is based on the procedure to evaluate flaw stability provided by American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service (Second Edition). The material mechanical and fracture properties for base and weld metals and the stress analysis results are obtained from the open literature such as NUREG-1864. Subcritical crack growth from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and its impact on inspection intervals and acceptance criteria, is not addressed.

Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.; Duncan, A.; Adams, T.

2014-04-07

335

Simulation of the effects of operating lakes Mendota, Monona, and Waubesa, south-central Wisconsin, as multipurpose reservoirs to maintain dry-weather flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital reservoir routing model was used to simulate the operation of Lakes Mendota, Monona, and Waubesa, south-central Wisconsin for various levels of minimum release. Twenty-five years of record (1970?94) were used in model simulation. The amount of water available to maintain streamflow and lake levels during dry periods has declined because of extensive pumping of ground water for municipal use and diversion of the effluent around the lakes. The goal of the simulation was to determine whether using the lakes as multipurpose reservoirs to maintain flow during periods of low flow would appreciably lower the lake levels. The model results indicated that it would be possible to maintain a minimum flow of 36 cubic feet per second in all but the driest years simulated (1970, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1989, and 1991) without lowering the lake levels more than they have been lowered from 1970 to 1994 under current operating conditions. Maintaining minimum flow would require detailed computations to guide the operation of the dams during the year.

Krug, W.R.

1999-01-01

336

Probing static and dynamic correlations in matter under extreme conditions: Concept of multi-purpose instrument at the European Spallation Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of neutrons, in particular high penetration depth for most materials, make them very powerful for studying matter under extreme conditions, e.g. high pressures or magnetic fields. A new generation of high power spallation neutron sources, such as the existing SNS and J-Parc and the coming ESS, brings neutron scattering in extreme environments to a completely new level. Indeed, measurements of smaller samples, use of more complex equipment and neutron instruments optimized for operation with extreme sample environment become readily available. The latter is actually one of the most important factors contributing to the field. In this paper a novel concept of an instrument for extreme environments at the ESS is presented. The main feature of the Extreme Conditions Instrument is its multi-purpose nature. It is not optimized for a single scattering technique but combines in a balanced way elastic (Diffraction and Small Angle Neutron Scattering) and inelastic capabilities. Such a concept enables effective combination of neutron scattering with a state-of-the-art sample environment independent of the complexity, dimensions and transportability of the latter. In addition, all available types of neutron experiments can be performed at the same thermodynamic conditions. The instrument concept has been verified by Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulations and the results for instrument operation modes are compared with world-class instruments.

Prokhnenko, O.; Lieutenant, K.; Cussen, L. D.; Stein, W.-D.; Zendler, C.; Prokeš, K.

2014-11-01

337

Willow (Salix fragilis Linn.): A multipurpose tree species under pest attack in the cold desert of Lahaul valley, northwestern Himalaya, India.  

PubMed

Salix fragilis is the most common willow species grown extensively under the indigenous agroforestry system in the cold desert of Lahaul valley located in the northwestern Himalayas, India. Presently, this tree is under severe pest attack, and other infections have made its survival in the area questionable. This deciduous multipurpose tree species provides vegetation cover to the barren landscape of Lahaul and is a significant contributor of fuel and fodder to the region. This study is a detailed profile of the plant in three villages within this region: Khoksar, Jahlma, and Hinsa. The willow provided 69.5%, 29%, and 42% of the total fuelwood requirements of Jahlma, Khoksar, and Hinsa respectively. A striking observation was that only 30.0 +/- 20.1% trees were healthy: 55.2 +/- 16.1% of the willows have dried up and 14.8 +/- 6.1% were in drying condition due to a combination of pest infestation and infection. To sustain this cultivation of willow under the existing agroforestry system in the region, we recommend that locally available wild species and other established varieties of willow growing in similar regions of the Himalayas be introduced on a trial basis. PMID:16615699

Rawat, Yashwant S; Oinam, Santaram S; Vishvakarma, Subhash C R; Kuniyal, Chandra P; Kuniyal, Jagdish C

2006-02-01

338

Profiling glucosinolates and phenolics in vegetative and reproductive tissues of the multi-purpose trees Moringa oleifera L. (horseradish tree) and Moringa stenopetala L.  

PubMed

Moringa species are important multi-purpose tropical crops, as human foods and for medicine and oil production. There has been no previous comprehensive analysis of the secondary metabolites in Moringa species. Tissues of M. oleifera from a wide variety of sources and M. stenopetala from a single source were analyzed for glucosinolates and phenolics (flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and cinnamates). M. oleifera and M. stenopetala seeds only contained 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate at high concentrations. Roots of M. oleifera and M. stenopetala had high concentrations of both 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and benzyl glucosinolate. Leaves from both species contained 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and three monoacetyl isomers of this glucosinolate. Only 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate was detected in M. oleifera bark tissue. M. oleifera leaves contained quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-(6' '-malonyl-glucoside), and lower amounts of kaempferol-3-O-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-(6' '-malonyl-glucoside). M. oleifera leaves also contained 3-caffeoylquinic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Leaves of M. stenopetala contained quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside (rutin) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Neither proanthocyanidins nor anthocyanins were detected in any of the tissues of either species. PMID:12769522

Bennett, Richard N; Mellon, Fred A; Foidl, Nikolaus; Pratt, John H; Dupont, M Susan; Perkins, Lionel; Kroon, Paul A

2003-06-01

339

Facile route for the synthesis of the iminosugar nucleoside (3R,4R)-1-(pyren-1-yl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidin-3-ol.  

PubMed

N-(Pyren-1-yl)-(3R,4S)-4-[(1S,2R)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl]pyrrolidin-3-ol (4) was obtained in 36% yield from 3-deoxy-3-C-formyl-1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-allofuranose (3) by combined hydrolysis and aminoalkylation reactions with 1-aminopyrene in a one-pot reaction. Cleavage reactions of the exocyclic triol chain in 4 with NaIO4 and NaBH4 resulted in iminosugars 7 and 8, which are analogues of the furanose forms of 2-deoxy-D-allose and of 2-deoxy-d-ribose, the latter analogue N-(pyren-1-yl)-(3R,4R)-4-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidin-3-ol (8) being formed in 83% yield. PMID:15178403

Hassan, Allam A; Jørgensen, Per T; Stein, Paul C; Fattah, M E Abdel; el-Gawad, Ibrahim I A; Pedersen, Erik B

2004-06-01

340

Controlling stereoselectivity by enzymatic and chemical means to access enantiomerically pure (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives?  

PubMed Central

A chemoenzymatic strategy for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure novel alkaloids (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines is presented. The key steps are the biocatalytic stereoselective reductive amination of substituted 1-phenylpropan-2-one derivatives to yield chiral amines employing microbial ?-transaminases, and the diastereoselective reduction of a Bischler–Napieralski imine intermediate by catalytic hydrogenation in the presence of palladium on charcoal, leading exclusively to the desired cis-isomer. PMID:24503964

Orden, Alejandro A.; Schrittwieser, Joerg H.; Resch, Verena; Mutti, Francesco G.; Kroutil, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

341

Biochemical and histopathological evaluation of histamine receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R and H4R)-agonist in rabbits.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the biochemical and histopathological changes in the livers of rabbits treated with histamine and histamine receptors (H1R-H4R)-agonist. The cohort comprised of six groups containing five rabbits each. Control group received sterile distilled water (1 mL/kg × b.i.d.) and treated groups received subcutaneous histamine (100 ?g/kg × b.i.d.) and H1R-H4R-agonist (histamine trifluoro-methyl toluidide, amthamine, R-[-]-?-methylhistamine, clobenpropit, respectively) each in a dose of 10 ?g/kg × b.i.d. (12 h [8 am and 8 pm]) for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity due to these agonists was analyzed using biochemical and histopathological methods. Histamine and H1R-H3R-agonist were found to be hepatotoxic as shown by statistically significant (p < 0.05) elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), most marked in the H3R-agonist group. However, their levels in H4R-agonist group remained very similar to the control group. The entire drug treated groups as compared to control showed significant elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Histopathological examination revealed obvious changes in histamine, H2R- and H3R-agonist groups in terms of alteration of hepatic microstructure, congestion, focal necrosis and increased incidence of multinucleate hepatocytes while H1R and H4R groups showed minimal changes. From the findings of the present study it may be concluded that on repeated administration, histamine and HR-agonists-induced hepatotoxicity which is most pronounced with H3R-agonist though not severe enough to jeopardize the vital functions of liver and warrants further long-term studies. PMID:22005500

Tripathi, Trivendra; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Shahid, Mohammad; Khan, Haris M; Siddiqui, Mashiatullah; Khan, Rahat Ali; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Malik, Abida

2013-03-01

342

MicroRNA-486-5p, which is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma, suppresses tumor growth by targeting PIK3R1.  

PubMed

Deregulated microRNAs and their roles in carcinogenesis and cancer progression have attracted much attention. In previous studies conducted in our laboratory, the Illumina Solexa massively parallel signature sequencing of miRNomes in nontumor and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues revealed that miR-486-5p was significantly downregulated in HCC, but its role in HCC development remains unknown. In this study, miR-486-5p levels in HCC tissues and matched control tissues, and in seven HCC cell lines (QGY-7701, QGY-7703, QGY-7404, SMMC-7721, Huh7, HepG2, and PCL/PRF/5) and human normal liver cells (HL-7702), were tested by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. We found that the level of miR-486-5p was significantly decreased in HCC tissue and in all seven HCC cell lines. Overexpression of miR-486-5p markedly suppressed HCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro, and inhibited HCC growth in vivo. Mechanistically, miR-486-5p was confirmed to directly target PIK3R1 expression, thereby suppressing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway activation, by dual luciferase reporter assay and real-time quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis. In addition, PIK3R1 knockdown mimicked the effects of miR-486-5p overexpression by inhibiting HCC growth, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, correlation analysis, Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard models showed an inverse correlation between miR-486-5p and PIK3R1, as well as a shorter time to recurrence after HCC resection, in patients with lower miR-486-5p expression. Hence, we conclude that miR-486-5p, which is frequently downregulated in HCC, inhibits HCC progression by targeting PIK3R1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT activation. PMID:25475121

Huang, Xin-Ping; Hou, Jin; Shen, Xiao-Yun; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Hui; Xie, Yu-An; Luo, Xiao-Ling

2015-02-01

343

LEED IV and DFT structure determination of the (\\\\surd 3\\\\times \\\\surd 3) {R}30^{\\\\circ } Pb-Ag(111) surface alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of 1\\/3 of a monolayer of Pb on Ag(111) leads to the formation of PbAg2 surface alloy with a long range ordered (\\\\surd 3\\\\times \\\\surd 3) {R}30^{\\\\circ } superstructure. A detailed analysis of this structure using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) I-V measurements together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations is presented. We find strong correlation between experimental and

I. M. McLeod; V. R. Dhanak; M. Lahti; A. Matilainen; K. Pussi; K. H. L. Zhang

2011-01-01

344

Structure determination of the p 3 × 3 R 30 ? Bi–Ag(111) surface alloy using LEED I–V and DFT analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of 1\\/3 of a monolayer of Bi on Ag(111) leads to the formation of BiAg2 surface alloy with a long range ordered 3×3R30? superstructure. A detailed analysis of this structure using LEED I–V measurements together with DFT calculations is presented. We find strong correlation between experimental and calculated LEED I–V data, with the fit between the two data

I. M. McLeod; V. R. Dhanak; A. Matilainen; M. Lahti; K. Pussi; K. H. L. Zhang

2010-01-01

345

Asymmetric conjugate reductions with samarium diiodide: asymmetric synthesis of (2S,3R)- and (2S,3S)-[2-2H,3-2H]-leucine-(S)-phenylalanine dipeptides and (2S,3R)-[2-(2)H,3-2H]-phenylalanine methyl ester.  

PubMed

The highly diastereoselective samarium diiodide and D(2)O-promoted conjugate reduction of homochiral (E)- and (Z)-benzylidene and isobutylidene diketopiperazines (E)-5,7 and (Z)-6,8 has been demonstrated. This methodology allows the asymmetric synthesis of methyl (2S,3R)-dideuteriophenylalanine 27 in > or = 95% de and >98% ee, and (2S,3R)- or (2S,3S)-dideuterioleucine-(S)-phenylalanine dipeptides 37 and 38 in moderate de, 66% and 74% respectively. A mechanism is proposed to account for this process. PMID:15827639

Davies, Stephen G; Rodriguez-Solla, Humberto; Tamayo, Juan A; Cowley, Andrew R; Concellon, Carmen; Garner, A Christopher; Parkes, Alastair L; Smith, Andrew D

2005-04-21

346

Significant clinical response to JAK1/2 inhibition in a patient with CSF3R-T618I-positive atypical chronic myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Mutations in CSF3R (colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor) are frequent oncogenic drivers in chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Here we describe a 75 year old man who was diagnosed with CSF3R-T618I-positive atypical CML. He presented with leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia and developed massive splenomegaly and severe constitutional symptoms. Hydroxyurea was given over a 6 month period but failed to provide any measureable clinical benefit. Eventually, he was treated with ruxolitinib, an FDA-approved JAK1/2 inhibitor, which resulted in dramatic improvement of his blood counts. He also had significant reduction of spleen volume and constitutional symptoms. This case highlights the need for a clinical trial to interrogate JAK1/2 as a potential molecular target in CNL and aCML in patients with or without CSF3R mutation. A clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib for this patient population is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02092324). PMID:25180155

Dao, Kim-Hien T.; Solti, Magdolna B.; Maxson, Julia E.; Winton, Elliott F.; Press, Richard D.; Druker, Brian J.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.

2014-01-01

347

Significant clinical response to JAK1/2 inhibition in a patient with CSF3R-T618I-positive atypical chronic myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Mutations in CSF3R (colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor) are frequent oncogenic drivers in chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Here we describe a 75 year old man who was diagnosed with CSF3R-T618I-positive atypical CML. He presented with leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia and developed massive splenomegaly and severe constitutional symptoms. Hydroxyurea was given over a 6 month period but failed to provide any measureable clinical benefit. Eventually, he was treated with ruxolitinib, an FDA-approved JAK1/2 inhibitor, which resulted in dramatic improvement of his blood counts. He also had significant reduction of spleen volume and constitutional symptoms. This case highlights the need for a clinical trial to interrogate JAK1/2 as a potential molecular target in CNL and aCML in patients with or without CSF3R mutation. A clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib for this patient population is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02092324). PMID:25180155

Dao, Kim-Hien T; Solti, Magdolna B; Maxson, Julia E; Winton, Elliott F; Press, Richard D; Druker, Brian J; Tyner, Jeffrey W

2014-01-01

348

A novel model for the (?3 × ?3)R30° alkanethiolate-Au(111) phase based on alkanethiolate-Au adatom complexes.  

PubMed

Self-assembled monolayers of thiols on Au(111) have attracted considerable interest from the theoretical and experimental points of view as model systems for understanding the organization of molecules on metallic surfaces, and also as key elements in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Today, there is strong theoretical and experimental evidence indicating that the surface chemistry of these monolayers at high coverage involves dithiolate-adatom (RS-Auad-SR) species, showing the existence of the (3 × 4) and c(4 × 2) lattices usually observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. However, concealing the existence of dithiolate-Au adatom species with the presence of the paradigmatic (?3 × ?3)R30° lattice, which dominates the structure of long alkanethiols, still remains a challenge. Here, we propose a novel (3?3 × 3?3)R30° structural model containing RS-Auad-SR moieties based on DFT calculations which reconciles most of the experimental data observed for the (?3 × ?3)R30° lattice. Our results provide a unified picture of the surface chemistry of the thiol-Au(111) system. PMID:25093279

Carro, P; Torrelles, X; Salvarezza, R C

2014-09-21

349

S2P3-R (v1.0): a framework for efficient regional modelling of physical and biological structures and processes in shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An established 1-dimensional model of Shelf Sea Physics and Primary Production (S2P3) is adapted for regional use in realistic geographical domains over selected years, for selected regions. The S2P3-R framework (v1.0) can be used to efficiently map 3-D physical and biological structures in shelf seas, in particular the tidal mixing fronts that seasonally develop at boundaries between mixed and stratified water. The model has primarily been developed for undergraduate oceanography modules and research projects, providing a practical tool for linking theory and field observations, but it is also useful as an investigative research tool alongside more complex and computationally expensive models. Four different configurations of S2P3-R are described and evaluated, illustrating a range of diagnostics, evaluated where practical with available observations. The model can be forced with daily meteorological variables for any selected year in the reanalysis era (1948 onwards). Example simulations illustrate the considerable extent of synoptic-to-interannual variability in the physics and biology of shelf seas. In discussion, the present limitations of S2P3-R are emphasized, and future model developments are outlined.

Marsh, R.; Hickman, A. E.; Sharples, J.

2015-01-01

350

Multi-time scale Climate Informed Stochastic Hybrid Simulation-Optimization Model (McISH model) for Multi-Purpose Reservoir System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to mitigate the impacts of climate change, proactive management strategies to operate reservoirs and dams are needed. A multi-time scale climate informed stochastic model is developed to optimize the operations for a multi-purpose single reservoir by simulating decadal, interannual, seasonal and sub-seasonal variability. We apply the model to a setting motivated by the largest multi-purpose dam in N. India, the Bhakhra reservoir on the Sutlej River, a tributary of the Indus. This leads to a focus on timing and amplitude of the flows for the monsoon and snowmelt periods. The flow simulations are constrained by multiple sources of historical data and GCM future projections, that are being developed through a NSF funded project titled 'Decadal Prediction and Stochastic Simulation of Hydroclimate Over Monsoon Asia'. The model presented is a multilevel, nonlinear programming model that aims to optimize the reservoir operating policy on a decadal horizon and the operation strategy on an updated annual basis. The model is hierarchical, in terms of having a structure that two optimization models designated for different time scales are nested as a matryoshka doll. The two optimization models have similar mathematical formulations with some modifications to meet the constraints within that time frame. The first level of the model is designated to provide optimization solution for policy makers to determine contracted annual releases to different uses with a prescribed reliability; the second level is a within-the-period (e.g., year) operation optimization scheme that allocates the contracted annual releases on a subperiod (e.g. monthly) basis, with additional benefit for extra release and penalty for failure. The model maximizes the net benefit of irrigation, hydropower generation and flood control in each of the periods. The model design thus facilitates the consistent application of weather and climate forecasts to improve operations of reservoir systems. The decadal flow simulations are re-initialized every year with updated climate projections to improve the reliability of the operation rules for the next year, within which the seasonal operation strategies are nested. The multi-level structure can be repeated for monthly operation with weekly subperiods to take advantage of evolving weather forecasts and seasonal climate forecasts. As a result of the hierarchical structure, sub-seasonal even weather time scale updates and adjustment can be achieved. Given an ensemble of these scenarios, the McISH reservoir simulation-optimization model is able to derive the desired reservoir storage levels, including minimum and maximum, as a function of calendar date, and the associated release patterns. The multi-time scale approach allows adaptive management of water supplies acknowledging the changing risks, meeting both the objectives over the decade in expected value and controlling the near term and planning period risk through probabilistic reliability constraints. For the applications presented, the target season is the monsoon season from June to September. The model also includes a monthly flood volume forecast model, based on a Copula density fit to the monthly flow and the flood volume flow. This is used to guide dynamic allocation of the flood control volume given the forecasts.

Lu, M.; Lall, U.

2013-12-01

351

Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.  

PubMed

An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 ?M BA + 0.73 ?M phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 ?M BA + 0.73 ?M PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 ?M Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 ?M activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:23573054

Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

2012-04-01

352

Development of a new single-bottle multi-purpose primer for bonding to dental porcelain, alumina, zirconia, and dental gold alloy.  

PubMed

This study investigated the bonding efficacy of a combined primer application which comprised a silane coupling agent, an acidic adhesive monomer, and a dithiooctanoate monomer, as well as the influence of shelf life on bonding. Five experimental primers (coded as Si-P-SS-1 to Si-P-SS-4, and Si-SS as the control) were prepared using 20.0-40.0 wt% 3-methacryloyloxypropyltriethoxysilane (3-MPTES), 0-7.44 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA), and 0.50 wt% 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT). After 24-hour storage at 23°C (Initial) and 2-month storage at 50°C (Aged), tensile bond strengths (TBSs) of a resin cement (ResiCem, Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan) to primer-treated porcelain, alumina, zirconia, and Au alloy were measured. With the Initial and Aged primers of Si-P-SS-1 to Si-P-SS-3, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean TBSs (MPa) [porcelain: 21.7-29.2; alumina: 21.4-25.3; zirconia: 20.3-24.5; and Au alloy: 23.4-27.6] among these three primers (p>0.05), but they were significantly higher than that of the control primer (p<0.05). The experimental primers Si-P-SS-1 to Si-P-SS-3 demonstrated good potential as multi-purpose primers: they had good shelf lives as single-bottle primer systems and were thus able to exhibit good bond strength to all the adherends tested after 2-month storage under accelerated aging conditions. PMID:21778608

Ikemura, Kunio; Tanaka, Hisaki; Fujii, Toshihide; Deguchi, Mikito; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

2011-01-01

353

Crystal structure of 2-amino-4-methyl-pyridin-1-ium (2R,3R)-3-carb-oxy-2,3-di-hydroxy-propano-ate monohydrate.  

PubMed

The title mol-ecular salt, C6H9N2 (+)·C4H5O6 (-)·H2O, crystallized with two 2-amino-4-methyl-pyridin-1-ium cations, two l-(+)-tartaric acid monoanions [systematic name: (2R,3R)-3-carb-oxy-2,3-di-hydroxy-propano-ate] and two water mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, the cations, anions and water mol-ecules are linked via a number of O-H?O and N-H?O hydrogen bonds, and a C-H?O hydrogen bond, forming a three-dimensional structure. PMID:25309212

Jovita, J V; Sathya, S; Usha, G; Vasanthi, R; Ramanand, A

2014-09-01

354

Crystal structure of 2-amino-4-methyl­pyridin-1-ium (2R,3R)-3-carb­oxy-2,3-di­hydroxy­propano­ate monohydrate  

PubMed Central

The title mol­ecular salt, C6H9N2 +·C4H5O6 ?·H2O, crystallized with two 2-amino-4-methyl­pyridin-1-ium cations, two l-(+)-tartaric acid monoanions [systematic name: (2R,3R)-3-carb­oxy-2,3-di­hydroxy­propano­ate] and two water mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, the cations, anions and water mol­ecules are linked via a number of O—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds, and a C—H?O hydrogen bond, forming a three-dimensional structure PMID:25309212

Jovita, J. V.; Sathya, S.; Usha, G.; Vasanthi, R.; Ramanand, A.

2014-01-01

355

Mo¨ssbauer spectroscopy study on double rare-earth orthoferrites Eu0.2R0.8FeO3 (R=rare earth)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double rare-earth ferrites Eu0.2R0.8FeO3 (R=rare earth) are synthesized by a high-temperature method. X-ray-diffraction determinations show that all the compounds possess orthorhombic structure. Both 151Eu and 57Fe Mo¨ssbauer spectra are measured. The results indicate that the isomer shift of the 151Eu nucleus depends on the unit-cell volume of Eu0.2R0.8FeO3, and the quadrupole interaction of 151Eu Mo¨ssbauer spectra is relative to the

Xuewu Liu; Mingzhi Jin; Cailing Zhang

1992-01-01

356

Crystal structures and magnetic properties of novel rare-earth copper sulfides, EuRCuS3 (R = Y, Gd Lu)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel quaternary rare-earth copper sulfides EuRCuS3 (R = Y, Gd-Lu excluding Ho, Er) have been investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, and specific heat measurements. These compounds crystallize in the Eu2CuS3-type structure for R = Y, Gd-Dy and in the KZrCuS3-type structure for R = Tm-Lu. Both EuY CuS3 and EuLuCuS3 show a ferromagnetic transition and the other EuRCuS3 compounds show a ferrimagnetic transition at around 5.0 K.

Wakeshima, Makoto; Furuuchi, Fumito; Hinatsu, Yukio

2004-08-01

357

A 40\\/43Gb\\/s CDR\\/DEMUX and MUX chipset integrated on a MCM-ceramic with 3R-regeneration functionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A second-generation 40\\/43-Gb\\/s CDR\\/DEMUX and MUX chipset in a 120-GHz-fT SiGe technology is presented. While consuming 3.4-W, the fully-integrated CDR\\/DEMUX provides an electrical sensitivity of less than 40-mVpp at a BER of 10-12, the MUX consumes 2.3-W. Additionally, the integration of the chipset as a 3R-regenerator on a ceramic is demonstrated.

Mario Reinhold; T. Winkler von Mohrenfels; F. Kunz; E. Rose; A. Eismann; M. Kukiela; C. Wolf; F. Znidarsic; C. Dorschky; G. Roll

2003-01-01

358

A new and facile preparation of tert-butyl (3 R,5 S)-6-hydroxy-3,5- O-isopropylidene-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facile method for the preparation of tert-butyl (3R,5S)-6-hydroxy-3,5-O-isopropylidene-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoate is described by a chemoenzymatic approach. In this method, one hydroxyl stereocenter at C5 is obtained with a high ee value (up to 98.0%) via an enzymatic transesterification resolution of l-chloro-3-(4-methylbenzyloxy)-2-propanol. The other hydroxyl stereocenter at C3 was built with 98.0% de, by acid-hydrolysis of a 1,3-diol-acetonide syn\\/anti-10. It is noteworthy

Fenglai Sun; Gang Xu; Jianping Wu; Lirong Yang

2007-01-01

359

(1S,3R,4S,5R)5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid: Isolation, stereo-structure characterization and biological activity.  

PubMed

Sorbus domestica fruits (sorbs) are commonly harvested and consumed for their nutritious qualities and have long been used as natural remedy against diabetes in the popular medicine. Recently, sorbs have been described as sources of antioxidant compounds including polyphenols. Chemical analyses carried out on sorbs collected in Southern Italy have led to the isolation of a chlorogenic acid isomer as the main antioxidant compound contained in the fruit butanol extract. NMR studies have identified the isolated compound as (1S,3R,4S,5R)5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid. In comparison to chlorogenic acid, the isolated isomer features an inverted configuration at C4. Such configurational inversion causes the chlorogenic acid stereoisomer acid to assume a preferential conformation remarkably different from that of chlorogenic acid. This seems to account for the enhanced potency of (1S,3R,4S,5R)5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid to reduce both the glucose and cholesterol uptakes by the cell line HepG2 when compared to chlorogenic acid. PMID:25704716

Forino, Martino; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Tartaglione, Luciana; Carmela, Dell'Aversano; Novellino, Ettore; Ciminiello, Patrizia

2015-07-01

360

An overview on CALR and CSF3R mutations and a proposal for revision of WHO diagnostic criteria for myeloproliferative neoplasms.  

PubMed

Disease-specific mutations facilitate diagnostic precision and drug target discovery. In myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), this is best exemplified by the chronic myeloid leukemia-associated BCR-ABL1. No other mutation in MPN has thus far shown a similar degree of diagnostic accuracy or therapeutic relevance. However, JAK2 and KIT mutations are detected in more than 90% of patients with polycythemia vera and systemic mastocytosis, respectively, and are therefore used as highly sensitive clonal markers in these diseases. JAK2 and MPL mutations also occur in essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), but their diagnostic value is limited by suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. The molecular diagnostic gap in JAK2/MPL-unmutated ET/PMF is now partially addressed by the recent discovery of calreticulin (CALR) mutations in the majority of such cases. However, bone marrow morphology remains the central diagnostic platform and is essential for distinguishing ET from prefibrotic PMF and diagnosing patients those do not express JAK2, MPL or CALR (triple-negative). The year 2013 was also marked by the description of CSF3R mutations in the majority of patients with chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL). Herein, we argue for the inclusion of CALR and CSF3R mutations in the World Health Organization classification system for ET/PMF and CNL, respectively. PMID:24441292

Tefferi, A; Thiele, J; Vannucchi, A M; Barbui, T

2014-07-01

361

Effect of pressure on octahedral distortions in RCrO3 (R = Lu, Tb, Gd, Eu, Sm): the role of R-ion size and its implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of rare-earth ion size on the octahedral distortions in rare-earth chromites (RCrO3, R = Lu, Tb, Gd, Eu, Sm) crystallizing in the orthorhombic structure has been studied using Raman scattering and synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction up to 20 GPa. From our studies on RCrO3 we found that the octahedral tilts (distortions) increase with pressure. This is contrary to the earlier report which suggests that in LaCrO3, the distortions decrease with pressure leading to a more ordered phase at high pressure. Here, we observe that the rate of increase in distortion decreases with the increase in R-ion radii. This occurs due to the reduction in the compression of RO12 polyhedra with a corresponding increase in the compression of the CrO6 octahedra with increasing R-ion radii. From the Raman studies, we predict a critical R-ion radii, above which we expect the distortions in RCrO3 to reduce with increasing pressure leading to what is observed in the case of LaCrO3. These Raman results are consistent with our pressure dependent structural studies on RCrO3 (R = Gd, Eu, Sm). Also, our results suggest that the pressure dependence of Néel temperature, T NCr, (where the Cr3+ spin orders) in RCrO3 is mostly affected by the compressions of Cr-O bonds rather than the alteration of octahedral tilts.

Srinu Bhadram, Venkata; Swain, Diptikanta; Dhanya, R.; Polentarutti, Maurizio; Sundaresan, A.; Narayana, Chandrabhas

2014-04-01

362

Heterozygous splice mutation in PIK3R1 causes human immunodeficiency with lymphoproliferation due to dominant activation of PI3K.  

PubMed

Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), which generate PIP3 as a signal for cell growth and proliferation, exist as an intracellular complex of a catalytic subunit bound to a regulatory subunit. We and others have previously reported that heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD encoding the p110? catalytic PI3K subunit cause a unique disorder termed p110?-activating mutations causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency (PASLI) disease. We report four patients from three families with a similar disease who harbor a recently reported heterozygous splice site mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the p85?, p55?, and p50? regulatory PI3K subunits. These patients suffer from recurrent sinopulmonary infections and lymphoproliferation, exhibit hyperactive PI3K signaling, and have prominent expansion and skewing of peripheral blood CD8(+) T cells toward terminally differentiated senescent effector cells with short telomeres. The PIK3R1 splice site mutation causes skipping of an exon, corresponding to loss of amino acid residues 434-475 in the inter-SH2 domain. The mutant p85? protein is expressed at low levels in patient cells and activates PI3K signaling when overexpressed in T cells from healthy subjects due to qualitative and quantitative binding changes in the p85?-p110? complex and failure of the C-terminal region to properly inhibit p110? catalytic activity. PMID:25488983

Lucas, Carrie L; Zhang, Yu; Venida, Anthony; Wang, Ying; Hughes, Jason; McElwee, Joshua; Butrick, Morgan; Matthews, Helen; Price, Susan; Biancalana, Matthew; Wang, Xiaochuan; Richards, Michael; Pozos, Tamara; Barlan, Isil; Ozen, Ahmet; Rao, V Koneti; Su, Helen C; Lenardo, Michael J

2014-12-15

363

Reduced inhibitory gate in the barrel cortex of Neuroligin3R451C knock?in mice, an animal model of autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Abstract Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that interacting with presynaptic neurexins ensure the cross?talk between pre? and postsynaptic specializations. Rare mutations in neurexin–neuroligin genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One of these, the R451C mutation of the gene encoding for Neuroligin3 (Nlgn3), has been found in patients with familial forms of ASDs. Animals carrying this mutation (NL3R451C knock?in mice) exhibit impaired social behaviors, reminiscent of those observed in ASD patients, associated with major alterations in both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission, which vary among different brain regions and at different developmental stages. Here, pair recordings from parvalbumin? (PV) expressing basket cells and spiny neurons were used to study GABAergic synaptic signaling in layer IV barrel cortex of NL3R451C mutant mice. We found that the R451C mutation severely affects the probability of GABA release from PV?expressing basket cells, responsible for controlling via thalamo?cortical inputs the feed?forward inhibition. No changes in excitatory inputs to parvalbumin?positive basket cells or spiny neurons were detected. These data clearly show that primary targets of the NL3 mutation are PV?expressing basket cells, independently of the brain region where they are localized. Changes in the inhibitory gate of layer IV somatosensory cortex may alter sensory processing in ASD patients leading to misleading sensory representations with difficulties to combine pieces of information into a unified perceptual whole. PMID:25347860

Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

2014-01-01

364

High density gradients in the (square root 3 x square root 3)R30 degrees-CO layer on Ru(0001).  

PubMed

The coverage regime just beyond 0.33 ML, representative of a perfectly ordered (square root 3 x square root 3)R30 degrees-CO layer on Ru(0001), has been investigated using infrared-absorption spectroscopy. Different isotopic mixtures of CO have been employed to derive a profound understanding of structural properties of such layers. It is found that extra CO molecules incorporated into the (square root 3 x square root 3)R30 degrees-CO layer affect their nearest neighbor molecules only, and the associated density gradient extends over no more than a few angstroms. Contrary to existing belief, the model system CO on Ru(0001) does not represent a case of an unusually shallow adsorption potential corrugation. Rather, CO experiences an exceptionally strong site preference when adsorbed on Ru(0001). Annealing causes the local distortion of the overlattice to propagate laterally, most probably in a density wave-like manner. Incipient motion on the atomic scale thereby has been detected by means of isotopic labeling of inequivalent molecules within the high density areas. All major conclusions are based on observations of (isotopically labeled) minority CO species which feature negligible dynamical lateral coupling. The majority CO species, on the other hand, provide laterally averaged, unspecific information on the status of the layer. PMID:15267865

Jakob, P

2004-05-15

365

Diastereomeric complex of ( R/ S)-piperidine-3-carboxylic acid with (2 R,3 R)-tartaric acid: Structural, spectroscopic and computational studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2:2 Complex of ( R) and ( S)-piperidine-3-carboxylic acids (P3C) with (2 R,3 R) -tartaric acid (TA), 1, has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopies, and by DFT calculations. The crystals of 1 are monoclinic, space group P2 1. The crystal structure is formed by two distinct P3CH +·TA - components, A and B, linked by an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond of 2.603(2) Å. The A and B components differ in the absolute configuration of the C(3) atom of P3CH +; ( S) in A and ( R) in B. The piperidinium-3-carboxylic acid and (2 R,3 R)-semi-tartrate anion moieties of the components A and B are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds of 2.517(1) and 2.535(1) Å, respectively. In A and B the piperidinium rings adopt the chair conformation with the carboxyl group in the equatorial position. The structures of the monomers of P3CH +·TA -, 3A and 3B, as well as of a dimer 2, have been optimized by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach. The chemical shift assignments were based on two-dimensional 1H- 1H and 1H- 13C experiments.

Bartoszak-Adamska, E.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Jaskólski, M.; Szafran, M.

2011-07-01

366

Luminescence properties of Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Bi3+, R+ (R+=Li+, Na+, and K+) red emission phosphor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Bi3+, Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, R+, and Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Bi3+, R+ (R+=Li+, Na+, and K+) phosphors are synthesized by solid-state reaction method in air. All phosphors show bright red emissions centered at ~617 nm upon excitation with UV light of 397 nm. Bi3+ is a sensitizer for the luminescence of Eu3+, and can improve significantly the PL intensity of Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+ phosphor due to energy transfer between Bi3+ and Eu3+ ions. The sensitization mechanism is investigated and discussed by energy level diagrams of Bi3+ and Eu3+ ions. R+ ion is used as the charge compensator to improve the luminescence intensity of Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+ and Ca3Ti2O7:Eu3+, Bi3+ phosphors, and their PL intensities are enhanced in the sequence K+?Na+?Li+. These phosphors can be promising red emitting candidate for white LED with a ~397 nm near UV chip excitation owing to the high brightness.

Cao, Renping; Chen, Guo; Yu, Xiaoguang; Cao, Chunyan; Chen, Kangbin; Liu, Pan; Jiang, Shenhua

2014-12-01

367

Association of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I/D and ?-actinin-3 R577X Genotypes with Growth Factors and Physical Fitness in Korean Children  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the differences in aerobic and anaerobic exercise ability and growth-related indicators, depending on the polymorphism of the ACE and the ACTN3 genes, to understand the genetic influence of exercise ability in the growth process of children. The subjects of the study consisted of elementary school students (n=856, age 10.32±0.07 yr). The anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors were compared among groups of the ACE I/D or the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms. There were no significant differences between the anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors for the ACE gene ID or the ACTN3 gene R577X polymorphism. However, the DD type of ACE gene was highest in the side step test (p<0.05), and the DD type was significantly higher than the II+ID type (p<0.05) in the early bone age. The combined group of the ACE gene II+ID and the ACTN3 gene XX type significantly showed lower early bone age (p< 0.05). This study did not find any individual or compounding effects of the polymorphism in the ACE I/D or the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on the anthropometric parameters, physical fitness and growth factors of Korean children. However, the exercise experience and the DD type of the ACE gene may affect the early maturity of the bones. PMID:25729275

Ahn, Nayoung; Cheun, Wookwang; Byun, Jayoung; Joo, Youngsik

2015-01-01

368

Reduced inhibitory gate in the barrel cortex of Neuroligin3R451C knock-in mice, an animal model of autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that interacting with presynaptic neurexins ensure the cross-talk between pre- and postsynaptic specializations. Rare mutations in neurexin-neuroligin genes have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One of these, the R451C mutation of the gene encoding for Neuroligin3 (Nlgn3), has been found in patients with familial forms of ASDs. Animals carrying this mutation (NL3(R451C) knock-in mice) exhibit impaired social behaviors, reminiscent of those observed in ASD patients, associated with major alterations in both GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission, which vary among different brain regions and at different developmental stages. Here, pair recordings from parvalbumin- (PV) expressing basket cells and spiny neurons were used to study GABAergic synaptic signaling in layer IV barrel cortex of NL3(R451C) mutant mice. We found that the R451C mutation severely affects the probability of GABA release from PV-expressing basket cells, responsible for controlling via thalamo-cortical inputs the feed-forward inhibition. No changes in excitatory inputs to parvalbumin-positive basket cells or spiny neurons were detected. These data clearly show that primary targets of the NL3 mutation are PV-expressing basket cells, independently of the brain region where they are localized. Changes in the inhibitory gate of layer IV somatosensory cortex may alter sensory processing in ASD patients leading to misleading sensory representations with difficulties to combine pieces of information into a unified perceptual whole. PMID:25347860

Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

2014-01-01

369

Thermal and fluid flow analyses of sounding rocket experiment 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R. [low gravity crystallization of a 27.8 percent ammonium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal convective velocities during the 4-21/2R and 74-21/3R flight tests were calculated. The 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R ground tests were analyzed using a convection formula. Thermal convection velocities of 0.1 to 0.5 cm/sec were calculated for the 74-21/2R and 74-21/3R ground tests which were two to four orders of magnitude greater than for the flight tests. For the 74-21/2R flight test, solutal effects do not produce any convective motion. For the 74-21/3R flight test closed form convection equations estimated the solutal convective velocities on the order of 1/0.003 cm/sec.

Robertson, S. J.

1979-01-01

370

De novo assembly and characterization of leaf transcriptome for the development of functional molecular markers of the extremophile multipurpose tree species Prosopis alba  

PubMed Central

Background Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) is an important native tree adapted to arid and semiarid regions of north-western Argentina which is of great value as multipurpose species. Despite its importance, the genomic resources currently available for the entire Prosopis genus are still limited. Here we describe the development of a leaf transcriptome and the identification of new molecular markers that could support functional genetic studies in natural and domesticated populations of this genus. Results Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to P. alba transcripts produced a total of 1,103,231 raw reads with an average length of 421 bp. De novo assembling generated a set of 15,814 isotigs and 71,101 non-assembled sequences (singletons) with an average of 991 bp and 288 bp respectively. A total of 39,000 unique singletons were identified after clustering natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads. Regarding the non-redundant sequences or unigenes, 22,095 out of 54,814 were successfully annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Moreover, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were searched, resulting in 5,992 and 6,236 markers, respectively, throughout the genome. For the validation of the the predicted SSR markers, a subset of 87 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidence was successfully amplified from six DNA samples of seedlings. From this analysis, 11 of these 87 SSRs were identified as polymorphic. Additionally, another set of 123 nuclear polymorphic SSRs were determined in silico, of which 50% have the probability of being effectively polymorphic. Conclusions This study generated a successful global analysis of the P. alba leaf transcriptome after bioinformatic and wet laboratory validations of RNA-Seq data. The limited set of molecular markers currently available will be significantly increased with the thousands of new markers that were identified in this study. This information will strongly contribute to genomics resources for P. alba functional analysis and genetics. Finally, it will also potentially contribute to the development of population-based genome studies in the genera. PMID:24125525

2013-01-01

371

Fianite: A multipurpose electronics material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fianite-zirconium dioxide, stabilized by yttrium (YSZ) has a unique combination of physical and chemical properties that made\\u000a it a very promising material for a wide range of applications. In this work, we consider the use of fianite as a bulk substrate\\u000a and buffer layer for A\\u000a III\\u000a B\\u000a V epitaxy, and as an antireflection and protective coating for photo detectors

A. N. Buzynin; V. V. Osiko; Yu. N. Buzynin; B. N. Zvonkov; Yu. N. Drozdov; O. I. Khrykin; M. N. Drozdov; M. A. Trishenkov; A. E. Luk’yanov; F. A. Luk’yanov

2010-01-01

372

MultiPurpose University High  

E-print Network

Henke Hall Tennis Courts Cooke Field Athletic/Physical Education Complex Kahanamoku Pool Dance Building Construction Edmondson Hall Art Building Hamilton Snack Bar Building 37 Krauss Hall Annex Kuykendall Hall Addition Keller Hall Physical Science Building Pacific Ocean Science Technology Kuykendall Annex Bilger

Learned, John

373

Configurable Multi-Purpose Processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advancements in technology have allowed the miniaturization of systems used in aerospace vehicles. This technology is driven by the need for next-generation systems that provide reliable, responsive, and cost-effective range operations while providing increased capabilities such as simultaneous mission support, increased launch trajectories, improved launch, and landing opportunities, etc. Leveraging the newest technologies, the command and telemetry processor (CTP) concept provides for a compact, flexible, and integrated solution for flight command and telemetry systems and range systems. The CTP is a relatively small circuit board that serves as a processing platform for high dynamic, high vibration environments. The CTP can be reconfigured and reprogrammed, allowing it to be adapted for many different applications. The design is centered around a configurable field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device that contains numerous logic cells that can be used to implement traditional integrated circuits. The FPGA contains two PowerPC processors running the Vx-Works real-time operating system and are used to execute software programs specific to each application. The CTP was designed and developed specifically to provide telemetry functions; namely, the command processing, telemetry processing, and GPS metric tracking of a flight vehicle. However, it can be used as a general-purpose processor board to perform numerous functions implemented in either hardware or software using the FPGA s processors and/or logic cells. Functionally, the CTP was designed for range safety applications where it would ultimately become part of a vehicle s flight termination system. Consequently, the major functions of the CTP are to perform the forward link command processing, GPS metric tracking, return link telemetry data processing, error detection and correction, data encryption/ decryption, and initiate flight termination action commands. Also, the CTP had to be designed to survive and operate in a launch environment. Additionally, the CTP was designed to interface with the WFF (Wallops Flight Facility) custom-designed transceiver board which is used in the Low Cost TDRSS Transceiver (LCT2) also developed by WFF. The LCT2 s transceiver board demodulates commands received from the ground via the forward link and sends them to the CTP, where they are processed. The CTP inputs and processes data from the inertial measurement unit (IMU) and the GPS receiver board, generates status data, and then sends the data to the transceiver board where it is modulated and sent to the ground via the return link. Overall, the CTP has combined processing with the ability to interface to a GPS receiver, an IMU, and a pulse code modulation (PCM) communication link, while providing the capability to support common interfaces including Ethernet and serial interfaces boarding a relatively small-sized, lightweight package.

Valencia, J. Emilio; Forney, Chirstopher; Morrison, Robert; Birr, Richard

2010-01-01

374

Multipurpose Spray Adhesive Product Description  

E-print Network

(lbs/gal): 6.0 6.5 6.5 Viscosity (cps): N/A N/A 200 - 5000 Color(s): Translucent Translucent (calculated): .4% .93% 1.2% CARB Compliant: Yes N/A N/A SCAQMD 1168 Compliant: N/A No No GREENGUARD Indoor Air-021200-21210-9 Large Cylinder ­ 29.3 lbs. 62-4979-8030-0 00-051115-25776-6 5 gallon pail ­ 32.5 lbs. 62-4458-8530-4 00

Rollins, Andrew M.

375

t(X;17) as the sole karyotypic anomaly in a case of M(3r) subtype of acute promyelocytic leukemia without RARalpha rearrangement.  

PubMed

We describe here a unique chromosomal abnormality found in a patient with M(3r) subtype of APL. Neither t(15;17) nor rearrangement of RARalpha was detected by routine R-banded chromosome as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using PML/RARalpha dual-color dual-fusion translocation probe and RARalpha dual-color break apart rearrangement probe. Instead of the typical rearrangement between chromosomes 15 and 17, all cells analyzed had a translocation between X and 17 as the sole karyotypic anomaly. The translocation was conformed by whole chromosome painting (WCP) with painting probes of chromosomes X and 17. To our knowledge, this is the first documented APL with a novel translocation involving chromosomes X and 17 without RARalpha gene rearrangement. PMID:19477513

Wang, Huan-Ping; Xu, Huan; Chen, Zhi-Mei; Tong, Xiang-Min; Qian, Wen-Bin; Jin, Jie

2010-02-01

376

Mössbauer spectroscopy study on double rare-earth orthoferrites Eu0.2R0.8FeO3 (R=rare earth)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double rare-earth ferrites Eu0.2R0.8FeO3 (R=rare earth) are synthesized by a high-temperature method. X-ray-diffraction determinations show that all the compounds possess orthorhombic structure. Both 151Eu and 57Fe Mössbauer spectra are measured. The results indicate that the isomer shift of the 151Eu nucleus depends on the unit-cell volume of Eu0.2R0.8FeO3, and the quadrupole interaction of 151Eu Mössbauer spectra is relative to the inverse of the unit-cell volume. The hyperfine field parameter of 57Fe Mössbauer spectra increases linearly with increasing unit-cell volume.

Liu, Xuewu; Jin, Mingzhi; Zhang, Cailing

1992-05-01

377

Theoretical calculational studies on the mechanism of thermal dissociations for RN 3 (R=CH 3, CH 3CH 2, (CH 3) 2CH, (CH 3) 3C)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanisms of RN 3 (R=CH 3, CH 3CH 2, (CH 3) 2CH, (CH 3) 3C) dissociations are proposed based on CAS, MP2 and B3LYP methods. The energy gaps between the ground-state reactants RN 3 and the intersystem crossing (ISC) points are only a little lower than respective potential energy barriers of the spin-allowed reactions, 1RN 3 ? 1RN + 1N 2. The ISC point, therefore, is considered as a transition state of the spin-forbidden reactions, 1RN 3 ? 3RN + 1N 2. The methods of IRC and topological analysis of electron density are used to explain and predict the thermal dissociation pathways of the reactions studied.

Zeng, Yanli; Sun, Qiao; Meng, Lingpeng; Zheng, Shijun; Wang, Dianxun

2004-06-01

378

Seismic electric precursors observed prior to the 6.3R EQ of July 1st 2009, Greece and their use in short-term earthquake prediction  

E-print Network

The normalized raw data of the Earth's electric field, monitored at PYR, ATH, HIO monitoring sites in Greece, are studied as far as it concerns the presence of electric seismic precursors. Electric preseismic pulses, plateau-like anomalous electric field and Very Long Period (VLP) anomalies were detected prior to the occurrence of the July 1st, 2009 large (Ms = 6.3R) EQ in Greece. Further processing of the same data revealed the true form of the generated preseimic potential thus providing an indirect estimation of the time window of the occurrence of the large EQ. Finally, by correlating, at pairs, the anomalous electric field from all monitoring sites it is possible to calculate the "strange attractor like" seismic electric precursor that provides a time window for the occurrence of the large EQ and utilizes the determination not only of the regional seismogenic area that has been activated but also a more precise epicenter too.

Thanassoulas, C; Verveniotis, G; Zymaris, N

2009-01-01

379

Evaluation of ischemia and myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP)  

SciTech Connect

Twenty patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) controlled by coronary arteriography (CA) and biplane left ventricular cineventriculography (LVCV) were investigated with the 15- (p[I-123]iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue. During maximal symptom limited exercise 5 mCi (200 MBq) of BMIPP were injected followed by two SPECT studies within three hours. After another 30 min, with the patient at rest a third SPECT was performed after reinjection of 3 mCi (100 MBq) BMIPP. Visual inspection of the short and long axis slices and quantitative comparison of the short axis slices of the tomograms were performed to grade BMIPP uptake and refill and detect turnover abnormalities. These were addressed either as scar or as ischemia and compared to CA and a graded score of regional wall motion by LVCV which provided values for sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) to detect CAD. Fifteen infarctions had corresponded clinical, angiographic and scintigraphic findings in 93%.

Kropp, J.; Joergens, M.; Glaenzer, K.P.; Luederitz, B.; Biersack, H.J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-10-01

380

Computational Analysis of mRNA Expression Profiles Identifies the ITG Family and PIK3R3 as Crucial Genes for Regulating Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu). TNBC has worse clinical outcomes than other breast cancer subtypes. However, the key molecules and mechanisms of TNBC migration remain unclear. In this study, we compared two normalized microarray datasets from GEO database between Asian (GSE33926) and non-Asian populations (GSE46581) to determine the molecules and common pathways in TNBC migration. We demonstrated that 16 genes in non-Asian samples and 9 genes in Asian samples are related to TNBC migration. In addition, our analytic results showed that 4 genes, PIK3R3, ITGB1, ITGAL, and ITGA6, were involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Our results indicated potential genes that link to TNBC migration. This study may help identify novel therapeutic targets for drug development in cancer therapy. PMID:24982892

Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Wei-Chiao

2014-01-01

381

Association of the ACTN3 R557X polymorphism with glucose tolerance and gene expression of sarcomeric proteins in human skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

A common polymorphism (R577X) in the ?-actinin (ACTN) 3 gene, which leads to complete deficiency of a functional protein in skeletal muscle, could directly influence metabolism in the context of health and disease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that states of glucose tolerance are associated with the ACTN3 R577X genotype. We analyzed the prevalence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in people with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and measured muscle-specific ?-actinin 2 and 3 mRNA and protein abundance in skeletal muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we investigated the protein abundance of the myosin heavy chain isoforms and the components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in skeletal muscle from people with NGT or T2D. mRNA of selected sarcomeric z-disk proteins was also assessed. Although the prevalence of the ACTN3 577XX genotype was higher in T2D patients, genotype distribution was unrelated to metabolic control or obesity. ACTN2 and ACTN3 mRNA expression and protein abundance was unchanged between NGT and T2D participants. Protein abundance of mitochondrial complexes II and IV was related to genotype and glucose tolerance status. Gene expression of sarcomeric z-disk proteins was increased in skeletal muscle from NGT participants with the ACTN3 577XX genotype. While genetic variation in ACTN3 does not influence metabolic control, genotype does appear to influence gene expression of other sarcomeric proteins, which could contribute to the functional properties of skeletal muscle and the fatigue-resistant phenotype associated with the R577X polymorphism. PMID:25780092

Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E; Benziane, Boubacar; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

2015-01-01

382

Tissue-Specific Differences in the Spatial Interposition of X-Chromosome and 3R Chromosome Regions in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles messeae Fall.  

PubMed Central

Spatial organization of a chromosome in a nucleus is very important in biology but many aspects of it are still generally unresolved. We focused on tissue-specific features of chromosome architecture in closely related malaria mosquitoes, which have essential inter-specific differences in polytene chromosome attachments in nurse cells. We showed that the region responsible for X-chromosome attachment interacts with nuclear lamina stronger in nurse cells, then in salivary glands cells in Anopheles messeae Fall. The inter-tissue differences were demonstrated more convincingly in an experiment of two distinct chromosomes interposition in the nucleus space of cells from four tissues. Microdissected DNA-probes from nurse cells X-chromosome (2BC) and 3R chromosomes (32D) attachment regions were hybridized with intact nuclei of nurse cells, salivary gland cells, follicle epithelium cells and imaginal dis?s cells in 3D-FISH experiments. We showed that only salivary gland cells and follicle epithelium cells have no statistical differences in the interposition of 2BC and 32D. Generally, the X-chromosome and 3R chromosome are located closer to each other in cells of the somatic system in comparison with nurse cells on average. The imaginal dis?s cell nuclei have an intermediate arrangement of chromosome interposition, similar to other somatic cells and nurse cells. In spite of species-specific chromosome attachments there are no differences in interposition of nurse cells chromosomes in An. messeae and An. atroparvus Thiel. Nurse cells have an unusual chromosome arrangement without a chromocenter, which could be due to the special mission of generative system cells in ontogenesis and evolution. PMID:25671311

Artemov, Gleb; Bondarenko, Semen; Sapunov, Gleb; Stegniy, Vladimir

2015-01-01

383

Ligand Independence of the T618I Mutation in the Colony-stimulating Factor 3 Receptor (CSF3R) Protein Results from Loss of O-Linked Glycosylation and Increased Receptor Dimerization*  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the CSF3 granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor CSF3R have recently been found in a large percentage of patients with chronic neutrophilic leukemia and, more rarely, in other types of leukemia. These CSF3R mutations fall into two distinct categories: membrane-proximal mutations and truncation mutations. Although both classes of mutation have exhibited the capacity for cellular transformation, several aspects of this transformation, including the kinetics, the requirement for ligand, and the dysregulation of downstream signaling pathways, have all been shown to be discrepant between the mutation types, suggesting distinct mechanisms of activation. CSF3R truncation mutations induce overexpression and ligand hypersensitivity of the receptor, likely because of the removal of motifs necessary for endocytosis and degradation. In contrast, little is known about the mechanism of activation of membrane-proximal mutations, which are much more commonly observed in chronic neutrophilic leukemia. In contrast with CSF3R truncation mutations, membrane-proximal mutations do not exhibit overexpression and are capable of signaling in the absence of ligand. We show that the Thr-615 and Thr-618 sites of membrane-proximal mutations are part of an O-linked glycosylation cluster. Mutation at these sites prevents O-glycosylation of CSF3R and increases receptor dimerization. This increased dimerization explains the ligand-independent activation of CSF3R membrane-proximal mutations. Cytokine receptor activation through loss of O-glycosylation represents a novel avenue of aberrant signaling. Finally, the combination of the CSF3R membrane proximal and truncation mutations, as has been reported in some patients, leads to enhanced cellular transformation when compared with either mutation alone, underscoring their distinct mechanisms of action. PMID:24403076

Maxson, Julia E.; Luty, Samuel B.; MacManiman, Jason D.; Abel, Melissa L.; Druker, Brian J.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.

2014-01-01

384

The influence of ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training  

PubMed Central

Background We studied the influence of the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms (single or combined) on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training. Methods One hundred and thirty-nine healthy older Caucasian women participated in this study (age: 65.5?±?8.2 years, body mass: 67.0?±?10.0 kg and height: 1.57?±?0.06 m). Walking speed (S10) performance and functional capacity assessed by the “get-up and go” (GUG) mobility test were measured at baseline (T1) and after a consecutive 12-week period of high-speed power training (40-75% of one repetition maximum in arm and leg extensor exercises; 3 sets 4–12 reps, and two power exercises for upper and lower extremity). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples, and genotyping analyses were performed by PCR methods. Genotype distributions between groups were compared by Chi-Square test and the gains in physical performance were analyzed by two-way, repeated-measures ANOVA. Results There were no significant differences between genotype groups in men or women for adjusted baseline phenotypes (P?>?0.05). ACE I/D and ACTN3 polymorphisms showed a significant interaction genotype-training only in S10 (P?=?0.012 and P?=?0.044, respectively) and not in the GUG test (P?=?0.311 and P?=?0.477, respectively). Analyses of the combined effects between genotypes showed no other significant differences in all phenotypes (P?3 R577X polymorphisms are likely candidates in the modulation of exercise-related gait speed phenotype in older women but not a significant influence in mobility traits. PMID:24313907

2013-01-01

385

PIK3R1 negatively regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem-like phenotype of renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway has been identified as an important pathway in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We have reported a nonsense mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the regulatory subunit of PI3K, in a metastatic RCC (mRCC), while the mutation was absent in the corresponding primary RCC (pRCC). To identify the function of PIK3R1 in RCC, we examined its expression in normal kidney, pRCC and mRCC by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of PIK3R1 significantly decreased in pRCC and was further reduced in mRCC compared with normal tissue. Besides, its expression levels were negatively correlated with T-category of tumor stage. Additionally, 786-O and A-704 cells with PIK3R1 depletion introduced by CRISPR/Cas9 system displayed enhanced proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and acquired a stem-like phenotype. Moreover, the PIK3R1 depletion promoted the phosphorylation of AKT in the cells. The knockdown of AKT by shRNA reduced p-GSK3? and CTNNB1 expression in the cells, while the depletion of CTNNB1 impaired stem-like phenotype of the cells. Overall, PIK3R1 down-regulation in RCC promotes propagation, migration, EMT and stem-like phenotype in renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 pathway, and may contribute to progression and metastasis of RCC. PMID:25757764

Lin, Youcheng; Yang, Zhao; Xu, Abai; Dong, Pei; Huang, Yi; Liu, Huan; Li, Feida; Wang, Haifeng; Xu, Qian; Wang, Yongqiang; Sun, Da; Zou, Yong; Zou, Xiaowen; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Duo; Liu, Hongjie; Wu, Xun; Zhang, Meng; Fu, Yu; Cai, Zhiming; Liu, Chunxiao; Wu, Song

2015-01-01

386

PIK3R1 negatively regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem-like phenotype of renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway has been identified as an important pathway in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We have reported a nonsense mutation in PIK3R1, which encodes the regulatory subunit of PI3K, in a metastatic RCC (mRCC), while the mutation was absent in the corresponding primary RCC (pRCC). To identify the function of PIK3R1 in RCC, we examined its expression in normal kidney, pRCC and mRCC by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of PIK3R1 significantly decreased in pRCC and was further reduced in mRCC compared with normal tissue. Besides, its expression levels were negatively correlated with T-category of tumor stage. Additionally, 786-O and A-704 cells with PIK3R1 depletion introduced by CRISPR/Cas9 system displayed enhanced proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and acquired a stem-like phenotype. Moreover, the PIK3R1 depletion promoted the phosphorylation of AKT in the cells. The knockdown of AKT by shRNA reduced p-GSK3? and CTNNB1 expression in the cells, while the depletion of CTNNB1 impaired stem-like phenotype of the cells. Overall, PIK3R1 down-regulation in RCC promotes propagation, migration, EMT and stem-like phenotype in renal cancer cells through the AKT/GSK3?/CTNNB1 pathway, and may contribute to progression and metastasis of RCC. PMID:25757764

Lin, Youcheng; Yang, Zhao; Xu, Abai; Dong, Pei; Huang, Yi; Liu, Huan; Li, Feida; Wang, Haifeng; Xu, Qian; Wang, Yongqiang; Sun, Da; Zou, Yong; Zou, Xiaowen; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Duo; Liu, Hongjie; Wu, Xun; Zhang, Meng; Fu, Yu; Cai, Zhiming; Liu, Chunxiao; Wu, Song

2015-01-01

387

Environmental, Health and Safety Assessment: ATS 7H Program (Phase 3R) Test Activities at the GE Power Systems Gas Turbine Manufacturing Facility, Greenville, SC  

SciTech Connect

International Technology Corporation (IT) was contracted by General Electric Company (GE) to assist in the preparation of an Environmental, Health and Safety (HI&3) assessment of the implementation of Phase 3R of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) 7H program at the GE Gas Turbines facility located in Greenville, South Carolina. The assessment was prepared in accordance with GE's contractual agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (GE/DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-95MC3 1176) and supports compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. This report provides a summary of the EH&S review and includes the following: General description of current site operations and EH&S status, Description of proposed ATS 7H-related activities and discussion of the resulting environmental, health, safety and other impacts to the site and surrounding area. Listing of permits and/or licenses required to comply with federal, state and local regulations for proposed 7H-related activities. Assessment of adequacy of current and required permits, licenses, programs and/or plans.

None

1998-11-17

388

De novo germline and postzygotic mutations in AKT3, PIK3R2 and PIK3CA cause a spectrum of related megalencephaly syndromes.  

PubMed

Megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) and megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus (MPPH) syndromes are sporadic overgrowth disorders associated with markedly enlarged brain size and other recognizable features. We performed exome sequencing in 3 families with MCAP or MPPH, and our initial observations were confirmed in exomes from 7 individuals with MCAP and 174 control individuals, as well as in 40 additional subjects with megalencephaly, using a combination of Sanger sequencing, restriction enzyme assays and targeted deep sequencing. We identified de novo germline or postzygotic mutations in three core components of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway. These include 2 mutations in AKT3, 1 recurrent mutation in PIK3R2 in 11 unrelated families with MPPH and 15 mostly postzygotic mutations in PIK3CA in 23 individuals with MCAP and 1 with MPPH. Our data highlight the central role of PI3K-AKT signaling in vascular, limb and brain development and emphasize the power of massively parallel sequencing in a challenging context of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity combined with postzygotic mosaicism. PMID:22729224

Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; O'Roak, Brian J; Beddaoui, Margaret; Alcantara, Diana; Conway, Robert L; St-Onge, Judith; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A; Gripp, Karen W; Nikkel, Sarah M; Worthylake, Thea; Sullivan, Christopher T; Ward, Thomas R; Butler, Hailly E; Kramer, Nancy A; Albrecht, Beate; Armour, Christine M; Armstrong, Linlea; Caluseriu, Oana; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Drolet, Beth A; Innes, A Micheil; Lauzon, Julie L; Lin, Angela E; Mancini, Grazia M S; Meschino, Wendy S; Reggin, James D; Saggar, Anand K; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Uyanik, Gökhan; Weksberg, Rosanna; Zirn, Birgit; Beaulieu, Chandree L; Majewski, Jacek; Bulman, Dennis E; O'Driscoll, Mark; Shendure, Jay; Graham, John M; Boycott, Kym M; Dobyns, William B

2012-08-01

389

Theoretical studies of strongly correlated rare-earth intermetallics RIn{sub 3} and RSn{sub 3} (R?=?Sm, Eu, and Gd)  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of RIn{sub 3} and RSn{sub 3} (R = Sm, Eu, Gd) compounds have been investigated using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method within the density functional theory. The structural properties are investigated using the LDA, GGA, and the band correlated LDA+U and GGA+U schemes. The lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental results and the divalent state of Eu is also verified. The spin-orbit coupling is included in order to predict the correct electronic properties and splitting of 4f states of the rare earth elements is also incorporated. We calculated Bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, anisotropic ratio, Kleinman parameters, Poisson's ratio, Lame's co-efficient, sound velocities for shear and longitudinal waves, and Debye temperature. We also predict the Cauchy pressure and B/G ratio in order to explore the ductile and brittle behaviors of these compounds.

Shafiq, M.; Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: ahma5532@gmail.com, E-mail: dr.iftikhar@uom.edu.pk [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Jalali Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Hezar Gerib Avenue, Isfahan 81744 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-09-14

390

De novo germline and postzygotic mutations in AKT3, PIK3R2 and PIK3CA cause a spectrum of related megalencephaly syndromes  

PubMed Central

Megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) and megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus (MPPH) syndromes are sporadic overgrowth disorders associated with markedly enlarged brain size and other recognizable features1-5. We performed exome sequencing in three families with MCAP or MPPH and confirmed our initial observations in exomes from 7 MCAP and 174 control individuals, as well as in 40 additional megalencephaly subjects using a combination of Sanger sequencing, restriction-enzyme assays, and targeted deep sequencing. We identified de novo germline or postzygotic mutations in three core components of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. These include two mutations of AKT3, one recurrent mutation of PIK3R2 in 11 unrelated MPPH families, and 15 mostly postzygotic mutations of PIK3CA in 23 MCAP and one MPPH patients. Our data highlight the central role of PI3K/AKT signaling in vascular, limb and brain development, and emphasize the power of massively parallel sequencing in a challenging context of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity combined with postzygotic mosaicism. PMID:22729224

Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; O’Roak, Brian J.; Beddaoui, Margaret; Alcantara, Diana; Conway, Robert L.; St-Onge, Judith; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A.; Gripp, Karen W.; Nikkel, Sarah M.; Worthylake, Thea; Sullivan, Christopher T.; Ward, Thomas R.; Butler, Hailly E.; Kramer, Nancy A.; Albrecht, Beate; Armour, Christine M.; Armstrong, Linlea; Caluseriu, Oana; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Drolet, Beth A.; Innes, A. Micheil; Lauzon, Julie L.; Lin, Angela E.; Mancini, Grazia M. S.; Meschino, Wendy S.; Reggin, James D.; Saggar, Anand K.; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Uyanik, Gökhan; Weksberg, Rosanna; Zirn, Birgit; Beaulieu, Chandree L.; Majewski, Jacek; Bulman, Dennis E.; O’Driscoll, Mark; Shendure, Jay; Graham, John M.; Boycott, Kym M.; Dobyns, William B.

2012-01-01

391

Raman spectra of R{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R—rare earth) sesquioxides with C-type bixbyite crystal structure: A comparative study  

SciTech Connect

Raman spectra of R{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R—Sc, Er, Y, Ho, Gd, Eu, and Sm) powders with C-type bixbyite crystal structure are measured. With the help of these data and ones, previously published for other oxides from the same structural family, general dependencies of the frequencies of the Raman peaks on the cubic crystal unit cell parameter are constructed. Using these dependencies and knowing the symmetry of the peaks for one of the oxides, determined from previous single-crystal measurements, it is possible to find out the symmetry of the peaks from the spectra of all compounds. It was found that the frequency of the six lowest frequency peaks scales with the square root of the mass of the rare earth showing that mainly R ions take part in these vibrations. These results agree with performed here lattice dynamical calculations. The anomalous softening of the frequency of some peaks in the spectra of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} is discussed.

Abrashev, M. V., E-mail: mvabr@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Todorov, N. D. [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Geshev, J. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

2014-09-14

392

Two-dimensional MnGaN Layer formed by Nitridation of Mn 3 x 3-R30 structure on Wurtzite GaN (0001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been much interest in dilute Mn-doped GaN as a spintronic material. Recently, it has become of interest to consider the possible advantages of delta-doped magnetic layers, rather than a bulk alloy. Here we investigate experimentally the growth of single Mn-containing layers on top of wurtzite GaN as well as the overgrowth of GaN onto the Mn-containing layer, using a combination of N-plasma molecular beam epitaxy and reflection high energy electron diffraction. Sub-monolayer Mn deposition on GaN(0001) results in a novel 3 x 3-R30 structure [1]. Upon nitrogen plasma exposure, this periodicity is removed; whereas, Mn is found remaining on the surface as measured by Auger electron spectroscopy. Unexpectedly, and in dramatic comparison to tiny lattice constant changes seen for bulk films, we find a huge -3.3 percent surface lattice contraction in both [1010] and [1120] azimuthal directions. This suggests the possible formation of a Mn0.25Ga0.75N 2-D alloy. Furthermore, subsequent overgrowth of GaN layers does not show significant lattice constant change compared to the nitridation process, up to a thickness of 20 ML or more.[4pt] [1] Chinchore et al., Applied Physics Letters 93(18), 181908 (2008).

Shi, Meng; Chinchore, Abhijit; Liu, Yinhao; Smith, Arthur

2012-02-01

393

Isotopologue profiling of triterpene formation under physiological conditions. Biosynthesis of lupeol-3-(3'-R-hydroxy)-stearate in Pentalinon andrieuxii.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis of lupeol-3-(3'R-hydroxy)-stearate (procrim b, 1) was investigated in the Mexican medicinal plant Pentalinon andrieuxii by (13)CO2 pulse-chase experiments. NMR analyses revealed positional enrichments of (13)C2-isotopologues in both the triterpenoid and the hydroxystearate moieties of 1. Five of the six isoprene units reflected a pattern with [1,2-(13)C2]- and [3,5-(13)C2]-isotopologues from the respective C5-precursors, IPP and DMAPP, whereas one isoprene unit in the ring E of 1 showed only the [3,5-(13)C2]-connectivity of the original C5-precursor, due to rearrangement of the dammarenyl cation intermediate during the cyclization process. The presence of (13)C2-isotopologues was indicative of [(13)C2]acetyl-CoA being the precursor units in the formation of the fatty acid moiety and of the triterpene via the mevalonate route. The observed labeling pattern was in agreement with a chair-chair-chair-boat conformation of the (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene precursor during the cyclization process, suggesting that the lupeol synthase from P. andrieuxii is of the same type as that from Olea europea and Taraxacum officinale, but different from that of Arabidopsis thaliana. The study shows that (13)CO2 pulse-chase experiments are powerful in elucidating, under in vivo conditions and in a single experiment, the biosynthesis of complex plant products including higher terpenes. PMID:24606167

Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M; Yam-Puc, Alejandro; Knispel, Nihat; Schramek, Nicholas; Huber, Claudia; Graßberger, Christoph; Ramírez-Torres, Fabiola G; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Hiebert-Giesbrecht, Mickel R; Chan-Bacab, Manuel J; Godoy-Hernández, Gregorio; Bacher, Adelbert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

2014-04-01

394

Field-induced polarization rotation in ,,001...-cut Pb,,Mg13Nb23...0.76Ti0.24O3 R. R. Chien* and V. Hugo Schmidt  

E-print Network

Field-induced polarization rotation in ,,001...-cut Pb,,Mg1Ã?3Nb2Ã?3...0.76Ti0.24O3 R. R. Chien June 2003; published 11 May 2004 Polarization rotation of field-induced phase transformations From polarization results, an E-field-induced transformation from 111 R to 110 O phase through MB

395

LANGMUIR TURBULENCE AND SOLAR RADIO BURSTS F. B. RIZZATO1,2, A. C.-L. CHIAN2,3, M. V. ALVES3, R. ERICHSEN1, S. R. LOPES4,  

E-print Network

LANGMUIR TURBULENCE AND SOLAR RADIO BURSTS F. B. RIZZATO1,2, A. C.-L. CHIAN2,3, M. V. ALVES3, R-000 Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Abstract. Langmuir waves and turbulence resulting from an electron recent theoretical advances in nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir waves. First, starting from the generalized

396

Electron-Transfer-Induced Molecular Reorientations: The Benzoquinone/Hydroquinone Reaction at Pd(111)-(square3xsquare3)R30 degrees -I Studied by EC-STM.  

PubMed

The benzoquinone/hydroquinone (Q/H(2)Q) redox reaction has been studied by electrochemical-scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM) at a Pd(111)-(square3xsquare3)R30 degrees -I electrode surface in a solution that contained 10(-4) M H(2)Q in 0.05 M H(2)SO(4); iodine-pretreatment of the Pd(111) surface was to prevent chemisorption of organic-derived species. The molecule-resolved EC-STM images indicated that: (i) at a potential where only H(2)Q is present in solution, a self-assembled (square21xsquare21)R10.9 degrees -eta(6)-H(2)Q monolayer is produced in which the H(2)Q molecules are oriented parallel to the surface; (ii) at a potential where partial oxidation (to Q) occurs, a self-assembled (square21xsquare21)R10.9 degrees -eta(6)-QH adlayer is generated, where QH represents quinhydrone, an equimolar mixture of Q and H(2)Q; in this structure, the Q and H(2)Q molecules are oriented vertically, face-to-face, and arranged alternately along a given row, reminiscent of the crystal structure of quinhydrone. The partial oxidation-induced molecular reorientation, which is reversible, most likely arises from favorable Q-H(2)Q face-to-face interactions; that is, complete oxidation would yield only flat-oriented Q species. Unfortunately, at potentials where only Q would be present in solution, I-catalyzed corrosion of the Pd starts to occur, which leads to noise-laden EC-STM images. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11254346

Kim, Young-Geun; Soriaga, Manuel P.

2001-04-01

397

Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of [3R,5S,6S]-3-Benzyloxy-5- methoxy-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane and [3R,5S,6S]-3-Methoxy-5-benzyloxy-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane.  

PubMed

The synthesis of spiroacetals [3R,5S,6S]-3-benzyloxy-5-methoxy-1,7-dioaxaspiro[5.5]undecane 3 and [3R,5S,6S]-3-methoxy-5-benzyloxy-1,7-dioaxaspiro[5.5]undecane4, where the substituents on the spiroacetal assembly are in a 1,3-diaxial orientation, is described. Epoxidation of unsaturated spiroacetal 5 using dimethyldioxirane showed greater preference for the alpha-epoxide 11 over the beta-epoxide 12. Treatment of the alpha-epoxide 11 with lithium diethylamide in tetrahydrofuran afforded both the allylic alcohol 7 and the homoallylic alcohol 13 in approximately equal amounts. Use of a nonpolar solvent (hexane) suppressed the isomerization of the allylic alcohol 7 to the homoallylic alcohol 13, affording a 21:1 ratio of 7:13. Coordination of an oxygen lone pair with the electron-deficient lithium center of the reagent sets up a transition state in which abstraction of a syn-proton and opening of the epoxide leads to stereoselective formation of allylic alcohol 7 with a pseudoaxial hydroxyl group at C-5. The hydroxyl group liberated in the epoxide rearrangement step was then used to direct a second epoxidation to the lower face of the alkene. Thus, treatment of alcohol 7 with m-CPBA buffered with sodium acetate afforded alpha-syn-epoxy alcohol 9. Subsequent epoxide opening using lithium aluminum hydride proceeded smoothly, affording syn-3,5-diaxial diol 10 and 4,5-diol 22. Epoxy alcohol 9 was then treated with sodium hydride and methyl iodide or benzyl bromide, affording methyl ether 23 or benzyl ether 24, respectively. Reduction of methoxy epoxide 23 with lithium aluminum hydride then afforded alcohol 25 together with the regioisomeric alcohol 27. Benzyloxy epoxide 24 afforded alcohols 29 and 31. Finally benzylation of alcohol 25 afforded bis-ether 3 whereas methylation of alcohol 29 afforded bis-ether 4. Spiroacetals 3 and 4were screened for herbicidal activity and exhibited significant activity against the weeds Avena fatua, Setaria viridis, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Chenopodium album when applied preemergence. Bis-ethers 3 and 4, which contain alkoxy groups anchored in a 1,3-diaxial orientation on a spiroacetal ring, represent the first examples of herbicides based on a spiroacetal ring system. PMID:11672035

Brimble, Margaret A.; Johnston, Andrew D.; Furneaux, Richard H.

1998-02-01

398

Design of a new, multi-purpose, light-curing adhesive comprising a silane coupling agent, acidic adhesive monomers and dithiooctanoate monomers for bonding to varied metal and dental ceramic materials.  

PubMed

A newly designed, light-curing adhesive was investigated for its bonding effectiveness to porcelain, alumina, zirconia, Au, Au alloy, Ag alloy, Au-Ag-Pd alloy, and Ni-Cr alloy. Four experimental adhesives were prepared using varying contents of the following: a silane coupling agent [3-methacryloyloxypropyltriethoxysilane (3-MPTES)], acidic adhesive monomers [6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate(6-MHPA),6-methacryloyloxyhexyl3-phosphonopropionate(6-MHPP)and 4-methacryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-MET)], and dithiooctanoate monomers [6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (6-MHDT) and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT)]. After all adherend surfaces were sandblasted and applied with an experimental adhesive, shear bond strengths (SBSs) of a light-curing resin composite (Beautifil II, Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan) to the adherend materials after 2,000 times of thermal cycling were measured. For the experimental adhesive which contained 3-MPTES (30.0 wt%), 6-MHPA (1.0 wt%), 6-MHPP (1.0 wt%), 4-MET (1.0 wt%), 6-MHDT (0.5 wt%) and 10-MDDT (0.5 wt%), it consistently yielded the highest SBS for all adherend surfaces in the range of 20.8 (4.8)-30.3 (7.9) MPa, with no significant differences among all the adherend materials (p>0.05). Therefore, the newly designed, multi-purpose, light-curing adhesive was able to deliver high SBS to all the adherend materials tested. PMID:21778601

Ikemura, Kunio; Tanaka, Hisaki; Fujii, Toshihide; Deguchi, Mikito; Negoro, Noriyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

2011-01-01

399

Effects of a newly designed HEMA-free, multi-purpose, single-bottle, self-etching adhesive on bonding to dental hard tissues, zirconia-based ceramics, and gold alloy.  

PubMed

This study investigated the bonding effectiveness of newly designed self-etching adhesives to four types of adherends--enamel, dentin, zirconia, and gold (Au) alloy. Five experimental adhesives were prepared, which contained 3.0-5.0 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA) or 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 3-phosphonopropionate (6-MHPP), 3.0 wt% 4-acryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-AET) or 17.0 wt% 4-methacryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-MET), 0-0.5 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (6-MHDT) or 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT), and varying contents of Bis-GMA, dimethacrylate monomers, water, acetone, and a photoinitiator system. After 2,000 times of thermal cycling, shear bond strengths (SBSs) between a resin composite (Beautifil II, Shofu Inc., Japan) and the four adherends, bonded using the experimental adhesives, were measured at 1.0 mm/min. No statistically significant differences in SBS for bonding to ground enamel, dentin, sandblasted zirconia and Au alloy (p>0.05) were found between experimental adhesives which contained 6-MHPA and/or 6-MHPP, 4-MET or 4-AET, 6-MHDT and/or 10-MDDT, Bis-GMA, and dimethacrylates. An adhesive layer of less than 5.0 µm thickness, by scanning electron microscopy observation, revealed strong adhesion to the four adherends. Therefore, the newly designed multi-purpose, self-etching adhesive strongly adhered to all the four adherend materials tested. PMID:21946481

Ikemura, Kunio; Jogetsu, Yoshiyuki; Shinno, Kazuya; Nakatsuka, Toshiyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

2011-01-01

400

Effect of adenine sulphate interaction on growth and development of shoot regeneration and inhibition of shoot tip necrosis under in vitro condition in adult Syzygium cumini L.--a multipurpose tree.  

PubMed

An efficient method for cloning Syzygium cumini (above 40 years old) through mature nodal segments has been successfully developed and that could be exploited for large-scale production of this valuable multipurpose tree. Nodal segments from mature tree were taken as explants and cultured on MS basal medium with different cytokinins (BA, Kin, AdS). The application of BA proved to be the best responsive cytokinin for the induction of shoot buds and shoots, but the proliferated shoots exhibited slower and stunted growth accompanied with abscission of leaves and shoot tip necrosis (STN). The problem of leaf abscission and STN was considerably reduced by the application of an adjuvant, adenine sulphate (AdS) in the optimal medium which led to the production of a maximum of 14 shoots. Further improvement in shoot bud regeneration and improved growth pattern of the regenerating tissue was obtained on the media comprised of MS?+?BA (10 ?M)?+?GA3 (2.5 ?M). A total number of 15 shoots with mean shoot length of 5.9 cm was obtained. The healthy elongated shoots were then rooted on MS basal augmented with NAA (5 ?M). The plantlets obtained were healthy and were successfully acclimatized and transferred under field condition with 70 % survival rate. PMID:24682901

Naaz, Afshan; Shahzad, Anwar; Anis, Mohammad

2014-05-01

401

Total synthesis of 3,4-dihydroxyprolines, d- threo- l-norvaline and (2 S,3 R,4 R)-2-amino-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Henry reaction between d-glyceraldehyde and ethyl nitroacetate allowed the practical development of a diastereoselective synthesis of 3,4,5-trihydroxy-2-nitropentanoic acid esters, which were reduced to polyoxamic acids, which were used in a new diastereoselective synthesis of 3,4-dihydroxyprolines and new enantioselective syntheses of d-threo-l-norvaline and (2S,3R,4R)-2-amino-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester.

Raquel G. Soengas; Juan C. Estévez; Ramón J. Estévez

2003-01-01

402

Critical behavior of the paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition in orthorhombic and hexagonal phases of RMnO3 (R=Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical behavior of the paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition in RMnO3 (R = Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y) has been studied with an ac photopyroelectric calorimeter, which gives simultaneously the thermal diffusivity and specific heat as a function of temperature with high resolution around the Néel temperature. RMnO3 (R = Sm, Tb, Dy) has an orthorhombic perovskite structure, whereas the other manganites are hexagonal, thus revealing a strong thermal anisotropy. SmMnO3 with type-A antiferromagnetic ordering exhibits a 3D-XY critical behavior, which could be attributed to the peculiar site anisotropy of Sm3+ and the exchange interaction between Mn3+ and Sm3+ ions. The sinusoidal spin ordering in TbMnO3 and DyMnO3 can be phenomenologically described by the 3D-Heisenberg model. Finally, the hexagonal manganites RMnO3 (R = Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y) are close to the 3D-Heisenberg universality class, ruling out the chiral models predicted by the renormalization group theory.

Oleaga, A.; Salazar, A.; Prabhakaran, D.; Cheng, J.-G.; Zhou, J.-S.

2012-05-01

403

Target-oriented discovery of a new esterase-producing strain Enterobacter sp. ECU1107 for whole cell-catalyzed production of (2S,3R)-3-phenylglycidate as a chiral synthon of Taxol.  

PubMed

A new strain, Enterobacter sp. ECU1107, was identified among over 200 soil isolates using a two-step screening strategy for the enantioselective synthesis of (2S,3R)-3-phenylglycidate methyl ester (PGM), a key intermediate for production of a potent anticancer drug Taxol®. An organic-aqueous biphasic system was employed to reduce spontaneous hydrolysis of the substrate PGM and isooctane was found to be the most suitable organic solvent. The temperature and pH optima of the whole cell-mediated bioreaction were 40 °C and 6.0, respectively. Under these reaction conditions, the enantiomeric excess (ee(s)) of (2S,3R)-PGM recovered was greater than 99 % at approximately 50 % conversion. The total substrate loading in batch reaction could reach 600 mM. By using whole cells of Enterobacter sp. ECU1107, (2S,3R)-PGM was successfully prepared in decagram scale in a 1.0-l mechanically stirred reactor, affording the chiral epoxy ester in >99 % ee s and 43.5 % molar yield based on the initial load of racemic substrate. PMID:23143530

Zhou, Dong-Jie; Pan, Jiang; Yu, Hui-Lei; Zheng, Gao-Wei; Xu, Jian-He

2013-07-01

404

Asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-inthomycin C via O-directed free radical alkyne hydrostannation with Ph3SnH and catalytic Et3B: reinstatement of the Zeeck-Taylor (3R)-structure for (+)-inthomycin C.  

PubMed

A new pathway to (+)-inthomycin C is reported that exploits an O-directed free radical hydrostannation reaction on (-)-12 and a Stille cross-coupling as key steps. Significantly, the latter process was effected on 19 where a gauche-pentane repulsive interaction could interfere. Our stereochemical studies on the alkynol (-)-12 and the enyne (+)-7 confirm that Ryu and Hatakeyama's (3S)-stereochemical revision of (+)-inthomycin C is invalid and that Zeeck and Taylor's original (3R)-stereostructure for (+)-inthomycin C is correct. PMID:24502463

Hale, Karl J; Grabski, Milosz; Manaviazar, Soraya; Maczka, Maciej

2014-02-21

405

Asymmetric Syntheses of Nakinadine D, Nakinadine E, and Nakinadine F: Confirmation of Their Relative (RS,SR)-Configurations and Proposal of Their Absolute (2S,3R)-Configurations.  

PubMed

The syn- and anti-diastereoisomeric forms of the reported structures of the marine alkaloids nakinadines D-F have been synthesized, for the first time in all cases, via an approach involving asymmetric Mannich-type (imino-aldol) reactions of methyl phenylacetate with N-tert-butylsulfinyl imines as the key steps to control the stereochemistry. Comparison of the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic data reported for the natural materials with those acquired for these synthetic samples confirms the initially assigned relative (RS,SR)-configurations of these three alkaloids. In the absence of specific rotation (or other diagnostic) data for the natural materials, it is not possible to unambiguously assign their absolute configurations, although given the absolute (2S)-configurations assigned to nakinadines B and C, and the absolute (2S,3R)-configuration previously established for nakinadine A, the data herein uphold our proposal that nakinadines D-F share the absolute (2S,3R)-configuration. PMID:25790266

Davies, Stephen G; Fletcher, Ai M; Shah, Rushabh S; Roberts, Paul M; Thomson, James E

2015-04-17

406

Enantiomeric composition of (3R)-(-)- and (3S)-(+)-linalool in various essential oils of Indian origin by enantioselective capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection methods.  

PubMed

Enantiomeric ratios of linalool have been determined in various authentic essential oils of Indian origin using 10% heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin as a chiral stationary phase. A complete enantiomeric excess (ee) for (3S)-(+)-linalool was characteristic of Lippia alba and Cinnamomum tamala leaf oils while less than 90% excess was noticed in Zanthoxylum armatum leaf, Zingiber roseum root/rhizome and Citrus sinensis leaf oils. On the contrary, an enantiomeric excess of (3R)-(-)-linalool characterizes essential oils of basil (100% for Ocimum basilicum) and bergamot mint (72 to 75% for Mentha citrata). Notably, some essential oils containing both enantiomers in equal ratios or in racemic forms are rose, geranium, lemongrass and Origanum. The enantiomeric composition studies are discussed as indicators of origin authenticity and quality of essential oil of Indian origin. PMID:19476006

Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

2009-04-01

407

First-principles investigation of R{sub 2}O{sub 3}(ZnO){sub 3} (R=Al, Ga, and In) in homologous series of compounds  

SciTech Connect

Atomic and electronic structures of R{sub 2}O{sub 3}(ZnO){sub 3} (R=Al, Ga, and In), which are included in homologous series of compounds, are investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Three models with different R atom arrangements in the five-fold and four-fold coordination sites are examined. Al and Ga prefer the five-fold coordination sites. The formation energies are much larger than those of the competing phases, ZnR{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with a normal spinel structure. On the other hand, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}(ZnO){sub 3} shows no clear site preference and can be more stable than the spinel at high temperatures when configurational entropy contribution is taken into account. Electronic states near the conduction band bottom are mainly composed of Zn-4s orbital in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(ZnO){sub 3}, while the contributions of Ga-4s and In-5s are comparable to Zn-4s in Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(ZnO){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}(ZnO){sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: R{sub 2}O{sub 3}(ZnO){sub 3} (R=Al, Ga, and In) in homologous series of compounds are investigated using first-principles calculations with special interest on preferred occupation sites of R, relative energetics with competing phases and electronic structures.

Yoshioka, Satoru [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: syoshioka@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Oba, Fumiyasu; Kuwabara, Akihide; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Tanaka, Isao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

2008-01-15

408

Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design included minimizing the power requirements and maximizing the strength-to-weight and lift-to-drag ratios. Given the design constraints, Surya (the code-name given to the aircraft), is a lightweight aircraft primarily built using composite materials and capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar energy.

Alexandrou, A. N.; Durgin, W. W.; Cohn, R. F.; Olinger, D. J.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Chan, Agnes; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Conley, Kristin; Crivelli, Paul M.; Javorski, Christian T.

1992-01-01

409

Advanced Multipurpose Rendezvous Tracking System Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rendezvous and docking (R&D) sensors needed to support Earth orbital operations of vehicles were investigated to determine the form they should take. An R&D sensor must enable an interceptor vehicle to determine both the relative position and the relative attitude of a target vehicle. Relative position determination is fairly straightforward and places few constraints on the sensor. Relative attitude determination, however, is more difficult. The attitude is calculated based on relative position measurements of several reflectors placed in a known arrangement on the target vehicle. The constraints imposed on the sensor by the attitude determination method are severe. Narrow beamwidth, wide field of view (fov), high range accuracy, and fast random scan capability are all required to determine attitude by this method. A consideration of these constraints as well as others imposed by expected operating conditions and the available technology led to the conclusion that the sensor should be a cw optical radar employing a semiconductor laser transmitter and an image dissector receiver.

Laurie, R. J.; Sterzer, F.

1982-01-01

410

Multipurpose High Sensitivity Radiation Detector: Terradex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terradex project aims to realise an accurate and programmable multiparametric tool which will measure relevant physical quantities such as observation time, energy and type of all decay products of three naturally occurring decay chains of uranium and thorium series present in nature as well as the decay products of man-made radioactivity. The measurements described in this work are based on

Behcet Alpat; Damiano Aisa; Marco Bizzarri; Sandor Blasko; Gennaro Esposito; Lucio Farnesini; Emmanuel Fiori; Andrea Papi; Vasile Postolache; Francesca Renzi; Romeo Ionica; Florentina Manolescu; Suat Ozkorucuklu; Haluk Denizli; Ilhan Tapan; Ercan Pilicer; Felice Egidi; Cesare Moretti; Luca Dicola

2007-01-01

411

Spacecraft design project multipurpose satellite bus MPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thrust of this project was to design not a single spacecraft, but to design a multimission bus capable of supporting several current payloads and unnamed, unspecified future payloads. Spiraling costs of spacecraft and shrinking defense budgets necessitated a fresh look at the feasibility of a multimission spacecraft bus. The design team chose two very diverse and different payloads, and along with them two vastly different orbits, to show that multimission spacecraft buses are an area where indeed more research and effort needs to be made. Tradeoffs, of course, were made throughout the design, but optimization of subsystem components limited weight and volume penalties, performance degradation, and reliability concerns. Simplicity was chosen over more complex, sophisticated and usually more efficient designs. Cost of individual subsystem components was not a primary concern in the design phase, but every effort was made to chose flight tested and flight proven hardware. Significant cost savings could be realized if a standard spacecraft bus was indeed designed and purchased in finite quantities.

Kellman, Lyle; Riley, John; Szostak, Michael; Watkins, Joseph; Willhelm, Joseph; Yale, Gary

1990-12-01

412

Cost-reducing multipurpose microfilm card  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microfilm-aperture card is printed in the same format on both sides which enables the use of one card for mounting films that are ''right reading'' on both the base side and the emulsion side. This reduces the number of microfilm-card formats.

Smith, A. V.

1970-01-01

413

A multipurpose template for implant placement.  

PubMed

A case report is presented describing the laboratory fabrication and clinical use of an innovative template. This template was designed to function as a radiographic implant positioning guide, accurate bone sounding guide, and surgical guide. This appliance is intended to serve additional roles as an aid in flap reflection and as a pick-up impression tray. PMID:9743640

Quinlan, P; Richardson, C R; Hall, E E

1998-01-01

414

Soy isoflavone: The multipurpose phytochemical (Review)  

PubMed Central

Soy isoflavones are compounds found in soybean and soybean products. They have been reported to possess numerous physiological properties, such as antitumor, anti-menopausal (female) osteoporosis and anti-aging. They have also been reported to improve learning and memory skills in menopausal women and aid in the prevention and treatment of heart disease, diabetes and Kawasaki disease (KD). In this review, the effects of soy isoflavones on various diseases were analyzed. Based on the analysis, it was hypothesized that the function of soybean isoflavones in the prevention and treatment of various diseases results from their phytoestrogen and antioxidant properties. However, due to their phytoestrogen properties, it is recommended that the risks of soy isoflavone intake as food and/or medical treatment be further evaluated. PMID:24649012

WANG, QINGLU; GE, XIAOYUE; TIAN, XUEWEN; ZHANG, YUJUN; ZHANG, JIE; ZHANG, PINGPING

2013-01-01

415

A multi-purpose computing center: FNAL  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Computing Center is described with a special emphasis given to the scientific computing systems and the data storage and archiving systems. The scope and focus of this paper is the Fermilab scientific computing facility. It does not cover, or does not cover very well, related issues such as data Grids, cloud computing and storage, commercial storage, data integrity, authorization, access rates, and novel storage technologies. These are all important considerations in discussing data centers and should be kept in mind when one explores issues related to computing centers and long-term data storage.

Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

2009-01-01

416

Skylab M518 multipurpose furnace convection analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was performed of the convection which existed on ground tests and during skylab processing of two experiments: vapor growth of IV-VI compounds growth of spherical crystals. A parallel analysis was also performed on Skylab experiment indium antimonide crystals because indium antimonide (InSb) was used and a free surface existed in the tellurium-doped Skylab III sample. In addition, brief analyses were also performed of the microsegregation in germanium experiment because the Skylab crystals indicated turbulent convection effects. Simple dimensional analysis calculations and a more accurate, but complex, convection computer model, were used in the analysis.

Bourgeois, S. V.; Spradley, L. W.

1975-01-01

417

THE CIRCUMFUSION SYSTEM FOR MULTIPURPOSE CULTURE CHAMBERS  

PubMed Central

A self-contained mechanical system for circulating nutrient fluid through 12 tissue culture chambers is described in detail. This system utilizes nonperforated cellophane membranes in the chambers which separate the circulating nutrient from the tissue culture environments. The nutrient, therefore, is dialyzed through the cellophane of each chamber; some cell products are retained in the microenvironment between the closely apposed cellophane and cover slip, whereas the other cell products move from chamber to chamber in the circulating nutrient. The resultant environmental conditions directed by the circumfusion systems are highly favorable for maintaining the differentiation of chick embryo tissues over protracted periods; a number of micrographs are shown. PMID:10976203

Rose, George G.

1967-01-01

418

A Multipurpose Experiment with an Electronic Balance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This short article describes some useful and quick applications of a cooking electronic balance. Newton's third law, Archimedes buoyancy and an estimate of relative density are accomplished in a very simple way. (Contains 1 figure.)

Ganci, S.

2008-01-01

419

[A multipurpose splint for the lower extremity].  

PubMed

A leg splint is proposed for many therapeutical and transportation purposes. It has two type-sizes and convenient parameters. The splint is easy to use. Its design prevents leg circulatory disorders. It is made of available materials, requires no special storage conditions. The splint may be washed in routine domestic solutions containing soap or powdered detergents. Physicians and medical staff have given high praise to the splint. PMID:9379862

Sherepo, K M

1997-01-01

420

A Multipurpose Device for Some Hydrostatics Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of well-known hydrostatics problems dealing with Archimedes' principle concern a loaded boat floating in a pool. Examples of this sort of problem include: 1. (a) If a stone is thrown overboard from a boat floating in a pool, does the water level in the pool rise, fall, or remain unchanged? (b) If a hole is made in the bottom of the boat…

Ganci, Salvatore

2008-01-01

421

Spacecraft design project multipurpose satellite bus MPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thrust of this project was to design not a single spacecraft, but to design a multimission bus capable of supporting several current payloads and unnamed, unspecified future payloads. Spiraling costs of spacecraft and shrinking defense budgets necessitated a fresh look at the feasibility of a multimission spacecraft bus. The design team chose two very diverse and different payloads, and along with them two vastly different orbits, to show that multimission spacecraft buses are an area where indeed more research and effort needs to be made. Tradeoffs, of course, were made throughout the design, but optimization of subsystem components limited weight and volume penalties, performance degradation, and reliability concerns. Simplicity was chosen over more complex, sophisticated and usually more efficient designs. Cost of individual subsystem components was not a primary concern in the design phase, but every effort was made to chose flight tested and flight proven hardware. Significant cost savings could be realized if a standard spacecraft bus was indeed designed and purchased in finite quantities.

Kellman, Lyle; Riley, John; Szostak, Michael; Watkins, Joseph; Willhelm, Joseph; Yale, Gary

1990-01-01

422

Stormwater management and multipurpose infrastructure networks  

E-print Network

In urban planning and design, natural systems are a key element of explorations about how to design for sustainability. As part of these efforts, academics and practitioners have also begun to explore the ways in which the ...

Vecchio, Ann-Ariel (Ann-Ariel Nichiko)

2012-01-01

423

Modeling the combined impacts of climate and socio-economic change on water quality, availability and consumption in a multi-purpose reservoir: an application to the Xarrama basin, southern Portugal.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources sector is one of the most vulnerable to climate change. In southern Europe, an increase of water scarcity is expected, combined with a higher frequency and length of severe droughts. Water management in these regions is already a challenge, and several severe droughts occurred there during the last decades, such as the severe droughts of 2005 and 2012 in Portugal, which have highlighted existing vulnerabilities and led to the disruption of part of water supplies. Furthermore, the evolution of socio-economic conditions and even climate change could cause changes to population and land-uses, with the potential to increase pressures on existing resources. The threat of scarcer water resources highlights the need to understand these vulnerabilities and act to reduce them, adapting to the impacts of future climate and land use changes. In fact, water resources governance has been pointed as a key challenge in the present and in the future, as it builds capacity on how to deal with stress and uncertainties generated by climatic variability and global change. Project ERLAND is focused on assessing the eco-hydrological impacts of climate change in Portugal, and therefore water scarcity and droughts are an important focal point on this research. One of the study areas is the Xarrama river basin in southern Portugal, which feeds the multi-purpose Vale do Gaio reservoir used for irrigation and urban water supplies, coupled with a small hydroelectric generating capacity. Currently it experiences some water quality problems and there is already the need of water transfers from other reservoirs to maintain supplies and quality. This is combined with ongoing land-use changes, where irrigated vineyards and olive groves have started to replace traditional rainfed pastures and cereal cultivation. The exposition and vulnerability of the Xarrama basin and the Vale do Gaio reservoir is being addressed for present and future conditions. Future climate scenarios were downscaled from existing Global Circulation Model forecasts. Socioeconomic scenarios for population and land use change were downscaled from European-level forecasts based on local tendencies from recent decades. All these scenarios are being included in the SWAT eco-hydrological model; population is used as a proxy for water consumption and effluent production, while land use changes lead to different water consumptions (both before water reaches the reservoir, and from water uptakes for irrigation) and nutrient exports. The model also allows for the simplified simulation of lower water availability and nutrient inputs on water quality. This approach combines hydrologic and socioeconomic scenarios in an integrated modeling framework, which will allow an evaluation of best planning practices for land use and water management. It will present relevant data for local stakeholders and managers, while demonstrating the utility and added value of including future socioeconomic scenarios in the evaluation of global change impacts and the design of adaptation measures.

Jacinto, Rita; Nunes, João Pedro; Santos, Juliana

2014-05-01

424

Cours de Sismologie L3 R. Madariaga  

E-print Network

Cours de Sismologie L3 2008-2011 R. Madariaga M. Delescluse http of Haiti earthquake Temps [s] )(0 tM& 1019 Nm Mo = 4.74 1019 Nm #12;Séisme d'Haïti 12/01/10 #12;Observation #12;Quelques sismogrammes Séisme du 14/11/07 à 15:40:38 À Tocopilla Au Nord du Chili P P SSS S Peru

Madariaga, Raúl

425

Effect of the cation size on the framework structures of magnesium tungstate, A4Mg(WO4)3 (A = Na, K), R2Mg2(WO4)3 (R = Rb, Cs).  

PubMed

A series of alkali metal magnesium tungstates, A4Mg(WO4)3 (A = Na, K), R2Mg2(WO4)3 (R = Rb, Cs), were synthesized from a high temperature solution, and their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Interestingly, Na4Mg(WO4)3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, while K4Mg(WO4)3 having an identical stoichiometry with Na4Mg(WO4)3, exhibits a different framework structure belonging to triclinic symmetry with the space group P1[combining macron]. Isostructural Rb2Mg2(WO4)3 and Cs2Mg2(WO4)3 crystallize in the space group P213 of cubic symmetry and reveal a three dimensional framework composed of isolated WO4 tetrahedra, MgO6 octahedra and RO12 (R = Rb, Cs) polyhedra. The effect of the alkali metal cation size on the framework structures of magnesium tungstate has been discussed in detail. In addition, the infrared spectra, as well as the UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy data, are reported. The first-principles theoretical studies are also carried out to aid the understanding of electronic structures and linear optical properties. PMID:25715112

Han, Shujuan; Wang, Ying; Jing, Qun; Wu, Hongping; Pan, Shilie; Yang, Zhihua

2015-03-10

426

Laser-diode-excited blue upconversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ -codoped TeO2-Ga2O3-R2O (R=Li, Na, K) glasses.  

PubMed

This paper reports on intense blue upconversion in Tm(3+)/Yb(3+) codoped TeO(2)-Ga(2)O(3)-R(2)O(R=Li, Na, K) glasses upon excitation with commercial available laser diode (LD). Effects of alkali ions on the Raman spectra, thermal stability and spectroscopic properties of the tellurite-gallium glasses have also been investigated. Energy transfer and the involved upconversion mechanisms have been discussed. Intense blue upconversion emission centered at 476 nm along with a weak red emission at 650 nm has been observed upon excitation of 977 nm LD, assigned to the transitions of 1G4-->3H6, and 1G4-->3H4 and/or 3F(2,3)-->3H6 of Tm(3+), respectively. The blue upconversion intensity has a cubelike dependence on incident pump laser power, indicating a three-photon process. However, a quadratic dependence of the 476 nm upconversion intensity on the incident pump laser power has been observed when samples under excitation of 808 nm LD due to a two-photon absorption process. Enhanced upconversion luminescence have been observed with replacing K(+) for Na(+) and Li(+). PMID:17823854

Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Qinyuan; Yang, Gangfeng; Jiang, Zhonghong

2008-01-01

427

Development and Preclinical Studies of Broad-spectrum Anti-HIV Agent (3?R,4?R)-3-Cyanomethyl-4-methyl-3?,4?-di-O-(S)-camphanoyl-(+)-cis-khellactone (3-Cyanomethyl-4-methyl-DCK)  

PubMed Central

In prior investigation, we discovered that (3'R,4'R)-3-cyanomethyl-4-methyl-3',4'-di-O-(S)-camphanoyl-(+)-cis-khellactone (4, 3-cyanomethyl-4-methyl-DCK) showed promising anti-HIV activity. In these current studies, we developed and optimized successfully a practical ten-step synthesis for scale-up preparation to increase the overall yield of 4 from 7.8% to 32%. Furthermore, compound 4 exhibited broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity against wild-type and drug-resistant viral infection of CD4+ T cell lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells by both laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 isolates with distinct subtypes and tropisms. Compound 4 was further subjected to in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. These studies indicated that 4 has moderate cell permeability, moderate oral bioavailability and low systemic clearance. These results suggest that 4 should be developed as a promising anti-HIV agent for development as a clinical trial candidate. PMID:19053755

Xie, Lan; Guo, Huan-Fang; Lu, Hong; Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, An-Ming; Wu, Gang; Ruan, Jin-Xiu; Zhou, Ting; Yu, Donglei; Qian, Keduo; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Jiang, Shibo

2009-01-01

428

Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of TbMnO3 and Tb0.67R0.33MnO3 (R=Dy, Y, and Ho) bulk powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orthorhombically distorted perovskite rare-earth manganites with smaller rare-earth ions, such as TbMnO3, have mostly been explored for their multiferroic properties. In this work, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in both TbMnO3 and A-site substituted Tb0.67R0.33MnO3 (R=Dy, Y, Ho) powder samples, prepared via solution route, were investigated. A weak ferromagnetic component was observed in the dc magnetic data of Dy- and Ho-substituted TbMnO3 that may be due to the change in average ionic radius at the A-site (Tb-site) as well as the larger magnetic moment of the substituting ion (~10.6 ?B for Dy3+ and Ho3+ as compared to 9.7 ?B for Tb3+). The magnetic entropy was found to decrease with the dilution of the Tb3+ ordering by the introduction of both magnetic and non-magnetic dopants at the A-site. Magnetocaloric properties of these samples were evaluated and for pure TbMnO3, a maximum relative cooling power of ~103 J/kg with 5 T applied field was observed that shows its potential for magnetic refrigeration.

Staruch, M.; Kuna, L.; McDannald, A.; Jain, M.

2015-03-01

429

Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-ultraviolet absorbance detection assay using derivatisation for the novel marine anticancer agent ES-285 x HCl [(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-octadecanol hydrochloride] and its pharmaceutical dosage form.  

PubMed

ES-285 x HCl [(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-octadecanol hydrochloride] is a novel investigational anticancer agent, which has shown in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activity against various tumor cell lines with selectivity for certain solid tumors. The pharmaceutical development of ES-285 x HCl warranted the availability of an assay for the quantification and purity determination of ES-285 x HCl active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and its pharmaceutical dosage form. A liquid chromatographic method (LC) comprising of derivatisation of ES-285 x HCl with phenylisothiocyanate and UV-detection was developed. The method was found to be linear, precise and accurate. The assay also proved selectivity as determined by analysing ES-285 x HCl in combination with 15 analogues and in combination with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, the excipient used in the lyophilised pharmaceutical dosage form. Stress testing showed that the degradation products were separated from the parent compound, confirming its stability indicating capacity. The method was found robust as determined with design of experiments (DoE), which made it possible to predict system suitability responses in worst case experimental conditions and to define criteria for system suitability testing. PMID:14661748

den Brok, Monique W J; Nuijen, Bastiaan; Miranda, Elena; Floriano, Pablo; Munt, Simon; Manzanares, Ignacio; Beijnen, Jos H

2003-12-12

430

Simultaneous determination of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric impurities in (1R, 3R)-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(chloroacetyl)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester a key intermediate of tadalafil by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

(1R, 3R)-1-(1, 3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(chloroacetyl)-2, 3, 4, 9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3, 4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester ((1R, 3R)-Cpe) is a key intermediate used in the synthesis of tadalafil, a highly selective phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor. In the present study, a chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric impurities in (1R, 3R)-Cpe. Separation was performed on an Ultron ES-OVM chiral column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m,) with a guard column at a column temperature of 30°C. The gradient elution used was acetonitrile (solvent A) and water (solvent B), and the following elution program was used at a flow rate of 1 ml/min: 0-5 min (80% B), 5-10 min (80-60% B), 10-12 min (60% B). The detection wavelength was 220 nm. The four isomers of Cpe were baseline separated in 12 min. The results of method validation indicated that the method was specific and sensitive and was suitable for the quality control of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric impurities in (1R, 3R)-Cpe. PMID:22344859

Yu, Lushan; Jin, Yiping; Jianzhou; Ye, Chun; Wang, Jinzhao; Hu, Gongyun; Zeng, Su

2012-04-01

431

Seismic Characterization of Tunnel Boring Machine Activity Near Boston, MA, USA R. J. Greaves1, P. M. Roberts2, C. G. Doll3, L. K. Steck3, M. C. Fehler2, N. M. Toksoz3, R. J. Turpening3, H. J. Hooper3, M. S. Edie3, D. F. Baker2  

E-print Network

Seismic Characterization of Tunnel Boring Machine Activity Near Boston, MA, USA R. J. Greaves1, P. M. Roberts2, C. G. Doll3, L. K. Steck3, M. C. Fehler2, N. M. Toksoz3, R. J. Turpening3, H. J. Hooper3, M. S. Edie3, D. F. Baker2 1MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 2Los Alamos Seismic Research Center, 3MIT

432

Sol-gel derived nanocrystalline multiferroic BiFeO3 and R3+ (R=Er and Tm) doped therein: Magnetic phase transitions and enhancement of magnetic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline BiFeO3 and rare earth ion doped BiFeO3 (Bi0.9R0.1FeO3, R=Er and Tm) were prepared by sol-gel method. Rietveld analysis of the X-ray diffractograms of the samples revealed that small amount of impurity phase of Bi2Fe4O9 was formed together with the desired phase. In the thermal variation of magnetic mass susceptibility (?m) of the samples, one sharp transition below TM (TM˜100 K, 50 K and 30 K for BiFeO3, Bi0.9Er0.1FeO3 and Bi0.9Tm0.1FeO3, respectively) was observed, which clearly hint the change of the domination of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction over the usual antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. Also, static magnetization (M) and susceptibility of each doped sample have been drastically enhanced compared to that of BiFeO3. The values of ?m and M measured at different temperatures confirmed that the magnetic behavior of the doped systems has been dominated by the paramagnetic/ferromagnetic clusters below ˜TM. Another phase transition were observed in the ?m vs. T curve of the samples at relatively higher temperature TB (˜260 K for BiFeO3, ˜220 K for Bi0.9Er0.1FeO3 and ˜180 K for Bi0.9Tm0.1FeO3), which may be attributed to the charge ordering transition. Ferroelectric hysteresis loops of the samples observed at 100 Hz confirmed the presence of ferroelectric ordering of the samples. Measured values of dielectric constants at 1 kHz of each sample in presence and absence of magnetic field confirmed a substantial magnetoelectric coupling of all the samples.

Acharya, S.; Sutradhar, S.; Mandal, J.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Deb, A. K.; Chakrabarti, P. K.

2012-12-01

433

MicroRNA-193a-3p and -5p suppress the metastasis of human non-small-cell lung cancer by downregulating the ERBB4/PIK3R3/mTOR/S6K2 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The metastatic cascade is a complex and multistep process with many potential barriers. Recent evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, by comparing the miRNA expression profiles of SPC-A-1sci (high metastatic) and SPC-A-1 (weakly metastatic) cells, we demonstrated that the downregulation and function of miR-193a-3p and miR-193a-5p in NSCLC metastasis and the expression of these miRNAs was suppressed in NSCLC compared with corresponding non-tumorous tissues. Decreased miR-193a-3p/5p expression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, functional assays showed that the overexpression of miR-193a-3p/5p inhibited NSCLC cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and lung metastasis formation in vivo. In addition, we discovered that ERBB4 and S6K2 were the direct targets of miR-193a-3p and that PIK3R3 and mTOR were the direct targets of miR-193a-5p in NSCLC. We also observed that miR-193a-3p/5p could inactivate the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Thus, miR-193a-3p/5p functions as a tumor suppressor and has an important role in NSCLC metastasis through ERBB signaling pathway. PMID:24469061

Yu, T; Li, J; Yan, M; Liu, L; Lin, H; Zhao, F; Sun, L; Zhang, Y; Cui, Y; Zhang, F; Li, J; He, X; Yao, M

2015-01-22

434

Isolation and structural characterization of 2R, 3R taxifolin 3-O-rhamnoside from ethyl acetate extract of Hydnocarpus alpina and its hypoglycemic effect by attenuating hepatic key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Hydnocarpus alpina Wt. (Flacourtiaceae) (H. alpina) is a large tree traditionally used to treat leprosy; it also posses antidiabetic property. The present study was undertaken to isolate, characterize and to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of 2R, 3R taxifolin 3-O-rhamnoside. (rhamnoside) and its impact on carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes in control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg). Oral administration of rhamnoside for 21 days significantly reduced food intake, calorie intake, blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and improved plasma insulin levels. Administration of rhamnoside showed significant increase in the body weight, body composition (Lean body weight (LBW) and retro body fat), glycolytic hexokinase, glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase levels where as significant decrease was observed in the levels of glucose-6-phosphatase fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in diabetic treated rats. Further, administration of rhamnoside significantly improved the glycogen content, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, suggesting the antihyperglycemic potential of rhamnoside in diabetic rats. The results obtained were compared with glibenclamide a standard hypoglycaemic drug. Immunohistopathological study of pancreas revealed increased number of ?-cells and insulin granules in diabetes-induced rats after treatment with rhamnoside for 21 days. Furthermore, Co-administration of rhamnoside (50 mg/kg) with nifedipine (13.6 mg/kg), a Ca(2+)ion channel blocker, or nicorandil (6.8 mg/kg), an ATP-sensitive K(+) ion channel opener, reveals the insulin secretion property of rhamnoside via a K(+)-ATP channels dependent pathway in diabetic rats. In conclusion, rhamnoside normalized blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, key hepatic enzymes and glycogen content by increasing insulin secretion via K(+)-ATP channels dependent signaling pathway. The results suggest that the rhamnoside from H. alpina could be used as a therapeutic agent to treat diabetes mellitus. PMID:25698613

Balamurugan, Rangachari; Vendan, Subramanian Ezhil; Aravinthan, Adithan; Kim, Jong-Hoon

2015-04-01

435

A chemo-enzymatic expeditious route to racemic dihexanoyl (2R*,3R*,4R*)-dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomycin (DHMEQ), the precursor for lipase-catalyzed synthesis of the potent nuclear factor-?B inhibitor, (2S,3S,4S)-DHMEQ.  

PubMed

In order to synthesize the potent nuclear factor (NF)-?B inhibitor, (2S,3S,4S)-dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomycin (DHMEQ), in a large scale, a new route for its corresponding racemic precursor, dihexanoyl (2R*,3R*,4R*)-DHMEQ, was developed. By employing both hydroquinone and benzoquinone intermediates, the total yield, reproducibility, and synthetic steps were improved and the synthetic cost was reduced. PMID:22976334

Kobayashi, Ryohei; Hanaya, Kengo; Shoji, Mitsuru; Umezawa, Kazuo; Sugai, Takeshi

2012-01-01

436

Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 levels in ETS emissions of a Marlboro Red cigarette in comparison to the 3R4F reference cigarette under open- and closed-door condition  

PubMed Central

Introduction Potential health damage by environmental emission of tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, ETS) has been demonstrated convincingly in numerous studies. People, especially children, are still exposed to ETS in the small space of private cars. Although major amounts of toxic compounds from ETS are likely transported into the distal lung via particulate matter (PM), few studies have quantified the amount of PM in ETS. Study aim The aim of this study was to determine the ETS-dependent concentration of PM from both a 3R4F reference cigarette (RC) as well as a Marlboro Red brand cigarette (MRC) in a small enclosed space under different conditions of ventilation to model car exposure. Method In order to create ETS reproducibly, an emitter (ETSE) was constructed and mounted on to an outdoor telephone booth with an inner volume of 1.75 m3. Cigarettes were smoked under open- and closed-door condition to imitate different ventilation scenarios. PM2.5 concentration was quantified by a laser aerosol spectrometer (Grimm; Model 1.109), and data were adjusted for baseline values. Simultaneously indoor and outdoor climate parameters were recorded. The time of smoking was divided into the ETS generation phase (subset “emission”) and a declining phase of PM concentration (subset “elimination”); measurement was terminated after 10 min. For all three time periods the average concentration of PM2.5 (Cmean-PM2.5) and the area under the PM2.5 concentration curve (AUC-PM2.5) was calculated. The maximum concentration (Cmax-PM2.5) was taken from the total interval. Results For both cigarette types open-door ventilation reduced the AUC-PM2.5 (RC: from 59 400?±?14 600 to 5 550?±?3 900 ?g*sec/m3; MRC: from 86 500?±?32 000 to 7 300?±?2 400 ?g*sec/m3; p?

2012-01-01

437

Heats of Formation for the Boronic Acids R–B(OH)2 and Boroxines R3B3O3 (R=H, Li, HBe, H2B, H3C, H2N, HO, F, and Cl) Calculated at the G2, G3, and G4 Levels of Theory  

PubMed Central

Boronic acids (R–B(OH)2) and their boroxine (R3B3O3) dehydration products have emerged as important classes of compounds with a multitude of diverse applications. However, the available heats of formation for these compounds are not always as accurate as would be required for further use. In this study the heats of formation at 298.15 K of R–B(OH)2 and R3B3O3 (R = H, Li, HBe, H2B, H3C, H2N, HO, F, and Cl) have been calculated at the G2, G3[G3B3], and G4 levels of theory and used to determine the enthalpy chan