Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene
The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007–2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these classrooms implemented 45 hands-on foods activities that covered 10 food topics. Subjects included measurement; food safety; vegetables; fruits; milk and cheese; meat, poultry, and fish; eggs; fats; grains; and meal management. Students in four other classrooms served as the control group. Mainstream 3rd-grade students were targeted because of their receptiveness to the subject matter, science standards for upper elementary grades, and testing that the students would undergo in 4th grade. Teachers and students alike reported that the hands-on FoodMASTER curriculum experience was worthwhile and enjoyable. Our initial classroom observation indicated that the majority of students, girls and boys included, were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. PMID:20975982
The research examined effects of notetaking instruction on elementary-aged students' ability to recall science information and notetaking behavior. Classes of 3rd grade students were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions, strategic notetaking, partial strategic notetaking, and control, for 4 training sessions. The effects of the notetaking instruction were measured by their performances on a test on science information taught during the training, a long-term free recall of the information, and number of information units recalled with or without cues. Students' prior science achievement was used to group students into two levels (high vs. low) and functioned as another independent variable in analysis. Results indicated significant treatment effect on cued and non-cued recall of the information units in favor of the strategy instruction groups. Students with higher prior achievement in science performed better on cued recall and long-term free recall of information. The results suggest that students as young as at the third grade can be instructed to develop the ability of notetaking that promotes their learning.
Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene
The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…
Springer, Andrew E.; Tanguturi, Yasas; Ranjit, Nalini; Skala, Katherine A.; Kelder, Steven H.
Objectives We estimated the prevalence of recess-based moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) among third grade students attending low-income, urban schools in Texas. Methods Structured observations (n=77 class and 616 student observations) using SOFIT were conducted over three-months in 8 elementary schools with majority Hispanic students. Results Students engaged in 66.4% and 19.2% of their ~20 minute recess time in MVPA and VPA, respectively. Boys engaged in more MVPA and VPA (P<.007). Contextual differences in activity (setting and activity type) were identified. Conclusions Findings underscore the importance of scheduled recess time for children’s physical activity. PMID:23985178
McLean, Leigh; Connor, Carol McDonald
This study investigated associations among third grade teachers’ (n = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students’ (n = 523, mean age 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. Teachers’ depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students’ spring mathematics achievement. This depended on students’ fall mathematics scores; students who began the year with weaker math skills and were in classrooms where teachers reported more depressive symptoms achieved smaller gains than did peers whose teachers reported fewer symptoms. Teachers’ depressive symptoms were negatively associated with quality of CLE, and quality of CLE mediated the association between depressive symptoms and student achievement. Findings point to the importance of teachers’ mental health, with implications for policy and practice. PMID:25676719
Sari, Elisabet Ayunika Permata; Juniati, Dwi; Patahudin, Sitti Maesuri
Fractions varied meanings is one of the causes of difficulties in learning fractions. These students should be given greater opportunities to explore the meaning of fractions before they learn the relationship between fractions and operations on fractions. Although students shading an area represents a fraction, it does not mean they really…
Whitlatch, Jennifer M.; Staley, Lynn
Noting that most mainstream primary teachers have received little or no training focusing on working with the growing number of students who speak English as a second language, this booklet equips primary teachers with basic information regarding the instruction of children who speak English as a second language (ESL). The booklet identifies ten…
Wieland, Anne; And Others
Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 3. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…
Kasten, Wendy C.; Clarke, Barbara K.
Using ethnographic techniques to observe seven fifth grade and seven third grade students, a study examined the function of children's oral language during creative writing sessions in typical classroom situations. Findings indicated that oral language plays an important role in the writing process; specifically, that it (1) accompanies writing as…
Howells, Ronald F.
The report describes accomplishments of a program designed to promote abilities of 75 potentially gifted culturally different students in grades 3-4. Student selection procedures included the Basic Structure of Intellect (SOI) Learning Abilities Test and teacher interviews. The curriculum emphasized SOI materials and cultural arts. Detailed data…
Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina V.
Water is a crucial topic that spans the K-12 science curriculum, including the elementary grades. Students should engage in the articulation, negotiation, and revision of model-based explanations about hydrologic phenomena. However, past research has shown that students, particularly early learners, often struggle to understand hydrologic…
Suarez, Enrique; Otero, Valerie
Despite the extensive body of research that supports scientific inquiry and argumentation as cornerstones of physics learning, these strategies continue to be virtually absent in most classrooms, especially those that involve students who are learning English as a second language. This study presents results from an investigation of 3rd grade students' discourse about how length and tension affect the sound produced by a string. These students came from a variety of language backgrounds, and all were learning English as a second language. Our results demonstrate varying levels, and uses, of experiential, imaginative, and mechanistic reasoning strategies. Using specific examples from students' discourse, we will demonstrate some of the productive aspects of working within multiple language frameworks for making sense of physics. Conjectures will be made about how to utilize physics as a context for English Language Learners to further conceptual understanding, while developing their competence in the English language.
Wershow, H. N.; Green, M.; Stocker, A.; Staires, D.
Current efforts towards Earth Science literacy in New Mexico are guided by the New Mexico Science Benchmarks . We are geoscience professionals in Los Alamos, NM who believe there is an important role for non-traditional educators utilizing innovative teaching methods. We propose to further Earth Science literacy for local 3rd and 4th grade students using a kinesthetic learning approach, with the goal of fostering an interactive relationship between the students and their geologic environment. We will be working in partnership with the Pajarito Environmental Education Center (PEEC), which teaches the natural heritage of the Pajarito Plateau to 3rd and 4th grade students from the surrounding area, as well as the Family YMCA’s Adventure Programs Director. The Pajarito Plateau provides a remarkable geologic classroom because minimal structural features complicate the stratigraphy and dramatic volcanic and erosional processes are plainly on display and easily accessible. Our methodology consists of two approaches. First, we will build an interpretive display of the local geology at PEEC that will highlight prominent rock formations and geologic processes seen on a daily basis. It will include a simplified stratigraphic section with field specimens and a map linked to each specimen’s location to encourage further exploration. Second, we will develop and implement a kinesthetic curriculum for an exploratory field class. Active engagement with geologic phenomena will take place in many forms, such as a scavenger hunt for precipitated crystals in the vesicles of basalt flows and a search for progressively smaller rhyodacite clasts scattered along an actively eroding canyon. We believe students will be more receptive to origin explanations when they possess a piece of the story. Students will be provided with field books to make drawings of geologic features. This will encourage independent assessment of phenomena and introduce the skill of scientific observation. We
Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail
Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and test achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of third graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts. In each sample, age in the third grade, course marks, and standardized achievement scores were found to be significantly related to the grade in which…
Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma
For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10 graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…
Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma
For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…
The focus of this study was to investigate how parent involvement impacts student motivation in third grade special education. The study was conducted at Allen Elementary in Genoa, Ohio during the spring of 2011. After reviewing recent literature, it acknowledges the importance of parent participation on student academic education, the effects of…
Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.
Activities in this unit are designed to familiarize primary grade students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons involving social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities adaptable for readers and non-readers focus on pet overpopulation, care of pets when…
Hughes, Jan N.; Chen, Qi; Thoemmes, Felix; Kwok, Oi-man
The association between grade retention in first grade and passing the third grade state accountability tests, the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) reading and math, was investigated in a sample of 769 students who were recruited into the study when they were in first grade. Of these 769 students, 165 were retained in first grade and 604 were promoted. Using propensity matching, we created five imputed datasets (average N=321) in which promoted and retained students were matched on 67 comprehensive covariates. Using GEE models, we obtained the association between retention and passing the 3rd grade TAKS reading and math tests. The positive association between retention and math scores was significant while the association was marginally significant for reading scores. PMID:20628547
Franks, Betty Barclay; Taylor, Nancy
This booklet contains 12 lessons about the history of Ohio correlated to the proficiency outcomes of the "Grade 4 Proficiency Test Outcomes in Ohio." Lessons include: (1) "Emigrating to Ohio"; (2) "The Era of Expansion"; (3) "Finding Out about Ohio"; (4) "Emigrating to Ohio"; (5) "Settling in Ohio"; (6) "Settlements Along the Ohio River"; (7) "The…
Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.
Danhauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carole E.; Caudle, Abby T.
Purpose: Ear infections are prevalent in kindergarten through 3rd-grade (K-3rd) children and can affect their performance at school. Chewing gum, when administered by parents and teachers, can help prevent ear infections in children. This pilot study surveyed K-3rd-grade teachers in the Santa Barbara School Districts to assess their knowledge…
MacKinnon, Fiona J. D.
Students in the field, as well as experienced practitioners and administrators, will herein find an up-to-date and in-depth study of the major student affairs functions of a comprehensive campus program. Within its covers, the graduate student will find chapters describing everything the person new to student affairs needs to know about the major…
Froman, Terry; Bayne, Joseph
Recent revisions of the Florida School Code by the Florida Legislature include a major component focusing on proficiency in reading. In particular, grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) SSS Reading Test must be retained, unless exempted for special circumstances. This new…
This teacher's guide for grades 3 and 4 contains simulated work experiences for students using the isolated skill concept - creativity. Teacher instructions include objectives, evaluation, and sequence of activities. The guide contains pre-tests and post-tests with instructions and answer keys. Two pre-skill activities are suggested, such as…
This teacher's guide for grades 3 and 4 contains simulated work experiences for students using the isolated skill concept - assembling in sequence. Teacher instructions include objectives, evaluation, and sequence of activities. The guide contains pre-tests and post-tests with instructions and answer keys. Three pre-skill activities are suggested,…
Jordan, Michelle E.; Santori, Diane
This multisite study investigates dialogic literacy events that revolved around narrative and informational texts in two 3rd-grade classrooms. The authors offer a metaphor of musical improvisation to contemplate dialogic literacy events as part of the repertoire of teaching and learning experiences. In literacy learning, where there is much…
Buldu, Mehmet; Shaban, Mohamed S.
This study portrayed a picture of kindergarten through 3rd-grade teachers who teach visual arts, their perceptions of the value of visual arts, their visual arts teaching practices, visual arts experiences provided to young learners in school, and major factors and/or influences that affect their teaching of visual arts. The sample for this study…
Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail
Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and tested achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of 3rd graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts or graduates. Results showed that as early as five to eight years before leaving school, dropouts differed significantly from graduates in age, tested…
The purpose of this study was to describe the psychosocial and identity challenges of 3rd generation and beyond U.S.-born (3GAB-USB) Mexican heritage college students. Alvarez (1973) has written about the psychosocial impact "hybridity" can have on a U.S.- born (USB) Mexican individual who incorporates two distinct cultures (American and Mexican)…
Nickell, Brian K.
Students in the targeted school exhibited a decline in reading scores between second and fourth grade. Due to poor reading levels for 2 consecutive years the state put the school on a probationary list with in its district. Evidence for the existence of the problem included documented low reading test scores, below proficiency assessment records,…
Wade, Rahima; Yarbrough, Don
This article describes a service-learning intervention, the CivicConnections Program, as implemented by 96 teachers in 32 site-based teams in 21 states during 2004-2005. Each of the 32 teams was responsible for multiple service-based, social studies classrooms serving a total of more than 2500 students in grades 3-12. The individual…
Gaylor, Erika; Spiker, Donna; Wei, Xin; Lease, Erin; Reynolds, Arthur
This presentation reports on the goals and preliminary outcomes of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) Expansion Project, which is a PreK to 3rd grade school reform model aimed at improving the short- and long-term outcomes of participating children and families. The model provides continuous education and family support services to schools serving a…
Robinson, P P; Loescher, A R; Smith, K G
We have previously shown that avoidance of lingual flap retraction with a Howarth periosteal elevator during lower 3rd molar removal, reduces the incidence of lingual nerve damage. In that study, the surgery was undertaken by qualified staff and we have now assessed the effect of revising the method taught to our junior undergraduate dental students. We evaluated the outcome of surgery undertaken by 2 consecutive years of students, each group being taught 1 of the 2 methods. A total of 200 patients requiring lower 3rd molar removal under local anaesthesia were included in the study. In year 1, the surgery included elevation of a lingual flap and insertion of a Howarth elevator adjacent to the lingual plate; in year 2 this part of the procedure was avoided by using a purely buccal approach. There were no significant differences between the levels of tooth eruption and types of impaction of the teeth removed in each year. Lingual sensory disturbance occurred in 3 patients in the 'flap' group (3.3%) and in 1 patient (0.9%) in the 'no flap' group. As this incidence is not significantly different in the 2 groups (P < 0.4), we conclude that avoidance of lingual retraction by students undertaking lower 3rd molar removal does not appear to place the lingual nerve at greater risk. In view of the results of our previous study, we therefore advocate this method for use in undergraduate dental education. PMID:10530161
Assouline, Susan G.; Colangelo, Nicholas; Lupkowski-Shoplik, Ann; Forstadt, Leslie; Lipscomb, Jonathon
Feedback from years of nationwide use has resulted in a 3rd Edition of this unique, systematic, and objective guide to considering and implementing academic acceleration. Developed and tested by the Belin-Blank Center at the University of Iowa, the IAS ensures that acceleration decisions are systematic, thoughtful, well reasoned, and defensible.…
Fisher, Allison; Lange, Mary Anne; Young-Cureton, Virginia; Canham, Daryl
Very little is known about body satisfaction among minority children. This study examined the relationship between perceived and actual body size and Body Mass Index among 43 low-socioeconomic Hispanic 3rd-graders. Researchers measured participants' Body Mass Index; students self-reported Perceived Ideal Self Image and Perceived Actual Self Image…
Ong, Wendy; Allison, Jeanette; Haladyna, Thomas M.
Compared reading, writing, and mathematics achievement of Title I and non-Title I third graders in comparable multiage and single-age classrooms in three school districts. Found higher achievement among non-Title I students in multiage settings when compared to those in a single-age setting. No setting differences were observed for Title I…
Scholefield, Donna; Cox, Georgina
All English universities now offer an all degree undergraduate nursing programme. Many currently use an individual supervision model to support final year dissertation students, but with increased numbers and limited resources new models of supervision are needed. This study evaluated a mixed (group and individual) model of dissertation supervision to determine its effectiveness for a large group of undergraduate nursing students. A sample of 3rd year students and their supervisors were selected from one large university. An evaluation survey was conducted using anonymous internet-based questionnaires and focus groups. The data was analysed using Survey Monkey, SPSS and thematic analysis. A 51% (n = 56/110) response rate (students) and 65% (n = 24/37) for supervisors was obtained. The majority of students and supervisors were satisfied with the new model. There was a mixed response to the group workshops and supervision groups. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: engaging with the process, motivation to supervise and valuing the process. The supervision process is a struggle but both parties gained considerably from going through the process. In conclusion, a mixed model of supervision together with a range of other learning resources can be an effective approach in supporting students through the dissertation process. PMID:26700648
Apel, Kenn; Henbest, Victoria Suzanne
Purpose: We examined grade-level differences in 1st- through 3rd-grade students' performance on an experimenter-developed affix meaning task (AMT) and determined whether AMT performance explained unique variance in word-level reading and reading comprehension, beyond other known contributors to reading development. Method: Forty students at each…
Paul, Richard; And Others
This handbook, designed to help teachers of kindergarten through third grade remodel their own lesson plans, has one basic objective: to demonstrate that it is possible and practical to integrate instruction for critical thinking into the teaching of all subjects. The handbook thoroughly discusses the concept of critical thinking and the…
Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.
Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential
Beach, Kristen Dawn
Reading is the most valuable skill children must master early in schooling. Unfortunately, many students struggle to read and may be identified as having a Reading Disability (RD). In this dissertation, I explored the usefulness of the Response-to-Intervention (RtI) framework for identifying children with RD by examining the use of 1st and 2nd…
White, Stephen R.
This document describes the computerized procedures developed and utilized by Montgomery College (Maryland) to maintain records related to student academic progress. The new system was fully operable by fall 1972. Systems development included: (1) the conversion of past student records to a permanent grade history file; (2) the development of a…
Zeller, William J., Ed.
Residence life programs play a key role in recruiting students, helping them make a successful transition to a new institution, and in retaining them, whether students are enrolling for the first time, transferring from another institution, or entering graduate school. Chapters in this book address theories of learning and development, new…
Salend, Spencer J.; Duhaney, Laurel M. Garrick
This article offers guidelines for determining equitable, accountable, and effective grading practices and policies for all students that balance the need for a common set of standards and the individual needs of the students. Purposes of grading, grading systems, and effective instructional practices that support grading processes are discussed.…
Hayes, Rashelle B.; Geller, Alan C.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Jolicoeur, Denise; Churchill, Linda C.; Okuyemi, Kola; David, Sean P.; Adams, Michael; Waugh, Jonathan; Allen, Sharon S.; Leone, Frank T.; Fauver, Randy; Leung, Katherine; Liu, Qin; Ockene, Judith K.
Objective Physicians play a critical role in addressing tobacco dependence, yet report limited training. Tobacco dependence treatment curricula for medical students could improve performance in this area. This study identified student and medical school tobacco treatment curricula characteristics associated with intentions and use of the 5As for tobacco treatment among 3rd year U.S. medical students. Methods Third year medical students (N=1065, 49.3% male) from 10 U.S. medical schools completed a survey in 2009-2010 assessing student characteristics, including demographics, tobacco treatment knowledge, and self-efficacy. Tobacco curricula characteristics assessed included amount and type of classroom instruction, frequency of tobacco treatment observation, instruction, and perception of preceptors as role models. Results Greater tobacco treatment knowledge, self-efficacy, and curriculum-specific variables were associated with 5A intentions, while younger age, tobacco treatment self-efficacy, intentions, and each curriculum-specific variable was associated with greater 5A behaviors. When controlling for important student variables, greater frequency of receiving 5A instruction (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.01-1.12) and perception of preceptors as excellent role models in tobacco treatment (OR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.04-1.75) were significant curriculum predictors of 5A intentions. Greater 5A instruction (B = .06 (.03); p< .05) and observation of tobacco treatment (B= .35 (.02); p< .001) were significant curriculum predictors of greater 5A behaviors. Conclusions Greater exposure to tobacco treatment teaching during medical school is associated with both greater intentions to use and practice tobacco 5As. Clerkship preceptors, or those physicians who provide training to medical students, may be particularly influential when they personally model and instruct students in tobacco dependence treatment. PMID:25572623
Landrum, R. Eric
College students completed evaluation-of-teaching surveys in five different courses to develop an evaluation instrument that would provide results concerning faculty performance. Two questions examined students' expectations regarding grades. Results indicated a significant degree of expected grade inflation. Large proportions of students doing…
Many mobile 1st through 3rd grade students are not reading on grade level in a southern urban school. The purpose of this study was to assess how teachers perceive the effectiveness of the "Success for All and Reading First" programs for their mobile and nonmobile students in order to create a new theory to improve instruction for the…
Grippin, Pauline C.
Ninety children in third and fourth grade were assessed on a hierarchical class inclusion task. Scores were trichotomized, and children from each level were randomly assigned to one of three cueing conditions (no cues, two superordinate cues, six subordinate cues). Subjects were administered a recall task of categorized words and "new" words…
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
The final report of the Third Student-Commissioner Conference on Financial Aid and Access to Postsecondary Education is presented. The focus was the U.S. Office of Education's television, radio, and printed information and counseling programs about postsecondary opportunities, and how these strategies affect many kinds of prospective students.…
Kesler, Ted; Tinio, Pablo P. L.; Nolan, Brian T.
This article reports on an action research project with 9 eighth-grade special education students in a self-contained classroom in an urban public school. The 1st author, in collaboration with the classroom teacher (3rd author), taught the students a critical media literacy framework to explore popular culture websites. Students learned to analyze…
This project was designed to test Mayer's multimedia theory in an elementary school to improve students' mathematics learning for low-income children. The study designed and developed two multimedia mathematics experiments in 3rd grade: 9's multiplication experiment and geometric solids experiment. The two experimental lessons were implemented in…
Tchudi, Stephen, Ed.
The result of an investigation into the grading writing by the National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Alternatives to Grading Student Writing, this collection of essays offers the writing teacher several innovative and interesting options. Following an introduction by the editor (chair of the Committee), in which he delineates the…
Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice
We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…
Martin, Corey; Elfreth, Jaime; Feng, Jay
This research study examined two intervention programs, Read Naturally (computer-assisted) and The Six-Minute Solution (teacher-guided), for the purpose of finding their effects on reading fluency with 3rd grade students at an elementary school. The participants were from two separate third grade classrooms, randomly assigned to one of the two…
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.
This almanac is designed for use in the fifth grade course on regional studies which focuses on several case studies rather than on detailed study of each region. (The course is described in ED 062 226). For that reason the factual information is selected and includes figures relevant to the case studies in the regional areas of the Midwest, North…
Curtis, Vicki L.
The three tiered reading model and the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) are two initiatives being used to identify struggling readers of low socioeconomic status. While there is abundant information with statistical reports from various researchers, there is little research available as to what educators implementing…
Mitchell, Sherri L.
In 2008, the Colorado General Assembly passed legislation requiring the adoption of personal financial literacy (PFL) education standards for kindergarten through 12th-grade students. Beginning in 2014, the state plans to conduct standardized testing to determine financial literacy of 3rd- through 12th-grade students. The state did not allocate…
Pressley, Michael; Dolezal, Sara E.; Raphael, Lisa M.; Mohan, Lindsey; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Bogner, Kristen
Noting that few would dispute the essential role of motivation in promoting academic engagement and achievement, this book serves as a guide to motivating students in grades K-3. The book presents research-based strategies and techniques that are then illustrated in three extended case studies of highly successful motivators, demonstrating how…
Miller, Curtis A.
This report describes a program for improving motivation of eighth grade students. Attendance, grades, discipline referrals, and student surveys were used in measuring changes in student attitudes. Problems were documented from data showing grades, attendance, and discipline referrals from the second semester of the 1994-95 school year. A student…
Recent state and federal legislations on educational accountability push evaluation and grading to the frontline. This study examined students' perspectives of grading in physical education. The participants included students (N = 39) from two middle schools. Data were collected through observation, student profile grading sheets and interviews.…
Jaramillo, James; Jaramillo, Olga
When one effectively employs the strategies of exploratory-learning, wait-time, intervention, guided reading, meaning, and phonological-morphological-syntactical awareness-for infants and on up-to 3rd grade students-all-in a Montessori-like-learning-literacy-setting replete with semantical interactions with phonology, syllabology, morphology, and…
Cressman, Markus N.; Liljequist, Laura
The "Woodcock-Johnson III" Tests of Achievement grade norms versus age norms were examined in the calculation of discrepancy scores in 202 college students. Difference scores were calculated between the "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition" Full Scale IQ and the "Woodcock-Johnson III" Total Achievement,…
Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan
Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT approach to investigate whether decision quality improves during undergraduate medical education. 3rd- and 5th-year students attended formative multiple-choice exams on pharmacological issues. Students were asked to indicate their confidence in a given answer. Correctness of answers was scored binary (1-correct; 0-wrong) and confidence levels were transformed to an ordinal scale (guess: 0; rather unsure: 0.33; rather sure: 0.66; very sure: 1). 5th-year students gave more correct answers (73 ± 16 vs. 49 ± 13 %, p < 0.05) and were on average more confident regarding the correctness of their answers (0.61 ± 0.18 vs. 0.46 ± 0.13, p < 0.05). Correlation of these parameters was stronger for 5th-year students (r = 0.81 vs. r = 0.52), but agreement of confidence and correctness ('centration') was lower. By combining the Bland-and-Altman approach with categories of decision-quality we found that 5th-year students were more likely to be 'well-informed' (41 vs. 5 %), while more 3rd-students were 'uninformed' (24 vs. 76 %). Despite a good correlation of exam results and confidence in given answers increased knowledge might be accompanied by a more critical view at the own abilities. Combining the statistical Bland-and-Altman analysis with a theoretical approach to decision-quality, more advanced students are expected to apply correct beliefs, while their younger fellows are rather at risk to hesitate or to act amiss. PMID:25103688
Silva, Melissa; Munk, Dennis D.; Bursuck, William D.
Issues surround grading for all students, especially those with disabilities, who are at increased risk for grades that are low, inaccurate, and lacking in meaning. Teachers often recognize grading issues and will exercise judgment in making informal adaptations to the regular grading system. When chosen collaboratively and implemented…
Ward-Roof, Jeanine A., Ed.
The 2010 edition of this monograph addresses many topics (e.g., administration of orientation programs, family involvement, student characteristics and needs, assessment, and orientation for specific student populations and institutional types) that were included in previous editions but approaches them with new information, updated data, and…
Stone, Marion E., Ed.; Jacobs, Glen, Ed.
This monograph describes Supplemental Instruction, a student assistance program designed to improve the academic success of college freshmen based on the idea that if students are not being successful in courses then perhaps colleges should change the way courses are taught. Supplemental Instruction (SI) utilizes regularly scheduled, out-of-class,…
Marx, Pat, Comp.
The document contains the proceedings of the third national conference on the handicapped student on college campuses. Forty-four papers are divided into seven categories--keynote address, student advocacy, support services, inservice training, long range planning, specialized services, and summary. Among the presentations are the following titles…
Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis
This study examines grade expectations of two groups of business students for their final course mark. We separate students that are on average "better" forecasters on the basis of them not making significant forecast errors during the semester from those students that are poor forecasters of their final grade. We find that the better…
Duffrin, Melani W; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene
The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007-2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3(rd)-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these classrooms implemented 45 hands-on foods activities that covered 10 food topics. Subjects included measurement; food safety; vegetables; fruits; milk and cheese; meat, poultry, and fish; eggs; fats; grains; and meal management. Students in four other classrooms served as the control group. Mainstream 3(rd)-grade students were targeted because of their receptiveness to the subject matter, science standards for upper elementary grades, and testing that the students would undergo in 4(th) grade. Teachers and students alike reported that the hands-on FoodMASTER curriculum experience was worthwhile and enjoyable. Our initial classroom observation indicated that the majority of students, girls and boys included, were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. PMID:20975982
Students' Alternative Frameworks and Science Education. Bibliography. 3rd Edition. IPN Reports-in-Brief = Alltagsvorstellungen und Naturwissenschaftlicher Unterricht. Bibliographie. 3. Auflage. IPN-Kurzberichte.
Pfundt, Helga; Duit, Reinders
This bibliography contains some 2,000 articles on empirical investigation and theoretical considerations covering the topic of students' conceptions entered before September 1990. PUblications in journals, books, working papers, and contributions to conferences are included. English, German, and French publications, and ones in other languages are…
Illinois State Scholarship Commission, Deerfield.
The National Association of State Scholarship and Grant Programs/National Council of Higher Education Loan Programs conference on student aid is reported. Following the conference agenda and lists of registrants and conference speakers, the following papers are presented: (1) "Reinterpretation of Hansen's Census Data" (John B. Lee); (2)…
Harper, Debra Ann
The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to determine the pedagogical value of Wiki technology-enhanced instruction for middle grade students. The sample consisted of three Wiki projects representative of work from 6th, 7th, and 8th grade middle school students. The examination of the data collected from the three samples of Wiki…
Edwards, Nelta M.
This article analyzes a social statistics class that engaged in self-grading. Students liked self-grading because they identified their own mistakes, it reinforced what they learned, and they received immediate feedback. Some students worried that others would cheat, but this assertion was not confirmed in the data and the possibility of cheating…
Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fletcher, Jack M.
This study addressed predictors of the development of word problem solving (WPS) across the intermediate grades. At beginning of 3rd grade, 4 cohorts of students (N = 261) were measured on computation, language, nonverbal reasoning skills, and attentive behavior and were assessed 4 times from beginning of 3rd through end of 5th grade on 2 measures…
Sharp, James Christopher
The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in student success by retained students who participate in the Hamblen County (Tennessee) Credit Recovery Program [HCCRP] in the year prior and following their participation. HCCRP is an alternative intervention for students who have been retained in the middle grades of Hamblen County School…
Holmes, Linda E.; Smith, Lois J.
Surveys of business students who completed written problems (n=56) and those who wrote essays (n=249) were analyzed. Two major complaints about grading were lack of fairness and too little feedback. Ways to address these complaints were suggested. (SK)
Simkin, Mark G.
Allowing students to grade their own homework promises several advantages to both students and instructors. But does such a policy make sense? This paper reports the results of an experiment in which eight separate assignments completed by approximately 80 students were first graded by the students using a grading rubric, and then re-graded by a…
Michaelides, Michalis; Kirshner, Ben
This study examined graduate student attitudes towards letter and pass/fail grading systems in the Law School and the School of Education in a selective university in the United States. Fifty-four students completed a questionnaire on goal orientations (ability comparison vs. mastery), amount of effort and stress in each of the two grading…
This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).
Khanehkeshi, Ali; Basavarajappa
This paper compares the difference between boy and girl high school students of 1st grade to 3rd grade in academic stress and depression. Using a random stratified sampling 120 girl and boy students (60 girls and 60 boys) were selected from 1st grade (n = 40), 2nd grade (n = 40) and 3rd grade (n = 40) high school students. In this study gender and…
Saito, M; Yamagishi, Y; Saito, S; Edo, K
The school pharmacist in our hospital pharmacy used three graded textbooks about medicine for students at the Sukagawa School for the Health-Impaired (Fukushima Medical University Hospital Branch (H. I. school)). A revised textbook for 4th-6th grade elementary school students containing 12 important items of information about medicine, a new picture textbook for 1st-3rd grade elementary school students, and a new textbook containing practical data for junior high school students were prepared by supplementing original information with illustrations, simplified expression and large type face. Additionally, the pronunciation of Chinese characters was included in the textbook for the 1st-3rd grade elementary school students. In this study, 9 students from H. I. school and 37 students from Koyase junior high school took part in a questionnaire and an examination evaluating the usefulness of the lectures, and these textbooks, in regard to the student's recognition and understanding of medicine. Most students answered that the lectures and textbooks helped them to understand medicine. Furthermore, the results of the examination indicated that the students had a general understanding of medicine. In conclusion, we suggest that it is important for students in compulsory education to learn about medicine, and that according to the preliminary result of questionnaires and examinations, both the lectures and textbooks were useful to help the students to understand more about medicine. PMID:11265120
Hewitt, Barbara Newlin; Jacobs, Rick
Undergraduate students estimated the grade-point average of a fictitious student in eight major fields. This study strongly indicated that students perceived differential grading standards, although not as accurately as had been hypothesized. Students correctly perceived that the natural sciences were graded more stringently than the humanities…
Moen, Jarle; Tjelta, Martin
Grades are important for admission of students in most higher education programs. Analyzing admission and student performance data at a major Norwegian business school, we find that the grading practice of teachers at regional colleges sending students to the school is affected by the average performance of the students being graded. Teachers at…
Harrison, John S.
The curriculum guide for grade 9 civics instruction for students of English as a second language (ESOL) contains, in outline form, civics behavioral objectives and instructional units. Units of instruction cover American symbols, politicians, colonial Americans, principles of government, the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution,…
Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert
Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…
Seldow, Adam Lowell
With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…
Combs, Julie P.; Clark, David; Moore, George W.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.
Few researchers have addressed student achievement outcomes as a function of grade configurations for older elementary-aged students. Thus, this study was designed to determine differences between students' Grade 5 reading and mathematics achievement in elementary schools (K-5) as compared to intermediate schools (Grade 5, 5-6) for 5 academic…
The present paper explores empirically the relationship between teacher grading and student achievement. The hypothesis is that the teachers can manipulate student effort, and hence student achievement, by choosing the proper grading practices. The grading model is analogous to a labor supply model, where the teachers can set the marginal returns…
The aims of this cross-grade study were (1) to determine the level of understanding of energy concepts of students at different academic grades and the differences in understanding between these grades and (2) to analyse the conceptual development of these students. Two hundred and forty-three students at 3 different levels (high school,…
Tippin, Gregory K.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.; Page, Stewart
Factors influencing student perceptions of academic grading were examined, with an emphasis on furthering understanding of the relevance of effort to students' conceptualization of grading. Students demonstrated a conceptualization of grading where effort should be weighted comparably to actual performance in importance to the composition of a…
Smith, Lois J.
Conscientious marketing faculty spend extensive hours grading student essays and projects. As instructors work on grading papers, they may wonder how effective their comments are. The author explored how students in a marketing principles class reported their use of various grading methods. Students generally preferred rubrics with ratings and…
Zangori, Laura; Forbes, Cory T.
Teaching (NARST) Zangori, L., & Forbes, C. T. (2015). Exploring 3rd-grade student model-based explanations about plant process interactions within the hydrosphere Portions of this paper are based on that work.
The purpose of this study was to determine if grade level configuration and student achievement in science, specifically fifth grade Science TAKS scores are related. This study utilized a causal comparative (ex post facto) design to determine if a consistent relationship existed between fifth grade students' success on the science TAKS at the…
Stahly, Laura L.; Krockover, Gerald H.; Shepardson, Daniel P.
Examines third-grade students' ideas on the lunar phases prior to, and following, an instructional period designed to promote students' conceptual change. Demonstrates that students are capable of making conceptual changes. Contains 30 references. (DDR)
Bottoms, Gene; Hertl, Jordan; Mollette, Melinda; Patterson, Lenora
The middles grades are critical to public school systems and our nation's economy. It's the make-or-break point in students' futures. Studies repeatedly show when students are not engaged and lose interest in the middle grades, they are likely to fall behind in ninth grade and later drop out of school. When this happens, the workforce suffers, and…
Evans, Ellis D.; Engelberg, Ruth A.
Three dimensions of school children's viewpoints on grades were examined in a developmental framework: (1) sentiment and attitudes about being graded, (2) causal perceptions and attributions about why students get good grades; and (3) comprehension of simple and complex grading systems. A total of 293 boys and girls drawn from fourth through…
Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S.; Butterworth, P.; Cline, T.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.
Even with only two widely separated spacecraft (Ulysses and GRO), 3rd Interplanetary Network (IPN) localizations can reduce the areas of BATSE error circles by two orders of magnitude. Therefore it is useful to disseminate them as quickly as possible following BATSE bursts. We have implemented a system which transmits the light curves of BACODINE/BATSE bursts directly by e-mail to UC Berkeley immediately after detection. An automatic e-mail parser at Berkeley watches for these notices, determines the Ulysses crossing time window, and initiates a search for the burst data on the JPL computer as they are received. In ideal cases, it is possible to retrieve the Ulysses data within a few hours of a burst, generate an annulus of arrival directions, and e-mail it out to the astronomical community by local nightfall. Human operators remain in this loop, but we are developing a fully automated routine which should remove them, at least for intense events, and reduce turn-around times to an absolute minimum. We explain the current operations, the data types used, and the speed/accuracy tradeoffs.
Maurer, Trent W.
I tested 2 competing theories to explain the connection between students' expected grades and ratings of instructors: cognitive dissonance and revenge. Cognitive dissonance theory holds that students who expect poor grades rate instructors poorly to minimize ego threat whereas the revenge theory holds that students rate instructors poorly in an…
Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Uitto, Anna; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo
Students find science relevant to society, but they do not find school science interesting. This survey study analyzes Finnish grade 9 students' actual experiences with science teaching methods and their preferences for how they would like to study science. The survey data were collected from 3,626 grade 9 students (1,772 girls and 1,832 boys)…
Kilic, Kerem; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Tekkaya, Ceren
The purpose of this study was to investigate the 9th-grade students' understandings of the nature of scientific knowledge. The study also aimed to investigate the differences in students' understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge by gender, and school types. A total of 575 ninth grade students from four different school types (General…
Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2010
Giving children high-quality preschool is the first step in the journey to school success. The next steps--kindergarten through 3rd grade--are equally important. Advocates for Children of New Jersey (ACNJ) is working on several fronts to help school districts across the state build strong early learning programs, which can significantly improve…
Lopez-Pastor, Victor M.; Fernandez-Balboa, Juan-Miguel; Santos Pastor, Maria L.; Aranda, Antonio Fraile
This study was undertaken at three teacher education programmes and was designed to determine the following within each programme: (1) the reliability correlations among students' self-grade (SSG), the grade granted by the professor (PG) and the negotiated final grade (NFG); (2) the range and frequency of grade differences between SSG and PG; and…
Purcell, Jennifer M.
First-year undergraduate students enter college with varying expectations, motivations, and goals and are being bombarded with messages about the importance of grades, sometimes to the detriment of learning. This descriptive, cross-sectional study employs LOGO II to describe the learning and grade orientations of first-year students and identify…
Taylor, P. Mark; Simms, Ken; Kim, Ok-Kyeong; Reys, Robert E.
Examines released metric items from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 3rd and 4th grade results. Recommends refocusing instruction on the metric system to improve student performance in measurement. (KHR)
Aaron, Michael D.
The relationship between attendance policies and student grades in college courses was investigated. Specifically, a calculated grade point average was determined for all academic classes taught at Shelton State Community College between 2000 and 2008. These grade point averages were compared descriptively and statistically in an effort to…
This study examines factors contributing to the poor academic performance of tenth grade high school students. Throughout my eight years teaching experience at this grade-level, the one constant from class to class and year-to year is the academic decline. This decline typically starts at the end of ninth grade, becomes obvious and serious in…
Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.
Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…
Trumbull, Elise, Ed.; Farr, Beverly, Ed.
The essays in this collection offer a comprehensive analysis of the challenges of communicating effectively about student achievement. Discussions of concepts related to grading and reporting progress are mixed with practical advice. The chapters are: (1) "Grading Practices; An Overview of the Issues" (Beverly P. Farr); (2) "Why Do We Grade--and…
Osen, Deborah K.
A study was conducted to determine how well gifted students in grades 4-6 should be reading and whether traditional reading expectancy formulas are useful in predicting reading achievement of gifted students in the upper elementary grades. The total reading scores on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (Form Q2) for 624 fourth and sixth graders…
Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Shuaili, Ali H.; Taylor, Neil
The current study, undertaken in the Sultanate of Oman, explored twelfth grade students' common misconceptions in seven chemistry conceptual areas. The sample included 786 twelfth grade students in Oman while the instrument was a two-tier test called Chemistry Misconceptions Diagnostic Test (CMDT), consisting of 25 items with 12 items…
Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Choi, Soyoung; Charusombat, Umarporn
The purpose of this study was to investigate seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change. The study was descriptive in nature and involved the collection of qualitative data from 91 seventh grade students from three different schools in the Midwest, USA. An open response and draw and explain assessment instrument was…
Pedrini, Bonnie; Pedrini, D. T.
Shows that attrition/persistence (dropouts or students not continuously enrolled versus students continuously enrolled) is the primary, significant, single variate in the prediction of grades, and that attrition/persistence and American College Test (ACT) scores are the significant multiple variates in the prediction of grade point average. (RL)
Armstrong, Michael J.
This experiment enabled undergraduate business students to better assess their progress in a course by quantitatively forecasting their own end-of-course grades. This innovation provided them with predictive feedback in addition to the outcome feedback they were already receiving. A total of 144 students forecast their grades using an…
Craney, C. L.; Armstrong, R. W.
Analyzes the relationship between allied health students' (N=304) performance in general chemistry and the American Chemical Society's Toledo Exam (Form 1974), mathematical Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, and high school chemistry grade. Also discusses use of findings to identify students who had a high risk of receiving low grades. (JN)
Sieminski, Sandy; Messenger, Julie; Murphy, Sam
This case study considers students who achieved "borderline" (40-45%) grades in their first assignment on a module, but went on to markedly improve their grades over the course of the module. The students were studying nursing and social work at the UK Open University, and they were all sponsored by employers. Semi-structured telephone…
Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice
This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…
Baer, Judith C.
Faculties across disciplines have noted an increasing number of students who are highly distressed over grades, and this distress is accompanied by pervasive demands on professors. The student behavior takes several forms, including demands for higher grades, expectations of special accommodations by faculty, and the predictions of dire outcomes…
This study investigated urban eighth-grade students' knowledge of energy resources and associated issues including energy acquisition, energy generation, storage and transport, and energy consumption and conservation. A 39 multiple-choice-item energy resources knowledge assessment was completed by 1043 eighth-grade students in urban schools in two…
Sprague, Julie A.
This quantitative study used a validated student survey instrument to collect 182 Midwestern eighth-grade students' perceptions of effective teachers. Balch's (2011) survey was used. The original intent of this survey was to have students rate the effectiveness of one teacher. In this study, students were asked to rate teacher…
Malone, Bobby G.; Nelson, Jacquelyn S.; Nelson, C. Van
Analyzed grades for over 8,000 master's students to determine whether or not there were differences in grading patterns between the A, B, C, D, and F grading system and the new plus/minus grading system. Also studied faculty attitudes on the new grading system. Findings included that grade point averages declined slightly, especially in some…
Federal Student Aid Policy: Can We Learn from Experience? Proceedings of the New York Education Policy Seminar (3rd, Albany, New York, October 1985). [and Discussant Comments]. Rockefeller Institute Conference Proceedings, Number 7, Spring 1986.
McPherson, Michael S.; And Others
This paper examines the problem of determining how effective student aid programs have been in promoting the college enrollment of lower income and disadvantaged students and analyzes the institutional means through which federal aid policies have been implemented. The importance of considering the key role of state and institutional responses to…
Morrell, Patricia D.
Presents a study to design and conduct a three-hour field experience for 3rd and 4th grade students on forestry and forest products, and to determine the cognitive effects of participation in this field trip on the children. Reports an increase in student knowledge after participating in this experience. Discusses the reasons for students'…
In an era of intense fiscal pressures, educators are focusing on those investments most likely to lift student achievement. They are also trying to make more strategic use of existing resources. To achieve these goals, a growing number of policymakers are considering integrated PreK-3rd approaches. Increasingly, they are recognizing that the first…
Center on Education Policy, 2010
This paper provides information about Alabama High School Graduation Exam, 3rd Edition, a comprehensive standards-based exam. The purpose of the exam is to: (1) Provide schools with student academic diagnostic information; (2) Determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum; (3) Increase alignment of local curriculum…
At one time or another, who among us has not marveled at the beauty of the snow and ice-covered Alps, or admired the tenacity of polar explorers and the adventurous spirits of climbers on the glacier-clad summits of the high Himalaya? The fascination of distant ice covered expanses has enlisted more than a few recruits into the ranks of glaciologists, but many, if not most, of today's students of glaciology are a slightly less romantic and more mathematical lot, attracted by the quantitative world of physics and the applied sciences of polar climatology, ice mechanics, and snow hydrology.Once a relatively quiet branch of geophysics filled with venturesome climbers capable of reaching the objects of their study, glaciology is now a field that is fueled by a rapid influx of talent, technology, and new ideas due to the increasingly acknowledged relationships between global climate, sea level, and ice sheets. While the understanding of glacier processes has seen significant progress, as a result there is also a sense of being overwhelmed by the voluminous and sometimes speculative theories and field observations associated with an expanding discipline.
Faulkner, Valerie N.; Crossland, Cathy L.; Stiff, Lee V.
This study investigated the extent to which student performance and teacher perception of student performance affect placement in eighth-grade mathematics classes for students with disabilities. Authors used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten dataset to investigate how each of the following factors predicted placement in…
Fox, Sandra J.
This guide attempts to help teachers of American Indian students in grades 9-12 provide a culturally relevant education that takes place in the regular classroom, includes content related to Indian students' lives, makes students proud, expands to other experiences, and enhances learning. Creating sacred places means responding appropriately to…
Fox, Sandra J.
This guide attempts to help teachers of American Indian students in grades 7-8 provide a culturally relevant education that takes place in the regular classroom, includes content related to Indian students' lives, makes students proud, expands to other experiences, and enhances learning. Creating sacred places means responding appropriately to…
Yuenyong, Chokchai; Yuenyong, Jirakarn
This study explored 30 Grade 1 to 6 (6-12 years old) Thai students' existing ideas about energy. The study employed the Interview about Event (IAE) approach. During IAE, the cards of an event or things were showed to students in order to probe their views of energy concepts. Findings indicated that young students held various alternative…
Many Canadian provinces provide guidelines for teachers to determine students' final grades by combining a percentage of students' scores from provincial large-scale assessments with their term scores. This practice is thought to hold students accountable by motivating them to put effort into completing the large-scale assessment, thereby…
This qualitative study stemmed from a concern of the perceived decline in students' reading motivation after the early years of schooling. The current research explored eight grade 1 students' experiences with online electronic storybooks (eBooks). Eight students were given ten 25-minute sessions with the software programs over 15 weeks.…
Shepardson, Daniel P.; Choi, Soyoung; Niyogi, Dev; Charusombat, Umarporn
This constructivist study investigates 225 student drawings and explanations from three different schools in the midwest in the US, to identify seventh grade students' mental models of the greenhouse effect. Five distinct mental models were derived from an inductive analysis of the content of the students' drawings and explanations: Model 1, a…
The analysis of 8th grade students' concept definitions and concept images can provide information about their mental schema of fractals. There is limited research on students' understanding and definitions of fractals. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the elementary students' definitions of fractals based on concept image and concept…
Anderson, Peter E.; Shepard, Charlotte H.
A minicourse program with students from grades four through eight at the Oregon State School for the Deaf has been rewarding for teachers and students by serving to develop skills in immediate practical areas of the student's experience as well as in developing recreational skills and interests in such activities as chess, mime, and karate, and…
Larson, Joanne; Gatto, Lynn Astarita
This article describes one urban classroom and the language and literacy practices jointly constructed by a veteran urban teacher, Lynn Gatto, and her 3rd grade students. Drawing from two ethnographic studies of Gattos 2nd-4th grade looped classroom, we argue that Gatto and her students use the interplay between strategies and tactics (De Certeau,…
Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy
In an effort to cure the ills of current grading and reporting systems, many schools and districts across the United States have attempted to implement a standards-based system. The authors recommend four best practices in this area: (1) Get rid of the omnibus grade, which tells teachers little about the content measured or the difficulty level of…
Calvo, M. L.; Dolganova, I. N.; Gevorgyan, N.; Guzman, A.; Papoyan, A.; Sarkisyan, H.; Yurchenko, S.
The SPIE.FOCUS Armenia: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications'' (OPTICS-2015) http://rau.am/optics2015/ was held in Yerevan, Armenia, in the period October 1 - 5, 2015. The symposium was organized by the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), the Armenian SPIE student chapter with collaboration of the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-PYRKAL, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the SPIE & OSA student chapters of BMSTU, the Armenian OSA student chapter, and the SPIE student chapters of Lund University and Wroclaw University of Technology. The symposium OPTICS-2015 was dedicated to the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies. OPTICS-2015 was devoted to modern topics and optical technologies such as: optical properties of nanostructures, silicon photonics, quantum optics, singular optics & its applications, laser spectroscopy, strong field optics, biomedical optics, nonlinear & ultrafast optics, photonics & fiber optics, and mathematical methods in optics. OPTICS-2015 was attended by 100 scientists and students representing 17 countries: Armenia, China, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Ukraine, and USA. Such a broad international community confirmed the important mission of science to be a uniting force between different countries, religions, and nations. We hope that OPTICS-2015 inspired and motivated students and young scientists to work in optics and in science in general. The present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes proceedings of the symposium covering various aspects of modern problems in optics. We are grateful to all people who were involved in the organization process. We gratefully acknowledge support from
Penna, Albert A.; Tallerico, Marilyn
There are numerous factors associated with not finishing high school. The purpose of this student was to shed new light on one of them, grade retention, as seen through the eyes of retained dropouts themselves. Respondents describe three interrelated phenomena that characterized their trajectory from being retained-in-grade to subsequent premature…
Rebeck, Ken; Walstad, William B.
The authors use U.S. public and private high school transcripts to analyze grade distribution patterns in economics courses across student and school characteristics, and compare these grades to those earned in other selected high school courses. Results are reported for the 53 percent of 2009 high school graduates who took a basic economics…
Larseingue, Matt; Sawyer, Chris R.; Finn, Amber N.
Although previous research has linked students' expected grades to numerous pedagogical variables, this factor has been all but ignored by instructional communication scholars. In the present study, 315 undergraduates were presented with grading scenarios representing differing combinations of course rigor, teacher immediacy, and student…
Hammonds, Frank; Mariano, Gina
Research on variables related to test performance has produced mixed results. Typically, research of this type involves only a few variables. In an attempt to obtain a more complete picture, we investigated how test grades might be related to variables such as classification, student seating location, test completion time, predicted grade, time…
Mitchinson, Don F.
Written for sixth grade students in the Geneva Public Schools (Geneva, New York) and for their parents, this booklet provides general and specific information to prepare them for a 3-day outdoor field experience that is part of the sixth grade curriculum in outdoor studies. The booklet begins with a definition of environmental education and a…
The research project will be conducted with a target focus group of six students who have been identified as struggling students in 3rd grade mathematics. The research project will study the effect of using different teaching strategies and methods to increase motivation and focus among these students. The research project will be conducted at…
Kamei, Miwako; Imoto, Yumi; Otowa, Ryo; Shida, Miharu; Hirai, Yumi; Nakamura, Akihiro
In August 2013, the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan held the Third National Student Workshop in Tokyo. A total of 88 people-70 sixth-year undergraduate students from 70 universities, and 18 alumni who had participated in the First and the Second Workshops-attended this Workshop. The theme of this Workshop was "Contribution to medical care and society: How will I act as a pharmacist in the future?" The first day took the form of a World Café, with participants exchanging information on such topics as, "The purpose for choosing a pharmacy major, and my achievement status", "My favorite aspects of my college", and "My dreams and paths: Painting my future image". Later that day, participants discussed and gave presentations on the ways they would be contributing as pharmacists to society and medical care. On the second day, participants discussed and gave presentations on the efforts they would like to make as pharmacists to contribute to society and medical care. The final session was a general assembly for discussion on the ways they would be contributing as pharmacists to society and medical care. Throughout the two days, attendees participated in discussions with an awareness of their common ground, in that they all had national qualification in spite of different intended paths. In this article, 4 sixth-year students (their status at the time of the symposium) from the Workshop introduce outlines of the discussions and products from each group. PMID:25759037
Méndez, A.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Guerrero, F.; Gascó, J. M.; Saá, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gascó, G.
The adaptation of the Universities to European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves changes in the learning system. Students must obtain specific capabilities in the different degrees or masters. For example, in the degree of Agronomy at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain), they must command mathematics, English informatics or crop production. Moreover, students must attain personal skills such as leadership, team work, a critical spirit and a social, environmental and ethical commitment with the environment and the society. A way to evaluate the critical spirit of the students is to compare the grade obtained in a specific module with the grade that the students think he should get. The aim of this work is to evaluate the differences between teacher and student grading in different subjects related to soil science in different degrees and masters courses at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.
Wagamon, Barbara J.
This study was conducted to determine if analog domains in sixth grade science textbooks were common to the life experience of sixth grade students and if experience differed according to moderating variables. The researcher reviewed three sixth grade general science textbooks and selected analogies that were unsupported by extended text, photos, or diagrams. Analogies were limited to ones which were unsupported because the intent was to identify students who were ready by virtue of life experience to confront analogies unaided by contextual clues. The researcher designed the Life Experiences in Analog Domains (LEAD) Questionnaire to survey students in 50 analog domains. Subjects of the study were 331 sixth grade students from an urban school district. Thirty were tested with the instrument one year later. Data on age, gender, ethnicity and income were analyzed for variance. Standardized achievement test scores were correlated to the LEAD Questionnaire. Results revealed sharp contrasts of experience by analog domain. Experience in analog domains was indicated 52% of the time overall. There were significant differences in the experience of students grouped by moderating variables. Younger students reported more experience than older students. The higher income group reported more experience than the lower income group. Caucasian students reported more experience overall than African American students. Chi-square tests revealed that differences in scores by ethnicity were not controlled by income. of three skills, reading comprehension, mathematics, and science, reading comprehension was most closely correlated to questionnaire score. Results suggest that many of the sixth grade students in the study may be without experience in analog domains when they encounter analogies in a textbook. Assuming subsequent implementations of the Questionnaire confirm these results, teachers should survey life experience of students and help them develop experiences that complement
Gordon, Michael E.; Fay, Charles H.
To examine the antecedents of perceptions of grading fairness, approximately 600 college students were surveyed about the prevalence and desirability of 1) teaching practices that assisted students to prepare for examinations, and 2) common test scoring manipulations used to transform poor scores into acceptable ones (e.g., curving low scores…
Griffith, Catherine Aurentz; Lloyd, John Wills; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Tankersley, Melody
Using National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) data, researchers examined the reading growth rates of secondary students who had been retained between kindergarten and 8th grade and those of a matched comparison group of students who had never been retained (n = 878 in each group). Descriptive statistics and latent growth models revealed that…
This project describes a program designed to improve the music reading abilities of second grade children. The intention is to discover the best possible method of teaching students basic rhythmic and melodic skills. When combined, these skills will not only increase students' understanding of the language of music, but will also increase…
Brooks, Thomas; O'Malley, Kimberly; Ragland, Shelley; Young, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Rob
The authors compared the performance of third-grade students testing on answer sheets with those testing on machine-scored test booklets. The 1,832 students in the nationally representative sample were assigned at the campus level to complete the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition in 1 of 4 conditions: (a) Form A answer sheet, (b)…
Peterson, Shelley Stagg; Portier, Christine
This article examines a grade one teacher's support for her students' writing development through formal peer and teacher feedback. The teacher modelled and provided examples of effective feedback and good writing in whole-class and small-group lessons and in her own one-on-one verbal feedback on student writing. She allocated time for…
Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas
Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…
Metro, Laura J.; And Others
Through a Chicago Public School Program fifth-grade students from different cultures and backgrounds were brought together to experience and learn about a forest environment. These urban students (N=269) completed a brief questionnaire about their previous experiences, perceptions, and expectations regarding forest resources. Findings indicate…
Chulkov, Dmitriy V.
This paper aims to provide evidence on the response of various student types to the use of simple grading incentives. The results show that while the majority of students expend the effort to complete an assignment for credit, this response is not uniform. Using data from six semesters of college Economics classes, the study demonstrates that…
Commare, Colleen C.; Sedlack, Sarah E.
The purpose of this study was designed to increase the reading abilities of students in the targeted first and third grade classes in two elementary schools located in the Midwest. The study involved an action research project highlighting the overall growth of the students' academic achievement through increased reading growth. The study was…
The paper considers the main results and some educational implications of the TIMSS 2003 assessment conducted in Serbia in the fields of the science achievement of Serbian eighth grade students and the science curriculum context of their achievement. There were 4264 students in the sample. It was confirmed that Serbian eighth graders had made…
Hoefer, Peter; Yurkiewicz, Jack; Byrne, John C.
The results of a student evaluation of teaching instrument are analyzed for a semester of classes at a large collegiate business school, at both the graduate and undergraduate academic level. In particular, we concentrate on the relationship between responses to the instrument and student grades. The results show interesting differences,…
Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Curriculum Development Center.
THE FIRST UNIT OF THE STUDENT PACKET FOR GRADE NINE OF THE NEBRASKA ENGLISH CURRICULUM IS A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIPS WHICH EXIST BETWEEN AUTHOR AND AUDIENCE, AND AN EXAMINATION OF THE EPIGRAM, LIMERICK, PARABLE, FABLE, AND ODE. WITH THIS BACKGROUND, STUDENTS CONSIDER "ON AVARICE" AND "ANIMAL FARM" AS EXAMPLES OF FORMAL AND MENIPPEAN SATIRE,…
Leavy, Aisling M.; Middleton, James A.
This study addresses the measures chosen by students when selecting or constructing indices to properties of distributions of data. A series of individual teaching experiments were conducted to provide insight into the development of five 4th to 8th grade students' conceptualizations of distribution over the course of 8 weeks of instruction.…
Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Curriculum Development Center.
THE SEVENTH-GRADE STUDENT PACKET, PRODUCED BY THE NEBRASKA CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTER, BEGINS WITH THE UNIT ENTITLED "THE MAKING OF STORIES" IN WHICH STUDENTS CONSIDER WRITERS' AUDIENCES AND METHODS OF COMPOSITION AND PRESENTATION. SUCH MATERIAL AS "A CHRISTMAS CAROL" AND SELECTIONS FROM "THE ODYSSEY,""BEOWULF,""HYMN TO HERMES," AND GRIMM'S…
Zousel, Miranda L.; Rule, Audrey C.; Logan, Stephanie R.
This experimental study compared concept acquisition and enjoyment of learning about perfectionism under two conditions: bibliotherapy (control) and analysis and construction of cartoons (experimental) in first, second and third grade students (N = 46). Posttest results showed students learned significantly more content in the experimental…
Wang, Chuang; Algozzine, Bob; Ma, Wen; Porfeli, Erik
The importance of reading fluently is widely recognized in school effectiveness, reform, and improvement efforts of the educational community, yet there are few large-scale, structured assessments of the progression of students' reading rates over time. This study documented 2nd-grade students' oral reading rates on the basis of fall, winter, and…
Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Curriculum Development Center.
THE 11TH-GRADE COURSE OF STUDY IN AMERICAN LITERATURE PRESENTED IN THE STUDENT PACKET FOR THE NEBRASKA ENGLISH CURRICULUM BEGINS WITH A UNIT ENTITLED "INDIVIDUALISM AND IDEALISM" IN WHICH STUDENTS ANALYZE SPIRITUAL AUTOBIOGRAPHIES BY EMERSON, THOREAU, WHITMAN, AND DICKINSON. NEXT, THE THEME OF SIN AND LONELINESS AS IT LIMITS INDIVIDUALISM IS…
Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Curriculum Development Center.
THE STUDENT PACKET FOR GRADE 10 OF THE NEBRASKA ENGLISH CURRICULUM BEGINS WITH FOUR UNITS ON LITERATURE, EACH STRESSING AN ASPECT OF MAN'S CONCEPTION OF THE WORLD. THROUGH A STUDY OF THE LITERATURE OF SEVERAL CULTURES, WRITTEN AT VARIOUS TIMES, STUDENTS FIRST CONSIDER "MAN AND NATURE, MAN'S PICTURE OF NATURE." THE SECOND UNIT, "MAN AND SOCIETY,…
This article features a case study of the written and illustrative text produced by one Grade 7 student, Stefinia, and discusses the metaleptic transgressions evident in the book she created as the culminating activity of a research project. Stefinia was a participant in a classroom-based study that explored how developing students' knowledge of…
Wright-Castro, Rosina; Ramirez, Rosita; Duran, Richard
This study investigated the instructional grouping practices utilized by teachers in two sixth grade classrooms in a southern California elementary school, noting how Hispanic American students in the classrooms perceived those grouping practices and how perceptions of grouping practices compared across Latino students in different ability groups.…
Ashworth, John; Evans, Lynne
Explores evidence of English student interest and achievement in their chosen A-level subjects. Focuses on economics among ten major A-level subjects. Concludes that students may be discouraged to study A-level economics by severe grading at the mid-point of A-level study. Includes references. (CMK)
Abbott, Lindsey; Dornbush, Abby; Giddings, Anne; Thomas, Jennifer
In the action research project report, the teacher researchers found that many kindergarten and first-grade students did not have the reading readiness skills to be reading at their benchmark target. The purpose of the project was to improve the students overall reading ability. The dates of the project began on September 8 through December 20,…
Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.
The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…
Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.
Student achievement in mathematics at the sixth-grade level was assessed in this study. A sample of 4,047 students under 160 teachers in 114 schools, 26 school districts, and 10 counties are given a criterion-referenced mathematics test. The McGraw-Hill Prescriptive Mathematics Inventory (PMI-Aqua Level) was selected for use in this pilot program.…
Ross, Beth; Simone, Nancy
The reading interests of 300 tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students were surveyed and compared to those revealed in previous research. The results indicated that the amount of time students reported reading outside of school per day has decreased slightly since a 1961 study by P. Witty, with females still reading more than males. As in the…
Boatright-Horowitz, Su L.; Arruda, Chris
College students' categorical perceptions of numeric and alphabetic grades were examined by assigning participants to one of four conditions: numeric grades alphabetic grades, numeric non-grades and alphabetic non-grades. They were then asked to give ratings for each possible grade or non-grade, using a 10-point scale. Factor analysis revealed…
Truesdell, L A; Abramson, T
This study examined the relationship between the classroom behaviors and final grades of mainstreamed students with mild disabilities in three urban schools in Grades 3-9. Significant correlations were found for all academic behaviors except attendance and homework at the elementary level and written work at the junior high level. In addition, significant differences in reading scores were found between mainstreamed and regular elementary school students. Findings indicate that mainstreamed students with mild disabilities may participate in academic lessons as well or nearly as well as their peers without disabilities. PMID:1582434
Simzar, Rahila M.; Domina, Thurston; Tran, Cathy
This study uses student panel data to examine the association between Algebra placement and student motivation for mathematics. Changes in achievement goals, expectancy, and task value for students in eighth grade Algebra are compared with those of peers placed in lower-level mathematics courses (N = 3,306). In our sample, students placed in Algebra reported an increase in performance-avoidance goals as well as decreases in academic self-efficacy and task value. These relations were attenuated for students who had high mathematics achievement prior to Algebra placement. Whereas all students reported an overall decline in performance-approach goals over the course of eighth grade, previously high-achieving students reported an increase in these goals. Lastly, previously high-achieving students reported an increase in mastery goals. These findings suggest that while previously high-achieving students may benefit motivationally from eighth grade Algebra placement, placing previously average- and low-performing students in Algebra can potentially undermine their motivation for mathematics. PMID:26942210
Froman, Terry; Luzon-Canasi, Angela
Beginning in the 2002-03 school year, the revised Florida School Code required 3rd grade students to demonstrate reading proficiency by scoring at level 2 or higher on the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). If not, the student must be retained, unless exempted from mandatory retention for special circumstances…
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.
The major purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of tutoring to remediate 3rd-grade computational deficits and to explore whether remediation is differentially efficacious depending on whether students experience mathematics difficulty alone or concomitantly with reading difficulty. At 2 sites, 127 students were stratified on…
English, Lyn D.
This paper argues for a renewed focus on statistical reasoning in the beginning school years, with opportunities for children to engage in data modelling. Results are reported from the first year of a 3-year longitudinal study in which three classes of first-grade children (6-year-olds) and their teachers engaged in data modelling activities. The…
Avraamova, E. M.
Recent changes to the budgetary basis of schools in Russia has received a mixed response from parents, with a variety of views on whether the quality of education is being improved. Reductions in state support for preschool education raises questions about the ability of less affluent parents to prepare their children for first grade. Perhaps more…
Duncan, Douglas K.; Hoekstra, A.; Wilcox, B.
There is considerable pressure on faculty members to use technology in teaching. Students also bring technology into class in the form of laptop computers, smart phones, and iPads. Does this technology increase or decrease learning? We report two years of data studying 14 different classes with a total of approximately 1200 students. We find that, on the average, approximately 70% of students use their own digital devices during class and 30% do not. The grades earned by the former group average nearly half a grade point average lower than the non-use group. Faculty policies are found to dramatically influence student behavior. Extensive student interview data will be reported that shows that students expect faculty members to set technology policies and summarizes their attitudes about technology use.
Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
Background: Despite much discussion on the role of education policy on school and student performance, we know little about the effects of school spending at the margin on student cognitive achievement beyond the effects of class size. Purpose: The paper examines the effects of annual ninth grade classroom hours in literacy and maths on ninth…
In twenty years of teaching, the author has never been involved in a project that sparked as much enthusiasm from students, parents, the administration, and other teachers as the Entrepreneur Fair. In an effort to challenge students to become entrepreneurs, the author developed a one-day market called the Entrepreneur Fair at Stonewall Elementary…
This study examined the predictive relationship of fifth-, sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students' final numerical grades for mathematics and communication arts (e.g., English or language arts) and their standardized scores on the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP). It examined the relationship between students' performance on the MAP in the…
Eaton, Janet F.; And Others
This study examines the relationship between student misconceptions and learning by focusing on six fifth-grade students as they attempt to make sense of classroom instruction on light and seeing. Pretests, posttests, and classroom observation narratives served as student data. Pretests indicate that students held the misconception that sight is…
From October 14th to 16th 2014, The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality, and Technology (Inmetro) and the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) organized the 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (3rd CIMMEC). The 3rd CIMMEC was held in the city of Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Anticipating the interest and enthusiasm of the technical-scientific community, the Organizing Institutions invite people and organizations to participate in this important congress, reiterating the commitment to organize an event according to highest international standards. This event has been conceived to integrate people and organizations from Brazil and abroad in the discussion of advanced themes in metrology. Manufacturers and dealers of measuring equipment and standards, as well as of auxiliary accessories and bibliographic material, had the chance to promote their products and services in stands at the Fair, which has taken place alongside the Congress. The 3rd CIMMEC consisted of five Keynote Speeches and 116 regular papers. Among the regular papers, the 25 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Mechanical Metrology, were selected to be published in this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series to the scientific community to promote further research in Mechanical Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by CIMMEC 2014.
Rogers, Forbes W.; Bloom, Kathryn
The Alliance for Arts Education is an educational project embracing organizations and individuals at the national, state, and local levels with a mutual commitment to the arts as an integral part of the educational process. The JDR 3rd Fund provides consultant and technical services and, through coordination of the League of Cities for the Arts in…
Guillaume, Darrell W.; Khachikian, Crist Simon
The effects of students' attitudes on time devoted to a course (i.e. time-on-task), and the subsequent effects of this time-on-task on their performance in the course and their overall grade point average (GPA) were studied. Over a three-year period, engineering students (N = 231) were surveyed in weeks one, three, seven (after midterms) and 10…
Bartley, Jane A.
This study used existing third-grade ISTEP+ data from a cohort of Evansville Vanderburgh School Corporation students to evaluate various non-experimental methods for estimating teacher effects on student test scores. The study considered the impact that first-, second-, and third-grade teachers had on student performance as measured by the Indiana…
O'Hanlon, Angela L.
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of pacing and scheduling of algebra coursework on assigned 9th-grade students who traditionally would qualify for pre-algebra instruction and same course 9th-grade students who traditionally would qualify for standard algebra instruction. Students were selected based on completion of first-year…
Fink, Louise L.
This study analyzed the effect of school/grade configuration for regular and special education students in K-8 schools and middle schools. The analysis looked at the effect of grade configuration on two outcomes: student achievement and student attendance. The study followed a cohort of fifth graders (regular and special education) through sixth,…
Since teachers know that students and parents will not rate them as kindly as fellow educators, most attempts to add these voices have been resisted. Although some districts have managed to overcome teacher skepticism and hostility, only 1 percent of U.S. school districts use 360-degree evaluation regularly. (MLH)
Miller, Nichole; DeLapp, Renee; Driscoll, Richard
Given the high incidence of test-anxiety impairment and the need to treat more students, the study was undertaken to assess a group-administered intervention requiring a minimum of staff hours. An "active control" training was used which has been shown to provide strong anxiety reduction and respectable test score gains in prior studies. The…
Abbott, Martin L.; Joireman, Jeff
This study examined the relationships between students' academic achievement, income level, and ethnicity using aggregate school 3rd and 6th grade Iowa Test of Basic Skills scores for 1999 and 2000, 4th grade Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) scores for 1999 and 2000, and 7th grade WASL scores for 1999 for all schools in Washington…
Styron, Ronald Anthony; Peasant, Eddie J.
This study focused on student achievement in ninth grade schools or academies compared to ninth grade students enrolled in traditional high schools. Student achievement was measured by standardized test scores. Other variables tested were gender and ethnicity. All students used in this study were enrolled in the ninth grade during the 2005-2006…
Counelis, James Steve
This report supplements the first South East Education Development project (SEED) on first grade children. Full and partial records of 624 second grade students and 591 third grade students are the basis of this diagnostic review. The empirical data obtained for the SEED project students included: each student's sex and number of full days in…
Eyers, Vivian George
To develop environmental education in Australia, a survey of tenth-grade students was undertaken. Thirty knowledge items and ten belief items were constructed. A panel of environmentalists and educators identified best responses for the knowledge items, and a common reference point, preservation of homo sapiens, for the belief items, so a…
College students planning to major in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields often drop out of those fields because of poorer than expected grades, according to a recent study. Conducted by Ralph Stinebrickner of Berea College in Kentucky and Todd Stinebrickner of the University of Western Ontario, the study is a National Bureau of Economic Research working paper published in June 2013.
Hassan, Abdulhameed S.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.
This study investigated the ability of discriminate variables (perceptual-motor, hyperactivity disorder, neurological and psychological skills) to distinguish between normal (n = 68) and students with learning disabilities (n = 72) in fourth grade. Three instruments were developed: perceptual-motor scale, hyperactivity disorder scale, skills test…
Casey, Heidi Van Ert; Wolf, Joan S.
The study with 34 gifted fifth-grade students found that a concrete sequential approach to developing visual literacy was more effective than an abstract visualization approach. Subjects either received guided visualization or direct instruction on such art concepts as shape, form, line, color, perspective, variety, and unity. (DB)
Greening, Gary A.
Presented are science units for kindergarten and first-grade classes which include one or more non-verbal test items constructed to determine whether the student has learned the material presented in the unit. Units include: light, senses, gerbils, beans and peas, animal activities, and hatching chicks. (SL)
Cappellari, Lorenzo; Lucifora, Claudio; Pozzoli, Dario
This paper investigates the determinants of grades achieved in maths by first-year students in economics. We use individual administrative data from 1993 to 2005 to fit an educational production function. Our main findings suggest that good secondary school achievements and the type of school attended are significantly associated with maths…
Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet
Very little information exists about children's prior knowledge and thinking (including misconceptions) about transportation, a topic commonly taught in elementary social studies. To develop such information, individual interviews were conducted with 96 K-3 students, stratified according to grade level, achievement level, and gender. The students…
Economopoulos, Marjorie P.
Challenging problems and project ideas for mathematically able students in grades 5 and 6 are reviewed. Number patterns are viewed as a good tool to introduce inductive and deductive thinking. Applications of mathematics in sales, the stock market, opinion polls, weather prediction, and other areas are discussed. (MP)
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Curriculum Services.
Intended for use by teachers, consultants and administrators, the booklet discusses social science instruction for gifted students in grades 7-9. An introductory section provides an overview of goals and parameters of the social sciences (psychology, sociology, and anthropology). The scientific research process is described in terms of five steps,…
Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.
This booklet is a collection of writing by ninth-grade students taken from the 1987 and 1988 Canadian Territorial Achievement Tests. The booklet's 70 pieces of writing include essays on education in the Northwest Territory, narratives on how the best laid plans can go wrong, humorous treatments on uses for chewing gum and the best ways to keep…
Brookhart, Susan M.
Grades should reflect and help motivate learning. This book illustrates ways teachers can shift their practices to conduct accurate, constructive assessments that not only maintain the integrity of essential education objectives, but also motivate students and enhance learning. Through detailed strategies, educators will learn how to grade…
Constructionist learning is characterized by three principles: "learning-by-making,""holistic learning," and a freedom to choose learning styles. This paper describes a project with second grade homeschooling students that tested the feasibility of using HyperCard as a medium for constructionist learning. The "worlds" project took 6 weeks. The…
Hernthaisong, Preeyanan; Sitti, Somsong; Sonsupap, Kanyarat
The objectives of this research were to study the development of a curriculum for enhancing grade 9 students' cognitive skills using a curriculum based on Systems Thinking Process. There were 3 phases: 1) studying of the problem; 2) development of tentative curriculum; and 3) implementation of the curriculum in a pilot study. The samples were 32…
Covey, Barbara L.
Prepared for use by teachers of mentally gifted students in grades 7 through 9, the booklet offers a curriculum design for the teaching of literature. Considered is the difficult developmental stage in late childhood and early adolescence when children begin to assert their roles as individuals and often have no adult model other than the friendly…
Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Fejes, Andreas; Abrandt-Dahlgren, Madeleine; Trowald, Nils
The Bologna process aims at harmonising the higher education systems in the Europe. One of the most important tools proposed for such a purpose is the European Credit Transfer System. A significant element of this system is a common seven-step grading scale. It has previously been shown that assessment characteristics impact on students'…
Citrus County Board of Public Instruction, Inverness, FL.
This collection of booklets deals with minumum standards in mathematics for beginning eleventh grade students. There is a statement of the standards with related skills, a test to assess competency with accompanying answer sheet and answer key, and eight booklets presenting problems covered by six of the standards. The booklets cover: percentages;…
Cooney, Sondra; Lasater, Beth
"Making Middle Grades Work" ("MMGW") is a school improvement design developed by the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) and its member states. "MMGW" is built on research-based instructional practices and policies. The design combines challenging yet attainable goals with accountability that encourages teachers, supports students and results…
Morris, Ronald Vaughan
This article discusses a campaign called STIR: Stop Tobacco in Restaurants, that was started by fourth and fifth grade students. The goal was to end smoking in public places, including restaurants, bowling alleys, sports bars, and pool halls. For two years they motivated their peers, coordinated an information campaign to urge kids and adults to…
Kurth, Jennifer; Gross, Megan; Lovinger, Stephanie; Catalano, Tammy
The present study describes teacher (K-12) opinions and practices related to grading and providing modified instruction, assignments, and assessments for students with low-incidence disabilities in inclusive settings. One hundred and thirty nine teachers working in K-12 inclusive schools in Arizona and California completed an on-line survey…
Watson, Jane M.
This study documented efforts to facilitate ideas of beginning inference in novice grade 7 students. A design experiment allowed modified teaching opportunities in light of observation of components of a framework adapted from that developed by Pfannkuch for teaching informal inference with box plots. Box plots were replaced by hat plots, a…
De Abreu, Belinha
Most seventh grade students partially define themselves through everyday media messages. As a part of understanding how these images and the media impacts their lives, the author collaborated with her colleagues to develop a unit to help teens learn how visual messages such as those in pictures, media icons, logos, slogans, clothing, toys, and…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
This annotated bibliography of Spanish materials for students in grades seven through twelve is divided into the following categories: (1) Art, Drama, Music, and Poetry; (2) Books in Series; (3) Culture; (4) Dictionaries and Encyclopedias; (5) Literature; (6) Mathematics; (7) Physical Education, Health, and Recreation; (8) Reading and Language…
Shakirova, D. M.
The basic purpose of shaping college students' and upper-grade school students' critical thinking, as well as that of adults who do not have established skills of thinking creatively, is to expand their thinking competences in order to deal effectively with social, scientific, and practical problems. In the process of teaching uppergrade students,…
Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Graham, Donna L.; Dixon, Bruce L.
In fall 2005, the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences at the University of Arkansas authorized the optional use of a plus/minus grading system. Since 2005, approximately one-half of courses have been graded using plus/minus and one-half using the straight letter grade system. This study examined student (n = 338) and…
Within diverse classrooms, sometimes teachers need extra assistance to reach all students. This quantitative research design was used to determine the affects of math intervention on student achievement. Students in this study were selected by their "Not Met" PASS scores from their 3rd grade year. A survey assessing student attitudes…
Barkoukis, V; Taylor, I; Chanal, J; Ntoumanis, N
Enhancing students' academic engagement is the key element of the educational process; hence, research in this area has focused on understanding the mechanisms that can lead to increased academic engagement. The present study investigated the relation between motivation and grades in physical education (PE) employing a 3-year longitudinal design. Three hundred fifty-four Greek high school students participated in the study. Students completed measures of motivation to participate in PE on six occasions; namely, at the start and the end of the school year in the first, second, and third year of junior high school. Students' PE grades were also recorded at these time points. The results of the multilevel growth models indicated that students' PE grades increased over the 3 years and students had better PE grades at the end of each year than at the beginning of the subsequent year. In general, students and classes with higher levels of controlling motivation achieved lower PE grades, whereas higher levels of autonomous motivation were associated with higher PE grades. These findings provide new insight on the associations between class- and individual-level motivation with objectively assessed achievement in PE. PMID:24433528
McCaslin, Mary; Burross, Heidi Legg; Good, Thomas L.
In this article we examine student performance on mandated tests in grades 3, 4, and 5 in one state. We focus on this interval, which w e term "the fourth grade window," based on our hypothesis that students in grade four are particularly vulnerable to decrements in achievement. The national focus on the third grade as the critical benchmark in…
Hales, Loyde W.; Fenner, Bradford
Self Realization, Job Security, Money, and Altruism were found to be the most important work values, with 5th and 8th grade students differing from 11th grade students on Altruism and Self Realization. (Author)
... Department of the Army Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR...: Notice of Availability (NOA). SUMMARY: The Department of the Army announces a ROD for conversion of the... conversion, the 3rd ACR will provide the Army with a force structure that has the flexibility to...
Defferbaugh, Kim B.; And Others
Assessed substance use by 2,125 students in grades 4 through 12 and explored differences between students' reported substance use and parents' perceptions of student use. While all parents believed that some students were using cigarettes, alcohol, or marijuana, they underestimated percentage of students in their child's grade who reported use of…
Johnson, Delonda; Jones, Lisa; Simieou, Felix; Matthew, Kathryn; Morgan, Bryan
This study utilized a causal comparative (ex post facto) design to determine if a consistent relationship existed between fifth-grade students' success on the Science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) at the elementary (K-5) level in comparison to fifth-grade students' success on the science TAKS at the intermediate (5-6)…
Poorthuis, Astrid M. G.; Juvonen, Jaana; Thomaes, Sander; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A. G.
Receiving report card grades is psychologically salient to most students and can elicit a range of affective reactions. A 3-wave longitudinal study examined how grades shape students' (N = 375; M age at Wave 1 = 12.6 years) school engagement through the affective reactions they elicit. Emotional and behavioral engagement were measured at the start…
Munk, Dennis D.; Bursuck, William D.
Do seemingly motivated students with learning disabilities work hard in general education classes only to receive lower grades than their peers? Donahoe and Zigmond (1990) found that 60-70% of students with learning disabilities passed their mainstreaming classes but received a below-average (below a C-) grade. A similar finding was reported by…
Paik, Seoung-Hey; Kim, Hyo-Nam; Cho, Boo-Kyoung; Park, Jae-Won
This study investigates the various conceptions held by K-8th Korean grade students regarding the 'changes of state' and the 'conditions for changes of state'. The study used a sample of five kindergarteners, five secondgrade students, five fourth-grade students, five sixth-grade students, and five eighth-grade students. The 25 students attend…
In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…
Cochrane, Donald Brian
The goal of scientific literacy requires that students develop an understanding of the nature of science to assist them in the reasoned acquisition of science concepts and in their future role as citizens in a participatory democracy. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the range of positions that grade six students hold with respect to the nature of science and to investigate whether gender or prior science education was related to students' views of the nature of science. Two grade six classes participated in this study. One class was from a school involved in a long-term elementary science curriculum project. The science curriculum at this school involved constructivist epistemology and pedagogy and a realist ontology. The curriculum stressed hands-on, open-ended activities and the development of science process skills. Students were frequently involved in creating and testing explanations for physical phenomena. The second class was from a matched school that had a traditional science program. Results of the study indicated that students hold a wider range of views of the nature of science than previously documented. Student positions ranged from having almost no understanding of the nature of science to those expressing positions regarding the nature of science that were more developed than previous studies had documented. Despite the range of views documented, all subjects held realist views of scientific knowledge. Contrary to the literature, some students were able to evaluate a scientific theory in light of empirical evidence that they had generated. Results also indicated that students from the project school displayed more advanced views of the nature of science than their matched peers. However, not all students benefited equally from their experiences. No gender differences were found with respect to students' understanding of the nature of science.
McCann, S. J. H.; Fisher, R. J.
The interactions of teacher directiveness and student authoritarianism, teacher directiveness and student dogmatism, teacher authoritarianism and student authoritarianism, and teacher dogmatism and student dogmatism were examined in terms of variance in grades and satisfaction. (JC)
In a bid to help more students read proficiently in 3rd grade--a skill considered critical to their future educational success--new laws and initiatives springing up around the country require educators to step up their efforts to identify and help struggling readers even before they enter kindergarten. It's not unusual for states or school…
The current study is a qualitative case study that investigated the writing development of seven Chinese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) from kindergarten and 3rd-grade ESL classes in an elementary school in the Midwest and intended to discover the factors that affect students' English writing development in a one-year period.…
Bakoban, R. A.; Aljarallah, S. A.
Extracurricular activities (ECA) are part of students' everyday life; they play important roles in students' lives. Few studies have addressed the question of how student engagements to ECA affect student's grade point average (GPA). This research was conducted to know whether the students' grade point average in King Abdulaziz University,…
Students rarely use their graded exams to study. An alternative method of grading exams, based on self-reflection, encourages students to use their mistakes as a learning resource. In this grading method, the test is returned with each question simply marked as "right" or 'wrong." Students can then go over their exams and resubmit them with…
Daab, Marcia J.
This practicum addressed the problem of decreased participation of fifth-grade students in the science fair. At this grade level, the science fair guidelines mandate that students enter a research-type project. For many fifth-grade students the desire to tackle this monumental task does not match their developing cognitive skills. The literature…
Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.
This study investigates the extent to which teacher-student interactions in fifth grade classrooms are associated with peer behavior in fifth grade, accounting for prior peer functioning. Participants included 894 fifth grade students from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. The quality of teacher-student interactions…
Faust, Phyllis B.; Ennis, Leslie S.; Hodge, William M.
This study examined the relationship between a middle school initiative to develop student voice, interpersonal relationships, and intrapersonal relationships and students' sense of belonging. The literature indicated a strong connection between students' sense of belonging in school and positive outcomes in and out of the classroom (Deci &…
Montgomery, Sarah E.
This article explores the ways that alternative digital media production by elementary students can support education for critical democracy. The article centers on a collaborative, qualitative study in which students in a 3rd-grade class at a Title One school created and disseminated podcasts about issues of historical injustice rooted in the key…
This thematic unit involves 2nd and 3rd grade students in an in-depth study of wild animals and their habitats. The interdisciplinary unit connects knowledge related to art, language arts, applied mathematics, social studies, and science. Students think about different types of animals from around the world and consider how they are alike and…
Pérez Izquierdo, Victoria; Alvarez Muñiz, Manuel
The 3rd Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Health Economics took place at Havana Convention Center from 28th to 31st October 2008. The conference was an excellent opportunity for the exchange of personal encounters regarding health economics and its related disciplines from the perspectives of research, teaching and management. Specialists from mostly Latin American countries attended the event. High-ranking specialists from other countries highlighted the importance and popularity of the conference. A total of 313 delegates from 23 countries were present at the congress, 160 of whom were Cuban. PMID:19371176
Olson, G. B.; Jou, H.-J.; Jung, J.; Sebastian, J. T.; Misra, A.; Locci, I.; Hull, D.
In support of application of the DARPA-AIM methodology to the accelerated hybrid thermal process optimization of 3rd generation aeroturbine disc alloys with quantified uncertainty, equilibrium and diffusion couple experiments have identified available fundamental thermodynamic and mobility databases of sufficient accuracy. Using coherent interfacial energies quantified by Single-Sensor DTA nucleation undercooling measurements, PrecipiCalc(TM) simulations of nonisothermal precipitation in both supersolvus and subsolvus treated samples show good agreement with measured gamma particle sizes and compositions. Observed longterm isothermal coarsening behavior defines requirements for further refinement of elastic misfit energy and treatment of the parallel evolution of incoherent precipitation at grain boundaries.
Native American Scholarship Fund, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.
This proceedings contains presentations and workshop summaries from the 3rd Annual Exemplary Institute for educators of Native American students. Presentations include: "Quality in Learning: Romancing the Journey" (quality management at Mount Edgecumbe High School, Alaska) (Todd Bergman); "Creating a School-wide Literacy Climate" (Sig Boloz); "How…
Vo, Tina; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina V.
Elementary teachers play a crucial role in supporting and scaffolding students' model-based reasoning about natural phenomena, particularly complex systems such as the water cycle. However, little research exists to inform efforts in supporting elementary teachers' learning to foster model-centered, science learning environments. To address this need, we conducted an exploratory multiple-case study using qualitative research methods to investigate six 3rd-grade teachers' pedagogical reasoning and classroom instruction around modeling practices (construct, use, evaluate, and revise) and epistemic considerations of scientific modeling (generality/abstraction, evidence, mechanism, and audience). Study findings show that all teachers emphasized a subset of modeling practices-construction and use-and the epistemic consideration of generality/abstraction. There was observable consistency between teachers' articulated conceptions of scientific modeling and their classroom practices. Results also show a subset of the teachers more strongly emphasized additional epistemic considerations and, as a result, better supported students to use models as sense-making tools as well as representations. These findings provide important evidence for developing elementary teacher supports to scaffold students' engagement in scientific modeling.
Liller, Karen D; Perrin, Karen; Nearns, Jodi; Pesce, Karen; Crane, Nancy B; Gonzalez, Robin R
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MORE HEALTH "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-graders in Pinellas County, Florida. Six schools representative of various socioeconomic levels were selected as the test sites. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. A total of 433 matched pretests/posttests were used to determine the effectiveness of the class in increasing student knowledge about firearm safety. The results revealed a significant increase in the mean scores on the posttest compared with the pretest. Qualitative findings showed the lesson was positively received by both students and teachers, and 65% of responding students reported discussing the lesson with family members. School nurses are encouraged to take a leading role in promoting firearm injury prevention to students. PMID:14622039
Thron, Jonathan; Karpius, Peter; Santi, Peter; Smith, Morag; Vo, Duc; Williams, Richard
Attribute measurement systems (AMS) are designed to measure potentially sensitive items containing Special Nuclear Materials to determine if the items possess attributes which fall within an agreed-upon range. Such systems could be used in a treaty to inspect and verify the identity of items in storage without revealing any sensitive information associated with the item. An AMS needs to satisfy two constraints: the host party needs to be sure that none of their sensitive information is released, while the inspecting party wants to have confidence that the limited amount of information they see accurately reflects the properties of the item being measured. The former involves 'certifying' the system and the latter 'authenticating' it. Previous work into designing and building AMS systems have focused more on the questions of certifiability than on the questions of authentication - although a few approaches have been investigated. The next step is to build a 3rd generation AMS which (1) makes the appropriate measurements, (2) can be certified, and (3) can be authenticated (the three generations). This paper will discuss the ideas, options, and process of producing a design for a 3rd generation AMS.
The objective of this program is to model, validate, and predict the precipitation microstructure evolution, using PrecipiCalc (QuesTek Innovations LLC) software, for 3rd generation Ni-based gas turbine disc superalloys during processing and service, with a set of logical and consistent experiments and characterizations. Furthermore, within this program, the originally research-oriented microstructure simulation tool will be further improved and implemented to be a useful and user-friendly engineering tool. In this report, the key accomplishment achieved during the second year (2008) of the program is summarized. The activities of this year include final selection of multicomponent thermodynamics and mobility databases, precipitate surface energy determination from nucleation experiment, multiscale comparison of predicted versus measured intragrain precipitation microstructure in quench samples showing good agreement, isothermal coarsening experiment and interaction of grain boundary and intergrain precipitates, primary microstructure of subsolvus treatment, and finally the software implementation plan for the third year of the project. In the following year, the calibrated models and simulation tools will be validated against an independently developed experimental data set, with actual disc heat treatment process conditions. Furthermore, software integration and implementation will be developed to provide material engineers valuable information in order to optimize the processing of the 3rd generation gas turbine disc alloys.
Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.
This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…
Although most researchers focus on scientists' creativity, students' scientific creativity should be considered, especially for high school and college students. It is generally assumed that most professional creators in science emerge from amateur creators. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between students' scientific creativity and selected variables including creativity, problem finding, formulating hypotheses, science achievement, the nature of science, and attitudes toward science for finding significant predictors of eleventh grade students' scientific creativity. A total of 130 male eleventh-grade students in three biology classes participated in this study. The main instruments included the Test of Divergent Thinking (TDT) for creativity measurement, the Creativity Rating Scale (CRS) and the Creative Activities and Accomplishments Check Lists (CAACL ) for measurement of scientific creativity, the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS) for measurement of the nature of science, and the Science Attitude Inventory II (SAI II) for measurement of attitudes toward science. In addition, two instruments on measuring students' abilities of problem finding and abilities of formulating hypotheses were developed by the researcher in this study. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and stepwise multiple regressions. The major findings suggested the following: (1) students' scientific creativity significantly correlated with some of selected variables such as attitudes toward science, problem finding, formulating hypotheses, the nature of science, resistance to closure, originality, and elaboration; (2) four significant predictors including attitudes toward science, problem finding, resistance to closure, and originality accounted for 48% of the variance of students' scientific creativity; (3) there were big differences between students with a higher and a lower degree of scientific