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Sample records for 3t 3d dynamic

  1. The Holy Grail in diagnostic neuroradiology: 3T or 3D?

    PubMed Central

    Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Wattjes, Mike P.

    2010-01-01

    Many technical developments keep occurring in the field of MRI that could benefit image acquisition in the field of diagnostic neuroradiology. While there is much focus on the potential advantages of 3T and higher field strengths, it is often unclear whether these are cosmetic only, or convey clinically relevant diagnostic value. The increased signal-to-noise at 3T is certainly beneficial in different ways particularly for the acquisition of isotropic 3D sequences like FLAIR. Single-slab 3D sequences can now be obtained with multiple contrasts in clinically attainable data acquisition times and could revolutionize MRI to evolve into a fundamentally multi-planar technique, rather similar to what has happened with the introduction of multi-detector row CT. PMID:21181406

  2. 3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    1998-05-01

    In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.

  3. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  4. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  5. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    provide superior results and insights. We also couple the state model with the dynamic 3D simulation analysis representing events (such as flooding) to determine which (if any) components fail. Not only does the simulation take into account any failed items from the state model, but any failures caused by the simulation are incorporated back into the state model and factored into the overall results. Using this method we incorporate accurate 3D simulation results, eliminate static-based PRA issues, and have time ordered failure information.

  6. Time Efficient 3D Radial UTE Sampling with Fully Automatic Delay Compensation on a Clinical 3T MR Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

    2016-01-01

    This work’s aim was to minimize the acquisition time of a radial 3D ultra-short echo-time (UTE) sequence and to provide fully automated, gradient delay compensated, and therefore artifact free, reconstruction. The radial 3D UTE sequence (echo time 60 μs) was implemented as single echo acquisition with center-out readouts and improved time efficient spoiling on a clinical 3T scanner without hardware modifications. To assess the sequence parameter dependent gradient delays each acquisition contained a quick calibration scan and utilized the phase of the readouts to detect the actual k-space center. This calibration scan does not require any user interaction. To evaluate the robustness of this automatic delay estimation phantom experiments were performed and 19 in vivo imaging data of the head, tibial cortical bone, feet and lung were acquired from 6 volunteers. As clinical application of this fast 3D UTE acquisition single breath-hold lung imaging is demonstrated. The proposed sequence allowed very short repetition times (TR~1ms), thus reducing total acquisition time. The proposed, fully automated k-phase based gradient delay calibration resulted in accurate delay estimations (difference to manually determined optimal delay −0.13 ± 0.45 μs) and allowed unsupervised reconstruction of high quality images for both phantom and in vivo data. The employed fast spoiling scheme efficiently suppressed artifacts caused by incorrectly refocused echoes. The sequence proved to be quite insensitive to motion, flow and susceptibility artifacts and provides oversampling protection against aliasing foldovers in all directions. Due to the short TR, acquisition times are attractive for a wide range of clinical applications. For short T2* mapping this sequence provides free choice of the second TE, usually within less scan time as a comparable dual echo UTE sequence. PMID:26975051

  7. Time Efficient 3D Radial UTE Sampling with Fully Automatic Delay Compensation on a Clinical 3T MR Scanner.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Krämer, Martin; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2016-01-01

    This work's aim was to minimize the acquisition time of a radial 3D ultra-short echo-time (UTE) sequence and to provide fully automated, gradient delay compensated, and therefore artifact free, reconstruction. The radial 3D UTE sequence (echo time 60 μs) was implemented as single echo acquisition with center-out readouts and improved time efficient spoiling on a clinical 3T scanner without hardware modifications. To assess the sequence parameter dependent gradient delays each acquisition contained a quick calibration scan and utilized the phase of the readouts to detect the actual k-space center. This calibration scan does not require any user interaction. To evaluate the robustness of this automatic delay estimation phantom experiments were performed and 19 in vivo imaging data of the head, tibial cortical bone, feet and lung were acquired from 6 volunteers. As clinical application of this fast 3D UTE acquisition single breath-hold lung imaging is demonstrated. The proposed sequence allowed very short repetition times (TR~1ms), thus reducing total acquisition time. The proposed, fully automated k-phase based gradient delay calibration resulted in accurate delay estimations (difference to manually determined optimal delay -0.13 ± 0.45 μs) and allowed unsupervised reconstruction of high quality images for both phantom and in vivo data. The employed fast spoiling scheme efficiently suppressed artifacts caused by incorrectly refocused echoes. The sequence proved to be quite insensitive to motion, flow and susceptibility artifacts and provides oversampling protection against aliasing foldovers in all directions. Due to the short TR, acquisition times are attractive for a wide range of clinical applications. For short T2* mapping this sequence provides free choice of the second TE, usually within less scan time as a comparable dual echo UTE sequence. PMID:26975051

  8. 3D imaging using projected dynamic fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Michael M.; Atkinson, John T.; Harvey, David M.; Hobson, Clifford A.; Lalor, Michael J.

    1994-12-01

    An instrument capable of highly accurate, non-contact range measurement has been developed, which is based upon the principle of projected rotating fringes. More usually known as dynamic fringe projection, it is this technique which is exploited in the dynamic automated range transducer (DART). The intensity waveform seen at the target and sensed by the detector, contains all the information required to accurately determine the fringe order. This, in turn, allows the range to be evaluated by the substitution of the fringe order into a simple algebraic expression. Various techniques for the analysis of the received intensity signals from the surface of the target have been investigated. The accuracy to which the range can be determined ultimately depends upon the accuracy to which the fringe order can be evaluated from the received intensity waveform. It is extremely important to be able to closely determine the fractional fringe order value, to achieve any meaningful results. This paper describes a number of techniques which have been used to analyze the intensity waveform, and critically appraises their suitability in terms of accuracy and required speed of operation. This work also examines the development of this instrument for three-dimensional measurements based on single or two beam systems. Using CCD array detectors, a 3-D range map of the object's surface may be produced.

  9. Simulating coronal condensation dynamics in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschou, S. P.; Keppens, R.; Xia, C.; Fang, X.

    2015-12-01

    We present numerical simulations in 3D settings where coronal rain phenomena take place in a magnetic configuration of a quadrupolar arcade system. Our simulation is a magnetohydrodynamic simulation including anisotropic thermal conduction, optically thin radiative losses, and parametrised heating as main thermodynamical features to construct a realistic arcade configuration from chromospheric to coronal heights. The plasma evaporation from chromospheric and transition region heights eventually causes localised runaway condensation events and we witness the formation of plasma blobs due to thermal instability, that evolve dynamically in the heated arcade part and move gradually downwards due to interchange type dynamics. Unlike earlier 2.5D simulations, in this case there is no large scale prominence formation observed, but a continuous coronal rain develops which shows clear indications of Rayleigh-Taylor or interchange instability, that causes the denser plasma located above the transition region to fall down, as the system moves towards a more stable state. Linear stability analysis is used in the non-linear regime for gaining insight and giving a prediction of the system's evolution. After the plasma blobs descend through interchange, they follow the magnetic field topology more closely in the lower coronal regions, where they are guided by the magnetic dips.

  10. Phase unwrapping in the dynamic 3D measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xianyu; Zhang, Qican

    2010-04-01

    In the dynamic 3D shape measurement phase distribution has 3D character, in which phase changes along x and y directions in space and also along t direction in time. 3D phase unwrapping plays a very important role in the dynamic 3D shape measurement. In the dynamic 3D shape measurement methods based on the structured illumination, Fourier transformation profilometry (FTP) is particularly fit for dynamic 3D measurement, because of only one fringe pattern needed and full field analysis. In this paper some 3D phase unwrapping techniques for dynamic 3D shape measurement mainly in our Lab. are presented and reviewed. The basic methods and algorithm design are introduced. The basic methods include direct 3D phase unwrapping, 3D diamond phase unwrapping, 3D phase unwrapping based on reliability ordering, 3D phase unwrapping based on marked fringe tracing. The advantage of the phase unwrapping based on reliability ordering is that the path of phase unwrapping is always along the direction from the pixel with higher reliability parameter value to the pixel with low reliability parameter value. Therefore, in the worse case the error is limited, if there is any, to local minimum areas.

  11. 3D-dynamic representation of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Wąż, Piotr; Bielińska-Wąż, Dorota

    2014-03-01

    A new 3D graphical representation of DNA sequences is introduced. This representation is called 3D-dynamic representation. It is a generalization of the 2D-dynamic dynamic representation. The sequences are represented by sets of "material points" in the 3D space. The resulting 3D-dynamic graphs are treated as rigid bodies. The descriptors characterizing the graphs are analogous to the ones used in the classical dynamics. The classification diagrams derived from this representation are presented and discussed. Due to the third dimension, "the history of the graph" can be recognized graphically because the 3D-dynamic graph does not overlap with itself. Specific parts of the graphs correspond to specific parts of the sequence. This feature is essential for graphical comparisons of the sequences. Numerically, both 2D and 3D approaches are of high quality. In particular, a difference in a single base between two sequences can be identified and correctly described (one can identify which base) by both 2D and 3D methods. PMID:24567158

  12. DYNAMIC 3D QSAR TECHNIQUES: APPLICATIONS IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two dynamic techniques recently developed to account for conformational flexibility of chemicals in 3D QSARs are presented. In addition to the impact of conformational flexibility of chemicals in 3D QSAR models, the applicability of various molecular descriptors is discussed. The...

  13. Dynamic 3D echocardiography in virtual reality

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Annemien E; Koning, Anton HJ; Meijboom, Folkert J; McGhie, Jackie S; Simoons, Maarten L; van der Spek, Peter J; Bogers, Ad JJC

    2005-01-01

    Background This pilot study was performed to evaluate whether virtual reality is applicable for three-dimensional echocardiography and if three-dimensional echocardiographic 'holograms' have the potential to become a clinically useful tool. Methods Three-dimensional echocardiographic data sets from 2 normal subjects and from 4 patients with a mitral valve pathological condition were included in the study. The three-dimensional data sets were acquired with the Philips Sonos 7500 echo-system and transferred to the BARCO (Barco N.V., Kortrijk, Belgium) I-space. Ten independent observers assessed the 6 three-dimensional data sets with and without mitral valve pathology. After 10 minutes' instruction in the I-Space, all of the observers could use the virtual pointer that is necessary to create cut planes in the hologram. Results The 10 independent observers correctly assessed the normal and pathological mitral valve in the holograms (analysis time approximately 10 minutes). Conclusion this report shows that dynamic holographic imaging of three-dimensional echocardiographic data is feasible. However, the applicability and use-fullness of this technology in clinical practice is still limited. PMID:16375768

  14. Dynamic 3D Visualization of Vocal Tract Shaping During Speech

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yinghua; Kim, Yoon-Chul; Proctor, Michael I.; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging is widely used in speech research as a means to investigate the shaping and dynamics of the vocal tract during speech production. 3D dynamic MRI would be a major advance, as it would provide 3D dynamic visualization of the entire vocal tract. We present a novel method for the creation of 3D dynamic movies of vocal tract shaping based on the acquisition of 2D dynamic data from parallel slices and temporal alignment of the image sequences using audio information. Multiple sagittal 2D real-time movies with synchronized audio recordings are acquired for English vowel-consonant-vowel stimuli /ala/, /aɹa/, /asa/ and /aʃa/. Audio data are aligned using mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) extracted from windowed intervals of the speech signal. Sagittal image sequences acquired from all slices are then aligned using dynamic time warping (DTW). The aligned image sequences enable dynamic 3D visualization by creating synthesized movies of the moving airway in the coronal planes, visualizing desired tissue surfaces and tube-shaped vocal tract airway after manual segmentation of targeted articulators and smoothing. The resulting volumes allow for dynamic 3D visualization of salient aspects of lingual articulation, including the formation of tongue grooves and sublingual cavities, with a temporal resolution of 78 ms. PMID:23204279

  15. The promotion of hepatic maturation of human pluripotent stem cells in 3D co-culture using type I collagen and Swiss 3T3 cell sheets.

    PubMed

    Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Takayama, Kazuo; Ohashi, Kazuo; Kawabata, Kenji; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Hayakawa, Takao; Furue, Miho Kusuda; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are known to be a useful cell source for drug screening. We recently developed an efficient hepatic differentiation method from hESCs and hiPSCs by sequential transduction of FOXA2 and HNF1α. It is known that the combination of three-dimensional (3D) culture and co-culture, namely 3D co-culture, can maintain the functions of primary hepatocytes. However, hepatic maturation of hESC- or hiPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells (hEHs or hiPHs, respectively) by 3D co-culture systems has not been examined. Therefore, we utilized a cell sheet engineering technology to promote hepatic maturation. The gene expression levels of hepatocyte-related markers (such as cytochrome P450 enzymes and conjugating enzymes) and the amount of albumin secretion in the hEHs or hiPHs, which were 3D co-cultured with the Swiss 3T3 cell sheet, were significantly up-regulated in comparison with those in the hEHs or hiPHs cultured in a monolayer. Furthermore, we found that type I collagen synthesized in Swiss 3T3 cells plays an important role in hepatic maturation. The hEHs or hiPHs that were 3D co-cultured with the Swiss 3T3 cell sheet would be powerful tools for medical applications, such as drug screening. PMID:22445253

  16. Real-time motion- and B0-correction for LASER-localized spiral-accelerated 3D-MRSI of the brain at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Bogner, Wolfgang; Hess, Aaron T; Gagoski, Borjan; Tisdall, M. Dylan; van der Kouwe, Andre J.W.; Trattnig, Siegfried; Rosen, Bruce; Andronesi, Ovidiu C

    2013-01-01

    The full potential of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is often limited by localization artifacts, motion-related artifacts, scanner instabilities, and long measurement times. Localized adiabatic selective refocusing (LASER) provides accurate B1-insensitive spatial excitation even at high magnetic fields. Spiral encoding accelerates MRSI acquisition, and thus, enables 3D-coverage without compromising spatial resolution. Real-time position-and shim/frequency-tracking using MR navigators correct motion- and scanner instability-related artifacts. Each of these three advanced MRI techniques provides superior MRSI data compared to commonly used methods. In this work, we integrated in a single pulse sequence these three promising approaches. Real-time correction of motion, shim, and frequency-drifts using volumetric dual-contrast echo planar imaging-based navigators were implemented in an MRSI sequence that uses low-power gradient modulated short-echo time LASER localization and time efficient spiral readouts, in order to provide fast and robust 3D-MRSI in the human brain at 3T. The proposed sequence was demonstrated to be insensitive to motion- and scanner drift-related degradations of MRSI data in both phantoms and volunteers. Motion and scanner drift artifacts were eliminated and excellent spectral quality was recovered in the presence of strong movement. Our results confirm the expected benefits of combining a spiral 3D-LASER-MRSI sequence with real-time correction. The new sequence provides accurate, fast, and robust 3D metabolic imaging of the human brain at 3T. This will further facilitate the use of 3D-MRSI for neuroscience and clinical applications. PMID:24201013

  17. A 3-D perspective of dynamic behaviour of heterogeneous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yong; Zhou, Rongxin

    2015-09-01

    The dynamic behaviour of concrete-like materials under high strain rates has been a subject of continuous scrutiny over the years. A prevailing explanation attributes much of the dynamic increase of strength, especially under compression, to the macroscopic inertia confinement. Studies conducted by the authors' group using meso-scale computational models suggest that the heterogeneity of the material composition, in particular the involvement of the aggregates, also plays a sensible part in the process of damage evolution and the increase of the bulk strength under high strain rates, and a detailed investigation into this effect would benefit if a realistic representation of the heterogeneity in 3D can be achieved. This paper presents some recent progress in the development of a 3-D meso-scale computational model incorporating randomly-shaped 3-D aggregate particles, including the general validation of the model, and application in the simulation of the dynamic response of concrete under high strain rate compression.

  18. An Evaluative Review of Simulated Dynamic Smart 3d Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeijn, H.; Sheth, F.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of plants can be an asset for creating agricultural based visualisation products. The continuum of 3D plants models ranges from static to dynamic objects, also known as smart 3D objects. There is an increasing requirement for smarter simulated 3D objects that are attributed mathematically and/or from biological inputs. A systematic approach to plant simulation offers significant advantages to applications in agricultural research, particularly in simulating plant behaviour and the influences of external environmental factors. This approach of 3D plant object visualisation is primarily evident from the visualisation of plants using photographed billboarded images, to more advanced procedural models that come closer to simulating realistic virtual plants. However, few programs model physical reactions of plants to external factors and even fewer are able to grow plants based on mathematical and/or biological parameters. In this paper, we undertake an evaluation of plant-based object simulation programs currently available, with a focus upon the components and techniques involved in producing these objects. Through an analytical review process we consider the strengths and weaknesses of several program packages, the features and use of these programs and the possible opportunities in deploying these for creating smart 3D plant-based objects to support agricultural research and natural resource management. In creating smart 3D objects the model needs to be informed by both plant physiology and phenology. Expert knowledge will frame the parameters and procedures that will attribute the object and allow the simulation of dynamic virtual plants. Ultimately, biologically smart 3D virtual plants that react to changes within an environment could be an effective medium to visually represent landscapes and communicate land management scenarios and practices to planners and decision-makers.

  19. The Vibrational Dynamics of 3D HOCl Above Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Der; Reichl, Linda; Jung, Christof

    2015-03-01

    We have analyzed the vibrational dynamics of HOCl above dissociation using a 3D energy surface which governs the vibrational dynamics of HOCl above dissociation. The dynamics is dominated by an invariant manifold which is transversally unstable for small spacing between Cl and HO complex, and stable for large spacing. Above dissociation, the InM separates two mirror image periodic orbits, embedded in a large chaotic sea, that can hold a large number of quantum states. These periodic orbits have the capability of forming significant quasibound states of the molecule above dissociation. Welch Foundation.

  20. Metal artifacts from titanium and steel screws in CT, 1.5T and 3T MR images of the tibial Pilon: a quantitative assessment in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Radzi, Shairah; Cowin, Gary; Robinson, Mark; Pratap, Jit; Volp, Andrew; Schuetz, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Radiographs are commonly used to assess articular reduction of the distal tibia (pilon) fractures postoperatively, but may reveal malreductions inaccurately. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are potential three-dimensional (3D) alternatives they generate metal-related artifacts. This study aims to quantify the artifact size from orthopaedic screws using CT, 1.5T and 3T MRI data. Three screws were inserted into one intact human cadaver ankle specimen proximal to and along the distal articular surface, then CT, 1.5T and 3T MRI scanned. Four types of screws were investigated: titanium alloy (TA), stainless steel (SS) (Ø =3.5 mm), cannulated TA (CTA) and cannulated SS (CSS) (Ø =4.0 mm, Ø empty core =2.6 mm). 3D artifact models were reconstructed using adaptive thresholding. The artifact size was measured by calculating the perpendicular distance from the central screw axis to the boundary of the artifact in four anatomical directions with respect to the distal tibia. The artifact sizes (in the order of TA, SS, CTA and CSS) from CT were 2.0, 2.6, 1.6 and 2.0 mm; from 1.5T MRI they were 3.7, 10.9, 2.9, and 9 mm; and 3T MRI they were 4.4, 15.3, 3.8, and 11.6 mm respectively. Therefore, CT can be used as long as the screws are at a safe distance of about 2 mm from the articular surface. MRI can be used if the screws are at least 3 mm away from the articular surface except for SS and CSS. Artifacts from steel screws were too large thus obstructed the pilon from being visualised in MRI. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found in the size of artifacts between all imaging modalities, screw types and material types, except 1.5T versus 3T MRI for the SS screws (P=0.063). CTA screws near the joint surface can improve postoperative assessment in CT and MRI. MRI presents a favourable non-ionising alternative when using titanium hardware. Since these factors may influence the quality of postoperative assessment, potential improvements in

  1. Metal artifacts from titanium and steel screws in CT, 1.5T and 3T MR images of the tibial Pilon: a quantitative assessment in 3D.

    PubMed

    Radzi, Shairah; Cowin, Gary; Robinson, Mark; Pratap, Jit; Volp, Andrew; Schuetz, Michael A; Schmutz, Beat

    2014-06-01

    Radiographs are commonly used to assess articular reduction of the distal tibia (pilon) fractures postoperatively, but may reveal malreductions inaccurately. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are potential three-dimensional (3D) alternatives they generate metal-related artifacts. This study aims to quantify the artifact size from orthopaedic screws using CT, 1.5T and 3T MRI data. Three screws were inserted into one intact human cadaver ankle specimen proximal to and along the distal articular surface, then CT, 1.5T and 3T MRI scanned. Four types of screws were investigated: titanium alloy (TA), stainless steel (SS) (Ø =3.5 mm), cannulated TA (CTA) and cannulated SS (CSS) (Ø =4.0 mm, Ø empty core =2.6 mm). 3D artifact models were reconstructed using adaptive thresholding. The artifact size was measured by calculating the perpendicular distance from the central screw axis to the boundary of the artifact in four anatomical directions with respect to the distal tibia. The artifact sizes (in the order of TA, SS, CTA and CSS) from CT were 2.0, 2.6, 1.6 and 2.0 mm; from 1.5T MRI they were 3.7, 10.9, 2.9, and 9 mm; and 3T MRI they were 4.4, 15.3, 3.8, and 11.6 mm respectively. Therefore, CT can be used as long as the screws are at a safe distance of about 2 mm from the articular surface. MRI can be used if the screws are at least 3 mm away from the articular surface except for SS and CSS. Artifacts from steel screws were too large thus obstructed the pilon from being visualised in MRI. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found in the size of artifacts between all imaging modalities, screw types and material types, except 1.5T versus 3T MRI for the SS screws (P=0.063). CTA screws near the joint surface can improve postoperative assessment in CT and MRI. MRI presents a favourable non-ionising alternative when using titanium hardware. Since these factors may influence the quality of postoperative assessment, potential improvements in

  2. 3-D Dynamic Behavior of Generalized Polar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, A. R.; Schunk, R. W.; Demars, H. G.

    2003-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of the high-latitude plasma during a representative geomagnetic storm is investigated using a 3-D macroscopic particle-in-cell (mac-PIC) model. In this study, we simulate the behavior of a large number ( ˜100 to 1000) of plasma-filled geomagnetic flux tubes. Each flux tube extends from 1200 km to several Earth radii, includes ˜106 simulation particles, and is followed for ˜12 hours. The lower boundary conditions of the model are provided by a 3-D fluid-like model that extends down to 100 km. Several physical mechanisms are included such as wave-particle interactions, ion-ion collisions, low-altitude ion energization, and magnetospheric particles. The computing-intensive nature of the model requires the utilization of parallel programming techniques. We use a cluster of five nodes, with two (1.6 GHz) processors each, that is available at Utah State University, with the intention of transferring the code to a bigger facility in the future. A 3-D picture is assembled from the temporal evolution of the individual flux tubes by keeping track of their locations. This 3-D picture facilitates comparison with observations, such as radar and satellite measurements. The model and its preliminary results are presented.

  3. ToF-SIMS depth profiling of cells: z-correction, 3D imaging, and sputter rate of individual NIH/3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael A; Graham, Daniel J; Castner, David G

    2012-06-01

    Proper display of three-dimensional time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) imaging data of complex, nonflat samples requires a correction of the data in the z-direction. Inaccuracies in displaying three-dimensional ToF-SIMS data arise from projecting data from a nonflat surface onto a 2D image plane, as well as possible variations in the sputter rate of the sample being probed. The current study builds on previous studies by creating software written in Matlab, the ZCorrectorGUI (available at http://mvsa.nb.uw.edu/), to apply the z-correction to entire 3D data sets. Three-dimensional image data sets were acquired from NIH/3T3 fibroblasts by collecting ToF-SIMS images, using a dual beam approach (25 keV Bi(3)(+) for analysis cycles and 20 keV C(60)(2+) for sputter cycles). The entire data cube was then corrected by using the new ZCorrectorGUI software, producing accurate chemical information from single cells in 3D. For the first time, a three-dimensional corrected view of a lipid-rich subcellular region, possibly the nuclear membrane, is presented. Additionally, the key assumption of a constant sputter rate throughout the data acquisition was tested by using ToF-SIMS and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the same cells. For the dried NIH/3T3 fibroblasts examined in this study, the sputter rate was found to not change appreciably in x, y, or z, and the cellular material was sputtered at a rate of approximately 10 nm per 1.25 × 10(13) ions C(60)(2+)/cm(2). PMID:22530745

  4. Feasibility of 3-D MRI of Proximal Femur Microarchitecture at 3 T using 26 Receive Elements without and with Parallel Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Gregory; Deniz, Cem; Honig, Stephen; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Egol, Kenneth; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Brown, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose High-resolution imaging of deeper anatomy such as the hip is challenging due to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), necessitating long scan times. Multi-element coils can increase SNR and reduce scan time through parallel imaging (PI). We assessed the feasibility of using a 26-element receive coil setup to perform 3 T MRI of proximal femur microarchitecture without and with PI. Materials and Methods This study had institutional review board approval. We scanned thirteen subjects on a 3 T scanner using 26 receive-elements and a 3-D FLASH sequence without and with PI (acceleration factors (AF) 2, 3, 4). We assessed SNR, depiction of individual trabeculae, PI performance (1/g-factor), and image quality with PI (1=non-visualization to 5=excellent). Results SNR maps demonstrate higher SNR for the 26-element setup compared to a 12-element setup for hip MRI. Without PI, individual proximal femur trabeculae were well-depicted, including microarchitectural deterioration in osteoporotic subjects. With PI, 1/g values for the 26-element/12-element receive-setup were 0.71/0.45, 0.56/0.25, and 0.44/0.08 at AF2, AF3, and AF4, respectively. Image quality was: AF1, excellent (4.8±0.4); AF2, good (4.2±1.0); AF3, average (3.3±1.0); AF4, non-visualization (1.4±0.9). Conclusion A 26-element receive-setup permits 3 T MRI of proximal femur microarchitecture with good image quality up to PI AF2. PMID:24711013

  5. 3-D structure and dynamics of microtubule self-organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to study the dynamics of 3D assemblies spontaneously formed in microtubule (MT) solutions. Microtubule solutions prepared by mixing and incubating tubulin in the presence of GTP and Oregon Green conjugated taxol in PM buffer were placed in long, sub-millimeter thin glass cells by the capillary action. Within 24 hours, starting with a uniform distribution, microtubules were found to be gradually separated into a few large ``buckled'' bundles along the long direction, and in the middle plane, of the sample cell. A well-defined wavelength of the buckling sinusoids was around 510 μm. The cross section of these round bundles was approximately 40 μm in diameter and the lengths were several centimeters. Detailed analysis of the 3-D image within the bundles revealed that each bundle seemed to consist of loosely packed MTs. It appeared that MTs were phase separated resulting from attractive interactions between charged MT fibers. The ``buckling'' behavior could be the result of geometrical constraints of the repulsive cell walls and the repulsive interaction between bundles. Detailed 3-D observations of the dynamic evolution of MT assembly could provide insight to the mechanisms of cellular MT organization and phase separation of charged colloidal rods.

  6. Complex flow dynamics around 3D microbot prototypes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aranda, Sergio; Galindo-Rosales, Francisco J; Campo-Deaño, Laura

    2016-02-28

    A new experimental setup for the study of the complex flow dynamics around 3D microbot prototypes in a straight microchannel has been developed and assessed. The ultimate aim of this work is focused on the analysis of the morphology of different microbot prototypes to get a better insight into their efficiency when they swim through the main conduits of the human circulatory system. The setup consists of a fused silica straight microchannel with a 3D microbot prototype fastened in the center of the channel cross-section by an extremely thin support. Four different prototypes were considered: a cube, a sphere and two ellipsoids with aspect ratios of 1 : 2 and 1 : 4, respectively. Flow visualization and micro-particle image velocimetry (μPIV) measurements were performed using Newtonian and viscoelastic blood analogue fluids. An efficiency parameter, ℑ, to discriminate the prototypes in terms of flow disturbance has been proposed. PMID:26790959

  7. Correlative Microscopy for 3D Structural Analysis of Dynamic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sangmi; Zhao, Gongpu; Ning, Jiying; Gibson, Gregory A.; Watkins, Simon C.; Zhang, Peijun

    2013-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) allows 3D visualization of cellular structures at molecular resolution in a close-to-physiological state1. However, direct visualization of individual viral complexes in their host cellular environment with cryoET is challenging2, due to the infrequent and dynamic nature of viral entry, particularly in the case of HIV-1. While time-lapse live-cell imaging has yielded a great deal of information about many aspects of the life cycle of HIV-13-7, the resolution afforded by live-cell microscopy is limited (~ 200 nm). Our work was aimed at developing a correlation method that permits direct visualization of early events of HIV-1 infection by combining live-cell fluorescent light microscopy, cryo-fluorescent microscopy, and cryoET. In this manner, live-cell and cryo-fluorescent signals can be used to accurately guide the sampling in cryoET. Furthermore, structural information obtained from cryoET can be complemented with the dynamic functional data gained through live-cell imaging of fluorescent labeled target. In this video article, we provide detailed methods and protocols for structural investigation of HIV-1 and host-cell interactions using 3D correlative high-speed live-cell imaging and high-resolution cryoET structural analysis. HeLa cells infected with HIV-1 particles were characterized first by confocal live-cell microscopy, and the region containing the same viral particle was then analyzed by cryo-electron tomography for 3D structural details. The correlation between two sets of imaging data, optical imaging and electron imaging, was achieved using a home-built cryo-fluorescence light microscopy stage. The approach detailed here will be valuable, not only for study of virus-host cell interactions, but also for broader applications in cell biology, such as cell signaling, membrane receptor trafficking, and many other dynamic cellular processes. PMID:23852318

  8. 3D precision surface measurement by dynamic structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Ernest A.; Magee, Michael J.; Mitchell, Joseph N.; Rigney, Michael P.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes a 3-D imaging technique developed as an internal research project at Southwest Research Institute. The technique is based on an extension of structured light methods in which a projected pattern of parallel lines is rotated over the surface to be measured. A sequence of images is captured and the surface elevation at any location can then be determined from measurements of the temporal pattern, at any point, without considering any other points on the surface. The paper describes techniques for system calibration and surface measurement based on the method of projected quadric shells. Algorithms were developed for image and signal analysis and computer programs were written to calibrate the system and to calculate 3-D coordinates of points on a measured surface. A prototype of the Dynamic Structured Light (DSL) 3-D imaging system was assembled and typical parts were measured. The design procedure was verified and used to implement several different configurations with different measurement volumes and measurement accuracy. A small-parts measurement accuracy of 32 micrometers (.0012") RMS was verified by measuring the surface of a precision-machined plane. Large aircraft control surfaces were measured with a prototype setup that provided .02" depth resolution over a 4" by 8" field of view. Measurement times are typically less than three minutes for 300,000 points. A patent application has been filed.

  9. Dynamical Systems Analysis of Fully 3D Ocean Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamical systems analysis of transport and stirring processes has been developed most thoroughly for 2D flow fields. The calculation of manifolds, turnstile lobes, transport barriers, etc. based on observations of the ocean is most often conducted near the sea surface, whereas analyses at depth, usually carried out with model output, is normally confined to constant-z surfaces. At the meoscale and larger, ocean flows are quasi 2D, but smaller scale (submesoscale) motions, including mixed layer phenomena with significant vertical velocity, may be predominantly 3D. The zoology of hyperbolic trajectories becomes richer in such cases and their attendant manifolds are much more difficult to calculate. I will describe some of the basic geometrical features and corresponding Lagrangian Coherent Features expected to arise in upper ocean fronts, eddies, and Langmuir circulations. Traditional GFD models such as the rotating can flow may capture the important generic features. The dynamical systems approach is most helpful when these features are coherent and persistent and the implications and difficulties for this requirement in fully 3D flows will also be discussed.

  10. Dynamic deformable models for 3D MRI heart segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Leonid; Bao, Zhaosheng; Gusikov, Igor; Wood, John; Breen, David E.

    2002-05-01

    Automated or semiautomated segmentation of medical images decreases interstudy variation, observer bias, and postprocessing time as well as providing clincally-relevant quantitative data. In this paper we present a new dynamic deformable modeling approach to 3D segmentation. It utilizes recently developed dynamic remeshing techniques and curvature estimation methods to produce high-quality meshes. The approach has been implemented in an interactive environment that allows a user to specify an initial model and identify key features in the data. These features act as hard constraints that the model must not pass through as it deforms. We have employed the method to perform semi-automatic segmentation of heart structures from cine MRI data.

  11. Distributed 3D Information Visualization - Towards Integration of the Dynamic 3D Graphics and Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucinic, Dean; Deen, Danny; Oanta, Emil; Batarilo, Zvonimir; Lacor, Chris

    This paper focuses on visualization and manipulation of graphical content in distributed network environments. The developed graphical middleware and 3D desktop prototypes were specialized for situational awareness. This research was done in the LArge Scale COllaborative decision support Technology (LASCOT) project, which explored and combined software technologies to support human-centred decision support system for crisis management (earthquake, tsunami, flooding, airplane or oil-tanker incidents, chemical, radio-active or other pollutants spreading, etc.). The performed state-of-the-art review did not identify any publicly available large scale distributed application of this kind. Existing proprietary solutions rely on the conventional technologies and 2D representations. Our challenge was to apply the "latest" available technologies, such Java3D, X3D and SOAP, compatible with average computer graphics hardware. The selected technologies are integrated and we demonstrate: the flow of data, which originates from heterogeneous data sources; interoperability across different operating systems and 3D visual representations to enhance the end-users interactions.

  12. 3D Dynamic Earthquake Fracture Simulation (Test Case)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Ando, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    A 3D dynamic earthquake fracture simulation is being developed for the fault structures which are non-planar to understand heterogeneous stress states in the Marmara Sea. Locating in a seismic gap, a large earthquake is expected in the center of the Sea of Marmara. Concerning the fact that more than 14 million inhabitants of İstanbul, located very closely to the Marmara Sea, the importance of the analysis of the Central Marmara Sea is extremely high. A few 3D dynamic earthquake fracture studies have been already done in the Sea of Marmara for pure right lateral strike-slip stress regimes (Oglesby and Mai, 2012; Aochi and Ulrich, 2015). In this study, a 3D dynamic earthquake fracture model with heterogeneous stress patches from the TPV5, a SCEC code validation case, is adapted. In this test model, the fault and the ground surfaces are gridded by a scalene triangulation technique using GMSH program. For a grid size changing between 0.616 km and 1.050 km the number of elements for the fault surface is 1984 and for the ground surface is 1216. When these results are compared with Kaneko's results for TPV5 from SPECFEM3D, reliable findings could be observed for the first 6.5 seconds (stations on the fault) although a stability problem is encountered after this time threshold. To solve this problem grid sizes are made smaller, so the number of elements increase 7986 for the fault surface and 4867 for the ground surface. On the other hand, computational problems arise in that case, since the computation time is directly proportional to the number of total elements and the required memory also increases with the square of that. Therefore, it is expected that this method can be adapted for less coarse grid cases, regarding the main difficulty coming from the necessity of an effective supercomputer and run time limitations. The main objective of this research is to obtain 3D dynamic earthquake rupture scenarios, concerning not only planar and non-planar faults but also

  13. Modeling tree crown dynamics with 3D partial differential equations.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry

    2014-01-01

    We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth toward light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications. PMID:25101095

  14. Atomic-Resolution 3D Electron Microscopy with Dynamic Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, Michael A.; Downing, Kenneth H.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Meisheng, Hu

    2005-02-15

    Achievement of atomic-resolution electron-beam tomography will allow determination of the three-dimensional structure of nanoparticles (and other suitable specimens) at atomic resolution. Three-dimensional reconstructions will yield ''section'' images that resolve atoms overlapped in normal electron microscope images (projections), resolving lighter atoms such as oxygen in the presence of heavier atoms, and atoms that lie on non-lattice sites such as those in non-periodic defect structures. Lower-resolution electron microscope tomography has been used to produce reconstructed 3D images of nanoparticles [1] but extension to atomic resolution is considered not to be straightforward. Accurate three-dimensional reconstruction from two-dimensional projections generally requires that intensity in the series of 2-D images be a monotonic function of the specimen structure (often specimen density, but in our case atomic potential). This condition is not satisfied in electron microscopy when specimens with strong periodicity are tilted close to zone-axis orientation and produce ''anomalous'' image contrast because of strong dynamic diffraction components. Atomic-resolution reconstructions from tilt series containing zone-axis images (with their contrast enhanced by strong dynamical scattering) can be distorted when the stronger zone-axis images overwhelm images obtained in other ''random'' orientations in which atoms do not line up in neat columns. The first demonstrations of 3-D reconstruction to atomic resolution used five zone-axis images from test specimens of staurolite consisting of a mix of light and heavy atoms [2,3]. Initial resolution was to the 1.6{angstrom} Scherzer limit of a JEOL-ARM1000. Later experiments used focal-series reconstruction from 5 to 10 images to produce staurolite images from the ARM1000 with resolution extended beyond the Scherzer limit to 1.38{angstrom} [4,5]. To obtain a representation of the three-dimensional structure, images were obtained

  15. A parallel algorithm for 3D dislocation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ghoniem, Nasr; Swaminarayan, Sriram; LeSar, Richard

    2006-12-01

    Dislocation dynamics (DD), a discrete dynamic simulation method in which dislocations are the fundamental entities, is a powerful tool for investigation of plasticity, deformation and fracture of materials at the micron length scale. However, severe computational difficulties arising from complex, long-range interactions between these curvilinear line defects limit the application of DD in the study of large-scale plastic deformation. We present here the development of a parallel algorithm for accelerated computer simulations of DD. By representing dislocations as a 3D set of dislocation particles, we show here that the problem of an interacting ensemble of dislocations can be converted to a problem of a particle ensemble, interacting with a long-range force field. A grid using binary space partitioning is constructed to keep track of node connectivity across domains. We demonstrate the computational efficiency of the parallel micro-plasticity code and discuss how O(N) methods map naturally onto the parallel data structure. Finally, we present results from applications of the parallel code to deformation in single crystal fcc metals.

  16. 3-D dynamic rupture simulations by a finite volume method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjemaa, M.; Glinsky-Olivier, N.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Virieux, J.

    2009-07-01

    Dynamic rupture of a 3-D spontaneous crack of arbitrary shape is investigated using a finite volume (FV) approach. The full domain is decomposed in tetrahedra whereas the surface, on which the rupture takes place, is discretized with triangles that are faces of tetrahedra. First of all, the elastodynamic equations are described into a pseudo-conservative form for an easy application of the FV discretization. Explicit boundary conditions are given using criteria based on the conservation of discrete energy through the crack surface. Using a stress-threshold criterion, these conditions specify fluxes through those triangles that have suffered rupture. On these broken surfaces, stress follows a linear slip-weakening law, although other friction laws can be implemented. For The Problem Version 3 of the dynamic-rupture code verification exercise conducted by the SCEC/USGS, numerical solutions on a planar fault exhibit a very high convergence rate and are in good agreement with the reference one provided by a finite difference (FD) technique. For a non-planar fault of parabolic shape, numerical solutions agree satisfactorily well with those obtained with a semi-analytical boundary integral method in terms of shear stress amplitudes, stopping phases arrival times and stress overshoots. Differences between solutions are attributed to the low-order interpolation of the FV approach, whose results are particularly sensitive to the mesh regularity (structured/unstructured). We expect this method, which is well adapted for multiprocessor parallel computing, to be competitive with others for solving large scale dynamic ruptures scenarios of seismic sources in the near future.

  17. A support-operator method for 3-D rupture dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Geoffrey P.; Day, Steven M.; Minster, Jean-Bernard

    2009-06-01

    We present a numerical method to simulate spontaneous shear crack propagation within a heterogeneous, 3-D, viscoelastic medium. Wave motions are computed on a logically rectangular hexahedral mesh, using the generalized finite-difference method of Support Operators (SOM). This approach enables modelling of non-planar surfaces and non-planar fault ruptures. Our implementation, the Support Operator Rupture Dynamics (SORD) code, is highly scalable, enabling large-scale, multiprocessors calculations. The fault surface is modelled by coupled double nodes, where rupture occurs as dictated by the local stress conditions and a frictional failure law. The method successfully performs test problems developed for the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)/U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dynamic earthquake rupture code validation exercise, showing good agreement with semi-analytical boundary integral method results. We undertake further dynamic rupture tests to quantify numerical errors introduced by shear deformations to the hexahedral mesh. We generate a family of meshes distorted by simple shearing, in the along-strike direction, up to a maximum of 73°. For SCEC/USGS validation problem number 3, grid-induced errors increase with mesh shear angle, with the logarithm of error approximately proportional to angle over the range tested. At 73°, rms misfits are about 10 per cent for peak slip rate, and 0.5 per cent for both rupture time and total slip, indicating that the method (which, up to now, we have applied mainly to near-vertical strike-slip faulting) is also capable of handling geometries appropriate to low-angle surface-rupturing thrust earthquakes. Additionally, we demonstrate non-planar rupture effects, by modifying the test geometry to include, respectively, cylindrical curvature and sharp kinks.

  18. Dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking in 3D and charge fractionalization

    SciTech Connect

    Charneski, B.; Gomes, M.; Silva, A. J. da; Mariz, T.; Nascimento, J. R.

    2009-03-15

    We analyze the breaking of Lorentz invariance in a 3D model of fermion fields self-coupled through four-fermion interactions. The low-energy limit of the theory contains various submodels which are similar to those used in the study of graphene or in the description of irrational charge fractionalization.

  19. DREAM3D simulations of inner-belt dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Gregory Scott

    2015-05-26

    A 1973 paper by Lyons and Thorne explains the two-belt structure for electrons in the inner magnetosphere as a balance between inward radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere, where the loss to the atmosphere is enabled by pitch-angle scattering from Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. In the 1973 paper, equilibrium solutions to a decoupled set of 1D radial diffusion equations, one for each value of the first invariant of motion, μ, were computed to produce the equilibrium two-belt structure. Each 1D radial diffusion equation incorporated an L-and μ-dependent `lifetime' due to the Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. This decoupling of the problem is appropriate under the assumption that radial diffusion is slow in comparison to pitch-angle scattering. However, for some values of μ and L the lifetime associated with pitch-angle scattering is comparable to the timescale associated with radial diffusion, suggesting that the true equilibrium solutions might reflect `coupled modes' involving pitch-angle scattering and radial diffusion and thus requiring a 3D diffusion model. In the work we show here, we have computed the equilibrium solutions using our 3D diffusion model, DREAM3D, that allows for such coupling. We find that the 3D equilibrium solutions are quite similar to the solutions shown in the 1973 paper when we use the same physical models for radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering from hiss. However, we show that the equilibrium solutions are quite sensitive to various aspects of the physics model employed in the 1973 paper that can be improved, suggesting that additional work needs to be done to understand the two-belt structure.

  20. The vibrational dynamics of 3D HOCl above dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yi-Der; Reichl, L. E.; Jung, Christof

    2015-03-28

    We explore the classical vibrational dynamics of the HOCl molecule for energies above the dissociation energy of the molecule. Above dissociation, we find that the classical dynamics is dominated by an invariant manifold which appears to stabilize two periodic orbits at energies significantly above the dissociation energy. These stable periodic orbits can hold a large number of quantum states and likely can support a significant quasibound state of the molecule, well above the dissociation energy. The classical dynamics and the lifetime of quantum states on the invariant manifold are determined.

  1. The vibrational dynamics of 3D HOCl above dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Der; Reichl, L. E.; Jung, Christof

    2015-03-01

    We explore the classical vibrational dynamics of the HOCl molecule for energies above the dissociation energy of the molecule. Above dissociation, we find that the classical dynamics is dominated by an invariant manifold which appears to stabilize two periodic orbits at energies significantly above the dissociation energy. These stable periodic orbits can hold a large number of quantum states and likely can support a significant quasibound state of the molecule, well above the dissociation energy. The classical dynamics and the lifetime of quantum states on the invariant manifold are determined.

  2. First 3-D simulations of meteor plasma dynamics and turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, Meers M.; Dimant, Yakov S.

    2015-02-01

    Millions of small but detectable meteors hit the Earth's atmosphere every second, creating trails of hot plasma that turbulently diffuse into the background atmosphere. For over 60 years, radars have detected meteor plasmas and used these signals to infer characteristics of the meteoroid population and upper atmosphere, but, despite the importance of meteor radar measurements, the complex processes by which these plasmas evolve have never been thoroughly explained or modeled. In this paper, we present the first fully 3-D simulations of meteor evolution, showing meteor plasmas developing instabilities, becoming turbulent, and inhomogeneously diffusing into the background ionosphere. These instabilities explain the characteristics and strength of many radar observations, in particular the high-resolution nonspecular echoes made by large radars. The simulations reveal how meteors create strong electric fields that dig out deep plasma channels along the Earth's magnetic fields. They also allow researchers to explore the impacts of the intense winds and wind shears, commonly found at these altitudes, on meteor plasma evolution. This study will allow the development of more sophisticated models of meteor radar signals, enabling the extraction of detailed information about the properties of meteoroid particles and the atmosphere.

  3. Quantifying cellular interaction dynamics in 3-D fluorescence microscopy data

    PubMed Central

    Klauschen, Frederick; Ishii, Masaru; Qi, Hai; Bajénoff, Marc; Egen, Jackson G.; Germain, Ronald N.; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The wealth of information available from advanced fluorescence imaging techniques used to analyze biological processes with high spatial and temporal resolution calls for high-throughput image analysis methods. Here, we describe a fully automated approach to analyzing cellular interaction behavior in 3-D fluorescence microscopy images. As example application we present the analysis of drug-induced and S1P1-knock-out-related changes in bone-osteoclast interactions. Moreover, we apply our approach to images showing the spatial association of dendritic cells with the fibroblastic reticular cell network within lymph nodes and to microscopy data about T-B lymphocyte synapse formation. Such analyses that yield important information about the molecular mechanisms determining cellular interaction behavior would be very difficult to perform with approaches that rely on manual/semi-automated analyses. This protocol integrates adaptive threshold segmentation, object detection, adaptive color channel merging and neighborhood analysis and permits rapid, standardized, quantitative analysis and comparison of the relevant features in large data sets. PMID:19696749

  4. Dynamics of free subduction from 3-D boundary element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong-Hai; Ribe, Neil M.

    2012-06-01

    In order better to understand the physical mechanisms underlying free subduction, we perform three-dimensional boundary-element numerical simulations of a dense fluid sheet with thickness h and viscosity η2 sinking in an `ambient mantle' with viscosity η1. The mantle layer is bounded above by a traction-free surface, and is either (1) infinitely deep or (2) underlain by a rigid boundary at a finite depth H + d, similar to the typical geometry used in laboratory experiments. Instantaneous solutions in configuration (1) show that the sheet's dimensionless `stiffness' S determines whether the slab's sinking speed is controlled by the viscosity of the ambient mantle (S < 1) or the viscosity of the sheet itself (S > 10). Time-dependent solutions with tracers in configuration (2) demonstrate a partial return flow around the leading edge of a retreating slab and return flow around its sides. The extra `edge drag' exerted by the flow around the sides causes transverse deformation of the slab, and makes the sinking speed of a 3-D slab up to 40% less than that of a 2-D slab. A systematic investigation of the slab's interaction with the bottom boundary as a function of η2/η1 and H/h delineates a rich regime diagram of different subduction modes (trench retreating, slab folding, trench advancing) and reveals a new `advancing-folding' mode in which slab folding is preceded by advancing trench motion. The solutions demonstrate that mode selection is controlled by the dip of the leading edge of the slab at the time when it first encounters the bottom boundary.

  5. Introducing a New 3D Dynamical Model for Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Christof; Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2015-11-01

    The regular or chaotic dynamics of an analytical realistic three dimensional model composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar and a flat disk is investigated. For describing the properties of the bar, we introduce a new simple dynamical model and we explore the influence on the character of orbits of all the involved parameters of it, such as the mass and the scale length of the bar, the major semi-axis and the angular velocity of the bar, as well as the energy. Regions of phase space with ordered and chaotic motion are identified in dependence on these parameters and for breaking the rotational symmetry. First, we study in detail the dynamics in the invariant plane z = pz = 0 using the Poincaré map as a basic tool and then study the full three-dimensional case using the Smaller Alignment index method as principal tool for distinguishing between order and chaos. We also present strong evidence obtained through the numerical simulations that our new bar model can realistically describe the formation and the evolution of the observed twin spiral structure in barred galaxies.

  6. High-Resolution 3-T Endorectal Prostate MRI: A Multireader Study of Radiologist Preference and Perceived Interpretive Quality of 2D and 3D T2-Weighted Fast Spin-Echo MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Westphalen, Antonio C.; Noworolski, Susan M.; Harisinghani, Mukesh; Jhaveri, Kartik S.; Raman, Steve S.; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Wang, Zhen J.; Zagoria, Ronald J.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to compare the perceived quality of 3-T axial T2-weighted high-resolution 2D and high-resolution 3D fast spin-echo (FSE) endorectal MR images of the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS Six radiologists independently reviewed paired 3-T axial T2-weighted high-resolution 2D and 3D FSE endorectal MR images of the prostates of 85 men in two sessions. In the first session (n = 85), each reader selected his or her preferred images; in the second session (n = 28), they determined their confidence in tumor identification and compared the depiction of the prostatic anatomy, tumor conspicuity, and subjective intrinsic image quality of images. A meta-analysis using a random-effects model, logistic regression, and the paired Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS Three readers preferred the 2D acquisition (67–89%), and the other three preferred the 3D images (70–80%). The option for one of the techniques was not associated with any of the predictor variables. The 2D FSE images were significantly sharper than 3D FSE (p < 0.001) and significantly more likely to exhibit other (nonmotion) artifacts (p = 0.002). No other statistically significant differences were found. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that there are strong individual preferences for the 2D or 3D FSE MR images, but there was a wide variability among radiologists. There were differences in image quality (image sharpness and presence of artifacts not related to motion) but not in the sequences’ ability to delineate the glandular anatomy and depict a cancerous tumor. PMID:26491891

  7. Cotranslational processing mechanisms: towards a dynamic 3D model.

    PubMed

    Giglione, Carmela; Fieulaine, Sonia; Meinnel, Thierry

    2009-08-01

    Recent major advances have been made in understanding how cotranslational events are achieved in the course of protein biosynthesis. Specifically, several studies have shed light into the dynamic process of how nascent chains emerging from the ribosome are supported by protein biogenesis factors to ensure both processing and folding mechanisms. To take into account the awareness that coordination is needed, a new 'concerted model' recently proposed simultaneous action of both processes on the ribosome. In the model, any emerging nascent chain is first encountered by the chaperone trigger factor (TF), which forms an open cradle underneath the ribosomal exit tunnel. This cradle serves as a passive router that channels the nascent chains to the first cotranslational event, the proteolysis event performed by the N-terminal methionine excision machinery. Although fascinating, this model clearly raises more questions than it answers. Does the data used to develop this model stand up to scrutiny and, if not, what are the alternative mechanisms that the data suggest? PMID:19647435

  8. 3D numerical simulations of vesicle and inextensible capsule dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farutin, Alexander; Biben, Thierry; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2014-10-01

    Vesicles are locally-inextensible fluid membranes, capsules are endowed with in-plane shear elasticity mimicking the cytoskeleton of red blood cells (RBCs), but are extensible, while RBCs are inextensible. We use boundary integral (BI) methods based on the Green function techniques to model and solve numerically their dynamics. We regularize the single layer integral by subtraction of exact identities for the terms involving the normal and the tangential components of the force. The stability and precision of BI calculation is enhanced by taking advantage of additional quadrature nodes located in vertices of an auxiliary mesh, constructed by a standard refinement procedure from the main mesh. We extend the partition of unity technique to boundary integral calculation on triangular meshes. The proposed algorithm offers the same treatment of near-singular integration regardless whether the source and the target points belong to the same surface or not. Bending forces are calculated by using expressions derived from differential geometry. Membrane incompressibility is handled by using two penalization parameters per suspended entity: one for deviation of the global area from prescribed value and another for the sum of squares of local strains defined on each vertex. Extensible or inextensible capsules, a model of RBC, are studied by storing the position in the reference configuration for each vertex. The elastic force is then calculated by direct variation of the elastic energy. Various nonequilibrium physical examples on vesicles and capsules will be presented and the convergence and precision tests highlighted. Overall, a good convergence is observed with numerical error inversely proportional to the number of vertices used for surface discretization, the highest order of convergence allowed by piece-wise linear interpolation of the surface.

  9. 3D video-based deformation measurement of the pelvis bone under dynamic cyclic loading

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dynamic three-dimensional (3D) deformation of the pelvic bones is a crucial factor in the successful design and longevity of complex orthopaedic oncological implants. The current solutions are often not very promising for the patient; thus it would be interesting to measure the dynamic 3D-deformation of the whole pelvic bone in order to get a more realistic dataset for a better implant design. Therefore we hypothesis if it would be possible to combine a material testing machine with a 3D video motion capturing system, used in clinical gait analysis, to measure the sub millimetre deformation of a whole pelvis specimen. Method A pelvis specimen was placed in a standing position on a material testing machine. Passive reflective markers, traceable by the 3D video motion capturing system, were fixed to the bony surface of the pelvis specimen. While applying a dynamic sinusoidal load the 3D-movement of the markers was recorded by the cameras and afterwards the 3D-deformation of the pelvis specimen was computed. The accuracy of the 3D-movement of the markers was verified with 3D-displacement curve with a step function using a manual driven 3D micro-motion-stage. Results The resulting accuracy of the measurement system depended on the number of cameras tracking a marker. The noise level for a marker seen by two cameras was during the stationary phase of the calibration procedure ± 0.036 mm, and ± 0.022 mm if tracked by 6 cameras. The detectable 3D-movement performed by the 3D-micro-motion-stage was smaller than the noise level of the 3D-video motion capturing system. Therefore the limiting factor of the setup was the noise level, which resulted in a measurement accuracy for the dynamic test setup of ± 0.036 mm. Conclusion This 3D test setup opens new possibilities in dynamic testing of wide range materials, like anatomical specimens, biomaterials, and its combinations. The resulting 3D-deformation dataset can be used for a better estimation of material

  10. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Andrew D; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils. PMID:26548801

  11. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Andrew D.; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils. PMID:26548801

  12. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Andrew D.; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2015-11-01

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils.

  13. Dynamic visual image modeling for 3D synthetic scenes in agricultural engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Yan, Juntao; Li, Xiaobo; Ji, Yatai; Li, Xin

    The dynamic visual image modeling for 3D synthetic scenes by using dynamic multichannel binocular visual image based on the mobile self-organizing network. Technologies of 3D modeling synthetic scenes have been widely used in kinds of industries. The main purpose of this paper is to use multiple networks of dynamic visual monitors and sensors to observe an unattended area, to use the advantages of mobile network in rural areas for improving existing mobile network information service further and providing personalized information services. The goal of displaying is to provide perfect representation of synthetic scenes. Using low-power dynamic visual monitors and temperature/humidity sensor or GPS installed in the node equipment, monitoring data will be sent at scheduled time. Then through the mobile self-organizing network, 3D model is rebuilt by synthesizing the returned images. On this basis, we formalize a novel algorithm for multichannel binocular visual 3D images based on fast 3D modeling. Taking advantage of these low prices mobile, mobile self-organizing networks can get a large number of video from where is not suitable for human observation or unable to reach, and accurately synthetic 3D scene. This application will play a great role in promoting its application in agriculture.

  14. Nonrigid registration and classification of the kidneys in 3D dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Ghafourian, Pegah; Sharma, Puneet; Salman, Khalil; Martin, Diego; Fei, Baowei

    2012-02-01

    We have applied image analysis methods in the assessment of human kidney perfusion based on 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI data. This approach consists of 3D non-rigid image registration of the kidneys and fuzzy C-mean classification of kidney tissues. The proposed registration method reduced motion artifacts in the dynamic images and improved the analysis of kidney compartments (cortex, medulla, and cavities). The dynamic intensity curves show the successive transition of the contrast agent through kidney compartments. The proposed method for motion correction and kidney compartment classification may be used to improve the validity and usefulness of further model-based pharmacokinetic analysis of kidney function.

  15. Parallel contact detection algorithm for transient solid dynamics simulations using PRONTO3D

    SciTech Connect

    Attaway, S.W.; Hendrickson, B.A.; Plimpton, S.J.

    1996-09-01

    An efficient, scalable, parallel algorithm for treating material surface contacts in solid mechanics finite element programs has been implemented in a modular way for MIMD parallel computers. The serial contact detection algorithm that was developed previously for the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO3D has been extended for use in parallel computation by devising a dynamic (adaptive) processor load balancing scheme.

  16. Evolution, Interaction, and Intrinsic Properties of Dislocations in Intermetallics: Anisotropic 3D Dislocation Dynamics Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Chen

    2008-08-18

    The generation, motion, and interaction of dislocations play key roles during the plastic deformation process of crystalline solids. 3D Dislocation Dynamics has been employed as a mesoscale simulation algorithm to investigate the collective and cooperative behavior of dislocations. Most current research on 3D Dislocation Dynamics is based on the solutions available in the framework of classical isotropic elasticity. However, due to some degree of elastic anisotropy in almost all crystalline solids, it is very necessary to extend 3D Dislocation Dynamics into anisotropic elasticity. In this study, first, the details of efficient and accurate incorporation of the fully anisotropic elasticity into 3D discrete Dislocation Dynamics by numerically evaluating the derivatives of Green's functions are described. Then the intrinsic properties of perfect dislocations, including their stability, their core properties and disassociation characteristics, in newly discovered rare earth-based intermetallics and in conventional intermetallics are investigated, within the framework of fully anisotropic elasticity supplemented with the atomistic information obtained from the ab initio calculations. Moreover, the evolution and interaction of dislocations in these intermetallics as well as the role of solute segregation are presented by utilizing fully anisotropic 3D dislocation dynamics. The results from this work clearly indicate the role and the importance of elastic anisotropy on the evolution of dislocation microstructures, the overall ductility and the hardening behavior in these systems.

  17. First application of the 3D-MHB on dynamic compressive behavior of UHPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoni, Ezio; Dotta, Matteo; Forni, Daniele; Riganti, Gianmario; Albertini, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    In order to study the dynamic behaviour of material in confined conditions a new machine was conceived and called 3D-Modified Hopkinson Bar (3D-MHB). It is a Modified Hopkinson Bar apparatus designed to apply dynamic loading in materials having a tri-axial stress state. It consists of a pulse generator system (with pre-tensioned bar and brittle joint), 1 input bar, and 5 output bars. The first results obtained on Ultra High Performance Concrete in compression with three different mono-axial compression states are presented. The results show how the pre-stress states minimize the boundary condition and a more uniform response is obtained.

  18. 3D dynamic simulation of crack propagation in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijerathne, M. L. L.; Hori, Muneo; Sakaguchi, Hide; Oguni, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Some experimental observations of Shock Wave Lithotripsy(SWL), which include 3D dynamic crack propagation, are simulated with the aim of reproducing fragmentation of kidney stones with SWL. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the fragmentation of kidney stones by focusing an ultrasonic pressure pulse onto the stones. 3D models with fine discretization are used to accurately capture the high amplitude shear shock waves. For solving the resulting large scale dynamic crack propagation problem, PDS-FEM is used; it provides numerically efficient failure treatments. With a distributed memory parallel code of PDS-FEM, experimentally observed 3D photoelastic images of transient stress waves and crack patterns in cylindrical samples are successfully reproduced. The numerical crack patterns are in good agreement with the experimental ones, quantitatively. The results shows that the high amplitude shear waves induced in solid, by the lithotriptor generated shock wave, play a dominant role in stone fragmentation.

  19. Trans3D: a free tool for dynamical visualization of EEG activity transmission in the brain.

    PubMed

    Blinowski, Grzegorz; Kamiński, Maciej; Wawer, Dariusz

    2014-08-01

    The problem of functional connectivity in the brain is in the focus of attention nowadays, since it is crucial for understanding information processing in the brain. A large repertoire of measures of connectivity have been devised, some of them being capable of estimating time-varying directed connectivity. Hence, there is a need for a dedicated software tool for visualizing the propagation of electrical activity in the brain. To this aim, the Trans3D application was developed. It is an open access tool based on widely available libraries and supporting both Windows XP/Vista/7(™), Linux and Mac environments. Trans3D can create animations of activity propagation between electrodes/sensors, which can be placed by the user on the scalp/cortex of a 3D model of the head. Various interactive graphic functions for manipulating and visualizing components of the 3D model and input data are available. An application of the Trans3D tool has helped to elucidate the dynamics of the phenomena of information processing in motor and cognitive tasks, which otherwise would have been very difficult to observe. Trans3D is available at: http://www.eeg.pl/. PMID:24967953

  20. How Spatial Abilities and Dynamic Visualizations Interplay When Learning Functional Anatomy with 3D Anatomical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material…

  1. Effect of Ductile Agents on the Dynamic Behavior of SiC3D Network Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jingbo; Wang, Yangwei; Wang, Fuchi; Fan, Qunbo

    2016-07-01

    Co-continuous SiC ceramic composites using pure aluminum, epoxy, and polyurethane (PU) as ductile agents were developed. The dynamic mechanical behavior and failure mechanisms were investigated experimentally using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) method and computationally by finite element (FE) simulations. The results show that the SiC3D/Al composite has the best overall performance in comparison with SiC3D/epoxy and SiC3D/PU composites. FE simulations are generally consistent with experimental data. These simulations provide valuable help in predicting mechanical strength and in interpreting the experimental results and failure mechanisms. They may be combined with micrographs for fracture characterizations of the composites. We found that interactions between the SiC phase and ductile agents under dynamic compression in the SHPB method are complex, and that interfacial condition is an important parameter that determines the mechanical response of SiC3D composites with a characteristic interlocking structure during dynamic compression. However, the effect of the mechanical properties of ductile agents on dynamic behavior of the composites is a second consideration in the production of the composites.

  2. On the Dynamic Programming Approach for the 3D Navier-Stokes Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Manca, Luigi

    2008-06-15

    The dynamic programming approach for the control of a 3D flow governed by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid in a bounded domain is studied. By a compactness argument, existence of solutions for the associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation is proved. Finally, existence of an optimal control through the feedback formula and of an optimal state is discussed.

  3. Sketch on dynamic gesture tracking and analysis exploiting vision-based 3D interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Woontack; Kim, Namgyu; Wong, Karen; Tadenuma, Makoto

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a vision-based 3D interface exploiting invisible 3D boxes, arranged in the personal space (i.e. reachable space by the body without traveling), which allows robust yet simple dynamic gesture tracking and analysis, without exploiting complicated sensor-based motion tracking systems. Vision-based gesture tracking and analysis is still a challenging problem, even though we have witnessed rapid advances in computer vision over the last few decades. The proposed framework consists of three main parts, i.e. (1) object segmentation without bluescreen and 3D box initialization with depth information, (2) movement tracking by observing how the body passes through the 3D boxes in the personal space and (3) movement feature extraction based on Laban's Effort theory and movement analysis by mapping features to meaningful symbols using time-delay neural networks. Obviously, exploiting depth information using multiview images improves the performance of gesture analysis by reducing the errors introduced by simple 2D interfaces In addition, the proposed box-based 3D interface lessens the difficulties in both tracking movement in 3D space and in extracting low-level features of the movement. Furthermore, the time-delay neural networks lessens the difficulties in movement analysis by training. Due to its simplicity and robustness, the framework will provide interactive systems, such as ATR I-cubed Tangible Music System or ATR Interactive Dance system, with improved quality of the 3D interface. The proposed simple framework also can be extended to other applications requiring dynamic gesture tracking and analysis on the fly.

  4. Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields.

    PubMed

    Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain-reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. PMID:24012934

  5. Stereoscopic 3D Visual Discomfort Prediction: A Dynamic Accommodation and Vergence Interaction Model.

    PubMed

    Oh, Heeseok; Lee, Sanghoon; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The human visual system perceives 3D depth following sensing via its binocular optical system, a series of massively parallel processing units, and a feedback system that controls the mechanical dynamics of eye movements and the crystalline lens. The process of accommodation (focusing of the crystalline lens) and binocular vergence is controlled simultaneously and symbiotically via cross-coupled communication between the two critical depth computation modalities. The output responses of these two subsystems, which are induced by oculomotor control, are used in the computation of a clear and stable cyclopean 3D image from the input stimuli. These subsystems operate in smooth synchronicity when one is viewing the natural world; however, conflicting responses can occur when viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content on fixed displays, causing physiological discomfort. If such occurrences could be predicted, then they might also be avoided (by modifying the acquisition process) or ameliorated (by changing the relative scene depth). Toward this end, we have developed a dynamic accommodation and vergence interaction (DAVI) model that successfully predicts visual discomfort on S3D images. The DAVI model is based on the phasic and reflex responses of the fast fusional vergence mechanism. Quantitative models of accommodation and vergence mismatches are used to conduct visual discomfort prediction. Other 3D perceptual elements are included in the proposed method, including sharpness limits imposed by the depth of focus and fusion limits implied by Panum's fusional area. The DAVI predictor is created by training a support vector machine on features derived from the proposed model and on recorded subjective assessment results. The experimental results are shown to produce accurate predictions of experienced visual discomfort. PMID:26672036

  6. Dynamic 3D micropatterned cell co-cultures within photocurable and chemically degradable hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Shinji; Cha, Jae Min; Yanagawa, Fumiki; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report on the development of dynamically controlled 3D micropatterned cellular co-cultures within photocurable and chemically degradable hydrogels. Specifically, we generated dynamic co-cultures of micropatterned murine embryonic stem (mES) cells with human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells within 3D hydrogels. HepG2 cells were used due to their ability to direct the differentiation of mES cells through secreted paracrine factors. To generate dynamic co-cultures, mES cells were first encapsulated within micropatterned photocurable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. These micropatterned cell-laden PEG hydrogels were subsequently surrounded by calcium alginate (Ca-Alg) hydrogels containing HepG2 cells. After 4 days, the co-culture step was halted by exposing the system to sodium citrate solution, which removed the alginate gels and the encapsulated HepG2 cells. The encapsulated mES cells were then maintained in the resulting cultures for 16 days and cardiac differentiation was analyzed. We observed that the mES cells that were exposed to HepG2 cells in the co-cultures, generated cells with higher expression of cardiac genes and proteins as well as increased spontaneous beating. Due to its ability to control the 3D microenvironment of cells in a spatially and temporally regulated manner the method presented in this study is useful for a range of cell culture applications related to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:24170301

  7. Dynamical D4-D8 and D3-D7 branes in supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Binetruy, Pierre; Sasaki, Misao; Uzawa, Kunihito

    2009-07-15

    We present a class of dynamical solutions for intersecting D4-D8 and D3-D7 brane systems in ten-dimensional type IIA and IIB supergravity. We discuss if these solutions can be recovered in lower-dimensional effective theories for the warped compactification of a general p-brane system. It is found that an effective p+1-dimensional description is not possible in general due to the entanglement of the transverse coordinates and the p+1-dimensional coordinates in the metric components. For the D4-D8 brane system, the dynamical solutions reduces to a static warped AdS{sub 6}xS{sup 4} geometry in a certain spacetime region. For the D3-D7 brane system, we find a dynamical solution whose metric form is similar to that of a D3-brane solution. The main difference is the existence of a nontrivial dilaton configuration in the D3-D7 solution. Then we discuss cosmology of these solutions. We find that they behave like a Kasner-type cosmological solution at {tau}{yields}{infinity}, while it reduces to a warped static solution at {tau}{yields}0, where {tau} is the cosmic time.

  8. Dynamical D4-D8 and D3-D7 branes in supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binetruy, Pierre; Sasaki, Misao; Uzawa, Kunihito

    2009-07-01

    We present a class of dynamical solutions for intersecting D4-D8 and D3-D7 brane systems in ten-dimensional type IIA and IIB supergravity. We discuss if these solutions can be recovered in lower-dimensional effective theories for the warped compactification of a general p-brane system. It is found that an effective p+1-dimensional description is not possible in general due to the entanglement of the transverse coordinates and the p+1-dimensional coordinates in the metric components. For the D4-D8 brane system, the dynamical solutions reduces to a static warped AdS6×S4 geometry in a certain spacetime region. For the D3-D7 brane system, we find a dynamical solution whose metric form is similar to that of a D3-brane solution. The main difference is the existence of a nontrivial dilaton configuration in the D3-D7 solution. Then we discuss cosmology of these solutions. We find that they behave like a Kasner-type cosmological solution at τ→∞, while it reduces to a warped static solution at τ→0, where τ is the cosmic time.

  9. RV functional imaging: 3-D echo-derived dynamic geometry and flow field simulations.

    PubMed

    Pasipoularides, Ares D; Shu, Ming; Womack, Michael S; Shah, Ashish; Von Ramm, Olaf; Glower, Donald D

    2003-01-01

    We describe a novel functional imaging approach for quantitative analysis of right ventricular (RV) blood flow patterns in specific experimental animals (or humans) using real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography (RT3D). The method is independent of the digital imaging modality used. It comprises three parts. First, a semiautomated segmentation aided by intraluminal contrast medium locates the RV endocardial surface. Second, a geometric scheme for dynamic RV chamber reconstruction applies a time interpolation procedure to the RT3D data to quantify wall geometry and motion at 400 Hz. A volumetric prism method validated the dynamic geometric reconstruction against simultaneous sonomicrometric canine measurements. Finally, the RV endocardial border motion information is used for mesh generation on a computational fluid dynamics solver to simulate development of the early RV diastolic inflow field. Boundary conditions (tessellated endocardial surface nodal velocities) for the solver are directly derived from the endocardial geometry and motion information. The new functional imaging approach may yield important kinematic information on the distribution of instantaneous velocities in the RV diastolic flow field of specific normal or diseased hearts. PMID:12388220

  10. PRONTO3D users` instructions: A transient dynamic code for nonlinear structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Attaway, S.W.; Mello, F.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Swegle, J.W.; Ratner, J.A.; Zadoks, R.I.

    1998-06-01

    This report provides an updated set of users` instructions for PRONTO3D. PRONTO3D is a three-dimensional, transient, solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Eight-node, uniform strain, hexahedral elements and four-node, quadrilateral, uniform strain shells are used in the finite element formulation. An adaptive time step control algorithm is used to improve stability and performance in plasticity problems. Hourglass distortions can be eliminated without disturbing the finite element solution using either the Flanagan-Belytschko hourglass control scheme or an assumed strain hourglass control scheme. All constitutive models in PRONTO3D are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. A robust contact algorithm allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics method has been embedded into PRONTO3D using the contact algorithm to couple it with the finite element method.

  11. A 3D GCL compatible cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for solving gas dynamics equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, Gabriel; Breil, Jérôme; Maire, Pierre-Henri

    2016-01-01

    Solving the gas dynamics equations under the Lagrangian formalism enables to simulate complex flows with strong shock waves. This formulation is well suited to the simulation of multi-material compressible fluid flows such as those encountered in the domain of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP). These types of flows are characterized by complex 3D structures such as hydrodynamic instabilities (Richtmyer-Meshkov, Rayleigh-Taylor, etc.). Recently, the 3D extension of different Lagrangian schemes has been proposed and appears to be challenging. More precisely, the definition of the cell geometry in the 3D space through the treatment of its non-planar faces and the limiting of a reconstructed field in 3D in the case of a second-order extension are of great interest. This paper proposes two new methods to solve these problems. A systematic and symmetric geometrical decomposition of polyhedral cells is presented. This method enables to define a discrete divergence operator leading to the respect of the Geometric Conservation Law (GCL). Moreover, a multi-dimensional minmod limiter is proposed. This new limiter constructs, from nodal gradients, a cell gradient which enables to ensure the monotonicity of the numerical solution even in presence of strong discontinuity. These new ingredients are employed into a cell-centered Lagrangian scheme. Robustness and accuracy are assessed against various representative test cases.

  12. Dynamic WIFI-Based Indoor Positioning in 3D Virtual World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S.; Sohn, G.; Wang, L.; Lee, W.

    2013-11-01

    A web-based system based on the 3DTown project was proposed using Google Earth plug-in that brings information from indoor positioning devices and real-time sensors into an integrated 3D indoor and outdoor virtual world to visualize the dynamics of urban life within the 3D context of a city. We addressed limitation of the 3DTown project with particular emphasis on video surveillance camera used for indoor tracking purposes. The proposed solution was to utilize wireless local area network (WLAN) WiFi as a replacement technology for localizing objects of interest due to the wide spread availability and large coverage area of WiFi in indoor building spaces. Indoor positioning was performed using WiFi without modifying existing building infrastructure or introducing additional access points (AP)s. A hybrid probabilistic approach was used for indoor positioning based on previously recorded WiFi fingerprint database in the Petrie Science and Engineering building at York University. In addition, we have developed a 3D building modeling module that allows for efficient reconstruction of outdoor building models to be integrated with indoor building models; a sensor module for receiving, distributing, and visualizing real-time sensor data; and a web-based visualization module for users to explore the dynamic urban life in a virtual world. In order to solve the problems in the implementation of the proposed system, we introduce approaches for integration of indoor building models with indoor positioning data, as well as real-time sensor information and visualization on the web-based system. In this paper we report the preliminary results of our prototype system, demonstrating the system's capability for implementing a dynamic 3D indoor and outdoor virtual world that is composed of discrete modules connected through pre-determined communication protocols.

  13. How spatial abilities and dynamic visualizations interplay when learning functional anatomy with 3D anatomical models.

    PubMed

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material presentation formats, spatial abilities, and anatomical tasks. First, to understand the cognitive challenges a novice learner would be faced with when first exposed to 3D anatomical content, a six-step cognitive task analysis was developed. Following this, an experimental study was conducted to explore how presentation formats (dynamic vs. static visualizations) support learning of functional anatomy, and affect subsequent anatomical tasks derived from the cognitive task analysis. A second aim was to investigate the interplay between spatial abilities (spatial visualization and spatial relation) and presentation formats when the functional anatomy of a 3D scapula and the associated shoulder flexion movement are learned. Findings showed no main effect of the presentation formats on performances, but revealed the predictive influence of spatial visualization and spatial relation abilities on performance. However, an interesting interaction between presentation formats and spatial relation ability for a specific anatomical task was found. This result highlighted the influence of presentation formats when spatial abilities are involved as well as the differentiated influence of spatial abilities on anatomical tasks. PMID:25689057

  14. Dynamics of tokamak plasma surface current in 3D ideal MHD model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, Sergei A.; Svidzinski, V. A.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2013-10-01

    Interest in the surface current which can arise on perturbed sharp plasma vacuum interface in tokamaks was recently generated by a few papers (see and references therein). In dangerous disruption events with plasma-touching-wall scenarios, the surface current can be shared with the wall leading to the strong, damaging forces acting on the wall A relatively simple analytic definition of δ-function surface current proportional to a jump of tangential component of magnetic field nevertheless leads to a complex computational problem on the moving plasma-vacuum interface, requiring the incorporation of non-linear 3D plasma dynamics even in one-fluid ideal MHD. The Disruption Simulation Code (DSC), which had recently been developed in a fully 3D toroidal geometry with adaptation to the moving plasma boundary, is an appropriate tool for accurate self-consistent δfunction surface current calculation. Progress on the DSC-3D development will be presented. Self-consistent surface current calculation under non-linear dynamics of low m kink mode and VDE will be discussed. Work is supported by the US DOE SBIR grant #DE-SC0004487.

  15. Temporal dynamics and developmental memory of 3D chromatin architecture at Hox gene loci

    PubMed Central

    Noordermeer, Daan; Leleu, Marion; Schorderet, Patrick; Joye, Elisabeth; Chabaud, Fabienne; Duboule, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Hox genes are essential regulators of embryonic development. Their step-wise transcriptional activation follows their genomic topology and the various states of activation are subsequently memorized into domains of progressively overlapping gene products. We have analyzed the 3D chromatin organization of Hox clusters during their early activation in vivo, using high-resolution circular chromosome conformation capture. Initially, Hox clusters are organized as single chromatin compartments containing all genes and bivalent chromatin marks. Transcriptional activation is associated with a dynamic bi-modal 3D organization, whereby the genes switch autonomously from an inactive to an active compartment. These local 3D dynamics occur within a framework of constitutive interactions within the surrounding Topological Associated Domains, indicating that this regulation process is mostly cluster intrinsic. The step-wise progression in time is fixed at various body levels and thus can account for the chromatin architectures previously described at a later stage for different anterior to posterior levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02557.001 PMID:24843030

  16. Using articulated scene models for dynamic 3d scene analysis in vista spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuter, Niklas; Swadzba, Agnes; Kummert, Franz; Wachsmuth, Sven

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we describe an efficient but detailed new approach to analyze complex dynamic scenes directly in 3D. The arising information is important for mobile robots to solve tasks in the area of household robotics. In our work a mobile robot builds an articulated scene model by observing the environment in the visual field or rather in the so-called vista space. The articulated scene model consists of essential knowledge about the static background, about autonomously moving entities like humans or robots and finally, in contrast to existing approaches, information about articulated parts. These parts describe movable objects like chairs, doors or other tangible entities, which could be moved by an agent. The combination of the static scene, the self-moving entities and the movable objects in one articulated scene model enhances the calculation of each single part. The reconstruction process for parts of the static scene benefits from removal of the dynamic parts and in turn, the moving parts can be extracted more easily through the knowledge about the background. In our experiments we show, that the system delivers simultaneously an accurate static background model, moving persons and movable objects. This information of the articulated scene model enables a mobile robot to detect and keep track of interaction partners, to navigate safely through the environment and finally, to strengthen the interaction with the user through the knowledge about the 3D articulated objects and 3D scene analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Parallel implementation of 3D FFT with volumetric decomposition schemes for efficient molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jaewoon; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Imamura, Toshiyuki; Sugita, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (3D FFT) plays an important role in a wide variety of computer simulations and data analyses, including molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this study, we develop hybrid (MPI+OpenMP) parallelization schemes of 3D FFT based on two new volumetric decompositions, mainly for the particle mesh Ewald (PME) calculation in MD simulations. In one scheme, (1d_Alltoall), five all-to-all communications in one dimension are carried out, and in the other, (2d_Alltoall), one two-dimensional all-to-all communication is combined with two all-to-all communications in one dimension. 2d_Alltoall is similar to the conventional volumetric decomposition scheme. We performed benchmark tests of 3D FFT for the systems with different grid sizes using a large number of processors on the K computer in RIKEN AICS. The two schemes show comparable performances, and are better than existing 3D FFTs. The performances of 1d_Alltoall and 2d_Alltoall depend on the supercomputer network system and number of processors in each dimension. There is enough leeway for users to optimize performance for their conditions. In the PME method, short-range real-space interactions as well as long-range reciprocal-space interactions are calculated. Our volumetric decomposition schemes are particularly useful when used in conjunction with the recently developed midpoint cell method for short-range interactions, due to the same decompositions of real and reciprocal spaces. The 1d_Alltoall scheme of 3D FFT takes 4.7 ms to simulate one MD cycle for a virus system containing more than 1 million atoms using 32,768 cores on the K computer.

  18. Quantification of Dynamic Morphological Drug Responses in 3D Organotypic Cell Cultures by Automated Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Härmä, Ville; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Happonen, Antti; Ahonen, Ilmari; Virtanen, Johannes; Siitari, Harri; Åkerfelt, Malin; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Nees, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Glandular epithelial cells differentiate into complex multicellular or acinar structures, when embedded in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix. The spectrum of different multicellular morphologies formed in 3D is a sensitive indicator for the differentiation potential of normal, non-transformed cells compared to different stages of malignant progression. In addition, single cells or cell aggregates may actively invade the matrix, utilizing epithelial, mesenchymal or mixed modes of motility. Dynamic phenotypic changes involved in 3D tumor cell invasion are sensitive to specific small-molecule inhibitors that target the actin cytoskeleton. We have used a panel of inhibitors to demonstrate the power of automated image analysis as a phenotypic or morphometric readout in cell-based assays. We introduce a streamlined stand-alone software solution that supports large-scale high-content screens, based on complex and organotypic cultures. AMIDA (Automated Morphometric Image Data Analysis) allows quantitative measurements of large numbers of images and structures, with a multitude of different spheroid shapes, sizes, and textures. AMIDA supports an automated workflow, and can be combined with quality control and statistical tools for data interpretation and visualization. We have used a representative panel of 12 prostate and breast cancer lines that display a broad spectrum of different spheroid morphologies and modes of invasion, challenged by a library of 19 direct or indirect modulators of the actin cytoskeleton which induce systematic changes in spheroid morphology and differentiation versus invasion. These results were independently validated by 2D proliferation, apoptosis and cell motility assays. We identified three drugs that primarily attenuated the invasion and formation of invasive processes in 3D, without affecting proliferation or apoptosis. Two of these compounds block Rac signalling, one affects cellular cAMP/cGMP accumulation. Our approach supports

  19. Chaotic electroconvection near ion-selective membranes: investigation of transport dynamics from a 3D DNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druzgalski, Clara; Mani, Ali

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the transport dynamics of an electrokinetic instability that occurs when ions are driven from bulk fluids to ion-selective membranes due to externally applied electric fields. This phenomenon is relevant to a wide range of electrochemical applications including electrodialysis for fresh water production. Using data from our 3D DNS, we show how electroconvective instability, arising from concentration polarization, results in a chaotic flow that significantly alters the net ion transport rate across the membrane surface. The 3D DNS results, which fully resolve the spatiotemporal scales including the electric double layers, enable visualization of instantaneous snapshots of current density directly on the membrane surface, as well as analysis of transport statistics such as concentration variance and fluctuating advective fluxes. Furthermore, we present a full spectral analysis revealing broadband spectra in both concentration and flow fields and deduce the key parameter controlling the range of contributing scales.

  20. Dynamic 3D imaging based on acousto-optic heterodyne fringe interferometry.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yingjian; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang

    2014-06-15

    An acoustic-optics heterodyne fringe interferometry coupled with a three-camera system is developed for dynamic 3D imaging. In this system, first-order beams with a slight frequency difference diffracted from two acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) form a beat intensity fringe pattern. Setting the frequency of the trigger signal for the CCD cameras into four times the beat frequency, four-step phase-shifting fringe patterns can be obtained, and the wrapped phase map (WPM) can be calculated. Under the epipolar constraint among three cameras, the homologous points can be determined unambiguously with the assistant of a WPM; thus the 3D shape can be reconstructed while skipping the phase unwrapping step. Experimental results are presented to validate this approach. PMID:24978566

  1. User's manuals for DYNA3D and DYNAP: nonlinear dynamic analysis of solids in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1981-07-01

    This report provides a user's manual for DYNA3D, an explicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, and the equations-of-motion are integrated by the central difference method. Post-processors for DYNA3D include GRAPE for plotting deformed shapes and stress contours and DYNAP for plotting time histories. A user's manual for DYNAP is also provided in this report.

  2. Radial electric field 3D modeling for wire arrays driving dynamic hohlraums on Z.

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, Raymond Cecil

    2007-06-01

    The anode-cathode structure of the Z-machine wire array results in a higher negative radial electric field (Er) on the wires near the cathode relative to the anode. The magnitude of this field has been shown to anti-correlate with the axial radiation top/bottom symmetry in the DH (Dynamic Hohlraum). Using 3D modeling, the structure of this field is revealed for different wire-array configurations and for progressive mechanical alterations, providing insight for minimizing the negative Er on the wire array in the anode-to-cathode region of the DH. Also, the 3D model is compared to Sasorov's approximation, which describes Er at the surface of the wire in terms of wire-array parameters.

  3. Blob Dynamics in 3D BOUT Simulations of Tokamak Edge Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D; D'Ippolito, D; Myra, J; Nevins, W; Xu, X

    2004-08-23

    Propagating filaments of enhanced plasma density, or blobs, observed in 3D numerical simulations of a diverted, neutral-fueled tokamak are studied. Fluctuations of vorticity, electrical potential {phi}, temperature T{sub e} and current density J{sub {parallel}} associated with the blobs have a dipole structure perpendicular to the magnetic field and propagate radially with large E {center_dot} B drift velocities (> 1 km/s). The simulation results are consistent with a 3D blob dynamics model that incorporates increased parallel plasma resistivity (from neutral cooling of the X-point region), blob disconnection from the divertor sheath, X-point closure of the current loops, and collisional physics to sustain the {phi}, T{sub e}, J{sub {parallel}} dipoles.

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of Airy-vortex 3D wave packets: emission of vortex light waves.

    PubMed

    Driben, Rodislav; Meier, Torsten

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of 3D Airy-vortex wave packets is studied under the action of strong self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity. Emissions of nonlinear 3D waves out of the main wave packets with the topological charges were demonstrated. Because of the conservation of the total angular momentum, charges of the emitted waves are equal to those carried by the parental light structure. The rapid collapse imposes a severe limitation on the propagation of multidimensional waves in Kerr media. However, the structure of the Airy beam carrier allows the coupling of light from the leading, most intense peak into neighboring peaks and consequently strongly postpones the collapse. The dependence of the critical input amplitude for the appearance of a fast collapse on the beam width is studied for wave packets with zero and nonzero topological charges. Wave packets carrying angular momentum are found to be much more resistant to the rapid collapse. PMID:25360922

  5. Hand Gesture Spotting Based on 3D Dynamic Features Using Hidden Markov Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmezain, Mahmoud; Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Michaelis, Bernd

    In this paper, we propose an automatic system that handles hand gesture spotting and recognition simultaneously in stereo color image sequences without any time delay based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Color and 3D depth map are used to segment hand regions. The hand trajectory will determine in further step using Mean-shift algorithm and Kalman filter to generate 3D dynamic features. Furthermore, k-means clustering algorithm is employed for the HMMs codewords. To spot meaningful gestures accurately, a non-gesture model is proposed, which provides confidence limit for the calculated likelihood by other gesture models. The confidence measures are used as an adaptive threshold for spotting meaningful gestures. Experimental results show that the proposed system can successfully recognize isolated gestures with 98.33% and meaningful gestures with 94.35% reliability for numbers (0-9).

  6. 3D kinematic and dynamic analysis of the front crawl tumble turn in elite male swimmers.

    PubMed

    Puel, F; Morlier, J; Avalos, M; Mesnard, M; Cid, M; Hellard, P

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify kinematic and dynamic variables related to the best tumble turn times (3mRTT, the turn time from 3-m in to 3-m out, independent variable) in ten elite male swimmers using a three-dimensional (3D) underwater analysis protocol and the Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) as statistical method. For each swimmer, the best-time turn was analyzed with five stationary and synchronized underwater cameras. The 3D reconstruction was performed using the Direct Linear Transformation algorithm. An underwater piezoelectric 3D force platform completed the set-up to compute dynamic variables. Data were smoothed by the Savitzky-Golay filtering method. Three variables were considered relevant in the best Lasso model (3mRTT=2.58-0.425 RD+0.204 VPe+0.0046 TD): the head-wall distance where rotation starts (RD), the horizontal speed at the force peak (VPe), and the 3D length of the path covered during the turn (TD). Furthermore, bivariate analysis showed that upper body (CUBei) and lower limb extension indexes at first contact (CLLei) were also linked to the turn time (r=-0.65 and p<0.05 for both variables). Thus the best turn times were associated with a long RD, slower VPe and reduced TD. By an early transverse rotation, male elite swimmers reach the wall with a slightly flexed posture that results in fast extension. These swimmers opt for a movement that is oriented forward and they focus on reducing the distance covered. PMID:22176710

  7. EB1-recruited microtubule +TIP complexes coordinate protrusion dynamics during 3D epithelial remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gierke, Sarah; Wittmann, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Epithelial remodeling, in which apical-basal polarized cells switch to a migratory phenotype, plays a central role in development and disease of multicellular organisms. Although dynamic microtubules (MTs) are required for directed migration on flat surfaces, how MT dynamics are controlled or contribute to epithelial remodeling in a more physiological three-dimensional (3D) environment is not understood. We use confocal live cell imaging to analyze MT function and dynamics during 3D epithelial morphogenesis and remodeling of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells that undergo partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Results We find that HGF treatment increases MT growth rate before morphological changes are evident, and that large numbers of MTs grow into HGF-induced cell extensions independent of centrosome reorientation. Using lentivirus-mediated shRNA, we demonstrate that EB1, an adaptor protein that mediates recruitment of numerous other +TIP proteins to growing MT plus ends, is required for this HGF-induced MT reorganization. We further show that protrusion and adhesion dynamics are disorganized, and that vesicular trafficking to the tip of HGF-induced cell extensions is disrupted in EB1-depleted cells. Conclusions We conclude that EB1-mediated interactions with growing MTs are important to coordinate cell shape changes and directed migration into the surrounding extracellular matrix during epithelial remodeling in a physiological 3D environment. In contrast, EB1 is not required for the establishment or maintenance of apical-basal cell polarity, suggesting different functions of +TIPs and MTs in different types of cell polarity. PMID:22483942

  8. Noninvasive Imaging of 3D Dynamics in Thickly Fluorescent Specimens Beyond the Diffraction Limit

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Shao, Lin; Higgins, Christopher D.; Poulton, John S.; Peifer, Mark; Davidson, Michael W.; Wu, Xufeng; Goldstein, Bob; Betzig, Eric

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Optical imaging of the dynamics of living specimens involves tradeoffs between spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and phototoxicity, made more difficult in three-dimensions. Here, however, we report that rapid 3D dynamics can be studied beyond the diffraction limit in thick or densely fluorescent living specimens over many time points by combining ultra-thin planar illumination produced by scanned Bessel beams with superresolution structured illumination microscopy. We demonstrate in vivo karyotyping of chromosomes during mitosis and identify different dynamics for the actin cytoskeleton at the dorsal and ventral surfaces of fibroblasts. Compared to spinning disk confocal microscopy, we demonstrate substantially reduced photodamage when imaging rapid morphological changes in D. discoideum cells, as well as improved contrast and resolution at depth within developing C. elegans embryos. Bessel beam structured plane illumination thus promises new insights into complex biological phenomena that require 4D subcellular spatiotemporal detail in either a single or multicellular context. PMID:23217717

  9. Quantification of Diaphragm Mechanics in Pompe Disease Using Dynamic 3D MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mogalle, Katja; Perez-Rovira, Adria; Ciet, Pierluigi; Wens, Stephan C. A.; van Doorn, Pieter A.; Tiddens, Harm A. W. M.; van der Ploeg, Ans T.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Diaphragm weakness is the main reason for respiratory dysfunction in patients with Pompe disease, a progressive metabolic myopathy affecting respiratory and limb-girdle muscles. Since respiratory failure is the major cause of death among adult patients, early identification of respiratory muscle involvement is necessary to initiate treatment in time and possibly prevent irreversible damage. In this paper we investigate the suitability of dynamic MR imaging in combination with state-of-the-art image analysis methods to assess respiratory muscle weakness. Methods The proposed methodology relies on image registration and lung surface extraction to quantify lung kinematics during breathing. This allows for the extraction of geometry and motion features of the lung that characterize the independent contribution of the diaphragm and the thoracic muscles to the respiratory cycle. Results Results in 16 3D+t MRI scans (10 Pompe patients and 6 controls) of a slow expiratory maneuver show that kinematic analysis from dynamic 3D images reveals important additional information about diaphragm mechanics and respiratory muscle involvement when compared to conventional pulmonary function tests. Pompe patients with severely reduced pulmonary function showed severe diaphragm weakness presented by minimal motion of the diaphragm. In patients with moderately reduced pulmonary function, cranial displacement of posterior diaphragm parts was reduced and the diaphragm dome was oriented more horizontally at full inspiration compared to healthy controls. Conclusion Dynamic 3D MRI provides data for analyzing the contribution of both diaphragm and thoracic muscles independently. The proposed image analysis method has the potential to detect less severe diaphragm weakness and could thus be used to determine the optimal start of treatment in adult patients with Pompe disease in prospect of increased treatment response. PMID:27391236

  10. Signatures of topological phase transition in 3 d topological insulators from dynamical axion response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhfudz, Imam

    2016-04-01

    Axion electrodynamics, first proposed in the context of particle physics, manifests itself in condensed matter physics in the topological field theory description of 3 d topological insulators and gives rise to magnetoelectric effect, where applying magnetic (electric) field B (E ) induces polarization (magnetization) p (m ) . We use linear response theory to study the associated topological current using the Fu-Kane-Mele model of 3 d topological insulators in the presence of time-dependent uniform weak magnetic field. By computing the dynamical current susceptibility χij jpjp(ω ) , we discover from its static limit an `order parameter' of the topological phase transition between weak topological (or ordinary) insulator and strong topological insulator, found to be continuous. The χij jpjp(ω ) shows a sign-changing singularity at a critical frequency with suppressed strength in the topological insulating state. Our results can be verified in current noise experiment on 3 d TI candidate materials for the detection of such topological phase transition.

  11. Salinity effects on cracking morphology and dynamics in 3-D desiccating clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, Keita F.; Shokri, Nima

    2014-04-01

    Saline conditions induce not only chemical but physical changes in swelling clays, and have a significant influence on the crack dynamics and morphology of desiccating clays. In this study, we used X-ray microtomography to experimentally investigate the effects of sodium chloride on the morphology and dynamics of desiccation cracks in three-dimensional mixtures of sand-bentonite slurry under varying rheological conditions. Rectangular glass containers were packed with slurries of different salt concentrations, with the top boundary exposed to air for evaporation. The growth and propagation of the cracking network that subsequently formed was visualized in 3-D at multiple intervals. The characterization of cracking and branching behavior shows a high extent of localized surficial crack networks at low salinity, with a transition to less extensive but more centralized crack networks with increased salinity. The observed behavior was described in the context of the physicochemical properties of the montmorillonite clay, where shifts from an "entangled" (large platelet spacing, small pore structure) to a "stacked" (small platelet spacing, open pore structure) network influence fluid distribution and thus extent of cracking and branching behavior. This is further corroborated by vertical profiles of water distribution, which shows localized desiccation fronts that shift to uniform desaturation with increasing salt concentration. Our results provide new insights regarding the formation, dynamics, and patterns of desiccation cracks formed during evaporation from 3-D saline clay structures, which will be useful in hydrological applications including water management, land surface evaporation, and subsurface contaminant transport.

  12. Semi-automatic segmentation for 3D motion analysis of the tongue with dynamic MRI.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghoon; Woo, Jonghye; Xing, Fangxu; Murano, Emi Z; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic MRI has been widely used to track the motion of the tongue and measure its internal deformation during speech and swallowing. Accurate segmentation of the tongue is a prerequisite step to define the target boundary and constrain the tracking to tissue points within the tongue. Segmentation of 2D slices or 3D volumes is challenging because of the large number of slices and time frames involved in the segmentation, as well as the incorporation of numerous local deformations that occur throughout the tongue during motion. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic approach to segment 3D dynamic MRI of the tongue. The algorithm steps include seeding a few slices at one time frame, propagating seeds to the same slices at different time frames using deformable registration, and random walker segmentation based on these seed positions. This method was validated on the tongue of five normal subjects carrying out the same speech task with multi-slice 2D dynamic cine-MR images obtained at three orthogonal orientations and 26 time frames. The resulting semi-automatic segmentations of a total of 130 volumes showed an average dice similarity coefficient (DSC) score of 0.92 with less segmented volume variability between time frames than in manual segmentations. PMID:25155697

  13. An easy implementation of displacement calculations in 3D discrete dislocation dynamics codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fivel, Marc; Depres, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    Barnett's coordinate-free expression of the displacement field of a triangular loop in an isotropic media is revisited in a view to be implemented in 3D discrete dislocation dynamics codes. A general meshing procedure solving the problems of non-planar loops is presented. The method is user-friendly and can be used in numerical simulations since it gives the contribution of each dislocation segment to the global displacement field without defining the connectivity of closed loops. Easy to implement in parallel calculations, this method is successfully applied to large-scale simulations.

  14. Parallel 3-D particle-in-cell modelling of charged ultrarelativistic beam dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boronina, Marina A.; Vshivkov, Vitaly A.

    2015-12-01

    > ) in supercolliders. We use the 3-D set of Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields, and the Vlasov equation for the distribution function of the beam particles. The model incorporates automatically the longitudinal effects, which can play a significant role in the cases of super-high densities. We present numerical results for the dynamics of two focused ultrarelativistic beams with a size ratio 10:1:100. The results demonstrate high efficiency of the proposed computational methods and algorithms, which are applicable to a variety of problems in relativistic plasma physics.

  15. Time resolved 3D momentum imaging of ultrafast dynamics by coherent VUV-XUV radiation.

    PubMed

    Sturm, F P; Wright, T W; Ray, D; Zalyubovskaya, I; Shivaram, N; Slaughter, D S; Ranitovic, P; Belkacem, A; Weber, Th

    2016-06-01

    We present a new experimental setup for measuring ultrafast nuclear and electron dynamics of molecules after photo-excitation and ionization. We combine a high flux femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source with an internally cold molecular beam and a 3D momentum imaging particle spectrometer to measure electrons and ions in coincidence. We describe a variety of tools developed to perform pump-probe studies in the VUV-XUV spectrum and to modify and characterize the photon beam. First benchmark experiments are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the system. PMID:27370429

  16. Simulation studies of defect textures and dynamics in 3-d cholesteric droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez-Pinto, Vianney; Lu, Shin-Ying; Selinger, Jonathan; Selinger, Robin

    2010-03-01

    We model defect texture evolution in droplets of cholesteric liquid crystals by solving for the dynamics of the nematic director field. In order to accommodate defects in the simulated texture, we use a finite difference formulation that is explicitly independent of sign reversal of the director at any position in the sample. Textures are visualized using either the Berreman 4x4 matrix method or by mapping free energy density. We study both planar and focal conic cholesteric textures in 3-d spherical and cylindrical droplets, with the goal to optimize device geometries for bistable display applications.

  17. Simulation studies of dynamics and defect textures in 3-d cholesteric droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez-Pinto, Vianney; Lu, Shin-Ying; Selinger, Jonathan; Selinger, Robin

    2010-04-01

    We model defect texture evolution in droplets of cholesteric liquid crystals by solving for the dynamics of the nematic director field. In order to accommodate defects in the simulated texture, we use a finite difference formulation that is explicitly independent of sign reversal of the director at any position in the sample. Textures are visualized using either the Berreman 4x4 matrix method or by mapping free energy density. We study both planar and focal conic cholesteric textures in 3-d spherical and cylindrical droplets, with the goal to optimize device geometries for bistable display applications.

  18. Dynamic Characteristics of a Model and Prototype for 3D-RC Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniuddin, Md. Khaja; Vasanthalakshmi, G.; Chethan, K.; Babu, R. Ramesh

    2016-06-01

    Infill walls provide durable and economical partitions that have relatively excellent thermal and sound insulation with high fire resistance. Monolithic infilled walls are provided within RC structures without being analyzed as a combination of concrete and brick elements, although in reality they act as a single unit during earthquakes. The performance of such structures during earthquakes has proved to be superior in comparison to bare frames in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation. To know the dynamic characteristics of monolithic infill wall panels and masonry infill, modal, response spectrum and time history analyses have been carried out on a model and prototype of a 3D RC structure for a comparative study.

  19. Time resolved 3D momentum imaging of ultrafast dynamics by coherent VUV-XUV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, F. P.; Wright, T. W.; Ray, D.; Zalyubovskaya, I.; Shivaram, N.; Slaughter, D. S.; Ranitovic, P.; Belkacem, A.; Weber, Th.

    2016-06-01

    We present a new experimental setup for measuring ultrafast nuclear and electron dynamics of molecules after photo-excitation and ionization. We combine a high flux femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source with an internally cold molecular beam and a 3D momentum imaging particle spectrometer to measure electrons and ions in coincidence. We describe a variety of tools developed to perform pump-probe studies in the VUV-XUV spectrum and to modify and characterize the photon beam. First benchmark experiments are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the system.

  20. Insights from 3D numerical simulations on the dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, B.; Popov, A.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone remains one of the most remarkable topics of the current research interest: the transition from subduction to collision and uplift, followed by the rise of the abnormally thick Tibetan plateau, and the deformation at its Eastern and Western syntaxes, are processes still not fully understood. Models that have addressed this topic include wholescale underthrusting of Indian lithospheric mantle under Tibet, distributed homogeneous shortening or the thin-sheet model, slip-line field model for lateral extrusion or lower crustal flow models for the exhumation of the Himalayan units and lateral spreading of the Tibetan plateau. Of these, the thin-sheet model has successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision and has the advantage of a 3D model being reduced to 2D, but one of its major shortcomings is that it cannot simultaneously represent channel flow and gravitational collapse of the mantle lithosphere, since these mechanisms require the lithosphere to interact with the underlying mantle, or to have a vertically non-homogeneous rheology. As a consequence, 3D models are emerging as powerful tools to understand the dynamics of coupled systems. However, because of yet recent developments and various complexities, the current 3D models simulating the dynamics of continent collision zones have relied on certain explicit assumptions, such as replacing part of the asthenosphere with various types of boundary conditions that mimic the effect of mantle flow, in order to focus on the lithospheric/crustal deformation. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We present qualitative results on lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is subducted and

  1. Rapid 3D dynamic arterial spin labeling with a sparse model-based image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Fielden, Samuel W; Feng, Xue; Wintermark, Max; Mugler, John P; Meyer, Craig H

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI measures the perfusion bolus at multiple observation times and yields accurate estimates of cerebral blood flow in the presence of variations in arterial transit time. ASL has intrinsically low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and is sensitive to motion, so that extensive signal averaging is typically required, leading to long scan times for dynamic ASL. The goal of this study was to develop an accelerated dynamic ASL method with improved SNR and robustness to motion using a model-based image reconstruction that exploits the inherent sparsity of dynamic ASL data. The first component of this method is a single-shot 3D turbo spin echo spiral pulse sequence accelerated using a combination of parallel imaging and compressed sensing. This pulse sequence was then incorporated into a dynamic pseudo continuous ASL acquisition acquired at multiple observation times, and the resulting images were jointly reconstructed enforcing a model of potential perfusion time courses. Performance of the technique was verified using a numerical phantom and it was validated on normal volunteers on a 3-Tesla scanner. In simulation, a spatial sparsity constraint improved SNR and reduced estimation errors. Combined with a model-based sparsity constraint, the proposed method further improved SNR, reduced estimation error and suppressed motion artifacts. Experimentally, the proposed method resulted in significant improvements, with scan times as short as 20s per time point. These results suggest that the model-based image reconstruction enables rapid dynamic ASL with improved accuracy and robustness. PMID:26169322

  2. A 3D mechanistic model for brittle materials containing evolving flaw distributions under dynamic multiaxial loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guangli; Liu, Junwei; Graham-Brady, Lori; Ramesh, K. T.

    2015-05-01

    We present a validated fully 3D mechanism-based micromechanical constitutive model for brittle solids under dynamic multiaxial loading conditions. Flaw statistics are explicitly incorporated through a defect density, and evolving flaw distributions in both orientation and size. Interactions among cracks are modeled by means of a crack-matrix-effective-medium approach. A tensorial damage parameter is defined based upon the crack length and orientation development under local effective stress fields. At low confining stresses, the wing-cracking mechanism dominates, leading to the degradation of the modulus and peak strength of the material, whereas at high enough confining stresses, the cracking mechanism is completely shut-down and dislocation mechanisms become dominant. The model handles general multiaxial stress states, accounts for evolving internal variables in the form of evolving flaw size and orientation distributions, includes evolving anisotropic damage and irreversible damage strains in a thermodynamically consistent fashion, incorporates rate-dependence through the micromechanics, and includes dynamic bulking based on independent experimental data. Simulation results are discussed and compared with experimental results on one specific structural ceramic, aluminum nitride. We demonstrate that this 3D constitutive model is capable of capturing the general constitutive response of structural ceramics.

  3. Grounding line dynamics inferred from a 3D full-Stokes model solving the contact problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Lionel; Gagliardini, Olivier; Durand, Gael; Zwinger, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The mass balance of marine ice-sheets, such as the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is mostly controlled by their grounding line dynamics. Most numerical models simulating marine ice-sheets involve simplifications and do not include all the stress gradients. First results obtained with a 3D full-Stokes model for the grounded ice-sheet / floating ice-shelf transition, using the finite-element code Elmer/Ice, are presented. The initial geometry, which takes into account a dome and a calving front, has been laterally extruded from a previously investigated 2D flowline geometry. The grounding line migration is computed by solving the contact problem between the ice and the rigid downward sloping bedrock, where a non linear friction law is applied in the two horizontal directions. The evolutions of the sea-air and sea-ice interfaces are determined by the solution of a local transport equation. The consistency between the 3D model and the analogous results of the flowline model is shown by comparing the results in the basic extruded case, with no normal flux through lateral boundaries. Thereafter, spatially non uniform perturbations are introduced, to simulate the grounding line dynamics under fully three-dimensional perturbations.

  4. Computational Analysis of the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel Using FUN3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chwalowski, Pawel; Quon, Eliot; Brynildsen, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from an exploratory two-year effort of applying Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to analyze the empty-tunnel flow in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The TDT is a continuous-flow, closed circuit, 16- x 16-foot slotted-test-section wind tunnel, with capabilities to use air or heavy gas as a working fluid. In this study, experimental data acquired in the empty tunnel using the R-134a test medium was used to calibrate the computational data. The experimental calibration data includes wall pressures, boundary-layer profiles, and the tunnel centerline Mach number profiles. Subsonic and supersonic flow regimes were considered, focusing on Mach 0.5, 0.7 and Mach 1.1 in the TDT test section. This study discusses the computational domain, boundary conditions, and initial conditions selected and the resulting steady-state analyses using NASA's FUN3D CFD software.

  5. 3D microscale laser dynamic forming: Multiscale modeling and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Huang; Cheng, Gary J.

    2011-05-15

    Microscale laser dynamic forming ({mu}LDF) shows great potential in fabricating robust and high-aspect-ratio metallic microcomponents. Experiments revealed that strain rate and sample size play important roles in determining the dynamic plasticity and final results of {mu}LDF. To further understand these effects, a multiscale modeling methodology is adopted to characterize the microscale dynamic plasticity considering the evolutions of nano-to-submicron dislocations avalanches under shock loading. In this methodology, 3D discrete dislocation dynamics simulations are implemented to derive the yield strength and the initial strain hardening dependence on size and strain rate. It is observed that there exist three dynamic stages during deformation process. The initial strain hardening rate in Stage II increases with strain rate. The mechanical threshold stress model, intrinsically equipped with strain-rate-dependent flow stress and initial hardening, is chosen and modified to incorporate size effect quantitatively. This scale-dependent model, implemented in abaqus/explicit, provides deformation depths and thickness variations in good agreement with experimental results in {mu}LDF.

  6. Population and Evolutionary Dynamics based on Predator-Prey Relationships in a 3D Physical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Pilat, Marcin L; Suzuki, Reiji; Arita, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics, occurring at different time scales, can be affected by each other. Our purpose is to explore the interaction between population and evolutionary dynamics using an artificial life approach based on a 3D physically simulated environment in the context of predator-prey and morphology-behavior coevolution. The morphologies and behaviors of virtual prey creatures are evolved using a genetic algorithm based on the predation interactions between predators and prey. Both population sizes are also changed, depending on the fitness. We observe two types of cyclic behaviors, corresponding to short-term and long-term dynamics. The former can be interpreted as a simple population dynamics of Lotka-Volterra type. It is shown that the latter cycle is based on the interaction between the changes in the prey strategy against predators and the long-term change in both population sizes, resulting partly from a tradeoff between their defensive success and the cost of defense. PMID:26934093

  7. Surface 3D nanostructuring by tightly focused laser pulse: simulations by Lagrangian code and molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inogamov, Nail A.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.

    2016-02-01

    There are many important applications in which the ultrashort diffraction-limited and therefore tightly focused laser pulses irradiates metal films mounted on dielectric substrate. Here we present the detailed picture of laser peeling and 3D structure formation of the thin (relative to a depth of a heat affected zone in the bulk targets) gold films on glass substrate. The underlying physics of such diffraction-limited laser peeling was not well understood previously. Our approach is based on a physical model which takes into consideration the new calculations of the two-temperature (2T) equation of state (2T EoS) and the two-temperature transport coefficients together with the coupling parameter between electron and ion subsystems. The usage of the 2T EoS and the kinetic coefficients is required because absorption of an ultrashort pulse with duration of 10-1000 fs excites electron subsystem of metal and transfers substance into the 2T state with hot electrons (typical electron temperatures 1-3 eV) and much colder ions. It is shown that formation of submicrometer-sized 3D structures is a result of the electron-ion energy transfer, melting, and delamination of film from substrate under combined action of electron and ion pressures, capillary deceleration of the delaminated liquid metal or semiconductor, and ultrafast freezing of molten material. We found that the freezing is going in non-equilibrium regime with strongly overcooled liquid phase. In this case the Stefan approximation is non-applicable because the solidification front speed is limited by the diffusion rate of atoms in the molten material. To solve the problem we have developed the 2T Lagrangian code including all this reach physics in. We also used the high-performance combined Monte- Carlo and molecular dynamics code for simulation of surface 3D nanostructuring at later times after completion of electron-ion relaxation.

  8. Making and Remaking Dynamic 3D Structures by Shining Light on Flat Liquid Crystalline Vitrimer Films without a Mold.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Pei, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhen; Wei, Yen; Ji, Yan

    2016-02-24

    Making dynamic three-dimensional (3D) structures capable of reversible shape changes or locomotion purely out of dry polymers is very difficult. Meanwhile, no previous dynamic 3D structures can be remade into new configurations while being resilient to mechanical damages and low temperature. Here, we show that light-activated transesterification in carbon nanotube dispersed liquid crystalline vitrimers enables flexible design and easy building of dynamic 3D structures out of flat films upon irradiation of light without screws, glues, or molds. Shining light also enables dynamic 3D structures to be quickly modified on demand, restored from distortion, repaired if broken, in situ healed when microcrack appears, assembled for more sophisticated structures, reconfigured, and recycled after use. Furthermore, the fabrication, reconfiguration, actuation, reparation, and assembly as well as healing can be performed even at extremely low temperatures (e.g., -130 °C). PMID:26840838

  9. Observing molecular dynamics with time-resolved 3D momentum imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, F. P.; Wright, T.; Bocharova, I.; Ray, D.; Shivaram, N.; Cryan, J.; Belkacem, A.; Weber, T.; Dörner, R.

    2014-05-01

    Photo-excitation and ionization trigger rich dynamics in molecular systems which play a key role in many important processes in nature such as vision, photosynthesis or photoprotection. Observing those reactions in real-time without significantly disturbing the molecules by a strong electric field has been a great challenge. Recent experiments using Time-of-Flight and Velocity Map Imaging techniques have revealed important information on the dynamics of small molecular systems upon photo-excitation. We have developed an apparatus for time-resolved momentum imaging of electrons and ions in all three spatial dimensions that employs two-color femtosecond laser pulses in the vacuum and extreme ultraviolet (VUV, XUV) for probing molecular dynamics. Our COLTRIMS style reaction microscope can measure electrons and ions in coincidence and reconstruct the momenta of the reaction fragments in 3D. We use a high power 800 nm laser in a loose focusing geometry gas cell to efficinetly drive High Harmonic Generation. The resulting photon flux is sufficient to perform 2-photon pump-probe experiments using VUV and XUV pulses for both pump and probe. With this setup we investigate non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics in small molecules such as C2H4 and CO2 on a femtosecond time scale. Supported by Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences division of BES/DOE.

  10. Segmentation of Whole Cells and Cell Nuclei From 3-D Optical Microscope Images Using Dynamic Programming

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Dean P.; Gudla, Prabhakar R.; Harris, Bradley S.; Collins, Jason A.; Meaburn, Karen J.; Nakaya, Masa-Aki; Yamaguchi, Terry P.; Misteli, Tom; Lockett, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Communications between cells in large part drive tissue development and function, as well as disease-related processes such as tumorigenesis. Understanding the mechanistic bases of these processes necessitates quantifying specific molecules in adjacent cells or cell nuclei of intact tissue. However, a major restriction on such analyses is the lack of an efficient method that correctly segments each object (cell or nucleus) from 3-D images of an intact tissue specimen. We report a highly reliable and accurate semi-automatic algorithmic method for segmenting fluorescence-labeled cells or nuclei from 3-D tissue images. Segmentation begins with semi-automatic, 2-D object delineation in a user-selected plane, using dynamic programming (DP) to locate the border with an accumulated intensity per unit length greater that any other possible border around the same object. Then the two surfaces of the object in planes above and below the selected plane are found using an algorithm that combines DP and combinatorial searching. Following segmentation, any perceived errors can be interactively corrected. Segmentation accuracy is not significantly affected by intermittent labeling of object surfaces, diffuse surfaces, or spurious signals away from surfaces. The unique strength of the segmentation method was demonstrated on a variety of biological tissue samples where all cells, including irregularly shaped cells, were accurately segmented based on visual inspection. PMID:18450544

  11. Mutual information as a measure of image quality for 3D dynamic lung imaging with EIT

    PubMed Central

    Crabb, M G; Davidson, J L; Little, R; Wright, P; Morgan, A R; Miller, C A; Naish, J H; Parker, G J M; Kikinis, R; McCann, H; Lionheart, W R B

    2014-01-01

    We report on a pilot study of dynamic lung electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at the University of Manchester. Low-noise EIT data at 100 frames per second (fps) were obtained from healthy male subjects during controlled breathing, followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) subsequently used for spatial validation of the EIT reconstruction. The torso surface in the MR image and electrode positions obtained using MRI fiducial markers informed the construction of a 3D finite element model extruded along the caudal-distal axis of the subject. Small changes in the boundary that occur during respiration were accounted for by incorporating the sensitivity with respect to boundary shape into a robust temporal difference reconstruction algorithm. EIT and MRI images were co-registered using the open source medical imaging software, 3D Slicer. A quantitative comparison of quality of different EIT reconstructions was achieved through calculation of the mutual information with a lung-segmented MR image. EIT reconstructions using a linear shape correction algorithm reduced boundary image artefacts, yielding better contrast of the lungs, and had 10% greater mutual information compared with a standard linear EIT reconstruction. PMID:24710978

  12. Description of patellar movement by 3D parameters obtained from dynamic CT acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sá Rebelo, Marina; Moreno, Ramon Alfredo; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; de Ávila, Luiz Francisco Rodrigues; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Pecora, Jose Ricardo; Gutierrez, Marco Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The patellofemoral joint is critical in the biomechanics of the knee. The patellofemoral instability is one condition that generates pain, functional impairment and often requires surgery as part of orthopedic treatment. The analysis of the patellofemoral dynamics has been performed by several medical image modalities. The clinical parameters assessed are mainly based on 2D measurements, such as the patellar tilt angle and the lateral shift among others. Besides, the acquisition protocols are mostly performed with the leg laid static at fixed angles. The use of helical multi slice CT scanner can allow the capture and display of the joint's movement performed actively by the patient. However, the orthopedic applications of this scanner have not yet been standardized or widespread. In this work we present a method to evaluate the biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint during active contraction using multi slice CT images. This approach can greatly improve the analysis of patellar instability by displaying the physiology during muscle contraction. The movement was evaluated by computing its 3D displacements and rotations from different knee angles. The first processing step registered the images in both angles based on the femuŕs position. The transformation matrix of the patella from the images was then calculated, which provided the rotations and translations performed by the patella from its position in the first image to its position in the second image. Analysis of these parameters for all frames provided real 3D information about the patellar displacement.

  13. 3D Plasma Clusters: Analysis of dynamical evolution and individual particle interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Antonova, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Annaratone, B. M.

    2008-09-07

    3D plasma clusters (up to 100 particles) have been built inside small (32 mm{sup 3}) plasma volume in gravity. It has been estimated that the external confinement has a negligible influence on the processes inside the clusters. At such conditions the analysis of dynamical evolution and individual particle interactions have shown that the binary interaction among particles in addition to the repelling Coulomb force exhibits also an attractive part. The tendency of the systems to approach the state with minimum energy by rearranging particles inside has been detected. The measured 63 particles' cluster vibrations are in close agreement with vibrations of a drop with surface tension. This indicates that even a 63 particle cluster already exhibits properties normally associated with the cooperative regime.

  14. 3D Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of the Nonuniform Residual Stress in Ultrasonic Impact Treatment Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shengsun; Guo, Chaobo; Wang, Dongpo; Wang, Zhijiang

    2016-07-01

    The nonuniform distributions of the residual stress were simulated by a 3D finite element model to analyze the elastic-plastic dynamic ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) process of multiple impacts on the 2024 aluminum alloy. The evolution of the stress during the impact process was discussed. The successive impacts during the UIT process improve the uniformity of the plastic deformation and decrease the maximum compressive residual stress beneath the former impact indentations. The influences of different controlled parameters, including the initial impact velocity, pin diameter, pin tip, device moving, and offset distances, on the residual stress distributions were analyzed. The influences of the controlled parameters on the residual stress distributions are apparent in the offset direction due to the different surface coverage in different directions. The influences can be used to understand the UIT process and to obtain the desired residual stress by optimizing the controlled parameters.

  15. Self-Consistent 3D Modeling of Electron Cloud Dynamics and Beam Response

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, Miguel; Furman, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Sonnad, K.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Venturini, M.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Molvik, A.; Stoltz, P.

    2007-04-02

    We present recent advances in the modeling of beam electron-cloud dynamics, including surface effects such as secondary electron emission, gas desorption, etc, and volumetric effects such as ionization of residual gas and charge-exchange reactions. Simulations for the HCX facility with the code WARP/POSINST will be described and their validity demonstrated by benchmarks against measurements. The code models a wide range of physical processes and uses a number of novel techniques, including a large-timestep electron mover that smoothly interpolates between direct orbit calculation and guiding-center drift equations, and a new computational technique, based on a Lorentz transformation to a moving frame, that allows the cost of a fully 3D simulation to be reduced to that of a quasi-static approximation.

  16. Dynamic Implicit 3D Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Bobby; Wang, Zhen; Berrill, Mark A; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Manuel; Pernice, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The time dependent non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equations are important for solving the transport of energy through radiation in optically thick regimes and find applications in several fields including astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. The associated initial boundary value problems that are encountered exhibit a wide range of scales in space and time and are extremely challenging to solve. To efficiently and accurately simulate these systems we describe our research on combining techniques that will also find use more broadly for long term time integration of nonlinear multiphysics systems: implicit time integration for efficient long term time integration of stiff multiphysics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while controlling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent linear solver convergence.

  17. The Quantum Dynamics of a Dilute Gas in a 3D BCC Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Linda; Boretz, Yingyue

    2015-03-01

    The classical and quantum dynamics of a dilute gas of rubidium atoms, in a 3D body-centered cubic optical lattice, is studied for a range of polarizations of the laser beams forming the lattice. The relative polarization of the lasers determines the the structure of the potential energy seen by the rubidium atoms. If three pairs of in-phase mutually perpendicular laser beams, with the same wavelength, form the lattice, only a limited range of possible couplings can be realized in the lab. We have determined the band structure of the BCC optical lattice for all theoretically possible couplings, and find that the band structure for lattices realizable in the lab, differs significantly from that expected for a BCC crystal. As coupling is increased, the lattice becomes increasingly chaotic and it becomes possible to produce band structure that has qualitative similarity to a BCC. Welch Foundation

  18. 3D Reconstruction of Human Laryngeal Dynamics Based on Endoscopic High-Speed Recordings.

    PubMed

    Semmler, Marion; Kniesburges, Stefan; Birk, Veronika; Ziethe, Anke; Patel, Rita; Dollinger, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Standard laryngoscopic imaging techniques provide only limited two-dimensional insights into the vocal fold vibrations not taking the vertical component into account. However, previous experiments have shown a significant vertical component in the vibration of the vocal folds. We present a 3D reconstruction of the entire superior vocal fold surface from 2D high-speed videoendoscopy via stereo triangulation. In a typical camera-laser set-up the structured laser light pattern is projected on the vocal folds and captured at 4000 fps. The measuring device is suitable for in vivo application since the external dimensions of the miniaturized set-up barely exceed the size of a standard rigid laryngoscope. We provide a conservative estimate on the resulting resolution based on the hardware components and point out the possibilities and limitations of the miniaturized camera-laser set-up. In addition to the 3D vocal fold surface, we extended previous approaches with a G2-continuous model of the vocal fold edge. The clinical applicability was successfully established by the reconstruction of visual data acquired from 2D in vivo high-speed recordings of a female and a male subject. We present extracted dynamic parameters like maximum amplitude and velocity in the vertical direction. The additional vertical component reveals deeper insights into the vibratory dynamics of the vocal folds by means of a non-invasive method. The successful miniaturization allows for in vivo application giving access to the most realistic model available and hence enables a comprehensive understanding of the human phonation process. PMID:26829782

  19. Transforming 2d Cadastral Data Into a Dynamic Smart 3d Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiliakou, E.; Labropoulos, T.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2013-08-01

    3D property registration has become an imperative need in order to optimally reflect all complex cases of the multilayer reality of property rights and restrictions, revealing their vertical component. This paper refers to the potentials and multiple applications of 3D cadastral systems and explores the current state-of-the art, especially the available software with which 3D visualization can be achieved. Within this context, the Hellenic Cadastre's current state is investigated, in particular its data modeling frame. Presenting the methodologies and specifications addressing the registration of 3D properties, the operating cadastral system's shortcomings and merits are pointed out. Nonetheless, current technological advances as well as the availability of sophisticated software packages (proprietary or open source) call for 3D modeling. In order to register and visualize the complex reality in 3D, Esri's CityEngine modeling software has been used, which is specialized in the generation of 3D urban environments, transforming 2D GIS Data into Smart 3D City Models. The application of the 3D model concerns the Campus of the National Technical University of Athens, in which a complex ownership status is established along with approved special zoning regulations. The 3D model was built using different parameters based on input data, derived from cadastral and urban planning datasets, as well as legal documents and architectural plans. The process resulted in a final 3D model, optimally describing the cadastral situation and built environment and proved to be a good practice example of 3D visualization.

  20. Using 3D dynamic models to reproduce X-ray properties of colliding wind binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Christopher Michael Post

    Colliding wind binaries (CWBs) are unique laboratories for X-ray astrophysics. The two massive stars contained in these systems have powerful radiatively driven stellar winds, and the conversion of their kinetic energy to heat (up to 108 K) at the wind-wind collision region generates hard thermal X-rays (up to 10 keV). Rich data sets exist of several multi-year-period systems, as well as key observations of shorter period systems, and detailed models are required to disentangle the phase-locked emission and absorption processes in these systems. To interpret these X-ray light curves and spectra, this dissertation models the wind-wind interaction of CWBs using 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), and solves the 3D formal solution of radiative transfer to synthesize the model X-ray properties, allowing direct comparison with the colliding-wind X-ray spectra observed by, e.g., RXTE and XMM. The multi-year-period, highly eccentric CWBs we examine are eta Carinae and WR140. For the commonly inferred primary mass loss rate of ˜10 -3 Msun/yr, eta Carinae's 3D model reproduces quite well the 2-10 keV RXTE light curve, hardness ratio, and dynamic spectra in absolute units. This agreement includes the ˜3 month X-ray minimum associated with the 1998.0 and 2003.5 periastron passages, which we find to occur as the primary wind encroaches into the secondary wind's acceleration region. This modeling provides further evidence that the observer is mainly viewing the system through the secondary's shock cone, and suggests that periastron occurs ~1 month after the onset of the X-ray minimum. The model RXTE observables of WR140 match the data well in absolute units, although the decrease in model X-rays around periastron is less than observed. There is very good agreement between the observed XMM spectrum taken on the rise before periastron and the model. We also model two short-period CWBs, HD150136, which has a wind-star collision, and delta Orionis A, the closest eclipsing

  1. Holographic display system for dynamic synthesis of 3D light fields with increased space bandwidth product.

    PubMed

    Agour, Mostafa; Falldorf, Claas; Bergmann, Ralf B

    2016-06-27

    We present a new method for the generation of a dynamic wave field with high space bandwidth product (SBP). The dynamic wave field is generated from several wave fields diffracted by a display which comprises multiple spatial light modulators (SLMs) each having a comparably low SBP. In contrast to similar approaches in stereoscopy, we describe how the independently generated wave fields can be coherently superposed. A major benefit of the scheme is that the display system may be extended to provide an even larger display. A compact experimental configuration which is composed of four phase-only SLMs to realize the coherent combination of independent wave fields is presented. Effects of important technical parameters of the display system on the wave field generated across the observation plane are investigated. These effects include, e.g., the tilt of the individual SLM and the gap between the active areas of multiple SLMs. As an example of application, holographic reconstruction of a 3D object with parallax effects is demonstrated. PMID:27410593

  2. 3D Global Braginskii Simulations of Plasma Dynamics and Turbulence in LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Dustin; Rogers, Barrett

    2013-10-01

    3D global two-fluid simulations are presented in an ongoing effort to identify and understand the plasma dynamics in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA's Basic Science Facility. Modeling is done using a modified version of the Global Braginskii Solver (GBS) that models the plasma from source to edge region on a field-aligned grid using a finite difference method and 4th order Runge-Kutta time stepping. Progress has been made to account for the thermionic cathode emission of fast electrons at the source, the axial dependence of the plasma source, and biasing the front and side walls. Along with trying to understand the effect sheath's and neutrals have in setting the plasma potential, work is being done to model the biasable limiter recently used by colleagues at UCLA to better understand flow shear and particle transport in the LAPD. Comparisons of the zero bias case are presented along with analysis of the growth and dynamics of turbulent structures (such as drift waves) seen in the simulations. Supported through CICART under the auspices of the DOE's EPSCoR Grant No. DE-FG02-10ER46372.

  3. A Real-time, 3D Musculoskeletal Model for Dynamic Simulation of Arm Movements

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Edward K.; Blana, Dimitra; van den Bogert, Antonie J.; Kirsch, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroprostheses can be used to restore movement of the upper limb in individuals with high-level spinal cord injury. Development and evaluation of command and control schemes for such devices typically requires real-time, “patient-in-the-loop” experimentation. A real-time, three-dimensional, musculoskeletal model of the upper limb has been developed for use in a simulation environment to allow such testing to be carried out non-invasively. The model provides real-time feedback of human arm dynamics that can be displayed to the user in a virtual reality environment. The model has a three degree-of-freedom gleno-humeral joint as well as elbow flexion/extension and pronation/supination, and contains 22 muscles of the shoulder and elbow divided into multiple elements. The model is able to run in real time on modest desktop hardware and demonstrates that a large-scale, 3D model can be made to run in real time. This is a prerequisite for a real-time, whole arm model that will form part of a dynamic arm simulator for use in the development, testing and user training of neural prosthesis systems. PMID:19272926

  4. A digital holography set-up for 3D vortex flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebon, Benoît; Perret, Gaële; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Godard, Gilles; Gréhan, Gérard; Lebrun, Denis; Brossard, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, a digital in-line holography (DIH) set-up, with a converging beam, is used to take three-dimensional (3D) velocity measurements of vortices. The vortices are formed periodically at the edges of a submerged horizontal plate submitted to regular waves. They take the form of vortex filaments that extend from side to side of the channel. They undergo strongly three-dimensional instability mechanisms that remain very complicated to characterize experimentally. The experiments are performed in a 10 × 0.3 × 0.3 m3 wave flume. The DIH set-up is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 640 nm and a lensless CCD camera. The beam crosses the channel side to side. To reveal the flow dynamics, 30-μm hydrogen bubbles are generated at the edge of the plate to serve as tracers. Their locations are recorded on the holograms multiple times to access the dynamics of the flow. This method leads to an accuracy in the order of 100 μm on the axial location. Those measurements have been validated with stereo-PIV measurements. A very good agreement is found on time-averaged velocity fields between the two techniques.

  5. Real-time automated 3D sensing, detection, and recognition of dynamic biological micro-organic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Bahram; Yeom, Seokwon; Moon, Inkyu; Daneshpanah, Mehdi

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging techniques for real-time automated sensing, visualization, and recognition of dynamic biological microorganisms. Real time sensing and 3D reconstruction of the dynamic biological microscopic objects can be performed by single-exposure on-line (SEOL) digital holographic microscopy. A coherent 3D microscope-based interferometer is constructed to record digital holograms of dynamic micro biological events. Complex amplitude 3D images of the biological microorganisms are computationally reconstructed at different depths by digital signal processing. Bayesian segmentation algorithms are applied to identify regions of interest for further processing. A number of pattern recognition approaches are addressed to identify and recognize the microorganisms. One uses 3D morphology of the microorganisms by analyzing 3D geometrical shapes which is composed of magnitude and phase. Segmentation, feature extraction, graph matching, feature selection, and training and decision rules are used to recognize the biological microorganisms. In a different approach, 3D technique is used that are tolerant to the varying shapes of the non-rigid biological microorganisms. After segmentation, a number of sampling patches are arbitrarily extracted from the complex amplitudes of the reconstructed 3D biological microorganism. These patches are processed using a number of cost functions and statistical inference theory for the equality of means and equality of variances between the sampling segments. Also, we discuss the possibility of employing computational integral imaging for 3D sensing, visualization, and recognition of biological microorganisms illuminated under incoherent light. Experimental results with several biological microorganisms are presented to illustrate detection, segmentation, and identification of micro biological events.

  6. Dynamic earthquake rupture simulations on nonplanar faults embedded in 3D geometrically complex, heterogeneous elastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duru, Kenneth; Dunham, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic propagation of shear ruptures on a frictional interface in an elastic solid is a useful idealization of natural earthquakes. The conditions relating discontinuities in particle velocities across fault zones and tractions acting on the fault are often expressed as nonlinear friction laws. The corresponding initial boundary value problems are both numerically and computationally challenging. In addition, seismic waves generated by earthquake ruptures must be propagated for many wavelengths away from the fault. Therefore, reliable and efficient numerical simulations require both provably stable and high order accurate numerical methods. We present a high order accurate finite difference method for: a) enforcing nonlinear friction laws, in a consistent and provably stable manner, suitable for efficient explicit time integration; b) dynamic propagation of earthquake ruptures along nonplanar faults; and c) accurate propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media with free surface topography. We solve the first order form of the 3D elastic wave equation on a boundary-conforming curvilinear mesh, in terms of particle velocities and stresses that are collocated in space and time, using summation-by-parts (SBP) finite difference operators in space. Boundary and interface conditions are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving semi-discrete energy estimates analogous to the continuous energy estimates we prove numerical stability. The finite difference stencils used in this paper are sixth order accurate in the interior and third order accurate close to the boundaries. However, the method is applicable to any spatial operator with a diagonal norm satisfying the SBP property. Time stepping is performed with a 4th order accurate explicit low storage Runge-Kutta scheme, thus yielding a globally fourth order accurate method in both space and time. We show numerical simulations on band limited self-similar fractal faults revealing the complexity of rupture dynamics

  7. 3D airflow dynamics over transverse ridges Mpekweni, South Africa: implications for dune field migration behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew; Green, Andrew; Beyers, Meiring; Wiles, Errol; Benallack, Keegan

    2016-04-01

    Un-vegetated dune fields provide excellent opportunities to examine airflow dynamics over various types and scales of dune landforms. The three dimensional surface over which lower boundary layers travel, help adjust surface airflow and consequently the aeolian response of the dunes themselves. The use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modelling in recent studies now enables investigation of the 3D behaviour of airflow over complex terrain, providing new insights into heterogeneous surface flow and aeolian response of dune surfaces on a large (dunefield) scale. Using a largely un-vegetated coastal dune field site at Mpekweni, Eastern Cape, South Africa, a detailed (0.1m gridded) terrestrial laser scanning survey was conducted to create a high resolution topographical surface. Using local wind flow measurements and local met station records as input, CFD modelling was performed for a number of scenarios involving variable direction and magnitude to examine surface flow patterns across multiple dune forms. Near surface acceleration, expansion and separation of airflow inducing convergence and divergence (steering) of flow velocity streamlines are investigated. Flow acceleration over dune crests/brink lines is a key parameter in driving dune migration and slip face dynamics. Dune aspect ratio (height to length) is also important in determining the degree of crestal flow acceleration, with an increase in flow associated with increasing aspect ratios. Variations in dune height appear to be the most important parameter in driving general flow acceleration. The results from the study provide new insights into dune migration behaviour at this site as well as surface flow behaviour across multiple dune configurations and length scales within un-vegetated dune fields.

  8. Dynamic earthquake rupture simulation on nonplanar faults embedded in 3D geometrically complex, heterogeneous Earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duru, K.; Dunham, E. M.; Bydlon, S. A.; Radhakrishnan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic propagation of shear ruptures on a frictional interface is a useful idealization of a natural earthquake.The conditions relating slip rate and fault shear strength are often expressed as nonlinear friction laws.The corresponding initial boundary value problems are both numerically and computationally challenging.In addition, seismic waves generated by earthquake ruptures must be propagated, far away from fault zones, to seismic stations and remote areas.Therefore, reliable and efficient numerical simulations require both provably stable and high order accurate numerical methods.We present a numerical method for:a) enforcing nonlinear friction laws, in a consistent and provably stable manner, suitable for efficient explicit time integration;b) dynamic propagation of earthquake ruptures along rough faults; c) accurate propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media with free surface topography.We solve the first order form of the 3D elastic wave equation on a boundary-conforming curvilinear mesh, in terms of particle velocities and stresses that are collocated in space and time, using summation-by-parts finite differences in space. The finite difference stencils are 6th order accurate in the interior and 3rd order accurate close to the boundaries. Boundary and interface conditions are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving semi-discrete energy estimates analogous to the continuous energy estimates we prove numerical stability. Time stepping is performed with a 4th order accurate explicit low storage Runge-Kutta scheme. We have performed extensive numerical experiments using a slip-weakening friction law on non-planar faults, including recent SCEC benchmark problems. We also show simulations on fractal faults revealing the complexity of rupture dynamics on rough faults. We are presently extending our method to rate-and-state friction laws and off-fault plasticity.

  9. 3D Dynamics of Freshwater Lenses in the Near-Surface Layer of the Tropical Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, Alexander; Dean, Cayla

    2015-04-01

    Convective rains in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) produce lenses of freshened water on the ocean surface. These lenses are localized in space and typically involve both salinity and temperature anomalies. Due to significant density anomalies, strong pressure gradients develop, which result in lateral spreading of freshwater lenses in a form resembling gravity currents. Gravity currents inherently involve three-dimensional dynamics. As a type of organized structure, gravity currents in the upper layer of the ocean may also interact with, and be shaped by, the ambient oceanic environment and atmospheric conditions. Among the important factors are the background stratification, wind stress, wind/wave mixing and spatially coherent organized motions in the near-surface layer of the ocean. Under certain conditions, a resonant interaction between a propagating freshwater lens and internal waves in the underlying pycnocline (e.g., barrier layer) may develop, whereas interaction with wind stress may produce an asymmetry in the freshwater lens and associated mixing. These two types of interactions working in concert may explain the series of sharp frontal interfaces, which have been observed in association with freshwater lenses during TOGA COARE. In this work, we have conducted a series of numerical experiments using computational fluid dynamics tools. These numerical simulations were designed to elucidate the relationship between vertical mixing and horizontal advection of salinity under various environmental conditions and potential impact on the Aquarius and SMOS satellite image formation. Available near-surface data from field experiments served as a guidance for numerical simulations. The results of this study indicate that 3D dynamics of freshwater lenses are essential within a certain range of wind/wave conditions and the freshwater influx in the surface layer of the ocean.

  10. Advances in the continuous monitoring of erosion and deposition dynamics: Developments and applications of the new PEEP-3T system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    In most episodic erosion and deposition systems, knowledge of the timing of geomorphological change, in relation to fluctuations in the driving forces, is crucial to strong erosion process inference, and model building, validation and development. A challenge for geomorphology, however, is that few studies have focused on geomorphological event structure (timing, magnitude, frequency and duration of individual erosion and deposition events), in relation to applied stresses, because of the absence of key monitoring methodologies. This paper therefore (a) presents full details of a new erosion and deposition measurement system — PEEP-3T — developed from the Photo-Electronic Erosion Pin sensor in five key areas, including the addition of nocturnal monitoring through the integration of the Thermal Consonance Timing (TCT) concept, to produce a continuous sensing system; (b) presents novel high-resolution datasets from the redesigned PEEP-3T system for river bank system of the Rivers Nidd and Wharfe, northern England, UK; and (c) comments on their potential for wider application throughout geomorphology to address these key measurement challenges. Relative to manual methods of erosion and deposition quantification, continuous PEEP-3T methodologies increase the temporal resolution of erosion/deposition event detection by more than three orders of magnitude (better than 1-second resolution if required), and this facility can significantly enhance process inference. Results show that river banks are highly dynamic thermally and respond quickly to radiation inputs. Data on bank retreat timing, fixed with PEEP-3T TCT evidence, confirmed that they were significantly delayed up to 55 h after flood peaks. One event occurred 13 h after emergence from the flow. This suggests that mass failure processes rather than fluid entrainment dominated the system. It is also shown how, by integrating turbidity instrumentation with TCT ideas, linkages between sediment supply and sediment

  11. Toward a 3D dynamic model of a faulty duplex ball bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Gideon; Klein, Renata; Kushnirsky, Alex; Bortman, Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Bearings are vital components for safe and proper operation of machinery. Increasing efficiency of bearing diagnostics usually requires training of health and usage monitoring systems via expensive and time-consuming ground calibration tests. The main goal of this research, therefore, is to improve bearing dynamics modeling tools in order to reduce the time and budget needed to implement the health and usage monitoring approach. The proposed three-dimensional ball bearing dynamic model is based on the classic dynamic and kinematic equations. Interactions between the bodies are simulated using non-linear springs combined with dampers described by Hertz-type contact relation. The force friction is simulated using the hyperbolic-tangent function. The model allows simulation of a wide range of mechanical faults. It is validated by comparison to known bearing behavior and to experimental results. The model results are verified by demonstrating numerical convergence. The model results for the two cases of single and duplex angular ball bearings with axial deformation in the outer ring are presented. The qualitative investigation provides insight into bearing dynamics, the sensitivity study generalizes the qualitative findings for similar cases, and the comparison to the test results validates model reliability. The article demonstrates the variety of the cases that the 3D bearing model can simulate and the findings to which it may lead. The research allowed the identification of new patterns generated by single and duplex bearings with axially deformed outer race. It also enlightened the difference between single and duplex bearing manifestation. In the current research the dynamic model enabled better understanding of the physical behavior of the faulted bearings. Therefore, it is expected that the modeling approach has the potential to simplify and improve the development process of diagnostic algorithms. • A deformed outer race of a single axially loaded bearing is

  12. Additively Manufactured Device for Dynamic Culture of Large Arrays of 3D Tissue Engineered Constructs.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro F; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Theodoropoulos, Christina; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Vaquette, Cédryck

    2015-04-22

    The ability to test large arrays of cell and biomaterial combinations in 3D environments is still rather limited in the context of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This limitation can be generally addressed by employing highly automated and reproducible methodologies. This study reports on the development of a highly versatile and upscalable method based on additive manufacturing for the fabrication of arrays of scaffolds, which are enclosed into individualized perfusion chambers. Devices containing eight scaffolds and their corresponding bioreactor chambers are simultaneously fabricated utilizing a dual extrusion additive manufacturing system. To demonstrate the versatility of the concept, the scaffolds, while enclosed into the device, are subsequently surface-coated with a biomimetic calcium phosphate layer by perfusion with simulated body fluid solution. 96 scaffolds are simultaneously seeded and cultured with human osteoblasts under highly controlled bidirectional perfusion dynamic conditions over 4 weeks. Both coated and noncoated resulting scaffolds show homogeneous cell distribution and high cell viability throughout the 4 weeks culture period and CaP-coated scaffolds result in a significantly increased cell number. The methodology developed in this work exemplifies the applicability of additive manufacturing as a tool for further automation of studies in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:25721231

  13. Integration of Libration Point Orbit Dynamics into a Universal 3-D Autonomous Formation Flying Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The autonomous formation flying control algorithm developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission is investigated for applicability to libration point orbit formations. In the EO-1 formation-flying algorithm, control is accomplished via linearization about a reference transfer orbit with a state transition matrix (STM) computed from state inputs. The effect of libration point orbit dynamics on this algorithm architecture is explored via computation of STMs using the flight proven code, a monodromy matrix developed from a N-body model of a libration orbit, and a standard STM developed from the gravitational and coriolis effects as measured at the libration point. A comparison of formation flying Delta-Vs calculated from these methods is made to a standard linear quadratic regulator (LQR) method. The universal 3-D approach is optimal in the sense that it can be accommodated as an open-loop or closed-loop control using only state information.

  14. Foot roll-over evaluation based on 3D dynamic foot scan.

    PubMed

    Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice. PMID:24119779

  15. Monitoring an eruption fissure in 3D: video recording, particle image velocimetry and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Tanja; Walter, Thomas R.

    2015-04-01

    The processes during an eruption are very complex. To get a better understanding several parameters are measured. One of the measured parameters is the velocity of particles and patterns, as ash and emitted magma, and of the volcano itself. The resulting velocity field provides insights into the dynamics of a vent. Here we test our algorithm for 3 dimensional velocity fields on videos of the second fissure eruption of Bárdarbunga 2014. There we acquired videos from lava fountains of the main fissure with 2 high speed cameras with small angles between the cameras. Additionally we test the algorithm on videos from the geyser Strokkur, where we had 3 cameras and larger angles between the cameras. The velocity is calculated by a correlation in the Fourier space of contiguous images. Considering that we only have the velocity field of the surface smaller angles result in a better resolution of the existing velocity field in the near field. For general movements also larger angles can be useful, e.g. to get the direction, height and velocity of eruption clouds. In summary, it can be stated that 3D velocimetry can be used for several application and with different setup due to the application.

  16. Dynamic implicit 3D adaptive mesh refinement for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    B. Philip; Z. Wang; M.A. Berrill; M. Birke; M. Pernice

    2014-04-01

    The time dependent non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equations are important for solving the transport of energy through radiation in optically thick regimes and find applications in several fields including astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. The associated initial boundary value problems that are encountered often exhibit a wide range of scales in space and time and are extremely challenging to solve. To efficiently and accurately simulate these systems we describe our research on combining techniques that will also find use more broadly for long term time integration of nonlinear multi-physics systems: implicit time integration for efficient long term time integration of stiff multi-physics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while controlling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton–Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.

  17. A 3D Parallel Beam Dynamics Code for Modeling High Brightness Beams in Photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Lidia, S.; Ryne, R.D.; Limborg, C.; /SLAC

    2006-02-13

    In this paper we report on IMPACT-T, a 3D beam dynamics code for modeling high brightness beams in photoinjectors and rf linacs. IMPACT-T is one of the few codes used in the photoinjector community that has a parallel implementation, making it very useful for high statistics simulations of beam halos and beam diagnostics. It has a comprehensive set of beamline elements, and furthermore allows arbitrary overlap of their fields. It is unique in its use of space-charge solvers based on an integrated Green function to efficiently and accurately treat beams with large aspect ratio, and a shifted Green function to efficiently treat image charge effects of a cathode. It is also unique in its inclusion of energy binning in the space-charge calculation to model beams with large energy spread. Together, all these features make IMPACT-T a powerful and versatile tool for modeling beams in photoinjectors and other systems. In this paper we describe the code features and present results of IMPACT-T simulations of the LCLS photoinjectors. We also include a comparison of IMPACT-T and PARMELA results.

  18. A 3d Parallel Beam Dynamics Code for Modeling High BrightnessBeams in Photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Lidia, S.; Ryne, R.; Limborg, C.

    2005-05-16

    In this paper we report on IMPACT-T, a 3D beam dynamics code for modeling high brightness beams in photoinjectors and rf linacs. IMPACT-T is one of the few codes used in the photoinjector community that has a parallel implementation, making it very useful for high statistics simulations of beam halos and beam diagnostics. It has a comprehensive set of beamline elements, and furthermore allows arbitrary overlap of their fields. It is unique in its use of space-charge solvers based on an integrated Green function to efficiently and accurately treat beams with large aspect ratio, and a shifted Green function to efficiently treat image charge effects of a cathode. It is also unique in its inclusion of energy binning in the space-charge calculation to model beams with large energy spread. Together, all these features make IMPACT-T a powerful and versatile tool for modeling beams in photoinjectors and other systems. In this paper we describe the code features and present results of IMPACT-T simulations of the LCLS photoinjectors. We also include a comparison of IMPACT-T and PARMELA results.

  19. Dynamic coupling between fluid flow and vein growth in fractures: a 3D numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J.-O.; Enzmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Fluid flow is one of the main mass transport mechanisms in the Earth's crust and abundant mineral vein networks are important indicators for fluid flow and fluid rock interaction. These systems are dynamic and part of the so called RTM processes (reaction-transport-mechanics). Understanding of mineral vein systems requires coupling of these processes. Here we present a conceptional model for dynamic vein growth of syntaxial, posttectonic veins generated by advective fluid flow and show first results of a numerical model for this scenario. Vein generation requires three processes to occur: (i) fracture generation by mechanical stress e.g. hydro-fracturing, (ii) flow of a supersaturated fluid on that fracture and (iii) crystallization of phase(s) on or in the fracture. 3D synthetic fractures are generated with the SynFrac code (Ogilvie, et al. 2006). Subsequently solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation for this fracture are computed by a computational fluid dynamics code called GeoDict (Wiegmann 2007). Transport (advective and diffusive) of chemical species to growth sites in the fracture and vein growth are computed by a self-written MATLAB script. The numerical model discretizes the wall rock and fracture geometry by volumetric pixels (voxels). Based on this representation, the model computes the three basic functions for vein generation: (a) nucleation, (b) fluid flow with transport of chemical species and (c) growth. The following conditions were chosen for these three modules. Nucleation is heterogeneous and occurs instantaneously at the wall rock/fracture interface. Advective and diffusive flow of a supersaturated fluid and related transport of chemical species occurs according to the computed fluid flow field by GeoDict. Concentration of chemical species at the inflow is constant, representing external fluid buffering. Changes/decrease in the concentration of chemical species occurs only due to vein growth. Growth of nuclei is limited either by transport of

  20. Stylolite shape, roughness growth dynamics and related burial history: a 3D analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Koehn, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Stylolites are dissolution features that develop under applied pressure and during chemical compaction. Stylolites are common in sedimentary basin, altering the chemistry and physical properties of rocks, as well as the small- to large-scale hydrological system. This contribution follows recent finding about the self-affine roughness growth properties leading to a fractal, stitch-like shape of stylolites. 3D surface scanning and X-ray computed microtomography imaging have been carried out onto numerous stylolites from the southern Permian Zechstein basin (Germany) and from the Umbria Marches fold-and-thrust belts (Italy). In these two environments stylolites have been sorted following a recent advanced classification of stylolite based on the shape and growth dynamics. This classification consists in four classes (rectangular layer type, seismogram pinning type suture/sharp peak type and simple wave-like type) and we aim to characterize the roughness properties for each of these classes. A fractal analysis has been conducted accordingly using Fourier transform and Correlation function signal analysis over roughness surfaces. These fractal analyses have been used to reconstruct the maximum burial depth recorded by each stylolite. The reconstruction of burial depths at the same place but regarding all stylolite classes returns and maximum depth evolution. This dataset is thus used 1- to understand the links between the roughness growth dynamics of stylolites and their final shape and 2- to establish a relationship linking the shape of roughness to the maximum burial depth recorded. We hope results and interpretation reported can push the community to consider stylolite as an efficient tool and reliable way to appraise burial history in sedimentary basins.

  1. Compartment modeling anslysis of C-11 flumazenil kinetics in human brain using dynamic 2D and 3D PET

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Y.; Simpson, N.; Townsend, D.W.

    1994-05-01

    We examined the feasibility of compartment modeling analysis and the numerical accuracy of model parameters of radioligand delivery and binding in the brain using 2D and 3D PET. Two subjects were injected with C-11 flumazenil (FMZ) i.v., and imaged over the brain with a dynamic sequence of 6x20 s, 2x30 s, 4x90 s, 4x180 s, 2x300 s, 2x600 s, and 2x1200 s frames. Different scatter correction methods were applied to the 3D data: No scatter correction (NOC), dual-energy window subtraction (DEW) and convolution-subtraction (CON). The kinetic data for regions listed below were fitted to a 2-compartment, 2-parameter model. Both 2D and 3D results are similar and within the expected range. The 3D %SE was less than 2D despite the smaller dose. The effect of the scatter in 3D parameter estimates appears to be small. These preliminary data indicate temporally sufficient kinetic data can be acquired in 3D mode to perform compartmental analysis of C-11 FMZ. Improved sensitivity in 3D may allow more accurate receptor characterization especially in small structures or in low specific binding areas.

  2. A novel time dependent gamma evaluation function for dynamic 2D and 3D dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Podesta, Mark; Persoon, Lucas C G G; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-10-21

    Modern external beam radiotherapy requires detailed verification and quality assurance so that confidence can be placed on both the delivery of a single treatment fraction and on the consistency of delivery throughout the treatment course. To verify dose distributions, a comparison between prediction and measurement must be made. Comparisons between two dose distributions are commonly performed using a Gamma evaluation which is a calculation of two quantities on a pixel by pixel basis; the dose difference, and the distance to agreement. By providing acceptance criteria (e.g. 3%, 3 mm), the function will find the most appropriate match within its two degrees of freedom. For complex dynamic treatments such as IMRT or VMAT it is important to verify the dose delivery in a time dependent manner and so a gamma evaluation that includes a degree of freedom in the time domain via a third parameter, time to agreement, is presented here. A C++ (mex) based gamma function was created that could be run on either CPU and GPU computing platforms that would allow a degree of freedom in the time domain. Simple test cases were created in both 2D and 3D comprising of simple geometrical shapes with well-defined boundaries varying over time. Changes of varying magnitude in either space or time were introduced and repeated gamma analyses were performed varying the criteria. A clinical VMAT case was also included, artificial air bubbles of varying size were introduced to a patient geometry, along with shifts of varying magnitude in treatment time. For all test cases where errors in distance, dose or time were introduced, the time dependent gamma evaluation could accurately highlight the errors.The time dependent gamma function presented here allows time to be included as a degree of freedom in gamma evaluations. The function allows for 2D and 3D data sets which are varying over time to be compared using appropriate criteria without penalising minor offsets of subsequent radiation fields

  3. Characterizing interstate vibrational coherent dynamics of surface adsorbed catalysts by fourth-order 3D SFG spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaxi; Clark, Melissa L.; Kubiak, Clifford P.; Xiong, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We report the first fourth-order 3D SFG spectroscopy of a monolayer of the catalyst Re(diCN-bpy)(CO)3Cl on a gold surface. Besides measuring the vibrational coherences of single vibrational modes, the fourth-order 3D SFG spectrum also measures the dynamics of interstate coherences and vibrational coherences states between two vibrational modes. By comparing the 3D SFG to the corresponding 2D and third-order 3D IR spectroscopy of the same molecules in solution, we found that the interstate coherences exist in both liquid and surface systems, suggesting that the interstate coherence is not disrupted by surface interactions. However, by analyzing the 3D spectral lineshape, we found that the interstate coherences also experience non-negligible homogenous dephasing dynamics that originate from surface interactions. This unique ability of determining interstate vibrational coherence dynamics of the molecular monolayer can help in understanding of how energy flows within surface catalysts and other molecular monolayers.

  4. Velocity Measurement in Carotid Artery: Quantitative Comparison of Time-Resolved 3D Phase-Contrast MRI and Image-based Computational Fluid Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sarrami-Foroushani, Ali; Nasr Esfahany, Mohsen; Nasiraei Moghaddam, Abbas; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza; Firouznia, Kavous; Shakiba, Madjid; Ghanaati, Hossein; Wilkinson, Iain David; Frangi, Alejandro Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background: Understanding hemodynamic environment in vessels is important for realizing the mechanisms leading to vascular pathologies. Objectives: Three-dimensional velocity vector field in carotid bifurcation is visualized using TR 3D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (TR 3D PC MRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This study aimed to present a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the velocity vector field obtained by each technique. Subjects and Methods: MR imaging was performed on a 30-year old male normal subject. TR 3D PC MRI was performed on a 3 T scanner to measure velocity in carotid bifurcation. 3D anatomical model for CFD was created using images obtained from time-of-flight MR angiography. Velocity vector field in carotid bifurcation was predicted using CFD and PC MRI techniques. A statistical analysis was performed to assess the agreement between the two methods. Results: Although the main flow patterns were the same for the both techniques, CFD showed a greater resolution in mapping the secondary and circulating flows. Overall root mean square (RMS) errors for all the corresponding data points in PC MRI and CFD were 14.27% in peak systole and 12.91% in end diastole relative to maximum velocity measured at each cardiac phase. Bland-Altman plots showed a very good agreement between the two techniques. However, this study was not aimed to validate any of methods, instead, the consistency was assessed to accentuate the similarities and differences between Time-resolved PC MRI and CFD. Conclusion: Both techniques provided quantitatively consistent results of in vivo velocity vector fields in right internal carotid artery (RCA). PC MRI represented a good estimation of main flow patterns inside the vasculature, which seems to be acceptable for clinical use. However, limitations of each technique should be considered while interpreting results. PMID:26793288

  5. The 3-D dynamics of slab break-off and implications for continental collision zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hunen, Jeroen; Allen, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Some of the world best studied mountain ranges are a result of continental collision, such as the Himalayas, Zagros mountains, and the Alps. Continental collision forms the last stage of the closure of an oceanic basin, and leads to the slow-down or complete cessation of the subduction process. Previously subducted slab material will experience a period of thermal warming (Gerya et al., 2004) and/or a larger tensile stress, and will eventually weaken, yield and sink into the mantle. This process has potentially important implications for the thermal and stress regime of the overlying convergence zone, and has been held responsible for various phenomena such as late-stage magmatism (Davies and von Blanckenburg, 1995) and surface uplift or depression (van der Meulen et al., 1998, Buiter et al., 2002). Even though the collision process itself is relatively short-lived compared to the preceding oceanic subduction, its remnants are often preserved, and probably provide a valuable window into the plate tectonic process during the Proterozoic and perhaps the Archaean (e.g. Calvert et al., 1995). The three-dimensional nature of this break-off process has previously been discussed with conceptual models. E.g. slab break-off has been suggested to propagate laterally through an advancing tear (Wortel and Spakman, 2000). In this study we present 3D numerical results of the evolution of slab break-off. We focus on the development and evolution of a laterally migrating slab tear, and present results on the sensitivity of this process to the geometry of the closing oceanic basin, the tensile stresses in and the rheological properties of the slab, and the thermal state of the surrounding mantle. By comparing our numerical results to previously published analogue results (Regard et al., 2004) and various tomographic, structural, and magmatic observations of well-studied subduction collision systems, we are able to extract valuable insights in to the dynamics and strength of

  6. 3D Visualization of "Frozen" Dynamic Magma Chambers in the Duluth Complex, Northeastern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. M.; Hauck, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Duluth Complex and associated intrusions of the Midcontinent Rift in northeastern Minnesota constitute one of the largest, semi-continuous, mafic intrusive complexes in the world, second only to the Bushveld Complex of South Africa. These rocks cover an arcuate area of over 5,000 square kilometers and give rise to two strong gravity anomalies (+50 & +70 mgal) that imply intrusive roots to more than 13 km depth. The geometry of three large mafic intrusions within the Duluth Complex have been modeled by the integration of field mapping and drill hole data with maps of gravity and magnetic anomalies. The igneous bodies include the South Kawishiwi, Partridge River, and Bald Eagle intrusions that collectively outcrop over an area of > 800 square kilometers. The South Kawishiwi and Partridge River intrusions host several billion tons of low-grade Cu-Ni-PGE mineralization near their base, while the geophysical expressions of the Bald Eagle intrusion have the same shape and dimensions as the "bulls eye" pattern of low velocity seismic reflection anomalies along the East Pacific Rise. These anomalies are interpreted to define regions of melt concentrations, i.e., active magma chambers. This suggests that the funnel-shaped Bald Eagle intrusion could be an example of a "frozen" dynamic magma chamber. In support of this analogy we note that the magmatic systems of intracontinental rifts, mid-ocean ridges, extensional regimes in back-arc environments, and ophiolites have a common characteristic: the emplacement of magma in extensional environments, and the common products in all four are varieties of layered intrusions, dikes and sills, and overlying volcanic rocks. 3D visualization of these intrusions is integral to the understanding of the Duluth Complex magmatic system and associated mineralization, and can be used as a proxy for study of similar systems, such as the Antarctic Ferrar dolerites, worldwide.

  7. How the venetian blind percept emerges from the laminar cortical dynamics of 3D vision.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yongqiang; Grossberg, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The 3D LAMINART model of 3D vision and figure-ground perception is used to explain and simulate a key example of the Venetian blind effect and to show how it is related to other well-known perceptual phenomena such as Panum's limiting case. The model proposes how lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and hierarchically organized laminar circuits in cortical areas V1, V2, and V4 interact to control processes of 3D boundary formation and surface filling-in that simulate many properties of 3D vision percepts, notably consciously seen surface percepts, which are predicted to arise when filled-in surface representations are integrated into surface-shroud resonances between visual and parietal cortex. Interactions between layers 4, 3B, and 2/3 in V1 and V2 carry out stereopsis and 3D boundary formation. Both binocular and monocular information combine to form 3D boundary and surface representations. Surface contour surface-to-boundary feedback from V2 thin stripes to V2 pale stripes combines computationally complementary boundary and surface formation properties, leading to a single consistent percept, while also eliminating redundant 3D boundaries, and triggering figure-ground perception. False binocular boundary matches are eliminated by Gestalt grouping properties during boundary formation. In particular, a disparity filter, which helps to solve the Correspondence Problem by eliminating false matches, is predicted to be realized as part of the boundary grouping process in layer 2/3 of cortical area V2. The model has been used to simulate the consciously seen 3D surface percepts in 18 psychophysical experiments. These percepts include the Venetian blind effect, Panum's limiting case, contrast variations of dichoptic masking and the correspondence problem, the effect of interocular contrast differences on stereoacuity, stereopsis with polarity-reversed stereograms, da Vinci stereopsis, and perceptual closure. These model mechanisms have also simulated properties of 3D neon

  8. How the venetian blind percept emerges from the laminar cortical dynamics of 3D vision

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yongqiang; Grossberg, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The 3D LAMINART model of 3D vision and figure-ground perception is used to explain and simulate a key example of the Venetian blind effect and to show how it is related to other well-known perceptual phenomena such as Panum's limiting case. The model proposes how lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and hierarchically organized laminar circuits in cortical areas V1, V2, and V4 interact to control processes of 3D boundary formation and surface filling-in that simulate many properties of 3D vision percepts, notably consciously seen surface percepts, which are predicted to arise when filled-in surface representations are integrated into surface-shroud resonances between visual and parietal cortex. Interactions between layers 4, 3B, and 2/3 in V1 and V2 carry out stereopsis and 3D boundary formation. Both binocular and monocular information combine to form 3D boundary and surface representations. Surface contour surface-to-boundary feedback from V2 thin stripes to V2 pale stripes combines computationally complementary boundary and surface formation properties, leading to a single consistent percept, while also eliminating redundant 3D boundaries, and triggering figure-ground perception. False binocular boundary matches are eliminated by Gestalt grouping properties during boundary formation. In particular, a disparity filter, which helps to solve the Correspondence Problem by eliminating false matches, is predicted to be realized as part of the boundary grouping process in layer 2/3 of cortical area V2. The model has been used to simulate the consciously seen 3D surface percepts in 18 psychophysical experiments. These percepts include the Venetian blind effect, Panum's limiting case, contrast variations of dichoptic masking and the correspondence problem, the effect of interocular contrast differences on stereoacuity, stereopsis with polarity-reversed stereograms, da Vinci stereopsis, and perceptual closure. These model mechanisms have also simulated properties of 3D neon

  9. Dynamic diffusion tensor measurements in muscle tissue using Single Line Multiple Echo Diffusion Tensor Acquisition Technique at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Baete, Steven H.; Cho, Gene; Sigmund, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    When diffusion biomarkers display transient changes, i.e. in muscle following exercise, traditional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) methods lack temporal resolution to resolve the dynamics. This paper presents an MRI method for dynamic diffusion tensor acquisitions on a clinical 3T scanner. This method, SL-MEDITATE (Single Line Multiple Echo Diffusion Tensor Acquisition Technique) achieves a high temporal resolution (4s) (1) by rapid diffusion encoding through the acquisition of multiple echoes with unique diffusion sensitization and (2) by limiting the readout to a single line volume. The method is demonstrated in a rotating anisotropic phantom, in a flow phantom with adjustable flow speed, and in in vivo skeletal calf muscle of healthy volunteers following a plantar flexion exercise. The rotating and flow-varying phantom experiments show that SL-MEDITATE correctly identifies the rotation of the first diffusion eigenvector and the changes in diffusion tensor parameter magnitudes, respectively. Immediately following exercise, the in vivo mean diffusivity (MD) time-courses show, before the well-known increase, an initial decrease which is not typically observed in traditional DTI. In conclusion, SL-MEDITATE can be used to capture transient changes in tissue anisotropy in a single line. Future progress might allow for dynamic DTI when combined with appropriate k-space trajectories and compressed sensing reconstruction. PMID:25900166

  10. 3D dynamic rupture with anelastic wave propagation using an hp-adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tago, J.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Etienne, V.; Virieux, J.; Benjemaa, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    Simulating any realistic seismic scenario requires incorporating physical basis into the model. Considering both the dynamics of the rupture process and the anelastic attenuation of seismic waves is essential to this purpose and, therefore, we choose to extend the hp-adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin finite-element method to integrate these physical aspects. The 3D elastodynamic equations in an unstructured tetrahedral mesh are solved with a second-order time marching approach in a high-performance computing environment. The first extension incorporates the viscoelastic rheology so that the intrinsic attenuation of the medium is considered in terms of frequency dependent quality factors (Q). On the other hand, the extension related to dynamic rupture is integrated through explicit boundary conditions over the crack surface. For this visco-elastodynamic formulation, we introduce an original discrete scheme that preserves the optimal code performance of the elastodynamic equations. A set of relaxation mechanisms describes the behavior of a generalized Maxwell body. We approximate almost constant Q in a wide frequency range by selecting both suitable relaxation frequencies and anelastic coefficients characterizing these mechanisms. In order to do so, we solve an optimization problem which is critical to minimize the amount of relaxation mechanisms. Two strategies are explored: 1) a least squares method and 2) a genetic algorithm (GA). We found that the improvement provided by the heuristic GA method is negligible. Both optimization strategies yield Q values within the 5% of the target constant Q mechanism. Anelastic functions (i.e. memory variables) are introduced to efficiently evaluate the time convolution terms involved in the constitutive equations and thus to minimize the computational cost. The incorporation of anelastic functions implies new terms with ordinary differential equations in the mathematical formulation. We solve these equations using the same order

  11. 3D-seismic observations of Late Pleistocene glacial dynamics on the central West Greenland margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Julia; Knutz, Paul; Cofaigh, Colm Ó.

    2016-04-01

    Fast-flowing ice streams and outlet glaciers exert a major control on glacial discharge from contemporary and palaeo ice sheets. Improving our understanding of the extent and dynamic behaviour of these palaeo-ice streams is therefore crucial for predictions of the response of ice sheets to present and future climate warming and the associated implications for global sea level. This poster presents results from two 3D-seismic surveys located on the shelf adjoining the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan (TMF), one of the largest glacial outlet systems in Greenland. Located at the seaward terminus of the c. 370 km long cross-shelf Disko Trough, the Disko Bay TMF was generated by highly efficient subglacial sediment delivery onto the continental slopes during repeated ice-stream advances. A variety of submarine glacial landform assemblages are recognised on the seabed reflecting past ice-stream activity presumably related to glacial-interglacial cycles. The 3D-seismic volumes cover the shallow banks located north and south of the Disko Trough. The focus of this study is the seabed and the uppermost stratigraphic interval associated with the Late Stage of TMF development, presumably covering the late Pleistocene (Hofmann et al., submitted). Seabed morphologies include multiple sets of ridges up to 20 m high that extend in NW-SE direction for c. 30 km, and cross-cutting curvilinear furrows with maximum lengths of c. 9 km and average depths of c. 4.5 m. Back-stepping, arcuate scarps facing NW define the shelf break on the northern survey, comprising average widths of c. 4.5 km and incision depths of c. 27.5 m. The large transverse ridge features on the southern survey are likely ice-marginal and are interpreted as terminal moraine ridges recording the existence of a shelf-edge terminating, grounded Late Weichselian ice sheet. The furrows, most prominent on the outer shelf adjoining the shallow banks and partly incising the moraine ridges, are interpreted as iceberg ploughmarks

  12. 3D time-lapse analysis of Rab11/FIP5 complex: spatiotemporal dynamics during apical lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent imaging of fixed cells grown in two-dimensional (2D) cultures is one of the most widely used techniques for observing protein localization and distribution within cells. Although this technique can also be applied to polarized epithelial cells that form three-dimensional (3D) cysts when grown in a Matrigel matrix suspension, there are still significant limitations in imaging cells fixed at a particular point in time. Here, we describe the use of 3D time-lapse imaging of live cells to observe the dynamics of apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) formation and lumen expansion in polarized epithelial cells. PMID:25800842

  13. Graph-Based Compression of Dynamic 3D Point Cloud Sequences.

    PubMed

    Thanou, Dorina; Chou, Philip A; Frossard, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses the problem of compression of 3D point cloud sequences that are characterized by moving 3D positions and color attributes. As temporally successive point cloud frames share some similarities, motion estimation is key to effective compression of these sequences. It, however, remains a challenging problem as the point cloud frames have varying numbers of points without explicit correspondence information. We represent the time-varying geometry of these sequences with a set of graphs, and consider 3D positions and color attributes of the point clouds as signals on the vertices of the graphs. We then cast motion estimation as a feature-matching problem between successive graphs. The motion is estimated on a sparse set of representative vertices using new spectral graph wavelet descriptors. A dense motion field is eventually interpolated by solving a graph-based regularization problem. The estimated motion is finally used for removing the temporal redundancy in the predictive coding of the 3D positions and the color characteristics of the point cloud sequences. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to accurately estimate the motion between consecutive frames. Moreover, motion estimation is shown to bring a significant improvement in terms of the overall compression performance of the sequence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that exploits both the spatial correlation inside each frame (through the graph) and the temporal correlation between the frames (through the motion estimation) to compress the color and the geometry of 3D point cloud sequences in an efficient way. PMID:26891486

  14. In vivo-in vitro comparison of acute respiratory tract toxicity using human 3D airway epithelial models and human A549 and murine 3T3 monolayer cell systems.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Vogel, Sandra; Hess, Annemarie; Kolle, Susanne N; Ma-Hock, Lan; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2013-02-01

    The usefulness of in vitro systems to predict acute inhalation toxicity was investigated. Nineteen substances were tested in three-dimensional human airway epithelial models, EpiAirway™ and MucilAir™, and in A549 and 3T3 monolayer cell cultures. IC(50) values were compared to rat four-hour LC(50) values classified according to EPA and GHS hazard categories. Best results were achieved with a prediction model distinguishing toxic from non-toxic substances, with satisfactory specificities and sensitivities. Using a self-made four-level prediction model to classify substances into four in vitro hazard categories, in vivo-in vitro concordance was mediocre, but could be improved by excluding substances causing pulmonary edema and emphysema in vivo. None of the test systems was outstanding, and there was no evidence that tissue or monolayer systems using respiratory tract cells provide an added value. However, the test systems only reflected bronchiole epithelia and alveolar cells and investigated cytotoxicity. Effects occurring in other cells by other mechanisms could not be recognised. Further work should optimise test protocols and expand the set of substances tested to define applicability domains. In vivo respiratory toxicity data for in vitro comparisons should distinguish different modes of action, and their relevance for human health effects should be ensured. PMID:23085368

  15. User's manual for PELE3D: a computer code for three-dimensional incompressible fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    McMaster, W H

    1982-05-07

    The PELE3D code is a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics computer program for the solution of incompressible fluid flow coupled to a structure. The fluid and coupling algorithms have been adapted from the previously developed two-dimensional code PELE-IC. The PELE3D code is written in both plane and cylindrical coordinates. The coupling algorithm is general enough to handle a variety of structural shapes. The free surface algorithm is able to accommodate a top surface and several independent bubbles. The code is in a developmental status since all the intended options have not been fully implemented and tested. Development of this code ended in 1980 upon termination of the contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  16. Versatile, Immersive, Creative and Dynamic Virtual 3-D Healthcare Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The author provides a critical overview of three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds and “serious gaming” that are currently being developed and used in healthcare professional education and medicine. The relevance of this e-learning innovation for teaching students and professionals is debatable and variables influencing adoption, such as increased knowledge, self-directed learning, and peer collaboration, by academics, healthcare professionals, and business executives are examined while looking at various Web 2.0/3.0 applications. There is a need for more empirical research in order to unearth the pedagogical outcomes and advantages associated with this e-learning technology. A brief description of Roger’s Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Siemens’ Connectivism Theory for today’s learners is presented as potential underlying pedagogical tenets to support the use of virtual 3-D learning environments in higher education and healthcare. PMID:18762473

  17. Versatile, immersive, creative and dynamic virtual 3-D healthcare learning environments: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Margaret M

    2008-01-01

    The author provides a critical overview of three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds and "serious gaming" that are currently being developed and used in healthcare professional education and medicine. The relevance of this e-learning innovation for teaching students and professionals is debatable and variables influencing adoption, such as increased knowledge, self-directed learning, and peer collaboration, by academics, healthcare professionals, and business executives are examined while looking at various Web 2.0/3.0 applications. There is a need for more empirical research in order to unearth the pedagogical outcomes and advantages associated with this e-learning technology. A brief description of Roger's Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Siemens' Connectivism Theory for today's learners is presented as potential underlying pedagogical tenets to support the use of virtual 3-D learning environments in higher education and healthcare. PMID:18762473

  18. Motion field estimation for a dynamic scene using a 3D LiDAR.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively. PMID:25207868

  19. 3D dynamics of hydrous thermal-chemical plumes in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T.; Yuen, D.; Connolly, J. A. D.

    2009-04-01

    Mantle wedges are identified as sites of intense thermal convection and thermal-chemical Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities ("cold plumes") controlling distribution and intensity of magmatic activity in subduction zones. To investigate 3D hydrous partially molten cold plumes forming in the mantle wedge in response to slab dehydration, we perform 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical simulations of the intraoceanic one-sided subduction with spontaneously bending retreating slab characterized by weak hydrated upper interface. I3ELVIS code is used which is developed based on multigrid approach combined with marker-in-cell method with conservative finite-difference schemes. We investigated regional 800 km wide and 200 km deep 3D subduction models with variable 200 to 800 km lateral dimension along the trench using uniform numerical staggered grid with 405x101x101 nodal points and up to 50 million markers. Our results show three patterns (roll(sheet)-, zig-zag- and finger-like) of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities can develop above the subducting slab, which are controlled by effective viscosity of partially molten rocks. Spatial and temporal periodicity of plumes correlate well with that of volcanic activity in natural intraoceanic arcs such as Japan. High laterally variable surface heat flow predicted in the arc region in response to thermal-chemical plumes activity is also consistent with natural observations.

  20. Motion Field Estimation for a Dynamic Scene Using a 3D LiDAR

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively. PMID:25207868

  1. Biologic response of inguinal hernia prosthetics: a comparative study of conventional static meshes versus 3D dynamic implants.

    PubMed

    Amato, Giuseppe; Romano, Giorgio; Agrusa, Antonino; Marasa, Salvatore; Cocorullo, Gianfranco; Gulotta, Gaspare; Goetze, Thorsten; Puleio, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements in prosthetics and surgical techniques, the rate of complications following inguinal hernia repair remains high. Among these, discomfort and chronic pain have become a source of increasing concern among surgeons. Poor quality of tissue ingrowth, such as thin scar plates or shrinking scars-typical results with conventional static implants and plugs-may contribute to these adverse events. Recently, a new type of 3D dynamically responsive implant was introduced to the market. This device, designed to be placed fixation-free, seems to induce ingrowth of viable and structured tissue instead of regressive fibrotic scarring. To elucidate the differences in biologic response between the conventional static meshes and this 3D dynamically responsive implant, a histological comparison was planned. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of tissue incorporation in both types of implants excised after short, medium, and long periods post-implantation. The results showed large differences in the biologic responses between the two implant types. Histologically, the 3D dynamic implant showed development of tissue elements more similar to natural abdominal wall structures, such as the ingrowth of loose and well-hydrated connective tissue, well-formed vascular structures, elastic fibers, and mature nerves, with negligible or absent inflammatory response. All these characteristics were completely absent in the conventional static implants, where a persistent inflammatory reaction was associated with thin, hardened, and shrunken fibrotic scar formation. Consequently, as herniation is a degenerative process, the 3D dynamic implants, which induce regeneration of the typical groin components, seem to address its pathogenesis. PMID:25626584

  2. Dynamic Assessment of Fibroblast Mechanical Activity during Rac-induced Cell Spreading in 3-D Culture

    PubMed Central

    Petroll, W. Matthew; Ma, Lisha; Kim, Areum; Ly, Linda; Vishwanath, Mridula

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the morphological and sub-cellular mechanical effects of Rac activation on fibroblasts within 3-D collagen matrices. Corneal fibroblasts were plated at low density inside 100 μm thick fibrillar collagen matrices and cultured for 1 to 2 days in serum-free media. Time-lapse imaging was then performed using Nomarski DIC. After an acclimation period, perfusion was switched to media containing PDGF. In some experiments, Y-27632 or blebbistatin were used to inhibit Rho-kinase (ROCK) or myosin II, respectively. PDGF activated Rac and induced cell spreading, which resulted in an increase in cell length, cell area, and the number of pseudopodial processes. Tractional forces were generated by extending pseudopodia, as indicated by centripetal displacement and realignment of collagen fibrils. Interestingly, the pattern of pseudopodial extension and local collagen fibril realignment was highly dependent upon the initial orientation of fibrils at the leading edge. Following ROCK or myosin II inhibition, significant ECM relaxation was observed, but small displacements of collagen fibrils continued to be detected at the tips of pseudopodia. Taken together, the data suggests that during Rac-induced cell spreading within 3-D matrices, there is a shift in the distribution of forces from the center to the periphery of corneal fibroblasts. ROCK mediates the generation of large myosin II-based tractional forces during cell spreading within 3-D collagen matrices, however residual forces can be generated at the tips of extending pseudopodia that are both ROCK and myosin II-independent. PMID:18452153

  3. Dynamic Analysis of 2D Electromagnetic Resonant Optical Scanner Using 3D Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Katsuhiro; Hong, Sara; Maeda, Kengo

    The optical scanner is a scanning device in which a laser beam is reflected by a mirror that can be rotated or oscillated. In this paper, we propose a new 2D electromagnetic resonant optical scanner that employs electromagnets and leaf springs. Torque characteristics and resonance characteristics of the scanner are analyzed using the 3D finite element method. The validity of the analysis is shown by comparing the characteristics inferred from the analysis with the characteristics of the prototype. Further, 2D resonance is investigated by introducing a superimposed-frequency current in a single coil.

  4. 3D and 4D Simulations of the Dynamics of the Radiation Belts using VERB code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander; Orlova, Ksenia

    2015-04-01

    Modeling and understanding of ring current and higher energy radiation belts has been a grand challenge since the beginning of the space age. In this study we show long term simulations with a 3D VERB code of modeling the radiation belts with boundary conditions derived from observations around geosynchronous orbit. We also present 4D VERB simulations that include convective transport, radial diffusion, pitch angle scattering and local acceleration. We show that while lower energy radial transport is dominated by the convection and higher energy transport is dominated by the diffusive radial transport. We also show there exists an intermediate range of energies for electrons for which both processes work simultaneously.

  5. Optimization of a 3D Dynamic Culturing System for In Vitro Modeling of Frontotemporal Neurodegeneration-Relevant Pathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Tunesi, Marta; Fusco, Federica; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Corbelli, Alessandro; Biella, Gloria; Raimondi, Manuela T

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder that is diagnosed with increasing frequency in clinical setting. Currently, no therapy is available and in addition the molecular basis of the disease are far from being elucidated. Consequently, it is of pivotal importance to develop reliable and cost-effective in vitro models for basic research purposes and drug screening. To this respect, recent results in the field of Alzheimer's disease have suggested that a tridimensional (3D) environment is an added value to better model key pathologic features of the disease. Here, we have tried to add complexity to the 3D cell culturing concept by using a microfluidic bioreactor, where cells are cultured under a continuous flow of medium, thus mimicking the interstitial fluid movement that actually perfuses the body tissues, including the brain. We have implemented this model using a neuronal-like cell line (SH-SY5Y), a widely exploited cell model for neurodegenerative disorders that shows some basic features relevant for FTLD modeling, such as the release of the FTLD-related protein progranulin (PRGN) in specific vesicles (exosomes). We have efficiently seeded the cells on 3D scaffolds, optimized a disease-relevant oxidative stress experiment (by targeting mitochondrial function that is one of the possible FTLD-involved pathological mechanisms) and evaluated cell metabolic activity in dynamic culture in comparison to static conditions, finding that SH-SY5Y cells cultured in 3D scaffold are susceptible to the oxidative damage triggered by a mitochondrial-targeting toxin (6-OHDA) and that the same cells cultured in dynamic conditions kept their basic capacity to secrete PRGN in exosomes once recovered from the bioreactor and plated in standard 2D conditions. We think that a further improvement of our microfluidic system may help in providing a full device where assessing basic FTLD-related features (including PRGN dynamic secretion) that may be

  6. WARP3D-Release 10.8: Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis of Solids using a Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppenhoefer, Kyle C.; Gullerud, Arne S.; Ruggieri, Claudio; Dodds, Robert H., Jr.; Healy, Brian E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes theoretical background material and commands necessary to use the WARP3D finite element code. WARP3D is under continuing development as a research code for the solution of very large-scale, 3-D solid models subjected to static and dynamic loads. Specific features in the code oriented toward the investigation of ductile fracture in metals include a robust finite strain formulation, a general J-integral computation facility (with inertia, face loading), an element extinction facility to model crack growth, nonlinear material models including viscoplastic effects, and the Gurson-Tver-gaard dilatant plasticity model for void growth. The nonlinear, dynamic equilibrium equations are solved using an incremental-iterative, implicit formulation with full Newton iterations to eliminate residual nodal forces. The history integration of the nonlinear equations of motion is accomplished with Newmarks Beta method. A central feature of WARP3D involves the use of a linear-preconditioned conjugate gradient (LPCG) solver implemented in an element-by-element format to replace a conventional direct linear equation solver. This software architecture dramatically reduces both the memory requirements and CPU time for very large, nonlinear solid models since formation of the assembled (dynamic) stiffness matrix is avoided. Analyses thus exhibit the numerical stability for large time (load) steps provided by the implicit formulation coupled with the low memory requirements characteristic of an explicit code. In addition to the much lower memory requirements of the LPCG solver, the CPU time required for solution of the linear equations during each Newton iteration is generally one-half or less of the CPU time required for a traditional direct solver. All other computational aspects of the code (element stiffnesses, element strains, stress updating, element internal forces) are implemented in the element-by- element, blocked architecture. This greatly improves

  7. Mapping dynamic mechanical remodeling in 3D tumor models via particle tracking microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dustin P.; Hanna, William; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2015-03-01

    Particle tracking microrheology (PTM) has recently been employed as a non-destructive way to longitudinally track physical changes in 3D pancreatic tumor co-culture models concomitant with tumor growth and invasion into the extracellular matrix (ECM). While the primary goal of PTM is to quantify local viscoelasticity via the Generalized Stokes-Einstein Relation (GSER), a more simplified way of describing local tissue mechanics lies in the tabulation and subsequent visualization of the spread of probe displacements in a given field of view. Proper analysis of this largely untapped byproduct of standard PTM has the potential to yield valuable insight into the structure and integrity of the ECM. Here, we use clustering algorithms in R to analyze the trajectories of probes in 3D pancreatic tumor/fibroblast co-culture models in an attempt to differentiate between probes that are effectively constrained by the ECM and/or contractile traction forces, and those that exhibit uninhibited mobility in local water-filled pores. We also discuss the potential pitfalls of this method. Accurately and reproducibly quantifying the boundary between these two categories of probe behavior could result in an effective method for measuring the average pore size in a given region of ECM. Such a tool could prove useful for studying stromal depletion, physical impedance to drug delivery, and degradation due to cellular invasion.

  8. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of dynamics of plunge and pitch of 3D flexible wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dewei; Shyy, Wei

    2008-11-01

    The method of lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulation has been used to simulate fluid structures and motion of a flexible insect wing in a 3D space. In the method, a beam has been discretized into a chain of rigid segments. Each segment is connected through ball and socket joints at its ends. One segment may be bent and twisted with its neighboring segment. A constraint force is applied to each joint to ensure the solid structure moving as a whole flexible elastic body.We have demonstrated that the LB method is suitable for modeling of aerodynamics of insects flight at low Reynolds numbers. First, a simulation of plunging and pitching of a rigid wing is performed at Re=75 in a 2D space and the results of lift forces and flow structures are in excellent agreement with the previous results. Second, plunging and pitching of a flexible wing in span-wise direction is simulated at Re=136 in a 3D space. We found that when twisting elasticity is large enough the twisting angle could be controlled at a level of smaller than 0.2 degree. It is shown that as bending and twisting elasticity is large enough, the motion of flexible wing approaches that of a rigid membrane wing. The simulation results show that the optimization of flexibility in span-wise direction will benefit thrust and an intermediate level is favorable. The results are consistent with experimental finding.

  9. Using 3D dynamic cartography and hydrological modelling for linear streamflow mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drogue, G.; Pfister, L.; Leviandier, T.; Humbert, J.; Hoffmann, L.; El Idrissi, A.; Iffly, J.-F.

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a regionalization methodology and an original representation of the downstream variation of daily streamflow using a conceptual rainfall-runoff model (HRM) and the 3D visualization tools of the GIS ArcView. The regionalization of the parameters of the HRM model was obtained by fitting simultaneously the runoff series from five sub-basins of the Alzette river basin (Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg) according to the permeability of geological formations. After validating the transposability of the regional parameter values on five test basins, streamflow series were simulated with the model at ungauged sites in one medium size geologically contrasted test basin and interpolated assuming a linear increase of streamflow between modelling points. 3D spatio-temporal cartography of mean annual and high raw and specific discharges are illustrated. During a severe flooding, the propagation of the flood waves in the different parts of the stream network shows an important contribution of sub-basins lying on impervious geological formations (direct runoff) compared with those including permeable geological formations which have a more contrasted hydrological response. The effect of spatial variability of rainfall is clearly perceptible.

  10. Persistent and automatic intraoperative 3D digitization of surfaces under dynamic magnifications of an operating microscope

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ankur N.; Miga, Michael I.; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Chambless, Lola B.; Thompson, Reid C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges impeding advancement in image-guided surgical (IGS) systems is the soft-tissue deformation during surgical procedures. These deformations reduce the utility of the patient’s preoperative images and may produce inaccuracies in the application of preoperative surgical plans. Solutions to compensate for the tissue deformations include the acquisition of intraoperative tomographic images of the whole organ for direct displacement measurement and techniques that combines intraoperative organ surface measurements with computational biomechanical models to predict subsurface displacements. The later solution has the advantage of being less expensive and amenable to surgical workflow. Several modalities such as textured laser scanners, conoscopic holography, and stereo-pair cameras have been proposed for the intraoperative 3D estimation of organ surfaces to drive patient-specific biomechanical models for the intraoperative update of preoperative images. Though each modality has its respective advantages and disadvantages, stereo-pair camera approaches used within a standard operating microscope is the focus of this article. A new method that permits the automatic and near real-time estimation of 3D surfaces (at 1Hz) under varying magnifications of the operating microscope is proposed. This method has been evaluated on a CAD phantom object and on full-length neurosurgery video sequences (~1 hour) acquired intraoperatively by the proposed stereovision system. To the best of our knowledge, this type of validation study on full-length brain tumor surgery videos has not been done before. The method for estimating the unknown magnification factor of the operating microscope achieves accuracy within 0.02 of the theoretical value on a CAD phantom and within 0.06 on 4 clinical videos of the entire brain tumor surgery. When compared to a laser range scanner, the proposed method for reconstructing 3D surfaces intraoperatively achieves root mean square

  11. Persistent and automatic intraoperative 3D digitization of surfaces under dynamic magnifications of an operating microscope.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ankur N; Miga, Michael I; Pheiffer, Thomas S; Chambless, Lola B; Thompson, Reid C; Dawant, Benoit M

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges impeding advancement in image-guided surgical (IGS) systems is the soft-tissue deformation during surgical procedures. These deformations reduce the utility of the patient's preoperative images and may produce inaccuracies in the application of preoperative surgical plans. Solutions to compensate for the tissue deformations include the acquisition of intraoperative tomographic images of the whole organ for direct displacement measurement and techniques that combines intraoperative organ surface measurements with computational biomechanical models to predict subsurface displacements. The later solution has the advantage of being less expensive and amenable to surgical workflow. Several modalities such as textured laser scanners, conoscopic holography, and stereo-pair cameras have been proposed for the intraoperative 3D estimation of organ surfaces to drive patient-specific biomechanical models for the intraoperative update of preoperative images. Though each modality has its respective advantages and disadvantages, stereo-pair camera approaches used within a standard operating microscope is the focus of this article. A new method that permits the automatic and near real-time estimation of 3D surfaces (at 1 Hz) under varying magnifications of the operating microscope is proposed. This method has been evaluated on a CAD phantom object and on full-length neurosurgery video sequences (∼1 h) acquired intraoperatively by the proposed stereovision system. To the best of our knowledge, this type of validation study on full-length brain tumor surgery videos has not been done before. The method for estimating the unknown magnification factor of the operating microscope achieves accuracy within 0.02 of the theoretical value on a CAD phantom and within 0.06 on 4 clinical videos of the entire brain tumor surgery. When compared to a laser range scanner, the proposed method for reconstructing 3D surfaces intraoperatively achieves root mean square

  12. Fully 3D Multiple Beam Dynamics Processes Simulation for the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, E.; Amundson, J.; Spentzouris, P; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2010-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron has been, until 2010, the premier high-energy physics collider in the world. The data collected over the last decade by high-energy physics experiments running at the Tevatron have been analyzed to make important measurements in fundamental areas such as B meson masses and flavor oscillation, searches for the Higgs boson, and supersymmetry. Collecting these data at the limits of detectability has required the Tevatron to operate reliably at high beam intensities to maximize the number of collisions to analyze. This impressive achievement has been assisted by the use of HPC resources and software provided through the SciDAC program. This paper describes the enhancements to the BeamBeam3d code to realistically simulate the Tevatron, the validation of these simulations, and the improvement in equipment reliability and personal safety achieved with the aid of simulations.

  13. Dynamic complex optical fields for optical manipulation, 3D microscopy, and photostimulation of neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Stricker, Christian; Bekkers, John; Redman, Steve; Bachor, Hans

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate a multi-functional system capable of multiple-site two-photon excitation of photo-sensitive compounds as well as transfer of optical mechanical properties on an array of mesoscopic particles. We use holographic projection of a single Ti:Sapphire laser operating in femtosecond pulse mode to show that the projected three-dimensional light patterns have sufficient spatiotemporal photon density for multi-site two-photon excitation of biological fluorescent markers and caged neurotransmitters. Using the same laser operating in continuous-wave mode, we can use the same light patterns for non-invasive transfer of both linear and orbital angular momentum on a variety of mesoscopic particles. The system also incorporates high-speed scanning using acousto-optic modulators to rapidly render 3D images of neuron samples via two-photon microscopy.

  14. Tidal dynamics of the Terminos Lagoon, Mexico: observations and 3D numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras Ruiz Esparza, Adolfo; Douillet, Pascal; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    The tidal circulation patterns in the Terminos Lagoon were studied based on the analysis of 1 year of measurements and numerical simulations using a baroclinic 3D hydrodynamic model, the MARS3D. A gauging network was installed consisting of six self-recording pressure-temperature sensors, a tide gauge station and two current profilers, with pressure and temperature sensors moored in the main lagoon inlets. Model simulations were validated against current and sea level observations and were used to analyse the circulation patterns caused by the tidal forcing. The numerical model was forced with eight harmonic components, four diurnal ( K 1, O 1, P 1, Q 1) and four semi-diurnal ( M 2, S 2, N 2, K 2), extracted from the TPX0.7 database. The tidal patterns in the study area vary from mixed, mainly diurnal in the two main inlets of the lagoon, to diurnal in its interior. The tidal residual circulation inside the lagoon is dominated by a cyclonic gyre. The results indicate a net flux from the southwest Ciudad del Carmen inlet (CdC) towards the northeast Puerto Real inlet (PtR) along the southern side of the lagoon and the opposite in the northern side. The results indicate two areas of strong currents in the vicinity of the inlets and weak currents inside the lagoon. The area of strong currents in the vicinity of the CdC inlet is larger than that observed in the PtR inlet. Nevertheless, the current analysis indicates that the highest current speeds, which can reach a magnitude of 1.9 m s-1, occurred in PtR. A further analysis of the tide distortion in the inlets revealed that both passages are ebb dominated.

  15. Dynamic earthquake rupture modelled with an unstructured 3-D spectral element method applied to the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, P.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Somala, S. N.; Nissen-Meyer, T.

    2014-08-01

    An important goal of computational seismology is to simulate dynamic earthquake rupture and strong ground motion in realistic models that include crustal heterogeneities and complex fault geometries. To accomplish this, we incorporate dynamic rupture modelling capabilities in a spectral element solver on unstructured meshes, the 3-D open source code SPECFEM3D, and employ state-of-the-art software for the generation of unstructured meshes of hexahedral elements. These tools provide high flexibility in representing fault systems with complex geometries, including faults with branches and non-planar faults. The domain size is extended with progressive mesh coarsening to maintain an accurate resolution of the static field. Our implementation of dynamic rupture does not affect the parallel scalability of the code. We verify our implementation by comparing our results to those of two finite element codes on benchmark problems including branched faults. Finally, we present a preliminary dynamic rupture model of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake including a non-planar plate interface with heterogeneous frictional properties and initial stresses. Our simulation reproduces qualitatively the depth-dependent frequency content of the source and the large slip close to the trench observed for this earthquake.

  16. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  17. A 3-D adaptive mesh refinement algorithm for multimaterial gas dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Puckett, E.G. ); Saltzman, J.S. )

    1991-08-12

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) in conjunction with high order upwind finite difference methods has been used effectively on a variety of problems. In this paper we discuss an implementation of an AMR finite difference method that solves the equations of gas dynamics with two material species in three dimensions. An equation for the evolution of volume fractions augments the gas dynamics system. The material interface is preserved and tracked from the volume fractions using a piecewise linear reconstruction technique. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Dynamic 3-D chemical agent cloud mapping using a sensor constellation deployed on mobile platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Konno, Daisei; Rossi, David; Marinelli, William J.; Seem, Pete

    2014-05-01

    The need for standoff detection technology to provide early Chem-Bio (CB) threat warning is well documented. Much of the information obtained by a single passive sensor is limited to bearing and angular extent of the threat cloud. In order to obtain absolute geo-location, range to threat, 3-D extent and detailed composition of the chemical threat, fusion of information from multiple passive sensors is needed. A capability that provides on-the-move chemical cloud characterization is key to the development of real-time Battlespace Awareness. We have developed, implemented and tested algorithms and hardware to perform the fusion of information obtained from two mobile LWIR passive hyperspectral sensors. The implementation of the capability is driven by current Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle operational tactics and represents a mission focused alternative of the already demonstrated 5-sensor static Range Test Validation System (RTVS).1 The new capability consists of hardware for sensor pointing and attitude information which is made available for streaming and aggregation as part of the data fusion process for threat characterization. Cloud information is generated using 2-sensor data ingested into a suite of triangulation and tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The approaches are amenable to using a limited number of viewing projections and unfavorable sensor geometries resulting from mobile operation. In this paper we describe the system architecture and present an analysis of results obtained during the initial testing of the system at Dugway Proving Ground during BioWeek 2013.

  19. Ultrasensitive detection of 3D cerebral microvascular network dynamics in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yingtian; You, Jiang; Volkow, Nora D.; Park, Ki; Du, Congwu

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread applications of multiphoton microscopy in microcirculation, its small field of view and inability to instantaneously quantify cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) in vascular networks limit its utility in investigating the heterogeneous responses to brain stimulations. Optical Doppler tomography (ODT) provides 3D images of CBFv networks, but it suffers poor sensitivity for measuring capillary flows. Here we report a new method, contrast-enhanced ODT with intralipid that significantly improves quantitative CBFv imaging of capillary networks by obviating the errors from long latency between flowing red blood cells (low hematocrit ~20% in capillaries). This enhanced sensitivity allowed us to measure the ultraslow microcirculation surrounding a brain tumor and the abnormal ingrowth of capillary flows in the tumor as well as in ischemia triggered by chronic cocaine in the mouse brain that could not be detected by regular ODT. It also enabled significantly enhanced sensitivity for quantifying the heterogeneous CBFv responses of vascular networks to acute cocaine. Inasmuch as intralipids are widely used for parenteral nutrition the intralipid contrast method has translational potential for clinical applications. PMID:25192654

  20. The 1999 Izmit, Turkey, earthquake: A 3D dynamic stress transfer model of intraearthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Dolan, J.F.; Hartleb, R.; Day, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Before the August 1999 Izmit (Kocaeli), Turkey, earthquake, theoretical studies of earthquake ruptures and geological observations had provided estimates of how far an earthquake might jump to get to a neighboring fault. Both numerical simulations and geological observations suggested that 5 km might be the upper limit if there were no transfer faults. The Izmit earthquake appears to have followed these expectations. It did not jump across any step-over wider than 5 km and was instead stopped by a narrower step-over at its eastern end and possibly by a stress shadow caused by a historic large earthquake at its western end. Our 3D spontaneous rupture simulations of the 1999 Izmit earthquake provide two new insights: (1) the west- to east-striking fault segments of this part of the North Anatolian fault are oriented so as to be low-stress faults and (2) the easternmost segment involved in the August 1999 rupture may be dipping. An interesting feature of the Izmit earthquake is that a 5-km-long gap in surface rupture and an adjacent 25° restraining bend in the fault zone did not stop the earthquake. The latter observation is a warning that significant fault bends in strike-slip faults may not arrest future earthquakes.

  1. Cation Exchange in Dynamic 3D Porous Magnets: Improvement of the Physical Properties.

    PubMed

    Grancha, Thais; Acosta, Alvaro; Cano, Joan; Ferrando-Soria, Jesús; Seoane, Beatriz; Gascon, Jorge; Pasán, Jorge; Armentano, Donatella; Pardo, Emilio

    2015-11-16

    We report two novel three-dimensional porous coordination polymers (PCPs) of formulas Li4{Mn4[Cu2(Me3mpba)2]3}·68H2O (2) and K4{Mn4[Cu2(Me3mpba)2]3}·69H2O (3) obtained-via alkali cation exchange in a single-crystal to single-crystal process-from the earlier reported anionic manganese(II)-copper(II) PCP of formula Na4{Mn4[Cu2(Me3mpba)2]3}·60H2O (1) [Me3mpba(4-) = N,N'-2,4,6-trimethyl-1,3-phenylenebis(oxamate)]. This postsynthetic process succeeds where the direct synthesis in solution from the corresponding building blocks fails and affords significantly more robust PCPs with enhanced magnetic properties [long-range 3D magnetic ordering temperatures for the dehydrated phases (1'-3') of 2.0 (1'), 12.0 (2'), and 20.0 K (3')]. Changes in the adsorptive properties upon postsynthetic exchange suggest that the nature, electrostatic properties, mobility, and location of the cations within the framework are crucial for the enhanced structural stability. Overall, these results further confirm the potential of postsynthetic methods (including cation exchange) to obtain PCPs with novel or enhanced physical properties while maintaining unaltered their open-framework structures. PMID:26492551

  2. Intersegmental dynamics of 3D upper arm and forearm longitudinal axis rotations during baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kozo; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Norimasa; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The shoulder internal rotation (IR) and forearm pronation (PR) are important elements for baseball pitching, however, how rapid rotations of IR and PR are produced by muscular torques and inter-segmental forces is not clear. The aim of this study is to clarify how IR and PR angular velocities are maximized, depending on muscular torque and interactive torque effects, and gain a detailed knowledge about inter-segmental interaction within a multi-joint linked chain. The throwing movements of eight collegiate baseball pitchers were recorded by a motion capture system, and induced-acceleration analysis was used to assess the respective contributions of the muscular (MUS) and interactive torques associated with gyroscopic moment (GYR), and Coriolis (COR) and centrifugal forces (CEN) to maximum angular velocities of IR (MIRV) and PR (MPRV). The results showed that the contribution of MUS account for 98.0% of MIRV, while that contribution to MPRV was indicated as negative (-48.1%). It was shown that MPRV depends primarily on the interactive torques associated with GYR and CEN, but the effects of GYR, COR and CEN on MIRV are negligible. In conclusion, rapid PR motion during pitching is created by passive-effect, and is likely a natural movement which arises from 3D throwing movement. Applying the current analysis to IR and PR motions is helpful in providing the implications for improving performance and considering conditioning methods for pitchers. PMID:25303496

  3. A Dynamic 3D Graphical Representation for RNA Structure Analysis and Its Application in Non-Coding RNA Classification

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Fang, Yiliang; Wang, Kejing; Zhu, Lijuan; Wang, Ke; Huang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of new technologies in transcriptome and epigenetics, RNAs have been identified to play more and more important roles in life processes. Consequently, various methods have been proposed to assess the biological functions of RNAs and thus classify them functionally, among which comparative study of RNA structures is perhaps the most important one. To measure the structural similarity of RNAs and classify them, we propose a novel three dimensional (3D) graphical representation of RNA secondary structure, in which an RNA secondary structure is first transformed into a characteristic sequence based on chemical property of nucleic acids; a dynamic 3D graph is then constructed for the characteristic sequence; and lastly a numerical characterization of the 3D graph is used to represent the RNA secondary structure. We tested our algorithm on three datasets: (1) Dataset I consisting of nine RNA secondary structures of viruses, (2) Dataset II consisting of complex RNA secondary structures including pseudo-knots, and (3) Dataset III consisting of 18 non-coding RNA families. We also compare our method with other nine existing methods using Dataset II and III. The results demonstrate that our method is better than other methods in similarity measurement and classification of RNA secondary structures. PMID:27213271

  4. 3-D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problems with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sofronov, I.D.; Voronin, B.L.; Butnev, O.I.

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the work performed is to develop a 3D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problem with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS), satisfying the condition of numerical result independence from the number of processors involved. Two basically different approaches to the structure of massive parallel computations have been developed. The first approach uses the 3D data matrix decomposition reconstructed at temporal cycle and is a development of parallelization algorithms for multiprocessor CS with shareable memory. The second approach is based on using a 3D data matrix decomposition not reconstructed during a temporal cycle. The program was developed on 8-processor CS MP-3 made in VNIIEF and was adapted to a massive parallel CS Meiko-2 in LLNL by joint efforts of VNIIEF and LLNL staffs. A large number of numerical experiments has been carried out with different number of processors up to 256 and the efficiency of parallelization has been evaluated in dependence on processor number and their parameters.

  5. A Dynamic 3D Graphical Representation for RNA Structure Analysis and Its Application in Non-Coding RNA Classification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Huang, Haiyun; Dong, Xiaoqing; Fang, Yiliang; Wang, Kejing; Zhu, Lijuan; Wang, Ke; Huang, Tao; Yang, Jialiang

    2016-01-01

    With the development of new technologies in transcriptome and epigenetics, RNAs have been identified to play more and more important roles in life processes. Consequently, various methods have been proposed to assess the biological functions of RNAs and thus classify them functionally, among which comparative study of RNA structures is perhaps the most important one. To measure the structural similarity of RNAs and classify them, we propose a novel three dimensional (3D) graphical representation of RNA secondary structure, in which an RNA secondary structure is first transformed into a characteristic sequence based on chemical property of nucleic acids; a dynamic 3D graph is then constructed for the characteristic sequence; and lastly a numerical characterization of the 3D graph is used to represent the RNA secondary structure. We tested our algorithm on three datasets: (1) Dataset I consisting of nine RNA secondary structures of viruses, (2) Dataset II consisting of complex RNA secondary structures including pseudo-knots, and (3) Dataset III consisting of 18 non-coding RNA families. We also compare our method with other nine existing methods using Dataset II and III. The results demonstrate that our method is better than other methods in similarity measurement and classification of RNA secondary structures. PMID:27213271

  6. Using 3D infrared imaging to calibrate and refine computational fluid dynamic modeling for large computer and data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Gregory R.

    2011-05-01

    Over the last 10 years, very large government, military, and commercial computer and data center operators have spent millions of dollars trying to optimally cool data centers as each rack has begun to consume as much as 10 times more power than just a few years ago. In fact, the maximum amount of data computation in a computer center is becoming limited by the amount of available power, space and cooling capacity at some data centers. Tens of millions of dollars and megawatts of power are being annually spent to keep data centers cool. The cooling and air flows dynamically change away from any predicted 3-D computational fluid dynamic modeling during construction and as time goes by, and the efficiency and effectiveness of the actual cooling rapidly departs even farther from predicted models. By using 3-D infrared (IR) thermal mapping and other techniques to calibrate and refine the computational fluid dynamic modeling and make appropriate corrections and repairs, the required power for data centers can be dramatically reduced which reduces costs and also improves reliability.

  7. Dynamics of 3D Timoshenko gyroelastic beams with large attitude changes for the gyros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, Soroosh; Heppler, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    This work is concerned with the theoretical development of dynamic equations for undamped gyroelastic beams which are dynamic systems with continuous inertia, elasticity, and gyricity. Assuming unrestricted or large attitude changes for the axes of the gyros and utilizing generalized Hooke's law, Duleau torsion theory, and Timoshenko bending theory, the energy expressions and equations of motion for the gyroelastic beams in three-dimensional space are derived. The so-obtained comprehensive gyroelastic beam model is compared against earlier gyroelastic beam models developed using Euler-Bernoulli beam models and is used to study the dynamics of gyroelastic beams through numerical examples. It is shown that there are significant differences between the developed unrestricted Timoshenko gyroelastic beam model and the previously derived zero-order restricted Euler-Bernoulli gyroelastic beam models. These differences are more pronounced in the short beam and transverse gyricity cases.

  8. Beam dynamics study of RFQ for CADS with a 3D space-charge-effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Zhi-Lei; Qi, Xin; Xu, Xian-Bo; He, Yuan; Yang, Lei

    2014-03-01

    The ADS (accelerator driven subcritical system) project was proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The initial proton beams delivered from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source can be effectively accelerated by 162.5 MHz 4.2 m long room temperature radio-frequency-quadrupoles (RFQ) operating in CW mode. To test the feasibility of this physical design, a new Fortran code for RFQ beam dynamics study, which is space charge dominated, was developed. This program is based on Particle-In-Cell (PIC) technique in the time domain. Using the RFQ structure designed for the CADS project, the beam dynamics behavior is performed. The well-known simulation code TRACK is used for benchmarks. The results given by these two codes show good agreements. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented in this paper.

  9. Constraining the Absolute Orientation of eta Carinae's Binary Orbit: A 3-D Dynamical Model for the Broad [Fe III] Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in Eta Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). This model is based on full 3-D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectro-images of [Fe III] emission line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA(theta) that the orbital plane projection of the line-of-sight makes with the apastron side of the semi-major axis, and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3-D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blue-shifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA = +38deg, and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i approx. = 130deg to 145deg, Theta approx. = -15deg to +30deg, and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a P A approx. = 302deg to 327deg east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3-D. The companion star, Eta(sub B), thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modeling to determine the stellar masses.

  10. 3D Dynamics of Oblique Rift Systems: Fault Evolution from Rift to Break-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, S.

    2014-12-01

    Rift evolution and passive margin formation has been thoroughly investigated using conceptual and numerical models in two dimensions. However, the 2D assumption that the extension direction is perpendicular to the rift trend is often invalid. In fact, the majority of rift systems that lead to continental break-up during the last 150 My involved moderate to high rift obliquity. Yet, the degree to which oblique lithospheric extension affects first-order rift and passive margin properties like surface stress pattern, fault azimuths, and basin geometry, is still not entirely clear. This contribution provides insight in crustal stress patterns and fault orientations by applying a 3D numerical rift model to oblique extensional settings. The presented forward experiments cover the whole spectrum of oblique extension (i.e. rift-orthogonal extension, low obliquity, high obliquity, strike-slip deformation) from initial deformation to breakup. They are conducted using an elasto-visco-plastic finite element model and involve crustal and mantle layers accounting for self-consistent necking of the lithosphere. Even though the model setup is very simple (horizontally layered, no inherited faults), its evolution exhibits a variety of fault orientations that are solely caused by the interaction of far-field stresses with rift-intrinsic buoyancy and strength. Depending on rift obliquity, these orientations involve rift-parallel, extension-orthogonal, and intermediate normal fault directions as well as strike-slip faults. Allowing new insights on fault patterns of the proximal and distal margins, the model shows that individual fault populations are activated in a characteristic multi-phase evolution driven by lateral density variations of the evolving rift system. Model results are in very good agreement with inferences from the well-studied Gulf of Aden and provide testable predictions for other rifts and passive margins worldwide.

  11. 3D Case Studies of Monitoring Dynamic Structural Tests using Long Exposure Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. M. J.; Chandler, J. H.; Palmeri, A.

    2014-06-01

    Structural health monitoring uses non-destructive testing programmes to detect long-term degradation phenomena in civil engineering structures. Structural testing may also be carried out to assess a structure's integrity following a potentially damaging event. Such investigations are increasingly carried out with vibration techniques, in which the structural response to artificial or natural excitations is recorded and analysed from a number of monitoring locations. Photogrammetry is of particular interest here since a very high number of monitoring locations can be measured using just a few images. To achieve the necessary imaging frequency to capture the vibration, it has been necessary to reduce the image resolution at the cost of spatial measurement accuracy. Even specialist sensors are limited by a compromise between sensor resolution and imaging frequency. To alleviate this compromise, a different approach has been developed and is described in this paper. Instead of using high-speed imaging to capture the instantaneous position at each epoch, long-exposure images are instead used, in which the localised image of the object becomes blurred. The approach has been extended to create 3D displacement vectors for each target point via multiple camera locations, which allows the simultaneous detection of transverse and torsional mode shapes. The proposed approach is frequency invariant allowing monitoring of higher modal frequencies irrespective of a sampling frequency. Since there is no requirement for imaging frequency, a higher image resolution is possible for the most accurate spatial measurement. The results of a small scale laboratory test using off-the-shelf consumer cameras are demonstrated. A larger experiment also demonstrates the scalability of the approach.

  12. A method of improving the dynamic response of 3D force/torque sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osypiuk, Rafał; Piskorowski, Jacek; Kubus, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    In the paper attention is drawn to adverse dynamic properties of filters implemented in commercial measurement systems, force/torque sensors, which are increasingly used in industrial robotics. To remedy the problem, it has been proposed to employ a time-variant filter with appropriately modulated parameters, owing to which it is possible to suppress the amplitude of the transient response and, at the same time, to increase the pulsation of damped oscillations; this results in the improvement of dynamic properties in terms of reducing the duration of transients. This property plays a key role in force control and in the fundamental problem of the robot establishing contact with rigid environment. The parametric filters have been verified experimentally and compared with filters available for force/torque sensors manufactured by JR3. The obtained results clearly indicate the advantages of the proposed solution, which may be an interesting alternative to the classic methods of filtration.

  13. Variable Quality Compression of Fluid Dynamical Data Sets Using a 3D DCT Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loddoch, A.; Schmalzl, J.

    2005-12-01

    In this work we present a data compression scheme that is especially suited for the compression of data sets resulting from computational fluid dynamics (CFD). By adopting the concept of the JPEG compression standard and extending the approach of Schmalzl (Schmalzl, J. Using standard image compression algorithms to store data from computational fluid dynamics. Computers and Geosciences, 29, 10211031, 2003) we employ a three-dimensional discrete cosine transform of the data. The resulting frequency components are rearranged, quantized and finally stored using Huffman-encoding and standard variable length integer codes. The compression ratio and also the introduced loss of accuracy can be adjusted by means of two compression parameters to give the desired compression profile. Using the proposed technique compression ratios of more than 60:1 are possible with an mean error of the compressed data of less than 0.1%.

  14. Optimization of a 3D Dynamic Culturing System for In Vitro Modeling of Frontotemporal Neurodegeneration-Relevant Pathologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Tunesi, Marta; Fusco, Federica; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Corbelli, Alessandro; Biella, Gloria; Raimondi, Manuela T.

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder that is diagnosed with increasing frequency in clinical setting. Currently, no therapy is available and in addition the molecular basis of the disease are far from being elucidated. Consequently, it is of pivotal importance to develop reliable and cost-effective in vitro models for basic research purposes and drug screening. To this respect, recent results in the field of Alzheimer’s disease have suggested that a tridimensional (3D) environment is an added value to better model key pathologic features of the disease. Here, we have tried to add complexity to the 3D cell culturing concept by using a microfluidic bioreactor, where cells are cultured under a continuous flow of medium, thus mimicking the interstitial fluid movement that actually perfuses the body tissues, including the brain. We have implemented this model using a neuronal-like cell line (SH-SY5Y), a widely exploited cell model for neurodegenerative disorders that shows some basic features relevant for FTLD modeling, such as the release of the FTLD-related protein progranulin (PRGN) in specific vesicles (exosomes). We have efficiently seeded the cells on 3D scaffolds, optimized a disease-relevant oxidative stress experiment (by targeting mitochondrial function that is one of the possible FTLD-involved pathological mechanisms) and evaluated cell metabolic activity in dynamic culture in comparison to static conditions, finding that SH-SY5Y cells cultured in 3D scaffold are susceptible to the oxidative damage triggered by a mitochondrial-targeting toxin (6-OHDA) and that the same cells cultured in dynamic conditions kept their basic capacity to secrete PRGN in exosomes once recovered from the bioreactor and plated in standard 2D conditions. We think that a further improvement of our microfluidic system may help in providing a full device where assessing basic FTLD-related features (including PRGN dynamic secretion) that may

  15. Non-linear dynamic analysis of ancient masonry structures by 3D rigid block models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orduña, Agustin; Ayala, A. Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a formulation for non-linear dynamic analysis of unreinforced masonry structures using rigid block models. This procedure is akin to the distinct element family of methods, nevertheless, we assume that small displacements occur and, therefore, the formulation does not involve the search for new contacts between blocks. This proposal is also related to the rigid element method, although, in this case we use full three-dimensional models and a more robust interface formulation.

  16. 3D Dynamics of Magnetopause Reconnection Using Hall-MHD Global Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, K.; Germaschewski, K.; Raeder, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause and in the magnetotail is of crucial importance for the dynamics of the global magnetosphere and space weather. Even though the plasma conditions in the magnetosphere are largely in the collisionless regime, most of the existing research using global computational models employ single-fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with artificial resistivity. Studies of reconnection in simplified, two-dimensional geometries have established that two-fluid and kinetic effects can dramatically alter dynamics and reconnection rates when compared with single-fluid models. These enhanced models also introduce particular signatures, for example a quadrupolar out-of-plane magnetic field component that has already been observed in space by satellite measurements. However, results from simplified geometries cannot be translated directly to the dynamics of three-dimensional magnetospheric reconnection. For instance, magnetic flux originating from the solar wind and arriving at the magnetopause can either reconnect or be advected around the magnetosphere. In this study, we use a new version of the OpenGGCM code that incorporates the Hall term in a Generalized Ohm's Law to study magnetopause reconnection under synthetic solar wind conditions and investigate how reconnection rates and dynamics of flux transfer events depend on the strength of the Hall term. The OpenGGCM, a global model of Earth's magnetosphere, has recently been ported to exploit modern computing architectures like the Cell processor and SIMD capabilities of conventional processors using an automatic code generator. These enhancements provide us with the performance needed to include the computationally expensive Hall physics.

  17. Numerical simulation of 3D unsteady flow in a rotating pump by dynamic mesh technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Guo, J.; Yang, F. X.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the numerical simulation of unsteady flow for three kinds of typical rotating pumps, roots blower, roto-jet pump and centrifugal pump, were performed using the three-dimensional Dynamic Mesh technique. In the unsteady simulation, all the computational domains, as stationary, were set in one inertial reference frame. The motions of the solid boundaries were defined by the Profile file in FLUENT commercial code, in which the rotational orientation and speed of the rotors were specified. Three methods (Spring-based Smoothing, Dynamic Layering and Local Re-meshing) were used to achieve mesh deformation and re-meshing. The unsteady solutions of flow field and pressure distribution were solved. After a start-up stage, the flow parameters exhibit time-periodic behaviour corresponding to blade passing frequency of rotor. This work shows that Dynamic Mesh technique could achieve numerical simulation of three-dimensional unsteady flow field in various kinds of rotating pumps and have a strong versatility and broad application prospects.

  18. Numerical Modeling of 3-D Dynamics of Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles Using the Boundary Integral Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvisi, Michael; Manmi, Kawa; Wang, Qianxi

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. The nonspherical dynamics of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications, for example, causing the emission of subharmonic frequency components and enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces. A three-dimensional model for nonspherical contrast agent dynamics based on the boundary integral method is presented. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents to the nonspherical case. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. Numerical analyses for the dynamics of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The results show that the presence of a coating significantly reduces the oscillation amplitude and period, increases the ultrasound pressure amplitude required to incite jetting, and reduces the jet width and velocity.

  19. Haptic perception of force magnitude and its relation to postural arm dynamics in 3D

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Mugge, Winfred; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we found the perception of force magnitude to be anisotropic in the horizontal plane. In the current study, we investigated this anisotropy in three dimensional space. In addition, we tested our previous hypothesis that the perceptual anisotropy was directly related to anisotropies in arm dynamics. In experiment 1, static force magnitude perception was studied using a free magnitude estimation paradigm. This experiment revealed a significant and consistent anisotropy in force magnitude perception, with forces exerted perpendicular to the line between hand and shoulder being perceived as 50% larger than forces exerted along this line. In experiment 2, postural arm dynamics were measured using stochastic position perturbations exerted by a haptic device and quantified through system identification. By fitting a mass-damper-spring model to the data, the stiffness, damping and inertia parameters could be characterized in all the directions in which perception was also measured. These results show that none of the arm dynamics parameters were oriented either exactly perpendicular or parallel to the perceptual anisotropy. This means that endpoint stiffness, damping or inertia alone cannot explain the consistent anisotropy in force magnitude perception. PMID:26643041

  20. Virgo Cluster and field dwarf ellipticals in 3D - II. Internal dynamics points to tidal harassment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryś, A.; van de Ven, G.; Falcón-Barroso, J.

    2014-03-01

    We present the dynamical analysis of a sample of 12 dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies for which we have obtained SAURON large-scale two-dimensional spectroscopic data. We construct Jeans axisymmetric models and obtain total dynamical masses enclosed within one effective radius. We use the obtained values to show that the validity of the dynamical scaling relations of massive early-type galaxies can be extended to these low-mass systems, except that dEs seem to contain relatively larger fraction of dark matter in their inner parts. We then demonstrate that dE galaxies have lower angular momenta than the present-day analogues of their presumed late-type progenitors, and we show that dE circular velocity curves are steeper than the rotation curves of galaxies with equal and up to an order of magnitude higher luminosity. This requires a transformation mechanism that is not only able to lower the angular momentum but also one that needs to account for increased stellar concentration. Additionally, we match the dark matter fraction of our galaxies to their location in the Virgo Cluster and see that galaxies in the cluster outskirts tend to have a higher dark-to-stellar matter ratio. Transformation due to tidal harassment is able to explain all of the above, unless the dE progenitors were already compact and had lower angular momenta at higher redshifts.

  1. Measuring dynamic cell–material interactions and remodeling during 3D human mesenchymal stem cell migration in hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Kelly M.; Kyburz, Kyle A.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials that mimic aspects of the extracellular matrix by presenting a 3D microenvironment that cells can locally degrade and remodel are finding increased applications as wound-healing matrices, tissue engineering scaffolds, and even substrates for stem cell expansion. In vivo, cells do not simply reside in a static microenvironment, but instead, they dynamically reengineer their surroundings. For example, cells secrete proteases that degrade extracellular components, attach to the matrix through adhesive sites, and can exert traction forces on the local matrix, causing its spatial reorganization. Although biomaterials scaffolds provide initially well-defined microenvironments for 3D culture of cells, less is known about the changes that occur over time, especially local matrix remodeling that can play an integral role in directing cell behavior. Here, we use microrheology as a quantitative tool to characterize dynamic cellular remodeling of peptide-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels that degrade in response to cell-secreted matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This technique allows measurement of spatial changes in material properties during migration of encapsulated cells and has a sensitivity that identifies regions where cells simply adhere to the matrix, as well as the extent of local cell remodeling of the material through MMP-mediated degradation. Collectively, these microrheological measurements provide insight into microscopic, cellular manipulation of the pericellular region that gives rise to macroscopic tracks created in scaffolds by migrating cells. This quantitative and predictable information should benefit the design of improved biomaterial scaffolds for medically relevant applications. PMID:26150508

  2. Dynamically Self-consistent Simulations of the 3D Gravity and Magnetic Fields to be Measured by Juno at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2013-12-01

    In 2016 NASA's Juno spacecraft will begin making high fidelity gravity and magnetic measurements near the surface of Jupiter that will provide clues to Jupiter's internal structure and dynamics. To prepare for the interpretation of these data, we are producing 3D dynamo simulations that self-consistently solve for the gravity and magnetic fields throughout the interior and exterior of our simulated gas giant. Knowing the trajectories of the 34 11-day polar orbits Juno will make around Jupiter as Jupiter rotates, we calculate the three components of the gravity and magnetic fields that Juno would measure as a function of time for two different simulated giant planet dynamos: one having latitudinally banded zonal winds that exist only in a shallow surface layer and one with banded zonal winds that extend deep below the surface. The different dynamo solutions are obtained by making different specifications for poorly known quantities, like the amplitude and radial dependence of the effective viscous diffusivity within Jupiter. By identifying fundamental differences in the 3D data that Juno would collect for these two scenarios, we will provide a dynamically self-consistent test for inferring the structure and amplitude of the zonal winds in Jupiter's interior. For example, a latitudinally banded pattern of magnetic field measured by Juno would suggest that strong zonal winds extend well below the surface to where the electrical conductivity is high enough for the generation of Jupiter's magnetic field.

  3. Seasonal dynamics and stoichiometry of the planktonic community in the NW Mediterranean Sea: a 3D modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Raybaud, Virginie; Espinasse, Boris; Carlotti, François; Queguiner, Bernard; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Garreau, Pierre; Baklouti, Melika

    2014-01-01

    The 3D hydrodynamic Model for Applications at Regional Scale (MARS3D) was coupled with a biogeochemical model developed with the Ecological Modular Mechanistic Modelling (Eco3M) numerical tool. The three-dimensional coupled model was applied to the NW Mediterranean Sea to study the dynamics of the key biogeochemical processes in the area in relation with hydrodynamic constraints. In particular, we focused on the temporal and spatial variability of intracellular contents of living and non-living compartments. The conceptual scheme of the biogeochemical model accounts for the complex food web of the NW Mediterranean Sea (34 state variables), using flexible plankton stoichiometry. We used mechanistic formulations to describe most of the biogeochemical processes involved in the dynamics of marine pelagic ecosystems. Simulations covered the period from September 1, 2009 to January 31, 2011 (17 months), which enabled comparison of model outputs with situ measurements made during two oceanographic cruises in the region (Costeau-4: April 27-May 2, 2010 and Costeau-6: January 23-January 27, 2011).

  4. 3D Dynamics of Magnetic Flux Ropes Across Scales: Solar Eruptions and Sun-Earth Plasma Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, James

    2012-10-01

    Central to the understanding of the eruptive phenomena on the Sun and their impact on the terrestrial plasma environment is the dynamics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs)---a 3D magnetic flux rope configuration---and the evolution of their magnetic fields. I will discuss the basic physics of CME eruption and solar flare energy release in the context of the analytic erupting flux rope model of CMEs. In this ideal MHD model, a CME is treated as a 3D flux rope with its two stationary footpoints anchored in the Sun. The model structure is non-axisymmetric and embedded in a model corona/solar wind. The initial flux rope is driven out of equilibrium by ``injection'' of poloidal flux and propagates under the Lorentz hoop force from the Sun to 1 AU, across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Comparisons of the model results and recent STEREO observations show that the solutions that best fit the observed CME position-time data (to within 1-2% of data) also correctly replicate the temporal profiles of associated flare X-ray emissions (GOES data) and the in situ magnetic field and plasma data of the CME ejecta at 1 AU where such data are available (e.g., ACE and STEREO/IMPAXCT/PLASTIC data), providing a unified basis of understanding CME dynamics and flare energetics.

  5. Complex scenes and situations visualization in hierarchical learning algorithm with dynamic 3D NeoAxis engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, James; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

    2013-06-01

    We applied a two stage unsupervised hierarchical learning system to model complex dynamic surveillance and cyber space monitoring systems using a non-commercial version of the NeoAxis visualization software. The hierarchical scene learning and recognition approach is based on hierarchical expectation maximization, and was linked to a 3D graphics engine for validation of learning and classification results and understanding the human - autonomous system relationship. Scene recognition is performed by taking synthetically generated data and feeding it to a dynamic logic algorithm. The algorithm performs hierarchical recognition of the scene by first examining the features of the objects to determine which objects are present, and then determines the scene based on the objects present. This paper presents a framework within which low level data linked to higher-level visualization can provide support to a human operator and be evaluated in a detailed and systematic way.

  6. Progress in the Peeling-Ballooning Model of ELMs: Numerical Studies of 3D Nonlinear ELM Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, P B; Wilson, H R; Xu, X Q

    2004-12-13

    Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the non-linear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outer wall. Similarities to non-linear linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed.

  7. PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: NUMERICAL STUDIES OF 3D NONLINEAR ELM DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    SNYDER,P.B; WILSON,H.R; XU,X.Q

    2004-11-01

    Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the nonlinear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outboard wall. Similarities to non-linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed.

  8. Dynamic 3D shape of the plantar surface of the foot using coded structured light: a technical report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The foot provides a crucial contribution to the balance and stability of the musculoskeletal system, and accurate foot measurements are important in applications such as designing custom insoles/footwear. With better understanding of the dynamic behavior of the foot, dynamic foot reconstruction techniques are surfacing as useful ways to properly measure the shape of the foot. This paper presents a novel design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Methods Engineering and clinical tests were carried out to test the accuracy and repeatability of the system. Accuracy experiments involved imaging a planar surface from different orientations and elevations and measuring the fitting errors of the data to a plane. Repeatability experiments were done using reconstructions from 27 different subjects, where for each one both right and left feet were reconstructed in static and dynamic conditions over two different days. Results The static accuracy of the system was found to be 0.3 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.4 mm (static case) and 2.8 mm (dynamic case). Conclusion The results obtained in the experiments show positive accuracy and repeatability results when compared to current literature. The design also shows to be superior to the systems available in the literature in several factors. Further studies need to be done to quantify the reliability of the system in clinical environments. PMID:24456711

  9. MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION DYNAMICS FROM 3D MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF SOLAR CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Passos, Dário; Charbonneau, Paul; Miesch, Mark

    2015-02-10

    The form of solar meridional circulation is a very important ingredient for mean field flux transport dynamo models. However, a shroud of mystery still surrounds this large-scale flow, given that its measurement using current helioseismic techniques is challenging. In this work, we use results from three-dimensional global simulations of solar convection to infer the dynamical behavior of the established meridional circulation. We make a direct comparison between the meridional circulation that arises in these simulations and the latest observations. Based on our results, we argue that there should be an equatorward flow at the base of the convection zone at mid-latitudes, below the current maximum depth helioseismic measures can probe (0.75 R{sub ⊙}). We also provide physical arguments to justify this behavior. The simulations indicate that the meridional circulation undergoes substantial changes in morphology as the magnetic cycle unfolds. We close by discussing the importance of these dynamical changes for current methods of observation which involve long averaging periods of helioseismic data. Also noteworthy is the fact that these topological changes indicate a rich interaction between magnetic fields and plasma flows, which challenges the ubiquitous kinematic approach used in the vast majority of mean field dynamo simulations.

  10. 3D dislocation dynamics: stress-strain behavior and hardening mechanisms in FCC and BCC metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hirth, J P; Rhee, M; Zhib, H M; de la Rubia, T D

    1999-02-19

    A dislocation dynamics (DD) model for plastic deformation, connecting the macroscopic mechanical properties to basic physical laws governing dislocation mobility and related interaction mechanisms, has been under development. In this model there is a set of critical reactions that determine the overall results of the simulations, such as the stress-strain curve. These reactions are, annihilation, formation of jogs, junctions, and dipoles, and cross-slip. In this paper we discuss these reactions and the manner in which they influence the simulated stress- strain behavior in fcc and bcc metals. In particular, we examine the formation (zipping) and strength of dipoles and junctions, and effect of jogs, using the dislocation dynamics model. We show that the strengths (unzipping) of these reactions for various configurations can be determined by direct evaluation of the elastic interactions. Next, we investigate the phenomenon of hardening in metals subjected to cascade damage dislocations. The microstructure investigated consists of small dislocation loops decorating the mobile dislocations. Preliminary results reveal that these loops act as hardening agents, trapping the dislocations and resulting in increased hardening.

  11. High dynamic range image acquisition method for 3D solder paste measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohui; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Xu, Yixin

    2013-12-01

    In the solder paste inspection measurement system which is based on the structured light vision technology, the local oversaturation will emerge because of the reflection coefficient when the laser light project on PCB surface. As this, a high dynamic imaging acquisition system for the solder paste inspection research is researched to reduce the local oversaturation and misjudge. The Reflective liquid crystal on silicon has the merit that it can adjust the reflectance of the Incident light per-pixel. According to this merit, the high dynamic imaging acquisition system based on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) was built which using the high-resolution LCoS and CCD image sensor. The optical system was constructed by the imaging lens, the relay lens, the Polarizing Beam Splitter (PBS), and the hardware system was consist of ARM development board, video generic board, MCU and HX7809 according to the electrical characteristics of LCoS. Tests show that the system could reduce the phenomenon of image oversaturation and improve the quality of image.

  12. Dwarf ellipticals in the eye of SAURON: dynamical & stellar population analysis in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryś, Agnieszka; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; van de Ven, Glenn; Koleva, Mina

    2015-02-01

    We present the dynamical and stellar population analysis of 12 dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) observed using the SAURON IFU (WHT, La Palma). We demonstrate that dEs have lower angular momenta than their presumed late-type progenitors and we show that dE circular velocity curves are steeper than the rotation curves of galaxies with equal and up to an order of magnitude higher luminosity. Transformation due to tidal harassment is able to explain all of the above, unless the dE progenitors were already compact and had lower angular momenta at higher redshifts. We then look at the star formation histories (SFHs) of our galaxies and find that for the majority of them star formation activity was either still strong at a few Gyr of age or they experienced a secondary burst of star formation roughly at that time. This latter possibility would be in agreement with the scenario where tidal harassment drives the remaining gas inwards and induces a secondary star formation episode. Finally, one of our galaxies appears to be composed exclusively of an old population (>~12 Gyr). Combining this with our earlier dynamical results, we conclude that it either was ram-pressure stripped early on in its evolution in a group environment and subsequently tidally heated (which lowered its angular momentum and increased compactness), or that it evolved in situ in the cluster's central parts, compact enough to avoid tidal disruption.

  13. Depth-kymography: high-speed calibrated 3D imaging of human vocal fold vibration dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Nibu A.; de Mul, Frits F. M.; Qiu, Qingjun; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Schutte, Harm K.

    2008-05-01

    We designed and developed a laser line-triangulation endoscope compatible with any standard high-speed camera for a complete three-dimensional profiling of human vocal fold vibration dynamics. With this novel device we are able to measure absolute values of vertical and horizontal vibration amplitudes, length and width of vocal folds as well as the opening and closing velocities from a single in vivo measurement. We have studied, for the first time, the generation and propagation of mucosal waves by locating the position of its maximum vertical position and the propagation velocity. Precise knowledge about the absolute dimensions of human vocal folds and their vibration parameters has significant importance in clinical diagnosis and treatment as well as in fundamental research in voice. The new device can be used to investigate different kinds of pathological conditions including periodic or aperiodic vibrations. Consequently, the new device has significant importance in investigating vocal fold paralysis and in phonosurgical applications.

  14. A 3D model for α Gem AB: orbits and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docobo, José A.; Andrade, Manuel; Campo, Pedro P.; Ling, Josefina F.

    2016-01-01

    The well-known multiple star system, Castor, and particularly, the [(Aa, Ab), (Ba, Bb)] subsystem, was studied in detail. After a rigorous analysis of the quality controls, a new solution for the visual orbit yielded new values for the different physical and orbital parameters of the system. In addition, a comprehensive investigation of the orbital configuration of the quadruple system allowed us to provide both accurate individual masses and orbital inclinations of the spectroscopic subcomponents, as well as a new value of its orbital parallax. Finally, by means of a numerical analysis of the long-term dynamics, we obtained the most probable values of the nodal angles of the two spectroscopic subsystems for the first time.

  15. Dynamical electron compressibility in the 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inhofer, Andreas; Assaf, Badih; Wilmart, Quentin; Veyrat, Louis; Nowka, Christian; Dufouleur, Joseph; Giraud, Romain; Hampel, Silke; Buechner, Bernd; Fève, Gwendal; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Placais, Bernard

    Measurements of the quantum capacitance cq, related to the electron compressibility χ =cq /e2 is a sensitive tool to probe the density of states. In a topological insulator (TI) the situation is enriched by the coexistence and the interplay of topologically protected surface states and massive bulk carriers. We investigate top-gate metal-oxyde-TI capacitors using Bi2Se3 thin crystals at GHz frequencies. These measurements provide insight into the compressibillity of such a two electron-fluid system. Furthermore, the dynamical response yields information about electron scattering properties in TIs. More specifically, in our measurements we track simultaneously the conductivity σ and the compressibility as a function of a DC-gate voltage. Using the Einstein relation σ =cq D , we have access to the gate dependence of the electron diffusion constant D (Vg) , a signature of the peculiar scattering mechanisms in TIs.

  16. MORPHOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES FROM 3D MHD SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Luna, M.

    2015-01-20

    In this paper we present a numerical study of the time evolution of solar prominences embedded in sheared magnetic arcades. The prominence is represented by a density enhancement in a background-stratified atmosphere and is connected to the photosphere through the magnetic field. By solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions, we study the dynamics for a range of parameters representative of real prominences. Depending on the parameters considered, we find prominences that are suspended above the photosphere, i.e., detached prominences, but also configurations resembling curtain or hedgerow prominences whose material continuously connects to the photosphere. The plasma-β is an important parameter that determines the shape of the structure. In many cases magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and oscillatory phenomena develop. Fingers and plumes are generated, affecting the whole prominence body and producing vertical structures in an essentially horizontal magnetic field. However, magnetic shear is able to reduce or even to suppress this instability.

  17. A parallel dynamic load balancing algorithm for 3-D adaptive unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidwans, A.; Kallinderis, Y.; Venkatakrishnan, V.

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive local grid refinement and coarsening results in unequal distribution of workload among the processors of a parallel system. A novel method for balancing the load in cases of dynamically changing tetrahedral grids is developed. The approach employs local exchange of cells among processors in order to redistribute the load equally. An important part of the load balancing algorithm is the method employed by a processor to determine which cells within its subdomain are to be exchanged. Two such methods are presented and compared. The strategy for load balancing is based on the Divide-and-Conquer approach which leads to an efficient parallel algorithm. This method is implemented on a distributed-memory MIMD system.

  18. Micronozzles: 3D numerical structural and gas dynamics modeling, fabrication, and preliminary experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovkov, Alexei I.; Pyatishev, Evgenij N.; Lurie, Mihail S.; Korshunov, Andrey V.; Akulshin, Y. D.; Dolganov, A. G.; Sabadash, V. O.

    2001-02-01

    The tiny engines, founded on the principle of reactive thrust, are one of most perspective actuators developed by modern micromechanics. These engines can be applied for such apparent problems, as orientation and stabilization of small space objects, but also as local or distributed reactive thrust of new phylum of aerospace objects, for control of boundary layer of flying objects and in series of converting power devices of different purposes. Distinctive features of jet tiny engines are profitability (very large thrust-to-weight ratio) and high (milliseconds) response, which makes them to irreplaceable elements in control systems and, specially, in distributed power generations. These features are provided the minimum sizes, high pressure in working chambers and hypersonic velocity of propulsive jet. Topologically micronozzles are designed as the flat batch devices (3 layers as minimum). The lower and upper layers make flat walls of the nozzle and mainly influence on strength properties of the device. The mean layer reshapes geometry and determines gas dynamic characteristic of the nozzle. A special problem is the opening-up of the combustion-mixture, which is not esteemed in this work. It is necessary to allow for effect of considerable local stresses arising at the expense of static and dynamic loading at design of the jet tiny engines. Thermal gas dynamic processes in the chamber and nozzle determine the values and nature of these stresses, which are hardly studied for the microdevices. The priority is mathematical and experimental simulation of these processes. The most suitable object for initial phase of experimental simulation is the 'cold' engine. The demanded chamber static pressure is formed by external compressed air. In Laboratory of Microtechnology and MicroElectroMechanical Systems a number of such tiny engines with different shapes of the chamber's and the nozzles' surfaces were designed, made and tested. The engines were produced from photosensing

  19. Micronozzles: 3D numerical structural and gas dynamics modeling, fabrication, and preliminary experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovkov, Alexei I.; Pyatishev, Evgenij N.; Lurie, Mihail S.; Korshunov, Andrey V.; Akulshin, Y. D.; Dolganov, A. G.; Sabadash, V. O.

    2000-02-01

    The tiny engines, founded on the principle of reactive thrust, are one of most perspective actuators developed by modern micromechanics. These engines can be applied for such apparent problems, as orientation and stabilization of small space objects, but also as local or distributed reactive thrust of new phylum of aerospace objects, for control of boundary layer of flying objects and in series of converting power devices of different purposes. Distinctive features of jet tiny engines are profitability (very large thrust-to-weight ratio) and high (milliseconds) response, which makes them to irreplaceable elements in control systems and, specially, in distributed power generations. These features are provided the minimum sizes, high pressure in working chambers and hypersonic velocity of propulsive jet. Topologically micronozzles are designed as the flat batch devices (3 layers as minimum). The lower and upper layers make flat walls of the nozzle and mainly influence on strength properties of the device. The mean layer reshapes geometry and determines gas dynamic characteristic of the nozzle. A special problem is the opening-up of the combustion-mixture, which is not esteemed in this work. It is necessary to allow for effect of considerable local stresses arising at the expense of static and dynamic loading at design of the jet tiny engines. Thermal gas dynamic processes in the chamber and nozzle determine the values and nature of these stresses, which are hardly studied for the microdevices. The priority is mathematical and experimental simulation of these processes. The most suitable object for initial phase of experimental simulation is the 'cold' engine. The demanded chamber static pressure is formed by external compressed air. In Laboratory of Microtechnology and MicroElectroMechanical Systems a number of such tiny engines with different shapes of the chamber's and the nozzles' surfaces were designed, made and tested. The engines were produced from photosensing

  20. Dynamic rupture modeling of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake with an unstructured 3D spectral element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, P.; Ampuero, J. P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Nissen-Meyer, T.

    2011-12-01

    On March 11th 2011, a Mw 9 earthquake stroke Japan causing 28000 victims and triggering a devastating tsunami that caused severe damage along the Japanese coast. The exceptional amount of data recorded by this earthquake, with thousands of sensors located all over Japan, provides a great opportunity for seismologist and engineers to investigate in detail the rupture process in order to better understand the physics of this type of earthquakes and their associated effects, like tsunamis. Here we investigate, by means of dynamic rupture simulations, a plausible mechanism to explain key observations about the rupture process of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake, including the spatial complementarity between high and low frequency aspects of slip (e.g, Simons et al, Science 2011, Meng et al, GRL 2011). To model the dynamic rupture of this event, we use a realistic non-planar fault geometry of the megathrust interface, using the unstructured 3D spectral element open source code SPECFEM3D-SESAME, in which we recently implemented the dynamic fault boundary conditions. This implementation follows the principles introduced by Ampuero (2002) and Kaneko et al. (2008) and involves encapsulated modules plugged into the code. Our current implementation provides the possibility of modeling dynamic rupture for multiple, non-planar faults governed by slip-weakening friction. We successfully verified the code in several SCEC benchmarks, including a 3D problem with branched faults, as well as modeling the rupture of subduction megathrust with a splay fault, finding results comparable to published results. Our first set of simulations is aimed at testing if the diversity of rupture phenomena during the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake (see Ampuero et al in this session) can be overall reproduced by assuming the most basic friction law, linear slip-weakening friction, but prescribing a spatially heterogeneous distribution of the critical slip weakening distance Dc and initial fault stresses. Our

  1. A molecular dynamics implementation of the 3D Mercedes-Benz water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynninen, T.; Dias, C. L.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Heinonen, V.; Karttunen, M.; Foster, A. S.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2012-02-01

    The three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model was recently introduced to account for the structural and thermodynamic properties of water. It treats water molecules as point-like particles with four dangling bonds in tetrahedral coordination, representing H-bonds of water. Its conceptual simplicity renders the model attractive in studies where complex behaviors emerge from H-bond interactions in water, e.g., the hydrophobic effect. A molecular dynamics (MD) implementation of the model is non-trivial and we outline here the mathematical framework of its force-field. Useful routines written in modern Fortran are also provided. This open source code is free and can easily be modified to account for different physical context. The provided code allows both serial and MPI-parallelized execution. Program summaryProgram title: CASHEW (Coarse Approach Simulator for Hydrogen-bonding Effects in Water) Catalogue identifier: AEKM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 20 501 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 551 044 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Program has been tested on desktop workstations and a Cray XT4/XT5 supercomputer. Operating system: Linux, Unix, OS X Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: The code has been parallelized using MPI. RAM: Depends on size of system, about 5 MB for 1500 molecules. Classification: 7.7 External routines: A random number generator, Mersenne Twister ( http://www.math.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/m-mat/MT/VERSIONS/FORTRAN/mt95.f90), is used. A copy of the code is included in the distribution. Nature of problem: Molecular dynamics simulation of a new geometric water model. Solution method: New force-field for

  2. Separation efficiency of a hydrodynamic separator using a 3D computational fluid dynamics multiscale approach.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Vivien; Dufresne, Matthieu; Vazquez, Jose; Fischer, Martin; Morin, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict the solid separation efficiency of a hydrodynamic separator. The numerical difficulty concerns the discretization of the geometry to simulate both the global behavior and the local phenomena that occur near the screen. In this context, a CFD multiscale approach was used: a global model (at the scale of the device) is used to observe the hydrodynamic behavior within the device; a local model (portion of the screen) is used to determine the local phenomena that occur near the screen. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used to model the particle trajectories in both models. The global model shows the influence of the particles' characteristics on the trapping efficiency. A high density favors the sedimentation. In contrast, particles with small densities (1,040 kg/m(3)) are steered by the hydrodynamic behavior and can potentially be trapped by the separator. The use of the local model allows us to observe the particle trajectories near the screen. A comparison between two types of screens (perforated plate vs expanded metal) highlights the turbulent effects created by the shape of the screen. PMID:24622557

  3. 3D Study of the Morphology and Dynamics of Zeolite Nucleation.

    PubMed

    Melinte, Georgian; Georgieva, Veselina; Springuel-Huet, Marie-Anne; Nossov, Andreï; Ersen, Ovidiu; Guenneau, Flavien; Gedeon, Antoine; Palčić, Ana; Bozhilov, Krassimir N; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Qiu, Shilun; Mintova, Svetlana; Valtchev, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    The principle aspects and constraints of the dynamics and kinetics of zeolite nucleation in hydrogel systems are analyzed on the basis of a model Na-rich aluminosilicate system. A detailed time-series EMT-type zeolite crystallization study in the model hydrogel system was performed to elucidate the topological and temporal aspects of zeolite nucleation. A comprehensive set of analytical tools and methods was employed to analyze the gel evolution and complement the primary methods of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. TEM tomography reveals that the initial gel particles exhibit a core-shell structure. Zeolite nucleation is topologically limited to this shell structure and the kinetics of nucleation is controlled by the shell integrity. The induction period extends to the moment when the shell is consumed and the bulk solution can react with the core of the gel particles. These new findings, in particular the importance of the gel particle shell in zeolite nucleation, can be used to control the growth process and properties of zeolites formed in hydrogels. PMID:26503177

  4. Parallel phase-shifting digital holography and its application to high-speed 3D imaging of dynamic object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Xia, Peng; Wang, Yexin; Matoba, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Digital holography is a technique of 3D measurement of object. The technique uses an image sensor to record the interference fringe image containing the complex amplitude of object, and numerically reconstructs the complex amplitude by computer. Parallel phase-shifting digital holography is capable of accurate 3D measurement of dynamic object. This is because this technique can reconstruct the complex amplitude of object, on which the undesired images are not superimposed, form a single hologram. The undesired images are the non-diffraction wave and the conjugate image which are associated with holography. In parallel phase-shifting digital holography, a hologram, whose phase of the reference wave is spatially and periodically shifted every other pixel, is recorded to obtain complex amplitude of object by single-shot exposure. The recorded hologram is decomposed into multiple holograms required for phase-shifting digital holography. The complex amplitude of the object is free from the undesired images is reconstructed from the multiple holograms. To validate parallel phase-shifting digital holography, a high-speed parallel phase-shifting digital holography system was constructed. The system consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a continuous-wave laser, and a high-speed polarization imaging camera. Phase motion picture of dynamic air flow sprayed from a nozzle was recorded at 180,000 frames per second (FPS) have been recorded by the system. Also phase motion picture of dynamic air induced by discharge between two electrodes has been recorded at 1,000,000 FPS, when high voltage was applied between the electrodes.

  5. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations Across Interacting Faults: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Aagaard, B.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during an earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a fault segment sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g.i, 2002 M7.9Denali and 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial segment and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of moderate magnitude. This is the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigatethe rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacenent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a Finite Element Model to simulate the nucleation and propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence. The best-fit simulation is in remarkable agreement with several finite fault inversions and predicts ground displacement in very good agreement with geodetic and geological observations. The two slip patches inferred from finite-fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure. Although our simulation results replicate well the ground deformation consistent with the geodetic surface observation but convolving the ground motion with the soil amplification from the microzonation study will correctly account for the heterogeneity of the PGA throughout the rupture area.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of the 3D FMS and Alfven wave beams propagating in plasma of ionosphere and magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belashov, Vasily

    We study the formation, structure, stability and dynamics of the multidimensional soliton-like beam structures forming on the low-frequency branch of oscillation in the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma for cases when beta=4pinT/B(2) <<1 and beta>1. In first case with the conditions omegadynamics under conditions {k_{x}}(2) >>{k_{yz}}(2,) v_{x}$<3D Belashov-Karpman (BK) equation [1] for magnetic field h=B_{wave}/B with due account of the high order dispersive correction defined by values of plasma parameters and the angle Theta=(B,k) [2]. In another case the dynamics of the finite-amplitude Alfvén waves propagating in the ionosphere and magnetosphere near-to-parallel to the field B is described by the 3D derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (3-DNLS) equation for the magnetic field of the wave h=(B_{y}+iB_{z})/2B/1-beta/ [3]. To study the stability of multidimensional solitons in both cases we use the method developed in [2] and investigated the Hamiltonian bounding with its deformation conserving momentum by solving the corresponding variation problem. To study evolution of solitons and their collision dynamics the proper equations were being integrated numerically using the codes specially developed and described in detail in [3]. As a result, we have obtained that in both cases for a single solitons on a level with wave spreading and collapse the formation of multidimensional solitons can be observed. These results may be interpreted in terms of self-focusing phenomenon for the FMS and Alfvén waves’ beam as stationary beam formation, scattering and self-focusing of wave beam. The soliton collisions on a level with known elastic interaction can lead to formation of complex structures including the multisoliton bound states. For all cases the problem of multidimensional soliton dynamics in the ionospheric and

  7. Static and dynamic fatigue behavior of topology designed and conventional 3D printed bioresorbable PCL cervical interbody fusion devices.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Ashleen R; Borkowski, Sean L; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Sangiorgio, Sophia N

    2015-09-01

    Recently, as an alternative to metal spinal fusion cages, 3D printed bioresorbable materials have been explored; however, the static and fatigue properties of these novel cages are not well known. Unfortunately, current ASTM testing standards used to determine these properties were designed prior to the advent of bioresorbable materials for cages. Therefore, the applicability of these standards for bioresorbable materials is unknown. In this study, an image-based topology and a conventional 3D printed bioresorbable poly(ε)-caprolactone (PCL) cervical cage design were tested in compression, compression-shear, and torsion, to establish their static and fatigue properties. Difficulties were in fact identified in establishing failure criteria and in particular determining compressive failure load. Given these limitations, under static loads, both designs withstood loads of over 650 N in compression, 395 N in compression-shear, and 0.25 Nm in torsion, prior to yielding. Under dynamic testing, both designs withstood 5 million (5M) cycles of compression at 125% of their respective yield forces. Geometry significantly affected both the static and fatigue properties of the cages. The measured compressive yield loads fall within the reported physiological ranges; consequently, these PCL bioresorbable cages would likely require supplemental fixation. Most importantly, supplemental testing methods may be necessary beyond the current ASTM standards, to provide more accurate and reliable results, ultimately improving preclinical evaluation of these devices. PMID:26072198

  8. Static and Dynamic Fatigue Behavior of Topology Designed and Conventional 3D Printed Bioresorbable PCL Cervical Interbody Fusion Devices

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Ashleen R.; Borkowski, Sean L.; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Flanagan, Colleen L.; Hollister, Scott J.; Sangiorgio, Sophia N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, as an alternative to metal spinal fusion cages, 3D printed bioresorbable materials have been explored; however, the static and fatigue properties of these novel cages are not well known. Unfortunately, current ASTM testing standards used to determine these properties were designed prior to the advent of bioresorbable materials for cages. Therefore, the applicability of these standards for bioresorbable materials is unknown. In this study, an image-based topology and a conventional 3D printed bioresorbable poly(ε)-caprolactone (PCL) cervical cage design were tested in compression, compression-shear, and torsion, to establish their static and fatigue properties. Difficulties were in fact identified in establishing failure criteria and in particular determining compressive failure load. Given these limitations, under static loads, both designs withstood loads of over 650N in compression, 395N in compression-shear, and 0.25Nm in torsion, prior to yielding. Under dynamic testing, both designs withstood 5 million (5M) cycles of compression at 125% of their respective yield forces. Geometry significantly affected both the static and fatigue properties of the cages. The measured compressive yield loads fall within the reported physiological ranges; consequently, these PCL bioresorbable cages would likely require supplemental fixation. Most importantly, supplemental testing methods may be necessary beyond the current ASTM standards, to provide more accurate and reliable results, ultimately improving preclinical evaluation of these devices. PMID:26072198

  9. Dynamics of CD3+ T-cell Distribution Throughout the Estrous Cycle and Gestation in the Bovine Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    OHTA, Tomokazu; KOSHI, Katsuo; USHIZAWA, Koichi; HOSOE, Misa; TAKAHASHI, Toru; YAMAGUCHI, Takahiro; KIZAKI, Keiichiro; HASHIZUME, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    T cells are the dominant lymphocytes in the endometrium and are considered to play a crucial role in implantation and in the maintenance of gestation through cytokine production and immune regulation. The mechanisms underlying immunoregulation at the feto-maternal interface are still obscure for this complex system. Understanding the role of T cells is a key factor in understanding the endometrial immune system. In this study, the distribution of endometrial CD3+ T cells in bovines was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The estrous cycle and gestation was divided into 4 stages, and the number of CD3+-positive T cells was counted in each stage. CD3+ cells were found in the endometrium in significant numbers throughout the estrous cycle and were mostly located in the subepithelial area. The number of CD3+ cells significantly increased in the early and mid-luteal phases but decreased after implantation with the progression of gestation. No T cells were found in the placentome or specifically in the tissues near the fetus, including the trophoblastic area. In addition, very few T cells were found in stromal regions close to the myometrium of the endometrium. These findings suggest that downregulation of bovine endometrial CD3+ T-cell functions is closely related to the successful maintenance of gestation in a spatiotemporal manner. PMID:23955235

  10. Constraining the absolute orientation of η Carinae's binary orbit: a 3D dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in η Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). This model is based on full 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of η Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectroimages of [Fe III] emission-line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA θ that the orbital plane projection of the line of sight makes with the apastron side of the semimajor axis and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blueshifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA =+38° and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i≈ 130° to 145°, θ≈-15° to +30° and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a PA ≈ 302° to 327° east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3D. The companion star, ηB, thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modelling to determine the stellar masses. Footnotes<label>1</label>Low- and high-ionization refer here to atomic species with ionizations potentials (IPs) below and above the IP of hydrogen, 13.6 eV.<label>2</label>Measured in degrees from north to east.<label>3</label>θ is the same as the angle φ defined in fig. 3 of O08.<label>4</label>The outer edge looks circular only because this marks the edge of the spherical computational domain of the SPH simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PPCF...55j5005W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PPCF...55j5005W"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> filament <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in a MAST SOL flux tube geometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walkden, N. R.; Dudson, B. D.; Fishpool, G.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Non-linear simulations of filament propagation in a realistic MAST SOL flux tube geometry using the BOUT++ fluid modelling framework show an isolation of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the filament in the divertor region from the midplane region due to three features of the magnetic geometry; the variation of magnetic curvature along the field line, the expansion of the flux tube and strong magnetic shear. Of the three effects, the latter two lead to a midplane ballooning feature of the filament, whilst the former leads to a ballooning around the X-points. In simulations containing all three effects the filament is observed to balloon at the midplane, suggesting that the role of curvature variation is sub-dominant to the flux expansion and magnetic shear. The magnitudes of these effects are all strongest near the X-point which leads to the formation of parallel density gradients. The filaments simulated, which represent filaments in MAST, are identified as resistive ballooning, meaning that their motion is inertially limited, not sheath limited. Parallel density gradients can drive the filament towards a Boltzmann response when the collisionalityof the plasma is low. The results here show that the formation of parallel density gradients is a natural and inevitable consequence of a realistic magnetic geometry and therefore the transition to the Boltzmann response is a consequence of the use of realistic magnetic geometry and does not require initializing specifically varying background profiles as in slab simulations. The filaments studied here are stable to the linear resistive drift-wave instability but are subject to the non-linear effects associated with the Boltzmann response, particularly Boltzmann spinning. The Boltzmann response causes the filament to spin on an axis. In later stages of its evolution a non-linear turbulent state develops where the vorticity evolves into a turbulent eddy field on the same length scale as the parallel current. The transition from interchange</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL15...51A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL15...51A"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Parameters of <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Pulse Function for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Modeling in LOD3 Based on Random Textures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alizadehashrafi, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The pulse function (PF) is a technique based on procedural preprocessing system to generate a computerized virtual photo of the façade with in a fixed size square(Alizadehashrafi et al., 2009, Musliman et al., 2010). <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Pulse Function (DPF) is an enhanced version of PF which can create the final photo, proportional to real geometry. This can avoid distortion while projecting the computerized photo on the generated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model(Alizadehashrafi and Rahman, 2013). The challenging issue that might be handled for having <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model in LoD3 rather than LOD2, is the final aim that have been achieved in this paper. In the technique based DPF the geometries of the windows and doors are saved in an XML file schema which does not have any connections with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model in LoD2 and CityGML format. In this research the parameters of <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Pulse Functions are utilized via Ruby programming language in SketchUp Trimble to generate (exact position and deepness) the windows and doors automatically in LoD3 based on the same concept of DPF. The advantage of this technique is automatic generation of huge number of similar geometries e.g. windows by utilizing parameters of DPF along with defining entities and window layers. In case of converting the SKP file to CityGML via FME software or CityGML plugins the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model contains the semantic database about the entities and window layers which can connect the CityGML to MySQL(Alizadehashrafi and Baig, 2014). The concept behind DPF, is to use logical operations to project the texture on the background image which is <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> proportional to real geometry. The process of projection is based on two vertical and horizontal <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pulses starting from upper-left corner of the background wall in down and right directions respectively based on image coordinate system. The logical one/zero on the intersections of two vertical and horizontal <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pulses projects/does not project the texture on the background image. It is possible to define</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ISPArXL15...51A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ISPArXL15...51A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Parameters of <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Pulse Function for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Modeling in LOD3 Based on Random Textures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alizadehashrafi, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The pulse function (PF) is a technique based on procedural preprocessing system to generate a computerized virtual photo of the façade with in a fixed size square(Alizadehashrafi et al., 2009, Musliman et al., 2010). <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Pulse Function (DPF) is an enhanced version of PF which can create the final photo, proportional to real geometry. This can avoid distortion while projecting the computerized photo on the generated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model(Alizadehashrafi and Rahman, 2013). The challenging issue that might be handled for having <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model in LoD3 rather than LOD2, is the final aim that have been achieved in this paper. In the technique based DPF the geometries of the windows and doors are saved in an XML file schema which does not have any connections with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model in LoD2 and CityGML format. In this research the parameters of <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Pulse Functions are utilized via Ruby programming language in SketchUp Trimble to generate (exact position and deepness) the windows and doors automatically in LoD3 based on the same concept of DPF. The advantage of this technique is automatic generation of huge number of similar geometries e.g. windows by utilizing parameters of DPF along with defining entities and window layers. In case of converting the SKP file to CityGML via FME software or CityGML plugins the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model contains the semantic database about the entities and window layers which can connect the CityGML to MySQL(Alizadehashrafi and Baig, 2014). The concept behind DPF, is to use logical operations to project the texture on the background image which is <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> proportional to real geometry. The process of projection is based on two vertical and horizontal <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pulses starting from upper-left corner of the background wall in down and right directions respectively based on image coordinate system. The logical one/zero on the intersections of two vertical and horizontal <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pulses projects/does not project the texture on the background image. It is possible to define</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASPC..504..179P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASPC..504..179P"><span id="translatedtitle">New Insights about Meridional Circulation <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD Global Simulations of Solar Convection and Dynamo Action</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Passos, D.; Charbonneau, P.; Miesch, M. S.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The solar meridional circulation is a "slow", large scale flow that transports magnetic field and plasma throughout the convection zone in the (r,θ) plane and plays a crucial role in controlling the magnetic cycle solutions presented by flux transport dynamo models. Observations indicate that this flow speed varies in anti-phase with the solar cycle at the solar surface. A possible explanation for the source of this variation is based on the fact that inflows into active regions alter the global surface pattern of the meridional circulation. In this work we examine the meridional circulation profile that emerges from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> global simulation of the solar convection zone, and its associated <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. We find that at the bottom of the convection zone, in the region where the toroidal magnetic field accumulates, the meridional circulation is highly modulated through the action of a magnetic torques and thus provides evidence for a new mechanism to explain the observed cyclic variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMPSo..63..491V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMPSo..63..491V"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling crystal plasticity by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dislocation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the finite element method: The Discrete-Continuous Model revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vattré, A.; Devincre, B.; Feyel, F.; Gatti, R.; Groh, S.; Jamond, O.; Roos, A.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>A unified model coupling <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dislocation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (DD) simulations with the finite element (FE) method is revisited. The so-called Discrete-Continuous Model (DCM) aims to predict plastic flow at the (sub-)micron length scale of materials with complex boundary conditions. The evolution of the dislocation microstructure and the short-range dislocation-dislocation interactions are calculated with a DD code. The long-range mechanical fields due to the dislocations are calculated by a FE code, taking into account the boundary conditions. The coupling procedure is based on eigenstrain theory, and the precise manner in which the plastic slip, i.e. the dislocation glide as calculated by the DD code, is transferred to the integration points of the FE mesh is described in full detail. Several test cases are presented, and the DCM is applied to plastic flow in a single-crystal Nickel-based superalloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFD.F1065D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFD.F1065D"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-linear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of viscous bilayers subjected to an electric field: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phase field simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dritselis, Christos; Karapetsas, George; Bontozoglou, Vasilis</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The scope of this work is to investigate the non-linear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the electro-hydrodynamic instability of a bilayer of immiscible liquids. We consider the case of two viscous films which is separated from the top electrode by air. We assume that the liquids are perfect dielectrics and consider the case of both flat and patterned electrodes. We develop a computational model using the diffuse interface method and carry out <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations fully accounting for the flow and electric field in all phases. We perform a parametric study and investigate the influence of the electric properties of fluids, applied voltage and various geometrical characteristics of the mask. The authors acknowledge the support by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology of Greece under the action ``Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers'' (Grant Number PE8/906), co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6466P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6466P"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of rheological approximations on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and topography in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subduction-collision models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Popov, Anton A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Most of the major mountain belts and orogenic plateaus are found within the overlying plate of active or fossil subduction and/or collision zones. Moreover, they evolve differently from one another as the result of specific combinations of surface and mantle processes. These differences arise for several reasons, such as different rheological properties, different amounts of regional isostatic compensation, and different mechanisms by which forces are applied to the convergent plates. Previous <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geodynamic models of subduction/collision processes have used various rheological approximations, making numerical results difficult to compare, since there is no clear image on the extent of these approximations on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Here, we employ the code LaMEM to perform high-resolution long-term <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations of subduction/continental collision in an integrated lithospheric and upper-mantle scale model. We test the effect of rheological approximations on mantle and lithosphere <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in a geometrically simplified model setup that resembles a tectonic map of the India-Asia collision zone. We use the "sticky-air" approach to allow for the development of topography and the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of subduction and collision is entirely driven by slab-pull (i.e. "free subduction"). The models exhibit a wide range of behaviours depending on the rheological law employed: from linear to temperature-dependent visco-elasto-plastic rheology that takes into account both diffusion and dislocation creep. For example, we find that slab <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> varies drastically between end member models: in viscous approximations, slab detachment is slow following a viscous thinning, while for a non-linear visco-elasto-plastic rheology, slab detachment is relatively fast, inducing strong mantle flow in the slab window. We also examine the stress states in the subducting and overriding plates and topography evolution in the upper plate, and we discuss the implications on lithosphere <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at convergent margins</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6088P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6088P"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing the effects of rheology on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and topography of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subduction-collision models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Most of the major mountain belts and orogenic plateaus are found within the overlying plate of active or fossil subduction and/or collision zones. It is well known that they evolve differently from one another as the result of specific combinations of surface and mantle processes. The differences among the structures and evolutions of mountain belts arise for several reasons, such as different strengths of materials, different amounts of regional isostatic compensation, and different mechanisms by which forces are applied to the convergence plates. All these possible controlling factors can change with space and time. Of all the mountain belts and orogenic plateaus, the most striking example is the India-Asia collision zone, which gave rise to the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau, the largest region of elevated topography and anomalously thick crust on Earth. Understanding the formation and evolution of such a highly elevated region has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical models. While some of these models (i.e. thin sheet model) have successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision, none can simultaneously represent active processes such as subduction, underthrusting, channel flow or extrusion, for which fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models are required. Here, we employed the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code LaMEM to investigate the role that subduction, continental collision and indentation play on lithosphere <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at convergent margins, and the implications they have for the Asian tectonics. Our model setup resembles a simplified tectonic map of the India-Asia collision zone and we performed long-term <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations to analyse the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the conditions under which large topographic plateaus, such as the Tibetan Plateau can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper-mantle scale model. Results of models with linear viscous rheologies show different modes between the oceanic subduction side (continuous subduction, trench retreat and slab roll-back) and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS51B1991D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS51B1991D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of the Near-Surface Layer of the Ocean in the Presence of Freshwater Influx</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dean, C.; Soloviev, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Freshwater inflow due to convective rains or river runoff produces lenses of freshened water in the near surface layer of the ocean. These lenses are localized in space and typically involve both salinity and temperature anomalies. Due to significant density anomalies, strong pressure gradients develop, which result in lateral spreading of freshwater lenses in a form resembling gravity currents. Gravity currents inherently involve three-dimensional <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. The gravity current head can include the Kelvin-Helmholtz billows with vertical density inversions. In this work, we have conducted a series of numerical experiments using computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> tools. These numerical simulations were designed to elucidate the relationship between vertical mixing and horizontal advection of salinity under various environmental conditions and potential impact on the pollution transport including oil spills. The near-surface data from the field experiments in the Gulf of Mexico during the SCOPE experiment were available for validation of numerical simulations. In particular, we observed a freshwater layer within a few-meter depth range and, in some cases, a density inversion at the edge of the freshwater lens, which is consistent with the results of numerical simulations. In conclusion, we discuss applicability of these results to the interpretation of Aquarius and SMOS sea surface salinity satellite measurements. The results of this study indicate that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the near-surface layer of the ocean are essential in the presence of freshwater inflow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26972111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26972111"><span id="translatedtitle">Single Molecule <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Orientation in Time and Space: A 6D <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Study on Fluorescently Labeled Lipid Membranes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Börner, Richard; Ehrlich, Nicky; Hohlbein, Johannes; Hübner, Christian G</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Interactions between single molecules profoundly depend on their mutual three-dimensional orientation. Recently, we demonstrated a technique that allows for orientation determination of single dipole emitters using a polarization-resolved distribution of fluorescence into several detection channels. As the method is based on the detection of single photons, it additionally allows for performing fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) as well as <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> anisotropy measurements thereby providing access to fast orientational <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> down to the nanosecond time scale. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> orientation is particularly interesting in non-isotropic environments such as lipid membranes, which are of great importance in biology. We used giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) labeled with fluorescent dyes down to a single molecule concentration as a model system for both, assessing the robustness of the orientation determination at different timescales and quantifying the associated errors. The vesicles provide a well-defined spherical surface, such that the use of fluorescent lipid dyes (DiO) allows to establish a a wide range of dipole orientations experimentally. To complement our experimental data, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of the rotational <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of dipoles incorporated into lipid membranes. Our study offers a comprehensive view on the dye orientation behavior in a lipid membrane with high spatiotemporal resolution representing a six-dimensional fluorescence detection approach. PMID:26972111</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18..605D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18..605D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Revealing plot scale heterogeneity in soil moisture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> under contrasting vegetation assemblages using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Bradford, John; Soulsby, Chris</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Soil moisture is a fundamental component of the water cycle that influences many hydrological processes, such as flooding, solute transport, biogeochemical processes, and land-atmosphere interactions. The relationship between vegetation and soil moisture is complex and reciprocal. Soil moisture may affect vegetation distribution due to its function as the primary source of water, in turn the structure of vegetation canopies regulate water partitioning into interception, throughfall and steam flow. Such spatial differences in inputs, together with complex patterns of water uptake from distributed root networks can create marked heterogeneity in soil moisture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at small scales. Traditional methods of monitoring soil moisture have revolved around limited point measurements, but improved geophysical techniques have facilitated a trend towards more spatially distributed measurements to help understand this heterogeneity. Here, we present a study using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ERT surveys in a 3.2km upland catchment in the Scottish Highlands where increasing afforestation (for climate change adaptation, biofuels and conservation) has the potential to increase interception losses and reduce soil moisture storage. The study combined <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surveys, traditional point measurements and laboratory analysis of soil cores to assess the plot scale soil moisture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in podzolic soils under forest stands of 15m high Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and adjacent non-forest plots dominated by heather (Calluna vulgaris) shrubs (<0.5m high). These dominant species are typical of forest and non-forest vegetation communities the Scottish Highlands. Results showed differences in the soil moisture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> under the different vegetation types, with heterogeneous patterns in the forested site mainly correlated with canopy cover and mirroring interception losses. Temporal variability in the forested site was greater, probably due to the interception, and increased evapotranspiration losses relative to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMNG41B1188A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMNG41B1188A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical Scan (V-SCAN) for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Grid Adaptive Mesh Refinement for an atmospheric Model <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> Core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andronova, N. G.; Vandenberg, D.; Oehmke, R.; Stout, Q. F.; Penner, J. E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>One of the major building blocks of a rigorous representation of cloud evolution in global atmospheric models is a parallel adaptive grid MPI-based communication library (an Adaptive Blocks for Locally Cartesian Topologies library -- ABLCarT), which manages the block-structured data layout, handles ghost cell updates among neighboring blocks and splits a block as refinements occur. The library has several modules that provide a layer of abstraction for adaptive refinement: blocks, which contain individual cells of user data; shells - the global geometry for the problem, including a sphere, reduced sphere, and now a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sphere; a load balancer for placement of blocks onto processors; and a communication support layer which encapsulates all data movement. A major performance concern with adaptive mesh refinement is how to represent calculations that have need to be sequenced in a particular order in a direction, such as calculating integrals along a specific path (e.g. atmospheric pressure or geopotential in the vertical dimension). This concern is compounded if the blocks have varying levels of refinement, or are scattered across different processors, as can be the case in parallel computing. In this paper we describe an implementation in ABLCarT of a vertical scan operation, which allows computing along vertical paths in the correct order across blocks transparent to their resolution and processor location. We test this functionality on a 2D and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> advection problem, which tests the performance of the model’s <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (transport) and physics (sources and sinks) for different model resolutions needed for inclusion of cloud formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4718466','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4718466"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploration of Novel Inhibitors for Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> QSAR Modeling and Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Choi, Light; Woo Lee, Keun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a cytoplasmic, non-receptor tyrosine kinase which is expressed in most of the hematopoietic cells and plays an important role in many cellular signaling pathways. B cell malignancies are dependent on BCR signaling, thus making BTK an efficient therapeutic target. Over the last few years, significant efforts have been made in order to develop BTK inhibitors to treat B-cell malignancies, and autoimmunity or allergy/hypersensitivity but limited success has been achieved. Here in this study, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> QSAR pharmacophore models were generated for Btk based on known IC50 values and experimental energy scores with extensive validations. The five features pharmacophore model, Hypo1, includes one hydrogen bond acceptor lipid, one hydrogen bond donor, and three hydrophobic features, which has the highest correlation coefficient (0.98), cost difference (112.87), and low RMS (1.68). It was further validated by the Fisher’s randomization method and test set. The well validated Hypo1 was used as a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> query to search novel Btk inhibitors with different chemical scaffold using high throughput virtual screening technique. The screened compounds were further sorted by applying ADMET properties, Lipinski’s rule of five and molecular docking studies to refine the retrieved hits. Furthermore, molecular <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation was employed to study the stability of docked conformation and to investigate the binding interactions in detail. Several important hydrogen bonds with Btk were revealed, which includes the gatekeeper residues Glu475 and Met 477 at the hinge region. Overall, this study suggests that the proposed hits may be more effective inhibitors for cancer and autoimmune therapy. PMID:26784025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARJ25004R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARJ25004R"><span id="translatedtitle">Large Scale <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Dislocation <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and Atomistic Simulations of Flow and Strain-Hardening Behavior of Metallic Micropillars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rao, Satish</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Experimental studies show strong strengthening effects for micrometer-scale FCC as well as two-phase superalloy crystals, even at high initial dislocation densities. This talk shows results from large-scale <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> discrete dislocation simulations (DDS) used to explicitly model the deformation behavior of FCC Ni (flow stress and strain-hardening) as well as superalloy microcrystals for diameters ranging from 1 - 20 microns. The work shows that two size-sensitive athermal hardening processes, beyond forest and precipitation hardening, are sufficient to develop the dimensional scaling of the flow stress, stochastic stress variation, flow intermittency and, high initial strain-hardening rates, similar to experimental observations for various materials. In addition, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dislocation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations are used to investigate strain-hardening characteristics and dislocation microstructure evolution with strain in large 20 micron size Ni microcrystals (bulk-like) under three different loading axes: 111, 001 and 110. Three different multi-slip loading axes, < 111 > , < 001 > and < 110 > , are explored for shear strains of ~0.03 and final dislocation densities of ~1013/m2. The orientation dependence of initial strain hardening rates and dislocation microstructure evolution with strain are discussed. The simulated strain hardening results are compared with experimental data under similar loading conditions from bulk single-crystal Ni. Finally, atomistic simulation results on the operation of single arm sources in Ni bipillars with a large angle grain boundary is discussed. The atomistic simulation results are compared with experimental mechanical behavior data on Cu bipillars with a similar large angle grain boundary. This work was supported by AFOSR (Dr. David Stargel), and by a grant of computer time from the DOD High Performance Computing Modernization Program, at the Aeronautical Systems Center/Major Shared Resource Center.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMD.....7....1T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMD.....7....1T"><span id="translatedtitle">RIMBAY - a multi-approximation <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ice-<span class="hlt">dynamics</span> model for comprehensive applications: model description and examples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thoma, M.; Grosfeld, K.; Barbi, D.; Determann, J.; Goeller, S.; Mayer, C.; Pattyn, F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Glaciers and ice caps exhibit currently the largest cryospheric contributions to sea level rise. Modelling the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and mass balance of the major ice sheets is therefore an important issue to investigate the current state and the future response of the cryosphere in response to changing environmental conditions, namely global warming. This requires a powerful, easy-to-use, versatile multi-approximation ice <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> model. Based on the well-known and established ice sheet model of Pattyn (2003) we develop the modular multi-approximation thermomechanic ice model RIMBAY, in which we improve the original version in several aspects like a shallow ice-shallow shelf coupler and a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-grounding-line migration scheme based on Schoof's (2007) heuristic analytical approach. We summarise the full Stokes equations and several approximations implemented within this model and we describe the different numerical discretisations. The results are cross-validated against previous publications dealing with ice modelling, and some additional artificial set-ups demonstrate the robustness of the different solvers and their internal coupling. RIMBAY is designed for an easy adaption to new scientific issues. Hence, we demonstrate in very different set-ups the applicability and functionality of RIMBAY in Earth system science in general and ice modelling in particular.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18023735','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18023735"><span id="translatedtitle">Delaunay-Object-<span class="hlt">Dynamics</span>: cell mechanics with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> kinetic and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> weighted Delaunay-triangulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meyer-Hermann, Michael</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Mathematical methods in Biology are of increasing relevance for understanding the control and the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of biological systems with medical relevance. In particular, agent-based methods turn more and more important because of fast increasing computational power which makes even large systems accessible. An overview of different mathematical methods used in Theoretical Biology is provided and a novel agent-based method for cell mechanics based on Delaunay-triangulations and Voronoi-tessellations is explained in more detail: The Delaunay-Object-<span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> method. It is claimed that the model combines physically realistic cell mechanics with a reasonable computational load. The power of the approach is illustrated with two examples, avascular tumor growth and genesis of lymphoid tissue in a cell-flow equilibrium. PMID:18023735</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24057004','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24057004"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lacunarity in multifractal analysis of breast tumor lesions in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soares, Filipe; Janela, Filipe; Pereira, Manuela; Seabra, João; Freire, Mário M</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) of the breast is especially robust for the diagnosis of cancer in high-risk women due to its high sensitivity. Its specificity may be, however, compromised since several benign masses take up contrast agent as malignant lesions do. In this paper, we propose a novel method of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multifractal analysis to characterize the spatial complexity (spatial arrangement of texture) of breast tumors at multiple scales. Self-similar properties are extracted from the estimation of the multifractal scaling exponent for each clinical case, using lacunarity as the multifractal measure. These properties include several descriptors of the multifractal spectra reflecting the morphology and internal spatial structure of the enhanced lesions relatively to normal tissue. The results suggest that the combined multifractal characteristics can be effective to distinguish benign and malignant findings, judged by the performance of the support vector machine classification method evaluated by receiver operating characteristics with an area under the curve of 0.96. In addition, this paper confirms the presence of multifractality in DCE-MR volumes of the breast, whereby multiple degrees of self-similarity prevail at multiple scales. The proposed feature extraction and classification method have the potential to complement the interpretation of the radiologists and supply a computer-aided diagnosis system. PMID:24057004</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013APS..MARY28014L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013APS..MARY28014L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of magnetic micro-cantilevers to study the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> engineered smooth muscle constructs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Alan; Zhao, Ruogang; Copeland, Craig; Chen, Christopher; Reich, Daniel</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The normal and pathological response of arterial tissue to mechanical stimulus sheds important light on such conditions as atherosclerosis and hypertension. While most previous methods of determining the biomechanical properties of arteries have relied on excised tissue, we have devised a system that enables the growth and in situ application of forces to arrays of stable suspended microtissues consisting of arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Briefly, this magnetic microtissue tester system consists of arrays of pairs of elastomeric magnetically actuated micro-cantilevers between which SMC-infused <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> collagen gels self-assemble and remodel into aligned microtissue constructs. These devices allow us to simultaneously apply force and track stress-strain relationships of multiple microtissues per substrate. We have studied the dilatory capacity and subsequent response of the tissues and find that the resulting stress-strain curves show viscoelastic behavior as well as a linear <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> recovery. These results provide a foundation for elucidating the mechanical behavior of this novel model system as well as further experiments that simulate pathological conditions. Supported in part by NIH grant HL090747.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615711"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> pore structure and fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation of macroporous monoliths: High permeability due to alternating channel width.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Steppert, Petra; Sekot, Gerhard; Zankel, Armin; Reingruber, Herbert; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Jungbauer, Alois</p> <p>2015-12-18</p> <p>Polymethacrylate-based monoliths have excellent flow properties. Flow in the wide channel interconnected with narrow channels is theoretically assumed to account for favorable permeability. Monoliths were cut into 898 slices in 50nm distances and visualized by serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM). A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure was reconstructed and used for the calculation of flow profiles within the monolith and for calculation of pressure drop and permeability by computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD). The calculated and measured permeabilities showed good agreement. Small channels clearly flowed into wide and wide into small channels in a repetitive manner which supported the hypothesis describing the favorable flow properties of these materials. This alternating property is also reflected in the streamline velocity which fluctuated. These findings were corroborated by artificial monoliths which were composed of regular (interconnected) cells where narrow cells followed wide cells. In the real monolith and the artificial monoliths with interconnected flow channels similar velocity fluctuations could be observed. A two phase flow simulation showed a lateral velocity component, which may contribute to the transport of molecules to the monolith wall. Our study showed that the interconnection of small and wide pores is responsible for the excellent pressure flow properties. This study is also a guide for further design of continuous porous materials to achieve good flow properties. PMID:26615711</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19363807','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19363807"><span id="translatedtitle">A new <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> virtual methodology for teaching the mechanics of atrial septation as seen in the human heart.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schleich, Jean-Marc; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis; Houyel, Lucile; Almange, Claude; Anderson, Robert H</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Learning embryology remains difficult, since it requires understanding of many complex phenomena. The temporal evolution of developmental events has classically been illustrated using cartoons, which create difficulty in linking spatial and temporal aspects, such correlation being the keystone of descriptive embryology. We synthesized the bibliographic data from recent studies of atrial septal development. On the basis of this synthesis, consensus on the stages of atrial septation as seen in the human heart has been reached by a group of experts in cardiac embryology and pediatric cardiology. This has permitted the preparation of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) computer graphic objects for the anatomical components involved in the different stages of normal human atrial septation. We have provided a virtual guide to the process of normal atrial septation, the animation providing an appreciation of the temporal and morphologic events necessary to separate the systemic and pulmonary venous returns. We have shown that our animations of normal human atrial septation increase significantly the teaching of the complex developmental processes involved, and provide a new <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> for the process of learning. PMID:19363807</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007SPIE.6511E..2GT&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007SPIE.6511E..2GT&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative study of diverse model building strategies for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-ASM segmentation of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> gated SPECT data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tobon-Gomez, C.; Butakoff, C.; Ordas, S.; Aguade, S.; Frangi, A. F.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Over the course of the last two decades, myocardial perfusion with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has emerged as an established and well-validated method for assessing myocardial ischemia, viability, and function. Gated-SPECT imaging integrates traditional perfusion information along with global left ventricular function. Despite of these advantages, inherent limitations of SPECT imaging yield a challenging segmentation problem, since an error of only one voxel along the chamber surface may generate a huge difference in volume calculation. In previous works we implemented a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> statistical model-based algorithm for Left Ventricle (LV) segmentation of in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> perfusion SPECT studies. The present work evaluates the relevance of training a different Active Shape Model (ASM) for each frame of the gated SPECT imaging acquisition in terms of their subsequent segmentation accuracy. Models are subsequently employed to segment the LV cavity of gated SPECT studies of a virtual population. The evaluation is accomplished by comparing point-to-surface (P2S) and volume errors, both against a proper Gold Standard. The dataset comprised 40 voxel phantoms (NCAT, Johns Hopkins, University of of North Carolina). Monte-Carlo simulations were generated with SIMIND (Lund University) and reconstructed to tomographic slices with ASPIRE (University of Michigan).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S43C2263T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S43C2263T"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hp-Discontinuous Galerkin Method: Revisiting the M7.3 Landers Earthquake <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tago, J.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Virieux, J.; Etienne, V.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Reliable <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> source models should account of both fault geometry and heterogeneities in the surrounding medium. In this work we introduce a novel numerical method for modeling the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> rupture based on a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hp-Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme. Our method is derived from the scheme proposed by Benjemaa et al. (2009), which is based on a Finite Volume (FV) approach. Migrating from such approach to the hp-Discontinuous Galerkin philosophy is somehow straightforward since the FV method can be seen as the DG method with its lowest order or approximation (i.e. P0 element). We present a novel approach for treating <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> rupture boundary conditions using an hp-Discontinuous Galerkin method for unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Although the theory we have developed holds for fault elements with arbitrary order, we show that second order (P2) elements yield a very good convergence. Since the DG method does not impose continuity between elements, our strategy consists in the way we compute the fluxes across the fault elements. During rupture propagation, the fluxes in the elements where the shear traction overcomes the fault strength are such that continuity of every wavefield is imposed except for the tangential fault velocities, while in the unbroken elements tangential continuity is also imposed. Because the fault nodes of a given element are coupled through the Mass and Flux matrices, when a fault node breaks we impose the shear traction on that node and need to recompute the values throughout the rest, to avoid any violation of the friction law throughout the element. This procedure repeats itself iteratively following a predictor-corrector scheme for a given time step until the element solutions stabilize. We point out that our scheme for the fault fluxes in the case of P0 elements is exactly the same as the one proposed by Benjemaa et al. who compute them through energy balance considerations. To verify our mathematical and computational model we have solved</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810136S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810136S"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling of river plume <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in Öre estuary (Baltic Sea) with Telemac-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sokolov, Alexander</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The main property of river plumes is their buoyancy, fresh water discharged by rivers is less dense than the receiving, saline waters. To study the processes of plume formation in case of river discharge into a brackish estuary where salinity is low (3.5 - 5 psu) a three dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to the Öre estuary in the Baltic Sea. This estuary is a small fjord-like bay in the north part of the Baltic Sea. Size of the bay is about 8 by 8 km with maximum depth of 35 metres. River Öre has a small average freshwater discharge of 35 m3/s. But in spring during snowmelt the discharge can be many times higher. For example, in April 2015 the discharge increased from 8 m3/s to 160 m3/s in 18 days. To study river plume <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> a finite element based three dimensional baroclinic model TELEMAC - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is used. The TELEMAC modelling suite is developed by the National Laboratory of Hydraulics and Environment (LNHE) of Electricité de France (EDF). Modelling domain was approximated by an unstructured mesh with element size varies from 50 to 500 m. In vertical direction a sigma-coordinate with 20 layers was used. Open sea boundary conditions were obtained from the Baltic Sea model HIROMB-BOOS using COPERNICUS marine environment monitoring service. Comparison of modelling results with observations obtained by BONUS COCOA project's field campaign in Öre estuary in 2015 shows that the model plausible simulate river plume <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Modelling of age of freshwater is also discussed. This work resulted from the BONUS COCOA project was supported by BONUS (Art 185), funded jointly by the EU and the Swedish Research Council Formas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4163E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4163E"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing pyroclastic density current <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and hazard of Plinian events at Campi Flegrei (Italy) by using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esposti Ongaro, T.; Neri, A.; Todesco, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Campi Flegrei is a densely populated widespread caldera located near the city of Naples. Current evaluation of volcanic hazard include the probable generation of pyroclastic density currents (PDC) produced by explosive events of variable size and uncertain vent location. In this study we investigate the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and hazard of PDC produced by the partial collapse of the volcanic column by using the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient multiphase flow model PDAC (Esposti Ongaro et al., Parallel Computing, 2007). The model allows to describe the temporal and spatial evolution of the stratified PDC by accounting for the multiparticle nature of the flow and the complex topography of the caldera. Employed eruptive intensity and pyroclast properties are representative of magmatic phases of the Agnano Monte Spina (AMS, 4100 BP) Plinian eruption, the largest explosive event of the last cycle of activity of the caldera. Eruptive centers are supposed to be located in the north-eastern part of the caldera, the area with the largest number of past vents. Several simulations were performed considering different collapsing regimes, flow conditions at the source and vent locations. Results illustrate the complex <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of flow propagation in the caldera settings and quantify the associated hazards. Fountain instabilities, recycling of collapsed material into the jet caused by the caldera walls, triggering of thermals and co-ignimbrite clouds by topographic reliefs, flow decoupling between dense and dilute streams, and generation of backflows are some of the processes simulated. The areas invaded by the PDC result affected by the inner topography of the caldera and therefore largely influenced by the assumed location of the vent. PDC result mostly confined by the outer caldera rims although they appear able to overcome Posillipo Hill and affect the eastern portions of the city of Naples. Comparisons with reconstructions of the AMS event are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCoPh.273..548T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCoPh.273..548T"><span id="translatedtitle">An overset grid method for integration of fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and geophysics fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> models to simulate multiphysics coastal ocean flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, H. S.; Qu, K.; Wu, X. G.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>It is now becoming important to develop our capabilities to simulate coastal ocean flows involved with distinct physical phenomena occurring at a vast range of spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a hybrid modeling system for such simulation. The system consists of a fully three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> model and a geophysical fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> model, which couple with each other in two-way and march in time simultaneously. Particularly, in the hybrid system, the solver for incompressible flow on overset meshes (SIFOM) resolves fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> small-scale local flow phenomena, while the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) captures large-scale background flows. The integration of the two models are realized via domain decomposition implemented with an overset grid method. Numerical experiments on performance of the system in resolving flow patterns and solution convergence rate show that the SIFOM-FVCOM system works as intended, and its solutions compare reasonably with data obtained with measurements and other computational approaches. Its unparalleled capabilities to predict multiphysics and multiscale phenomena with high-fidelity are demonstrated by three typical applications that are beyond the reach of other currently existing models. It is anticipated that the SIFOM-FVCOM system will serve as a new platform to study many emerging coastal ocean problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2576Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2576Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical modeling of subduction <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>: plate stagnation and segmentation, and crustal advection in the mantle transition zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoshida, M.; Tajima, F.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Water content in the mantle transition zone (MTZ) has been broadly debated in the Earth science community as a key issue for plate <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> [e.g., Bercovici and Karato, 2003]. In this study, a systematic series of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) numerical simulation are performed in an attempt to verify two hypotheses for plate subduction with effects of deep water transport: (1) the small-scale behavior of subducted oceanic plate in the MTZ; and (2) the role of subducted crust in the MTZ. These hypotheses are postulated based on the seismic observations characterized by large-scale flattened high velocity anomalies (i.e., stagnant slabs) in the MTZ and discontinuity depth variations. The proposed model states that under wet conditions the subducted plate main body of peridotite (olivine rich) is abutted by subducted crustal materials (majorite rich) at the base of the MTZ. The computational domain of mantle convection is confined to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> regional spherical-shell geometry with a thickness of 1000 km and a lateral extent of 10° × 30° in the latitudinal and longitudinal directions. A semi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model of subduction zone [Morishige et al., 2010] is applied to let the highly viscous, cold oceanic plate subduct. Weak (low-viscosity) fault zones (WFZs), which presumably correspond to the fault boundaries of large subduction earthquakes, are imposed on the top part of subducting plates. The phase transitions of olivine to wadsleyite and ringwoodite to perovskite+magnesiowüstite with Clapeyron slopes under both "dry" and "wet" conditions are considered based on recent high pressure experiments [e.g., Ohtani and Litasov, 2006]. Another recent experiment provides new evidence for lower-viscosity (weaker strength) of garnet-rich zones than the olivine dominant mantle under wet conditions [Katayama and Karato, 2008]. According to this, the effect of viscosity reduction of oceanic crust is considered under wet condition in the MTZ. Results show that there is a substantial difference</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V13B0667B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V13B0667B"><span id="translatedtitle">Geographic Variations in Hotspot Geochemistry Caused by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and Melting of a Heterogeneous Mantle Plume</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bianco, T. A.; Ito, G.; van Hunen, J.; Ballmer, M.; Mahoney, J. J.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Spatial variations in magma geochemistry among hotspot volcanoes hold clues to the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and composition of the mantle feeding hotspot volcanism. We use a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geodynamic model of plume-lithosphere interaction to explore the causes of spatial patterns of magmatic volumes and compositions at intraplate hotspots. This study focuses on coupling between upper mantle flow, heat transfer, and melting of a heterogeneous (veined) plume. We assume multiple lithologies have different solidi, trace-element, and isotope composition. We use the Cartesian finite-element code, CITCOM, (Zhong and Watts, 2002) to simulate mantle convection with the extended Boussinesq approximation in a volume of upper mantle 400 km in thickness. A parameterized melting model is used to simulate melting of materials with different water contents (Katz et al., 2003). Melt depletion (F) for each lithology is calculated at finite element nodes as a function of temperature, pressure, and water content and is advected using particle tracers. We quantify the response of the geographic pattern of the volume and composition of magmas to different lithospheric thicknesses, and plume temperatures and viscosities, which together control the melting rates and sizes of the melting zones for the different lithologies. In the case of two-lithologies, preliminary results of a sluggishly convecting plume rising beneath thick lithosphere (60-100 km) predict that the melting zone of the least refractory "lithology 1" is wider than that of the more refractory "lithology 2". This leads to the prediction that on the surface, the isotope signature of lithology 1 is most prominent at the leading edge (i.e., upwind edge of plate motion) of the hotspot, whereas the isotope signature of lithology 2 is strongest at the hotspot center. This pattern will likely change for plumes convecting more vigorously or thinner lithosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26727249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26727249"><span id="translatedtitle">A Diffusion-Based and <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Printed Device That Enables Parallel in Vitro Pharmacokinetic Profiling of Molecules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lockwood, Sarah Y; Meisel, Jayda E; Monsma, Frederick J; Spence, Dana M</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The process of bringing a drug to market involves many steps, including the preclinical stage, where various properties of the drug candidate molecule are determined. These properties, which include drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, are often displayed in a pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. While PK profiles are determined in animal models, in vitro systems that model in vivo processes are available, although each possesses shortcomings. Here, we present a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed, diffusion-based, and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> in vitro PK device. The device contains six flow channels, each with integrated porous membrane-based insert wells. The pores of these membranes enable drugs to freely diffuse back and forth between the flow channels and the inserts, thus enabling both loading and clearance portions of a standard PK curve to be generated. The device is designed to work with 96-well plate technology and consumes single-digit milliliter volumes to generate multiple PK profiles, simultaneously. Generation of PK profiles by use of the device was initially performed with fluorescein as a test molecule. Effects of such parameters as flow rate, loading time, volume in the insert well, and initial concentration of the test molecule were investigated. A prediction model was generated from this data, enabling the user to predict the concentration of the test molecule at any point along the PK profile within a coefficient of variation of ∼ 5%. Depletion of the analyte from the well was characterized and was determined to follow first-order rate kinetics, indicated by statistically equivalent (p > 0.05) depletion half-lives that were independent of the starting concentration. A PK curve for an approved antibiotic, levofloxacin, was generated to show utility beyond the fluorescein test molecule. PMID:26727249</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26072254','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26072254"><span id="translatedtitle">Event-related <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of glutamate and BOLD effects measured using functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS) at <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span> in a repetition suppression paradigm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Apšvalka, Dace; Gadie, Andrew; Clemence, Matthew; Mullins, Paul G</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) complements other brain research methods by providing measures of neurometabolites noninvasively in a localized brain area. Improvements in MR scanner technologies, and data acquisition and analysis methods should allow functional (1)H-MRS (fMRS) to measure neurometabolite concentration changes during task-induced brain activation. The aim of the current study was to further develop event-related fMRS at <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span> to investigate glutamate <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in response to repetition suppression. A secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses and glutamate <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the same paradigm at the same time. A novel approach of interleaved water-suppressed (metabolite) and unsuppressed (water) fMRS was used to simultaneously detect the event-related <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of glutamate and BOLD signal to repetition suppression in the lateral occipital cortex of thirteen (N=13) volunteers. On average, (1)H-MRS-visible glutamate increased after novel visual stimuli presentations by 12% and decreased by 11-13% on repeated compared to novel presentations. The BOLD signal, as measured by water peak amplitude changes, showed significant difference between Task and Rest trials, and, on a GLM based analysis of the time series, demonstrated a significant difference between the novel and repeated trials, however appeared to be decoupled from the glutamate response as no correlation was found between the two. These results are the first demonstration that reductions in neuronal activity typical of repetition suppression effects are reflected by reduced glutamatergic and BOLD measures, that glutamate and BOLD responses may not be coupled as previously thought, and that these changes and relationships can be measured simultaneously using event-related fMRS at <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span>. PMID:26072254</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9783E..1YD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9783E..1YD"><span id="translatedtitle">Method for dose-reduced <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> catheter tracking on a scanning-beam digital x-ray system using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> electronic collimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunkerley, David A. P.; Funk, Tobias; Speidel, Michael A.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy system capable of tomosynthesis-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> catheter tracking. This work proposes a method of dose-reduced <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tracking using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> electronic collimation (DEC) of the SBDX scanning x-ray tube. Positions in the 2D focal spot array are selectively activated to create a regionof- interest (ROI) x-ray field around the tracked catheter. The ROI position is updated for each frame based on a motion vector calculated from the two most recent <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tracking results. The technique was evaluated with SBDX data acquired as a catheter tip inside a chest phantom was pulled along a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> trajectory. DEC scans were retrospectively generated from the detector images stored for each focal spot position. DEC imaging of a catheter tip in a volume measuring 11.4 cm across at isocenter required 340 active focal spots per frame, versus 4473 spots in full-FOV mode. The dose-area-product (DAP) and peak skin dose (PSD) for DEC versus full field-of-view (FOV) scanning were calculated using an SBDX Monte Carlo simulation code. DAP was reduced to 7.4% to 8.4% of the full-FOV value, consistent with the relative number of active focal spots (7.6%). For image sequences with a moving catheter, PSD was 33.6% to 34.8% of the full-FOV value. The root-mean-squared-deviation between DEC-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tracking coordinates and full-FOV <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tracking coordinates was less than 0.1 mm. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> distance between the tracked tip and the sheath centerline averaged 0.75 mm. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> electronic collimation can reduce dose with minimal change in tracking performance.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014938','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014938"><span id="translatedtitle">Development, Verification and Use of Gust Modeling in the NASA Computational Fluid <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Code FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bartels, Robert E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the implementation of gust modeling capability in the CFD code FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The gust capability is verified by computing the response of an airfoil to a sharp edged gust. This result is compared with the theoretical result. The present simulations will be compared with other CFD gust simulations. This paper also serves as a users manual for FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gust analyses using a variety of gust profiles. Finally, the development of an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) reduced order gust model using a gust with a Gaussian profile in the FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code is presented. ARMA simulated results of a sequence of one-minus-cosine gusts is shown to compare well with the same gust profile computed with FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is combined with the ARMA modeling technique to predict the time varying pressure coefficient increment distribution due to a novel gust profile. The aeroelastic response of a pitch/plunge airfoil to a gust environment is computed with a reduced order model, and compared with a direct simulation of the system in the FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code. The two results are found to agree very well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6705941','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6705941"><span id="translatedtitle">NIKE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: an implicit, finite-deformation, finite element code for analyzing the static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> response of three-dimensional solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hallquist, J.O.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A user's manual is provided for NIKE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, a fully implicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the large deformation static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node constant pressure solid elements. Bandwidth minimization is optional. Post-processors for NIKE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> include GRAPE for plotting deformed shapes and stress contours and DYNAP for plotting time histories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DPS....4551005M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DPS....4551005M"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas Accretion by Giant Planets: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Simulations of Gap Opening and <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of the Circumplanetary Disk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morbidelli, Alessandro; Szulagyi, J.; Crida, A.; Tanigawa, T.; Lega, E.; Masset, F.; Bitsch, B.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>What sets the terminal mass of a giant planet once the latter enters into a runaway gas-accretion phase? The formation of a gap around the planet's orbit may be an answer, provided that the gap is wide and deep enough. A wide-spread idea is that this happens if the viscosity in the circumstellar disk is small, i.e. if planets form in the "dead zone". With <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamical simulations we study the formation of a gap in details. We find an interesting 4-step meridional loop in the gas <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>: (1) the gas flows into the gap at the top layer of the disk; (2) then it falls towards the disk's midplane; (3) the planet keeps the gap open by pushing this infalling gas back into the disk; (4) the gas rises back to the disk's surface, which closes the loop. The gas flow in this loop is governed by the viscous timescale at the surface of the disk. It is generally accepted that the surface layer of the disk is MRI-active and viscous, even if a dead zone is present near the midplane. Thus, there should always be enough gas flowing into the gap for a Jupiter-mass planet to accrete at a fast rate, in absence of other regulation mechanisms. However, only a very small portion of the gas flowing into the gap is directly accreted by the planet. Most of the gas falling towards the planet forms a circumplanetary disk (CPD), due to angular momentum conservation. If the CPD is MRI-inactive, as suggested by Turner et al. (2010) and Fujii et al. (2011), it can act as a bottle-neck for planet accretion. We find that the main mechanism that allows the CPD to lose angular momentum is the torque exerted by the star via a spiral density wave. We compute that this promotes the accretion of 0.025% of the mass of the CPD per year, for a Jupiter mass planet at 5.2 AU, independent of viscosity. By balancing the pressure of the vertical inflow with that internal to the CPD, we estimate that the CPD should contain less than 1% of the planet's mass. This leads to a mass-doubling timescale for Jupiter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..162B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..162B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on the Black Sea north-western shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JSP....56..939Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JSP....56..939Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A fast vectorized multispin coding algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Monte Carlo simulations using Kawasaki spin-exchange <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, M. Q.</p> <p>1989-09-01</p> <p>A new Monte Carlo algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Kawasaki spin-exchange simulations and its implementation on a CDC CYBER 205 is presented. This approach is applicable to lattices with sizes between 4×4×4 and 256×L2×L3 ((L2+2)(L3+4)/4⩽65535) and periodic boundary conditions. It is adjustable to various kinetic models in which the total magnetization is conserved. Maximum speed on 10 million steps per second can be reached for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ising model with Metropolis rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478392"><span id="translatedtitle">An axial distribution of seeding, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span>3-E1 cells and rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells across a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Thai silk fibroin/gelatin/hydroxyapatite scaffold in a perfusion bioreactor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sinlapabodin, Salita; Amornsudthiwat, Phakdee; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Kanokpanont, Sorada</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In cell culture, a perfusion bioreactor provides effective transportation of nutrients, oxygen, and waste removal to and from the core of the scaffold. In addition, it provides mechanical stimuli for enhancing osteogenic differentiation. In this study, we used an axial distribution of cell numbers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity, and calcium content across 4 cross-sections of 10mm thick scaffold, made of Thai silk fibroin (SF)/gelatin (G)/hydroxyapatite (HA), as a tool to evaluate the suitable perfusion flow rate. These evaluations cover all cellular developmental phases starting from seeding, to proliferation, and later osteogenic differentiation. Mouse pre-osteoblastic MC<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span>3-E1 cell lines were used as a cell model during seeding and proliferation. The bioreactor seeded scaffold provided more uniform cell distribution across the scaffold compared to centrifugal and agitation seeding, while the overall number of adhered cells from bioreactor seeding was slightly lower than agitation seeding. The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> culture using 1 ml/min perfusion flow rate (initial shear stress of 0.1 dyn/cm(2)) enabled statistically higher MC<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span>3-E1 proliferation, ALP activity, and calcium deposition than those observed in the static-culturing condition. However, the perfusion flow rate of 1 ml/min seemed not to be enough for enhancing ALP expression across all sections of the scaffold. Rat bone marrow derived stromal cells (rMSC) were used in the detachment test and osteogenic differentiation. It was found that perfusion flow rate of 5 ml/min caused statistically higher cell detachment than that of 1 and 3 ml/min. The perfusion flow rate of 3 ml/min gave the highest rMSC osteogenic differentiation on a SF/G/HA scaffold than other flow rates, as observed from the significantly highest number of ALP enzyme activity and the calcium content without any significant cell growth. In addition, all of these parameters were evenly distributed across all scaffold sections. PMID:26478392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875190"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-camera and structured-light vision system (MSVS) for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> high-accuracy <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurements of railway tunnels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhan, Dong; Yu, Long; Xiao, Jian; Chen, Tanglong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Railway tunnel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> clearance inspection is critical to guaranteeing railway operation safety. However, it is a challenge to inspect railway tunnel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> clearance using a vision system, because both the spatial range and field of view (FOV) of such measurements are quite large. This paper summarizes our work on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> railway tunnel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> clearance inspection based on a multi-camera and structured-light vision system (MSVS). First, the configuration of the MSVS is described. Then, the global calibration for the MSVS is discussed in detail. The onboard vision system is mounted on a dedicated vehicle and is expected to suffer from multiple degrees of freedom vibrations brought about by the running vehicle. Any small vibration can result in substantial measurement errors. In order to overcome this problem, a vehicle motion deviation rectifying method is investigated. Experiments using the vision inspection system are conducted with satisfactory online measurement results. PMID:25875190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4841862','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4841862"><span id="translatedtitle">Significance of Additional Non-Mass Enhancement in Patients with Breast Cancer on Preoperative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Contrast Enhanced MRI of the Breast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cho, Yun Hee; Cho, Kyu Ran; Park, Eun Kyung; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Cho, Sung Bum; Bae, Jeoung Won</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background In preoperative assessment of breast cancer, MRI has been shown to identify more additional breast lesions than are detectable using conventional imaging techniques. The characterization of additional lesions is more important than detection for optimal surgical treatment. Additional breast lesions can be included in focus, mass, and non-mass enhancement (NME) on MRI. According to the fifth edition of the breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS®), which includes several changes in the NME descriptors, few studies to date have evaluated NME in preoperative assessment of breast cancer. Objectives We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of BI-RADS descriptors in predicting malignancy for additional NME lesions detected on preoperative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Patients and Methods Between January 2008 and December 2012, 88 patients were enrolled in our study, all with NME lesions other than the index cancer on preoperative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span> DCE-MRI and all with accompanying histopathologic examination. The MRI findings were analyzed according to the BI-RADS MRI lexicon. We evaluated the size, distribution, internal enhancement pattern, and location of NME lesions relative to the index cancer (i.e., same quadrant, different quadrant, or contralateral breast). Results On histopathologic analysis of the 88 NME lesions, 73 (83%) were malignant and 15 (17%) were benign. Lesion size did not differ significantly between malignant and benign lesions (P = 0.410). Malignancy was more frequent in linear (P = 0.005) and segmental (P = 0.011) distributions, and benignancy was more frequent in focal (P = 0.004) and regional (P < 0.001) NME lesions. The highest positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy occurred in segmental (96.8%), linear (95.1%), clustered ring (100%), and clumped (92.0%) enhancement. Asymmetry demonstrated a high positive predictive value of 85.9%. The frequency of malignancy was higher</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4237824','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4237824"><span id="translatedtitle">Scan-rescan reproducibility of quantitative assessment of inflammatory carotid atherosclerotic plaque using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contrast-enhanced <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span> CMR in a multi-center study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The aim of this study is to investigate the inter-scan reproducibility of kinetic parameters in atherosclerotic plaque using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contrast-enhanced (DCE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in a multi-center setting at <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span>. Methods Carotid arteries of 51 subjects from 15 sites were scanned twice within two weeks on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span> scanners using a previously described DCE-CMR protocol. Imaging data with protocol compliance and sufficient image quality were analyzed to generate kinetic parameters of vessel wall, expressed as transfer constant (Ktrans) and plasma volume (vp). The inter-scan reproducibility was evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV). Power analysis was carried out to provide sample size estimations for future prospective study. Results Ten (19.6%) subjects were found to suffer from protocol violation, and another 6 (11.8%) had poor image quality (n = 6) in at least one scan. In the 35 (68.6%) subjects with complete data, the ICCs of Ktrans and vp were 0.65 and 0.28, respectively. The CVs were 25% and 62%, respectively. The ICC and CV for vp improved to 0.73 and 28% in larger lesions with analyzed area larger than 25 mm2. Power analysis based on the measured CV showed that 50 subjects per arm are sufficient to detect a 20% difference in change of Ktrans over time between treatment arms with 80% power without consideration of the dropout rate. Conclusion The result of this study indicates that quantitative measurement from DCE-CMR is feasible to detect changes with a relatively modest sample size in a prospective multi-center study despite the limitations. The relative high dropout rate suggested the critical needs for intensive operator training, optimized imaging protocol, and strict quality control in future studies. PMID:25084698</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5852..796S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5852..796S"><span id="translatedtitle">A stroboscopic structured illumination system used in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of high-speed motion object</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Su, Xianyu; Zhang, Qican; Li, Yong; Xiang, Liqun; Cao, Yiping; Chen, Wenjing</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>A stroboscopic structured illumination system, which can be used in measurement for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape and deformation of high-speed motion object, is proposed and verified by experiments. The system, present in this paper, can automatically detect the position of high-speed moving object and synchronously control the flash of LED to project a structured optical field onto surface of motion object and the shoot of imaging system to acquire an image of deformed fringe pattern, also can create a signal, set artificially through software, to synchronously control the LED and imaging system to do their job. We experiment on a civil electric fan, successful acquire a serial of instantaneous, sharp and clear images of rotation blade and reconstruct its <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shapes in difference revolutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DFD.A9005O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DFD.A9005O"><span id="translatedtitle">Linear and nonlinear instability and ligament <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laminar two-layer liquid/liquid flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Valluri, Prashant; Scott, David; Bethune, Iain; Spelt, Peter</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>We consider the linear and nonlinear stability of two-phase density-matched but viscosity contrasted fluids subject to laminar Poiseuille flow in a channel, paying particular attention to the formation of three-dimensional waves. The Orr-Sommerfeld-Squire analysis is used along with DNS of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> two-phase Navier-Stokes equations using our newly launched TPLS Solver (http://edin.ac/10cRKzS). For the parameter regimes considered, we demonstrate the existence of two distinct mechanisms whereby <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> waves enter the system, and dominate at late time. There exists a direct route, whereby <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> waves are amplified by the standard linear mechanism; for certain parameter classes, such waves grow at a rate less than but comparable to that of most-dangerous two-dimensional mode. Additionally, there is a weakly nonlinear route, whereby a purely spanwise wave couples to a streamwise mode and grows exponentially. We demonstrate these mechanisms in isolation and in concert. Consideration is also given to the ultimate state of these waves: persistent three-dimensional nonlinear waves are stretched and distorted by the base flow, thereby producing regimes of ligaments, ``sheets,'' or ``interfacial turbulence.'' HECToR RAP/dCSE Project e174, HPC-Europa 2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...22c2030Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...22c2030Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> characteristics of a pump-turbine during hydraulic transients of a model pumped-storage system: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CFD simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, X. X.; Cheng, Y. G.; Xia, L. S.; Yang, J. D.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The runaway process in a model pumped-storage system was simulated for analyzing the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> characteristics of a pump-turbine. The simulation was adopted by coupling 1D (One Dimensional) pipeline MOC (Method of Characteristics) equations with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (Three Dimensional) pump-turbine CFD (Computational Fluid <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span>) model, in which the water hammer wave in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> zone was defined by giving a pressure dependent density. We found from the results that the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> performances of the pump-turbine do not coincide with the static operating points, especially in the S-shaped characteristics region, where the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> trajectories follow ring-shaped curves. Specifically, the transient operating points with the same Q11 and M11 in different moving directions of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> trajectories give different n11. The main reason of this phenomenon is that the transient flow patterns inside the pump-turbine are influenced by the ones in the previous time step, which leads to different flow patterns between the points with the same Q11 and M11 in different moving directions of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> trajectories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.453..287M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.453..287M"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of neutrino-driven supernova explosions after shock revival in 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Müller, B.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We study the growth of the explosion energy after shock revival in neutrino-driven explosions in two and three dimensions (2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) using multi-group neutrino hydrodynamics simulations of an 11.2 M⊙ star. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model shows a faster and steadier growth of the explosion energy and already shows signs of subsiding accretion after one second. By contrast, the growth of the explosion energy in 2D is unsteady, and accretion lasts for several seconds as confirmed by additional long-time simulations of stars of similar masses. Appreciable explosion energies can still be reached, albeit at the expense of rather high neutron star masses. In 2D, the binding energy at the gain radius is larger because the strong excitation of downward-propagating g modes removes energy from the freshly accreted material in the downflows. Consequently, the mass outflow rate is considerably lower in 2D than in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. This is only partially compensated by additional heating by outward-propagating acoustic waves in 2D. Moreover, the mass outflow rate in 2D is reduced because much of the neutrino energy deposition occurs in downflows or bubbles confined by secondary shocks without driving outflows. Episodic constriction of outflows and vertical mixing of colder shocked material and hot, neutrino-heated ejecta due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability further hamper the growth of the explosion energy in 2D. Further simulations will be necessary to determine whether these effects are generic over a wider range of supernova progenitors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22459649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22459649"><span id="translatedtitle">High-dose radiotherapy in inoperable nonsmall cell lung cancer: comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> IMRT and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conformal radiotherapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bree, Ingrid de; van Hinsberg, Mariëlle G E; van Veelen, Lieneke R</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Conformal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiotherapy (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CRT) combined with chemotherapy for inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to the preferable high dose is often not achievable because of dose-limiting organs. This reduces the probability of regional tumor control. Therefore, the surplus value of using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques, specifically volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc [RA]) and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> IMRT (d-IMRT) has been investigated. RA and d-IMRT plans were compared with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CRT treatment plans for 20 patients eligible for concurrent high-dose chemoradiotherapy, in whom a dose of 60 Gy was not achievable. Comparison of dose delivery in the target volume and organs at risk was carried out by evaluating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dose distributions and dose-volume histograms. Quality of the dose distribution was assessed using the inhomogeneity and conformity index. For most patients, a higher dose to the target volume can be delivered using RA or d-IMRT; in 15% of the patients a dose ≥60 Gy was possible. Both IMRT techniques result in a better conformity of the dose (p < 0.001). There are no significant differences in homogeneity of dose in the target volume. IMRT techniques for NSCLC patients allow higher dose to the target volume, thus improving regional tumor control. PMID:22459649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900013774','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900013774"><span id="translatedtitle">PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> user's manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and sample command files.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22263870','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22263870"><span id="translatedtitle">CQL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Hybrid-FOW modeling of the temporal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of NSTX NBI+HHFW discharges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Taylor, G.; Bonoli, P. T.</p> <p>2014-02-12</p> <p>The CQL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Fokker-Planck code[1] has been upgraded to include physics of finite-orbit-width (FOW) guiding-center orbits[2,3], as compared with the previous zero-orbit-width (ZOW) model, and a recent first-order orbit calculation[2]. The Fast Ion Diagnostic FIDA[4,5] signal resulting from neutral beam (NBI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) RF power injected into the NSTX spherical tokamak can now be modeled quite accurately, using ion distributions from the CQL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Hybrid-FOW code, a rapidly executing variant that includes FOW+gyro-orbit losses to the plasma edge, FOW effects on NBI injection and HHFW diffusion, but does not include neoclassical radial diffusion. Accurate simulation of prompt fast ion (FI) losses is a key feature of the marked modeling improvement relative to previous ZOW results. By comparing NBI-only and NBI+HHFW shots, independent confirmation of the usual 35% edge loss of HHFW in NSTX is obtained. Further, HHFW prompt losses from the plasma core are shown to be 3X as large (>25%) as the NBI-only case. The modulated NBI and time-dependent background plasma variations and charge exchange losses of fast ions are accounted for, and the temporal neutron variation is in approximate agreement with NSTX observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8320E..09P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8320E..09P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> shape modeling of the mitral valve from real-time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound images using continuous medial representation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pouch, Alison M.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Gorman, Joseph H., III; Gorman, Robert C.; Sehgal, Chandra M.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Purpose: Patient-specific shape analysis of the mitral valve from real-time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound (rt-3DUS) has broad application to the assessment and surgical treatment of mitral valve disease. Our goal is to demonstrate that continuous medial representation (cm-rep) is an accurate valve shape representation that can be used for statistical shape modeling over the cardiac cycle from rt-3DUS images. Methods: Transesophageal rt-3DUS data acquired from 15 subjects with a range of mitral valve pathology were analyzed. User-initialized segmentation with level sets and symmetric diffeomorphic normalization delineated the mitral leaflets at each time point in the rt-3DUS data series. A deformable cm-rep was fitted to each segmented image of the mitral leaflets in the time series, producing a 4D parametric representation of valve shape in a single cardiac cycle. Model fitting accuracy was evaluated by the Dice overlap, and shape interpolation and principal component analysis (PCA) of 4D valve shape were performed. Results: Of the 289 <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images analyzed, the average Dice overlap between each fitted cm-rep and its target segmentation was 0.880+/-0.018 (max=0.912, min=0.819). The results of PCA represented variability in valve morphology and localized leaflet thickness across subjects. Conclusion: Deformable medial modeling accurately captures valve geometry in rt-3DUS images over the entire cardiac cycle and enables statistical shape analysis of the mitral valve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatSR...512175C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatSR...512175C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">High-Throughput Cancer Cell Sphere Formation for Characterizing the Efficacy of Photo <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Therapy in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cell Cultures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yu-Chih; Lou, Xia; Zhang, Zhixiong; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Photodynamic therapy (PDT), wherein light sensitive non-toxic agents are locally and selectively activated using light, has emerged as an appealing alternative to traditional cancer chemotherapy. Yet to date, PDT efficacy has been mostly characterized using 2D cultures. Compared to 2D cultures, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sphere culture generates unique spatial distributions of nutrients and oxygen for the cells that better mimics the in-vivo conditions. Using a novel polyHEMA (non-adherent polymer) fabrication process, we developed a microfluidic sphere formation platform that can (1) generate 1,024 uniform (size variation <10%) cancer spheres within a 2 cm by 2 cm core area, (2) culture spheres for more than 2 weeks, and (3) allow the retrieval of spheres. Using the presented platform, we have successfully characterized the different responses in 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture to PDT. Furthermore, we investigated the treatment resistance effect in cancer cells induced by tumor associated fibroblasts (CAF). Although the CAFs can enhance the resistance to traditional chemotherapy agents, no significant difference in PDT was observed. The preliminary results suggest that the PDT can be an attractive alternative cancer therapy, which is less affected by the therapeutic resistance induced by cancer associated cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26153550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26153550"><span id="translatedtitle">High-Throughput Cancer Cell Sphere Formation for Characterizing the Efficacy of Photo <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Therapy in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cell Cultures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yu-Chih; Lou, Xia; Zhang, Zhixiong; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Photodynamic therapy (PDT), wherein light sensitive non-toxic agents are locally and selectively activated using light, has emerged as an appealing alternative to traditional cancer chemotherapy. Yet to date, PDT efficacy has been mostly characterized using 2D cultures. Compared to 2D cultures, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sphere culture generates unique spatial distributions of nutrients and oxygen for the cells that better mimics the in-vivo conditions. Using a novel polyHEMA (non-adherent polymer) fabrication process, we developed a microfluidic sphere formation platform that can (1) generate 1,024 uniform (size variation <10%) cancer spheres within a 2 cm by 2 cm core area, (2) culture spheres for more than 2 weeks, and (3) allow the retrieval of spheres. Using the presented platform, we have successfully characterized the different responses in 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture to PDT. Furthermore, we investigated the treatment resistance effect in cancer cells induced by tumor associated fibroblasts (CAF). Although the CAFs can enhance the resistance to traditional chemotherapy agents, no significant difference in PDT was observed. The preliminary results suggest that the PDT can be an attractive alternative cancer therapy, which is less affected by the therapeutic resistance induced by cancer associated cells. PMID:26153550</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017291','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017291"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> motion simulator of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> micro-gravity with a combined passive/active suspension system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yoshida, Kazuya; Hirose, Shigeo; Ogawa, Tadashi</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The establishment of those in-orbit operations like 'Rendez-Vous/Docking' and 'Manipulator Berthing' with the assistance of robotics or autonomous control technology, is essential for the near future space programs. In order to study the control methods, develop the flight models, and verify how the system works, we need a tool or a testbed which enables us to simulate mechanically the micro-gravity environment. There have been many attempts to develop the micro-gravity testbeds, but once the simulation goes into the docking and berthing operation that involves mechanical contacts among multi bodies, the requirement becomes critical. A group at the Tokyo Institute of Technology has proposed a method that can simulate the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> micro-gravity producing a smooth response to the impact phenomena with relatively simple apparatus. Recently the group carried out basic experiments successfully using a prototype hardware model of the testbed. This paper will present our idea of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> micro-gravity simulator and report the results of our initial experiments.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495468','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495468"><span id="translatedtitle">High-Throughput Cancer Cell Sphere Formation for Characterizing the Efficacy of Photo <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Therapy in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cell Cultures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Yu-Chih; Lou, Xia; Zhang, Zhixiong; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Photodynamic therapy (PDT), wherein light sensitive non-toxic agents are locally and selectively activated using light, has emerged as an appealing alternative to traditional cancer chemotherapy. Yet to date, PDT efficacy has been mostly characterized using 2D cultures. Compared to 2D cultures, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sphere culture generates unique spatial distributions of nutrients and oxygen for the cells that better mimics the in-vivo conditions. Using a novel polyHEMA (non-adherent polymer) fabrication process, we developed a microfluidic sphere formation platform that can (1) generate 1,024 uniform (size variation <10%) cancer spheres within a 2 cm by 2 cm core area, (2) culture spheres for more than 2 weeks, and (3) allow the retrieval of spheres. Using the presented platform, we have successfully characterized the different responses in 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture to PDT. Furthermore, we investigated the treatment resistance effect in cancer cells induced by tumor associated fibroblasts (CAF). Although the CAFs can enhance the resistance to traditional chemotherapy agents, no significant difference in PDT was observed. The preliminary results suggest that the PDT can be an attractive alternative cancer therapy, which is less affected by the therapeutic resistance induced by cancer associated cells. PMID:26153550</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4201771','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4201771"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical examples of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dose distribution reconstruction, based on the actual MLC leaves movement, for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> treatment techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Osewski, Wojciech; Dolla, Łukasz; Radwan, Michał; Szlag, Marta; Rutkowski, Roman; Smolińska, Barbara; Ślosarek, Krzysztof</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Aim To present practical examples of our new algorithm for reconstruction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dose distribution, based on the actual MLC leaf movement. Background DynaLog and RTplan files were used by DDcon software to prepare a new RTplan file for dose distribution reconstruction. Materials and methods Four different clinically relevant scenarios were used to assess the feasibility of the proposed new approach: (1) Reconstruction of whole treatment sessions for prostate cancer; (2) Reconstruction of IMRT verification treatment plan; (3) Dose reconstruction in breast cancer; (4) Reconstruction of interrupted arc and complementary plan for an interrupted VMAT treatment session of prostate cancer. The applied reconstruction method was validated by comparing reconstructed and measured fluence maps. For all statistical analysis, the U Mann–Whitney test was used. Results In the first two and the fourth cases, there were no statistically significant differences between the planned and reconstructed dose distribution (p = 0.910, p = 0.975, p = 0.893, respectively). In the third case the differences were statistically significant (p = 0.015). Treatment plan had to be reconstructed. Conclusion Developed dose distribution reconstruction algorithm presents a very useful QA tool. It provides means for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dose distribution verification in patient volume and allows to evaluate the influence of actual MLC leaf motion on the dose distribution. PMID:25337416</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016E%26PSL.442...93M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016E%26PSL.442...93M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical modeling of mantle flow, crustal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and magma genesis associated with slab roll-back and tearing: The eastern Mediterranean case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menant, Armel; Sternai, Pietro; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gerya, Taras</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Interactions between subduction <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and magma genesis have been intensely investigated, resulting in several conceptual models derived from geological, geochemical and geophysical data. To provide physico-chemical constraints on these conceptual models, self-consistent numerical simulations containing testable thermo-mechanical parameters are required, especially considering the three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) natural complexity of subduction systems. Here, we use a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> high-resolution petrological and thermo-mechanical numerical model to quantify the relative contribution of oceanic and continental subduction/collision, slab roll-back and tearing to magma genesis and transport processes. Our modeling results suggest that the space and time distribution and composition of magmas in the overriding plate is controlled by the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> slab <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and related asthenospheric flow. Moreover, the decrease of the bulk lithospheric strength induced by mantle- and crust-derived magmas promotes the propagation of strike-slip and extensional fault zones through the overriding crust as response to slab roll-back and continental collision. Reduction of the lithosphere/asthenosphere rheological contrast by lithospheric weakening also favors the transmission of velocities from the flowing mantle to the crust. Similarities between our modeling results and the late Cenozoic tectonic and magmatic evolution across the eastern Mediterranean region suggest an efficient control of mantle flow on the magmatic activity in this region, which in turn promotes lithospheric deformation by mantle drag via melt-induced weakening effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Sci...347.1446G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Sci...347.1446G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> DNA devices and assemblies formed by shape-complementary, non-base pairing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gerling, Thomas; Wagenbauer, Klaus F.; Neuner, Andrea M.; Dietz, Hendrik</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We demonstrate that discrete three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) DNA components can specifically self-assemble in solution on the basis of shape-complementarity and without base pairing. Using this principle, we produced homo- and heteromultimeric objects, including micrometer-scale one- and two-stranded filaments and lattices, as well as reconfigurable devices, including an actuator, a switchable gear, an unfoldable nanobook, and a nanorobot. These multidomain assemblies were stabilized via short-ranged nucleobase stacking bonds that compete against electrostatic repulsion between the components’ interfaces. Using imaging by electron microscopy, ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility analysis, we show that the balance between attractive and repulsive interactions, and thus the conformation of the assemblies, may be finely controlled by global parameters such as cation concentration or temperature and by an allosteric mechanism based on strand-displacement reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25814577','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25814577"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> DNA devices and assemblies formed by shape-complementary, non-base pairing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> components.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gerling, Thomas; Wagenbauer, Klaus F; Neuner, Andrea M; Dietz, Hendrik</p> <p>2015-03-27</p> <p>We demonstrate that discrete three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) DNA components can specifically self-assemble in solution on the basis of shape-complementarity and without base pairing. Using this principle, we produced homo- and heteromultimeric objects, including micrometer-scale one- and two-stranded filaments and lattices, as well as reconfigurable devices, including an actuator, a switchable gear, an unfoldable nanobook, and a nanorobot. These multidomain assemblies were stabilized via short-ranged nucleobase stacking bonds that compete against electrostatic repulsion between the components' interfaces. Using imaging by electron microscopy, ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility analysis, we show that the balance between attractive and repulsive interactions, and thus the conformation of the assemblies, may be finely controlled by global parameters such as cation concentration or temperature and by an allosteric mechanism based on strand-displacement reactions. PMID:25814577</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.8615E..1BA&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.8615E..1BA&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> analysis of angiogenesis in transgenic zebrafish embryos using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multilayer chip-based technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akagi, Jin; Zhu, Feng; Hall, Chris J.; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Mitchell, Arnan; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Crosier, Philip S.; Wlodkowic, Donald</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) models of human diseases have recently emerged as innovative experimental systems in drug discovery and molecular pathology. None of the currently available technologies, however, allow for automated immobilization and treatment of large numbers of spatially encoded transgenic embryos during real-time developmental analysis. This work describes the proof-of-concept design and validation of an integrated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microfluidic chip-based system fabricated directly in the poly(methyl methacrylate) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. At its core, the device utilizes an array of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> micro-mechanical traps to actively capture and immobilize single embryos using a low-pressure suction. It also features built-in piezoelectric microdiaphragm pumps, embryo trapping suction manifold, drug delivery manifold and optically transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element to provide optimal temperature during embryo development. Furthermore, we present design of the proof-of-concept off-chip electronic interface equipped with robotic servo actuator driven stage, innovative servomotor-actuated pinch valves and miniaturized fluorescent USB microscope. Our results show that the innovative device has 100% embryo trapping efficiency while supporting normal embryo development for up to 72 hours in a confined microfluidic environment. We also present data that this microfluidic system can be readily applied to kinetic analysis of a panel of investigational anti-angiogenic agents in transgenic zebrafish Tg(fli1a:EGFP) line. The optical transparency and embryo immobilization allow for convenient visualization of developing vasculature patterns in response to drug treatment without the need for specimen re-positioning. The integrated electronic interfaces bring the Lab-on-a-Chip systems a step closer to realization of complete analytical automation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22216000','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22216000"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> study on thyroid hormone activity of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers to thyroid receptors β</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Xiaolin; Ye, Li; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xinzhou; Liu, Hongling; Zhu, Yongliang; Yu, Hongxia</p> <p>2012-12-15</p> <p>Several recent reports suggested that hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (HO-PBDEs) may disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis. To illuminate the structural features for thyroid hormone activity of HO-PBDEs and the binding mode between HO-PBDEs and thyroid hormone receptor (TR), the hormone activity of a series of HO-PBDEs to thyroid receptors β was studied based on the combination of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (MD) methods. The ligand- and receptor-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR models were obtained using Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA) method. The optimum CoMSIA model with region focusing yielded satisfactory statistical results: leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (q{sup 2}) was 0.571 and non-cross-validation correlation coefficient (r{sup 2}) was 0.951. Furthermore, the results of internal validation such as bootstrapping, leave-many-out cross-validation, and progressive scrambling as well as external validation indicated the rationality and good predictive ability of the best model. In addition, molecular docking elucidated the conformations of compounds and key amino acid residues at the docking pocket, MD simulation further determined the binding process and validated the rationality of docking results. -- Highlights: ► The thyroid hormone activities of HO-PBDEs were studied by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR. ► The binding modes between HO-PBDEs and TRβ were explored. ► <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (MD) methods were performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24746017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24746017"><span id="translatedtitle">A multiscale 0-D/<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> approach to patient-specific adaptation of a cerebral autoregulation model for computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> studies of cardiopulmonary bypass.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neidlin, Michael; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Kaufmann, Tim A S</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Neurological complication often occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). One of the main causes is hypoperfusion of the cerebral tissue affected by the position of the cannula tip and diminished cerebral autoregulation (CA). Recently, a lumped parameter approach could describe the baroreflex, one of the main mechanisms of cerebral autoregulation, in a computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) study of CPB. However, the cerebral blood flow (CBF) was overestimated and the physiological meaning of the variables and their impact on the model was unknown. In this study, we use a 0-D control circuit representation of the Baroreflex mechanism, to assess the parameters with respect to their physiological meaning and their influence on CBF. Afterwards the parameters are transferred to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CFD and the static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> behavior of cerebral autoregulation is investigated. The parameters of the baroreflex mechanism can reproduce normotensive, hypertensive and impaired autoregulation behavior. Further on, the proposed model can mimic the effects of anesthetic agents and other factors controlling <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> CA. The CFD simulations deliver similar results of static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> CBF as the 0-D control circuit. This study shows the feasibility of a multiscale 0-D/<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> approach to include patient-specific cerebral autoregulation into CFD studies. PMID:24746017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3816W.483P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3816W.483P"><span id="translatedtitle">Europeana and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pletinckx, D.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The current <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hype creates a lot of interest in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. People go to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies, but are we ready to use <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to a general public and use interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> learning objects, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tourist information or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2994415','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2994415"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Surgical Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...587A..12W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...587A..12W"><span id="translatedtitle">Near-infrared spectro-interferometry of Mira variables and comparisons to 1D <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model atmospheres and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> convection simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wittkowski, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Freytag, B.; Scholz, M.; Höfner, S.; Karovicova, I.; Whitelock, P. A.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Aims: We aim at comparing spectro-interferometric observations of Mira variable asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with the latest 1D <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model atmospheres based on self-excited pulsation models (CODEX models) and with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model atmospheres including pulsation and convection (CO5BOLD models) to better understand the processes that extend the molecular atmosphere to radii where dust can form. Methods: We obtained a total of 20 near-infrared K-band spectro-interferometric snapshot observations of the Mira variables o Cet, R Leo, R Aqr, X Hya, W Vel, and R Cnc with a spectral resolution of about 1500. We compared observed flux and visibility spectra with predictions by CODEX 1D <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model atmospheres and with azimuthally averaged intensities based on CO5BOLD <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model atmospheres. Results: Our visibility data confirm the presence of spatially extended molecular atmospheres located above the continuum radii with large-scale inhomogeneities or clumps that contribute a few percent of the total flux. The detailed structure of the inhomogeneities or clumps show a variability on time scales of 3 months and above. Both modeling attempts provided satisfactory fits to our data. In particular, they are both consistent with the observed decrease in the visibility function at molecular bands of water vapor and CO, indicating a spatially extended molecular atmosphere. Observational variability phases are mostly consistent with those of the best-fit CODEX models, except for near-maximum phases, where data are better described by near-minimum models. Rosseland angular diameters derived from the model fits are broadly consistent between those based on the 1D and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models and with earlier observations. We derived fundamental parameters including absolute radii, effective temperatures, and luminosities for our sources. Conclusions: Our results provide a first observational support for theoretical results that shocks induced by convection and pulsation in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S42B..07R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S42B..07R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> ground motion modeling for M7 <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> rupture earthquake scenarios on the Wasatch fault, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roten, D.; Olsen, K. B.; Cruz Atienza, V. M.; Pechmann, J. C.; Magistrale, H. W.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault (WFSLC), located on the eastern edge of the Salt Lake Basin (SLB), is capable of producing M7 earthquakes and represents a serious seismic hazard to Salt Lake City, Utah. We simulate a series of rupture scenarios on the WFSLC to quantify the ground motion expected from such M7 events and to assess the importance of amplification effects from basin focusing and source directivity. We use the newly revised Wasatch Front community velocity model for our simulations, which is tested by simulating records of three local Mw 3.3-3.7 earthquakes in the frequency band 0.5 to 1.0 Hz. The M7 earthquake scenarios make use of a detailed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model geometry of the WFSLC that we developed based on geological observations. To obtain a suite of realistic source representations for M7 WFSLC simulations we perform spontaneous-rupture simulations on a planar 43 km by 23 km fault with the staggered-grid split-node finite-difference (FD) method. We estimate the initial distribution of shear stress using models that assume depth-dependent normal stress for a dipping, normal fault as well as simpler models which use constant (depth-independent) normal stress. The slip rate histories from the spontaneous rupture scenarios are projected onto the irregular dipping geometry of the WFSLC and used to simulate 0-1 Hz wave propagation in the SLB area using a 4th-order, staggered-grid visco-elastic FD method. We find that peak ground velocities tend to be larger on the low-velocity sediments on the hanging wall side of the fault than on outcropping rock on the footwall side, confirming results of previous studies on normal faulting earthquakes. The simulated ground motions reveal strong along-strike directivity effects for ruptures nucleating towards the ends of the WFSLC. The 0-1 Hz FD simulations are combined with local scattering operators to obtain broadband (0-10 Hz) synthetics and maps of average peak ground motions. Finally we use broadband</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002506&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002506&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists"><span id="translatedtitle">PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (WITH TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002508&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002508&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists"><span id="translatedtitle">PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (WITHOUT TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5232433','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5232433"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field harmonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.</p> <p>1991-03-30</p> <p>We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23362119','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23362119"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> perfusion bioreactor system for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> culture of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 scaffold in vitro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Xu; Yuan, Fang; Zhimin, Zhu; Anchun, Mo</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to investigate the biocompatibility and osteogenic effectiveness of the porous nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) scaffold material that was cultured with the rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), under the static culture condition and the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> perfusion culture condition in vitro, and to investigate whether the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> perfusion culture condition was better in provoking proliferation of rBMSCs than the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> static culture condition. The Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, Osteocalcin (OCN) assay and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to observe the proliferation and differentiation of rBMSCs. The samples were respectively harvested at 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days and effect comparisons were made between the two of the culture conditions. The results showed that values of MTT, ALP, and OCN were increased continuously and revealed a significant difference between the two culture conditions (p < 0.05). On the 14th day, SEM revealed calcified nodules 2-8 μm in diameter in the lamellar structure. Under the static culture condition, the pores were covered with the cells looking like a piece of blanket, but under the perfusion culture condition the cells were observed to have a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lamellar structure. In conclusion, the porous n-HA/PA66 scaffold material can be used as a good candidate material for the bone scaffold construction in the tissue engineering because of its excellent <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure, which can greatly improve the proliferation and differentiation of rBMSCs and make them proliferate and osteogenesis even better under the perfusion culture condition. PMID:23362119</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753321','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753321"><span id="translatedtitle">Ex-Vivo <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Culture of Human Tissues in the RCCS™ Bioreactor Allows the Study of Multiple Myeloma Biology and Response to Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ponzoni, Maurilio; Belloni, Daniela; Berenzi, Angiola; Girlanda, Stefania; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Mazzoleni, Giovanna; Ferrero, Elisabetta</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) culture models are emerging as invaluable tools in tumor biology, since they reproduce tissue-specific structural features and cell-cell interactions more accurately than conventional 2-D cultures. Multiple Myeloma, which depends on myeloma cell-Bone Marrow microenvironment interactions for development and response to drugs, may particularly benefit from such an approach. An innovative <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> culture model based on the use of the RCCS™ Bioreactor was developed to allow long-term culture of myeloma tissue explants. This model was first validated with normal and pathological explants, then applied to tissues from myeloma patients. In all cases, histological examination demonstrated maintenance of viable myeloma cells inside their native microenvironment, with an overall well preserved histo-architecture including bone lamellae and vessels. This system was then successfully applied to evaluate the cytotoxic effects exerted by the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib not only on myeloma cells but also on angiogenic vessels. Moreover, as surrogate markers of specialized functions expressed by myeloma cells and microenvironment, β2 microglobulin, VEGF and Angiopoietin-2 levels, as well as Matrix Metalloproteases activity, were evaluated in supernatants from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cultures and their levels reflected the effects of Bortezomib treatment. Notably, determination of β2 microglobulin levels in supernatants from Bortezomib-treated samples and in patients'sera following Bortezomib-based therapies disclosed an overall concordance in the response to the drug ex vivo and in vivo. Our findings indicate, as a proof of principle, that <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, RCCS™ bioreactor-based culture of tissue explants can be exploited for studying myeloma biology and for a pre-clinical approach to patient-targeted therapy. PMID:23990965</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H43J..03N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H43J..03N"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Water Subsidy on Vegetation <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in a Semiarid Grassland Catchment: Comparison between Field Measurements and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ecohydrological Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niu, G.; Troch, P. A.; Paniconi, C.; Scott, R. L.; Durcik, M.; Zeng, X.; Huxman, T. E.; Goodrich, D. C.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>In water-limited regions, water and carbon fluxes are strongly controlled by soil water availability, which may be highly variable even at very small spatial scales (e.g., meters) due to variations in slope, aspect, soils, and vegetation conditions, as well as water redistribution along hillslopes. This paper examines key factors controlling soil water availability for plant growth and surface CO2 fluxes in a small semi-arid experimental watershed (7.92 ha) in southeastern Arizona, using a land surface model (LSM) coupled with a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) process-based hydrological model. The LSM accounts for surface energy, water, and carbon exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere, while the hydrological model accounts for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface flow in variably saturated porous media and surface flow propagation over hillslopes and in stream channel networks. The coupled model, with minor calibration, simulated the observed surface energy, water, and CO2 fluxes well. The model mirrored the interannual variability of CO2 fluxes without accounting for the transition from native to exotic bunchgrasses that occurred at this site during the observation period, suggesting that water availability exerts a stronger control on the ecosystem <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> than changes in species. Results from <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> coupled model experiments with different lateral saturated hydraulic conductivities demonstrated that the model with smaller conductivities improved the simulation of evapotranspiration (ET) and CO2 fluxes, suggesting that lateral subsurface flow was very weak. Experiments with the one-dimensional LSM, which does not explicitly consider either surface or subsurface lateral flows, produced lower-than-observed ET and CO2 fluxes during drought years and in dry-down periods. However, in the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> simulations, the wetter soils in lowland areas along stream channels, mainly induced by lateral overland flow and re-infiltration, provides plants with favorable conditions to produce more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003sf2a.conf..101P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003sf2a.conf..101P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Structures & <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> of the solar corona: inputs from stereovision technics and joigned Ground Based and Space Observatories for the development of Space Weather</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Portier-Fozzani, F.; Stereo/Secchi Team At Mpae</p> <p></p> <p>While taking into account the difficulties encountered by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging specialists with usual objects over the last 20 years, we derived appropriate stereoscopic methods that we could use for the very specific case of the solar corona. Tomographic methods which should be better for such optically thin EUV lines need lots of different quasi-simultaneous viewpoints which is not possible. Usual objects reconstructed by stereovision are mainly optical thick objects such as lands, buildings, planes, tanks with variable external luminosity. Directlty applied, classical algorithms give at least big uncertainties due to the light emission integration along the line of sight. Also structures extractions and maching between images are very difficult to derived. Epipolar geometry has to be determined before all other steps and decomposing each image in wavelet spatial frequencies with Multiscale Vision Model for example, improves a lot the extract/match step. Results of such automatization of the method are presented in the paper. Another shorter method is to derive some <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parameters with an 'a priori geometry' shape of the object observed. It has been used for loops studies. For an emerging active region loops, twist variations together with the expansion have been measured with consequences on the helicity. With such method, sigmoids evolution can be also described. When we limit the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> study for some structures (such as filaments forming CMEs) to the calculation of the plane of expansion or the degree of twist, some evolution can be partly described from SOHO in the space weather context, which would be even better described when STEREO would take simultaneous images at different angle to take into account more the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> of the solar corona with less evolution necessary assumption. The two methods will be mixed in the future with the philosophy of computer learning in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image processing for automatic space weather alerts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3597536','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3597536"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Pattern <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Stem Cell Loss of Pluripotency via Rules-Based Computational Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>White, Douglas E.; Kinney, Melissa A.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Kemp, Melissa L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p> powerful tool to predict stem cell behavior under a number of culture conditions that emulate characteristics of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stem cell niches. PMID:23516345</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Zheng+Zheng&pg=4&id=EJ970878','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Zheng+Zheng&pg=4&id=EJ970878"><span id="translatedtitle">Caring in the <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of Design and Languaging: Exploring Second Language Learning in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Virtual Spaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zheng, Dongping</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study provides concrete evidence of ecological, dialogical views of languaging within the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of coordination and cooperation in a virtual world. Beginning level second language learners of Chinese engaged in cooperative activities designed to provide them opportunities to refine linguistic actions by way of caring for others, for the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/543001','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/543001"><span id="translatedtitle">Wavefront construction in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The algorithm <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020054405','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020054405"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flows. In particular, we examine the use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 4D textures on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> synthetic and computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> flow fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...04..140C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...04..140C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> correspondence revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21148873','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21148873"><span id="translatedtitle">Second-Order Inelastic <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Analysis of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Semi-Rigid Steel Frames Under Earthquake Loads with Three Components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ozakgul, Kadir</p> <p>2008-07-08</p> <p>In this study, it has been presented an algorithm for second-order elastoplastic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> time-history analysis of three dimensional frames that have steel members with semirigid joints. The proposed analysis accounts for material, geometric and connection nonlinearities. Material nonlinearity have been modeled by the Ramberg-Osgood relation. While the geometric nonlinearity caused by axial force has been described by the use of the geometric stiffness matrix, the nonlinearity caused by the interaction between the axial force and bending moment has been also described by the use of the stability functions. The independent hardening model has been used to describe the nonlinear behaviour of semi-rigid connections. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> equation of motion has been solved by Newmark's constant acceleration method in time history domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptLE..74...47P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptLE..74...47P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient multiphase model for keyhole, vapor plume, and weld pool <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in laser welding including the ambient pressure effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pang, Shengyong; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Jianxin; Shao, Xinyu; Wang, Chunming</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The physical process of deep penetration laser welding involves complex, self-consistent multiphase keyhole, metallic vapor plume, and weld pool <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Currently, efforts are still needed to understand these multiphase <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. In this paper, a novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient multiphase model capable of describing a self-consistent keyhole, metallic vapor plume in the keyhole, and weld pool <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in deep penetration fiber laser welding is proposed. Major physical factors of the welding process, such as recoil pressure, surface tension, Marangoni shear stress, Fresnel absorptions mechanisms, heat transfer, and fluid flow in weld pool, keyhole free surface evolutions and solid-liquid-vapor three phase transformations are coupling considered. The effect of ambient pressure in laser welding is rigorously treated using an improved recoil pressure model. The predicated weld bead dimensions, transient keyhole instability, weld pool <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, and vapor plume <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are compared with experimental and literature results, and good agreements are obtained. The predicted results are investigated by not considering the effects of the ambient pressure. It is found that by not considering the effects of ambient pressure, the average keyhole wall temperature is underestimated about 500 K; besides, the average speed of metallic vapor will be significantly overestimated. The ambient pressure is an essential physical factor for a comprehensive understanding the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of deep penetration laser welding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24026004','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24026004"><span id="translatedtitle">Duality between the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of line-like brushes of point defects in 2D and strings in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in liquid crystals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Digal, Sanatan; Ray, Rajarshi; Saumia, P S; Srivastava, Ajit M</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We analyze the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of dark brushes connecting point vortices of strength ±1 formed in the isotropic-nematic phase transition of a thin layer of nematic liquid crystals, using a crossed polarizer set up. The evolution of the brushes is seen to be remarkably similar to the evolution of line defects in a three-dimensional nematic liquid crystal system. Even phenomena like the intercommutativity of strings are routinely observed in the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of brushes. We test the hypothesis of a duality between the two systems by determining exponents for the coarsening of total brush length with time as well as shrinking of the size of an isolated loop. Our results show scaling behavior for the brush length as well as the loop size with corresponding exponents in good agreement with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> case of string defects. PMID:24026004</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhFl...27b2104W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhFl...27b2104W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical modeling of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles using the boundary integral method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Calvisi, Michael L.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. While various models have been developed to describe the spherical oscillations of contrast agents, the treatment of nonspherical behavior has received less attention. However, the nonspherical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in therapeutic applications, for example, enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces, and causing tissue ablation. In this paper, a model for nonspherical contrast agent <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> based on the boundary integral method is described. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. The numerical model agrees well with a modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation for encapsulated spherical bubbles. Numerical analyses of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The oscillation amplitude and period decrease significantly due to the coating. A bubble jet forms when the amplitude of ultrasound is sufficiently large, as occurs for bubbles without a coating; however, the threshold amplitude required to incite jetting increases due to the coating. When a UCA is near a rigid boundary subject to acoustic forcing, the jet is directed towards the wall if the acoustic wave propagates perpendicular to the boundary. When the acoustic wave propagates parallel to the rigid boundary, the jet direction has components both along the wave direction and towards the boundary that depend mainly on the dimensionless standoff distance of the bubble from the boundary. In all cases, the jet</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT.......213G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT.......213G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Roughness Effects on Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil Using Large Eddy Simulations at Low Reynolds Numbers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guda, Venkata Subba Sai Satish</p> <p></p> <p>There have been several advancements in the aerospace industry in areas of design such as aerodynamics, designs, controls and propulsion; all aimed at one common goal i.e. increasing efficiency --range and scope of operation with lesser fuel consumption. Several methods of flow control have been tried. Some were successful, some failed and many were termed as impractical. The low Reynolds number regime of 104 - 105 is a very interesting range. Flow physics in this range are quite different than those of higher Reynolds number range. Mid and high altitude UAV's, MAV's, sailplanes, jet engine fan blades, inboard helicopter rotor blades and wind turbine rotors are some of the aerodynamic applications that fall in this range. The current study deals with using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> roughness as a means of flow control over a NACA 0012 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> surface roughness elements on an airfoil placed near the leading edge aim at increasing the efficiency by suppressing the effects of leading edge separation like leading edge stall by delaying or totally eliminating flow separation. A numerical study of the above method has been carried out by means of a Large Eddy Simulation, a mathematical model for turbulence in Computational Fluid <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span>, owing to the highly unsteady nature of the flow. A user defined function has been developed for the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> roughness element motion. Results from simulations have been compared to those from experimental PIV data. Large eddy simulations have relatively well captured the leading edge stall. For the clean cases, i.e. with the DR not actuated, the LES was able to reproduce experimental results in a reasonable fashion. However DR simulation results show that it fails to reattach the flow and suppress flow separation compared to experiments. Several novel techniques of grid design and hump creation are introduced through this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299645','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299645"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> topology and flux rope evolution during non-linear tearing of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> null point current sheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wyper, P. F. Pontin, D. I.</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>In this work, the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> magnetic field within a tearing-unstable three-dimensional current sheet about a magnetic null point is described in detail. We focus on the evolution of the magnetic null points and flux ropes that are formed during the tearing process. Generally, we find that both magnetic structures are created prolifically within the layer and are non-trivially related. We examine how nulls are created and annihilated during bifurcation processes, and describe how they evolve within the current layer. The type of null bifurcation first observed is associated with the formation of pairs of flux ropes within the current layer. We also find that new nulls form within these flux ropes, both following internal reconnection and as adjacent flux ropes interact. The flux ropes exhibit a complex evolution, driven by a combination of ideal kinking and their interaction with the outflow jets from the main layer. The finite size of the unstable layer also allows us to consider the wider effects of flux rope generation. We find that the unstable current layer acts as a source of torsional magnetohydrodynamic waves and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> braiding of magnetic fields. The implications of these results to several areas of heliophysics are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JPhCS.415a2066M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JPhCS.415a2066M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meulien Ohlmann, Odile</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Today the industry offers a chain of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> products. Learning to "read" and to "create in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization, to learn <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grammar, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> language, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27571206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27571206"><span id="translatedtitle">Distinct <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Architecture and <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of the Human HtrA2(Omi) Protease and Its Mutated Variants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gieldon, Artur; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Jarzab, Miroslaw; Wenta, Tomasz; Golik, Przemyslaw; Dubin, Grzegorz; Lipinska, Barbara; Ciarkowski, Jerzy</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>HtrA2(Omi) protease controls protein quality in mitochondria and plays a major role in apoptosis. Its HtrA2S306A mutant (with the catalytic serine routinely disabled for an X-ray study to avoid self-degradation) is a homotrimer whose subunits contain the serine protease domain (PD) and the regulatory PDZ domain. In the inactive state, a tight interdomain interface limits penetration of both PDZ-activating ligands and PD substrates into their respective target sites. We successfully crystalized HtrA2V226K/S306A, whose active counterpart HtrA2V226K has had higher proteolytic activity, suggesting higher propensity to opening the PD-PDZ interface than that of the wild type HtrA2. Yet, the crystal structure revealed the HtrA2V226K/S306A architecture typical of the inactive protein. To get a consistent interpretation of crystallographic data in the light of kinetic results, we employed molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (MD). V325D inactivating mutant was used as a reference. Our simulations demonstrated that upon binding of a specific peptide ligand NH2-GWTMFWV-COOH, the PDZ domains open more <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> in the wild type protease compared to the V226K mutant, whereas the movement is not observed in the V325D mutant. The movement relies on a PDZ vs. PD rotation which opens the PD-PDZ interface in a lid-like (budding flower-like in trimer) fashion. The noncovalent hinges A and B are provided by two clusters of interfacing residues, harboring V325D and V226K in the C- and N-terminal PD barrels, respectively. The opening of the subunit interfaces progresses in a sequential manner during the 50 ns MD simulation. In the systems without the ligand only minor PDZ shifts relative to PD are observed, but the interface does not open. Further activation-associated events, e.g. PDZ-L3 positional swap seen in any active HtrA protein (vs. HtrA2), were not observed. In summary, this study provides hints on the mechanism of activation of wtHtrA2, the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the inactive HtrA2V325D, but does not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5003398','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5003398"><span id="translatedtitle">Distinct <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Architecture and <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of the Human HtrA2(Omi) Protease and Its Mutated Variants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gieldon, Artur; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Jarzab, Miroslaw; Wenta, Tomasz; Golik, Przemyslaw; Dubin, Grzegorz; Lipinska, Barbara; Ciarkowski, Jerzy</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>HtrA2(Omi) protease controls protein quality in mitochondria and plays a major role in apoptosis. Its HtrA2S306A mutant (with the catalytic serine routinely disabled for an X-ray study to avoid self-degradation) is a homotrimer whose subunits contain the serine protease domain (PD) and the regulatory PDZ domain. In the inactive state, a tight interdomain interface limits penetration of both PDZ-activating ligands and PD substrates into their respective target sites. We successfully crystalized HtrA2V226K/S306A, whose active counterpart HtrA2V226K has had higher proteolytic activity, suggesting higher propensity to opening the PD-PDZ interface than that of the wild type HtrA2. Yet, the crystal structure revealed the HtrA2V226K/S306A architecture typical of the inactive protein. To get a consistent interpretation of crystallographic data in the light of kinetic results, we employed molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (MD). V325D inactivating mutant was used as a reference. Our simulations demonstrated that upon binding of a specific peptide ligand NH2-GWTMFWV-COOH, the PDZ domains open more <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> in the wild type protease compared to the V226K mutant, whereas the movement is not observed in the V325D mutant. The movement relies on a PDZ vs. PD rotation which opens the PD-PDZ interface in a lid-like (budding flower-like in trimer) fashion. The noncovalent hinges A and B are provided by two clusters of interfacing residues, harboring V325D and V226K in the C- and N-terminal PD barrels, respectively. The opening of the subunit interfaces progresses in a sequential manner during the 50 ns MD simulation. In the systems without the ligand only minor PDZ shifts relative to PD are observed, but the interface does not open. Further activation-associated events, e.g. PDZ-L3 positional swap seen in any active HtrA protein (vs. HtrA2), were not observed. In summary, this study provides hints on the mechanism of activation of wtHtrA2, the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the inactive HtrA2V325D, but does not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25058941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25058941"><span id="translatedtitle">Bioimpedance monitoring of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culturing--complementary electrode configurations for enhanced spatial sensitivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Canali, Chiara; Heiskanen, Arto; Muhammad, Haseena Bashir; Høyum, Per; Pettersen, Fred-Johan; Hemmingsen, Mette; Wolff, Anders; Dufva, Martin; Martinsen, Ørjan Grøttem; Emnéus, Jenny</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>A bioimpedance platform is presented as a promising tool for non-invasive real-time monitoring of the entire process of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) cell culturing in a hydrogel scaffold. In this study, the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> involved in the whole process of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culturing, starting from polymerisation of a bare <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gelatin scaffold, to human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) encapsulation and proliferation, was monitored over time. The platform consists of a large rectangular culture chamber with four embedded vertical gold plate electrodes that were exploited in two- and three terminal (2T and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span>) measurement configurations. By switching between the different combinations of electrode couples, it was possible to generate a multiplexing-like approach, which allowed for collecting spatially distributed information within the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space. Computational finite element (FE) analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) characterisation were used to determine the configurations' sensitivity field localisation. The 2T setup gives insight into the interfacial phenomena at both electrode surfaces and covers the central part of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture volume, while the four <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span> modes provide focus on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at the corners of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> culture chamber. By combining a number of electrode configurations, complementary spatially distributed information on a large <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture can be obtained with maximised sensitivity in the entire <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space. The experimental results show that cell proliferation can be monitored within the tested biomimetic environment, paving the way to further developments in bioimpedance tracking of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell cultures and tissue engineering. PMID:25058941</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35..933B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35..933B"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-time in situ characterization of interface <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in microstructure formation during <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-directional solidification of transparent alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergeon, N.; Trivedi, R.; Billia, B.; Echebarria, B.; Karma, A.; Liu, S.; Weiss, C.</p> <p></p> <p>The properties of structural materials are to a large extent determined by the solid microstructure so that the understanding of the fundamental physics of microstructure formation is critical in the engineering of materials. Also, microstructure selection occurs during the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> growth process so that in situ observation of spatio-temporal evolution of the solid-liquid interface shape is necessary. Under terrestrial conditions, convection effects dominates in bulk samples which prevent precise characterization of microstructure selection. As the glass ampoule conducts heat better than transparent materials, e.g. succinonitrile, the sample near the wall is cooler and convection arises. This leads to concave interface and non-uniform morphological instability starting at the center, while the region near the wall remains smooth. Diffusion-controlled experiments in thin samples give microstructures that are neither 2D nor <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. When the spacing between glass plates is smaller than the spacing, the cell shape near the tip is <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and becomes 2D away from the tip. Preliminary rigorous phase-field results show that in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tube geometry (reasonable approximation for a hexagonal array), axisymmetric cells only exist over a narrow range of spacing whereas in 2D steady-state shapes span a wide range of spacing. A benchmark experimental study in bulk samples is thus required under low gravity conditions. In the frame of the joint work of DSIP and MISOL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> projects, respectively selected by NASA and CNES, microgravity experiments in a model transparent system are planned on ISS using the Directional Solidification Insert in the DECLIC facility. The critical aspects of hardware design, the key fundamental issues identified through 1g-experiments, the proposed study on ISS, and the results of rigorous theoretical modeling will be presented. The cellular/dendritic interface morphologies will be examined by systematically varying the process parameters, yielding insight into the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911446"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative comparison of hemodynamics in simulated and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> angiography models of cerebral aneurysms by use of computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saho, Tatsunori; Onishi, Hideo</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>In this study, we evaluated hemodynamics using simulated models and determined how cerebral aneurysms develop in simulated and patient-specific models based on medical images. Computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) was analyzed by use of OpenFOAM software. Flow velocity, stream line, and wall shear stress (WSS) were evaluated in a simulated model aneurysm with known geometry and in a three-dimensional angiographic model. The ratio of WSS at the aneurysm compared with that at the basilar artery was 1:10 in simulated model aneurysms with a diameter of 10 mm and 1:18 in the angiographic model, indicating similar tendencies. Vortex flow occurred in both model aneurysms, and the WSS decreased in larger model aneurysms. The angiographic model provided accurate CFD information, and the tendencies of simulated and angiographic models were similar. These findings indicate that hemodynamic effects are involved in the development of aneurysms. PMID:25911446</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364666','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364666"><span id="translatedtitle">HALL EFFECT CONTROLLED GAS <span class="hlt">DYNAMICS</span> IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. FULL <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SIMULATIONS TOWARD THE OUTER DISK</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bai, Xue-Ning</p> <p>2015-01-10</p> <p>We perform three-dimensional stratified shearing-box magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations on the gas <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of protoplanetary disks with a net vertical magnetic flux of B {sub z0}. All three nonideal MHD effects, Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect, and ambipolar diffusion, are included in a self-consistent manner based on equilibrium chemistry. We focus on regions toward outer disk radii, from 5 to 60 AU, where Ohmic resistivity tends to become negligible, ambipolar diffusion dominates over an extended region across the disk height, and the Hall effect largely controls the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> near the disk midplane. We find that at around R = 5 AU the system launches a laminar or weakly turbulent magnetocentrifugal wind when the net vertical field B {sub z0} is not too weak. Moreover, the wind is able to achieve and maintain a configuration with reflection symmetry at the disk midplane. The case with anti-aligned field polarity (Ω⋅B{sub z0}<0) is more susceptible to the magnetorotational instability (MRI) when B {sub z0} decreases, leading to an outflow oscillating in radial directions and very inefficient angular momentum transport. At the outer disk around and beyond R = 30 AU, the system shows vigorous MRI turbulence in the surface layer due to far-UV ionization, which efficiently drives disk accretion. The Hall effect affects the stability of the midplane region to the MRI, leading to strong/weak Maxwell stress for aligned/anti-aligned field polarities. Nevertheless, the midplane region is only very weakly turbulent in both cases. Overall, the basic picture is analogous to the conventional layered accretion scenario applied to the outer disk. In addition, we find that the vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated into thin, azimuthally extended shells in most of our simulations beyond 15 AU, leading to enhanced radial density variations know as zonal flows. Theoretical implications and observational consequences are briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EP%26S...62..665M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EP%26S...62..665M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Construction of semi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model of subduction zone with given plate kinematics in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morishige, M.; Honda, S.; Tackley, P. J.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>We present a semi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subduction zone model in a three-dimensional spherical shell. In this model, velocity is imposed on the top surface and in a small three-dimensional region around the shallow plate boundary while below this region, the slab is able to subduct under its own weight. Surface plate velocities are given by Euler's theorem of rigid plate rotation on a sphere. The velocity imposed in the region around the plate boundary is determined so that mass conservation inside the region is satisfied. A kinematic trench migration can be easily incorporated in this model. As an application of this model, mantle flow around slab edges is considered, and we find that the effect of Earth curvature is small by comparing our model with a similar one in a rectangular box, at least for the parameters used in this study. As a second application of the model, mantle flow around a plate junction is studied, and we find the existence of mantle return flow perpendicular to the plate boundary. Since this model can naturally incorporate the spherical geometry and plate movement on the sphere, it is useful for studying a specific subduction zone where the plate kinematics is well constrained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..459..194G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..459..194G"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-irradiation plastic deformation in bcc Fe grains investigated by means of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dislocation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gururaj, K.; Robertson, C.; Fivel, M.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Post-irradiation tensile straining is investigated by means of three-dimensional dislocation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations adapted to body centred cubic Fe. Namely, 1 μm Fe grains are strained at various temperatures in the 100-300 K range, in absence and in presence of radiation-induced defect dispersions. The defect-induced hardening is consistent with the disperse barrier effect up to 5 ×1021m-3 loops and is weakly dependent on the straining temperature. The dislocation-loops interaction rate augments with the accumulated plastic strain, loop density and strength; while it is mainly independent of the number of active slip systems and thermally activated screw dislocation mobility. An additional, radiation-induced hardening mechanism known as dislocation "decoration" is also implemented and tested for comparison. Those results show that the plastic flow localisation transition depends on the total yield point rise rather than on the lone, dispersed loop density. The simulation results are then rationalized through an original micro-mechanical model relating the grain-scale stress-strain behaviour to dislocation sub-structure formation and spreading. That model combines strain dependent and strain independent hardening mechanisms, which both contribute to the associated stress-strain response and plastic flow spreading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23563221','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23563221"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> studies on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures of the hydrophobic region PrP(109-136).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jiapu; Zhang, Yuanli</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Prion diseases, traditionally referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species, manifesting as scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Kulu in humans, etc. These neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)). The hydrophobic region PrP(109-136) controls the formation of diseased prions: the normal PrP(113-120) AGAAAAGA palindrome is an inhibitor/blocker of prion diseases and the highly conserved glycine-xxx-glycine motif PrP(119-131) can inhibit the formation of infectious prion proteins in cells. This article gives detailed reviews on the PrP(109-136) region and presents the studies of its three-dimensional structures and structural <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. PMID:23563221</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993graz.iafcV....D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993graz.iafcV....D"><span id="translatedtitle">An approach for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mathematical modelization of big structures with special respect to Ariane 5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dieker, S.</p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>With special respect to Ariane 5, solutions are outlined that allow an improvement of the mathematical modeling and calculation in structural <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Substructuring, and the application of modern component mode synthesis methods, are necessary. However, most of the methods result in modal degrees of freedom (DOF) of the interfaces and demand a high effort to couple the substructures. A general method is described that overcomes the disadvantages of the modal interface DOFs. As a result, the coupling of substructures is reduced to a simple addition of matrices. All reduced matrices of the substructures are real and symmetric. In a second section, special aspects of modeling are discussed. Structural aspects that are taken into account are the viscoelastic material behavior of the propellant of the solid rocket booster, the idealization of fluids and shells, and the fluid-structure-interaction. The coupling between axial, lateral and circumferential wave modes of Ariane 5 is no longer negligible; a hybrid description of the DOFs of the complete launcher by grid point displacements and Fourier series is possible, and offers an additional way to reduce the number of DOFs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AcAau..34..139D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AcAau..34..139D"><span id="translatedtitle">An approach for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mathematical modelization of big structures with special respect to ARIANE 5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dieker, S.</p> <p></p> <p>With special respect to ARIANE 5, solutions are outlined that allow an improvement of the mathematical modelization and calculation in structural <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Substructuring and the application of modern component mode synthesis methods (e.g. Craig-Chang) are necessary. However, most of the methods result in modal degrees of freedom (DOF) of the interfaces and demand a high effort to couple the substructures. In this paper, a general method is described that allows to overcome the disadvantages of the modal interface DOFs. As a result, the coupling of substructures is reduced to a simple addition of matrices. The methods of Craig-Chang and Hurty resp. Craig-Bampton are special applications of this method. All reduced matrices of the substructures are real and symmetric. In a second section, special aspects of modelization are discussed. Structural aspects that are taken into accout are the viscoelastic material behaviour of the propellant of the solid rocket booster, the idealization of fluids and shells and the fluid-structure-interaction including the stiffening effect of the tank pressure. Finally, the coupling between axial, lateral and circumferential wave modes of the launcher ARIANE 5 is no longer neglectable. The mathematical representation of the interfaces between adjacent substructures is of some importance. A hybrid description of the DOFs of the complete launcher by grid point displacements and Fourier series is possible and offers an additional way to reduce the number of DOFs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2711338','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2711338"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Hybrid Model for Tissue Growth: The Interplay between Cell Population and Mass Transport <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cheng, Gang; Markenscoff, Pauline; Zygourakis, Kyriacos</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Abstract To provide theoretical guidance for the design and in vitro cultivation of bioartificial tissues, we have developed a multiscale computational model that can describe the complex interplay between cell population and mass transport <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> that governs the growth of tissues in three-dimensional scaffolds. The model has three components: a transient partial differential equation for the simultaneous diffusion and consumption of a limiting nutrient; a cellular automaton describing cell migration, proliferation, and collision; and equations that quantify how the varying nutrient concentration modulates cell division and migration. The hybrid discrete-continuous model was parallelized and solved on a distributed-memory multicomputer to study how transport limitations affect tissue regeneration rates under conditions encountered in typical bioreactors. Simulation results show that the severity of transport limitations can be estimated by the magnitude of two dimensionless groups: the Thiele modulus and the Biot number. Key parameters including the initial seeding mode, cell migration speed, and the hydrodynamic conditions in the bioreactor are shown to affect not only the overall rate, but also the pattern of tissue growth. This study lays the groundwork for more comprehensive models that can handle mixed cell cultures, multiple nutrients and growth factors, and other cellular processes, such as cell death. PMID:19619455</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..APRH14006H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..APRH14006H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> real holographic image movies are projected into a volumetric display using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> digital micromirror device (DMD) holograms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huebschman, Michael L.; Hunt, Jeremy; Garner, Harold R.</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>The Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is being used as the recording medium for display of pre-calculated digital holograms. The high intensity throughput of the reflected laser light from DMD holograms enables volumetric display of projected real images as well as virtual images. A single DMD and single laser projector system has been designed to reconstruct projected images in a 6''x 6''x 4.5'' volumetric display. The volumetric display is composed of twenty-four, 6''-square, PSCT liquid crystal plates which are each cycled on and off to reduce unnecessary scatter in the volume. The DMD is an XGA format array, 1024x768, with 13.6 micron pitch mirrors. This holographic projection system has been used in the assessment of hologram image resolution, maximum image size, optical focusing of the real image, image look-around, and physiological depth cues. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> movement images are projected by transferring the appropriately sequenced holograms to the DMD at movie frame rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25397733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25397733"><span id="translatedtitle">Data-driven techniques for detecting <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> state changes in noisily measured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> single-molecule trajectories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Calderon, Christopher P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Optical microscopes and nanoscale probes (AFM, optical tweezers, etc.) afford researchers tools capable of quantitatively exploring how molecules interact with one another in live cells. The analysis of in vivo single-molecule experimental data faces numerous challenges due to the complex, crowded, and time changing environments associated with live cells. Fluctuations and spatially varying systematic forces experienced by molecules change over time; these changes are obscured by "measurement noise" introduced by the experimental probe monitoring the system. In this article, we demonstrate how the Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Switching Linear <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> System (HDP-SLDS) of Fox et al. [IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 59] can be used to detect both subtle and abrupt state changes in time series containing "thermal" and "measurement" noise. The approach accounts for temporal dependencies induced by random and "systematic overdamped" forces. The technique does not require one to subjectively select the number of "hidden states" underlying a trajectory in an a priori fashion. The number of hidden states is simultaneously inferred along with change points and parameters characterizing molecular motion in a data-driven fashion. We use large scale simulations to study and compare the new approach to state-of-the-art Hidden Markov Modeling techniques. Simulations mimicking single particle tracking (SPT) experiments are the focus of this study. PMID:25397733</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36...72H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36...72H"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the IMF rotation on the cusp <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on the dayside: Global <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PIC simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Z.; Cai, D.; Lembege, B.; Nishikawa, K.-I.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the cusp region is analyzed with a new version of a global three-dimensional full particle simulation with changing the interplanetary magnetic field IMF direction progressively from northward to duskward then duskward to southward With the initial northward IMF bands of weak magnetic field sash form poleward of the cusp at high latitudes in each hemisphere and at high altitudes these sashes are located approximately around the pole axis As the IMF rotates duskward these sashes move toward the equator within opposite quadrants Then as the duskward-oriented IMF continue to rotate toward southward these sashes move further and reach the dayside magnetopause at the equator During the progressive rotation of the IMF from northward to duskward i the sash region widens towards lower latitudes banana-shape and with the duskward IMF ii the size of the banana-shape region becomes minimum and its location stops around a maximum deviation of 45degree from the polar axis It should be noted that the sashes are extended from the dayside to the nightside tailward The motion of the sashes is also analyzed during the IMF rotation form duskward to southward</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMSM13A0327T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMSM13A0327T"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the IMF rotation on the cusp <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on the dayside: Global <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PIC simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.; Cai, D.; Lembege, B.; Nishikawa, K.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the cusp region as the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) progressively changes its direction from northward to duskward is analysed with a new version of a global three-dimensional full particle simulation. For northward IMF, bands of weak magnetic field (sash) form poleward of the cusp at high latitudes in each hemisphere (and at high altitudes); these sashs are centered approximately around the pole axis. However, as the newly duskward-oriented IMF approaches and interacts with the magnetosphere, these sashs move to the equator (within opposite quadrants). During the progressive rotation of the IMF, this motion is decomposed in the plane perpendicular to the solar wind as follows: (i) the "sash" region widens towards lower latitudes ("banana-shape"), and (ii) the size of the "banana-shape" region strongly shrinks and its location stabilizes around a maximum deviation of 45?. In addition, this motion is observed both on the day and the night sides where sashs are simultaneously observed. Characteristic time and space scales of the cusp motion are indicated, in order to be compare with results deduced from previous MHD simulations. Changes of local reconnection in the cusp region are analysed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18257529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18257529"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> studies of side chain effect on the beta-1,<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>-glucan triple helix in aqueous solution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okobira, Tadashi; Miyoshi, Kentaro; Uezu, Kazuya; Sakurai, Kazuo; Shinkai, Seiji</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>beta-1,<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>-glucans have been isolated from fungi as right-handed 6(1) triple helices. They are categorized by the side chains bound to the main triple helix through beta-(1-->6)-D-glycosyl linkage. Indeed, since a glucose-based side chain is water soluble, the presence and frequency of glucose-based side chains give rise to significant variation in the physical properties of the glucan family. Curdlan has no side chains and self-assembles to form an water-insoluble triple helical structure, while schizophyllan, which has a 1,6-D-glucose side chain on every third glucose unit along the main chain, is completely water soluble. A thermal fluctuation in the optical rotatory dispersion is observed for the side chain, indicating probable co-operative interaction between the side chains and water molecules. This paper documents molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations in aqueous solution for three models of the beta-1,<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>-glucan series: curdlan (no side chain), schizophyllan (a beta-(1-->6)-D-glycosyl side-chain at every third position), and a hypothetical triple helix with a side chain at every sixth main-chain glucose unit. A decrease was observed in the helical pitch as the population of the side chain increased. Two types of hydrogen bonding via water molecules, the side chain/main chain and the side chain/side chain hydrogen bonding, play an important role in determination of the triple helix conformation. The formation of a one-dimensional cavity of diameter about 3.5 A was observed in the schizophyllan triple helix, while curdlan showed no such cavity. The side chain/side chain hydrogen bonding in schizophyllan and the hypothetical beta-1,<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>-glucan triple helix could cause the tilt of the main-chain glucose residues to the helix. PMID:18257529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10j5006B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10j5006B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation of boreal forests: structure and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in complex terrain and in a changing climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brazhnik, Ksenia; Shugart, Herman H.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>To understand how the Siberian boreal forests may respond to near-future climate change, we employed a modeling approach and examined thresholds for significant and irreversible changes in forest structure and composition that are likely to be reached by mid-21st century. We applied the new spatially-explicit gap-<span class="hlt">dynamics</span> model SIBBORK toward the understanding of how transition zones, namely treelines, which are notoriously undersampled and difficult to model, may change in the near future. We found that a 2 °C change in annual average air temperature significantly altered the structure, composition, and productivity of boreal forests stands both in the northern and the southern treeline ecotones. Treeline migration occurs at smaller temperature changes. Based on the current (1990-2014) observed warming trends, a 2 °C increase in annual average temperature compared to historical climate (1961-1990) is likely to be experienced at the northern treeline by 2040 and at the southern treeline by 2050. With regards to the forest biome, the most significant warming to date has been predicted and observed in Siberia. A 2 °C increase in annual average temperature compared to the second half of the 19th century is smaller than the predictions of even the most conservative RCP2.6 climate change scenario (IPCC 2013), and has previously been assumed to not likely result in dramatic changes to ecosystems or biome shifts. We show that at a +2 °C change, biome shifts from forest to steppe are likely to occur across a large area in southern Siberia. These changes in land cover will inevitably result in changes in the biodiversity, carbon storage, and the ecosystem services provided by the boreal forests of southern Siberia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3276601','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3276601"><span id="translatedtitle">Gender Dimorphic ACL Strain In Response to Combined <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Knee Joint Loading: Implications for ACL Injury Risk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mizuno, Kiyonori; Andrish, Jack T.; van den Bogert, Antonie J.; McLean, Scott G.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>While gender-based differences in knee joint anatomies/laxities are well documented, the potential for them to precipitate gender-dimorphic ACL loading and resultant injury risk has not been considered. To this end, we generated gender-specific models of ACL strain as a function of any six degrees of freedom (6DOF) knee joint load state via a combined cadaveric and analytical approach. Continuously varying joint forces and torques were applied to five male and five female cadaveric specimens and recorded along with synchronous knee flexion and ACL strain data. All data (~10,000 samples) were submitted to specimen-specific regression analyses, affording ACL strain predictions as a function of the combined 6 DOF knee loads. Following individual model verifications, generalized gender-specific models were generated and subjected to 6 DOF external load scenarios consistent with both a clinical examination and a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> sports maneuver. The ensuing model-based strain predictions were subsequently examined for gender-based discrepancies. Male and female specimen specific models predicted ACL strain within 0.51% ± 0.10% and 0.52% ± 0.07% of the measured data respectively, and explained more than 75% of the associated variance in each case. Predicted female ACL strains were also significantly larger than respective male values for both of simulated 6 DOF load scenarios. Outcomes suggest that the female ACL will rupture in response to comparatively smaller external load applications. Future work must address the underlying anatomical/laxity contributions to knee joint mechanical and resultant ACL loading, ultimately affording prevention strategies that may cater to individual joint vulnerabilities. PMID:19464897</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7709E..12L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7709E..12L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visual analytic tools: a method for maintaining situational awareness during high tempo warfare or mass casualty operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lizotte, Todd E.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Maintaining Situational Awareness (SA) is crucial to the success of high tempo operations, such as war fighting and mass casualty events (bioterrorism, natural disasters). Modern computer and software applications attempt to provide command and control manager's situational awareness via the collection, integration, interrogation and display of vast amounts of analytic data in real-time from a multitude of data sources and formats [1]. At what point does the data volume and displays begin to erode the hierarchical distributive intelligence, command and control structure of the operation taking place? In many cases, people tasked with making decisions, have insufficient experience in SA of high tempo operations and become overwhelmed easily as vast amounts of data begin to be displayed in real-time as an operation unfolds. In these situations, where data is plentiful and the relevance of the data changes rapidly, there is a chance for individuals to target fixate on those data sources they are most familiar. If these individuals fall into this type of pitfall, they will exclude other data that might be just as important to the success of the operation. To counter these issues, it is important that the computer and software applications provide a means for prompting its users to take notice of adverse conditions or trends that are critical to the operation. This paper will discuss a new method of displaying data called a Crisis ViewTM, that monitors critical variables that are <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> changing and allows preset thresholds to be created to prompt the user when decisions need to be made and when adverse or positive trends are detected. The new method will be explained in basic terms, with examples of its attributes and how it can be implemented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T13D..07P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T13D..07P"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of rheology on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and development of topography in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations of continental collision, with an application to the India-Asia collision zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, B.; Popov, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan Plateau represent the largest region of elevated topography and anomalously thick crust on Earth. Understanding the formation and evolution of the region has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical models. While some of these models (i.e. thin sheet model) have successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision, none can simultaneously represent active processes such as subduction, underthrusting, channel flow or extrusion, for which fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models are required. Here, we employed the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code LaMEM to investigate the role that subduction, continental collision and indentation play on lithosphere <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at convergent margins, and the implications they have for the Asian tectonics. Our model setup resembles a simplified tectonic map of the India-Asia collision zone and we performed a large number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations to analyse the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the conditions under which large topographic plateaus, such as the Tibetan Plateau can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper-mantle scale model. Results of models with linear viscous rheologies show different modes between the oceanic subduction side (continuous subduction, trench retreat and slab roll-back) and the continental collision side (trench advance, slab detachment, topographic uplift and lateral extrusion of material). Despite the complex <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the great variation in slab shape across the subduction-collision zone, which are consistent with tomographic observations, we note that slab-pull alone is insufficient to generate high topography in the upper plate. Several studies suggested that external forces (i.e. ridge push, plume push or slab suction) must be important in order to sustain the on-going convergence of India towards Eurasia. We show that external forcing and the presence of strong blocks such as the Tarim Basin within the Asian lithosphere are necessary to create and shape anomalously high topographic fronts and plateaus</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/501572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/501572"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of fracture reservoirs using static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> data: From sonic and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic to permeability distribution. Annual report, March 1, 1996--February 28, 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Parra, J.O.; Collier, H.A.; Owen, T.E.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. They also may connect the borehole to remote zones of better reservoir characteristics. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based on the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. The project is a study directed toward the evaluation of acoustic logging and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-seismic measurement techniques as well as fluid flow and transport methods for mapping permeability anisotropy and other petrophysical parameters for the understanding of the reservoir fracture systems and associated fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. The principal application of these measurement techniques and methods is to identify and investigate the propagation characteristics of acoustic and seismic waves in the Twin Creek hydrocarbon reservoir owned by Union Pacific Resources (UPR) and to characterize the fracture permeability distribution using production data. This site is located in the overthrust area of Utah and Wyoming. UPR drilled six horizontal wells, and presently UPR has two rigs running with many established drill hole locations. In addition, there are numerous vertical wells that exist in the area as well as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic surveys. Each horizontal well contains full FMS logs and MWD logs, gamma logs, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...158...34W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...158...34W"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical temperature <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the Northern Baltic Sea based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modelling and data from shallow-water Argo floats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Westerlund, Antti; Tuomi, Laura</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic models often produce errors in the depth of the mixed layer and the vertical density structure. We used the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic model NEMO to investigate the effect of vertical turbulence parameterisations on seasonal temperature <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the Bothnian Sea, Baltic Sea for the years 2012 and 2013. We used vertical profiles from new shallow-water Argo floats, operational in the area since 2012, to validate our model. We found that NEMO was able to reproduce the general features of the seasonal temperature variations in the study area, when meteorological forcing was accurate. The k-ε and k-ω schemes were selected for a more detailed analysis. Both schemes showed clear differences, but neither proved superior. While sea surface temperature was better simulated with the k-ω scheme, thermocline depth was clearly better with the k-ε scheme. We investigated the effect of wave-breaking on the mixing of the surface layer. The Craig and Banner parameterisation clearly improved the representation of thermocline depth. However, further tuning of the mixing parameterisations for the Baltic Sea is needed to better simulate the vertical temperature structure. We found the autonomous Baltic Sea Argo floats valuable for model validation and performance evaluation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466777"><span id="translatedtitle">A non-invasive, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> MRI method for measuring muscle moment arms in vivo: demonstration in the human ankle joint and Achilles tendon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clarke, E C; Martin, J H; d'Entremont, A G; Pandy, M G; Wilson, D R; Herbert, R D</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Muscle moment arms are used widely in biomechanical analyses. Often they are measured in 2D or at a series of static joint positions. In the present study we demonstrate a simple MRI method for measuring muscle moment arms <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> from a single range-of-motion cycle. We demonstrate this method in the Achilles tendon for comparison with other methods, and validate the method using a custom apparatus. The method involves registration of high-resolution joint geometry from MRI scans of the stationary joint with low-resolution geometries from ultrafast MRI scans of the slowly moving joint. Tibio-talar helical axes and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Achilles tendon moment arms were calculated throughout passive rotation for 10 adult subjects, and compared with recently published data. A simple validation was conducted by comparing MRI measurements with direct physical measurements made on a phantom. The moment arms measured using our method and those of others were similar and there was good agreement between physical measurements (mean 41.0mm) and MRI measurements (mean 39.5mm) made on the phantom. This new method can accurately measure muscle moment arms from a single range-of-motion cycle without the need to control rotation rate or gate the scanning. Supplementary data includes custom software to assist implementation. PMID:25466777</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27119584','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27119584"><span id="translatedtitle">Insights into mechanism of pyrido[2,<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span>]pyrimidines as DYRK1A inhibitors based on molecular <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Jiao Jiao; Tian, Yue Li; Zhai, Hong Lin; Lv, Min; Zhang, Xiao Yun</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>DYRK1A is characterized by the early development and regulation of neuronal proliferation, and its over expression gives rise to neurological abnormalities. As the promising DYRK1A inhibitors, the binding mechanism between DYRK1A and pyrido[2,<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span>]pyrimidines derivatives at molecular level are still veiled. In this article, it was achieved to get the structural insights into pyrido[2,<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span>]pyrimidines derivatives as DYRK1A inhibitors by means of comprehensive computational approaches involving molecular docking, molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation, free energy calculation, and energy decomposition analysis. The calculated energy values were highly consistent with the experimental activities. Based on the individual energy terms analysis, the van der Waals interaction was the major leading force in the DYRK1A-ligand interaction. Lys188 was the important residue that formed the hydrogen bond, which improved the inhibitory activity. Furthermore, four novel inhibitors with higher predicted activity were designed based on the obtained findings and confirmed by molecular simulations. Our study is expected to provide significant drug design strategy for the development of more promising DYRK1A inhibitors. Proteins 2016; 84:1108-1123. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27119584</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015MS%26E...84a2077B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015MS%26E...84a2077B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> microstructure formation in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> directional solidification of transparent model alloys: in situ characterization in DECLIC Directional Solidification Insert under diffusion transport in microgravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergeon, N.; Mota, F. L.; Chen, L.; Tourret, D.; Debierre, J. M.; Guérin, R.; Karma, A.; Billia, B.; Trivedi, R.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>To clarify and characterize the fundamental physical mechanisms active in the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> formation of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) arrays of cells and dendrites under diffusive growth conditions, in situ monitoring of series of experiments on transparent model alloy succinonitrile - 0.24 wt% camphor was carried out under low gravity in the DECLIC Directional Solidification Insert on-board the International Space Station. These experiments offered the very unique opportunity to in situ observe and characterize the whole development of the microstructure in extended <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> patterns. The experimental methods will be first briefly described, including in particular the observation modes and the image analysis procedures developed to quantitatively characterize the patterns. Microgravity environment provided the conditions to get quantitative benchmark data: homogeneous patterns corresponding to homogeneous values of control parameters along the whole interface were obtained. The sequence of microstructure formation will be presented as well as the evolution of the primary spacing which is one of the most important pattern characteristic. Time evolution of this primary spacing during the microstructure development will be analysed to identify the mechanisms of spacing selection and adjustment; the importance of the macroscopic interfacial curvature will be pointed out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21021164','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21021164"><span id="translatedtitle">Confirmatory analysis of the AP1000 passive residual heat removal heat exchanger with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schwall, James R.; Karim, Naeem U.; Thakkar, Jivan G.; Taylor, Creed; Schulz, Terry; Wright, Richard F.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>The AP1000 is an 1100 MWe advanced nuclear power plant that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 received final design approval from the US-NRC in 2004. The AP1000 design is based on the AP600 design that received final design approval in 1999. Wherever possible, the AP1000 plant configuration and layout was kept the same as AP600 to take advantage of the maturity of the design and to minimize new design efforts. As a result, the two-loop configuration was maintained for AP1000, and the containment vessel diameter was kept the same. It was determined that this significant power up-rate was well within the capability of the passive safety features, and that the safety margins for AP1000 were greater than those of operating PWRs. A key feature of the passive core cooling system is the passive residual heat removal heat exchanger (PRHR HX) that provides decay heat removal for postulated LOCA and non-LOCA events. The PRHR HX is a C-tube heat exchanger located in the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) above the core promoting natural circulation heat removal between the reactor cooling system and the tank. Component testing was performed for the AP600 PRHR HX to determine the heat transfer characteristics and to develop correlations to be used for the AP1000 safety analysis codes. The data from these tests were confirmed by subsequent integral tests at three separate facilities including the ROSA facility in Japan. Owing to the importance of this component, an independent analysis has been performed using the ATHOS-based computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> computer code PRHRCFD. Two separate models of the PRHR HX and IRWST have been developed representing the ROSA test geometry and the AP1000 plant geometry. Confirmation of the ROSA test results were used to validate PRHRCFD, and the AP1000 plant model</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T43A2617D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T43A2617D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Rupture Simulation Across a Complex Fault System: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Earthquakes ruptures sometimes take place on a secondary fault and surprisingly do not activate an adjacent major one. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake is a classic case where rupture occurred on a blind thrust while the adjacent San Andreas Fault was not triggered during the process. Similar to Loma Prieta, the Mw7.0, January 12 2010, Haiti earthquake also ruptured a secondary blind thrust, the Léogâne fault, adjacent to the main plate boundary, the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, which did not rupture during this event. Aftershock relocalizations delineate the Léogâne rupture with two north dipping segments with slightly different dip, where the easternmost segment had mostly dip-slip motion and the westernmost one had mostly strike-slip motion. In addition, an offshore south dipping structure inferred from the aftershocks to the west of the rupture zone coincides with the offshore Trois Baies reverse fault, a region of increase in Coulomb stress increase. In this study, we investigate the rupture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the Haiti earthquake in a complex fault system of multiple segments identified by the aftershock relocations. We suppose a background stress regime that is consistent with the type of motion of each fault and with the regional tectonic regime. We initiate a nucleation on the east segment of the Léogâne fault by defining a circular region with a 2 km radius where shear stress is slightly greater than the yield stress. By varying friction on faults and background stress, we find a range of plausible scenarios. In the absence of near-field seismic records of the event, we score the different models against the static deformation field derived from GPS and InSAR at the surface. All the plausible simulations show that the rupture propagates from the eastern to the western segment along the Léogâne fault, but not on the Enriquillo fault nor on the Trois Baies fault. The best-fit simulation shows a significant increase of shear stresses on the Trois Baies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014084','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014084"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Computations and Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D</p> <p>2004-04-05</p> <p>This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Development, involves general development activities in the ALE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15004908','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15004908"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Computations and Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D</p> <p>2003-05-12</p> <p>This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Code Development'' and ''<span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412111A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412111A"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Galunggung1982-83 and Eyjafjalla-2010 Eruptions: definition of eruption <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ash Surface Morphology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aydar, E.; Höskuldsson, A.; Ersoy, O.; Gourgaud, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We consider that all works, concepts on aviation safety, security codes, establishment of warning systems etc begin in 1982, when two commercial jumbo jets en route to Australia across Indonesia suffered loss of engine thrust from ingesting volcanic ash from the erupting Galunggung Volcano, Java, and descended more than 20,000 ft before the engines could be restarted (Casadevall, 1991). It is not the only incident of this kind but this Galunggung eruption had a pionner character attracting attention on aviation safety against volcanic eruptions in international community. As the needs for precautions on aviation safety against volcanic ash encounters began with Galunggung 1982 eruption and as we all concerned by the measures taken by ICAO due to Eyjafjallajökull-2010 eruption, we aimed to investigate this last huge airspace perturbing eruption and compare the volcanic ashes produced by those two eruptions. Volcanic ash characterization should be most important parameter to understand how the eruption concerned unrolled. Galunggung 1982-83 eruption was exceptionally long, lasting about nine months between 5 April 1982-8 January 1983). During this well known eruption, the composition of the erupted magma evolved from andesite (58% SiO2) to Mg-rich basalt (47% SiO2), while the style of the eruption changed drastically through time (Katili and Sudrdajat, 1984; Sudrajat and Tilling, 1984; Gourgaud et al., 1989 gourgaud etal 2000). Paralel to chemical changes and water consumption, eruption <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> was also changed and occured in three eruption phases with different eruptive styles as an initial Vulcanian phase (5 April-13 May), a phreatomagmatic phase (17 May-28 October) and a Strombolian phase (3 November-8 January), have been recognized (Katili and Sudradjat,1984). We examined the surficial morphological features of proximal tephra collected from Galunggung and Eyjafjalla volcanoes. Surface texture and morphology of volcanic ash particles change according to various</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=computed+AND+tomography&pg=2&id=EJ663163','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=computed+AND+tomography&pg=2&id=EJ663163"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hastings, S. K.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Discusses <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">D</span> imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">D</span> imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90744','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90744"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> pulse buckling of cylindrical shells under axial impact: A comparison of 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element calculations with experimental data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>A series of tests investigating <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. Four axial impact tests were performed on 4 in-diameter, 8 in-long, 304 L stainless steel cylinders with a 3/16 in wall thickness. The cylinders were struck by a 597 lb mass with an impact velocity ranging from 42.2 to 45.1 ft/sec. During the impact event, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. The instability occurred at the top of the cylinder in three tests and at the bottom in one test. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using the following codes and element types: PRONTO2D with axisymmetric four-node quadrilaterals; PRONTO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> with both four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons; and ABAQUS/Explicit with axisymmetric two-node shells and four-node quadrilaterals, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons. All of the calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history. As in the tests, the location of the instability is not consistent in all of the calculations. However, the calculations show good agreement with impact load measurements with the exception of an initial load spike which is proven to be the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> response of the load cell to the impact. Finally, the PRONIT02D calculation is compared to the tests with respect to strain and acceleration histories. Accelerometer data exhibited good qualitative agreement with the calculations. The strain comparisons show that measurements are very sensitive to gage placement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22925873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22925873"><span id="translatedtitle">Sediment <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in shallow Lake Markermeer, The Netherlands: field/laboratory surveys and first results for a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> suspended solids model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelderman, P; De Rozari, P; Mukhopadhyay, S; Ang'weya, R O</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In 2007/08, a study was undertaken on sediment <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in shallow Lake Markermeer, The Netherlands. Firstly, the sediment characteristics median grain size, mud content and loss on ignition showed a spatial as well as water depth related pattern indicating wind-induced sediment transport. Sediment <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> were investigated in a sediment trap field survey at two stations. Sediment yields, virtually all coming from sediment resuspension, were significantly correlated with wind speeds. Resuspension rates for Lake Markermeer were very high, viz. ca. 1,000 g/m(2)day as an annual average, leading to high suspended solids (SS) contents, due to the large lake area and its shallowness (high '<span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Ratio'). Sediment resuspension behaviour was further investigated in preliminary laboratory experiments using a 'micro-flume', applying increasing water currents onto five Lake Markermeer sediments. Resuspension showed a clear exponential behaviour. Finally, a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model was set up for water quality and SS contents in Lake Markermeer; first results showed a good agreement between modelled and actual SS contents. Construction of artificial islands and dams will reduce wind fetches and may be expected to cause a substantial decrease in lake water turbidity. PMID:22925873</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011vire.book..139W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011vire.book..139W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Medical Consultation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.</p> <p></p> <p>Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) views of a remote environment and events. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1715063D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1715063D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the scale dependent <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> SGS model in the open source code caffa<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>.MBRi in wall-bounded flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Draper, Martin; Usera, Gabriel</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Scale Dependent <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Model (SDDM) has been widely validated in large-eddy simulations using pseudo-spectral codes [1][2][3]. The scale dependency, particularly the potential law, has been proved also in a priori studies [4][5]. To the authors' knowledge there have been only few attempts to use the SDDM in finite difference (FD) and finite volume (FV) codes [6][7], finding some improvements with the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> procedures (scale independent or scale dependent approach), but not showing the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter when using the SDDM. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the SDDM in the open source code caffa<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>.MBRi, an updated version of the code presented in [8]. caffa<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>.MBRi is a FV code, second-order accurate, parallelized with MPI, in which the domain is divided in unstructured blocks of structured grids. To accomplish this, 2 cases are considered: flow between flat plates and flow over a rough surface with the presence of a model wind turbine, taking for this case the experimental data presented in [9]. In both cases the standard Smagorinsky Model (SM), the Scale Independent <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Model (SIDM) and the SDDM are tested. As presented in [6][7] slight improvements are obtained with the SDDM. Nevertheless, the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter supports the generalization of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> procedure proposed in the SDDM, particularly taking into account that no explicit filter is used (the implicit filter is unknown). [1] F. Porté-Agel, C. Meneveau, M.B. Parlange. "A scale-dependent <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model for large-eddy simulation: application to a neutral atmospheric boundary layer". Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2000, 415, 261-284. [2] E. Bou-Zeid, C. Meneveau, M. Parlante. "A scale-dependent Lagrangian <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows". Physics of Fluids, 2005, 17, 025105 (18p). [3] R. Stoll, F. Porté-Agel. "<span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> subgrid-scale models for momentum and scalar fluxes in large-eddy simulations of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24808080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24808080"><span id="translatedtitle">XML<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and Xflow: combining declarative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for the Web with generic data flows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Researchers have combined XML<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which provides declarative, interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene graph with data flows for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3083700','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3083700"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies of New Fused Benzazepine as Selective Dopamine D3 Receptor Antagonists Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR, Molecular Docking and Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Jing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Shuwei; Xiao, Zhengtao; Ai, Chunzhi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, great interest has been paid to the development of compounds with high selectivity for central dopamine (DA) D3 receptors, an interesting therapeutic target in the treatment of different neurological disorders. In the present work, based on a dataset of 110 collected benzazepine (BAZ) DA D3 antagonists with diverse kinds of structures, a variety of in silico modeling approaches, including comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (MD) were carried out to reveal the requisite <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural features for activity. Our results show that both the receptor-based (Q2 = 0.603, R2ncv = 0.829, R2pre = 0.690, SEE = 0.316, SEP = 0.406) and ligand-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR models (Q2 = 0.506, R2ncv =0.838, R2pre = 0.794, SEE = 0.316, SEP = 0.296) are reliable with proper predictive capacity. In addition, a combined analysis between the CoMFA, CoMSIA contour maps and MD results with a homology DA receptor model shows that: (1) ring-A, position-2 and R3 substituent in ring-D are crucial in the design of antagonists with higher activity; (2) more bulky R1 substituents (at position-2 of ring-A) of antagonists may well fit in the binding pocket; (3) hydrophobicity represented by MlogP is important for building satisfactory QSAR models; (4) key amino acids of the binding pocket are CYS101, ILE105, LEU106, VAL151, PHE175, PHE184, PRO254 and ALA251. To our best knowledge, this work is the first report on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR modeling of the new fused BAZs as DA D3 antagonists. These results might provide information for a better understanding of the mechanism of antagonism and thus be helpful in designing new potent DA D3 antagonists. PMID:21541053</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22130519','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22130519"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> seroma cavity using fiducial markers in patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conformal radiotherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Goyal, Sharad</p> <p>2013-02-15</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to perform an analysis of the changes in the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> seroma cavity based on fiducial markers in early stage breast cancer patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CRT). Methods: A prospective, single arm trial was designed to investigate the utility of gold fiducial markers in image guided APBI using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CRT. At the time of lumpectomy, four to six suture-type gold fiducial markers were sutured to the walls of the cavity. Patients were treated with a fractionation scheme consisting of 15 fractions with a fractional dose of 333 cGy. Treatment design and planning followed NSABP/RTOG B-39 guidelines. During radiation treatment, daily kV imaging was performed and the markers were localized and tracked. The change in distance between fiducial markers was analyzed based on the planning CT and daily kV images. Results: Thirty-four patients were simulated at an average of 28 days after surgery, and started the treatment on an average of 39 days after surgery. The average intermarker distance (AiMD) between fiducial markers was strongly correlated to seroma volume. The average reduction in AiMD was 19.1% (range 0.0%-41.4%) and 10.8% (range 0.0%-35.6%) for all the patients between simulation and completion of radiotherapy, and between simulation and beginning of radiotherapy, respectively. The change of AiMD fits an exponential function with a half-life of seroma shrinkage. The average half-life for seroma shrinkage was 15 days. After accounting for the reduction which started to occur after surgery through CT simulation and treatment, radiation was found to have minimal impact on the distance change over the treatment course. Conclusions: Using the marker distance change as a surrogate for seroma volume, it appears that the seroma cavity experiences an exponential reduction in size. The change in seroma size has implications in the size of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.V23D2868M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.V23D2868M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal distribution of Cu-Au-Mo ore deposits along the western Tethyan convergent margin: a link with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subduction <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menant, A.; Bertrand, G.; Loiselet, C.; Guillou-Frottier, L.; Jolivet, L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p> numerous mineralized systems within the upper crust. The Au-rich Oligocene - Neogene metallogenic episode in the eastern Mediterranean region is also correlated with an increase of mantle-derived and/or subduction-modified lithospheric mantle components in magmas. This feature may be a consequence of the emplacement of hot asthenosphere at shallow depth related to (1) the development of a wide back-arc region due to slab retreat such as in the Aegean domain and (2) a slab tear and/or a lithospheric delamination, suspected notably in the Carpathians and western Turkey where alkaline to shoshonitic volcanism occurs. As the behavior of the slab and asthenosphere below the upper plate seems to play a key-role in controlling the distribution of ore deposits, it is worth studying the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mantle flow related to slab retreat. Thus, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical models of subduction <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> with realistic rheologies have been developed. Around the slab edges, the poloidal (i.e. in a vertical plane) and toroidal (i.e. in a horizontal plane) components of the mantle flow in subduction zone appear to depend on the slab rollback to plate velocity ratio. Heat and mass transfers induced by such <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mantle flow, promote thermal anomalies in back-arc domain, observed on seismic tomographic models and necessary to produce fertile magmatism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.P53C1867S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.P53C1867S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of pickup ion velocity distribution function in Titan's plasma environment (TA encounter): <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hybrid kinetic modeling and comparison with CAPS observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simpson, D. G.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Wave-particle interactions play a very important role in the plasma <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> near Titan: mass loading, excitation of the low-frequency waves and the formation of the particle velocity distribution function, e.g. ring/shell-like distributions, etc. The kinetic approach is important for estimation of the collision processes e.g. a charge exchange. The particle velocity distribution function also plays a key role for understanding the observed particle fluxes. In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution function <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hybrid modeling. The modeling is based on recent analysis of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) ion measurements during the TA flyby. In our model the background ions, all pickup ions, and ionospheric ions are considered as particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperatures of the background electrons and pickup electrons were also included into the generalized Ohm's law. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. We use Chamberlain profiles for the exosphere's components and include a simple ionosphere model with M=28 ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Our modeling shows that interaction between background plasma and pickup ions H+, H2+, CH4+ and N2+ has a more complicated structure than was observed in the T9 flyby and modeling due to the large gyroradius of the background O+ ions [1,2,3,4]. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS TA observations. We also compare our kinetic modeling with other hybrid and MHD modeling of Titan's environment. References [1] Sittler, E.C., et al., Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere and Its Induced Magnetosphere. In: Titan from Cassini-Huygens, Brown, R.H., Lebreton J.P., Waite, J.H., Eds</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19945159','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19945159"><span id="translatedtitle">Blood flow volume of uterine arteries in human pregnancies determined using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and bi-dimensional imaging, angio-Doppler, and fluid-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rigano, S; Ferrazzi, E; Boito, S; Pennati, G; Padoan, A; Galan, H</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The primary aim of this pilot study was to study uterine artery (UtA) blood flow volume in uneventful human pregnancies delivered at term, at mid and late gestation by means of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and bi-dimensional ultrasound imaging with angio-Doppler combined with fluid-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling. Secondary aims were to correlate flow volume to placental site and to UtA Pulsatility Index (PI). Women with singleton, low-risk pregnancies were examined at mid and late gestation. The structure and course of the uterine artery (UtA) was studied in each patient by means of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-angio-Doppler and included vessel diameter D, blood flow velocity and PI (measured along the UtA). Fetal weight estimation and placental insertion site were assessed by ultrasound. A robust fluid-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling was applied to calculate absolute flow and flow per unit fetal weight. Mean UtA diameter and blood flow velocity increased significantly (p < 0.0001) from mid-gestation to late gestation from 2.6 mm and 67.5 cm/s, to 3.0 mm and 85.3 cm/s, respectively, yielding an increasing absolute flow troughout gestation. h coefficient, derived by fluid-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling to calculate mean velocity, increased significantly from 0.52 at mid-gestation to 0.57 at late gestation. UtA blood flow volume ml/min/kg-fetal weight was significantly higher at mid-gestation than at late gestation (535 ml/min/kg vs 193 ml/min/kg; p < 0.0001). In cases with strictly lateral placentas the ipsilateral UtA accommodates at mid and late gestation 63% and 67% of the total UtA flow. In central placentas UtA flow was evenly distributed between the two vessels. An inverse correlation was observed between PI and blood flow volume ml/min/kg (Pearson's coefficient r = -0.54). Our work confirms the technological and methodological limitations in the measurement of uterine artery blood flow. However, Doppler measurements supported by three-dimensional angio imaging of the uterine vessel, high resolution imaging and diameter measurement, and a robust</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24462603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24462603"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> discrete angiogenesis <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model and stochastic simulation for the assessment of blood perfusion coefficient and impact on heat transfer between nanoparticles and malignant tumors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yifat, Jonathan; Gannot, Israel</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Early detection of malignant tumors plays a crucial role in the survivability chances of the patient. Therefore, new and innovative tumor detection methods are constantly searched for. Tumor-specific magnetic-core nano-particles can be used with an alternating magnetic field to detect and treat tumors by hyperthermia. For the analysis of the method effectiveness, the bio-heat transfer between the nanoparticles and the tissue must be carefully studied. Heat diffusion in biological tissue is usually analyzed using the Pennes Bio-Heat Equation, where blood perfusion plays an important role. Malignant tumors are known to initiate an angiogenesis process, where endothelial cell migration from neighboring vasculature eventually leads to the formation of a thick blood capillary network around them. This process allows the tumor to receive its extensive nutrition demands and evolve into a more progressive and potentially fatal tumor. In order to assess the effect of angiogenesis on the bio-heat transfer problem, we have developed a discrete stochastic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model & simulation of tumor-induced angiogenesis. The model elaborates other angiogenesis models by providing high resolution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stochastic simulation, capturing of fine angiogenesis morphological features, effects of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> sprout thickness functions, and stochastic parent vessel generator. We show that the angiogenesis realizations produced are well suited for numerical bio-heat transfer analysis. Statistical study on the angiogenesis characteristics was derived using Monte Carlo simulations. According to the statistical analysis, we provide analytical expression for the blood perfusion coefficient in the Pennes equation, as a function of several parameters. This updated form of the Pennes equation could be used for numerical and analytical analyses of the proposed detection and treatment method. PMID:24462603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRB..121.4067G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRB..121.4067G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A new back-and-forth iterative method for time-reversed convection modeling: Implications for the Cenozoic evolution of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> structure and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the mantle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glišović, Petar; Forte, Alessandro M.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> distribution of buoyancy in the convecting mantle drives a suite of convection-related manifestations. Although seismic tomography is providing increasingly resolved images of the present-day mantle heterogeneity, the distribution of mantle density variations in the geological past is unknown, and, by implication, this is true for the convection-related observables. The one major exception is tectonic plate motions, since geologic data are available to estimate their history and they currently provide the only available constraints on the evolution of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> mantle buoyancy in the past. We developed a new back-and-forth iterative method for time-reversed convection modeling with a procedure for matching plate velocity data at different instants in the past. The crucial aspect of this reconstruction methodology is to ensure that at all times plates are driven by buoyancy forces in the mantle and not vice versa. Employing tomography-based retrodictions over the Cenozoic, we estimate the global amplitude of the following observables: <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> surface topography, the core-mantle boundary ellipticity, the free-air gravity anomalies, and the global divergence rates of tectonic plates. One of the major benefits of the new data assimilation method is the stable recovery of much shorter wavelength changes in heterogeneity than was possible in our previous work. We now resolve what appears to be two-stage subduction of the Farallon plate under the western U.S. and a deeply rooted East African Plume that is active under the Ethiopian volcanic fields during the Early Eocene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25707809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25707809"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular docking based virtual screening of natural compounds as potential BACE1 inhibitors: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> QSAR pharmacophore mapping and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, Akhil; Roy, Sudeep; Tripathi, Shubhandra; Sharma, Ashok</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Beta-site APP cleaving enzyme1 (BACE1) catalyzes the rate determining step in the generation of Aβ peptide and is widely considered as a potential therapeutic drug target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Active site of BACE1 contains catalytic aspartic (Asp) dyad and flap. Asp dyad cleaves the substrate amyloid precursor protein with the help of flap. Currently, there are no marketed drugs available against BACE1 and existing inhibitors are mostly pseudopeptide or synthetic derivatives. There is a need to search for a potent inhibitor with natural scaffold interacting with flap and Asp dyad. This study screens the natural database InterBioScreen, followed by three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) QSAR pharmacophore modeling, mapping, in silico ADME/T predictions to find the potential BACE1 inhibitors. Further, molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of selected inhibitors were performed to observe the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> structure of protein after ligand binding. All conformations and the residues of binding region were stable but the flap adopted a closed conformation after binding with the ligand. Bond oligosaccharide interacted with the flap as well as catalytic dyad via hydrogen bond throughout the simulation. This led to stabilize the flap in closed conformation and restricted the entry of substrate. Carbohydrates have been earlier used in the treatment of AD because of their low toxicity, high efficiency, good biocompatibility, and easy permeability through the blood-brain barrier. Our finding will be helpful in identify the potential leads to design novel BACE1 inhibitors for AD therapy. PMID:25707809</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21054555','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21054555"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Analysis of a Closed-Loop Brayton Cycle Coupled To a Nuclear Reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McCann, Larry D.</p> <p>2007-01-30</p> <p>This paper describes results of a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> system model for a pair of closed Brayton-cycle (CBC) loops running in parallel that are connected to a nuclear gas reactor. The model assumes direct coupling between the reactor and the Brayton-cycle loops. The RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (version 2.4.1) computer program was used to perform the analysis. Few reactors have ever been coupled to closed Brayton-cycle systems. As such their behavior under <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> varying loads, startup and shut down conditions, and requirements for safe and autonomous operation are largely unknown. The model described in this paper represents the reactor, turbine, compressor, recuperator, heat rejection system and alternator. The initial results of the model indicate stable operation of the reactor-driven Brayton-cycle system. However, for analysts with mostly pressurized water reactor experience, the Brayton cycle loops coupled to a gas-cooled reactor also indicate some counter-intuitive behavior for the complete coupled system. This model has provided crucial information in evaluating the reactor design and would have been further developed for use in developing procedures for safe start up, shut down, safe-standby, and other autonomous operating modes had the plant development cycle been completed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSMTE..04.3303P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSMTE..04.3303P"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of disorder on ageing and memory effects in non-equilibrium critical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ising model relaxing from an ordered state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prudnikov, Vladimir V.; Prudnikov, Pavel V.; Pospelov, Evgeny A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We have performed a numerical investigation of the influence of disorder on the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> non-equilibrium evolution of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> site-diluted Ising model from a low-temperature initial state with magnetization m 0  =  1. It is shown that two-time dependences of the autocorrelation and integrated response functions for systems with spin concentrations p  =  1.0, 0.95, 0.8, 0.6 and 0.5 demonstrate ageing properties with anomalous slowing-down relaxation and violation of the fluctuation-dissipation ratio. It was revealed that during non-equilibrium critical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the long-time regime t-{{t}\\text{w}}\\gg {{t}\\text{w}}\\gg 1 the autocorrelation functions for diluted systems are extremely slow due to the pinning of domain walls on impurity sites. We have found that the fluctuation-dissipation ratio {{X}∞}=0 for diluted systems with spin concentration p  <  1 while the pure system is characterized by {{X}∞}=0.784(7) . The autocorrelation function power-law delay becomes the same as for the time dependence of the magnetization in the critical point and is characterized by exponent -β /zν . Also, for diluted systems we reveal memory effects for critical evolution in the ageing regime with realization of cyclic temperature change and quenching at T<{{T}\\text{c}} .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27164065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27164065"><span id="translatedtitle">In Silico Exploration of 1,7-Diazacarbazole Analogs as Checkpoint Kinase 1 Inhibitors by Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> QSAR, Molecular Docking Study, and Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Xiaodong; Han, Liping; Ren, Yujie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is an important serine/threonine kinase with a self-protection function. The combination of Chk1 inhibitors and anti-cancer drugs can enhance the selectivity of tumor therapy. In this work, a set of 1,7-diazacarbazole analogs were identified as potent Chk1 inhibitors through a series of computer-aided drug design processes, including three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR) modeling, molecular docking, and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations. The optimal QSAR models showed significant cross-validated correlation q² values (0.531, 0.726), fitted correlation r² coefficients (higher than 0.90), and standard error of prediction (less than 0.250). These results suggested that the developed models possess good predictive ability. Moreover, molecular docking and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations were applied to highlight the important interactions between the ligand and the Chk1 receptor protein. This study shows that hydrogen bonding and electrostatic forces are key interactions that confer bioactivity. PMID:27164065</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..880..541M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..880..541M"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Analysis of a Closed-Loop Brayton Cycle Coupled To a Nuclear Reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCann, Larry D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes results of a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> system model for a pair of closed Brayton-cycle (CBC) loops running in parallel that are connected to a nuclear gas reactor. The model assumes direct coupling between the reactor and the Brayton-cycle loops. The RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (version 2.4.1) computer program was used to perform the analysis. Few reactors have ever been coupled to closed Brayton-cycle systems. As such their behavior under <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> varying loads, startup and shut down conditions, and requirements for safe and autonomous operation are largely unknown. The model described in this paper represents the reactor, turbine, compressor, recuperator, heat rejection system and alternator. The initial results of the model indicate stable operation of the reactor-driven Brayton-cycle system. However, for analysts with mostly pressurized water reactor experience, the Brayton cycle loops coupled to a gas-cooled reactor also indicate some counter-intuitive behavior for the complete coupled system. This model has provided crucial information in evaluating the reactor design and would have been further developed for use in developing procedures for safe start up, shut down, safe-standby, and other autonomous operating modes had the plant development cycle been completed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049697"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of time-of-flight on indirect <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and direct 4D parametric image reconstruction in the presence of inconsistent <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> PET data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kotasidis, F A; Mehranian, A; Zaidi, H</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p> reconstruction can substantially prevent kinetic parameter error propagation either from erroneous kinetic modelling, inter-frame motion or emission/transmission mismatch. Furthermore, we demonstrate the benefits of TOF in parameter estimation when conventional post-reconstruction (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) methods are used and compare the potential improvements to direct 4D methods. Further improvements could possibly be achieved in the future by combining TOF direct 4D image reconstruction with adaptive kinetic models and inter-frame motion correction schemes. PMID:27049697</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61.3443K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61.3443K"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of time-of-flight on indirect <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and direct 4D parametric image reconstruction in the presence of inconsistent <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> PET data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kotasidis, F. A.; Mehranian, A.; Zaidi, H.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p> reconstruction can substantially prevent kinetic parameter error propagation either from erroneous kinetic modelling, inter-frame motion or emission/transmission mismatch. Furthermore, we demonstrate the benefits of TOF in parameter estimation when conventional post-reconstruction (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) methods are used and compare the potential improvements to direct 4D methods. Further improvements could possibly be achieved in the future by combining TOF direct 4D image reconstruction with adaptive kinetic models and inter-frame motion correction schemes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070999','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070999"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of differences in the VEGFR2 inhibitory activities between semaxanib and SU5205 using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR, docking, and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muñoz, Camila; Adasme, Francisco; Alzate-Morales, Jans H; Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Kniess, Torsten; Caballero, Julio</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Semaxanib (SU5416) and 3-[4'-fluorobenzylidene]indolin-2-one (SU5205) are structurally similar drugs that are able to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2), but the former is 87 times more effective than the latter. Previously, SU5205 was used as a radiolabelled inhibitor (as surrogate for SU5416) and a radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, but the compound exhibited poor stability and only a moderate IC(50) toward VEGFR2. In the current work, the relationship between the structure and activity of these drugs as VEGFR2 inhibitors was studied using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR, docking and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (MD) simulations. First, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was performed using 48 2-indolinone derivatives and their VEGFR2 inhibitory activities. The best CoMFA model was carried out over a training set including 40 compounds, and it included steric and electrostatic fields. In addition, this model gave satisfactory cross-validation results and adequately predicted 8 compounds contained in the test set. The plots of the CoMFA fields could explain the structural differences between semaxanib and SU5205. Docking and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations showed that both molecules have the same orientation and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> inside the VEGFR2 active site. However, the hydrophobic pocket of VEGFR2 was more exposed to the solvent media when it was complexed with SU5205. An energetic analysis, including Embrace and MM-GBSA calculations, revealed that the potency of ligand binding is governed by van der Waals contacts. PMID:22070999</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24998032','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24998032"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning as a markerless method to calculate multi-segment foot kinematics during stance phase: methodology and first application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van den Herrewegen, Inge; Cuppens, Kris; Broeckx, Mario; Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Vander Sloten, Jos; Leardini, Alberto; Peeraer, Louis</p> <p>2014-08-22</p> <p>Multi-segmental foot kinematics have been analyzed by means of optical marker-sets or by means of inertial sensors, but never by markerless <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning (D3DScanning). The use of D3DScans implies a radically different approach for the construction of the multi-segment foot model: the foot anatomy is identified via the surface shape instead of distinct landmark points. We propose a 4-segment foot model consisting of the shank (Sha), calcaneus (Cal), metatarsus (Met) and hallux (Hal). These segments are manually selected on a static scan. To track the segments in the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> scan, the segments of the static scan are matched on each frame of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> scan using the iterative closest point (ICP) fitting algorithm. Joint rotations are calculated between Sha-Cal, Cal-Met, and Met-Hal. Due to the lower quality scans at heel strike and toe off, the first and last 10% of the stance phase is excluded. The application of the method to 5 healthy subjects, 6 trials each, shows a good repeatability (intra-subject standard deviations between 1° and 2.5°) for Sha-Cal and Cal-Met joints, and inferior results for the Met-Hal joint (>3°). The repeatability seems to be subject-dependent. For the validation, a qualitative comparison with joint kinematics from a corresponding established marker-based multi-segment foot model is made. This shows very consistent patterns of rotation. The ease of subject preparation and also the effective and easy to interpret visual output, make the present technique very attractive for functional analysis of the foot, enhancing usability in clinical practice. PMID:24998032</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPhCS.573a2006O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPhCS.573a2006O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiochromic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oldham, Mark</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dose measurement in general.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...03..120I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...03..120I"><span id="translatedtitle">Bootstrapping <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fermions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. We first introduce an embedding formalism for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdSpR..48.1114L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdSpR..48.1114L"><span id="translatedtitle">Background and pickup ion velocity distribution <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in Titan's plasma environment: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hybrid simulation and comparison with CAPS T9 observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D. G.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hybrid simulation. In our model the background, pickup, and ionospheric ions are considered as a particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. The current simulation shows that mass loading by pickup ions H,H2+, CH4+ and N2+ is stronger than in the previous simulations when O + ions are introduced into the background plasma. In our hybrid simulations we use Chamberlain profiles for the atmospheric components. We also include a simple ionosphere model with average mass M = 28 amu ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS T9 observations. Our simulation shows an asymmetry of the ion density distribution and the magnetic field, including the formation of the Alfvén wing-like structures. The simulation also shows that the ring-like velocity distribution for pickup ions relaxes to a Maxwellian core and a shell-like halo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110022982&hterms=Hybrid+Wing+Body&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DHybrid%2BWing%2BBody','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110022982&hterms=Hybrid+Wing+Body&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DHybrid%2BWing%2BBody"><span id="translatedtitle">Background and Pickup Ion Velocity Distribution <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in Titan's Plasma Environment: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Hybrid Simulation and Comparison with CAPS T9 Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D. G.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hybrid simulation. In our model the background, pickup, and ionospheric ions are considered as a particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. The current simulation shows that mass loading by pickup ions H(+); H2(+), CH4(+) and N2(+) is stronger than in the previous simulations when O+ ions are introduced into the background plasma. In our hybrid simulations we use Chamberlain profiles for the atmospheric components. We also include a simple ionosphere model with average mass M = 28 amu ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS T9 observations. Our simulation shows an asymmetry of the ion density distribution and the magnetic field, including the formation of the Alfve n wing-like structures. The simulation also shows that the ring-like velocity distribution for pickup ions relaxes to a Maxwellian core and a shell-like halo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26726782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26726782"><span id="translatedtitle">How muscle relaxation and laterotrusion resolve open locks of the temporomandibular joint. Forward <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-modeling of the human masticatory system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tuijt, M; Koolstra, J H; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M</p> <p>2016-01-25</p> <p>Patients with symptomatic hypermobility of the temporomandibular joint report problems with the closing movement of their jaw. Some are even unable to close their mouth opening wide (open lock). Clinical experience suggests that relaxing the jaw muscles or performing a jaw movement to one side (laterotrusion) might be a solution. The aim of our study was to assess the potential of these strategies for resolving an open lock and we hypothesised that both strategies work equally well in resolving open locks. We assessed the interplay of muscle forces, joint reaction forces and their moments during closing of mouth, following maximal mouth opening. We used a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> biomechanical model of the masticatory system with a joint shape and muscle orientation that predispose for an open lock. In a forward <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> approach, the effect of relaxation and laterotrusion strategies was assessed. Performing a laterotrusion movement was predicted to release an open lock for a steeper anterior slope of the articular eminence than relaxing the jaw-closing muscles, herewith we rejected our hypothesis. Both strategies could provide a net jaw closing moment, but only the laterotrusion strategy was able to provide a net posterior force for steeper anterior slope angles. For both strategies, the temporalis muscle appeared pivotal to retrieve the mandibular condyles to the glenoid fossa, due to its' more dorsally oriented working lines. PMID:26726782</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26758425','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26758425"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupling curvature-dependent and shear stress-stimulated neotissue growth in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> bioreactor cultures: a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computational model of a complete scaffold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guyot, Y; Papantoniou, I; Luyten, F P; Geris, L</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The main challenge in tissue engineering consists in understanding and controlling the growth process of in vitro cultured neotissues toward obtaining functional tissues. Computational models can provide crucial information on appropriate bioreactor and scaffold design but also on the bioprocess environment and culture conditions. In this study, the development of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model using the level set method to capture the growth of a microporous neotissue domain in a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> culture environment (perfusion bioreactor) was pursued. In our model, neotissue growth velocity was influenced by scaffold geometry as well as by flow- induced shear stresses. The neotissue was modeled as a homogenous porous medium with a given permeability, and the Brinkman equation was used to calculate the flow profile in both neotissue and void space. Neotissue growth was modeled until the scaffold void volume was filled, thus capturing already established experimental observations, in particular the differences between scaffold filling under different flow regimes. This tool is envisaged as a scaffold shape and bioprocess optimization tool with predictive capacities. It will allow controlling fluid flow during long-term culture, whereby neotissue growth alters flow patterns, in order to provide shear stress profiles and magnitudes across the whole scaffold volume influencing, in turn, the neotissue growth. PMID:26758425</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JMS...135...97C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JMS...135...97C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the spatial and temporal population <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the copepod Centropages typicus in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during the year 2001 using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ecosystem model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carlotti, F.; Eisenhauer, L.; Campbell, R.; Diaz, F.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of a simulated Centropages typicus (Kröyer) population during the year 2001 at the regional scale of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are addressed using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coupled physical-biogeochemical model. The setup of the coupled biological model comprises a pelagic plankton ecosystem model and a stage-structured population model forced by the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> velocity and temperature fields provided by an eddy-resolving regional circulation model. The population model for C. typicus (C. t. below) represents demographic processes through five groups of developmental stages, which depend on underlying individual growth and development processes and are forced by both biotic (prey and predator fields) and abiotic (temperature, advection) factors from the coupled physical-biogeochemical model. The objective is to characterize C. t. ontogenic habitats driven by physical and trophic processes. The annual <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are presented for two of the main oceanographic stations in the Gulf of Lions, which are representative of shelf and open sea conditions, while the spatial distributions over the whole area are presented for three dates during the year, in early and late spring and in winter. The simulated spatial patterns of C. t. developmental stages are closely related to mesoscale hydrodynamic features and circulation patterns. The seasonal and spatial distributions on the Gulf of Lions shelf depend on the seasonal interplay between the Rhône river plume, the mesoscale eddies on the shelf and the Northern Current acting as either as a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> barrier between the shelf and the open sea or allowing cross-shelf exchanges. In the central gyre of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, the patchiness of plankton is tightly linked to mesoscale frontal systems, surface eddies and filaments and deep gradients. Due to its flexibility in terms of its diet, C. t. succeeds in maintaining its population in both coastal and offshore areas year round. The simulations suggest that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4465215','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4465215"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of Perfusion Quantification with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Gradient Echo <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Blood Pool Contrast Agent in Skeletal Swine Muscle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hindel, Stefan; Sauerbrey, Anika; Maaß, Marc; Maderwald, Stefan; Schlamann, Marc; Lüdemann, Lutz</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of our study was to validate perfusion quantification in a low-perfused tissue by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with shared k-space sampling using a blood pool contrast agent. Perfusion measurements were performed in a total of seven female pigs. An ultrasonic Doppler probe was attached to the right femoral artery to determine total flow in the hind leg musculature. The femoral artery was catheterized for continuous local administration of adenosine to increase blood flow up to four times the baseline level. Three different stable perfusion levels were induced. The MR protocol included a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gradient-echo sequence with a temporal resolution of approximately 1.5 seconds. Before each <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> sequence, static MR images were acquired with flip angles of 5°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Both static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> images were used to generate relaxation rate and baseline magnetization maps with a flip angle method. 0.1 mL/kg body weight of blood pool contrast medium was injected via a central venous catheter at a flow rate of 5 mL/s. The right hind leg was segmented in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> into medial, cranial, lateral, and pelvic thigh muscles, lower leg, bones, skin, and fat. The arterial input function (AIF) was measured in the aorta. Perfusion of the different anatomic regions was calculated using a one- and a two-compartment model with delay- and dispersion-corrected AIFs. The F-test for model comparison was used to decide whether to use the results of the one- or two-compartment model fit. Total flow was calculated by integrating volume-weighted perfusion values over the whole measured region. The resulting values of delay, dispersion, blood volume, mean transit time, and flow were all in physiologically and physically reasonable ranges. In 107 of 160 ROIs, the blood signal was separated, using a two-compartment model, into a capillary and an arteriolar signal contribution, decided by the F-test. Overall flow in hind leg muscles, as measured by the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061498','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061498"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of Perfusion Quantification with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Gradient Echo <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Blood Pool Contrast Agent in Skeletal Swine Muscle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hindel, Stefan; Sauerbrey, Anika; Maaß, Marc; Maderwald, Stefan; Schlamann, Marc; Lüdemann, Lutz</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of our study was to validate perfusion quantification in a low-perfused tissue by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with shared k-space sampling using a blood pool contrast agent. Perfusion measurements were performed in a total of seven female pigs. An ultrasonic Doppler probe was attached to the right femoral artery to determine total flow in the hind leg musculature. The femoral artery was catheterized for continuous local administration of adenosine to increase blood flow up to four times the baseline level. Three different stable perfusion levels were induced. The MR protocol included a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gradient-echo sequence with a temporal resolution of approximately 1.5 seconds. Before each <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> sequence, static MR images were acquired with flip angles of 5°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Both static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> images were used to generate relaxation rate and baseline magnetization maps with a flip angle method. 0.1 mL/kg body weight of blood pool contrast medium was injected via a central venous catheter at a flow rate of 5 mL/s. The right hind leg was segmented in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> into medial, cranial, lateral, and pelvic thigh muscles, lower leg, bones, skin, and fat. The arterial input function (AIF) was measured in the aorta. Perfusion of the different anatomic regions was calculated using a one- and a two-compartment model with delay- and dispersion-corrected AIFs. The F-test for model comparison was used to decide whether to use the results of the one- or two-compartment model fit. Total flow was calculated by integrating volume-weighted perfusion values over the whole measured region. The resulting values of delay, dispersion, blood volume, mean transit time, and flow were all in physiologically and physically reasonable ranges. In 107 of 160 ROIs, the blood signal was separated, using a two-compartment model, into a capillary and an arteriolar signal contribution, decided by the F-test. Overall flow in hind leg muscles, as measured by the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AtmEn..80...58K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AtmEn..80...58K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filter and the decoupled direct <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> method for the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> evaluation of a regional air quality model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kang, Daiwen; Hogrefe, Christian; Foley, Kristen L.; Napelenok, Sergey L.; Mathur, Rohit; Trivikrama Rao, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Regional air quality models are being used in a policy-setting to assess the changes in air pollutant concentrations from changes in emissions and meteorology. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> evaluation entails examination of a retrospective case(s) to examine whether an air quality model has properly predicted the air quality response to known changes in emissions and/or meteorology. In this study, the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter has been used to spectrally decompose pollutant time series into different forcings that are controlled by different atmospheric processes influencing the predicted and observed pollutant concentrations. Through analyses of the different components influenced by different forcings as part of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model evaluation, we can discern which of the component(s) or scale(s) of forcing are simulated well by the model and the component(s) or scale(s) of forcing needing further improvement in the model. The KZ filter has been applied to both the observed and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model-predicted summertime ozone (O3) time series in years 2002 and 2005. The 2002-2005 time period is a good candidate for the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> evaluation case study because of the large changes in NOx emissions as a result of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) call together with a gradual decline in mobile emissions. Results suggest that the CMAQ model performs similarly for both years in terms of capturing the observed synoptic-scale forcing. However, the changes in the observed ozone baseline component (i.e. longer-term variations) are not properly captured by the model at some locations. The factors contributing to the ozone baseline include emissions loading, boundary conditions, and other parameters that vary slowly over time. Analysis using a reduced form model developed from the sensitivity coefficients calculated from the decoupled direct method in three dimensions (DDM-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) reveals that ground-level NOx emissions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.T33K..06S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.T33K..06S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling of earthquake cycles of the great Tohoku-oki earthquake by considering high-speed friction and thermal pressurization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shibazaki, B.; Tsutsumi, A.; Shimamoto, T.; Noda, H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Some observational studies [e.g. Hasegawa et al., 2011] suggested that the 2011 great Tohoku-oki Earthquake (Mw 9.0) released roughly all of the accumulated elastic strain on the plate interface owing to considerable weakening of the fault. Recent studies show that considerable weakening can occur at a high slip velocity because of thermal pressurization or thermal weakening processes [Noda and Lapusta, 2010; Di Toro et al., 2011]. Tsutsumi et al. [2011] examined the frictional properties of clay-rich fault materials under water-saturated conditions and found that velocity weakening or strengthening occurs at intermediate slip velocities and that dramatic weakening occurs at high slip velocities. This dramatic weakening at higher slip velocities is caused by pore-fluid pressurization via frictional heating or gouge weakening. In the present study, we investigate the generation mechanism of megathrust earthquakes along the Japan trench by performing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling with high-speed friction or thermal pressurization. We propose a rate- and state-dependent friction law with two state variables that exhibit weak velocity weakening or strengthening with a small critical displacement at low to intermediate velocities, but a strong velocity weakening with a large critical displacement at high slip velocities [Shibazaki et al., 2011]. We use this friction law for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling of a cycle of the great Tohoku-oki earthquake. We set several asperities where velocity weakening occurs at low to intermediate slip velocities. Outside of the asperities, velocity strengthening occurs at low to intermediate slip velocities. At high slip velocities, strong velocity weakening occurs both within and outside of the asperities. The rupture of asperities occurs at intervals of several tens of years, whereas megathrust events occur at much longer intervals (several hundred years). Megathrust slips occur even in regions where velocity strengthening occurs at low to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16...27B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16...27B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Applying <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Visualisation to (Palaeo) Geomorphic Reconstruction: Modelling a Tenth Century Jökulhlaup at Sólheimajökull Glacier, South Iceland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Booth, Laura; Isaacs, John</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> Models of the area with aerial photography to create a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> virtual environment, which provides the basis for entering field data to the geomorphic reconstruction. The result is a visual simulation of Sólheimajökull's Tenth Century physical environment which places the flood into geomorphic and topographic context. The wider implications of developing this tool are many when considering its ease of use and first-person navigational controls. The animations allow immediate exposure to environments that are otherwise lost in reality. VolcVis is a powerful tool in bringing reconstructed palaeo-environments back to life, albeit in the virtual sphere. It allows a uniquely contemporary appreciation of an elapsed event; yet which was a critical episode in the geomorphic evolution of this <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> region. When field data are pieced together into a simulation, they hold a greater cohesive strength, giving the results wider applicability and relevance to a range of users and decision-makers, serving both technical and nontechnical perspectives. VolcVis' ability to <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> display field data presents new possibilities for generating hypotheses, and for data sharing with Icelandic hazard mitigation authorities and the general public.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6861E..13I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6861E..13I"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microscope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iizuka, Keigo</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JAESc.124..233L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JAESc.124..233L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and sedimentation of lateral accretion packages in sinuous deep-water channels: A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic case study from the northwestern South China Sea margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Shengli; Gong, Chenglin</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The current study uses <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic data to document architectural styles and flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of lateral accretion packages (LAPs) associated with sinuous deep-water channels, contributing to a better understanding of flow processes and sedimentation associated with LAPs. The documented LAPs underwent three main stages of architectural evolution, including the early incision stages characterized by intense downcutting, active migration stages characterized by active migration and avulsion of the individual channels, and late abandonment stages characterized by the termination of sediment gravity-flows and LAP growth. These three stages of LAP growth repeated through time, yielding a fining-upward pattern from sandy channel-fill turbidites, into sand-mud couplets, all capped by muddy turbidites. A river-reversed helical flow circulation was created by an imbalance, through the flow depth, of inwardly directed pressure gradient forces near the bed and outwardly directed centrifugal forces near the surface. It consists of low-velocity cores near the outer banks and low-velocity cores along the inner banks. Such river-reversed helical flow pattern is evidenced by volumetrically extensive LAPs and toplap and downlap terminations along the gentle banks and by aerially restricted, seismically unresolvable levees and truncation terminations near the steep banks. This river-reversed helical flow circulation favors asymmetric intra-channel deposition characterized by inner bank deposition versus outer bank erosion, and which, in turn, forced individual channels to consistently migrate towards outer banks, resulting in significant asymmetric cross-channel profiles with aerially extensive LAPs along inner banks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM53B2229E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM53B2229E"><span id="translatedtitle">Self consistent particles <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in/out of the cusp region by using back tracking technics; a global <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PIC simulation approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esmaeili, A.; Cai, D.; Lembege, B.; Nishikawa, K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Large scale three dimensionbal PIC (particle in cell) simulations are presently used in order to analyze the global solar wind-terrestrial magnetosphere intreraction within a full self-consistent approach, and where both electrons and ions are treated as an assembly of individual particles. This <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> kinetic approach allows us to analyze in particular the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the fine structures of the cusp region when including self consistently not only its whole neighborhood (in the terrestrial magnetosphere) but also the impact of the solar wind and the interplanetary field (IMF) features. Herein, we focuss our attention on the cusp region and in particular on the acceleration and precipitation of particles (both ions and electrons) within the cusp. In present simulations, the IMF is chosen northward, (i.e. where the X -reconnection region is just above the cusp, in the meridian plane). Back-trackings of self-consistent particles are analyzed in details in order to determine (i) which particles (just above the cusp) are precipitated deeply into the cusp, (ii) which populations are injected from the cusp into the nearby tail, (iii) where the particles suffer the largest energisation along their self-consistent trajectories, (iv) where these populations accumulate, and (v) where the most energetic particles are originally coming from. This approach allows to make a traking of particles within the scenario "solar wind-magnetosheath- cusp -nearbytail"; moreover it strongly differs from the standard test particles technics and allows to provide informations not accessible when using full MHD approach. Keywords: Tracing Particles, Particle In Cell (PIC) simulation, double cusp, test particles method, IMF, Solar wind, Magnetosphere</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3363..423K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3363..423K"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiviewer <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020083312','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020083312"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Audio System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486596','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486596"><span id="translatedtitle">SU-D-213-03: Towards An Optimized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scintillation Dosimetry Tool for Quality Assurance of <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Radiotherapy Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rilling, M; Goulet, M; Thibault, S; Archambault, L</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p> specifications. This work leads the way to improving the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dosimeter’s achievable resolution, efficiency and build for providing a quality assurance tool fully meeting clinical needs. M.R. is financially supported by a Master’s Canada Graduate Scholarship from the NSERC. This research is also supported by the NSERC Industrial Research Chair in Optical Design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H51K..02C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H51K..02C"><span id="translatedtitle">River flood events as natural tracers for investigating the hydrological <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of a coupled river-aquifer system: preliminary results from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crosshole electrical resistivity monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coscia, I.; Greenhalgh, S. A.; Linde, N.; Doetsch, J.; Vogt, T.; Green, A. G.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>This research, on geoelectric monitoring of changing aquifer conditions associated with flood events of the River Thur in Switzerland, forms part of the much wider RECORD (REstored CORridor <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span>) project. Major precipitation and snow-melt events cause rapid undamped fluctuations of discharge along the entire length of the river. River water that infiltrates the neighbouring aquifer normally has higher electrical resistivity than that of the groundwater during the early stages of flood events. This enables us to use infiltration during such events as a natural tracer in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) experiments. Over a 10 x 15 m areal array, we have installed eighteen 12-m-deep monitoring boreholes spaced 3.5 m apart that completely penetrate the underlying 7-m-thick aquifer. Each borehole has been instrumented with ten 0.7-m-spaced electrodes that span the thickness of the aquifer. A multichannel resistivity meter, programmed to cycle through various 4-point electrode configurations of the 180 electrodes in a rolling sub-sequence, allows the collection of a 15,000-measurement data set every ~7 hours. Fourteen of these boreholes are also equipped with STS sensors that provide time-series of water-table depth and water temperature and electrical conductivity. Three-dimensional static ERT inversion at stable hydrological conditions was performed to investigate the resolving capability of our measuring sequence and to define the main lithological structures within the aquifer. Preliminary analyses of the ERT time series collected during a major flooding event this past summer suggest that the data are sensitive to three factors: water-level fluctuations in the aquifer, water-temperature variations, and electrical conductivity changes associated with changing salinity of the groundwater. The total changes in apparent resistivity are of the order of 20%. Since our primary interest is in the salinity effect that might be used to delineate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMoSt1110...53P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMoSt1110...53P"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis, characterisation, conformational preferences, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> NMR studies and antimicrobial evaluation of N-nitroso- and N-formyl-c-<span class="hlt">3</span>,<span class="hlt">t</span>-3-dimethyl-r-2,c-7-diphenyl-1,4-diazepan-5-ones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ponnuswamy, S.; Akila, A.; Kiruthiga devi, D.; Maheshwaran, V.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The stereochemical preferences of N-nitroso- and N-formyl-c-<span class="hlt">3</span>,<span class="hlt">t</span>-3-dimethyl-r-2,c-7-diphenyl-1,4-diazepan-5-ones 3 & 4, respectively, have been determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectral techniques. Interestingly, the N-nitroso compound 3 is found to prefer an equilibrium between alternate chair conformations with diaxial phenyl groups, while the N-formyl compound 4 prefers flattened boat conformation. This is stereochemically a novel report on the flexible rings adopting a chair conformation with diaxial phenyl groups. The X-ray crystal structure of N-nitroso-c-<span class="hlt">3</span>,<span class="hlt">t</span>-3-dimethyl-r-2,c-7-diphenyl-1,4-diazepan-5-one (3) also supports the chair conformation with diaxial phenyl groups. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> 1H NMR spectral studies have been carried out on the N-nitroso and N-formyl diazepan-5-ones 3 &4 and the energy barriers for N-NO and N-CO rotations are found to be 88.7 and 75.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The antimicrobial activities have been determined for the compounds 2-4 and it is found that all the compounds exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal activities when compared to the standard chloramphenicol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150008956','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150008956"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.7</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003610','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003610"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.9</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010563','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010563"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 13.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000769','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000769"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010400','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010400"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012779','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012779"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational uid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003790','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003790"><span id="translatedtitle">FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010OptCo.283.4430G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010OptCo.283.4430G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polarimetric purity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05562&hterms=bonneville&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbonneville','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05562&hterms=bonneville&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbonneville"><span id="translatedtitle">'Bonneville' in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009404','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009404"><span id="translatedtitle">Interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mars Visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Powell, Mark W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00680&hterms=Pumpkin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPumpkin','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00680&hterms=Pumpkin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPumpkin"><span id="translatedtitle">Prominent rocks - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06786&hterms=rodent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Drodent','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06786&hterms=rodent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Drodent"><span id="translatedtitle">'Diamond' in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><p/> This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time. <p/> Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. <p/> On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed. <p/> The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26603943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26603943"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying Modes of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cell Migration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environments. Since cell migration is a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3221767','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3221767"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Cellular Processes in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>. Here, we highlight recent advances related to <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+image&pg=5&id=EJ874199','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+image&pg=5&id=EJ874199"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Cabri<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Diagrams for Teaching Geometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Accascina, Giuseppe; Rogora, Enrico</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Cabri<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a potentially very useful software for learning and teaching <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry. The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> nature of the digital diagrams produced with it provides a useful aid for helping students to better develop concept images of geometric concepts. However, since any Cabri<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> diagram represents three-dimensional objects on the two dimensional screen of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27607639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27607639"><span id="translatedtitle">Structured light field <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces. PMID:27607639</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011tdsa.book.....M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011tdsa.book.....M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Spectroscopy in Astronomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2016/3022/fs20163022.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2016/3022/fs20163022.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elevation Program—Virtual USA in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4489226','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4489226"><span id="translatedtitle">AGGRESCAN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (A<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>): server for prediction of aggregation properties of protein structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zambrano, Rafael; Jamroz, Michal; Szczasiuk, Agata; Pujols, Jordi; Kmiecik, Sebastian; Ventura, Salvador</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Protein aggregation underlies an increasing number of disorders and constitutes a major bottleneck in the development of therapeutic proteins. Our present understanding on the molecular determinants of protein aggregation has crystalized in a series of predictive algorithms to identify aggregation-prone sites. A majority of these methods rely only on sequence. Therefore, they find difficulties to predict the aggregation properties of folded globular proteins, where aggregation-prone sites are often not contiguous in sequence or buried inside the native structure. The AGGRESCAN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (A<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) server overcomes these limitations by taking into account the protein structure and the experimental aggregation propensity scale from the well-established AGGRESCAN method. Using the A<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> server, the identified aggregation-prone residues can be virtually mutated to design variants with increased solubility, or to test the impact of pathogenic mutations. Additionally, A<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> server enables to take into account the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> fluctuations of protein structure in solution, which may influence aggregation propensity. This is possible in A<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Mode that exploits the CABS-flex approach for the fast simulations of flexibility of globular proteins. The A<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> server can be accessed at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/A<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/. PMID:25883144</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22462270','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22462270"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> heterogeneity of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in embryonic stem cell populations captured by single-cell <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> high-content analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tajbakhsh, Jian; Stefanovski, Darko; Tang, George; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Liu, Naiyou; Fair, Jeffrey H.</p> <p>2015-03-15</p> <p>Cell-surface markers and transcription factors are being used in the assessment of stem cell fate and therapeutic safety, but display significant variability in stem cell cultures. We assessed nuclear patterns of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC, associated with pluripotency), a second important epigenetic mark, and its combination with 5-methylcytosine (5mC, associated with differentiation), also in comparison to more established markers of pluripotency (Oct-4) and endodermal differentiation (FoxA2, Sox17) in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) over a 10-day differentiation course in vitro: by means of confocal and super-resolution imaging together with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> high-content analysis, an essential tool in single-cell screening. In summary: 1) We did not measure any significant correlation of putative markers with global 5mC or 5hmC. 2) While average Oct-4 levels stagnated on a cell-population base (0.015 lnIU/day), Sox17 and FoxA2 increased 22-fold and 3-fold faster, respectively (Sox17: 0.343 lnIU/day; FoxA2: 0.046 lnIU/day). In comparison, global DNA methylation levels increased 4-fold faster (0.068 lnIU/day), and global hydroxymethylation declined at 0.046 lnIU/day, both with a better explanation of the temporal profile. 3) This progression was concomitant with the occurrence of distinct nuclear codistribution patterns that represented a heterogeneous spectrum of states in differentiation; converging to three major coexisting 5mC/5hmC phenotypes by day 10: 5hmC{sup +}/5mC{sup −}, 5hmC{sup +}/5mC{sup +}, and 5hmC{sup −}/5mC{sup +} cells. 4) Using optical nanoscopy we could delineate the respective topologies of 5mC/5hmC colocalization in subregions of nuclear DNA: in the majority of 5hmC{sup +}/5mC{sup +} cells 5hmC and 5mC predominantly occupied mutually exclusive territories resembling euchromatic and heterochromatic regions, respectively. Simultaneously, in a smaller subset of cells we observed a tighter colocalization of the two cytosine variants, presumably</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25885253','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25885253"><span id="translatedtitle">Cation-Exchange Porosity Tuning in a <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> 4d-4f-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Framework for Ni(II) Ion-Selective Luminescent Probe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiu-Guang; Yuan, Bin; Shao, Cheng-Yuan; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Bing-Bing; Li, Ming-Shu; An, Xiao-Mai; Cheng, Peng; Zhao, Xiao-Jun</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>A heterometallic complex {[Yb2(L)6Cd2][Cd(H2O)6]·6H2O}n (Yb-Cd) (H2L = oxidiacetic acid) was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. In Yb-Cd, each L chelates to one Yb(3+) center and bonds to two Cd(2+) ions in an anti-anti configuration. Yb and Cd atoms are arrayed alternatively and connected by O-C-O bridges to form a cubic octahedral cage as the secondary building unit. Consequently, topological NaCl nets with high symmetry in the cubic space group Fd-3c have been constructed. The [Cd(H2O)6](2+) moieties lying in the porosity of anionic metal-organic framework (MOF) act as the thermodynamically stable species, required to balance the two negative charges of [Yb2(L)6Cd2](2-) in Yb-Cd. Interestingly, when Yb-Cd was employed as a precursor and emerged in the aqueous solution of Mn(ClO4)2·6H2O or Zn(ClO4)2·6H2O, a reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process driven by [Cd(H2O)6](2+) cations has been exhibited to generate the heterotrimetallic coordination polymer {[Yb2(L)6Cd2][Mn(H2O)6]·6H2O}n (Yb-Cd-Mn) or {[Yb2(L)6Cd2][Zn(H2O)6]·6H2O}n (Yb-Cd-Zn). To the best of out knowledge, Yb-Cd-Mn and Yb-Cd-Zn are the first examples representing 4d-4f-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> polymers based on multicarboxylic acid. Luminescent studies reveal that Yb-Cd-Zn may serve as a good candidate of Ni(2+) a luminescent probe. To our knowledge, Yb-Cd-Zn represent the fist example of the 4d-4f-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> framework to exhibit luminescent selectivity for Ni(2+). PMID:25885253</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7023W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7023W"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Vertical <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in the Northern Baltic Sea based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Modelling and Data from Shallow-Water Argo Floats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Westerlund, Antti; Tuomi, Laura</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Vertical mixing is a challenge for ocean models. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic models often produce considerable errors in mixed layer depths and vertical temperature structure that can be related to the vertical turbulence parameterisation. These errors can be pronounced in areas with complex hydrography. In the Baltic Sea, for example, there are high horizontal and vertical salinity gradients. Furthermore, thermocline and halocline are located at different depths. This produces stratification conditions challenging for all ocean models. We studied vertical mixing with modelling experiments and new observational data. NEMO <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ocean model has been set up at Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) for the Baltic Sea, based on the NEMO Nordic configuration. The model has been discretized on a Baltic Sea - North Sea grid with 2 nautical mile resolution and 56 vertical layers, using FMI-HIRLAM atmospheric forcing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is sparse and new methods are needed to collect data for model validation and development. FMI has been testing Argo floats in the Baltic Sea since 2011 in order to increase the amount of observed vertical profiles of salinity and temperature. This is the first time Argo floats have been successfully used in the brackish, shallow waters of the Baltic Sea. This new data set is well suited for evaluating the capability of hydrodynamic models to produce the vertical structure of temperature. It provides a time series of profiles from the area of interest with good temporal resolution, showing the structure of temperature in the water column throughout the summer. We found that NEMO was able to reproduce the general features of the seasonal temperature variations in the study area, when meteorological forcing was accurate. We ran the model with different vertical turbulence parameterisations. The k-ɛ and k-ω schemes showed clear differences, but neither proved superior. While sea surface temperature was better simulated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChJME..25..926L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChJME..25..926L"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and fluid structure interaction techniques for calculating the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient flow of journal bearings coupled with rotor systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Qiang; Yu, Guichang; Liu, Shulian; Zheng, Shuiying</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Journal bearings are important parts to keep the high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> performance of rotor machinery. Some methods have already been proposed to analysis the flow field of journal bearings, and in most of these methods simplified physical model and classic Reynolds equation are always applied. While the application of the general computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD)-fluid structure interaction (FSI) techniques is more beneficial for analysis of the fluid field in a journal bearing when more detailed solutions are needed. This paper deals with the quasi-coupling calculation of transient fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of oil film in journal bearings and rotor <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> with CFD-FSI techniques. The fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of oil film is calculated by applying the so-called "<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mesh" technique. A new mesh movement approach is presented while the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mesh models provided by FLUENT are not suitable for the transient oil flow in journal bearings. The proposed mesh movement approach is based on the structured mesh. When the journal moves, the movement distance of every grid in the flow field of bearing can be calculated, and then the update of the volume mesh can be handled automatically by user defined function (UDF). The journal displacement at each time step is obtained by solving the moving equations of the rotor-bearing system under the known oil film force condition. A case study is carried out to calculate the locus of the journal center and pressure distribution of the journal in order to prove the feasibility of this method. The calculating results indicate that the proposed method can predict the transient flow field of a journal bearing in a rotor-bearing system where more realistic models are involved. The presented calculation method provides a basis for studying the nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> behavior of a general rotor-bearing system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828950"><span id="translatedtitle">Single-Crystal to Single-Crystal Phase Transition and Segmented Thermochromic Luminescence in a <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Interpenetrated Ag(I) Coordination Network.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yan, Zhi-Hao; Li, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Li-Wei; Yu, Si-Qi; Wang, Xing-Po; Sun, Di</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ag(I)-based coordination network, [Ag2(pz)(bdc)·H2O]n (1; pz = pyrazine and H2bdc = benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid), was constructed by one-pot assembly and structurally established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at different temperatures. Upon cooling from 298 to 93 K, 1 undergo an interesting single-crystal to single-crystal phase transition from orthorhombic Ibca (Z = 16) to Pccn (Z = 32) at around 148 K. Both phases show a rare 2-fold-interpenetrated 4-connected lvt network but incorporate different [Ag2(COO)2] dimeric secondary building units. It is worth mentioning that complex 1 shows red- and blue-shifted luminescences in the 290-170 and 140-80 K temperature ranges, respectively. The variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray crystallographic studies suggest that the argentophilic interactions and rigidity of the structure dominated the luminescence chromism trends at the respective temperature ranges. Upon being mechanically ground, 1 exhibits a slight mechanoluminescence red shift from 589 to 604 nm at 298 K. PMID:26828950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24935113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24935113"><span id="translatedtitle">Elucidating the structural basis of diphenyl ether derivatives as highly potent enoyl-ACP reductase inhibitors through molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kamsri, Pharit; Punkvang, Auradee; Saparpakorn, Patchareenart; Hannongbua, Supa; Irle, Stephan; Pungpo, Pornpan</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Diphenyl ether derivatives are good candidates for anti-tuberculosis agents that display a promising potency for inhibition of InhA, an essential enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase involved in fatty acid biosynthesis pathways in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this work, key structural features for the inhibition were identified by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR CoMSIA models, constructed based on available experimental binding properties of diphenyl ether inhibitors, and a set of four representative compounds was subjected to MD simulations of inhibitor-InhA complexes for the calculation of binding free energies. The results show that bulky groups are required for the R1 substituent on the phenyl A ring of the inhibitors to favor a hydrophobic pocket formed by residues Phe149, Met155, Pro156, Ala157, Tyr158, Pro193, Met199, Val203, Leu207, Ile215, and Leu218. Small substituents with a hydrophilic property are required at the R3 and R4 positions of the inhibitor phenyl B rings to form hydrogen bonds with the backbones of Gly96 and Met98, respectively. For the R2 substituent, small substituents with simultaneous hydrophilic or hydrophobic properties are required to favor the interaction with the pyrophosphate moiety of NAD(+) and the methyl side chain of Ala198, respectively. The reported data provide structural guidance for the design of new and potent diphenyl ether-based inhibitors with high inhibitory activities against M. tuberculosis InhA. PMID:24935113</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=74916&keyword=soil+AND+radiation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64183124&CFTOKEN=81446066','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=74916&keyword=soil+AND+radiation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64183124&CFTOKEN=81446066"><span id="translatedtitle">Modular <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Transport model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770018839','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770018839"><span id="translatedtitle">Market study: <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eyetracker</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A market study of a proposed version of a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231744-llnl-earth3d','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231744-llnl-earth3d"><span id="translatedtitle">LLNL-Earth<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Earth<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7919882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7919882"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound in gastroenterology].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zoller, W G; Liess, H</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1121334','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1121334"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> World Building System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-30</p> <p>This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1121334','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1121334"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> World Building System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>None</p> <p>2014-02-26</p> <p>This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AN....325...83W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AN....325...83W"><span id="translatedtitle">Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Science Conference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walsh, J. R.</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>The Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy in Europe. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657435"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing in dentistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.V13C4804J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.V13C4804J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Examining rhyolite lava flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> through photo-based <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reconstructions of the 2011-2012 lava flow field at Cordón Caulle, Chile.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>James, M. R.; Farquharson, J.; Tuffen, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The 2011-2012 eruption at Cordón-Caulle, Chile, afforded the opportunity to observe and measure active rhyolitic lava for the first time. In 2012 and 2013, ~2500 photos were acquired on foot, parallel to flow fronts on the north and north-east of the flow field. Image suites were then processed into <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> point clouds using Structure-from-Motion Multi-view Stereo (SfM-MVS) freeware. Interpolating these clouds into digital elevation models for dates in 2012-13 enabled analysis of the changing flow field dimensions [1], from which velocity, depth and rheological parameters, e.g.viscosity, could be estimated [see Fig. 1]. Viscosities ranged from 7.5 x109 to 1.1 x1011Pa s, allowing for uncertainties in slope, surface displacement and velocity. Temperatures were modeled using a 1D finite difference method; in concert with viscosities of flow units these values compared well with published non-Arrhenian viscosity models. Derived thermodynamic and force ratios confirmed flow characteristics inferred from the image analyses. SfM-MVS represents an effective method of quantifying and displaying variation in the flow field, indicating several parallels between rhyolite emplacement and that of low-silica lavas. Initially channelised lava spread laterally and stagnated due to topography and the influence of the surface crust. Continued effusion resulted in iterative emplacement of breakout lobes, promoting lateral extension of the flow field. Insulation of the flow core by the viscous crust allowed this process to continue after effusion had ceased, creating features comparable to low-silica lavas, despite high viscosity and low effusion rates. This suggests that compound flow emplacement may be described by universal, cross-compositional models encompassing rheological differences of many orders of magnitude. Tuffen et al. 2013, Nat. Comms., 4, 2709, doi:10.1038/ncomms3709</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26699928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26699928"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-Instantaneous Bacterial Inactivation on Cu-Ag Nanoparticulate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Catheters in the Dark and Under Light: Mechanism and <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rtimi, Sami; Sanjines, Rosendo; Pulgarin, Cesar; Kiwi, John</p> <p>2016-01-13</p> <p>The first evidence for Cu-Ag (50%/50%) nanoparticulate hybrid coatings is presented leading to a complete and almost instantaneous bacterial inactivation in the dark (≤5 min). Dark bacterial inactivation times on Cu-Ag (50%/50%) were observed to coincide with the times required by actinic light irradiation. This provides the evidence that the bimetal Cu-Ag driven inactivation predominates over a CuO/Cu2O and Ag2O oxides inducing a semiconductor driven behavior. Cu- or Ag-coated polyurethane (PU) catheters led to bacterial inactivation needing about ∼30 min. The accelerated bacterial inactivation by Cu-Ag coated on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> catheters sputtered was investigated in a detailed way. The release of Cu/Ag ions during bacterial inactivation was followed by inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the amount of Cu and Ag-ions released were below the cytotoxicity levels permitted by the sanitary regulations. By stereomicroscopy the amount of live/dead cells were followed during the bacterial inactivation time. By Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the systematic shift of the -(CH2) band stretching of the outer lipo-polysaccharide bilayer (LPS) was followed to monitor the changes leading to cell lysis. A hydrophobic to hydrophilic transformation of the Cu-Ag PU catheter surface under light was observed within 30 min followed concomitantly to a longer back transformation to the hydrophobic initial state in the dark. Physical insight is provided for the superior performance of Cu-Ag films compared to Cu or Ag films in view of the drastic acceleration of the bacterial inactivation observed on bimetal Cu-Ag films coating PU catheters. A mechanism of bacterial inactivation is suggested that is consistent with the findings reported in this study. PMID:26699928</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140002635','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140002635"><span id="translatedtitle">Using the Flow-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> General Moving Object Model to Simulate Coupled Liquid Slosh - Container <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> on the SPHERES Slosh Experiment: Aboard the International Space Station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schulman, Richard; Kirk, Daniel; Marsell, Brandon; Roth, Jacob; Schallhorn, Paul</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The SPHERES Slosh Experiment (SSE) is a free floating experimental platform developed for the acquisition of long duration liquid slosh data aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The data sets collected will be used to benchmark numerical models to aid in the design of rocket and spacecraft propulsion systems. Utilizing two SPHERES Satellites, the experiment will be moved through different maneuvers designed to induce liquid slosh in the experiment's internal tank. The SSE has a total of twenty-four thrusters to move the experiment. In order to design slosh generating maneuvers, a parametric study with three maneuvers types was conducted using the General Moving Object (GMO) model in Flow-30. The three types of maneuvers are a translation maneuver, a rotation maneuver and a combined rotation translation maneuver. The effectiveness of each maneuver to generate slosh is determined by the deviation of the experiment's trajectory as compared to a dry mass trajectory. To fully capture the effect of liquid re-distribution on experiment trajectory, each thruster is modeled as an independent force point in the Flow-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation. This is accomplished by modifying the total number of independent forces in the GMO model from the standard five to twenty-four. Results demonstrate that the most effective slosh generating maneuvers for all motions occurs when SSE thrusters are producing the highest changes in SSE acceleration. The results also demonstrate that several centimeters of trajectory deviation between the dry and slosh cases occur during the maneuvers; while these deviations seem small, they are measureable by SSE instrumentation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DFDG25001T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DFDG25001T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space and time (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307717&keyword=Quality+AND+improvement&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65135417&CFTOKEN=72216439','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307717&keyword=Quality+AND+improvement&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65135417&CFTOKEN=72216439"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Kolomogorov-Zurbenko Filter and the decoupled direct <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> method for the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> evaluation of a regional air quality model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Regional air quality models are being used in a policy-setting to estimate the response of air pollutant concentrations to changes in emissions and meteorology. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> evaluation entails examination of a retrospective case(s) to assess whether an air quality model has properly p...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066320"><span id="translatedtitle">Bioprinting of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrogels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SPIE.8288E..08A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SPIE.8288E..08A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Unassisted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>With the rapid growth of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image capture has become a critical part of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> feature set on mobile phones. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2637860','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2637860"><span id="translatedtitle">Arena<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: visualization of biological networks in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910065145&hterms=bricks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbricks','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910065145&hterms=bricks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbricks"><span id="translatedtitle">Implementation of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> isoparametric finite elements on supercomputer for the formulation of recursive <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> equations of multi-body systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shareef, N. H.; Amirouche, F. M. L.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A computational algorithmic procedure is developed and implemented for the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> analysis of a multibody system with rigid/flexible interconnected bodies. The algorithm takes into consideration the large rotation/translation and small elastic deformations associated with the rigid-body degrees of freedom and the flexibility of the bodies in the system respectively. Versatile three-dimensional isoparametric brick elements are employed for the modeling of the geometric configurations of the bodies. The formulation of the recursive <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> equations of motion is based on the recursive Kane's equations, strain energy concepts, and the techniques of component mode synthesis. In order to minimize CPU-intensive matrix multiplication operations and speed up the execution process, the concepts of indexed arrays is utilized in the formulation of the equations of motion. A spin-up maneuver of a space robot with three flexible links carrying a solar panel is used as an illustrative example.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS53E1087Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS53E1087Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model of oceanic mercury coupled to carbon biogeochemistry and particle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>: application to the transport and fate or riverine mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.; Jacob, D. J.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Amos, H. M.; Long, M. S.; Sunderland, E. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Rivers are estimated to deliver 27 Mmol a-1 of mercury (Hg) to ocean margins, which is comparable to the global atmospheric deposition flux of Hg to the ocean. Previous studies presumed that most of this riverine Hg is sequestered by settling to the coastal regions. However, there has been little investigation of the mechanism and efficiency with which this sequestration takes place, and the implications for riverine influence in different ocean regions. Here we develop a global <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> chemical transport model for Hg in the ocean (MITgcm-Hg) with ecology (DARWIN model). We track offshore export of the discharged Hg from heterogeneous river systems over different ocean regions, and how it is influenced by the interaction of Hg in a variety of geochemical forms with carbon and suspended particles. We constrain our model assumptions with available offshore observations that bear strong riverine signals. Modeling results suggest that some of the riverine Hg is highly refractory, sorbs strongly to particles and does not follow equilibrium partitioning with the dissolved phase. Simulated global Hg evasion from riverine sources is 50 times larger without this refractory particulate pool, which results in a total evasion flux two times larger than our current best estimate. Based on a typology system of global rivers, we calculate that 10% to 60% of the particulate Hg from different rivers settles in ocean margin sediments because of subgrid sedimentation processes. The remaining 7.5 Mmol a-1 (28% of total river discharge) is available for offshore transport, where it undergoes further sedimentation to the shelf (5.3 Mmol a-1) as well as evasion to the atmosphere (0.44 Mmol a-1). Only 1.7 Mmol a-1 (6.4% of the global riverine Hg) reaches the open ocean, although that fraction varies from 2.6% in East Asia because of the blockage of Korean Peninsula to 25% in east North America facilitated by the Gulf Stream. We find large riverine influences over coastal oceans off East Asia</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H41D1342M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H41D1342M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> quantification of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> fluid-fluid interfaces in porous media with fast x-ray microtomography: A comparison with quasi-equilibrium methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meisenheimer, D.; Brueck, C. L.; Wildenschild, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>X-ray microtomography imaging of fluid-fluid interfaces in three-dimensional porous media allows for the testing of thermodynamically derived predictions that seek a unique relationship between capillary pressure, fluid saturation, and specific interfacial area (Pc-Sw-Anw). Previous experimental studies sought to test this functional dependence under quasi-equilibrium conditions (assumed static on the imaging time-scale); however, applying predictive models developed under static conditions for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> scenarios can lead to substantial flaws in predicted outcomes. Theory and models developed using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> data can be verified using fast x-ray microtomography which allows for the unprecedented measurement of developing interfacial areas, curvatures, and trapping behaviors of fluid phases in three-dimensional systems. We will present results of drainage and imbibition experiments of air and water within a mixture of glass beads. The experiments were performed under both quasi-equilibrium and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> conditions at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. Fast x-ray microtomography was achieved by utilizing the high brilliance of the x-ray beam at the APS under pink-beam conditions where the white beam is modified with a 4 mm Al absorber and a 0.8 mrad Pt-coated mirror to eliminate low and high-energy photons, respectively. We present a comparison of the results from the quasi-equilibrium and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> experiments in an effort to determine if the Pc-Sw-Anw relationship is comparable under either experimental condition and to add to the discussion on whether the Pc-Sw-Anw relationship is unique as hypothesized by existing theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181583','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181583"><span id="translatedtitle">A benchmark study of 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element calculations simulating <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pulse buckling tests of cylindrical shells under axial impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>A series of tests investigating <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the study is to compare the performance of the various analysis codes and element types with respect to a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DFDL21004O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DFDL21004O"><span id="translatedtitle">Fdf in US<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26343829','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26343829"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular modeling studies of [6,6,5] Tricyclic Fused Oxazolidinones as FXa inhibitors using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR, Topomer CoMFA, molecular docking and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Cheng; Ren, Yujie</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>Coagulation factor Xa (Factor Xa, FXa) is a particularly promising target for novel anticoagulant therapy. The first oral factor Xa inhibitor has been approved in the EU and Canada in 2008. In this work, 38 [6,6,5] Tricyclic Fused Oxazolidinones were studied using a combination of molecular modeling techniques including three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR), molecular docking, molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and Topomer CoMFA (comparative molecular field analysis) were used to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR models. The results show that the best CoMFA model has q(2)=0.511 and r(2)=0.984, the best CoMSIA (comparative molecular similarity indices analysis) model has q(2)=0.700 and r(2)=0.993 and the Topomer CoMFA analysis has q(2)=0.377 and r(2)=0.886. The results indicated the steric, hydrophobic, H-acceptor and electrostatic fields play key roles in models. Molecular docking and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> explored the binding relationship of the ligand and the receptor protein. PMID:26343829</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSV...352...16B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSV...352...16B"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracting full-field <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> strain on a wind turbine rotor subjected to arbitrary excitations using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point tracking and a modal expansion technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baqersad, Javad; Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Health monitoring of rotating structures such as wind turbines and helicopter rotors is generally performed using conventional sensors that provide a limited set of data at discrete locations near or on the hub. These sensors usually provide no data on the blades or inside them where failures might occur. Within this paper, an approach was used to extract the full-field <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> strain on a wind turbine assembly subject to arbitrary loading conditions. A three-bladed wind turbine having 2.3-m long blades was placed in a semi-built-in boundary condition using a hub, a machining chuck, and a steel block. For three different test cases, the turbine was excited using (1) pluck testing, (2) random impacts on blades with three impact hammers, and (3) random excitation by a mechanical shaker. The response of the structure to the excitations was measured using three-dimensional point tracking. A pair of high-speed cameras was used to measure displacement of optical targets on the structure when the blades were vibrating. The measured displacements at discrete locations were expanded and applied to the finite element model of the structure to extract the full-field <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> strain. The results of the paper show an excellent correlation between the strain predicted using the proposed approach and the strain measured with strain-gages for each of the three loading conditions. The approach used in this paper to predict the strain showed higher accuracy than the digital image correlation technique. The new expansion approach is able to extract <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> strain all over the entire structure, even inside the structure beyond the line of sight of the measurement system. Because the method is based on a non-contacting measurement approach, it can be readily applied to a variety of structures having different boundary and operating conditions, including rotating blades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21B4431A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21B4431A"><span id="translatedtitle">New Efficient <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Boundary Integral Equation Method and Application to Non-Planar Fault Geometry Dipping in Elastic Half Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ando, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The boundary integral equation method formulated in the real space and time domain (BIEM-ST) has been used as a powerful tool to analyze the earthquake rupture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on non-planar faults. Generally, BIEM is more accurate than volumetric methods such as the finite difference method and the finite difference method. With the recent development of the high performance computing environment, the earthquake rupture simulation studies have been conducted considering three dimensional realistic fault geometry models. However, the utility of BIEM-ST has been limited due to its heavy computational demanding increased depending on square of time steps (N2), which was needed to evaluate the historic integration. While BIEM can be efficient with the spectral domain formulation, the applications of such a method are limited to planar fault cases. In this study, we propose a new method to reduce the calculation time of BIEM-ST to linear of time step (N) without degrading the accuracy in the 3 dimensional modeling space. We extends the method proposed earlier for the case of the 2 dimensional framework, applying the asymptotic expressions of the elasto-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> Green's functions. This method uses the physical nature of the stress Green's function as dividing the causality cone according to the distances from the wave-fronts. The scalability of this method is shown on the parallel computing environment of the distributed memory. We demonstrate the applicability to analyses of subduction earthquake cases, suffering long time from the numerical limitations of previously available BIEMs. We analyze the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> rupture processes on dipping reverse faults embed in a three dimensional elastic half space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.368....1Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.368....1Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterodyne <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ghost imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Conventional three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ghost imaging, a heterodyne <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARL36014C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARL36014C"><span id="translatedtitle">Combinatorial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mechanical Metamaterials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4813934','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4813934"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Vibrational Motion by <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Photogrammetry Using Least-Square Image Matching for Sub-Pixel Targeting to Improve Accuracy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Hyoseong; Rhee, Huinam; Oh, Jae Hong; Park, Jin Ho</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper deals with an improved methodology to measure three-dimensional <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> displacements of a structure by digital close-range photogrammetry. A series of stereo images of a vibrating structure installed with targets are taken at specified intervals by using two daily-use cameras. A new methodology is proposed to accurately trace the spatial displacement of each target in three-dimensional space. This method combines the correlation and the least-square image matching so that the sub-pixel targeting can be obtained to increase the measurement accuracy. Collinearity and space resection theory are used to determine the interior and exterior orientation parameters. To verify the proposed method, experiments have been performed to measure displacements of a cantilevered beam excited by an electrodynamic shaker, which is vibrating in a complex configuration with mixed bending and torsional motions simultaneously with multiple frequencies. The results by the present method showed good agreement with the measurement by two laser displacement sensors. The proposed methodology only requires inexpensive daily-use cameras, and can remotely detect the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> displacement of a structure vibrating in a complex three-dimensional defection shape up to sub-pixel accuracy. It has abundant potential applications to various fields, e.g., remote vibration monitoring of an inaccessible or dangerous facility. PMID:26978366</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26978366','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26978366"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Vibrational Motion by <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Photogrammetry Using Least-Square Image Matching for Sub-Pixel Targeting to Improve Accuracy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Hyoseong; Rhee, Huinam; Oh, Jae Hong; Park, Jin Ho</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper deals with an improved methodology to measure three-dimensional <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> displacements of a structure by digital close-range photogrammetry. A series of stereo images of a vibrating structure installed with targets are taken at specified intervals by using two daily-use cameras. A new methodology is proposed to accurately trace the spatial displacement of each target in three-dimensional space. This method combines the correlation and the least-square image matching so that the sub-pixel targeting can be obtained to increase the measurement accuracy. Collinearity and space resection theory are used to determine the interior and exterior orientation parameters. To verify the proposed method, experiments have been performed to measure displacements of a cantilevered beam excited by an electrodynamic shaker, which is vibrating in a complex configuration with mixed bending and torsional motions simultaneously with multiple frequencies. The results by the present method showed good agreement with the measurement by two laser displacement sensors. The proposed methodology only requires inexpensive daily-use cameras, and can remotely detect the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> displacement of a structure vibrating in a complex three-dimensional defection shape up to sub-pixel accuracy. It has abundant potential applications to various fields, e.g., remote vibration monitoring of an inaccessible or dangerous facility. PMID:26978366</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DPPGO8005J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DPPGO8005J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Printed High Power Microwave Magnetrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jordan, Nicholas; Greening, Geoffrey; Exelby, Steven; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.; Hoff, Brad</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The size, weight, and power requirements of HPM systems are critical constraints on their viability, and can potentially be improved through the use of additive manufacturing techniques, which are rapidly increasing in capability and affordability. Recent experiments on the UM Recirculating Planar Magnetron (RPM), have explored the use of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> printed components in a HPM system. The system was driven by MELBA-C, a Marx-Abramyan system which delivers a -300 kV voltage pulse for 0.3-1.0 us, with a 0.15-0.<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">T</span> axial magnetic field applied by a pair of electromagnets. Anode blocks were printed from Water Shed XC 11122 photopolymer using a stereolithography process, and prepared with either a spray-coated or electroplated finish. Both manufacturing processes were compared against baseline data for a machined aluminum anode, noting any differences in power output, oscillation frequency, and mode stability. Evolution and durability of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> printed structures were noted both visually and by tracking vacuum inventories via a residual gas analyzer. Research supported by AFOSR (grant #FA9550-15-1-0097) and AFRL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900013648','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900013648"><span id="translatedtitle">Volumetric visualization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Russell, Gregory; Miles, Richard</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in the ability to obtain detailed data on large complex structures in three dimensions. This development occurred first in the medical field, with CAT (computer aided tomography) scans and now magnetic resonance imaging, and in seismological exploration. With the advances in supercomputing and computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, and in experimental techniques in fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, there is now the ability to produce similar large data fields representing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures and phenomena in these disciplines. These developments have produced a situation in which currently there is access to data which is too complex to be understood using the tools available for data reduction and presentation. Researchers in these areas are becoming limited by their ability to visualize and comprehend the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> systems they are measuring and simulating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002502&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002502&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists"><span id="translatedtitle">PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002499&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002499&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists"><span id="translatedtitle">PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P. G.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002507&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002507&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists"><span id="translatedtitle">PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002500&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002500&hterms=Tools+physicists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTools%2Bphysicists"><span id="translatedtitle">PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26764189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26764189"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR, molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations and molecular docking studies of benzoxazepine moiety as mTOR inhibitor for the treatment of lung cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chaube, Udit; Chhatbar, Dhara; Bhatt, Hardik</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>According to WHO statistics, lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death among all other types of cancer. Many genes get mutated in lung cancer but involvement of EGFR and KRAS are more common. Unavailability of drugs or resistance to the available drugs is the major problem in the treatment of lung cancer. In the present research, mTOR was selected as an alternative target for the treatment of lung cancer which involves PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. 28 synthetic mTOR inhibitors were selected from the literature. Ligand based approach (CoMFA and CoMSIA) and structure based approach (molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations assisted molecular docking study) were applied for the identification of important features of benzoxazepine moiety, responsible for mTOR inhibition. Three different alignments were tried to obtain best QSAR model, of which, distil was found to be the best method, as it gave good statistical results. In CoMFA, Leave One Out (LOO) cross validated coefficients (q(2)), conventional coefficient (r(2)) and predicted correlation coefficient (r(2)pred) values were found to be 0.615, 0.990 and 0.930, respectively. Similarly in CoMSIA, q(2), r(2)ncv and r(2)pred values were found to be 0.748, 0.986 and 0.933, respectively. Molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and simulations study revealed that B-chain of mTOR protein was stable at and above 500 FS with respect to temperature (at and above 298 K), Potential energy (at and above 7669.72 kJ/mol) and kinetic energy (at and above 4009.77 kJ/mol). Molecular docking study was performed on simulated protein of mTOR which helped to correlate interactions of amino acids surrounded to the ligand with contour maps generated by QSAR method. Important features of benzoxazepine were identified by contour maps and molecular docking study which would be useful to design novel molecules as mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:26764189</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9143E..5ED&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9143E..5ED&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">From <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> view to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> print</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In the last few years <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model, realized with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRC..119.3249V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRC..119.3249V"><span id="translatedtitle">Tidal energy conversion in a global hot spot: On the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of baroclinic tides at the Celtic Sea shelf break</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vlasenko, Vasiliy; Stashchuk, Nataliya; Inall, Mark E.; Hopkins, Joanne E.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Globally, the Celtic Sea shelf break is ranked highest as an energetic "hot spot" of tidal energy conversion, therefore making it the most significant contributor to global internal tidal energy flux. In this paper, the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of baroclinic tides in the shelf-slope area of the Celtic Sea was investigated numerically and using observational data collected on the 376th cruise of the RV "RRS Discovery" in June 2012. The time series recorded at a shelf break mooring showed that semidiurnal internal waves were accompanied by packets of internal solitary waves with maximum amplitudes up to 105 m, the largest internal waves ever recorded in the Celtic Sea, and ranking among the largest observed in the global ocean. The observed baroclinic wavefields were replicated numerically using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. A fine-resolution grid with 115 m horizontal and 10 m vertical steps allowed the identification of two classes of short-scale internal waves. The first classification was generated over headlands and resembles spiral-type internal waves that are typical for isolated underwater banks. The second classification, generated within an area of several canyons, revealed properties of quasi-planar internal wave packets. The observed in situ intensification of tidal bottom currents at the shelf break mooring is explained in terms of a tidal beam that was formed over supercritical bottom topography at the mooring location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MSMSE..24c5009C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MSMSE..24c5009C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dislocation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> analysis of the size effect on the strength of [1 1 1] LiF micropillars at 300K and 600K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Hyung-Jun; Segurado, Javier; Molina-Aldareguía, Jon M.; Soler, Rafael; LLorcaJavier</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The mechanical behavior in compression of [1 1 1] LiF micropillars with diameters in the range 0.5 μm to 2.0 μm was analyzed by means of discrete dislocation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at ambient and elevated temperature. The dislocation velocity was obtained from the Peach-Koehler force acting on the dislocation segments from a thermally-activated model that accounted for the influence of temperature on the lattice resistance. A size effect of the type ‘smaller is stronger’ was predicted by the simulations, which was in quantitative agreement with previous experimental results by the authors [1]. The contribution of the different physical deformation mechanisms to the size effect (namely, nucleation of dislocations, dislocation exhaustion and forest hardening) could be ascertained from the simulations and the dominant deformation mode could be assessed as a function of the specimen size and temperature. These results shed light into the complex interaction among size, lattice resistance and dislocation mobility in the mechanical behavior of μm-sized single crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27561920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27561920"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure of human gonadotropin hormone receptor at antagonist state using homology modeling, molecular <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation, and cross-docking studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Khoddami, Minasadat; Negahdaripour, Manica; Mehdizadeh, Arash; Tatar, Mohsen; Ghasemi, Younes</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Human gonadotropin hormone receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor, is the target of many medications used in fertility disorders. Obtaining more structural information about the receptor could be useful in many studies related to drug design. In this study, the structure of human gonadotropin receptor was subjected to homology modeling studies and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation within a DPPC lipid bilayer for 100 ns. Several frames were thereafter extracted from simulation trajectories representing the receptor at different states. In order to find a proper model of the receptor at the antagonist state, all frames were subjected to cross-docking studies of some antagonists with known experimental values (Ki). Frame 194 revealed a reasonable correlation between docking calculated energy scores and experimental activity values (|r| = 0.91). The obtained correlation was validated by means of SSLR and showed the presence of no chance correlation for the obtained model. Different structural features reported for the receptor, such as two disulfide bridges and ionic lock between GLU90 and LYS 121 were also investigated in the final model. PMID:27561920</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1610669P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1610669P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geovisualisation in higher education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualisation, including <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..19S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..19S"><span id="translatedtitle">YouDash<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: exploring stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gaming for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movie theaters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movie theater gaming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23198444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23198444"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> virtual endoscopy of heart].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Du, Aan; Yang, Xin; Xue, Haihong; Yao, Liping; Sun, Kun</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present a virtual endoscopy (VE) for diagnosis of heart diseases, which is proved efficient and affordable, easy to popularize for viewing the interior of the heart. The dual source CT (DSCT) data were used as primary data in our system. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure of virtual heart was reconstructed with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> texture mapping technology based on graphics processing unit (GPU), and could be displayed <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> in real time. When we displayed it in real time, we could not only observe the inside of the chambers of heart but also examine from the new angle of view by the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data which were already clipped according to doctor's desire. In the pattern of observation, we used both mutual interactive mode and auto mode. In the auto mode, we used Dijkstra Algorithm which treated the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Euler distance as weighting factor to find out the view path quickly, and, used view path to calculate the four chamber plane. PMID:23198444</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080311','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080311"><span id="translatedtitle">Speaking Volumes About <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM21B2174L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM21B2174L"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of H+, He+ ion reflection at the lunar surface and pickup ion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in case of oblique/quasi-parallel magnetic field: <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> hybrid kinetic modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Sarantos, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The hybrid kinetic model used here supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the moon-solar wind-magnetosphere of the Earth system. This involves variable upstream magnetic field and solar wind plasma, including energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical to improved interpretation of existing measurements for surface and atmospheric composition from previous missions and planning future missions. Recently, MAP-PAGE-IMA (Plasma energy Angle and Composition Experiment, and Ion Mass Analyzer) onboard Japanese lunar orbiter SELENE (KAGUYA) detected Moon originating ions at 100 km altitude. Ion species of H+, He++, He+, C+, O+, Na+, K+, and Ar+ were definitively identified. The first portion of our modeling devotes to a study of the H+, H2+, He+, Na+ pickup ion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in cases of flow with a oblique and quasi-parallel magnetic field. In the second series of modeling we also take into account collisions between ions and the surface of the moon and further sputtering of fragments from the surface of the moon. The ion reflection at the lunar surface is also responsible for wave activity in the upstream flow. The solar wind parameters are chosen from ARTEMIS observations. The hybrid kinetic model allows us to take into account the finite gyroradius effects of pickup ions and to estimate correctly the ions velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field. Modeling shows the asymmetric Mach cone, pickup and reflected ion tails, and presents another type of lunar-solar wind interaction. Our simulation may be also important for the study of the interaction between the solar wind and very weak comets, Mercury and Pluto.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4236804','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4236804"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (ɸ) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25426429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25426429"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (ɸ) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002501&hterms=Depth+perception&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2528Depth%2Bperception%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002501&hterms=Depth+perception&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2528Depth%2Bperception%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002505&hterms=Depth+perception&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2528Depth%2Bperception%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002505&hterms=Depth+perception&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2528Depth%2Bperception%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21908904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21908904"><span id="translatedtitle">A 2D driven <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel segmentation algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> digital subtraction angiography data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spiegel, M; Redel, T; Struffert, T; Hornegger, J; Doerfler, A</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although a lot of different methods are available nowadays, all of them lack a method to validate the results for the individual patient. Therefore, we propose a novel 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-driven <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel segmentation and validation framework. 2D DSA projections are clinically considered as gold standard when it comes to measurements of vessel diameter or the neck size of aneurysms. An ellipsoid vessel model is applied to deliver the initial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation. To assess the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel segmentation, its forward projections are iteratively overlaid with the corresponding 2D DSA projections. Local vessel discrepancies are modeled by a global 2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> optimization function to adjust the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel segmentation toward the 2D vessel contours. Our framework has been evaluated on phantom data as well as on ten patient datasets. Three 2D DSA projections from varying viewing angles have been used for each dataset. The novel 2D driven <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel segmentation approach shows superior results against state-of-the-art segmentations like region growing, i.e. an improvement of 7.2% points in precision and 5.8% points for the Dice coefficient. This method opens up future clinical applications requiring the greatest vessel accuracy, e.g. computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling. PMID:21908904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011PMB....56.6401S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011PMB....56.6401S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A 2D driven <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel segmentation algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> digital subtraction angiography data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spiegel, M.; Redel, T.; Struffert, T.; Hornegger, J.; Doerfler, A.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although a lot of different methods are available nowadays, all of them lack a method to validate the results for the individual patient. Therefore, we propose a novel 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-driven <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel segmentation and validation framework. 2D DSA projections are clinically considered as gold standard when it comes to measurements of vessel diameter or the neck size of aneurysms. An ellipsoid vessel model is applied to deliver the initial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation. To assess the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel segmentation, its forward projections are iteratively overlaid with the corresponding 2D DSA projections. Local vessel discrepancies are modeled by a global 2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> optimization function to adjust the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel segmentation toward the 2D vessel contours. Our framework has been evaluated on phantom data as well as on ten patient datasets. Three 2D DSA projections from varying viewing angles have been used for each dataset. The novel 2D driven <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel segmentation approach shows superior results against state-of-the-art segmentations like region growing, i.e. an improvement of 7.2% points in precision and 5.8% points for the Dice coefficient. This method opens up future clinical applications requiring the greatest vessel accuracy, e.g. computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26854878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26854878"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Printed Microfluidics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert</p> <p>2016-03-14</p> <p>The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3172372','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3172372"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of Coronary Whole-Heart MRA Free Breathing Technique at <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gharib, Ahmed M.; Abd-Elmoniem, Khaled Z.; Herzka, Daniel A.; Ho, Vincent B.; Locklin, Julie; Tzatha, Efstathia; Stuber, Matthias; Pettigrew, Roderic I</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Four different techniques for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span> whole-heart coronary MRA using free-breathing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmented parallel imaging and adiabatic T2-Prep were assessed. Coronary MRA at <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span> is improved by shortening the acquisition window more than employing the highest spatial resolution. Double oblique whole-heart acquisitions result in better overall image quality and allow for better delineation of the LAD. It is possible to attain shorter acquisition windows and a smaller voxel size at <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">T</span> than previously reported at 1.5T. PMID:21871751</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SCREEN+AND+3&pg=3&id=EJ743556','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SCREEN+AND+3&pg=3&id=EJ743556"><span id="translatedtitle">Migrating from 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in "Autograph"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Butler, Douglas</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>With both "Cabri" and "Autograph" now venturing into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, the dimension that previously was only demonstrated in the classroom with a lot of arm waving and crude wire cages can now be explored <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> on screen. "Cabri <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>" concentrates on constructions, using the principles of Euclidian geometry, whereas "Autograph" creates objects using a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1744T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1744T"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface water, groundwater and unified <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-crack network as a triple coupling <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> system for a river watershed functioning - manifestation in catastrophic floods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trifonova, Tatiana; Tulenev, Nikita; Trifonov, Dmitriy; Arakelian, Sergei</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> stimulating a trigger mechanism for releasing of groundwater; (ii) the crackness/fracturing structure as a characteristic property for all rocks, being dissecting by totality of cracks/fissures and along which (in the case when a good development crack becomes a fault) a vertical and/or lateral movement (of both groundwater and surface water mass) occurs as a result of excessive strain; (iii)