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Sample records for 3t3 feeder layer

  1. A novel NIH/3T3 duplex feeder system to engineer corneal epithelial sheets with enhanced cytokeratin 15-positive progenitor populations.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Hideyuki; Shimmura, Shigeto; Higa, Kazunari; Yoshida, Satoru; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Shimazaki, Jun; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2008-07-01

    Corneal epithelial cell sheets co-cultivated with feeder cells are used to reconstruct the ocular surface in stem cell-depleted eyes. The present study was conducted to investigate the optimal method of using feeder cells in the interest of preserving progenitor cells in cultivated sheets. We compared the phenotype and secondary colony forming efficiency (CFE) of cell sheets that were engineered using 3T3 feeder cells as a separate layer or as a contact layer. We also devised a novel "duplex feeder" system that consists of two separate layers of feeder cells. After cells reached confluence, cells were cultured at the air-liquid interface to allow full stratification. Stratified sheets were then analyzed using immunohistochemistry and secondary colony formation. Contact feeder cultures and duplex feeder cultures yielded epithelial sheets with small, cuboid basal cells with strong expression of keratin (K)3, K12, and K 15. Furthermore, only duplex feeder layers reproduced the basal K 15, suprabasal K12 limbal phenotype where epithelial stem cells reside. A similar effect was observed when cornea stroma-derived progenitor cells were used as feeder cells. Duplex feeder sheets also produced significantly more secondary colonies than cells dissociated from single layer sheets, suggesting that the duplex feeder system produces transplantable sheets with a higher yield of progenitor cells. PMID:18433313

  2. Layer-by-Layer assembled growth factor reservoirs for steering the response of 3T3-cells.

    PubMed

    Naves, Alliny F; Motay, Marvin; Mérindol, Rémi; Davi, Christiane P; Felix, Olivier; Catalani, Luiz H; Decher, Gero

    2016-03-01

    Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assemblies of heparin (Hep) and chitosan (Chi) were prepared for use as reservoirs for acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (aFGFs and bFGFs, respectively). The effects of the architecture and composition of the reservoirs on the viability and proliferation of NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells were studied under starvation conditions. The reservoir stability was monitored by ellipsometry. The aFGF and bFGF loadings were determined using a dissipation-enhanced quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D). Stability and release assays were performed in a phosphate buffer at physiological conditions. The results demonstrated that the amount of aFGF and bFGF loaded into and released from LbL reservoirs composed of 3 and 6 layer pairs could be controlled. Cell culture assays in low serum culture medium (LSCM) demonstrated that incorporating very small amounts of aFGF and bFGF into the (Hep/Chi)n multilayers significantly improved the proliferation of the NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. The cells did not proliferate on (Hep/Chi)n assemblies prepared in the absence of FGF under identical conditions. The LbL reservoirs were highly effective for the long-term storage (up to 9 months) of aFGF and bFGF. This work demonstrates the potential of LbL reservoirs for use as biomaterial coatings. PMID:26700236

  3. Layer-by-layer assembly of peptide based bioorganic-inorganic hybrid scaffolds and their interactions with osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Steven M; Fath, Karl R; Phekoo, Aruna P; Knoll, Grant A; Banerjee, Ipsita A

    2015-06-01

    In this work we have developed a new family of biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration by utilizing self-assembled fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl protected Valyl-cetylamide (FVC) nanoassemblies as templates. To tailor the assemblies for enhanced osteoblast attachment and proliferation, we incorporated (a) Type I collagen, (b) a hydroxyapatite binding peptide sequence (EDPHNEVDGDK) derived from dentin sialophosphoprotein and (c) the osteoinductive bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) to the templates by layer-by-layer assembly. The assemblies were then incubated with hydroxyapatite nanocrystals blended with varying mass percentages of TiO2 nanoparticles and coated with alginate to form three dimensional scaffolds for potential applications in bone tissue regeneration. The morphology was examined by TEM and SEM and the binding interactions were probed by FITR spectroscopy. The scaffolds were found to be non-cytotoxic, adhered to mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and promoted osteogenic differentiation as indicated by the results obtained by alkaline phosphatase assay. Furthermore, they were found to be biodegradable and possessed inherent antibacterial capability. Thus, we have developed a new family of tissue-engineered biocomposite scaffolds with potential applications in bone regeneration. PMID:25842141

  4. Contribution of Sp1 to Telomerase Expression and Activity in Skin Keratinocytes Cultured With a Feeder Layer.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Francis; Paquet, Claudie; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Zaniolo, Karine; Rochette, Patrick J; Landreville, Solange; Damour, Odile; Boudreau, Franois; Auger, Franois A; Gurin, Sylvain L; Germain, Lucie

    2015-02-01

    The growth of primary keratinocytes is improved by culturing them with a feeder layer. The aim of this study was to assess whether the feeder layer increases the lifespan of cultured epithelial cells by maintaining or improving telomerase activity and expression. The addition of an irradiated fibroblast feeder layer of either human or mouse origin (i3T3) helped maintain telomerase activity as well as expression of the transcription factor Sp1 in cultured keratinocytes. In contrast, senescence occurred earlier, together with a reduction of Sp1 expression and telomerase activity, in keratinocytes cultured without a feeder layer. Telomerase activity was consistently higher in keratinocytes grown on the three different feeder layers tested relative to cells grown without them. Suppression of Sp1 expression by RNA inhibition (RNAi) reduced both telomerase expression and activity in keratinocytes and also abolished their long-term growth capacity suggesting that Sp1 is a key regulator of both telomerase gene expression and cell cycle progression of primary cultured human skin keratinocytes. The results of the present study therefore suggest that the beneficial influence of the feeder layer relies on its ability to preserve telomerase activity in cultured human keratinocytes through the maintenance of stable levels of Sp1 expression. PMID:24962522

  5. Human Menstrual Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Cells as New Human Feeder Layer System for Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva dos Santos, Danbia; Coelho de Oliveira, Vanessa Carvalho; Asensi, Karina Dutra; Vairo, Leandro; Carvalho, Adriana Bastos; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; Goldenberg, Regina Coeli dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in general require coculture with feeder layers in order to remain undifferentiated. However, the use of animal-derived feeder layers is incompatible with the clinical setting. The objective of this work was to investigate whether human menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal cells (MBMCs) can substitute mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as a feeder layer for H9-hESCs. Both feeder cell types were isolated and cultured in DMEM F-12 and high glucose DMEM, respectively. After three passages, they were inactivated with mitomycin C. To test MBMC feeder layer capacity, hESCs were grown over MBMCs and MEFs under standard conditions. hESC growth, proliferation, survival, and maintenance of the undifferentiated state were evaluated. hESCs grown over MBMCs preserved their undifferentiated state presenting standard morphology, expressing alkaline phosphatase, transcription factors OCT3/4, SOX2, and NANOG by RT-PCR and SSEA-4 and OCT3/4 by immunofluorescence assays. It is noteworthy that none of the feeder cells expressed these proteins. The average colony size of the hESCs on MBMCs was higher when compared to MEFs (p?feeder layers. In addition, EBs expressed marker genes for the three germ layers cultured on both feeder cells. In conclusion, MBMCs are able to maintain hESCs in an undifferentiated state with comparable efficiency to MEFs. Therefore, MBMCs are a suitable alternative to animal-derived feeder layers for growing hESCs.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells as an appropriate feeder layer for prolonged in vitro culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Havasi, Parvaneh; Nabioni, Mohammad; Soleimani, Masoud; Bakhshandeh, Behnaz; Parivar, Kazem

    2013-04-01

    Feeder layers have been applied extensively to support the growth and stemness potential of stem cells for in vitro cultures. Mouse embryonic fibroblast and mouse fibroblast cell line (SNL) are common feeder cells for human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) culture. Because of some problems in the use of these animal feeders and in order to simplify the therapeutic application of hiPSCs, we tested human adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a potent feeder system. This method benefits from prevention of possible contamination of animal origin feeder systems. hiPSCs transferred onto mitotically inactivated hMSCs and passaged every 5 days. Prior to this culture, MSCs were characterized by flow cytometry of their surface markers and evaluation of their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials. The morphology, expressions of some specific pluripotency markers such as SSEA-3, NANOG and TRA-1-60, alkaline phosphates activity, formation embryoid bodies and their differentiation potentials of iPSCs on SNL and MSC feeder layers were evaluated. To investigate the prolonged maintenance of pluripotency, the quantitative transcriptions of some pluripotency markers including OCT4, SOX2, NANOG and REX1 were compared in the iPS clones on SNL or MSC feeders. Human iPSCs cultured on human MSCs feeder were slightly thinner and flatter than ones on the other feeder system. Interestingly MSCs supported the prolonged in vitro proliferation of hiPSCs along with maintenance of their pluripotency. Altogether our results suggest human mesenchymal stem cells as an appropriate feeder layer for human iPSCs culture for clinical applications and cell therapy. PMID:23283738

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Feeder Layer Can Prevent Apoptosis of Expanded Hematopoietic Stem Cells Derived from Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Mehrasa, Roya; Vaziri, Hamidreza; Oodi, Arezoo; Khorshidfar, Mona; Nikogoftar, Mahin; Golpour, Monireh; Amirizadeh, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been used for transplantation in the treatment of hematologic disorders as a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Because of insufficient number of cord blood CD34+ cells, the expansion of these cells seems to be important for clinical application. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), playing an important role in HSCs maintenance, were used as feeder layer. Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution of expanded cells were analyzed in MSCs co-culture and cytokine conditions and results were compared. Three culture conditions of cord blood HSCs were prepared ex-vivo for 14 days: cytokines (SCF, TPO and Flt3L) with MSCs feeder layer, cytokines without MSCs feeder layer and co-culture with MSCs without cytokines. Expansion was followed by measuring the total nucleated cells (TNCs), CD34+? cells and colony-forming unit (CFU) output. Flow cytometry analysis of stained cells by annexin V and propidium iodide was performed for detection of apoptosis rate and cell cycle distribution in expanded cells. Maximum cord blood CD34+ cells expansion was observed in day 10. The mean fold change of TNCs and CD34+ cells at day 10 in the co-culture system with cytokines was significantly higher than the cytokine culture without MSCs feeder layer and co-culture system without cytokines (n=6, p=0.023). The highest apoptosis rate and the least number of cells in Go/G1 phase were observed in cytokine culture without feeder layer (p=0.041). The expansion of cord blood HSCs on MSCs as a feeder layer resulted in higher proliferation and reduction in apoptosis rate. PMID:24551815

  8. The 3T3-L1 adipocyte glycogen proteome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycogen is a branched polysaccharide of glucose residues, consisting of α-1-4 glycosidic linkages with α-1-6 branches that together form multi-layered particles ranging in size from 30 nm to 300 nm. Glycogen spatial conformation and intracellular organization are highly regulated processes. Glycogen particles interact with their metabolizing enzymes and are associated with a variety of proteins that intervene in its biology, controlling its structure, particle size and sub-cellular distribution. The function of glycogen in adipose tissue is not well understood but appears to have a pivotal role as a regulatory mechanism informing the cells on substrate availability for triacylglycerol synthesis. To provide new molecular insights into the role of adipocyte glycogen we analyzed the glycogen-associated proteome from differentiated 3T3-L1-adipocytes. Results Glycogen particles from 3T3-L1-adipocytes were purified using a series of centrifugation steps followed by specific elution of glycogen bound proteins using α-1,4 glucose oligosaccharides, or maltodextrins, and tandem mass spectrometry. We identified regulatory proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, RACK1 and protein phosphatase 1 glycogen targeting subunit 3D. Evidence was also obtained for a regulated subcellular distribution of the glycogen particle: metabolic and mitochondrial proteins were abundant. Unlike the recently analyzed hepatic glycogen proteome, no endoplasmic proteins were detected, along with the recently described starch-binding domain protein 1. Other regulatory proteins which have previously been described as glycogen-associated proteins were not detected, including laforin, the AMPK beta-subunit and protein targeting to glycogen (PTG). Conclusions These data provide new molecular insights into the regulation of glycogen-bound proteins that are associated with the maintenance, organization and localization of the adipocyte glycogen particle. PMID:23521774

  9. Induction of pluripotency in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in feeder layer-free condition.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, Nasibeh; Rasedee, Abdullah; Shamsabadi, Fatemeh Tash; Moeini, Hassan; Mehrboud, Parvaneh; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Boroojerdi, Mohadeseh Hashem; Vellasamy, Shalini

    2015-12-01

    Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) has been produced by the reprogramming of several types of somatic cells through the expression of different sets of transcription factors. This study consists of a technique to obtain iPSCs from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in a feeder layer-free process using a mini-circle vector containing defined reprogramming genes, Lin28, Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. The human MSCs transfected with the minicircle vector were cultured in iPSCs medium. Human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like colonies with tightly packed domelike structures appeared 7-10 days after the second transfection. In the earliest stages, the colonies were green fluorescence protein (GFP)-positive, while upon continuous culture and passage, genuine hiPSC clones expressing GFP were observed. The induced cells, based on the ectopic expression of the pluripotent markers, exhibited characteristics similar to the embryonic stem cells. These iPSCs demonstrated in vitro capabilities for differentiation into the three main embryonic germ layers by embryoid bodies formation. There was no evidence of transgenes integration into the genome of the iPSCs in this study. In conclusion, this method offers a means of producing iPSCs without viral delivery that could possibly overcome ethical concerns and immune rejection in the use of stem cells in medical applications. PMID:26471847

  10. Coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyun Jeong; Park, Sahng Wook; Kim, Hojeong; Park, Sang-Kyu; Yoon, Dojun

    2010-02-19

    Mouse or human fibroblasts are commonly used as feeder cells to prevent differentiation in stem or primary cell culture. In the present study, we addressed whether fibroblasts can affect the differentiation of adipocytes. We found that the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was strongly suppressed when the cells were cocultured with human fibroblast (BJ) cells. BrdU incorporation analysis indicated that mitotic clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis, was not affected by BJ cells. The 3T3-L1 cell expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}2, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP{alpha}), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and Krueppel-like factor 15, but not those of C/EBP{beta} or C/EBP{delta}, were decreased by coculture with BJ cells. When mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cocultured with BJ cells, their lipid contents were significantly reduced, with decreased fatty acid synthase expression and increased phosphorylated form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1. Our data indicate that coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreases the lipogenesis of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  11. Human amniotic epithelial cells as feeder layer to derive and maintain human embryonic stem cells from poor-quality embryos.

    PubMed

    vila-Gonzlez, Daniela; Vega-Hernndez, Eva; Regalado-Hernndez, Juan Carlos; De la Jara-Daz, Julio Francisco; Garca-Castro, Irma Lydia; Molina-Hernndez, Anayansi; Moreno-Verduzco, Elsa Romelia; Razo-Aguilera, Guadalupe; Flores-Herrera, Hctor; Portillo, Wendy; Daz-Martnez, Nstor Emmanuel; Garca-Lpez, Guadalupe; Daz, Nstor Fabin

    2015-09-01

    Data from the literature suggest that human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines used in research do not genetically represent all human populations. The derivation of hESC through conventional methods involve the destruction of viable human embryos, as well the use of mouse embryonic fibroblasts as a feeder layer, which has several drawbacks. We obtained the hESC line (Amicqui-1) from poor-quality (PQ) embryos derived and maintained on human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC). This line displays a battery of markers of pluripotency and we demonstrated the capacity of these cells to produce derivates of the three germ layers. PMID:26246271

  12. Vaspin promotes 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guoliang; Wu, Jine; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Liping; Han, Wenqi; Lv, Ying; Sun, Chaofeng

    2015-11-01

    Vaspin, a novel adipocyte factor secreted from visceral adipose tissues, is associated with obesity and insulin resistance and can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, increase insulin sensitivity, and suppress inflammation; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Proliferation and maladaptive differentiation are important pathological mechanisms underlying obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vaspin on the proliferation and differentiation of preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells and to explore the likely mechanisms responsible for 3T3-L1 differentiation. Vaspin was added to cultured 3T3-L1 cells, and the differentiation of adipocytes was evaluated using Oil Red O staining. The AKT signaling pathway and specific differentiation factors related to the differentiation of preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells, peroxisome proliferator-activated γ and the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family, were evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses during the early phase of differentiation. Additionally, adiponectin mRNA, interleukin-6 mRNA (IL-6 mRNA), and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) protein levels were measured in the differentiated adipocytes. The results indicated that vaspin promotes the intracellular accumulation of lipids and increases differentiation-related factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, C/EBPα, and free fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, vaspin (200 ng/mL) increased the mRNA and protein levels of C/EBPβ, peroxisome proliferator-activated γ, C/EBPα, and FABP4. Moreover, compared with the control, significantly smaller eight-day differentiated adipocytes were observed, and these cells exhibited decreased IL-6 mRNA and increased GLUT4 mRNA levels; these results also indicated the potential of vaspin to promote the insulin-mediated AKT signaling pathway during the early phase of differentiation. In conclusion, vaspin is able to promote the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and may increase their sensitivity to insulin and suppress obesity. PMID:25585626

  13. Topiramate effects lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    MARTINS, GABRIELA POLTRONIERI CAMPAGNARO; SOUZA, CAMILA OLIVEIRA; MARQUES, SCHEROLIN; LUCIANO, THAIS FERNANDES; DA SILVA PIERI, BRUNO LUIZ; ROSA, JOS CSAR; DA SILVA, ADELINO SANCHEZ RAMOS; PAULI, JOS RODRIGO; CINTRA, DENNYS ESPER; ROPELLE, EDUARDO ROCHETE; RODRIGUES, BRUNO; DE LIRA, FABIO SANTOS; DE SOUZA, CLAUDIO TEODORO

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that topiramate (TPM)-induced weight loss can be dependent on the central nervous system (CNS). However, the direct action of TPM on adipose tissue has not been tested previously. Thus, the present study aimed to examine whether TPM modulates lipolysis in 3T3-L1. The 3T3-L1 cells were incubated in 50 M TPM for 30 min. The ?-adrenergic stimulator, isoproterenol, was used as a positive control. The release of lactate dehydrogenase, non-esterified fatty acid, glycerol and incorporation of 14C-palmitate to lipid were analyzed. The phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), adipocyte triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and perilipin A, as well as the protein levels of comparative genetic identification 58 (CGI-58) were assessed. The levels of glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid increased markedly when the cells were treated with TPM. The TPM effects were similar to the isoproterenol positive control. Additionally, TPM reduced lipogenesis. These results were observed without any change in cell viability. Finally, the phosphorylation of PKA, HSL, ATGL and perilipin A, as well as the protein levels of CGI-58 were increased compared to the control cells. These results were similar to those observed in the cells treated with isoproterenol. The present results show that TPM increased the phosphorylation of pivotal lipolytic enzymes, which induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting that this drug may act directly in the adipose tissue independent from its effect on the CNS. PMID:26623024

  14. Aspartame downregulates 3T3-L1 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Park, Jeongeun; Kim, Eunjung

    2014-10-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. Since aspartame is 200 times sweeter than traditional sugar, it can give the same level of sweetness with less substance, which leads to lower-calorie food intake. There are reports that consumption of aspartame-containing products can help obese people lose weight. However, the potential role of aspartame in obesity is not clear. The present study investigated whether aspartame suppresses 3T3-L1 differentiation, by downregulating phosphorylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (p-PPARγ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which are critical for adipogenesis. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured and differentiated for 6 d in the absence and presence of 10 μg/ml of aspartame. Aspartame reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the PPARγ, FABP4, and C/EBPα mRNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the induction of p-PPARγ, PPARγ, SREBP1, and adipsin was markedly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that aspartame may be a potent substance to alter adipocyte differentiation and control obesity. PMID:24961835

  15. [The role of feeder cells in the adhesion and growth of human and rat keratinocytes].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, A V; Voloshin, A V; Terskikh, V V

    1991-01-01

    Effects of feeder cells on adhesion of human and rat keratinocytes were studied. The human keratinocytes from skin fragments, obtained after surgery and rat keratinocytes from tail skin of young animals, were isolated by cold trypsinization. To evaluate the rate of adhesion the human keratinocytes were labeled in vitro with 14C-leucine while the rat keratinocytes were labeled in vivo with- 14C-thymidine. The human embryo fibroblasts and stromal cells of fetal bone marrow found to be more effective than Swiss 3T3 cells, adult dermal fibroblasts, and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells in promoting keratinocyte adhesion. The adsorbed collagen supported cell adhesion better than cultural plastic surface but was inferior to feeder cells. The rate of keratinocyte culture formation was dependent on the feeder layer density: the optimum density was 50 x 10(3) cells/cm2. Dynamics of keratinocyte adhesion to substrata was studied. PMID:1841463

  16. Development of a Xeno-Free Feeder-Layer System from Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Prolonged Expansion of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Culture.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qing; Wu, Mingjun; Zhong, Liwu; Fan, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Qiang; Ma, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Various feeder layers have been extensively applied to support the prolonged growth of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) for in vitro cultures. Among them, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) and mouse fibroblast cell line (SNL) are most commonly used feeder cells for hPSCs culture. However, these feeder layers from animal usually cause immunogenic contaminations, which compromises the potential of hPSCs in clinical applications. In the present study, we tested human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) as a potent xeno-free feeder system for maintaining human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The hUC-MSCs showed characteristics of MSCs in xeno-free culture condition. On the mitomycin-treated hUC-MSCs feeder, hiPSCs maintained the features of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), such as low efficiency of spontaneous differentiation, stable expression of stemness markers, maintenance of normal karyotypes, in vitro pluripotency and in vivo ability to form teratomas, even after a prolonged culture of more than 30 passages. Our study indicates that the xeno-free culture system may be a good candidate for growth and expansion of hiPSCs as the stepping stone for stem cell research to further develop better and safer stem cells. PMID:26882313

  17. Development of a Xeno-Free Feeder-Layer System from Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Prolonged Expansion of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Qing; Wu, Mingjun; Zhong, Liwu; Fan, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Qiang; Ma, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Various feeder layers have been extensively applied to support the prolonged growth of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) for in vitro cultures. Among them, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) and mouse fibroblast cell line (SNL) are most commonly used feeder cells for hPSCs culture. However, these feeder layers from animal usually cause immunogenic contaminations, which compromises the potential of hPSCs in clinical applications. In the present study, we tested human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) as a potent xeno-free feeder system for maintaining human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The hUC-MSCs showed characteristics of MSCs in xeno-free culture condition. On the mitomycin-treated hUC-MSCs feeder, hiPSCs maintained the features of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), such as low efficiency of spontaneous differentiation, stable expression of stemness markers, maintenance of normal karyotypes, in vitro pluripotency and in vivo ability to form teratomas, even after a prolonged culture of more than 30 passages. Our study indicates that the xeno-free culture system may be a good candidate for growth and expansion of hiPSCs as the stepping stone for stem cell research to further develop better and safer stem cells. PMID:26882313

  18. Alteration of glycolipids in ras-transfected NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, G.R.; Aaronson, S.A.; Brady, R.O.; Fishman, P.H.

    1987-09-01

    Glycosphingolipid alterations upon viral transformation are well documented. Transformation of mouse 3T3 cells with murine sarcoma viruses results in marked decreases in the levels of gangliosides GM1 and GD1a and an increase in gangliotriaosylceramide. The transforming oncogenes of these viruses have been identified as members of the ras gene family. The authors analyzed NIH 3T3 cells transfected with human H-, K- and N-ras oncogenes for their glycolipid composition and expression of cell surface gangliosides. Using conventional thin-layer chromatographic analysis, they found that the level of GM3 was increased and that of GD1a was slightly decreased or unchanged, and GM1 was present but not in quantifiable levels. Cell surface levels of GM1 were determined by /sup 125/I-labeled cholera toxin binding to intact cells. GD1a was determined by cholera toxin binding to cells treated with sialidase prior to toxin binding. All ras-transfected cells had decreased levels of surface GM1 and GD1 as compared to logarithmically growing normal NIH 3T3 cells. Levels of GM1 and, to a lesser extent, GD1a increased as the latter cells became confluent. Using a monoclonal antibody assay, they found that gangliotriaosylceramide was present in all ras-transfected cells studied but not in logarithmically growing untransfected cells. These results indicated that ras oncogenes derived form human tumors are capable of inducing alterations in glycolipid composition.

  19. Interleukin 11 signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Tenney, Raleigh; Stansfield, Karrie; Pekala, Phillip H

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin 11 (IL-11) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine with receptors located on most cell types and tissues throughout the body. Its anti-inflammatory properties are mediated through suppression of cytokine synthesis, in large part by prevention of NF-kappaB activation. As adipose tissue synthesizes and secretes cytokines involved in establishing insulin resistance and due to the ability of IL-11 to suppress cytokine synthesis, we initiated an investigation to determine the signal transduction pathways initiated by IL-11 in adipose tissue. Using the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell culture model we demonstrate the rapid activation of the p44/42MAP kinase, PI3-kinase, and STATs 1 and 3. Activation of MAP kinase is demonstrated to lead to the downstream activation of p90 RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) as well as ATF-1 and CREB. PI3-kinase appears to activate the downstream target of p70 S6 kinase resulting in phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. STAT phosphorylation appears to be initiated through PI3-kinase and to a lesser degree through p44/42 MAP kinase. These studies demonstrate the activation of three major signaling pathways and support a role for IL-11 in the regulation of both transcription and protein synthesis in fully differentiated adipocytes. PMID:15389536

  20. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • LPA{sub 5} inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA{sub 5} suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA{sub 5} on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA{sub 1} in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA{sub 5} in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA{sub 5} acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA{sub 1}–LPA{sub 6}) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA{sub 1} inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA{sub 5} in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 5} on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA{sub 5} may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA{sub 1}.

  1. Hematopoietic progenitor cells grow on 3T3 fibroblast monolayers that overexpress growth arrest-specific gene-6 (GAS6).

    PubMed

    Dormady, S P; Zhang, X M; Basch, R S

    2000-10-24

    Pluripotential hematopoietic stem cells grow in close association with bone marrow stromal cells, which play a critical role in sustaining hematopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures. The mechanisms through which stromal cells act to support pluripotential hematopoietic stem cells are largely unknown. This study demonstrates that growth arrest-specific gene-6 (GAS6) plays an important role in this process. GAS6 is a ligand for the Axl (Ufo/Ark), Sky (Dtk/Tyro3/Rse/Brt/Tif), and Mer (Eyk) family of tyrosine kinase receptors and binds to these receptors via tandem G domains at its C terminus. After translation, GAS6 moves to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is extensively gamma-carboxylated. The carboxylation process is vitamin K dependent, and current evidence suggests that GAS6 must be gamma-carboxylated to bind and activate any of the cognate tyrosine kinase receptors. Here, we show that expression of GAS6 is highly correlated with the capacity of bone marrow stromal cells to support hematopoiesis in culture. Nonsupportive stromal cell lines express little to no GAS6, whereas supportive cell lines express high levels of GAS6. Transfection of the cDNA encoding GAS6 into 3T3 fibroblasts is sufficient to render this previously nonsupportive cell line capable of supporting long-term hematopoietic cultures. 3T3 cells, genetically engineered to stably express GAS6 (GAS6-3T3), produce a stromal layer that supports the generation of colony-forming units in culture (CFU-c) for up to 6 wk. Hematopoietic support by genetically engineered 3T3 is not vitamin K dependent, and soluble recombinant GAS6 does not substitute for coculturing the hematopoietic progenitors with genetically modified 3T3 cells. PMID:11050245

  2. Precision powder feeder

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Schmale, David T. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Michael S. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  3. Expression of growth hormone-independent adipogenesis by a 3T3 cell variant.

    PubMed

    Guller, S; Sonenberg, M; Corin, R E

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the regulation of adipogenesis of a 3T3-F442A cell variant. The variant, designated 3T3-GH-independent clone 16 (GI-16), was isolated after serum-induced adipogenic commitment. 3T3-GI-16 fibroblasts displayed a lower serum requirement for adipogenesis than the 3T3-F442A parent cell. Insulin-stimulated adipogenesis of 3T3-GI-16 cells in serum-free medium (SFM) was extensive in the absence of GH, as judged by oil red O staining or glycerol-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase activity, a property not associated with the 3T3-F442A cell. In SFM devoid of GH the concentration of insulin required to promote half-maximal adipogenesis of 3T3-GI-16 fibroblasts was 5 nM. The expression of GH-independent adipogenesis by 3T3-GI-16 cells was not due to exposure to adipogenic stimuli during routine passage, as insulin-stimulated differentiation was not a function of the inoculation density in nonadipogenic cat serum. We noted that nine proteins resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis behaved in a differentiation-dependent manner during adipogenesis of 3T3-GI-16 and 3T3-F442A fibroblasts in SFM. The concentrations of all nine proteins were regulated in a GH-independent manner during insulin-stimulated adipogenesis of 3T3-GI-16 fibroblasts. In contrast, the presence of insulin alone markedly altered the expression of only two of the proteins during differentiation of 3T3-F442A cells. The observed changes in the expression of five presently uncharacterized differentiation-dependent proteins were most likely due to employment of SFM. Our results suggest that expression of GH-independent insulin-induced adipogenesis of 3T3-GI-16 fibroblasts reflects a prior commitment by GH during our selection protocol. These results are discussed in the context of a model in which adipogenesis in vivo is postulated to proceed through the sequential action of GH and insulin on target cells. PMID:2462490

  4. Cell growth and quabain-sensitive 86Rg+ uptake and (Na++K+)-ATPase activity in 3T3 and SV40 transformed 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kimelberg, H K; Mayhew, E

    1976-12-14

    The uptake of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake measured at 5 min and the uptake measured at 60 min was 4.5- and 2.7-fold greater respectively for SV40 transformed 3T3 cells compared to 3T3 cells during the late log phase of growth. This uptake, however, varied markedly with cell growth. Ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake was found to be a sensitive indicator of protein synthesis as measured by total protein content. Cessation of cell growth as measured by total protein content was associated with a decline in ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake in both cell types. This increase ouabain-sensitive cation transport was reflected in increased levels of (Na++K)-ATPase activity for SV40 3T3 cells, which showed a 2.5-fold increase V but the same Km as 3T3 cells. These results are compared with the results of related work. Possible mechanisms for these effects are discussed and how changes in cation transport might be related to alterations in cell growth. PMID:187247

  5. Protein phosphorylation in a tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate-nonproliferative variant of 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, R; Martinez, R; Weber, M J; Blackshear, P J; Beatty, S; Lim, R; Herschman, H R

    1985-01-01

    The 3T3-TNR9 cell line is a variant of Swiss 3T3 cells which does not respond mitogenically to tumor promoters, but does respond mitogenically to epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and serum. To elucidate differences between tumor promoters and polypeptide mitogens in the pathway(s) of mitogenesis which might be responsible for the nonresponsiveness of the 3T3-TNR9 cells, we have examined in these cells the early protein phosphorylation events known to be associated with mitogenesis in the parental 3T3 cells. We find that the 3T3-TNR9 cells display levels of tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate binding and of a calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase activity which are at least the equal of those seen in the parental 3T3 cells, implicating some postreceptor event in the nonmitogenic phenotype. In addition, we find that phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and of 80-kDa and 22-kDa proteins, as well as the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 42-kDa protein, all proceed normally in the nonmitogenic variant, even though these phosphorylations must depend on the activation of different kinases. Thus, all these early phosphorylation reactions are intact in the 3T3-TNR9 cells. Although these phosphorylations may be necessary, they clearly are insufficient to trigger mitogenesis. Images PMID:3016523

  6. Active form Notch4 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Peng-Yeh; Tsai, Chong-Bin; Department of Ophthalmology, Chiayi Christian Hospital, Chiayi 600, Taiwan, ROC ; Tseng, Min-Jen

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Notch4IC modulates the ERK pathway and cell cycle to promote 3T3-L1 proliferation. ► Notch4IC facilitates 3T3-L1 differentiation by up-regulating proadipogenic genes. ► Notch4IC promotes proliferation during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. ► Notch4IC enhances differentiation during subsequent stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes, which differentiate from precursor cells in a process called adipogenesis. Many signal molecules are involved in the transcriptional control of adipogenesis, including the Notch pathway. Previous adipogenic studies of Notch have focused on Notch1 and HES1; however, the role of other Notch receptors in adipogenesis remains unclear. Q-RT-PCR analyses showed that the augmentation of Notch4 expression during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was comparable to that of Notch1. To elucidate the role of Notch4 in adipogenesis, the human active form Notch4 (N4IC) was transiently transfected into 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of HES1, Hey1, C/EBPδ and PPARγ was up-regulated, and the expression of Pref-1, an adipogenic inhibitor, was down-regulated. To further characterize the effect of N4IC in adipogenesis, stable cells expressing human N4IC were established. The expression of N4IC promoted proliferation and enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells compared with those of control cells. These data suggest that N4IC promoted proliferation through modulating the ERK pathway and the cell cycle during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis and facilitated differentiation through up-regulating adipogenic genes such as C/EBPα, PPARγ, aP2, LPL and HSL during the middle and late stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis.

  7. Up-regulation of vinculin expression in 3T3 preadipose cells by growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Guller, S; Corin, R E; Yuan-Wu, K; Sonenberg, M

    1991-07-01

    In an effort to define biochemical events relevant to the adipogenic action of GH, the effect of GH on expression of the cytoskeletal element vinculin was studied in 3T3-F442A preadipose cells. Results from Western blotting indicated that in serum-free medium 2 nM met-hGH induced an approximately 100% increase in vinculin expression relative to that in cells maintained in serum-free medium alone. GH-elicited alterations in vinculin expression were dose dependent. GH treatment elevated levels of tubulin to a lesser extent, whereas actin expression was unaffected by GH. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that GH treatment promoted a 200% increase in vinculin synthesis on day 4 relative to that in control cells. GH had no effect on phosphorylation of vinculin in 3T3-F442A cells. Based on Northern blotting, we noted that GH induced approximately a 200% increase in levels of vinculin mRNA on day 4. GH responsiveness as well as levels of vinculin were similar in 3T3-GI-16 (a highly adipogenic subclone of the 3T3-F442A cell) and 3T3-F442A cells. The GH-dependent increase in vinculin protein expression was not observed in nonadipogenic 3T3-C2 cells, suggesting that this effect of GH was related to the program of differentiation. Interestingly, levels of vinculin in nontreated 3T3-C2 cells were approximately 10-fold lower than levels in 3T3-F442A cells. GH-mediated alterations in vinculin expression in 3T3-F442A cells were abolished by treatment with fetal bovine serum, a potent mitogen. Our data indicate that increased expression of vinculin is a component of the GH-induced portion of the adipose differentiation program. PMID:1905230

  8. Pear pomace water extract inhibits adipogenesis and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Jin; Kim, Min Sook; You, Mi-Kyoung; Bang, Mi-Ae

    2014-01-01

    Obesity occurs when a person's calorie intake exceeds the amount of energy burns, which may lead to pathologic growth of adipocytes and the accumulation of fat in the tissues. In this study, the effect and mechanism of pear pomace extracts on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and apoptosis of mature adipocytes were investigated. The effects of pear pomace extract on cell viability and the anti-adipogenic and proapoptotic effects were investigated via MTT assay, Oil red O staining, western blot analysis and apoptosis assay. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were stimulated with DMEM containing 10% FBS, 0.5 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), 5 µg/ml insulin and 1 µM dexamethasone for differentiation to adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured with PBS or water extract of pear pomace. Water extract of pear pomace effectively inhibited lipid accumulations and expressions of PPAR-γ and C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 cells. It also increased expression of p-AMPK and decreased the expression of SREBP-1c and FAS in 3T3-L1 cells. The induction of apoptosis was observed in 3T3-L1 cells treated with pear pomace. These results indicate that pear pomace water extract inhibits adipogenesis and induces apoptosis of adipocytes and thus can be used as a potential therapeutic substance as part of prevention or treatment strategy for obesity. PMID:24611103

  9. Pear pomace water extract inhibits adipogenesis and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Jin; Kim, Min Sook; You, Mi-Kyoung; Bang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Hyeon-A

    2014-02-01

    Obesity occurs when a person's calorie intake exceeds the amount of energy burns, which may lead to pathologic growth of adipocytes and the accumulation of fat in the tissues. In this study, the effect and mechanism of pear pomace extracts on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and apoptosis of mature adipocytes were investigated. The effects of pear pomace extract on cell viability and the anti-adipogenic and proapoptotic effects were investigated via MTT assay, Oil red O staining, western blot analysis and apoptosis assay. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were stimulated with DMEM containing 10% FBS, 0.5 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), 5 µg/ml insulin and 1 µM dexamethasone for differentiation to adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured with PBS or water extract of pear pomace. Water extract of pear pomace effectively inhibited lipid accumulations and expressions of PPAR-γ and C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 cells. It also increased expression of p-AMPK and decreased the expression of SREBP-1c and FAS in 3T3-L1 cells. The induction of apoptosis was observed in 3T3-L1 cells treated with pear pomace. These results indicate that pear pomace water extract inhibits adipogenesis and induces apoptosis of adipocytes and thus can be used as a potential therapeutic substance as part of prevention or treatment strategy for obesity. PMID:24611103

  10. Mitigative Effect of Erythromycin on PMMA Challenged Preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Wang, Weili; Li, Xiaomiao; Markel, David C.; Ren, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Background. Aseptic loosening (AL) is a major complication of total joint replacement. Recent approaches to limiting AL have focused on inhibiting periprosthetic inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. Questions/Purposes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of erythromycin (EM) on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particle-challenged MC3T3 osteoblast precursor cells. Methods. MC3T3 cells were pretreated with EM (0–10 μg/mL) and then stimulated with PMMA (1 mg/mL). Cell viability was evaluated by both a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay and cell counts. Cell differentiation was determined by activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Gene expression was measured via real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results. We found that exposure to PMMA particles reduced cellular viability and osteogenetic potential in MC3T3 cell line. EM treatment mitigated the effects of PMMA particles on the proliferation, viability and differentiation of MC3T3 cells. PMMA decreased the gene expression of Runx2, osterix and osteocalcin, which can be partially restored by EM treatment. Furthermore, EM suppressed PMMA- induced increase of NF-κB gene expression. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that EM mitigates the effects of PMMA on MC3T3 cell viability and differentiation, in part through downregulation of NF-κB pathway. EM appeared to represent an anabolic agent on MC3T3 cells challenged with PMMA particles. PMID:25110723

  11. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain human iPS cell pluripotency via inhibited endogenous microRNA-145 and increased Sox2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Te; Shanghai Geriatric Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200031 ; Cheng, Weiwei; Huang, Yongyi; Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen; Guo, Lihe

    2012-02-15

    Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation on Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs feeder layers maintain human iPS cells pluripotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs negatively regulates the synthesis of primary precursor miRNA in human iPS.

  12. Filopodia of spreading 3T3 cells. Do they have a substrate-exploring function?

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Freshly plated 3T3 cells send out radial projections or filopodia. We observed cells which happended to settle on glass near the borderline of a gold-plated area. When some of the filopodia contacted the gold- plated area and others the glass substratum and remained attached for a few minutes, lamellipodia then extended preferentially toward the gold- plated area. 1-2 h later, most of the cells were found in the gold- plated area. When the filopodia of a spreading 3T3 cell contacted another already spread 3T3 cell and also the glass substratum, the first lamellipodia extended preferentially towards the glass. These observations suggest a directionally differentiated extension of lamellipodia after the filopodia of a spreading 3T3 cell have contacted different substrates in their environment. Before filopodia contact a substrate, they perform a rapid "scanning" motion. Therefore, we suggest that the filopodia of a spreading 3T3 cell serve as organs which explore the nonfluid environment and react to a certain quality of the substrate that is presently unknown. Subsequently, they mediate the extension of lamellipodia into the direction in which this quality is found. The described phenomena are reversibly inhibited by Cytochalasin B at concentrations above 5 mug/ml although filopodia are produced. PMID:1262391

  13. ZnO Nanoparticles Upregulates Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Jin, Bong Yeon; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2016-03-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on 3T3-L1 cell differentiation, by quantitating peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1), and serine-threonine kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4), which are critical for adipogenesis. 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells were cultured and differentiated with the standard differentiation medium. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay determined 3T3-L1 cell viability. ZnO nanoparticles increased the lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. The quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that the PPAR?, FABP4, C/EBP?, and SREBP1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was significantly increased in the ZnO nanoparticle-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Western blot analysis showed increased PPAR?, FABP4, C/EBP?, and SREBP1 protein expression compared to their respective controls. Also, the immunofluorescence study showed the increased cdk4 and PPAR? expression in the nanoparticle-treated cells. Taking all these data together, it is concluded that ZnO nanoparticles may be a potent substance to alter 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. PMID:26271306

  14. Protein turnover and cellular autophagy in growing and growth-inhibited 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, T.; Pfeifer, U. )

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between growth, protein degradation, and cellular autophagy was tested in growing and in growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers. For the biochemical evaluation of DNA and protein metabolism, growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers with high cell density and growing 3T3 cell monolayers with low cell density were labeled simultaneously with ({sup 14}C)thymidine and ({sup 3}H)leucine. The evaluation of the DNA turnover and additional ({sup 3}H)thymidine autoradiography showed that 24 to 5% of 3T3 cells continue to replicate even in the growth-inhibited state, where no accumulation of protein and DNA can be observed. Cell loss, therefore, has to be assumed to compensate for the ongoing cell proliferation. When the data of protein turnover were corrected for cell loss, it was found that the rate constant of protein synthesis in nongrowing monolayers was reduced to half the value found in growing monolayers. Simultaneously, the rate constant of protein degradation in nongrowing monolayers was increased to about 1.5-fold the value of growing monolayers. These data are in agreement with the assumption that cellular autophagy represents a major pathway of regulating protein degradation in 3T3 cells and that the regulation of autophagic protein degradation is of relevance for the transition from a growing to a nongrowing state.

  15. Stimulative effects of insulin on Toxoplasma gondii replication in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Sha; Lai, De-Hua; Li, San-Qiang; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2006-02-01

    The influence of insulin and 2-deoxy-glucose (D-glucose) on the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii replication in 3T3-L1 cells was investigated. Insulin and D-glucose had a dose-responsive mitogenic effect on intracellular T. gondii replication and development in 3T3-L1 cells. Insulin concentrations between 10(-2) and 10(-1) microg/ml combination of 4.5 g/l D-glucose in DMEM medium gave maximum stimulus to T. gondii replication. The number of tachyzoites increased rapidly, with the growth peaking typically on day 3 or 4 of culture, and then declining quickly. However, insulin, in the absence of d-glucose, had comparably less effect on T. gondii growth than two of their combination. d-glucose concentrations significantly affected the tachyzoite replication and appear to be indispensable for maintaining the host 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:16271305

  16. Transformation of human cells by DNAs ineffective in transformation of NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Bennett, P.B.; Freeman, A.G.; Moore, S.P.; Strickland, P.T.

    1985-04-01

    Neonatal human foreskin fibroblasts can be transformed to anchorage-independent growth by transfection with DNAs inefficient in transforming NIH 3T3 cells. Human cells transfected with DNA from GM 1312, a multiple myeloma cell line, or MOLT-4, a permanent lymphoblast line, grow without anchorage at a much higher frequency than do the parental cells and their DNAs can transform human cell recipients to anchorage-independent growth; they have extended but not indefinite life spans and are nontumorigenic. Human fibroblasts are also transformed by DNAs from two multiple myeloma lines that also transform 3T3 cells; however, restriction analysis suggests that different transforming genes in this DNA are acting in the human and murine systems. These results indicate that the human cell transfection system allows detection of transforming genes not effective in the 3T3 system and points out the possibility of detection of additional transforming sequences even in DNAs that do transform murine cells.

  17. Cranberries (Oxycoccus quadripetalus) inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna; Grajek, W?odzimierz

    2014-04-01

    Cranberries (Oxycoccus quadripetalus) are a valuable source of bioactive substances with high antioxidant potential and well documented beneficial health properties. In the present study, the activity of cranberries, in terms of the inhibiting effects of adipogenesis, was investigated using the 3T3-L1 cell line. The obtained results showed that cranberries reduced proliferation and viability of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with cranberries decreased the number of adipocytes and reduced lipid accumulation in maturing 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, demonstrating an inhibitory effect on lipogenesis. Moreover, it was found that cranberries directly induced lipolysis in adipocytes and down-regulated the expression of major transcription factors of the adipogenesis pathway, such as PPAR?, C/EBP? and SREBP1. These findings indicate that cranberries are capable of suppressing adipogenesis and therefore they seem to be natural bioactive factors effective in adipose tissue mass modulation. PMID:24262553

  18. Growth hormone-induced alteration of morphology and tubulin expression in 3T3 preadipose cells.

    PubMed

    Guller, S; Corin, R E; Wu, K Y; Sonenberg, M

    1989-09-15

    Effects of growth hormone on morphology and cytoskeletal protein expression were examined in 3T3-F442A preadipocytes in serum-free medium. Between 2 and 5 days of culture 2 nM methionyl human growth hormone converted 3T3-F442A cells from a flat fibroblastic morphology to a rounded form with numerous membrane convolutions. Growth hormone treated cultures manifested a 30-40% reduction in cell volume. Growth hormone induced changes in morphology and volume preceded and were independent of lipogenesis. In cells treated with growth hormone, expression of alpha and beta-tubulin as determined by Western blotting was found to increase approximately 50% within 72 h as compared to untreated cells. After 7 days, tubulin levels in growth hormone treated cells were approximately 40% of control levels. This indicated that morphological changes and alteration of tubulin expression were signatures of growth hormone action on 3T3-F442A cells. PMID:2783130

  19. Effect of Biodegradable Shape-Memory Polymers on Proliferation of 3T3 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Ying-Ming

    2011-07-01

    This article evaluates the in vitro biocompatibility for biodegradable shape-memory polymers (BSMP) invented by the authors. 3T3 cells (3T3-Swiss albino GNM 9) of primary and passaged cultures were inoculated into two kinds of carriers: the BSMP carrier and the control group carrier. Viability, proliferation, and DNA synthesis (the major biocompatibility parameters), were measured and evaluated for both the BSMP and naked carrier via cell growth curve analysis, MTT colorimetry and addition of 3H-TdR to culture media. The results showed that there was no difference between the BSMP carrier and the control dish in terms of viability, proliferation, and metabolism of the 3T3 cells. Overall, the BSMP carrier provides good biocompatibility and low toxicity to cells in vitro, and could indicate future potential for this medium as a biological material for implants in vivo.

  20. Growth changes of 3T3 cells in the presence of mineral fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, L.; Page, M.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to asbestos fibers and the development of mesothelioma or bronchial carcinoma prompted many countries to ban its use from commercial products. The biological mechanism by which asbestos induces or promotes mesothelioma or carcinoma is still unknown. In order to study the influence of fibers on the cell surface, 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured in the presence of various mineral fibers. The acute cytotoxicity produced by mineral fibers was evaluated by the trypan blue dye exclusion method; growth of 3T3 cells was measured as well as the maximum cell density at saturation. It was found that growth of 3T3 cells was slower in the presence of chrysotile while light microscopy revealed an increased cellular chromogenicity and a modification of the cell-cell arrangement in the presence of this fiber. An assay is described in which chrysotile causes an increase in the maximum cell density at saturation.

  1. 6-gingerol inhibits rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the effects of 6-gingerol ((S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-decanone) on the inhibition of rosiglitazone (RGZ)-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. The morphological changes were photographed based on staining lipid accumulation by Oil-Red O in RGZ (1 µmol/l)-treated 3T3-L1 cells without or with various concentrations of 6-gingerol on differentiation day 8. Quantitation of triglycerides content was performed in cells on day 8 after differentiation induction. Differentiated cells were lysed to detect mRNA and protein levels of adipocyte-specific transcription factors by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. 6-gingerol (50 µmol/l) effectively suppressed oil droplet accumulation and reduced the sizes of the droplets in RGZ-induced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. The triglyceride accumulation induced by RGZ in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells was also reduced by 6-gingerol (50 µmol/l). Treatment of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with 6-gingerol (50 µmol/l) antagonized RGZ-induced gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α. Additionally, the increased levels of mRNA and protein in adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein 4 and fatty acid synthase induced by RGZ in 3T3-L1 cells were decreased upon treatment with 6-gingerol. Our data suggests that 6-gingerol may be beneficial in obesity, by reducing adipogenesis partly through the down-regulating PPARγ activity. PMID:23519881

  2. Ginsenoside Rb1 promotes browning through regulation of PPAR? in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mu, Qianqian; Fang, Xin; Li, Xiaoke; Zhao, Dandan; Mo, Fangfang; Jiang, Guangjian; Yu, Na; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Yubo; Fu, Min; Liu, Jun-Li; Zhang, Dongwei; Gao, Sihua

    2015-10-23

    Browning of white adipocyte tissue (WAT) has received considerable attention due to its potential implication in preventing obesity and related comorbidities. Ginsenoside Rb1 is reported to improve glycolipid metabolism and reduce body weight in obese animals. However whether the body reducing effect mediates by browning effect remains unclear. For this purpose, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to study the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on browning adipocytes specific genes and oxygen consumptions. The results demonstrate that 10?M of ginsenoside Rb1 increases basal glucose uptake and promoted browning evidenced by significant increases in mRNA expressions of UCP-1, PGC-1? and PRDM16 in 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes. Further, ginsenoside Rb1 also increases PPAR? activity. And the browning effect is abrogated by GW9692, a PPAR? antagonist. In addition, ginsenoside Rb1 increases basal respiration rate, ATP production and uncoupling capacity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Those effects are also blunted by GW9692. The results suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 promote browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through induction of PPAR?. Our finding offer a new source to discover browning agonists and also useful to understand and extend the applications of ginseng and its constituents. PMID:26381176

  3. Anti-Obesity Effects of Starter Fermented Kimchi on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Eui-Seong; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-01-01

    The anti-obesity effects of starter (Leuconostoc mesenteroides+Lactobacillus plantarum) fermented kimchi on 3T3-L1 adipocyte were studied using naturally fermented kimchi (NK), a functional kimchi (FK, NK supplemented with green tea), and FK supplemented with added starters (FKS). Oil red O staining and cellular levels of triglyceride (TG) and glycerol were used to evaluate the in vitro anti-obesity effects of these kimchis in 3T3-L1 cells. The expressions of adipogenesis/lipogenesis-related genes of peroxisome proliferator-active receptor (PPAR)-γ, CCAAT/enhance-binding protein (C/EBP)-α, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were determined by RT-PCR. Kimchis, especially FKS, markedly decreased TG levels and increased levels of intracellular glycerol and lipid lipolysis. In addition, FKS also reduced the mRNA levels of PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, and FAS, which are related to adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest the anti-obesity effects of FKS were to due to enhanced lipolysis and reduced adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:26770918

  4. Antiadopogenic effects of rice hull smoke extract in 3T3-L1 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigates the inhibitory effects of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells. At concentrations of 0.1% and 0.5% RHSE, MDI-induced cells were shown to reduce their cellular lipid content by about 72% and 88%, respectively, compared to ...

  5. Effect of Gambisan on the Inhibition of Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Won; Nam, Dongwoo; Kim, Kun Hyung; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the antiadipogenic effect and possible mechanism of Gambisan on 3T3-L1 cells. For quality control, Gambisan was standardized by HPLC and the standard compounds ephedrine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and caffeine were screened. Cultured 3T3-L1 cells that had been induced to differentiate were treated with various concentrations of Gambisan or its major component extracts (Ephedra intermedia Schrenk, Atractylodes lancea DC., and Thea sinensis L.) for 72 hours for MTT assay to determine cell viability or 10 days for LDH assay, triglyceride assay, DNA content measurement, Oil red O staining, RT-PCR, and western blot. Gambisan significantly inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by reducing triglyceride contents and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner without obvious cytotoxicity. Viability and DNA content in 3T3-L1 cells treated with Gambisan were significantly higher than cells treated with the major component extracts at every concentration. The anti-adipogenic effects of Gambisan appeared to be mediated by a significant downregulation of the expression of lipoprotein lipase mRNA and PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1 protein apart from the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase. Gambisan could act as a possible therapeutic agent for obesity. However, further studies including in vivo assays and clinical trials are needed to confirm the efficacy, safety and mechanisms of the antiobesity effects of Gambisan. PMID:24069055

  6. Effect of Gambisan on the Inhibition of Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Won; Nam, Dongwoo; Kim, Kun Hyung; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the antiadipogenic effect and possible mechanism of Gambisan on 3T3-L1 cells. For quality control, Gambisan was standardized by HPLC and the standard compounds ephedrine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and caffeine were screened. Cultured 3T3-L1 cells that had been induced to differentiate were treated with various concentrations of Gambisan or its major component extracts (Ephedra intermedia Schrenk, Atractylodes lancea DC., and Thea sinensis L.) for 72 hours for MTT assay to determine cell viability or 10 days for LDH assay, triglyceride assay, DNA content measurement, Oil red O staining, RT-PCR, and western blot. Gambisan significantly inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by reducing triglyceride contents and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner without obvious cytotoxicity. Viability and DNA content in 3T3-L1 cells treated with Gambisan were significantly higher than cells treated with the major component extracts at every concentration. The anti-adipogenic effects of Gambisan appeared to be mediated by a significant downregulation of the expression of lipoprotein lipase mRNA and PPAR ? , C/EBP ? , and SREBP-1 protein apart from the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase. Gambisan could act as a possible therapeutic agent for obesity. However, further studies including in vivo assays and clinical trials are needed to confirm the efficacy, safety and mechanisms of the antiobesity effects of Gambisan. PMID:24069055

  7. Isoproterenol Increases Uncoupling, Glycolysis, and Markers of Beiging in Mature 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Colette N.; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; England, Emily; Yin, Amelia; Rayalam, Srujana

    2015-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic activation stimulates uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), enhancing metabolic rate. In vitro, most work has studied brown adipocytes, however, few have investigated more established adipocyte lines such as the murine 3T3-L1 line. To assess the effect of beta-adrenergic activation, mature 3T3-L1s were treated for 6 or 48 hours with or without isoproterenol (10 and 100 ?M) following standard differentiation supplemented with thyroid hormone (T3; 1 nM). The highest dose of isoproterenol increased lipid content following 48 hours of treatment. This concentration enhanced UCP1 mRNA and protein expression. The increase in UCP1 following 48 hours of isoproterenol increased oxygen consumption rate. Further, coupling efficiency of the electron transport chain was disturbed and an enhancement of glycolytic rate was measured alongside this, indicating an attempt to meet the energy demands of the cell. Lastly, markers of beige adipocytes (protein content of CD137 and gene transcript of CITED1) were also found to be upregulated at 48 hours of isoproterenol treatment. This data indicates that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes are responsive to isoproterenol and induce UCP1 expression and activity. Further, this finding provides a model for further pharmaceutical and nutraceutical investigation of UCP1 in 3T3-L1s. PMID:26390217

  8. Isoproterenol Increases Uncoupling, Glycolysis, and Markers of Beiging in Mature 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Colette N; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; England, Emily; Yin, Amelia; Baile, Clifton A; Rayalam, Srujana

    2015-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic activation stimulates uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), enhancing metabolic rate. In vitro, most work has studied brown adipocytes, however, few have investigated more established adipocyte lines such as the murine 3T3-L1 line. To assess the effect of beta-adrenergic activation, mature 3T3-L1s were treated for 6 or 48 hours with or without isoproterenol (10 and 100 μM) following standard differentiation supplemented with thyroid hormone (T3; 1 nM). The highest dose of isoproterenol increased lipid content following 48 hours of treatment. This concentration enhanced UCP1 mRNA and protein expression. The increase in UCP1 following 48 hours of isoproterenol increased oxygen consumption rate. Further, coupling efficiency of the electron transport chain was disturbed and an enhancement of glycolytic rate was measured alongside this, indicating an attempt to meet the energy demands of the cell. Lastly, markers of beige adipocytes (protein content of CD137 and gene transcript of CITED1) were also found to be upregulated at 48 hours of isoproterenol treatment. This data indicates that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes are responsive to isoproterenol and induce UCP1 expression and activity. Further, this finding provides a model for further pharmaceutical and nutraceutical investigation of UCP1 in 3T3-L1s. PMID:26390217

  9. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of lipids during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young Sik; Won, Young Jae; Lee, Sang-Hak; Kim, Dug Young

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is becoming a big health problem in these days. Since increased body weight is due to increased number and size of the triglyceride-storing adipocytes, many researchers are working on differentiation conditions and processes of adipocytes. Adipocytes also work as regulators of whole-body energy homeostasis by secreting several proteins that regulate processes as diverse as haemostasis, blood pressure, immune function, angiogenesis and energy balance. 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype under appropriate conditions. In this paper, we propose an effective fluorescence lifetime imaging technique which can easily distinguish lipids in membrane and those in lipid droplets. Nile red dyes are attached to lipids in 3T3-L1 cells. Fluorescence lifetime images were taken for 2 week during differentiation procedure of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. We used 488 nm pulsed laser with 5MHz repetition rate and emission wavelength is 520 nm of Nile Red fluorescent dye. Results clearly show that the lifetime of Nile red in lipid droplets are smaller than those in cell membrane. Our results suggest that fluorescence lifetime imaging can be a very powerful tool to monitor lipid droplet formation in adipocytes from 3T3-L1 cells.

  10. Osteogenic gene expression of murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells under cyclic tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, C. T.; Chen, C. C.; Cheong, U.-I.; Liu, S. L.; Huang, T. H.

    2014-08-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can promote cell proliferation. The remodeling ability of the tension side of orthodontic teeth affects post-orthodontic stability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the osteogenic effects of LLLT on osteoblast-like cells treated with a simulated tension system that provides a mechanical tension regimen. Murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells were cultured in a Flexcell strain unit with programmed loads of 12% elongation at a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 24 and 48 h. The cultured cells were treated with a low-level diode laser using powers of 5 J and 10 J. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The expression of osteogenic genes (type I collagen (Col-1), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), bone morphologic protein (BMP-2), and bone morphologic protein (BMP-4)) in MC3T3-E1 cells was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The proliferation rate of tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells under 5 J and 10 J LLLT increased compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Prominent mineralization of the MC3T3-E1 cells was visible using a von Kossa stain in the 5 J LLLT group. Osteogenic genes (Col-1, OC, OPG and BMP-2) were significantly expressed in the MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 5 J and 10 J LLLT (p < 0.05). LLLT in tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells showed synergistic osteogenic effects, including increases in cell proliferation and Col-1, OPN, OC, OPG and BMP-2 gene expression. LLLT might be beneficial for bone remodeling on the tension side of orthodontics.

  11. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HYSA) inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui-Juan; Wang, Lin-Jie; Wang, Xiang-Qing; Pan, Hui; Li, Nai-Shi; Yang, Hong-Bo; Jin, Ming; Zang, Bao-Xia; Gong, Feng-Ying

    2015-10-01

    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a main component of safflor yellow, has been demonstrated to prevent steroid-induced avascular necrosis of femoral head by inhibiting primary bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells adipogenic differentiation induced by steroid. In this study, we investigate the effect of HSYA on the proliferation and adipogenesis of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The effects of HSYA on proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and its possible mechanism were studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide spectrophotometry, Oil Red O staining, intracellular triglyceride assays, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, transient transfection and dual luciferase reporter gene methods. HSYA inhibited the proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and cell viability greatly decreased in a dose and time dependent manner. HSYA (1mg/l) notably reduced the amount of intracellular lipid and triglyceride content in adipocytes by 21.3% (2.130.36 vs 2.710.40, P<0.01) and 22.6% (1.330.07 vs 1.720.07, P<0.01) on days 8 following the differentiation, respectively. HSYA (1mg/l) significantly increased hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) mRNA expression and promoter activities by 2.4- and 1.55-fold, respectively (P<0.01), in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. HSYA inhibits the proliferation and adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The inhibitory action of HYSA on adipogenesis may be due to the promotion of lipolytic-specific enzyme HSL expression by increasing HSL promoter activity. PMID:25749912

  12. Gene expression, synthesis and degradation of hyaluronan during differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Allingham, Peter G; Brownlee, Gary R; Harper, Gregory S; Pho, Minh; Nilsson, Susan K; Brown, Tracey J

    2006-08-01

    The high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is an essential component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), however, the link between HA regulation and development of the adipocyte ECM, which is essential for differentiation, remains undefined. Hyaluronan synthase gene expression, HA synthetic rate and molecular weight during differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were compared to undifferentiated 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and non-adipogenic NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. In the 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, the predominant genes associated with HA metabolism were found to be HA synthase-2 (Has-2) and hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal-2) demonstrating a co-regulation of expression which was stimulated by adipogenic induction consequently resulting in increased synthesis of high molecular weight HA (>10 MDa) and its simultaneous degradation. Accumulation of HA correlated positively with cell number, although synthetic rate was inversely related suggesting a regulatory feedback mechanism. Within 24h post-induction, pre-adipocytes responded with a higher HA synthetic rate and later, accumulated cytoplasmic lipid. In contrast, undifferentiated pre-adipocytes had a reduced HA synthetic rate during clonal expansion and did not accumulate lipid. HA was continuously and rapidly metabolised throughout 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, where terminal differentiation coincided with the increased generation of low molecular weight, angiogenic HA fragments, a likely prerequisite for concurrent neovascularisation of adipose tissue. This study has highlighted a relationship between HA metabolism and adipocyte differentiation, suggesting that the balance between the formation and regulation of the adipocyte extracellular matrix is finely coordinated in a growth phase-specific dependent manner. PMID:16824481

  13. Isolation and characterization of NIH 3T3 cells expressing polyomavirus small T antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, T.; Satake, M.; Robins, T.; Ito, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The polyomavirus small T-antigen gene, together with the polyomavirus promoter, was inserted into retrovirus vector pGV16 which contains the Moloney sarcoma virus long terminal repeat and neomycin resistance gene driven by the simian virus 40 promoter. This expression vector, pGVST, was packaged into retrovirus particles by transfection of PSI2 cells which harbor packaging-defective murine retrovirus genome. NIH 3T3 cells were infected by this replication-defective retrovirus containing pGVST. Of the 15 G418-resistant cell clones, 8 express small T antigen at various levels as revealed by immunoprecipitation. A cellular protein with an apparent molecular weight of about 32,000 coprecipitates with small T antigen. Immunofluorescent staining shows that small T antigen is mainly present in the nuclei. Morphologically, cells expressing small T antigen are indistinguishable from parental NIH 3T3 cells and have a microfilament pattern similar to that in parental NIH 3T3 cells. Cells expressing small T antigen form a flat monolayer but continue to grow beyond the saturation density observed for parental NIH 3T3 cells and eventually come off the culture plate as a result of overconfluency. There is some correlation between the level of expression of small T antigen and the growth rate of the cells. Small T-antigen-expressing cells form small colonies in soft agar. However, the proportion of cells which form these small colonies is rather small. A clone of these cells tested did not form tumors in nude mice within 3 months after inoculation of 10/sup 6/ cells per animal. Thus, present studies establish that the small T antigen of polyomavirus is a second nucleus-localized transforming gene product of the virus (the first one being large T antigen) and by itself has a function which is to stimulate the growth of NIH 3T3 cells beyond their saturation density in monolayer culture.

  14. Expression of Nanog gene promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingyu; Wang Xia; Chen Bing; Suo Guangli; Zhao Yanhong; Duan Ziyuan; Dai Jianwu . E-mail: jwdai@genetics.ac.cn

    2005-12-16

    Cells are the functional elements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A large number of cells are usually needed for these purposes. However, there are numbers of limitations for in vitro cell proliferation. Nanog is an important self-renewal determinant in embryonic stem cells. However, it remains unknown whether Nanog will influence the cell cycle and cell proliferation of mature cells. In this study, we expressed Nanog in NIH3T3 cells and showed that expression of Nanog in NIH3T3 promoted cells to enter into S phase and enhanced cell proliferation. This suggests that Nanog gene might function in a similar fashion in mature cells as in ES cells. In addition, it may provide an approach for in vitro cell expansion.

  15. Dehydrocostus lactone prevents mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Mi

    2011-08-16

    The dried root of Saussurea lappa Clarke (Compositae) has been used as a traditional medicine. Dehydrocostus lactone is one of the main bioactive constituents of this medicinal plant. In the present study, the protective effect of dehydrocostus lactone against antimycin A (an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex III)-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Pre-treatment with dehydrocostus lactone prior to antimycin A exposure significantly prevented mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, complex IV inactivation, ATP loss, cytochrome c release, intracellular calcium elevation and potassium loss, and reactive oxygen species production induced by antimycin A. These results suggest that dehydrocostus lactone protects osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells from antimycin A-induced cell damage through the improved mitochondrial function. PMID:21596031

  16. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA-induced malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumoto, S.; Burkhardt, A.L.; Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    A biological function for human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) DNA was demonstrated by transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. HPV 16 DNA has been found frequently in genital cancer and has been classified as a papillomavirus on the basis of DNA homology. A recombinant HPV 16 DNA (pSHPV16d), which contains a head-to-tail dimer of the full-length HPV 16 genome, induced morphologic transformation; the transformed cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. Expression of transforming activity was unique because of the long latency period (more than 4 weeks) required for induction of morphologic transformation and because the transfected DNA existed primarily in a multimeric form with some rearrangement. Furthermore, virus-specific RNAs were expressed in the transformants. The transformation of NIH 3T3 cells provides a model for analyzing the functions of HPV 16, which is associated with cervical carcinomas.

  17. Recommended protocol for the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Bohnenberger, Susanne; Hayashi, Kumiko; Kunkelmann, Thorsten; Muramatsu, Dai; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Poth, Albrecht; Sakai, Ayako; Salovaara, Susan; Tanaka, Noriho; Thomas, B Claire; Umeda, Makoto

    2012-04-11

    The present protocol has been developed for the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay (CTA), following the prevalidation study coordinated by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and reported in this issue (Tanaka et al. [16]). Based upon the experience gained from this effort and as suggested by the Validation Management Team (VMT), some acceptance and assessment criteria have been refined compared to those used during the prevalidation study. The present protocol thus describes cell culture maintenance, the dose-range finding (DRF) experiment and the transformation assay, including cytotoxicity and morphological transformation evaluation. Use of this protocol and of the associated photo catalogue included in this issue (Sasaki et al. [17]) is recommended for the future conduct of the BALB/c 3T3 CTA. PMID:22212201

  18. Sparstolonin B inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Xiu, Liangchang; Diao, Jianxin; Wei, Lianbo; Sun, Jia

    2015-12-15

    Sparstolonin B (SsnB), an isocoumarin compound isolated from the tubers of both Sparganium stoloniferum and Scirpus yagara, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, whether SsnB has anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of SsnB on adipocyte inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and anti-obesity properties in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were pretreated with SsnB 1h before LPS treatment. The expression of MCP-1, IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-10 were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA. The expression of PPAR-?, TLR4 and NF-?B were detected by western blotting. SsnB was administered to HFD-induced obese rats to confirm its effects in vivo. Our results showed that SsnB dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-? production. SsnB was found to inhibit LPS-induced TLR4 expression and NF-?B activition. Furthermore, SsnB was found to activate PPAR-? and the inhibitory effects of SsnB on MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-? production can be reversed by PPAR-? antagonist GW9662. In vivo, SsnB was found to reduce the body weight of rats fed with HFD. SsnB also inhibited the levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (TC) induced by HFD. In conclusion, the results suggested that SsnB could reduce HFD-induced obesity in rats and inhibited LPS-induced cytokines production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by activating PPAR-?. PMID:26522926

  19. Ultrasound associated uptake of chitosan nanoparticles in MC3T3-E1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junyi

    Chitosan is a natural linear polysaccharide that has been well known for its applications in drug delivery system due to its unique physicochemical and biological properties. However, challenges still remain for it to become a fully realized therapeutic agent. In this study, we investigated the uptake of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) under the ultrasound stimulation, using a model cell culture system (MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts). The CNP were fabricated by an ionic gelation method and were lyophilized prior to characterization and delivery to cells. Particle size and zeta potential were measured using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS); the efficiency of chitosan complexation was measured using the ninhydrin assay. Cytotoxicity was examined by neutral red assay within 48 hours after delivery. The effect of ultrasound (US) on the efficiency of nanoparticle delivery to the MC3T3-E1 cells was examined at 1MHz and at either 1 or 2 W/cm2. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated-CNP were used to visualize the internalized particles within the cytosol. The uptake of FITC-CNP exhibits a dose and time dependent effect, a strong FITC fluorescence was detected at the concentration of 500microg/mL under fluorescence microscope. Ultrasound assisted uptake of FITC-CNP performed a significant positive effect at 2W/cm2 with 60s of ultrasound exposure time. CNP displayed a slightly decrease in cell viability from 25microg/mL to 100microg/mL, while higher concentration of CNP facilitates the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Less than 10% of reduction in cell viability was observed for US at 1W/cm2 and 2W/cm2 with 30s and 60s of exposure time, which suggest a mild effect of US to MC3T3-E1 cell line.

  20. In vitro mineralization of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells on collagen/nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds coated carbon/carbon composites.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sheng; Li, Hejun; Li, Kezhi; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Leilei

    2016-02-01

    Collagen/nano-hydroxyapatite (collagen/nHA) scaffolds were successfully prepared on carbon/carbon composites as bioactive films using the layer-by-layer coating method. Surface characterizations of collagen/nHA scaffolds were detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Compressive strengths of the scaffolds were evaluated by a universal test machine. In vitro biological performances were determined using scaffolds seeded with MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts-like cells and cultured in mineralization medium for up to 21 days. In addition, cellular morphologies and several related gene expressions of MC3T3-E1 cells in the scaffolds were also evaluated. Chemical and morphological analysis showed that the scaffolds had uniform pore sizes and unified phase composition. Mechanical testing indicated that the collagen/nHA scaffolds had the highest compressive strength in 50% of strain condition when the proportion of collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite was 1:3. Cellular morphology observations and cytology tests indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells were adhered on these scaffolds and proliferated. SEM photographs and gene expressions showed that mineralized MC3T3-E1 cells and newly formed extra cellular matrix (ECM) filled up the pores of the scaffolds after the 3-week mineralization inducement. Nano-sized apatite particles were secreted from MC3T3-E1 cells and combined with the reconstructed ECM. Collectively, collagen/nHA scaffolds provided C/C composites with a biomimetic surface for cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralized extra cellular matrices formation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 533-543, 2016. PMID:26476098

  1. Ginkgolide C Suppresses Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via the AMPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Chian-Jiun; Lai, Xuan-Yu; Chen, Ya-Ling; Wang, Chia-Ling; Wei, Ciao-Han; Huang, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgolide C, isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves, is a flavone reported to have multiple biological functions, from decreased platelet aggregation to ameliorating Alzheimer disease. The study aim was to evaluate the antiadipogenic effect of ginkgolide C in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ginkgolide C was used to treat differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Cell supernatant was collected to assay glycerol release, and cells were lysed to measure protein and gene expression related to adipogenesis and lipolysis by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Ginkgolide C significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. It also decreased adipogenesis-related transcription factor expression, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein. Furthermore, ginkgolide C enhanced adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase production for lipolysis and increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), resulting in decreased activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase for fatty acid synthesis. In coculture with an AMPK inhibitor (compound C), ginkgolide C also improved activation of sirtuin 1 and phosphorylation of AMPK in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The results suggest that ginkgolide C is an effective flavone for increasing lipolysis and inhibiting adipogenesis in adipocytes through the activated AMPK pathway. PMID:26413119

  2. Rutin Stimulates Adipocyte Differentiation and Adiponectin Secretion in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Chung, Choon Hee; Choi, Ran

    2015-04-01

    Rutin is aflavonoid, which is found in many plants. It has been shown to reduce blood glucose and increase insulin levels in diabetic rats. In the present study, the authors aimed to elucidate the molecular basis for the observed antidiabetic activity using murine 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cultures. The treatment of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells with rutin at concentrations of 3, 10, 30 and 100 M significantly increased lipid accumulation and mRNA expression of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein. Furthermore, rutin at concentrations of 10, 30 and 100 M increased adiponectin mRNA expression together with stimulating the secretion of adiponectin in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. These results indicate that the stimulatory effect of rutin on adipocyte differentiation likely occurs through up-regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and downstream adipocyte-specific gene expression. Such effects of rutin on adiponectin secretion and adipocyte activity may account for, at least in part, the antidiabetic effects of consumption of food containing rutin. PMID:26387381

  3. Morphological transformation induced by glass fibers in BALB/c-3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, H G; Whong, W Z; Jones, W G; Wallace, W E; Ong, T

    1995-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine whether 1) glass fibers can induce morphological transformation in BALB/c-3T3 cells, 2) the transforming activity of glass fibers is related to fiber size, and 3) transformed cells induced by glass fibers possess neoplastic properties. In the transformation assay, BALB/c-3T3 cells were treated with three different types of glass fibers: Manville code 100 (JM-100, Manville Corp., Denver, CO), Owens-Corning AAA-10 (AAA-10, Owens-Corning Corp., Toledo, OH), and Owens-Corning general building insulation (ISL, Owens-Corning Corp.) fibers. The neoplastic properties were investigated using the soft agar cloning and gene transfection methods. All three different glass fibers were cytotoxic at high concentrations and induced dose-related increases in morphological transformation. The transforming activity was inversely related to fiber size, with AAA-10 showing higher activity than JM-100 and JM-100 showing higher activity than ISL fiber. Transformed cells induced by glass fibers exerted anchorage-independent growth (90%) and DNA transfection-mediated transformation (100%). These results indicate that glass fibers are capable of transforming mammalian (BALB/c-3T3) cells in vitro as a function of their physical properties and that glass fiber-induced transformed cells possess preneoplastic characteristics. PMID:8525469

  4. Rubi Fructus (Rubus coreanus) Inhibits Differentiation to Adipocytes in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Hye-Lin; An, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Su-Jin; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2013-01-01

    Rubi Fructus (RF) is known to exert several pharmacological effects including antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its antiobesity effect has not been reported yet. This study was focused on the antidifferentiation effect of RF extract on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiating into adipocytes, 10–100 μg/mL of RF was added. Next, the lipid contents were quantified by Oil Red O staining. RF significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT0-enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBPα), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2), resistin, and adiponectin in ways that were concentration dependent. Moreover, RF markedly upregulated liver kinase B1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Interestingly, pretreatment with AMPKα siRNA and RF downregulated the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα protein as well as the adipocyte differentiation. Our study shows that RF is capable of inhibiting the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the modulation of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and AMPK, suggesting that it has a potential for therapeutic application in the treatment or prevention of obesity. PMID:24288561

  5. Traditional Herbal Formula Oyaksungi-San Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oyaksungi-san (OYSGS) is a herbal formula that has been used for treating cardiovascular diseases in traditional Asian medicine. Here, we investigated the antiadipogenic effect of OYSGS extract in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Methods. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes with or without OYSGS. After differentiation, we measured Oil Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, leptin production, mRNA, and protein levels of adipogenesis-related factors. Results. OYSGS extract dramatically inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocytes. It also significantly suppressed the (GPDH) activity, triglyceride (TG) content, and leptin production by reducing the expression of adipogenesis-related genes including lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein 4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-?), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?). Furthermore, OYSGS clearly enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as its substrate acetyl CoA (ACC) carboxylase. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that OYSGS negatively controls TG accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We suggest antiadipogenic activity of OYSGS and its potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:25802547

  6. Effects of 6-Hydroxyflavone on Osteoblast Differentiation in MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Wei; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Lin, Yu-Hsaing; Tsai, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Osteoblast differentiation plays an essential role in bone integrity. Isoflavones and some flavonoids are reported to have osteogenic activity and potentially possess the ability to treat osteoporosis. However, limited information concerning the osteogenic characteristics of hydroxyflavones is available. This study investigates the effects of various hydroxyflavones on osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells. The results showed that 6-hydroxyflavone (6-OH-F) and 7-hydroxyflavone (7-OH-F) stimulated ALP activity. However, baicalein and luteolin inhibited ALP activity and flavone showed no effect. Up to 50??M of each compound was used for cytotoxic effects study; flavone, 6-OH-F, and 7-OH-F had no cytotoxicity on MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, 6-OH-F activated AKT and serine/threonine kinases (also known as protein kinase B or PKB), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK 1/2), and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways. On the other hand, 7-OH-F promoted osteoblast differentiation mainly by activating ERK 1/ 2 signaling pathways. Finally, after 5 weeks of 6-OH-F induction, MC3T3-E1 cells showed a significant increase in the calcein staining intensity relative to merely visible mineralization observed in cells cultured in the osteogenic medium only. These results suggested that 6-OH-F could activate AKT, ERK 1/2, and JNK signaling pathways to effectively promote osteoblastic differentiation. PMID:24795772

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology Yoshizaki, Takayuki; Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayoshi; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Activation of PPAR-γ recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin-1β reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion.

  8. Extract of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) stimulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jeong In; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Jong Won

    2010-11-01

    Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has long been used as a folk medicine due to its numerous biological functions such as antibacterial, antiallergic, antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities. In the present study, it was found that the I. obliquus hot water extract (IOWE) activated adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Even in the absence of adipogenic stimuli by insulin, the IOWE strongly induced adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The major constituent of IOWE was glucose-rich polysaccharides with a molecular mass of 149? kDa. IOWE enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, increasing TG (triacylglycerol) accumulation that is critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype, in a dose-dependent manner. IOWE stimulated gene expression of C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?) and PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ?) during adipocyte differentiation, and induced the expression of PPAR? target genes such as aP2 (adipocyte protein 2), LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and CD36 (fatty acid translocase). Immunoblot analysis revealed that IOWE increased the expression of adipogenic makers such as PPAR? and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4). The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that IOWE did not exhibit PPAR? ligand activity. Although these results require further investigation, the ability of natural mushroom product to increase PPAR? transcriptional activities may be expected to be therapeutic targets for dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21031614

  9. Nebivolol stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chenglin; Chen, Dongrui; Xie, Qihai; Yang, Ying; Shen, Weili

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Nebivolol may act as a partial agonist of β3-adrenergic receptor (AR). •Nebivolol stimulates mitochondrial DNA replication and protein expression. •Nebivolol promotes mitochondrial synthesis via activation of eNOS by β3-AR. -- Abstract: Nebivolol is a third-generation β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blocker with additional beneficial effects, including the improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism in obese individuals. However, the underlying mechanism of nebivolol’s role in regulating the lipid profile remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of nebivolol in mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Exposure of 3T3-L1 cells to nebivolol for 24 h increased mitochondrial DNA copy number, mitochondrial protein levels and the expression of transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, including PPAR-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1 (Nrf1). These changes were accompanied by an increase in oxygen consumption and in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, including nebivolol-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as well as an increase in the formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) attenuated nebivolol-induced mitochondrial biogenesis, as did the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ. Treatment with nebivolol and β3-AR blocker SR59230A markedly attenuated PGC-1α, Sirt3 and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein levels in comparison to treatment with nebivolol alone. These data indicate that the mitochondrial synthesis and metabolism in adipocytes that is promoted by nebivolol is primarily mediated through the eNOS/cGMP-dependent pathway and is initiated by the activation of β3-AR receptors.

  10. Enzymatic fragments of hyaluronan inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Byong-Gon; Lee, Chang Won; Park, Joo Woong; Cui, Yuan; Park, Yoon-Sun; Shin, Woon-Seob

    2015-11-27

    Hyaluronan has diverse biological activities depending on its molecular size. High molecular weight hyaluronan (2000kDa) is a major component of extracellular matrix, and has been used in wounding healing, extracellular matrix regeneration, and in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Hyaluronan fragments can stimulate inflammation or induce loss of extracellular matrix. Hyaluronan is expressed during adipocyte differentiation, and down regulation of hyaluronan synthesis can reduce adipogenic differentiation. However, the direct effects of hyaluronan fragments on adipocyte differentiation have not been elucidated. Therefore, we prepared hyaluronan fragments by enzymatic digestion, and examined the inhibitory effects of these hyaluronan fragments on the accumulation of lipid droplets and on adipogenic gene mRNA expression in differentiating 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Medium sized hyaluronan fragments (50kDa) decreased lipid droplet accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. However, high molecular weight hyaluronan did not inhibit lipid droplet accumulation when used at a concentration of 600?g/ml. Two or 4 day treatments with medium molecular weight of hyaluronan resulted in similar inhibitory levels of lipid accumulation as did treatment for 8 days. Medium sized hyaluronan inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes during the early stages of adipogenesis. When 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 180?g/ml of medium sized hyaluronan, the mRNAs for the master adipogenic transcription factors PPAR-? and C/EBP-? were inhibited. Additionally, medium molecular weight hyaluronan suppressed mRNA expression of PPAR-? target genes, including aP2 and FAS. This study is the first to report that medium molecular weight hyaluronan fragments can inhibit adipocyte differentiation. PMID:26525853

  11. Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Masiello, Lisa M.; Fotos, Joseph S.; Galileo, Deni S.; Karin, Norm J.

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis of osteoblast migration after wounds were introduced into cell monolayers indicated that LPA stimulated both migration velocity and the average migration distance per cell. LPA also elicited substantial changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal structure; lipid-treated cells contained fewer stress fibers and displayed long membrane processes that were enriched in F-actin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells express all four known LPA-specific G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA4) with a relative mRNA abundance of LPA1 > LPA4 > LPA2 >> LPA3. LPA-induced changes in osteoblast motility and morphology were antagonized by both pertussis toxin and Ki16425, a subtype-specific blocker of LPA1 and LPA3 receptor function. Cell migration in many cell types is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+. Ki16425 also inhibited LPA-induced Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a link between LPA-induced Ca2+ transients and osteoblast chemotaxis. Our data show that LPA stimulates MC3T3-E1 osteoblast motility via a mechanism that is linked primarily to the G protein-coupled receptor LPA1.

  12. Nebivolol stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenglin; Chen, Dongrui; Xie, Qihai; Yang, Ying; Shen, Weili

    2013-08-16

    Nebivolol is a third-generation ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) blocker with additional beneficial effects, including the improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism in obese individuals. However, the underlying mechanism of nebivolol's role in regulating the lipid profile remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of nebivolol in mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Exposure of 3T3-L1 cells to nebivolol for 24h increased mitochondrial DNA copy number, mitochondrial protein levels and the expression of transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, including PPAR-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?), Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1 (Nrf1). These changes were accompanied by an increase in oxygen consumption and in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, including nebivolol-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as well as an increase in the formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) attenuated nebivolol-induced mitochondrial biogenesis, as did the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ. Treatment with nebivolol and ?3-AR blocker SR59230A markedly attenuated PGC-1?, Sirt3 and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein levels in comparison to treatment with nebivolol alone. These data indicate that the mitochondrial synthesis and metabolism in adipocytes that is promoted by nebivolol is primarily mediated through the eNOS/cGMP-dependent pathway and is initiated by the activation of ?3-AR receptors. PMID:23886954

  13. Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Masiello, Lisa M; Fotos, Joseph S; Galileo, Deni S; Karin, Norman J

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis of osteoblast migration after wounds were introduced into cell monolayers indicated that LPA stimulated both migration velocity and the average migration distance per cell. LPA also elicited substantial changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal structure; lipid-treated cells contained fewer stress fibers and displayed long membrane processes that were enriched in F-actin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells express all four known LPA-specific G-protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA4) with a relative mRNA abundance of LPA1>LPA4>LPA2>LPA3. LPA-induced changes in osteoblast motility and morphology were antagonized by both pertussis toxin and Ki16425, a subtype-specific blocker of LPA1 and LPA3 receptor function. Cell migration in many cell types is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+. Ki16425 also inhibited LPA-induced Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a link between LPA-induced Ca2+ transients and osteoblast chemotaxis. Our data show that LPA stimulates MC3T3-E1 osteoblast motility via a mechanism that is linked primarily to the G-protein-coupled receptor LPA1. PMID:16487757

  14. Growth hormone and fibronectin expression in 3T3 preadipose cells.

    PubMed

    Guller, S; Allen, D L; Corin, R E; Lockwood, C J; Sonenberg, M

    1992-05-01

    In the present study we focused on the relationship between GH action and the extracellular matrix in 3T3-F442A preadipose cells. Results from Northern blotting indicated that in serum-free medium, the presence of 2 nM met-human GH down-regulated levels of fibronectin messenger RNA by approximately 40, 60, and 70% as compared with control levels on days 1, 2, and 4, respectively. GH-dependent reduction of levels of collagen alpha 1(I) mRNA expression occurred later and was less pronounced than effects on levels of fibronectin mRNA, suggesting a specificity in the matrix-altering function of GH. Western blot analyses and immunoprecipitation studies revealed that between 2 and 5 days of culture, matrix-associated fibronectin protein was reduced 70 to 90% by GH treatment. Down-regulation of fibronectin protein expression by met-human GH was dose-dependent between 2 and 0.02 nM. The presence of 2 nM insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1 promoted a 30-40% increase in fibronectin levels compared to control cells. The GH-promoted down-regulation of fibronectin expression was eliminated by concomitant addition of insulin. These data demonstrated that GH effects on matrix-associated fibronectin expression were independent of, and in opposition to, effects promoted by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Treatment of culture dishes with fibronectin or collagen inhibited GH-stimulated adipogenesis 50 and 80%, respectively, compared with controls, as judged by levels of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Thus, composition of the extracellular matrix was a critical factor in GH-induced adipogenesis of 3T3-F442A fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate that GH action in 3T3 preadipose cells is intimately coupled to the biology of extracellular matrix. PMID:1572284

  15. Vinculin expression in MC3T3-E1 cells in response to mechanical stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Cora-Cruz, J.J.; Diffoot-Carlo, N.; Sundaram, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Loading frequency is known to influence the expression of the focal adhesions of the adherent cells. A small cyclical tensile force was transmitted to mouse pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells through PDMS substrates of varying stiffness. Changes in cell behavior with respect to proliferation and characteristics of focal adhesions were quantified through immunofluorescence labeling of vinculin. Amount of inactive vinculin was higher on substrates subjected to cyclic stimulation when compared with the results of the static substrates, whereas the number and area of focal adhesion points underwent a reduction. Inactive vinculin appears as a cloud in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of the nucleus. PMID:26858974

  16. Vinculin expression in MC3T3-E1 cells in response to mechanical stimulus.

    PubMed

    Cora-Cruz, J J; Diffoot-Carlo, N; Sundaram, P A

    2016-03-01

    Loading frequency is known to influence the expression of the focal adhesions of the adherent cells. A small cyclical tensile force was transmitted to mouse pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells through PDMS substrates of varying stiffness. Changes in cell behavior with respect to proliferation and characteristics of focal adhesions were quantified through immunofluorescence labeling of vinculin. Amount of inactive vinculin was higher on substrates subjected to cyclic stimulation when compared with the results of the static substrates, whereas the number and area of focal adhesion points underwent a reduction. Inactive vinculin appears as a cloud in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of the nucleus. PMID:26858974

  17. Regulation of tristetraprolin during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nien-Yi; Lin, Chung-Tien; Chen, Yu-Ling; Chang, Ching-Jin

    2007-02-01

    Tristetraprolin is a zinc-finger-containing RNA-binding protein. Tristetraprolin binds to AU-rich elements of target mRNAs such as proto-oncogenes, cytokines and growth factors, and then induces mRNA rapid degradation. It was observed as an immediate-early gene that was induced in response to several kinds of stimulus, such as insulin and other growth factors and stimulators of innate immunity such as lipopolysaccharides. We observed that tristetraprolin was briefly expressed during a 1-8 h period after induction of differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Detailed analysis showed that tristetraprolin mRNA expression was stimulated by fetal bovine serum and differentiation inducers, and was followed by rapid degradation. The 3'UTR of tristetraprolin mRNAs contain adenine- and uridine-rich elements. Biochemical analyses using RNA pull-down, RNA immunoprecipitation and gel shift experiments demonstrated that adenine- and uridine-rich element-binding proteins, HuR and tristetraprolin itself, were associated with tristetraprolin adenine- and uridine-rich elements. Functional characterization confirmed that tristetraprolin negatively regulated its own expression. Thus, our results indicated that the tight autoregulation of tristetraprolin expression correlated with its critical functional role in 3T3-L1 differentiation. PMID:17288565

  18. Paprika Pigments Attenuate Obesity-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hayato; Saito, Shuuichi; Nakamura, Nozomi; Maoka, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is related to various diseases, such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Adipocytokine, which is released from adipocyte cells, affects insulin resistance and blood lipid level disorders. Further, adipocytokine is related to chronic inflammation in obesity condition adipocyte cells. Paprika pigments (PPs) contain large amounts of capsanthin and capsorubin. These carotenoids affect the liver and improve lipid disorders of the blood. However, how these carotenoids affect adipocyte cells remains unknown. Present study examined the effects of PP on adipocytokine secretion, which is related to improvement of metabolic syndrome. In addition, suppressive effects of PP on chronic inflammation in adipocyte cells were analyzed using 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells and macrophage cell coculture experiments. PP promoted 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells differentiation upregulated adiponectin mRNA expression and secretion. Further, coculture of adipocyte and macrophage cells treated with PP showed suppressed interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and resistin mRNA expression, similarly to treatment with troglitazone, which is a PPAR? ligand medicine. Conclusion. These results suggest that PP ameliorates chronic inflammation in adipocytes caused by obesity. PP adjusts adipocytokine secretion and might, therefore, affect antimetabolic syndrome diseases. PMID:24049664

  19. The regulation by fibroblast growth factor of early transport changes in quiescent 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, D C; Hochstadt, J

    1977-11-01

    This study involves the use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) as a substitute for exogenous serum to examine the early transport changes which occur when quiescent 3T3 cells re-initiate active growth. FGF, in nanogram amounts, together with insulin and dexamethasone, can induce mitogenesis and mitosis in 3T3 cells GO-arrested by holding in growth medium containing 0.8% calf serum. In terms of quiescent cell transport activity enhancement, FGF is 300,000-fold more effective than fresh serum, on a protein basis. In addition, very short exposure of serum-depleted cells to FGF indicates that a distinct temporal or time sequence exists in the transport system activation process. For example, uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and uridine are stimulated very rapidly, whereas hypoxanthine uptake does not respond until much later. Closer analysis shows that AIB uptake is maximally enhanced within zero to two minutes after FGF addition to cells. Finally, the stimulatory effect of FGF on transport system activities is specific in terms of the proliferative state of the cells to which it is added, and in terms of the uptake systems which respond to it. PMID:563406

  20. Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qingxia; Wang, Minglian; Wu, Shuicai; Ma, Xuemei; An, Guangzhou; Liu, Huan; Xie, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5?min on/10?min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8?h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average specific absorption rate of 2?W/kg. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe was used to detect intracellular ROS levels, immunofluorescence was used to detect ?H2AX foci as a marker for DNA damage, and flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure and it reached the highest level at an exposure time of 1?h (p?3T3 cells. PMID:24665905

  1. Polyamine metabolism is involved in adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Ikumi; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Mano, Hiroshi; Wada, Masahiro; Pegg, Anthony E; Shirahata, Akira

    2012-02-01

    Polyamines spermidine and spermine are known to be required for mammalian cell proliferation and for embryonic development. Alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) a limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, depleted the cellular polyamines and prevented triglyceride accumulation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In this study, to explore the function of polyamines in adipogenesis, we examined the effect of polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors on adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells. The spermidine synthase inhibitor trans-4-methylcyclohexylamine (MCHA) increased spermine/spermidine ratios, whereas the spermine synthase inhibitor N-(3-aminopropyl)-cyclohexylamine (APCHA) decreased the ratios in the cells. MCHA was found to decrease lipid accumulation and GPDH activity during differentiation, while APCHA increased lipid accumulation and GPDH activity indicating the enhancement of differentiation. The polyamine-acetylating enzyme, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) activity was increased within a few hours after stimulus for differentiation, and was found to be elevated by APCHA. In mature adipocytes APCHA decreased lipid accumulation while MCHA had the opposite effect. An acetylpolyamine oxidase and spermine oxidase inhibitor MDL72527 or an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented the promoting effect of APCHA on adipogenesis. These results suggest that not only spermine/spermidine ratios but also polyamine catabolic enzyme activity may contribute to adipogenesis. PMID:21809076

  2. Zinc-chelated Vitamin C Stimulates Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chiranjit; Yang, Seung Hak; Kim, Jong Geun; Jeon, Tae-Il; Yoon, Byung Hyun; Lee, Jai Young; Lee, Eun Young; Choi, Seok Geun; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue development and function play a critical role in the regulation of energy balance, lipid metabolism, and the pathophysiology of metabolic syndromes. Although the effect of zinc ascorbate supplementation in diabetes or glycemic control is known in humans, the underlying mechanism is not well described. Here, we investigated the effect of a zinc-chelated vitamin C (ZnC) compound on the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Treatment with ZnC for 8 d significantly promoted adipogenesis, which was characterized by increased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and intracellular lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Meanwhile, ZnC induced a pronounced up-regulation of the expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and the adipocyte-specific gene adipocyte protein 2 (aP2). Analysis of mRNA and protein levels further showed that ZnC increased the sequential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?), the key transcription factors of adipogenesis. These results indicate that ZnC could promote adipogenesis through PPAR? and C/EBP?, which act synergistically for the expression of aP2 and GLUT4, leading to the generation of insulin-responsive adipocytes and can thereby be useful as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of diabetes and related metabolic disorders. PMID:25049900

  3. Lactoferrin suppress the adipogenic differentiation of MC3T3-G2/PA6 cells.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Motohiko; Suzuki, Naoto; Takayama, Tadahiro; Arisue, Masatoshi; Kodama, Takuya; Yoda, Yasushi; Numasaki, Hikaru; Otsuka, Kichibee; Ito, Koichi

    2008-12-01

    Lactoferrin accelerates the differentiation of osteogenic and chondrogenic lineage cells, whereas it inhibits the myogenic and adipogenic differentiation of pluripotent mesenchymal cells; however, the effect of lactoferrin on the differentiation of preadipocytes is unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of lactoferrin on adipogenic differentiation using a mouse preadipocyte cell line, MC3T3-G2/PA6. The cells were cultured in differentiation medium with or without lactoferrin to induce cellular differentiation. The cell lineage was then determined by Oil Red O staining, real-time PCR screening for the mRNA expression of phenotype-specific markers, and Western blot analysis. The number of Oil Red O-positive lipid droplets decreased following treatment with lactoferrin, as did the mRNA expression of C/EBPalpha, PPARgamma, aP2, and adiponectin. Furthermore, our Western blot data revealed a decrease in PPARgamma expression attributable to lactoferrin exposure. These results suggest that lactoferrin suppresses the adipogenic differentiation of MC3T3-G2/PA6 cells. PMID:19106469

  4. Scutellarin from Scutellaria baicalensis suppresses adipogenesis by upregulating PPAR? in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kaihui; Han, Miaomiao; Ting, Hui Lin; Liu, Zeyu; Zhang, Dawei

    2013-04-26

    Adipocyte dysfunction is a major cause of obesity, which is associated strongly with many disorders including psychological and medical morbidities, metabolic abnormalities, and cardiovascular diseases as well as a series of cancers. This study investigated the antiadipogenic activity of scutellarin (1) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. It was observed that 1 reduced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells potently, as evidenced by a decrease in cellular lipid accumulation. At the molecular level, mRNA expression of the master adipogenic transcription factors, PPAR? and C/EBP?, was decreased markedly. However, mRNA levels of C/EBP?, the upstream regulator of PPAR? and C/EBP?, were not decreased by 1. Moreover, a dose-dependent upregulation of PPAR? was observed for 1. Computational modeling indicated that 1 can bind to PPAR?, ?, and ? each in a distinct manner, while it can activate PPAR? only by forming a hydrogen bond with Y464, thus stabilizing the AF-2 helix and activating PPAR?. Therefore, these results suggest that 1, a major component of Scutellaria baicalensis, attenuates fat cell differentiation by upregulating PPAR? as well as downregulating the expression of PPAR? and C/EBP?, thus showing therapeutic potential for obesity-related diseases. PMID:23521110

  5. High-affinity receptors for peptides of the bombesin family in Swiss 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, I.; Rozengurt, E.

    1985-11-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) labeled with /sup 125/I at tyrosine-15 (/sup 125/I-GRP) binds to intact quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells in a specific and saturable manner. Scatchard analysis indicates the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites of Kd = 0.5 X 10(-9) M and a value for the number of sites per cell of about 100,000. /sup 125/I-GRP binding was not inhibited by other mitogens for these cells, and cell lines that are mitogenically unresponsive to GRP do not exhibit specific GRP binding. Structure-activity relationships show a close parallel between the ability of a range of GRP-related peptides to both inhibit GRP binding and to stimulate mitogenesis. Further, GRP binding is selectively blocked in a competitive fashion by a novel bombesin antagonist, (D-Arg1, D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9, Leu11) substance P. In addition, this compound selectively inhibits GRP and bombesin-induced mitogenesis. These results demonstrate that the mitogenic response of Swiss 3T3 cells to peptides of the bombesin family is mediated by a class of receptors distinct from those of other mitogens for these cells.

  6. Suppressive Effects of an Ishige okamurae extract on 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Sun-yeong; Cheon, Yong-Pil

    2013-01-01

    The biological activity of tissue specific stem cell is under the control of their specific microenvironment and the exogenous chemicals derived from digestive tract can be one of the constructing factors of that. It is suggested that the extract of brown algae Ishige okamurae has antioxidant-, apoptosis induction-, and antiinflammatory- effects. On the other hand, a few studies have shown that antioxidant assist inhibition of accumulation of fat. So we studied the effect of the extract of I. okamura on the cellular activity and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte to adipose cell. The viability of cell was analyzed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazo-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cell was analyzed after induction in the induction medium containing the I. okamurae extract. The cellular activity was high compared with the vehicle and 0.05 mM caffeine in all groups of I. okamurae extract treated cells. The extract of I. okamura inhibited accumulation of lipids in 10 and 50 ?g/ml. The expression of the marker genes for adipocyte differentiation coincided with cytochemical results. These results suggest that the extract of I. okamurae increases the cellular viability of adipose precursor cells. On the other hand, it suppresses the differentiation of preadipocyte to adipocyte and accumulation of lipids in concentration-dependent manners. It may be possible that the major component of the extract can be applied in the control of adipose tissuegenesis. PMID:25949162

  7. Regulation of lipoprotein lipase synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by interleukin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.R.; Mizel, S.B.; Pekala, P.H.

    1986-05-01

    When fully differentiated 3T3-L1 fatty fibroblasts were exposed to purified, recombinant murine interleukin-1, a dose dependent suppression of lipoprotein lipase activity was observed. The loss of activity reached a maximum of 60-70% of control and appeared to be due to a specific effect on the synthesis of the enzyme as judged by a suppression of the ability to incorporate (/sup 35/S)methionine into immunoprecipitable lipoprotein lipase. There was no general effect on protein synthesis as determined by radiolabel incorporated into acid precipitable protein, however, after a 17 h exposure of the 3T3-L1 cells to interleukin-1, the synthesis of two proteins (molecular weights, 19,400 and 165,000 daltons) was enhanced several fold. The observed effects on protein synthesis in the adipocytes occur at a concentration of interleukin-1 which is similar to the concentration necessary for the stimulation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into mouse thymocyte DNA. The present study represents the first unequivocal report of the ability of interleukin-1 to regulate protein synthesis in intact cells, specifically adipocytes. Moreover, their results demonstrate the ability of interleukin-1 to regulate metabolism by controlling the synthesis of specific proteins.

  8. 95. VIEW OF ZINC FEEDER FROM SOUTHEAST. NOTE FEEDER CONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. VIEW OF ZINC FEEDER FROM SOUTHEAST. NOTE FEEDER CONE AND PIPING FROM VACUUM RECEIVER ON LEFT. PRECIPITATE PUMP MOTOR MOUNT VISIBLE BELOW FEEDER STAIRS, PUMP AND MOTOR MISSING. SUMPS ARE LOCATED UNDER THIS FLOOR, WITH ACCESS TO HATCH TO THE RIGHT OF FEEDER STAIR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. Low Spillage Metabolic Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, JuliAnn (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor); Harper, Jennifer S. (Inventor); Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Skundberg, Thomas L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An animal feeder for use in a metabolic cage is introduced. The feeder includes a confined passageway and an adjustable notched gate proceeding a food cup. The gate is adjusted so that the entry area to the food cup approximates the cross sectional head area of the animal. Food ejected from the food cup by a caged animal is dropped through a grate into a spill tray.

  10. Capsaicin Induces Brite Phenotype in Differentiating 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Baboota, Ritesh K.; Singh, Dhirendra P.; Sarma, Siddhartha M.; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sandhir, Rajat; Boparai, Ravneet K.; Kondepudi, Kanthi K.; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2014-01-01

    Objective Targeting the energy storing white adipose tissue (WAT) by pharmacological and dietary means in order to promote its conversion to energy expending brite cell type holds promise as an anti-obesity approach. Present study was designed to investigate/revisit the effect of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation with special reference to induction of brite phenotype during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methods Multiple techniques such as Ca2+ influx assay, Oil Red-O staining, nutrigenomic analysis in preadipocytes and matured adipocytes have been employed to understand the effect of capsaicin at different doses. In addition to in-vitro experiments, in-vivo studies were carried out in high-fat diet (HFD) fed rats treated with resiniferatoxin (RTX) (a TRPV1 agonist) and in mice administered capsaicin. Results TRPV1 channels are expressed in preadipocytes but not in adipocytes. In preadipocytes, both capsaicin and RTX stimulate Ca2+ influx in dose-dependent manner. This stimulation may be prevented by capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist. At lower doses, capsaicin inhibits lipid accumulation and stimulates TRPV1 gene expression, while at higher doses it enhances accumulation of lipids and suppresses expression of its receptor. In doses of 0.1100 M, capsaicin promotes expression of major pro-adipogenic factor PPAR? and some of its downstream targets. In concentrations of 1 M, capsaicin up-regulates anti-adipogenic genes. Low-dose capsaicin treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiating into adipocytes results in increased expression of brown fat cell marker genes. In white adipose of mice, capsaicin administration leads to increase in browning-specific genes. Global TRPV1 ablation (i.p. by RTX administration) leads to increase in locomotor activity with no change in body weight. Conclusion Our findings suggest the dual modulatory role of capsaicin in adipogenesis. Capsaicin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 via TRPV1 activation and induces brown-like phenotype whereas higher doses. PMID:25072597

  11. Regulation of pyruvate carboxylase in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J; Xia, W L; Ahmad, F

    1995-01-01

    When 3T3-L1 fibroblasts differentiate to adipocytes, the specific activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) increases about 25-fold in parallel with its intracellular protein concentration. The increase in PC protein concentration is accompanied by a 9-10-fold increase in the relative abundance of 4.2 kb PC mRNA measured by Northern-blot analysis using a cDNA probe encoding a segment of the PC gene of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The effects of cyclic AMP (cAMP) alone and together with insulin on levels of cellular protein, PC activity, PC protein and on the relative abundance of PC mRNA were examined in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes exposed to cAMP for 24 h exhibited a 25% decrease in cellular protein and marked decreases in enzyme activity (88%) and PC mRNA abundance (98%) compared with untreated adipocyte controls. After 48 h of exposure to cAMP, PC activity and PC mRNA diminished to levels approaching their detection limits. When exposed to medium containing cAMP plus insulin, adipocyte enzyme activity and PC mRNA declined more slowly during the first 24 h exposure (about 20% decrease) but after 48 h fell to values comparable with those of adipocytes exposed to cAMP alone. Despite these decreases in enzyme activity, the PC protein content of adipocytes treated with cAMP alone or cAMP plus insulin are nearly identical with that of control adipocytes. The inactivation of PC in cAMP-treated adipocytes does not involve loss of the prosthetic group from the holoenzyme. Cross-linking experiments suggest that the spatial arrangement of protomers in inactive PC may differ from that in the active tetrameric enzyme. Data presented suggest that, in addition to inducing inactivation, cAMP may also regulate adipocyte PC by decreasing transcription of the PC gene and/or enhancing the rate of degradation of PC mRNA. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7864811

  12. Tunable swelling of polyelectrolyte multilayers in cell culture media for modulating NIH-3T3 cells adhesion.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Cai, Peng; Yuan, Wenjing; Wang, Hua

    2014-11-01

    For polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) assembled by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique, their nanostructure and properties can be governed by many parameters during the building process. Here, it was demonstrated that the swelling of the PEMs containing poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) in cell culture media could be tuned with changing supporting salt solutions during the assembly process. Importantly, the influence of the PEMs assembled in different salt solutions on NIH-3T3 cell adhesion was observable. Specifically, the cells could possess a higher affinity for the films assembled in low salt concentration (i.e. 0.15M NaCl) or no salt, the poorly swelling films in cell culture media, which was manifested by the large cell spreading area and focal adhesions. In contrast, those were assembled in higher salt concentration, highly swelling films in cell culture media, were less attractive for the fibroblasts. As a result, the cell adhesion behaviors may be manipulated by tailoring the physicochemical properties of the films, which could be performed by changing the assembly conditions such as supporting salt concentration. Such a finding might promise a great potential in designing desired biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:24470104

  13. Kibizu concentrated liquid suppresses the accumulation of lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Chisato; Kozaki, Tomomi; Morita, Yukiko; Shirouchi, Bungo; Fukami, Katsuya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Sato, Masao; Katakura, Yoshinori

    2015-08-01

    Adipocyte size is closely related to the occurrence of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. Thus, researchers are searching for active substances that function to reduce adipocyte size. In the present study, we focused on sugar cane vinegar, Kibizu, and evaluated the function of Kibizu to reduce adipocyte size by using an in vitro model system, because people in Amami Oshima famous for longevity regularly consume Kibizu. Results showed that Kibizu treatment significantly reduced the size and number of lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 cells, relative to treatment with Kurozu, another traditional vinegar. Results of an extraction experiment suggest that the active components in Kibizu are lipophilic and hydrophobic. In addition, an in vivo experiment on rats treated with Kibizu showed that the active components were contained in large vein blood. Results of an additional in vivo experiment suggest that metabolites generated by Kibizu-treated rats are primarily contained or modified specifically in the large vein blood. PMID:25672941

  14. Averrhoa carambola L. peel extract suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Rashid, Asyifah; Lu, Kaihui; Yip, Yew Mun; Zhang, Dawei

    2016-02-17

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of many chronic diseases. Recently, a growing body of evidence has shown that phytochemicals may inhibit adipogenesis and obesity. In this study, we report for the first time, the ability of Averrhoa carambola L. peel extract commonly known as star fruit (SFP) to effectively suppress adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and therefore, address it as a potential candidate to treat obesity and its related diseases. (-)-Epicatechin was identified as a bioactive compound likely responsible for this suppression. As the genetic expression studies revealed that the adipogenic activity of SFP extract was due to the simultaneous downregulation of the C/EBP? and PPAR? as well as the upregulation of PPAR? receptor genes, a detailed computational docking study was also elucidated to reveal the likely binding mode of (-)-epicatechin to the receptor of interest, accounting for the likely mechanism that results in the overall suppression of adipocyte differentiation. PMID:26679488

  15. Anthraquinones from Morinda officinalis roots enhance adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Kim, Seon Beom; Ahn, Jong Hoon; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    To search for anti-diabetic and insulin-sensitising natural products, the effect on adipocyte differentiation was investigated by assessing fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using Oil Red O staining. Fractionation and separation of n-hexane and CHCl? fractions of Morinda officinalis (Rubiaceae) using several chromatographic methods led to the isolation of three anthraquinones, 1,2-dimethoxyanthraquinone (1), alizarin-2-methyl ether (2) and rubiadin-1-methyl ether (3). Among them, alizarin-2-methyl ether (2) showed the strongest enhancing activity, followed by rubiadin-1-methyl ether (3) and 1,2-dimethoxyanthraquinone (1). At a concentration of 100?M, alizarin-2-methyl ether (2) enhanced adipocyte differentiation by up to 131% (compared to insulin-treated cells). Thus, these compounds could be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22008000

  16. Prednisolone induces the Wnt signalling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Fleuren, Wilco W M; Linssen, Margot M L; Toonen, Erik J M; van der Zon, Gerard C M; Guigas, Bruno; de Vlieg, Jacob; Dokter, Wim H A; Ouwens, D Margriet; Alkema, Wynand

    2013-05-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs but show dose-dependent metabolic side effects such as the development of insulin resistance and obesity. The precise mechanisms involved in these glucocorticoid-induced side effects, and especially the participation of adipose tissue in this are not completely understood. We used a combination of transcriptomics, antibody arrays and bioinformatics approaches to characterize prednisolone-induced alterations in gene expression and adipokine secretion, which could underlie metabolic dysfunction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Several pathways, including cytokine signalling, Akt signalling, and Wnt signalling were found to be regulated at multiple levels, showing that these processes are targeted by prednisolone. These results suggest that mechanisms by which prednisolone induce insulin resistance include dysregulation of wnt signalling and immune response processes. These pathways may provide interesting targets for the development of improved glucocorticoids. PMID:23506355

  17. Regulation of p53 in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts following hyperosmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Enghoff, Maria Stine; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to analyze the regulation of p53 expression in NIH3T3 fibroblasts under the influence of increasing hyperosmotic stress. Expression of p53 showed a biphasic response pattern in NIH3T3 cells under increasing osmotic stress (337 mOsm to 737 mOsm) with a maximum at 587 mOsm. Under isotonic conditions p53 expression increased after addition of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 indicating that cellular p53 levels in unperturbed cells is kept low by proteasomal degradation. However, under hypertonic conditions p53 synthesis as well as p53 degradation were significantly reduced and it is demonstrated that the increase in p53 expression observed when tonicity is increased from 337 to 587 mOsm reflects that degradation is more inhibited than synthesis, whereas the decrease in p53 expression at higher tonicities reflects that synthesis is more inhibited than degradation. The activity of the p53 regulating proteins p38 MAP kinase and the ubiquitin ligase MDM2 were studied as a function of increasing osmolarity. MDM2 protein expression was unchanged at all osmolarities, whereas MDM2 phosphorylation (Ser166) increased at osmolarities up to 537 mOsm and remained constant at higher osmolarities. Phosphorylation of p38 increased at osmolarities up to 687 mOsm which correlated with an increased phosphorylation of p53 (Ser15) and the decreased p53 degradation. Caspase-3 activity increased gradually with hypertonicity and at 737 mOsm both Caspase-3 activity and annexin V binding are high even though p53 expression and activity are low, indicating that initiation of apoptosis under severe hypertonic conditions is not strictly controlled by p53. PMID:26056062

  18. N-acetylcysteine inhibits induction of nitric oxide synthase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Araki, Shunsuke; Dobashi, Kazushige; Kubo, Kazuyasu; Kawagoe, Rinko; Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Shirahata, Akira

    2007-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, modulates nitric oxide (NO) production stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in adipocytes. Stimulation by the combination of 5 microg/ml of LPS and 100 ng/ml of TNF-alpha (LT) significantly enhanced NO production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Preincubation of the cells with NAC (5-20 mM) for 24 h suppressed the increased NO production in a dose-dependent manner. The production of NO was decreased by 49% at the concentration of 20 mM of NAC. The decrease in NO production by NAC was accompanied by a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, detected by immunoblot analysis, and iNOS mRNA, determined by real-time reverse-transcriptase coupled polymerase chain reaction analysis. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) was significantly activated by LT-treatment, while the pretreatment with 20 mM of NAC prevented the activity by 42%. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a NF-kappaB inhibitor, also inhibited the LT-mediated NO production dose-dependently. One hundred microM of PDTC inhibited the NO production by 46%. We also investigated the effect of NAC and PDTC on the production of interleukein-6 (IL-6), which is regulated transcriptionally by NF-kappa B in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. IL-6 production was markedly increased by LT stimulus, and the enhanced secretion of IL-6 was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by pretreatment with NAC or PDTC. These results suggest that NAC regulates iNOS expression and NO production in adipocytes through the modulating activation of NF-kappa B. PMID:18170962

  19. Trigonelline attenuates the adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Kim, Da Hye; Roh, Sang Gun; Park, Hyung Su; Choi, Gi Jun; Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar; Choi, Ki Choon

    2014-04-15

    Trigonelline is a natural alkaloid mainly found in Trigonella Foenum Graecum (fenugreek) Fabaceae and other edible plants with a variety of medicinal applications. Therefore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of trigonelline (TG) on the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Trigonelline suppressed lipid droplet accumulation in a concentration (75 and 100 ?M) dependent manner. Treatment of adipocyte with of TG down regulates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR?) and CCAAT element binding protein (C/EBP-?) mRNA expression, which leads to further down regulation of other gene such as adiponectin, adipogenin, leptin, resistin and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) as compared with respective control cells on 5th and 10th day of differentiation. Further, addition of triognelline along with troglitazone to the adipocyte attenuated the troglitazone effects on PPAR? mediated differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Trigonelline might compete against troglitazone for its binding to the PPAR?. In addition, adipocyte treated with trigonelline and isoproterenol separately. Isoproterenol, a lipolytic agent which inhibits the fatty acid synthase and GLUT-4 transporter expression via cAMP mediated pathway, we found that similar magnitude response of fatty acid synthase and GLUT-4 transporter expression in trigonelline treated adipocyte. These results suggest that the trigonelline inhibits the adipogenesis by its influences on the expression PPAR?, which leads to subsequent down regulation of PPAR-? mediated pathway during adipogenesis. Our findings provide key approach to the mechanism underlying the anti-adipogenic activity of trigonelline. PMID:24369814

  20. Tannic acid stimulates glucose transport and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueqing; Kim, Jae-kyung; Li, Yunsheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Fang; Chen, Xiaozhuo

    2005-02-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for Syndrome X and type II diabetes (T2D). However, most antidiabetic drugs that are hypoglycemic also promote weight gain, thus alleviating one symptom of T2D while aggravating a major risk factor that leads to T2D. Adipogenesis, the differentiation and proliferation of adipocytes, is a major mechanism leading to weight gain and obesity. It is highly desirable to develop pharmaceuticals and treatments for T2D that reduce blood glucose levels without inducing adipogenesis in patients. Previously, we reported that an extract from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (banaba) possessed activities that both stimulated glucose transport and inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Using glucose uptake assays and Western/Northern blot analyses as major tools and 3T3-L1 cells as a model, we showed that the banaba extract (BE) with tannin removed was devoid of the 2 activities, and tannic acid (TA), a major component of tannins, had the same 2 activities as BE. Inhibitors known to abolish insulin-induced glucose transport also blocked TA-induced glucose transport. We further detected that TA induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and Akt, as well as translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4), the protein factors involved in the signaling pathway of insulin-mediated glucose transport. We also demonstrated that TA inhibited the expression of key genes for adipogenesis. Differences between samples with or without TA in all of the quantitative assays were significant (P < 0.05). These results suggest that TA may be useful for the prevention and treatment of T2D and its associated obesity. TA may have the potential to become the lead compound in the development of new types of antidiabetic pharmaceuticals that are able to reduce blood glucose levels without increasing adiposity. PMID:15671208

  1. Mobile phone base station radiation does not affect neoplastic transformation in BALB/3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Hirose, H; Suhara, T; Kaji, N; Sakuma, N; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale in vitro study focusing on low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields affect malignant transformation or other cellular stress responses. Our group previously reported that DNA strand breaks were not induced in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) radiation up to 800 mW/kg from mobile radio base stations employing the IMT-2000 cellular system. In the current study, BALB/3T3 cells were continuously exposed to 2.1425 GHz W-CDMA RF fields at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 6 weeks and malignant cell transformation was assessed. In addition, 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-treated cells were exposed to RF fields in a similar fashion, to assess for effects on tumor promotion. Finally, the effect of RF fields on tumor co-promotion was assessed in BALB/3T3 cells initiated with MCA and co-exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). At the end of the incubation period, transformation dishes were fixed, stained with Giemsa, and scored for morphologically transformed foci. No significant differences in transformation frequency were observed between the test groups exposed to RF signals and the sham-exposed negative controls in the non-, MCA-, or MCA plus TPA-treated cells. Our studies found no evidence to support the hypothesis that RF fields may affect malignant transformation. Our results suggest that exposure to low-level RF radiation of up to 800 mW/kg does not induce cell transformation, which causes tumor formation. PMID:17694516

  2. Effect of lipoproteins on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 and human preadipocytes in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Stanton, L A; van de Venter, M; Litthauer, D; Oelofsen, W

    1997-01-01

    High-density and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) stimulated 3T3-L1 and human preadipocyte differentiation in vitro. In both cell types, LDL exhibited the greatest stimulatory effect. LDL suppressed the development of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in differentiating 3T3-L1 and human preadipocytes when present during preadipocyte proliferation and early stages of differentiation. The effect of lipoproteins on development of human preadipocyte (but not 3T3-L1) lipolysis may involve beta-adrenoceptors. PMID:9080663

  3. Transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by overexpression of the normal coding sequence of the rat neu gene.

    PubMed Central

    Di Marco, E; Pierce, J H; Knicley, C L; Di Fiore, P P

    1990-01-01

    While the normal human erbB-2 gene is potently transforming when overexpressed in NIH 3T3 cells, its rat homolog, the neu gene, seems to acquire transforming properties only upon alteration of its coding sequence. In this study, we compared the effects of different levels of expression of normal erbB-2 and neu in NIH 3T3 cells. Our results revealed that the normal rat neu gene acts as a potent oncogene when sufficiently overexpressed in NIH 3T3 cells. Images PMID:1971420

  4. Erythropoietin produced by genetic-modified NIH/3T3 fibroblasts enhances the survival of degenerating neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Chin; Chen, Shiu-Jau; Chien, Chung-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (EPO) has potent neuroprotective effects. The short-term delivery of high-dose EPO seemed to improve patients neuromuscular functions; however, excessive EPO resulted in systematically high hematocrit and thrombotic risk. In our study, we established a cellular material for future invivo studies of neurodegenerative diseases based on EPO provided regionally at a nontoxic level. Methods A mouse EPO cDNA was subcloned into the pCMS-EGFP vector and transfected into NIH/3T3 fibroblasts to design a biological provider that can regionally release EPO for the treatment of neurological diseases. After G418 selection, a stable EPO-overexpressing cell line, EPO-3T3-EGFP, was established. To further confirm the neuroprotective abilities of secreted EPO from EPO-3T3-EGFP cells, a cell model of neurodegeneration, PC12-INT-EGFP, was applied. Results The expression level of EPO was highly elevated in EPO-3T3-EGFP cells, and an abundant amount of EPO secreted from EPO-3T3-EGFP cells was detected in the extracellular milieu. After supplementation with conditioned medium prepared from EPO-3T3-EGFP cells, the survival rate of PC12-INT-EGFP cells was significantly enhanced. Surprisingly, a fraction of aggregated cytoskeletal EGFP-tagged ?-internexin in PC12-INT-EGFP cells was disaggregated and transported into neurites dynamically. The immunocytochemical distribution of IF proteins, including NF-M, phosphorylated-NF-M, and the ?-INT-EGFP fusion protein, were less aggregated in the perikaryal region and transported into neurites after the EPO treatment. Conclusion The established EPO-overexpressing NIH/3T3 cell line, EPO-3T3-EGFP, may provide a material for future studies of cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative diseases via the secretion of EPO on a short-term, high-dose, regional basis. PMID:26357589

  5. In vitro BALB/3T3 cell transformation assay of nonoxynol-9 and 1,4-dioxane

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, C.W.; Moreland, F.M.; Lee, J.K.; Dunkel, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    The spermicidal surfactant nonoxynol-9 (Igepal CO-630, GAF Corp.) and a potential impurity, 1,4-dioxane, were tested in the in vitro cell transformation assay using BALB/3T3 cells. Two treatment periods, 48 hr and 13 days, were used. Nonoxynol-9, tested at levels up to 10 /sup +/g/ml, did not induce transformation, whereas dioxane was very active in the induction type II foci in the cultured BALB/3T3 cells.

  6. An evaluation of the choice of feeder cell growth arrest for the production of cultured epidermis.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Rishi Man; Chaturvedi, Madhusudan; Yerneni, Lakshmana Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Growth arrested 3T3 cells have been used as feeder cells in human epidermal keratinocyte cultures to produce cultured epidermal autografts for the treatment of burns. The feeder cells were ideally growth-arrested by gamma-irradiation. Alternatively, growth arrest by mitomycin C treatment is a cost effective option. We compared the functional efficacy of these two approaches in keratinocyte cultures by colony forming efficiency, the net growth area of colonies, BrdU labeling and histological features of cultured epidermal sheets. The growth area estimation involved a semi-automated digital technique using the Adobe Photoshop and comprised of isolation and enumeration of red pixels in Rhodamine B-stained keratinocyte colonies. A further refinement of the technique led to the identification of critical steps to increasing the degree of accuracy and enabling its application as an extension of colony formation assay. The results on feeder cell functionality revealed that the gamma irradiated feeders influenced significantly higher colony forming efficiency and larger growth area than the mitomycin C treated feeders. The BrdU labeling study indicated significant stimulation of the overall keratinocyte proliferation by the gamma irradiated feeders. The cultured epidermal sheets produced by gamma feeders were relatively thicker than those produced by mitomycin C feeders. We discussed the clinical utility of mitomycin C feeders from the viewpoint of cost-effective burn care in developing countries. PMID:26392024

  7. Insulin regulation of protein biosynthesis in differentiated 3T3 adipocytes. Regulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, M.; Curtis, G.; Avruch, J.; Goodman, H.M.

    1985-10-05

    The effect of insulin on protein biosynthesis was examined in differentiated 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A adipocytes. Insulin altered the relative rate of synthesis of specific proteins independent of its ability to hasten conversion of the fibroblast (preadipocyte) phenotype to the adipocyte phenotype. Although more than one pattern of response to insulin was observed, the authors focused on the induction of a Mr 33,000 protein which was identified as the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Exposure of 3T3 adipocytes to insulin throughout differentiation specifically increased GAPDH activity and protein content by 2- to 3-fold as compared to 3T3 adipocytes differentiated in the absence of insulin. These changes in enzyme activity and content could be accounted for by a 4-fold increase in the relative rate of synthesis of GAPDH and a 9-fold increase in hybridizable mRNA levels. Within 2 h of insulin addition to 3T3 adipocytes differentiated in the absence of hormone, hybridizable GAPDH mRNA levels increased 3-fold, and within 24 h GAPDH mRNA levels increased 8-fold, and (TVS) methionine incorporation into GAPDH protein increased 5-fold. These studies demonstrate that insulin, as the sole hormonal perturbant, can increase the synthesis of certain 3T3 adipocyte proteins by altering the cellular content of a specific mRNA.

  8. ATF3 inhibits adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Min Kyung; Kim, Cho Hee; Seong, Je Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of ATF3 inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of ATF3 represses C/EBP{alpha} expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATF3 directly binds to mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter spanning from -1928 to -1907. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATF3 may play a role in hypoxia-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: ATF3 is a stress-adaptive gene that regulates proliferation or apoptosis under stress conditions. However, the role of ATF3 is unknown in adipocyte cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the functional role of ATF3 in adipocytes. Both lentivirus-mediated overexpression of ATF3 and stably-overexpressed ATF3 inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, as revealed by decreased lipid staining with oil red staining and reduction in adipogenic genes. Thapsigargin treatment and overexpression of ATF3 decreased C/EBP{alpha} transcript and repressed the activity of the 3.6-kb mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter, demonstrating that ATF3 downregulates C/EBP{alpha} expression. Transfection studies using mutant constructs containing 5 Prime -deletions in the C/EBP{alpha} promoter revealed that a putative ATF/CRE element, GGATGTCA, is located between -1921 and -1914. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 directly binds to mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter spanning from -1928 to -1907. Both chemical hypoxia-mimetics or physical hypoxia led to reduce the C/EBP{alpha} mRNA and repress the promoter activity of the C/EBP{alpha} gene, whereas increase ATF3 mRNA, suggesting that ATF3 may contribute to the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in hypoxia through downregulation of C/EBP{alpha} expression. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ATF3 represses the C/EBP{alpha} gene, resulting in inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and thus plays a role in hypoxia-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation.

  9. Nobiletin enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takeshi; Abe, Daigo; Sekiya, Keizo . E-mail: ksekiya@affrc.go.jp

    2007-06-01

    Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone found in certain citrus fruits. Here we demonstrate that nobiletin enhance differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Nobiletin dose-dependently increased accumulation of lipid droplets in adipocytes. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that nobiletin increased the expression of genes critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype. Some of them were known peroxisome proliferator activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) targets and PPAR{gamma} itself, however, nobiletin did not exhibit PPAR{gamma} ligand activity. We observed the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {beta} (C/EBP{beta}), a transcription factor for PPAR{gamma}, was increased by nobiletin. The activation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which play important roles in C/EBP{beta} expression were also potentiated by nobiletin. Furthermore, nobiletin stimulated lipolysis in differentiated adipocytes, which is known to be stimulated by cAMP pathway. These results suggested that nobiletin enhanced both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocyte through activation of signaling cascades mediated by cAMP/CREB.

  10. Melatonin promotes adipogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hisashi; Tanaka, Goki; Masuda, Shinya; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Sakurai, Takuya; Kizaki, Takako; Ohno, Hideki; Izawa, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland, but elicits a wide range of physiological responses in peripheral target tissues. Recent advances suggest that melatonin controls adiposity, resulting in changes in body weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on adipogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 mouse embryo fibroblasts. Melatonin significantly increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), a master regulator of adipogenesis, and promoted differentiation into adipocytes. Melatonin-treated cells also formed smaller lipid droplets and abundantly expressed several molecules associated with lipolysis, including adipose triglyceride lipase, perilipin, and comparative gene identification-58. Moreover, the hormone promoted biogenesis of mitochondria, as indicated by fluorescent staining, elevated the citrate synthase activity, and upregulated the expression of PPAR-γ coactivator 1 α, nuclear respiratory factor-1, and transcription factor A. The expression of uncoupling protein 1 was also observable both at mRNA and at protein level in melatonin-treated cells. Finally, adiponectin secretion and the expression of adiponectin receptors were enhanced. These results suggest that melatonin promotes adipogenesis, lipolysis, mitochondrial biogenesis, and adiponectin secretion. Thus, melatonin has potential as an anti-obesity agent that may reverse obesity-related disorders. PMID:26123001

  11. Diallyl disulfide accelerates adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Young-Rae; Song, Mi-Young; Koo, Jeung-Hyun; Ka, Sun-O; Park, Jin-Woo; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2007-07-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by the sequential activation of transcription factors such as the CAAT/enhancer binding protein and peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma). Several recent studies have shown that regulators of chromatin structure are also involved in adipocyte differentiation. Here we investigated the effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS), an oil-soluble sulfur compound found in processed garlic and an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), on adipogenesis. Treatment with DADS accelerated terminal differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes as evidenced by Oil red O staining and cellular triglyceride assay results. Notably, the inhibition of HDAC during the first 2 days was sufficient to stimulate adipogenesis. Western blot analysis revealed that DADS increased the level of acetylated histones H3 and H4. In addition, DADS increased the expression of adipogenesis-related genes; LPL, FAS, SREBP1c, aP2 and PPAR-gamma, and decreased the expression of pref-1, a preadipocyte marker gene. Taken together, our results suggest that DADS affects adipocyte differentiation through histone acetylation at an early phase of adipocyte differentiation. PMID:17549389

  12. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lipid droplet (LD) formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA) unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0) and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9) on 3T3-L1 adipocyte LD formation, regulation of genes central to LD function and adipokine responsiveness. Cells were supplemented with 100 μM FA during 7-day differentiation. Results EPA markedly reduced LD size and total lipid accumulation, suppressing PPARγ, Cidea and D9D/SCD1 genes, distinct from other treatments. These changes were independent of alterations of lipolytic genes, as both EPA and STA similarly elevated LPL and HSL gene expressions. In response to acute lipopolysaccharide exposure, EPA-differentiated adipocytes had distinct improvement in inflammatory response shown by reduction in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 and elevation in adiponectin and leptin gene expressions. Conclusions This study demonstrates that EPA differentially modulates adipogenesis and lipid accumulation to suppress LD formation and size. This may be due to suppressed gene expression of key proteins closely associated with LD function. Further analysis is required to determine if EPA exerts a similar influence on LD formation and regulation in-vivo. PMID:20525346

  13. Growth, cell cycle progression, and morphology of 3T3 cells following fibroin microsphere ingestion.

    PubMed

    Go, Nam Kyung; Lee, Jin Sil; Lee, Joon Ho; Hur, Won

    2015-04-01

    Cellular uptake of microspheres may cause physiological stress and toxicity. In this report, we investigated the effect of cellular uptake of fibroin microspheres on the growth, cell cycle progression, and morphology of 3T3 cells. The microspheres were prepared by physical cross-linking of fibroin molecules without any chemical modification. Fluorescent microspheres are comprised of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran core and fibroin shell. More than 90% of cells were determined to be fluorescence-positive following 24-h incubation with fluorescent microspheres (0.17 mg/mL). Microsphere localization in the cytoplasm was demonstrated using confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Cellular uptake of microspheres did not influence cellular viability, but microsphere concentrations above 0.1 mg/mL resulted in decreased cell proliferation. The proliferation inhibition was attributed to G2 /M phase delay in cell cycle progression and S-phase delay at higher microsphere concentrations (0.33 mg/mL). Although flow cytometry light-scattering data raised the possibility of morphological changes, Coulter counter analysis confirmed no significant size differences between cells incubated with and without microspheres. Accordingly, fibroin microspheres can be a potential vehicle for intracytoplasmic delivery of cargos, without affecting cell viability. PMID:25044553

  14. MEASUREMENT OF LIPOLYSIS PRODUCTS SECRETED BY 3T3-L1 ADIPOCYTES USING MICROFLUIDICS

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Colleen E.; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Glass microfluidic devices have been fabricated to monitor the secretion of glycerol or fatty acids from cultured murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the current studies, adipocytes are perfused in a reversibly-sealed cell chamber and secreted products are analyzed by enzyme assay on either a single- or dual-chip device. The analysis of glycerol employed the use of a dual-chip system, which used separate chips for cell perfusion and sample analysis. An improved single-chip device integrated the cell perfusion chamber and analysis component on one platform. The performance of this device was demonstrated by the analysis of fatty acids, but could also be applied to analysis of glycerol or other chemicals. The single-chip system required fewer cells and lower flow rates, and provided improved temporal response. In both systems, cells were perfused with buffer to monitor basal response followed by lipolysis stimulation with the ?-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Measured basal glycerol concentration from 50,000 cells was 28 ?M, and when stimulated, a spike 3-fold higher than basal concentration was detected followed by a continuous release 40% above basal levels. Fatty acid basal concentration was 24 ?M, measured from 6,200 cells, and isoproterenol stimulation resulted in a constant elevated concentration 7-fold higher than basal levels. PMID:24529440

  15. Oleic acid promotes adaptability against oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 cells through lipohormesis.

    PubMed

    Haeiwa, Haruna; Fujita, Takashi; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Although fatty acids are important components of biological membranes, energy sources, and signal transducers or precursors of lipid mediators, excess intake of fatty acids and their accumulation cause obesity and metabolic syndrome. Thus, fatty acid quantity is known to be an important factor for obesity-related diseases, but the effects of different types of fatty acids (i.e., fatty acid quality) on human health are not completely understood. We here focused on the relationship between fatty acid quality and oxidative stress by investigating whether resistibility to tert-butyl hydrperoxide (t-BuOOH)-induced oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 cells varied according to the fatty acid type. Among eight fatty acids (both saturated and unsaturated) tested, oleic acid (OA) exerted the most pronounced cytoprotective effects, with efficacy over a wide range of concentrations. OA treatment markedly enhanced the intracellular levels of lipid peroxidation markers, including N(ε)-(hexanoyl)lysine, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and acrolein. The levels of these markers in OA-treated cells were decreased after t-BuOOH exposure, whereas the levels in untreated control cells were notably increased after t-BuOOH exposure. Our results suggested that unsaturated fatty acids, particularly OA, could promote an adaptive response and enhance cell tolerance through increased cellular antioxidative capacity via OA-induced mild lipid peroxidation (lipohormesis), and thus protect cells against subsequent oxidative stress-related injury. PMID:24234346

  16. Inhibition by the fungicide fenpropimorph of cholesterol biosynthesis in 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Corio-Costet, M F; Gerst, N; Benveniste, P; Schuber, F

    1988-01-01

    Fenpropimorph (N-[3-(p-t-butylphenyl)-2-methylpropyl]-cis-2,6-dimethylmorpholine), a morpholine fungicide known to be an inhibitor of sterol biosynthesis in fungi and in higher plants, was demonstrated to be an efficient inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis in cultured Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Treatment of the mammalian cells with fenpropimorph resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of [14C]acetate incorporation into the C27 sterols [IC50 (concentration causing half-maximal inhibition) = 0.5 microM], which was accompanied by an accumulation of polar sterols and a decrease in cellular hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity. Exposure of the cells to the drug affected cell growth. Analysis of the sterols in the growth-arrested and in the pulse-labelled cells indicate that fenpropimorph has, in the sterol-biosynthetic pathway, target enzymes in mammalian cells different from those in the other phyla. Whereas in plants and fungi fenpropimorph mainly affects sterol isomerases and reductases, in the fibroblasts its main target seems to be the demethylation of lanosterol. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3223956

  17. Calpain inhibition stimulates caspase-dependent apoptosis induced by taxol in NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Pieiro, David; Martn, M Elena; Guerra, Natalia; Salinas, Matilde; Gonzlez, Vctor M

    2007-01-15

    Taxol is an anticancer drug that triggers apoptosis in a wide spectrum of cancers such as ovarian, breast, lung, head and neck, and bladder carcinoma by both caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis mechanisms. However, the exact signaling pathways involved in taxol-induced apoptosis strongly depend on the cellular background and they are not completely established yet. In this study we demonstrate that taxol induces caspase-3-independent apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells by a calpain-mediated mechanism. Taxol treatment produced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m) which could be responsible of Ca(2+) release from the mitochondria and the consequent calpain activation. Interestingly, we show that calpain produced proteolysis of caspase-3 and demonstrate that, accordingly, calpain inhibition increased taxol-induced apoptosis. In addition, we reveal that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was processed by calpain in taxol-treated cells and by caspase-3 after calpain inhibition. In conclusion, these results demonstrate for the first time that calpain could play an important role modulating taxol-induced apoptosis. Further studies are needed to address the potentiality of inducing apoptosis by a combined use of taxol and calpain inhibitors in cells with increased calpain activity. PMID:17145055

  18. Fisetin induces Sirt1 expression while inhibiting early adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Chon; Kim, Yoo Hoon; Son, Sung Wook; Moon, Eun-Yi; Pyo, Suhkneung; Um, Sung Hee

    2015-11-27

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a naturally found flavonol in many fruits and vegetables and is known to have anti-aging, anti-cancer and anti-viral effects. However, the effects of fisetin on early adipocyte differentiation and the epigenetic regulator controlling adipogenic transcription factors remain unclear. Here, we show that fisetin inhibits lipid accumulation and suppresses the expression of PPARγ in 3T3-L1 cells. Fisetin suppressed early stages of preadipocyte differentiation, and induced expression of Sirt1. Depletion of Sirt1 abolished the inhibitory effects of fisetin on intracellular lipid accumulation and on PPARγ expression. Mechanistically, fisetin facilitated Sirt1-mediated deacetylation of PPARγ and FoxO1, and enhanced the association of Sirt1 with the PPARγ promoter, leading to suppression of PPARγ transcriptional activity, thereby repressing adipogenesis. Lowering Sirt1 levels reversed the effects of fisetin on deacetylation of PPARγ and increased PPARγ transactivation. Collectively, our results suggest the effects of fisetin in increasing Sirt1 expression and in epigenetic control of early adipogenesis. PMID:26499075

  19. Synthesis and release of hyaluronic acid by Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, J R; Cysyk, R L

    1995-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) and its synthesis were studied in intact Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and isolated membranes. HA chains in culture medium, attached to cells and in isolated membranes, were determined to possess average M(r) values of 5.2 x 10(6), 1.8 x 10(6) and 0.14 x 10(6) respectively. Log cells were determined to possess 680,000 HA molecules/cell, and to release 120,000 HA chains/h. The time required for intact cells to synthesize and release a complete HA chain was approximately 4 h, with elongation proceeding at a rate of 57 dimers/min. The amount of cell-associated HA of various cell populations correlated strongly with their rate of HA release into culture media and with the HA synthetase activity determined for their membranes. Prevention of protein synthesis with cycloheximide decreased the rate of HA synthesis of log cells and HA synthetase activity of isolated membranes by 50% within 2-3 h. Because of the similarity between the biological lifetime of HA synthetase and the time required to synthesize a HA chain, we propose a model where each synthetase makes only one HA chain; after synthesis of a complete HA chain, HA synthetase activity is terminated as its HA chain is released from the cell. Images Figure 1 PMID:7626032

  20. Attachment and spreadout study of 3T3 cells onto PP track etched films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolko, Eduardo; Mazzei, Ruben; Tadey, Daniel; Lombardo, Daniel

    2001-12-01

    Polymer surface modifications are obtained by the application of radiation treatments and other physico-chemical methods: fission fragment (ff) irradiation and etching. The biocompatibility of the surface is then observed by cell seeding and cell adhesion experiments. Approaches to improvement of the cell adhesion are obtained by different methods: for example, in PS, cell adhesion is improved after ion implantation; in PMMA, after bombarding the polymer, the surface is reconditioned with surfactants and proteins and in PVDF, cell adhesion is assayed on nuclear tracks membranes. In this work, we obtained important cell adhesion improvements in PP films by irradiation with swift heavy ions and subsequent etching of the nuclear tracks. We use BOPP (isotactic -25 ?m thickness). Irrradiations were performed with a Cf-252 californium ff source. The source has a heavy ff and a light one, with 160-200 MeV energy divided among them corresponding to ff energies between 1 and 2 MeV/amu. A chemical etching procedure consisting of a solution of sulphuric acid and chromium three oxide at 85 C was used. The 3T3 NIH fibroblast cell line was used for the cell adhesion experiment. Here we report for the first time, the results of a series of experiments by varying the ff fluence and the etching time showing that attachment and spreadout of cells are very much improved in this cell line according to the number of pores and the pore size.

  1. Antidiabetic thiazolidinediones inhibit leptin (ob) gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kallen, C B; Lazar, M A

    1996-01-01

    Lack of leptin (ob) protein causes obesity in mice. The leptin gene product is important for normal regulation of appetite and metabolic rate and is produced exclusively by adipocytes. Leptin mRNA was induced during the adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells, which are useful for studying adipocyte differentiation and function under controlled conditions. We studied leptin regulation by antidiabetic thiazolidinedione compounds, which are ligands for the adipocyte-specific nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) that regulates the transcription of other adipocyte-specific genes. Remarkably, leptin gene expression was dramatically repressed within a few hours after thiazolidinedione treatment. The ED50 for inhibition of leptin expression by the thiazolidinedione BRL49653 was between 5 and 50 nM, similar to its Kd for binding to PPARgamma. The relatively weak, nonthiazolidinedione PPAR activator WY 14,643 also inhibited leptin expression, but was approximately 1000 times less potent than BRL49653. These results indicate that antidiabetic thiazolidinediones down-regulate leptin gene expression with potencies that correlate with their abilities to bind and activate PPARgamma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8650171

  2. MicroRNA-23a regulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Linyuan; Zhang, Yi; Du, Jingjing; Chen, Li; Luo, Jia; Li, Xuewei; Li, Mingzhou; Tang, Guoqing; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li

    2016-01-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs, which are involved in regulation of a variety of biological processes. Since previous studies regarding the role of miRNAs in the regulation of adipogenic differentiation have shown that miRNA-27a, one member of miRNA-23a?27a?24 cluster, could suppress adipogenesis. We now investigated whether miRNA-23a regulates adipogenic differentiation. In the present study, we showed that the expression of miRNA-23a is decreased during the process of adipogenic differentiation. Over-expression of miRNA-23a decreased lipid accumulation and triglyceride content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results also demonstrated that miRNA-23a decreases mRNA levels of adipocyte-specific genes involved in lipogenic transcription, fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid transport. These findings suggested miRNA-23a to be a new type of adipogenic depressor and to play an important role in regulating adipocyte differentiation. PMID:26415879

  3. Cytoplasmic pH influences cytoplasmic calcium in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H. S.; Hughes-Fulford, M.; Kumegawa, M.; Pitts, A. C.; Snowdowne, K. W.

    1993-01-01

    We found that the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium (Cai) of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts was influenced by the type of pH buffer we used in the perfusing medium, suggesting that intracellular pH (pHi) might influence Cai. To study this effect, the Cai and pHi were monitored as we applied various experimental conditions known to change pHi. Exposure to NH4Cl caused a transient increase in both pHi and Cai without a change in extracellular pH (pHo). Decreasing pHo and pHi by lowering the bicarbonate concentration of the medium decreased Cai, and increasing pHi by the removal of 5% CO2 increased Cai. Clamping pHi to known values with 10 microM nigericin, a potassium proton ionophore, also influenced Cai: acid pHi lowered Cai, whereas alkaline pHi increased it. The rise in Cai appears to be very sensitive to the extracellular concentration of calcium, suggesting the existence of a pH-sensitive calcium influx mechanism. We conclude that physiologic changes in pH could modulate Cai by controlling the influx of calcium ions and could change the time course of the Cai transient associated with hormonal activation.

  4. Mineralization initiation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast is suppressed under simulated microgravity condition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-fang; Li, Jing-bao; Qian, Ai-rong; Wang, Fei; Shang, Peng

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity decreases the differentiation of osteoblast. However, as this process is multistage and complex, the mechanism by which microgravity inhibits osteoblast differentiation is still unclear. We have previously found that 24 h acute treatment of simulated microgravity (SM) with a random positioning machine (RPM) significantly inhibited the differentiation of preosteoblasts and have explored whether osteoblasts show different response to microgravity condition at other stages, such as the mineralizing-stage. Murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts induced for osteogenic differentiation for seven days were cultured either under normal gravity or SM conditions for 24 h. SM treatment significantly suppressed mineralized nodule formation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was dramatically decreased, and the expression of ALP gene was downregulated. Expression of well-known markers and regulators for osteoblasts differentiation, including osteocalcin (OC), type I collagen α1 (Col Iα1), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), were downregulated. Western blot analysis showed that the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) level was lower under SM condition. Thus, the initiation of osteoblast mineralization is suppressed by SM condition, and the suppression may be through the regulation of ALP activity and the osteogenic gene expression. ERK signaling might be involved in this process. These results are relevant to the decrease of osteoblast maturation and bone formation under microgravity condition. PMID:25318973

  5. Role of insulin in growth hormone-stimulated 3T3 cell adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guller, S; Corin, R E; Mynarcik, D C; London, B M; Sonenberg, M

    1988-05-01

    The role of insulin during GH-stimulated adipogenesis of 3T3-F442A fibroblasts was investigated. Adipogenesis in defined medium (DM), as quantified by the level of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, revealed that there existed a strict requirement for both insulin and GH during adipogenesis. The concentration of insulin required to elicit half-maximal adipogenesis was approximately 20 nM. Insulin-like growth factor I was less effective than insulin in promoting adipogenesis, indicating that insulin action during differentiation was most likely mediated through the insulin receptor. Cellular viability was not compromised by the absence of insulin, as judged by colony-forming efficiency or trypan blue exclusion. Deletion of insulin from DM supplemented with 1 nM recombinant human GH reduced glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity to uninduced levels. Removal of other individual DM constituents did not have this effect. The growth factors fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and bombesin did not substitute for insulin during GH-stimulated adipogenesis. The characteristic increase in cell number observed during serum-based differentiation, reflecting clonal expansion of young adipocytes, did not occur in DM supplemented with insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I were necessary for this event. These results suggest that insulin functions in concert with GH as a coinducer of the differentiating signals. PMID:3282874

  6. Echinacea purpurea root extract enhances the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Mi; Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Lee, Youn-Sun; Kim, Wonkyun; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Oh, Seikwan; Jung, Jae-Chul; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Lee, Yong-Moon; Hong, Jin Tae; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

    2014-06-01

    Echinacea purpurea has been shown to have anti-diabetic activities; for example, it activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Adipogenesis has been used to study the insulin signaling pathway and to screen anti-diabetic compounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of E. purpurea (EEEP) and its constituents on the insulin-induced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When adipocyte differentiation was induced with insulin plus 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and dexamethasone, the accumulation of lipid droplets and the cellular triglyceride content were significantly increased by EEEP. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα in adipocytes treated with EEEP were gradually increased as compared with control cells. Fat accumulation and triglyceride content of adipocytes treated with dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide were significantly increased as compared with control cells. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα in adipocytes treated with dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide were significantly higher than in control cells. These results suggest EEEP promotes the adipogenesis that is partially induced by insulin and that dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide appears to be responsible for EEEP-enhanced adipocyte differentiation. PMID:24085629

  7. Mutated alpha subunit of the Gq protein induces malignant transformation in NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kalinec, G; Nazarali, A J; Hermouet, S; Xu, N; Gutkind, J S

    1992-01-01

    The discovery of mutated, GTPase-deficient alpha subunits of Gs or Gi2 in certain human endocrine tumors has suggested that heterotrimeric G proteins play a role in the oncogenic process. Expression of these altered forms of G alpha s or G alpha i2 proteins in rodent fibroblasts activates or inhibits endogenous adenylyl cyclase, respectively, and causes certain alterations in cell growth. However, it is not clear whether growth abnormalities result from altered cyclic AMP synthesis. In the present study, we asked whether a recently discovered family of G proteins, Gq, which does not affect adenylyl cyclase activity, but instead mediates the activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C harbors transforming potential. We mutated the cDNA for the alpha subunit of murine Gq in codons corresponding to a region involved in binding and hydrolysis of GTP. Similar mutations unmask the transforming potential of p21ras or activate the alpha subunits of Gs or Gi2. Our results show that when expressed in NIH 3T3 cells, activating mutations convert G alpha q into a dominant acting oncogene. Images PMID:1328859

  8. Serum rapidly stimulates ouabain-sensitive 86-RB+ influx in quiescent 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rozengurt, E; Heppel, L A

    1975-01-01

    Serum causes a 4-fold increase in 86Rb+ (a K+ tracer) influx in quiescent 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. It is one of the earliest changes caused by serum, being seen in 2 min and reaching a maximum in 10 min. Removal of serum causes rapid reversal of this effect. Serum acts mainly by increasing the maximum velocity, Vmax, of entry. Ouabain inhibits entry of 86Rb+ (82-90%) both in the presence and absence of serum, but does not alter exit. The rapid increase in cation influx is unaffected by cycloheximide and by changes in cyclic AMP and GMP. Low concentrations of insulin, epidermal growth factor, and prostaglandins (E1 and F2alpha) produced a smaller (80%) activation of 86Rb+ entry. Ouabain, at a level that inhibits cation influx, also prevents the onset of DNA synthesis following serum addition; this is reversible effect dependent on the concentration of K+ in the medium. This suggests that cation pumping activity may be required for initiation of DNA synthesis. PMID:1060129

  9. Stimulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of in vitro mineralization induced by osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T.; Igarashi, C.; Takeuchi, Y.; Harada, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Yamato, H.; Ogata, E. )

    1991-01-01

    Although vitamin D is essential for mineralization of bone, it is as yet unclear whether vitamin D has a direct stimulatory effect on the bone mineralization process. In the present study, the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on in vitro mineralization mediated by osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells was examined. MC3T3-E1 cells continued to grow after they reached confluency, and DNA content and alkaline phosphatase activity increased linearly until about 16 days of culture, whereas 45Ca accumulation into cell and matrix layer remained low. After this period, DNA content plateaued, and 45Ca accumulation increased sharply. Histological examination by von Kossa staining revealed that calcium was accumulated into extracellular matrix. In addition, needle-shaped mineral crystals similar to hydroxyapatite crystals could be demonstrated in between collagen fibrils by electron microscopy. Thus, MC3T3-E1 cells differentiate in vitro into cells with osteoblastic phenotype and exhibit mineralization. When MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 at this stage of culture, there was a dose-dependent stimulation of 45Ca accumulation by 1,25(OH)2D3, and a significant stimulation of 45Ca accumulation was observed with 3 x 10(-10) M 1,25(OH)2D3. Although 1,25(OH)2D3 enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen synthesis at the early phase of culture, it did not affect any of these parameters at the late phase when 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulated mineralization. Neither 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 nor human PTH(1-34) affected mineralization in the presence or absence of 1,25(OH)2D3. These results demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulates matrix mineralization induced by osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, and are consistent with the possibility that 1,25(OH)2D3 has a direct stimulatory effect on bone mineralization process.

  10. Nitric Oxide-Induced Autophagy in MC3T3-E1 Cells is Associated with Cytoprotection via AMPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung Yoon; Park, Min Young; Park, Sam Young; Yoo, Hong Il; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Jae Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is important in the regulation of bone remodeling, whereas high concentration of NO promotes cell death of osteoblast. However, it is not clear yet whether NO-induced autophagy is implicated in cell death or survival of osteoblast. The present study is aimed to examine the role of NO-induced autophagy in the MC3T3-E1 cells and their underlying molecular mechanism. The effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, on the cytotoxicity of the MC3T3-E1 cells was determined by MTT assay and expression of apoptosis or autophagy associated molecules was evaluated by western blot analysis. The morphological observation of autophagy and apoptosis by acridine orange stain and TUNEL assay were performed, respectively. Treatment of SNP decreased the cell viability of the MC3T3-E1 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. SNP increased expression levels of p62, ATG7, Beclin-1 and LC3-II, as typical autophagic markers and augmented acidic autophagolysosomal vacuoles, detected by acridine orange staining. However, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3MA), the specific inhibitor for autophagy, decreased cell viability, whereas increased the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 in the SNP-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a major autophagy regulatory kinase, was activated in SNP-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, pretreatment with compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK, decreased cell viability, whereas increased the number of apoptotic cells, cleaved PARP and caspase-3 levels compared to those of SNP-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, it is speculated that NO-induced autophagy functions as a survival mechanism via AMPK activation against apoptosis in the MC3T3-E1 cells. PMID:26557017

  11. Lipid droplets fusion in adipocyte differentiated 3T3-L1 cells: a Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Federico; Rizzatti, Vanni; Zamboni, Mauro; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2014-02-15

    Several human worldwide diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, atherosclerosis and other metabolic pathologies are related to the excessive accumulation of lipids in cells. Lipids accumulate in spherical cellular inclusions called lipid droplets (LDs) whose sizes range from fraction to one hundred of micrometers in adipocytes. It has been suggested that LDs can grow in size due to a fusion process by which a larger LD is obtained with spherical shape and volume equal to the sum of the progenitors' ones. In this study, the size distribution of two populations of LDs was analyzed in immature and mature (5-days differentiated) 3T3-L1 adipocytes (first and second populations, respectively) after Oil Red O staining. A Monte Carlo simulation of interaction between LDs has been developed in order to quantify the size distribution and the number of fusion events needed to obtain the distribution of the second population size starting from the first one. Four models are presented here based on different kinds of interaction: a surface weighted interaction (R2 Model), a volume weighted interaction (R3 Model), a random interaction (Random model) and an interaction related to the place where the LDs are born (Nearest Model). The last two models mimic quite well the behavior found in the experimental data. This work represents a first step in developing numerical simulations of the LDs growth process. Due to the complex phenomena involving LDs (absorption, growth through additional neutral lipid deposition in existing droplets, de novo formation and catabolism) the study focuses on the fusion process. The results suggest that, to obtain the observed size distribution, a number of fusion events comparable with the number of LDs themselves is needed. Moreover the MC approach results a powerful tool for investigating the LDs growth process. PMID:24394544

  12. Substrate selectivity of diacylglycerol kinase in PDGF-stimulated 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, M.L.; Mack, K.F.; Glomset, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    The authors investigated the properties of Diacylglycerol (DAG) Kinase in 3T3 cells. PDGF treatment caused an increase in DAG mass, an increase in incorporation of /sup 32/P into phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), and an increase in the rate of phosphorylation of membrane DAG in vitro. The mechanism of enhanced phosphorylation of DAG was studied with dicaprylin (diC/sub 10/) as a probe. Cells were prelabeled with /sup 32/P and treated with PDGF or carrier. DiC/sub 10/ was added to the cell medium before harvesting. With PDGF treatment, the radioactivity in endogenous PA increased fourfold, whereas the radioactivity in PA/sub 10/ and PI/sub 10/ was consistently decreased. To verify that the PDGF effect on PA/sub 10/ formation in intact cells was due to reduced phosphorylation of diC/sub 10/ by DAG kinase, cells were treated with PDGF and/or diC/sub 10/, freeze-thawed, and then incubated with Mg(/sup 32/P)ATP. The rate of phosphorylation of cell-associated diC/sub 10/ was decreased 50% by PDGF treatment. This effect could not be explained by decreased intracellular levels of diC/sub 10/, or by saturation of DAG kinase with endogenous DAGs. Therefore, it seemed that endogenous DAGs, derived from PI, might be better substrates for DAG kinase than is diC/sub 10/. In studies of the properties of DAG kinase with pure DAGs in mixed detergent micelles, they found that the enzyme phosphorylated arachidonoyl-DAG more readily than diC/sub 10/. The selectivity of DAG kinase may play a key role in the formation of arachidonoyl species of PI.

  13. Mango fruit peel and flesh extracts affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hoang, Van L T; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is associated with many chronic disease states, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and certain cancers, including those of the breast and colon. There is a growing body of evidence that links phytochemicals with the inhibition of adipogenesis and protection against obesity. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are tropical fruits that are rich in a diverse array of bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, methanol extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars; Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride, were assessed for their effects on a 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line model of adipogenesis. High content imaging was used to assess: lipid droplets per cell, lipid droplet area per cell, lipid droplet integrated intensity, nuclei count and nuclear area per cell. Mango flesh extracts from the three cultivars did not inhibit adipogenesis; peel extracts from both Irwin and Nam Doc Mai, however, did so with the Nam Doc Mai extract most potent at inhibiting adipogenesis. Peel extract from Kensington Pride promoted adipogenesis. The inhibition of adipogenesis by Irwin (100 ?g mL(-1)) and Nam Doc Mai peel extracts (50 and 100 ?g mL(-1)) was associated with an increase in the average nuclear area per cell; similar effects were seen with resveratrol, suggesting that these extracts may act through pathways similar to resveratrol. These results suggest that differences in the phytochemical composition between mango cultivars may influence their effectiveness in inhibiting adipogenesis, and points to mango fruit peel as a potential source of nutraceuticals. PMID:22699857

  14. Mouse osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) expresses extracellular calcium (Ca2+o)-sensing receptor and its agonists stimulate chemotaxis and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Kifor, O.; Butters, R. R. Jr; Sugimoto, T.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays key roles in extracellular calcium ion (Ca2+o) homeostasis in parathyroid gland and kidney. Osteoblasts appear at sites of osteoclastic bone resorption during bone remodeling in the "reversal" phase following osteoclastic resorption and preceding bone formation. Bone resorption produces substantial local increases in Ca2+o that could provide a signal for osteoblasts in the vicinity, leading us to determine whether such osteoblasts express the CaR. In this study, we used the mouse osteoblastic, clonal cell line MC3T3-E1. Both immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, using an antiserum specific for the CaR, detected CaR protein in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also identified CaR transcripts in MC3T3-E1 cells by Northern analysis using a CaR-specific riboprobe and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with CaR-specific primers, followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplified products. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to high Ca2+o (up to 4.8 mM) or the polycationic CaR agonists, neomycin and gadolinium (Gd3+), stimulated both chemotaxis and DNA synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Therefore, taken together, our data strongly suggest that the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 possesses both CaR protein and mRNA very similar, if not identical, to those in parathyroid and kidney. Furthermore, the CaR in these osteoblasts could play a key role in regulating bone turnover by stimulating the proliferation and migration of such cells to sites of bone resorption as a result of local release of Ca2+o.

  15. Purple Sweet Potato Leaf Extract Induces Apoptosis and Reduces Inflammatory Adipokine Expression in 3T3-L1 Differentiated Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shou-Lun; Chin, Ting-Yu; Tu, Ssu-Chieh; Wang, Yu-Jie; Hsu, Ya-Ting; Kao, Ming-Ching; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background. Purple sweet potato leaves (PSPL) are widely grown and are considered a healthy vegetable in Taiwan. PSPL contain a high content of flavonoids, and the boiling water-extracted PSPL (PSPLE) is believed to prevent metabolic syndrome. However, its efficacy has not yet been verified. Therefore, we investigated the effect of PSPLE on adipocytes. Methods. The differentiated 3T3-L1 cells used in this study were derived from preadipocytes that were differentiated into adipocytes using an adipogenic agent (insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine); approximately 90% of the cells were differentiated using this method. Results. Treating the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with PSPLE caused a dose-dependent decrease in the number of adipocytes rather than preadipocytes. In addition, treatment with PSPLE resulted in apoptosis of the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells as determined by DAPI analysis and flow cytometry. PSPLE also increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, PSPLE induced downregulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) gene expression in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that PSPLE not only induced apoptosis but also downregulated inflammation-associated genes in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:26170870

  16. Purple Sweet Potato Leaf Extract Induces Apoptosis and Reduces Inflammatory Adipokine Expression in 3T3-L1 Differentiated Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shou-Lun; Chin, Ting-Yu; Tu, Ssu-Chieh; Wang, Yu-Jie; Hsu, Ya-Ting; Kao, Ming-Ching; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background. Purple sweet potato leaves (PSPL) are widely grown and are considered a healthy vegetable in Taiwan. PSPL contain a high content of flavonoids, and the boiling water-extracted PSPL (PSPLE) is believed to prevent metabolic syndrome. However, its efficacy has not yet been verified. Therefore, we investigated the effect of PSPLE on adipocytes. Methods. The differentiated 3T3-L1 cells used in this study were derived from preadipocytes that were differentiated into adipocytes using an adipogenic agent (insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine); approximately 90% of the cells were differentiated using this method. Results. Treating the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with PSPLE caused a dose-dependent decrease in the number of adipocytes rather than preadipocytes. In addition, treatment with PSPLE resulted in apoptosis of the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells as determined by DAPI analysis and flow cytometry. PSPLE also increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, PSPLE induced downregulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) gene expression in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that PSPLE not only induced apoptosis but also downregulated inflammation-associated genes in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:26170870

  17. Lipid Droplets Characterization in Adipocyte Differentiated 3T3-L1 Cells: Size and Optical Density Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Rizzatti, V.; Boschi, F.; Pedrotti, M.; Zoico, E.; Sbarbati, A.; Zamboni, M.

    2013-01-01

    The 3T3-L1 cell line, derived from 3T3 cells, is widely used in biological research on adipose tissue. 3T3-L1 cells have a fibroblast-like morphology, but, under appropriate conditions, they differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype. During the differentiation process, 3T3-L1 cells increase the synthesis of triglycerides and acquire the behavior of adipose cells. In particular, triglycerides accumulate in lipid droplets (LDs) embedded in the cytoplasm. The number and the size distribution of the LDs is often correlated with obesity and many other pathologies linked with fat accumulation. The integrated optical density (IOD) of the LDs is related with the amount of triglycerides in the droplets. The aim of this study is the attempt to characterize the size distribution and the IOD of the LDs in 3T3-L1 differentiated cells. The cells were differentiated into adipocytes for 5 days with a standard procedure, stained with Oil Red O and observed with an optical microscope. The diameter, area, optical density of the LDs were measured. We found an asymmetry of the kernel density distribution of the maximum Feret’s diameter of the LDs with a tail due to very large LDs. More information regarding the birth of the LDs could help in finding the best mathematical model in order to analyze fat accumulation in adipocytes. PMID:24085273

  18. Growth hormone and adipose differentiation: growth hormone-induced antimitogenic state in 3T3-F442A preadipose cells.

    PubMed

    Corin, R E; Guller, S; Wu, K Y; Sonenberg, M

    1990-10-01

    An additional activity for pituitary growth hormone is described--i.e., the in vitro induction of an antimitogenic state in murine 3T3-F442A preadipocyte fibroblasts. We previously developed a serum-free, hormonally defined medium permissive for the adipose differentiation of 3T3-F442A cells. When 3T3-F442A fibroblasts were maintained in serum-free medium without insulin but with growth hormone (2 nM), typical adipose differentiation did not occur. However, we found that growth hormone induced a state of cellular refractoriness to the mitogenic stimulus of fetal bovine serum as assayed by de novo DNA synthesis. The mitogen refractory condition (i.e., the antimitogenic state) was time-dependent (half maximal at approximately 2.5 days) and growth hormone concentration-dependent (half maximal and maximal at approximately 0.05 and 2.0 nM, respectively). The antimitogenic state was specifically induced by growth hormone and was not mediated by insulin-like growth factor I or prolactin. The growth hormone-induced antimitogenic state was completely reversible. The antimitogenic state was not induced by growth hormone in 3T3-C2 cells, a sister clone of 3T3 cells that exhibits essentially no adipose conversion. The kinetics for growth hormone-dependent commitment to adipose differentiation and induction of the antimitogenic state were similar. We suggest a relationship of growth hormone-induced antimitogenic state and the growth hormone-induced adipose differentiation of 3T3-F442A cells. PMID:2217181

  19. Lipid droplets fusion in adipocyte differentiated 3T3-L1 cells: A Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Boschi, Federico; Rizzatti, Vanni; Zamboni, Mauro; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2014-02-15

    Several human worldwide diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, atherosclerosis and other metabolic pathologies are related to the excessive accumulation of lipids in cells. Lipids accumulate in spherical cellular inclusions called lipid droplets (LDs) whose sizes range from fraction to one hundred of micrometers in adipocytes. It has been suggested that LDs can grow in size due to a fusion process by which a larger LD is obtained with spherical shape and volume equal to the sum of the progenitors’ ones. In this study, the size distribution of two populations of LDs was analyzed in immature and mature (5-days differentiated) 3T3-L1 adipocytes (first and second populations, respectively) after Oil Red O staining. A Monte Carlo simulation of interaction between LDs has been developed in order to quantify the size distribution and the number of fusion events needed to obtain the distribution of the second population size starting from the first one. Four models are presented here based on different kinds of interaction: a surface weighted interaction (R2 Model), a volume weighted interaction (R3 Model), a random interaction (Random model) and an interaction related to the place where the LDs are born (Nearest Model). The last two models mimic quite well the behavior found in the experimental data. This work represents a first step in developing numerical simulations of the LDs growth process. Due to the complex phenomena involving LDs (absorption, growth through additional neutral lipid deposition in existing droplets, de novo formation and catabolism) the study focuses on the fusion process. The results suggest that, to obtain the observed size distribution, a number of fusion events comparable with the number of LDs themselves is needed. Moreover the MC approach results a powerful tool for investigating the LDs growth process. Highlights: • We evaluated the role of the fusion process in the synthesis of the lipid droplets. • We compared the size distribution of the lipid droplets in immature and mature cells. • We used the Monte Carlo simulation approach, simulating 10 thousand of fusion events. • Four different interaction models between the lipid droplets were tested. • The best model which mimics the experimental measures was selected.

  20. Glucose starvation and hypoxia, but not the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid or cholesterol, activate the unfolded protein response in 3T3-F442A and 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, Adina D; Schröder, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in adipose tissue. In this study we identify physiological triggers of ER stress and of the UPR in adipocytes in vitro. We show that two markers of adipose tissue remodelling in obesity, glucose starvation and hypoxia, cause ER stress in 3T3-F442A and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Both conditions induced molecular markers of the IRE1α and PERK branches of the UPR, such as splicing of XBP1 mRNA and CHOP, as well as transcription of the ER stress responsive gene BiP. Hypoxia also induced an increase in phosphorylation of the PERK substrate eIF2α. By contrast, physiological triggers of ER stress in many other cell types, such as the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid, cholesterol, or several inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, do not cause ER stress in 3T3-F442A and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our data suggest that physiological changes associated with remodelling of adipose tissue in obesity, such as hypoxia and glucose starvation, are more likely physiological ER stressors of adipocytes than the lipid overload or hyperinsulinemia associated with obesity. PMID:26257992

  1. Photovoltaics support distribution feeder

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, P.P.; Bailey, B.; Peterson, A.J. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    The concept of supporting the transmission and distribution (T&D) system with a photovoltaic (PV) distributed energy source has gained increasing attention as the cost of PV energy has declined. Locating a PV system at a strategic point on the distribution feeder can enhance the overall T&D system performance and provide a source of renewable power generation. In such applications, the PV system peak output ranges from a few percent up to about 20 percent of the peak feeder load. A good example of one such project on a line supplied by the Pacific Gas & Electric Co.`s Kerman Substation near Fresno, California. Given the success of this and other projects, Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. (NMPC) will be testing a 100 kW ac output system interconnected with a 13.2 kV distribution feeder to demonstrate PV T&D support concepts in its service territory. The demonstration system construction and operation is to be funded by NMPC, Utility Photovoltaics Group (UPVG) and New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). AWS Scientific will manage the site construction and be responsible for maintaining, operating and monitoring the performance of the system. As a prerequisite to construction of the system, the NMPC research and development department funded AWS Scientific Inc. (Albany, N.Y.) and Power Technologies Inc. (Schenectady, N.Y.) to investigate the use of PV energy for T&D support applications on its system. The study involved reviewing a large number of distribution circuits throughout NMPC`s service territory to find candidate locations for the 100 kW demonstration project. A key focus of the study was to find a feeder whereby the injection of PV energy provided maximum dispersed generation benefits.

  2. α-Naphthoflavone inhibits 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes differentiation via modulating p38MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiqiang; Huang, Caixuan; Zhao, Lihua; Feng, Jing; Shi, Qun; Wang, Dengshun; Wang, Suqing

    2013-01-01

    α-Naphthoflavone (α-NF) is a synthetic flavonone derivative and is well known as a potent inhibitor of aromatase in a variety of systems. However, its role in lipid metabolism remains far from understood. The aim of current study was to investigate the effects of α-NF on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes differentiation and the mechanism through which it acts. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with α-NF in conjunction with a hormone cocktail resulted in α-NF mediated suppression of adipocyte differentiation in a dose dependent manner. At the molecular level, our findings demonstrated that α-NF inhibited the mid and late phase, but not the early phase of adipogenic markers expression during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. The phosphorylation of p38 was activated upon adipogenic stimulation, yet was substantially suppressed by α-NF treatment. α-NF also synergistically inhibited expression of the adipogenic marker peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression together with p38 selective inhibitor, SB203580. Our study demonstrated for the first time that α-NF is capable of suppressing 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and that this effect likely occurs through repression of the p38MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:23330002

  3. Knockdown of LYRM1 rescues insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by FCCP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Qin, Zhen-Ying; Dai, Yong-mei; Wang, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Guan-zhong; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Ji, Chen-Bo; Zhu, Jin-Gai; Shi, Chun-Mei; Qiu, Jie; Cao, Xin-Guo; Guo, Xi-Rong

    2014-09-01

    LYR motif-containing 1 (LYRM1) was recently discovered to be involved in adipose tissue homeostasis and obesity-associated insulin resistance. We previously demonstrated that LYRM1 overexpression might contribute to insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, knockdown of LYRM1 enhanced insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We investigated whether knockdown of LYRM1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes could rescue insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazone (FCCP), a mitochondrion uncoupler, to further ascertain the mechanism by which LYRM1 is involved in obesity-associated insulin resistance. Incubation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with 1 M FCCP for 12 h decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, reduced intracellular ATP synthesis, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, impaired insulin-stimulated Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation, and diminished insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and serine phosphorylation of Protein Kinase B (Akt). Knockdown of LYRM1 restored insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, rescued intracellular ATP synthesis, reduced intracellular ROS production, restored insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, and rescued insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and serine phosphorylation of Akt in FCCP-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This study indicates that FCCP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance are ameliorated by knockdown of LYRM1. PMID:24771405

  4. Effects of microgravity on c-fos gene expression in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, A.; Hamazaki, T.; Oomura, T.; Osada, H.; Kakeya, M.; Watanabe, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Koshikawa, N.; Yoshizaki, I.; Aizawa, S.; Yoda, S.; Ogiso, A.; Takaoki, M.; Kohno, Y.; Tanaka, H.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes the data on proliferation and gravity-related gene expression of osteoblasts that were obtained from an experiment conducted under simulated and real microgravity conditions.Simulated microgravity conditions obtained in a clinostat depress proliferation of both osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 and HeLa carcinoma cells. This depression of proliferation occurs in a collagen gel culture in which the flow of culture medium by rotation may be reduced. Interestingly, MC3T3-E1 cells which are probably one of target cells to microgravity are more sensitive than the HeLa cells. Simulated microgravity inhibited the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced c-fos gene expression in the MC3T3-E1 cells. To examine in detail the effect of real microgravity on the EGF signal transduction cascade in osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in the Cell Culture Experiment Module of the sounding rocket TR-1A6. The EGF-induced c-fos expression in cells was depressed under short-term microgravity conditions in the sounding rocket, while the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was not affected compared with the controls grown on the ground. These results suggest that an action site of microgravity in the signal transduction pathway may be downstream of MAPK.

  5. Proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on calcium phosphate/chitosan coatings.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; de Boer, J; de Groot, K

    2008-07-01

    The incorporation of chitosan into electro-deposited calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings increases bone marrow stromal cell attachment. We hypothesized that such electrodeposited CaP/chitosan coatings can also enhance the proliferative ability and differentiation potential of osteoblasts. To verify this hypothesis, we cultured osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells on these CaP coatings. It was found that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the electrodeposited CaP/chitosan coatings had cell proliferation rates higher than those on the electrodeposited CaP coatings. At the same time, both alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen expression were increased, and both bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin genes were up-regulated when MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the electrodeposited CaP/chitosan coatings. Additionally, within the range of selected chitosan concentrations in solution, no significant difference was found between the CaP/chitosan coatings. Our results suggest that the electrodeposited CaP/chitosan coatings are favorable to the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, which may endow them with great potential for future applications. PMID:18573985

  6. Molecular mechanism of 9-cis-retinoic acid inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sagara, Chiaki; Takahashi, Katsuhiko; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Noriko

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► We examined the effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis in mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1. ► 9-cis-RA inhibited lipid accumulation in adipogenetically-induced 3T3-L1 cells. ► A RXR pan-antagonist suppressed the inhibitory effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis. ► This antagonist had no effects on RXRα and PPARγ levels in 9-cis-RA-treated cells. ► 9-cis-RA-induced decrease in both RXRα and PPARγ was independent of RXR activation. -- Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is mediated by specific nuclear hormone receptors. Here we examined the effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis in mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. 9-cis-RA inhibits the lipid accumulation of adipogenetically induced 3T3-L1 cells. The complex of retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a major transcription factor in the process of adipogenesis, and the levels of these molecules were decreased by 9-cis-RA treatment. A RXR pan-antagonist suppressed 9-cis-RA’s inhibitory effects on adipogenesis, but not on the intracellular levels of both RXRα and PPARγ. These results suggest that 9-cis-RA could inhibit adipogenesis by activating RXR, and decrease both RXR and PPARγs levels in a RXR activation-independent manner.

  7. Vitexin, orientin and other flavonoids from Spirodela polyrhiza inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, JinPyo; Lee, IkSoo; Seo, JeongJu; Jung, MunyHung; Kim, YoungHee; Yim, NamHui; Bae, KiHwan

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the adipogenesis inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with fractions and isolated flavonoids of Spirodela polyrhiza. An ethanol extract of S. polyrhiza was fractionated into three fractions. The butanol soluble fraction (SPB) exhibited potent antiadipogenesis activity and decreased C/EBP? and PPAR? protein expression level in 3T3-L1 cells without significant cytotoxicity. The flavonoids were isolated from SPB and their chemical structures were identified as chrysoeriol (1), apigenin (2), luteolin (3), vitexin (4), cosmosin (5), orientin (6) and luteolin-7-O-?-d-glucoside (7) by spectroscopic analysis. Studies on the adipogenesis and intracellular triglyceride accumulation inhibitory effect showed that compounds 4 and 6 had the highest activity and decreased C/EBP? and PPAR? protein expression level in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest that the flavonoids isolated from SPB, especially compounds 4 and 6, contribute to the inhibitory activity of S. polyrhiza in 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:20878708

  8. Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Shan-Shan; Cui, Rong-Rong; Yuan, Ling-Qing Liao, Er-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone from the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Previous studies have identified the important physiological effects of ghrelin on bone metabolism, such as regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, independent of GH/IGF-1 axis. However, research on effects and mechanisms of ghrelin on osteoblast apoptosis is still rare. In this study, we identified expression of GHSR in MC3T3-E1 cells and determined the effects of ghrelin on the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the mechanism involved. Our data demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and ELISA assays. Moreover, ghrelin upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed decreased activated caspase-3 activity under the treatment of ghrelin. Further study suggested that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Pretreatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and GHSR-siRNA blocked the ghrelin-induced activation of ERK and AKT, respectively; however, ghrelin did not stimulate the phosphorylation of p38 or JNK. PD90859, LY294002 and GHSR-siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be mediated by activating the GHSR/ERK and GHSR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of ghrelin on serum deprivation-induced MC3T3-E1 cells apoptosis. • Both ELISA and TUNEL were used to detect the apoptosis. • The receptor of ghrelin, GHSR, was expressed in MC3T3-E1 cells. • Both Akt and ERK are critical adaptor molecules to mediate the effects of ghrelin.

  9. 6-gingerol prevents adipogenesis and the accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liu, I-Min

    2013-04-15

    6-Gingerol ((S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-decanone) is one of the pungent constituents of Zingiber zerumbet (L) Smith (Zingiberaceae family). In this study, we investigated the effects of 6-gingerol on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. After treatment with 6-gingerol in differentiation medium for 4 or 8 days, the 3T3-L1 cells were lysed for experimental analysis. Cells were stained with Oil-Red-O to detect oil droplets in adipocytes. The 3T3-L1 cells were lysed and measured for triglyceride contents. The protein expression of adipogenesis-related transcription factor was evaluated by Western blot analysis. 6-Gingerol suppressed oil droplet accumulation and reduced the droplet size in a concentration (5-15 μg/ml)- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 6-gingerol reduced the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α. Additionally, the protein levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein (aP2) decreased upon treatment with 6-gingerol. Meanwhile, 6-gingerol diminished the insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and GSK3β (Ser9). These results suggest that 6-gingerol effectively suppresses adipogenesis and that it exerts its role mainly through the significant down-regulation of PPARγ and C/EBPα and subsequently inhibits FAS and aP2 expression. 6-Gingerol also inhibited differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells by attenuating the Akt/GSK3β pathway. Our findings provide important insights into the mechanisms underlying the anti-adipogenic activity of 6-gingerol. PMID:23369342

  10. Amorphous silica nanoparticles do not induce cytotoxicity, cell transformation or genotoxicity in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Uboldi, Chiara; Giudetti, Guido; Broggi, Francesca; Gilliland, Douglas; Ponti, Jessica; Rossi, Franois

    2012-06-14

    Although amorphous silica nanoparticles (aSiO(2)NPs) are believed to be non-toxic and are currently used in several industrial and biomedical applications including cosmetics, food additives and drug delivery systems, there is still no conclusive information on their cytotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic potential. For this reason, this work has investigated the effects of aSiO(2)NPs on Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts, focusing on cytotoxicity, cell transformation and genotoxicity. Results obtained using aSiO(2)NPs, with diameters between 15 nm and 300 nm and exposure times up to 72 h, have not shown any cytotoxic effect on Balb/3T3 cells as measured by the MTT test and the Colony Forming Efficiency (CFE) assay. Furthermore, aSiO(2)NPs have induced no morphological transformation in Balb/3T3 cells and have not resulted in genotoxicity, as shown by Cell Transformation Assay (CTA) and Micronucleus (MN) assay, respectively. To understand whether the absence of any toxic effect could result from a lack of internalization of the aSiO(2)NPs by Balb/3T3 cells, we have investigated the uptake and the intracellular distribution following exposure to 85 nm fluorescently-labelled aSiO(2)NPs. Using fluorescence microscopy, it was observed that fluorescent aSiO(2)NPs are internalized and located exclusively in the cytoplasmic region. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that although aSiO(2)NPs are internalized in vitro by Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts, they do not trigger any cytotoxic or genotoxic effect and do not induce morphological transformation, suggesting that they might be a useful component in industrial applications. PMID:22094287

  11. Enhancement of growth and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells via facile surface functionalization of polylactide membrane with chitooligosaccharide based on polydopamine adhesive coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huihua; Luo, Chuang; Luo, Binghong; Wen, Wei; Wang, Xiaoying; Ding, Shan; Zhou, Changren

    2016-01-01

    To develop a chitooligosaccharide(COS)-functionalized poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) membrane to enhance growth and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, firstly a thin polydopamine (PDOPA) layer was adhered to the PDLLA membrane via the self-polymerization and strong adhesion behavior of dopamine. Subsequently, COS was immobilized covalently on the resultant PDLLA/PDOPA composite membrane by coupling with PDOPA active coating. The successful immobilization of the PDOPA and COS was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results indicated that the surface topography and roughness of the membranes were changed, and the root mean square increased from 0.613 nm to 6.96 and 7.12 nm, respectively after coating PDOPA and COS. Water contact angle and surface energy measurements revealed that the membrane hydrophilicity was remarkably improved by surface modification. In vitro cells culture results revealed that the PDOPA- and COS-functionalized surfaces showed a significant increase in MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and alkaline phosphate activity compared to the pristine PDLLA substrate. Furthermore the COS-functionalized PDLLA membrane was more effectively at enhancing osteoblast activity than the PDOPA-functionalized PDLLA membrane.

  12. Electrochemical characterization of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on γTiAl and Ti-6Al-4V alloys.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Vera, J A; Torres-Zapata, I; Sundaram, P A; Diffoot-Carlo, N; Vega-Olivencia, C A

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the behavior of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in an αMEM+FBS solution on two Ti-based alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and γTiAl) for 4, 7 and 14 days. EIS measurements were carried out at an open-circuit potential in a 1 mHz to 100 kHz frequency range. Results indicate a general increase in impedance on the Ti alloy surfaces with cells as a function of time. Bode plots indicate changes corresponding to the passive oxide film, adsorption of proteins and cell tissue on surfaces with the passage of time. Normal cellular activity based on the polygonal morphology, with long and fine cytoplasmic prolongations of the cells on Ti-6Al-4V and γTiAl was observed from SEM images. Similarly, mineralization nodules corresponding to cell differentiation associated with the osseogenetic process were observed confirmed by Alizarin Red S staining. Immunofluorescence analysis to detect the presence of collagen Type I showed an increase in the segregation of collagen as a function of time. The impedance values obtained from EIS testing are indicative of the corrosion protection offered to the Ti alloy substrates by the cell layer. This study shows that γTiAl has better corrosion resistance than that of Ti-6Al-4V in the αMEM+FBS environment in the presence of MC3T3-E1 cells. PMID:26145813

  13. FGF-2 signaling induces downregulation of TAZ protein in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eda, Homare; Aoki, Katsuhiko; Marumo, Keishi; Fujii, Katsuyuki; Ohkawa, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-08

    Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) protein is a coactivator of Runx2 and corepressor of PPAR{gamma}. It also induces differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. In this study, we found that FGF-2, which inhibits bone mineralization and stimulates cell proliferation, reduced the TAZ protein expression level in osteoblast-like cells, MC3T3-E1. This reduction was recovered by removing FGF-2 from the culture medium, which also restored the osteoblastic features of MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, FGF-2-induced reduction of TAZ is blocked by a SAPK/JNK-specific inhibitor. These findings suggest that the expression of TAZ protein is involved in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. This may help elucidate the discrepancies in the effect of FGF-2 and contribute to the understanding of FGF/FGFR-associated craniosynostosis syndrome etiology and treatment.

  14. Magnetic Levitation of MC3T3 Osteoblast Cells as a Ground-Based Simulation of Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Kidder, Louis S.; Williams, Philip C.; Xu, Wayne Wenzhong

    2009-01-01

    Diamagnetic samples placed in a strong magnetic field and a magnetic field gradient experience a magnetic force. Stable magnetic levitation occurs when the magnetic force exactly counter balances the gravitational force. Under this condition, a diamagnetic sample is in a simulated microgravity environment. The purpose of this study is to explore if MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells can be grown in magnetically simulated hypo-g and hyper-g environments and determine if gene expression is differentially expressed under these conditions. The murine calvarial osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1, grown on Cytodex-3 beads, were subjected to a net gravitational force of 0, 1 and 2 g in a 17 T superconducting magnet for 2 days. Microarray analysis of these cells indicated that gravitational stress leads to up and down regulation of hundreds of genes. The methodology of sustaining long-term magnetic levitation of biological systems are discussed. PMID:20052306

  15. Effects of 50?Hz magnetic fields on gap junctional intercellular communication in NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Percherancier, Yann; Goudeau, Bertrand; Charlet de Sauvage, Renaud; de Gannes, Florence Poulletier; Haro, Emmanuelle; Hurtier, Annabelle; Sojic, Neso; Lagroye, Isabelle; Arbault, Stphane; Veyret, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The present study focused on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) as a target for biological effects of extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) exposure. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching microscopy (FRAP) was used to visualize diffusion of a fluorescent dye between NIH3T3 fibroblasts through gap junctions. The direct effect of 24?h exposure to 50?Hz MF at 0.4 or 1?mT on GJIC function was assessed in one series of experiments. The potential synergism of MF with an inhibitor of GJIC, phorbol ester (TPA), was studied in another series by observing FRAP when NIH3T3 cells were incubated with TPA for 1?h following 24?h exposure to MF. In contrast to other reports of ELF-MF effects on GJIC, under our experimental conditions we observed neither direct inhibition of GJIC nor synergism with TPA-induced inhibition from 50?Hz MF exposures. PMID:25846808

  16. Magnetic Levitation of MC3T3 Osteoblast Cells as a Ground-Based Simulation of Microgravity.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Bruce E; Kidder, Louis S; Williams, Philip C; Xu, Wayne Wenzhong

    2009-11-01

    Diamagnetic samples placed in a strong magnetic field and a magnetic field gradient experience a magnetic force. Stable magnetic levitation occurs when the magnetic force exactly counter balances the gravitational force. Under this condition, a diamagnetic sample is in a simulated microgravity environment. The purpose of this study is to explore if MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells can be grown in magnetically simulated hypo-g and hyper-g environments and determine if gene expression is differentially expressed under these conditions. The murine calvarial osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1, grown on Cytodex-3 beads, were subjected to a net gravitational force of 0, 1 and 2 g in a 17 T superconducting magnet for 2 days. Microarray analysis of these cells indicated that gravitational stress leads to up and down regulation of hundreds of genes. The methodology of sustaining long-term magnetic levitation of biological systems are discussed. PMID:20052306

  17. Effects of C-reactive protein on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Guoyue; Jia, Jue; Di, Liangliang; Zhou, Libin; Dong, Sijing; Ye, Jingjing; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ling; Wang, Jifang; Li, Lianxi; Yang, Ying; Mao, Chaoming; Chen, Mingdao

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP increases TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 genes expression in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP suppresses adiponectin, leptin and PPAR-{gamma} mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wortmannin reverses effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin mRNA levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP may regulate IR, obesity and metabolic syndrome by this mechanism. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is now recognized to be an important endocrine organ, secreting a variety of adipokines that are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered as one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation. A number of studies have shown that elevation of CRP concentrations is an independent predictive parameter of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is also strongly associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of CRP on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that CRP inhibited adiponectin, leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-{gamma}) genes expression and raised tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose and time-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase by wortmannin partially reversed the effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin genes expression. These results collectively suggest that CRP regulates adiponectin, TNF-{alpha}, leptin, IL-6 and PPAR-{gamma} genes expression, and that might represent a mechanism by which CRP regulates insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  18. Effects of Pueraria lobata Root Ethanol Extract on Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis During 3T3-L1 Differentiation into Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae Myoung; Yoon, Mi Sook

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effect of Pueraria lobata root ethanol extract (PLREE) on lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation to adipocytes by measuring the intracellular expression of adipogenic, lipogenic, and lipolytic markers and lipid accumulation. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of PLREE were 47 and 29 mg/g, respectively. The electron donating capacity of PLREE at 1,000 ?g/mL was 48.8%. Treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with 100, 250, or 500 ?g/mL PLREE for 8 days dose-dependently promoted the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, the lipid content of PLREE-treated cells was significantly reduced by 7.8% (p < 0.05), 35.6% (p < 0.001), and 42.2% (p < 0.001) following treatment with 100, 250, and 500 ?g/mL PLREE, respectively, as compared to differentiated control cells. PLREE upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? mRNA and protein, and sterol regulator element-binding protein-1c mRNA levels, but did not affect CCAAT/enhancer binding-protein ? and ? mRNA levels. PLREE also downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA and protein, fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein, and leptin mRNA levels, but did not affect FAS mRNA expression. PLREE upregulated adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA and protein expression, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression, but did not affect HSL mRNA expression. In conclusion, we found that PLREE enhanced adipogenesis, but reduced lipogenesis, resulting in decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:26191386

  19. Effects of Pueraria lobata Root Ethanol Extract on Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis During 3T3-L1 Differentiation into Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae Myoung; Yoon, Mi Sook; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effect of Pueraria lobata root ethanol extract (PLREE) on lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation to adipocytes by measuring the intracellular expression of adipogenic, lipogenic, and lipolytic markers and lipid accumulation. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of PLREE were 47 and 29 mg/g, respectively. The electron donating capacity of PLREE at 1,000 ?g/mL was 48.8%. Treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with 100, 250, or 500 ?g/mL PLREE for 8 days dose-dependently promoted the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, the lipid content of PLREE-treated cells was significantly reduced by 7.8% (p < 0.05), 35.6% (p < 0.001), and 42.2% (p < 0.001) following treatment with 100, 250, and 500 ?g/mL PLREE, respectively, as compared to differentiated control cells. PLREE upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? mRNA and protein, and sterol regulator element-binding protein-1c mRNA levels, but did not affect CCAAT/enhancer binding-protein ? and ? mRNA levels. PLREE also downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA and protein, fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein, and leptin mRNA levels, but did not affect FAS mRNA expression. PLREE upregulated adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA and protein expression, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression, but did not affect HSL mRNA expression. In conclusion, we found that PLREE enhanced adipogenesis, but reduced lipogenesis, resulting in decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:26191386

  20. 3'-Hydroxy-?,?-caroten-3-one inhibits the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Hase, Megumi; Kobayashi, Miyuki; Nagao, Akihiko

    2016-03-01

    An oxidative metabolite of lutein, 3'-hydroxy-?,?-caroten-3-one, inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to adipocytes and the subsequent triacylglycerol production, but lutein did not. The ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl structure of 3'-hydroxy-?,?-caroten-3-one was considered to participate in the inhibitory effect, suggesting that this lutein metabolite has the potential to prevent metabolic syndrome. PMID:26479504

  1. Insulin regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is mediated at posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels.

    PubMed

    Semenkovich, C F; Wims, M; Noe, L; Etienne, J; Chan, L

    1989-05-25

    Insulin is a major regulator of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. The molecular events associated with LPL regulation by insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were studied by determining LPL enzyme activity, mRNA levels, protein synthetic rate, and transcription run-off activity. Adipocytes treated with insulin (10(-6) M for 48 h) had substantially higher LPL activity (mean difference compared to carrier-treated cells 146%) with little difference in LPL mRNA levels (mean level 109% of control). Insulin regulation of LPL activity was dose-dependent but changes in LPL mRNA were not. Within 2 h of hormone addition, LPL activity was higher in insulin-treated versus carrier-treated adipocytes although their LPL mRNA levels were similar. In [35S]methionine pulse-labeled adipocytes, insulin decreased LPL protein synthetic rate measured by immunoprecipitation 42-48%, although increases (75-340%) in heparin-releasable LPL activity were detected in the same cells. In contrast, during differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to the adipocyte state, 5-80-fold increases of heparin-releasable LPL activity were closely associated with similar (8-60-fold) increases in LPL mRNA levels. LPL synthetic rate was 16-fold greater, and LPL gene transcription initiation measured by transcriptional run-off was 10-fold higher in adipocytes than in undifferentiated cells. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts increases transcription of the LPL gene leading to increased LPL mRNA, protein synthetic rate, and enzyme activity. Insulin regulation of LPL activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, however, is mediated entirely at posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels. PMID:2656693

  2. Functional expression of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Takao; Kaneshige, Kota; Kurosaki, Teruko; Nishio, Hiroaki

    2010-05-28

    In the previous study, we reported the gene expression for proteins related to the function of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and elucidated the expression patterns of 5-HT{sub 2} receptor subtypes in mouse osteoblasts. In the present study, we evaluated the possible involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes and its inactivation system in MC3T3-E1 cells, an osteoblast cell line. DOI, a 5-HT{sub 2A} and 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor selective agonist, as well as 5-HT concentration-dependently increased proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in their premature period. This effect of 5-HT on cell proliferation were inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor specific antagonist. Moreover, both DOI-induced cell proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1 and 2 proteins were inhibited by PD98059 and U0126, selective inhibitors of MEK in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with fluoxetine, a 5-HT specific re-uptake inhibitor which inactivate the function of extracellular 5-HT, significantly increased the proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data indicate that 5-HT fill the role for proliferation of osteoblast cells in their premature period. Notably, 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor may be functionally expressed to regulate mechanisms underlying osteoblast cell proliferation, at least in part, through activation of ERK/MAPK pathways in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  3. Inhibition of adipogenesis and leptin production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by a derivative of meridianin C

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yu-Kyoung; Lee, Tae-Yoon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Hong, Victor Sukbong; Lee, Jinho; Park, Jong-Wook; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Compound 7b, a meridianin C derivative, inhibits adipogenesis. • Compound 7b inhibits C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, STAT-3, and STAT-5 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Compound 7b inhibits leptin, but not adiponectin, expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Compound 7b thus may have therapeutic potential against obesity. - Abstract: Meridianin C, a marine alkaloid, is a potent protein kinase inhibitor and has anti-cancer activity. We have recently developed a series of meridianin C derivatives (compound 7a–7j) and reported their proviral integration Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (pim) kinases’ inhibitory and anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia cells. Here we investigated the effect of these meridianin C derivatives on adipogenesis. Strikingly, among the derivatives tested, compound 7b most strongly inhibited lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. However, meridianin C treatment was largely cytotoxic to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. On mechanistic levels, compound 7b reduced not only the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) but also the phosphorylation levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and STAT-5 during adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, compound 7b repressed leptin, but not adiponectin, expression during adipocyte differentiation. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that a meridianin C derivative inhibits adipogenesis by down-regulating expressions and/or phosphorylations of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, STAT-3 and STAT-5.

  4. Protective effect of Edaravone against hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity in osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bo; Chai, Chunxiang; Zhao, Sishun

    2015-12-01

    Edaravone is a newly developed clinical medicine for the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. Reduced blood supply to bones (hypoxia) has been involved in the pathological development of osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of Edaravone and its latent mechanism on hypoxia-induced cell toxicity in MC3T3-E1 cells. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined by the fluorescence dyes 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA), respectively. mRNA and proteins were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. Edaravone significantly restored the hypoxia-induced reduction of MC3T3-E1 cell viability and inhibited lactate dehydrogenase release. In addition, we found that Edaravone inhibits the generation of ROS and NO. Hoechst staining results indicated that the nuclear condensation characteristic of apoptosis was increased in MC3T3-E1 cells after hypoxia exposure, which was significantly suppressed by Edaravone treatment. Mechanistically, we found that Edaravone markedly reduced the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and blunted the release of cytochrome c. These findings strongly suggested that Edaravone suppresses hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 cells. The pleiotropic effects of Edaravone on hypoxia exposure in osteoblasts suggest potential antiosteoporosis mechanisms of Edaravone. 2015 IUBMB Life, 67(12):928-933, 2015. PMID:26596678

  5. Hydroxytyrosol Inhibits Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Gene Expression in 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Tutino, Valeria; Orlando, Antonella; Russo, Francesco; Notarnicola, Maria

    2016-02-01

    The 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line is a well characterized cell model for studying the adipocyte status and the molecular mechanisms involved in differentiation of these cells. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes have the ability to synthesize and degrade endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) and their differentiation into adipocytes increases the expression of cannabinoid (CB1) and PPAR-? receptors. Clinically, the blocking stimulation of the endocannabinoid pathway has been one of the first approaches proposed to counteract the obesity and obesity-associated diseases (such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cancer). In this connection, here we studied in cultured 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes the effects of n-3-PUFA, ?-Linolenic acid (OM-3), n-6-PUFA, Linoleic acid (OM-6), and hydroxytyrosol (HT) on the expression of CB1 receptor gene and the adipogenesis-related genes PPAR-?, Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) and Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL). HT was able to inhibit 3T3-L1 cell differentiation by down-regulating cell proliferation and CB1 receptor gene expression. HT exhibited anti-adipogenic effects, whereas OM-3 and OM-6 exerted an inhibitory action on cell proliferation associated with an induction of the preadipocytes differentiation and CB1 receptor gene expression. Moreover, the expression of FAS and LPL genes resulted increased after treatment with both HT and OM-3 and OM-6. The present study points out that the intake of molecules such as HT, contained in extra virgin olive oil, may be considered also in view of antiobesity and antineoplastic properties by acting directly on the adipose tissue and modulating CB1 receptor gene transcription. PMID:26189725

  6. Photo catalogue for the classification of foci in the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Bohnenberger, Susanne; Hayashi, Kumiko; Kunkelmann, Thorsten; Muramatsu, Dai; Poth, Albrecht; Sakai, Ayako; Salovaara, Susan; Tanaka, Noriho; Thomas, B Claire; Umeda, Makoto

    2012-04-11

    This catalogue is a display of focus photos representative of the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay (CTA). It is intended as a visual aid for the identification and the scoring of foci in the conduct of the assay. A proper training from experienced personnel together with the protocol reported in this issue and the present photo catalogue will support method transfer and consistency in the assay results. PMID:22331008

  7. Suppressive Effects of Barley β-Glucans with Different Molecular Weight on 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Yao, Yang; Gao, Yue; Hu, Yibo; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2016-03-01

    In this study, 2 β-glucans with different molecular weight were prepared and purified from hull-less barley bran. The aim was to evaluate their effects on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Results showed that barley β-glucans inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes induced by differentiation medium in a dose-dependent manner, the suppressive effect of high-molecular-weight barley β-glucans (552 kDa, BGH) was stronger (P < 0.05) than that of low-molecular-weight barley β-glucan (32 kDa, BGL), evidenced by the significantly decrease (P < 0.05) of Oil-red O staining and intracellular triglyceride content in the mature adipocytes. Besides, gene expression analysis and Western Blot analysis revealed that both BGH and BGL inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of adipogenesis related transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) which are principal regulators of adipogenesis. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARγ target genes in adipose tissue including adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (ap2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2), and glucose-transporter 4 (Glut4) in 3T3-L1 cells was also markedly downregulated (P < 0.05). These findings were anticipated to help develop barley β-glucans based functional food for the management of obesity. PMID:26860768

  8. Actein isolated from black cohosh promotes the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Soon; Choi, Eun Mi

    2014-04-01

    Actein, isolated from black cohosh, was subjected to in vitro experiments to investigate its functional bioactivities in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Actein caused a significant elevation of alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, osteocalcin production, mineralization, and glutathione content in the cells, suggesting that actein has a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation or has potential activity against osteoporosis. We investigated the protective effects of actein on mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor, antimycin A induced toxicity in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to antimycin A caused significant decrease in cell viability and mineralization. However, pretreatment with actein prior to antimycin A exposure significantly reduced antimycin A-induced cell damage by preventing mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, complex IV inactivation, cardiolipin oxidation, ROS release, and nitrotyrosine increase, suggesting that actein may be useful for protecting mitochondria against a burst of oxidative stress. In addition, actein increased the phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) inhibited by antimycin A and decreased the production of TNF-? induced by antimycin A. These findings suggest that actein could prevent oxidative damage to osteoblasts in osteoporotic patients. PMID:24552231

  9. Antagonistic effects of a covalently dimerized insulin derivative on insulin receptors in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, M.; Joost, H.G. ); Brandenburg, C.; Brandenburg, D. )

    1990-02-01

    In the present study the authors describe the antagonistic effects of the covalently dimerized insulin derivative B29,B29{prime}-suberoyl-insulin on insulin receptors in 3T3-L1 mouse cells. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, the derivative fully inhibits binding of {sup 125}I-labeled insulin to its receptor with about the same affinity as unlabeled insulin. In contrast, the dimerized derivative only partially (approximately 20%) mimics insulin's effects on glucose transport and DNA synthesis in the absence of insulin. In the presence of insulin, the agent competitively inhibits insulin-stimulated DNA synthesis (({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation into total DNA), glucose transport activity (2-deoxyglucose uptake rate), and insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity. In rat adipocytes, in contrast, the dimerized derivative stimulates glucose transport (initial 3-O-methylglucose as well as 2-deoxyglucose uptake rates) to the same extent as insulin does, and it fails to inhibit the effect of insulin. The data indicate that the dimerized insulin derivative B29,B29{prime}-suberoyl-insulin is an insulin receptor antagonist (partial agonist) which retains a moderate intrinsic activity. The effects of this agent reveal a striking difference in insulin receptor-mediated stimulation of glucose transport between 3T3-L1 fatty fibroblasts and the mature rat adipocyte.

  10. The influence of plasma lipoprotein subfractions on 3T3-L1 and human preadipocyte differentiation in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Stanton, L A; van de Venter, M; Oelofsen, W

    1998-07-01

    3T3-L1 and human preadipocyte differentiation was significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced by HDL2, LDLII/III and LDLIV. The concentrations of lipoproteins required for maximal differentiation in human preadipocytes were not achieved over the concentration range 50-150 micrograms lipoprotein protein ml-1, whereas maximal differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was achieved for all lipoprotein subfractions at approximately 75 micrograms lipoprotein ml-1, a level almost double that required for complete HDL and LDL fractions in 3T3-L1 cells. Despite the enhanced extent of differentiation caused by certain lipoprotein subfractions, the time needed for the conversion process was unaffected. GPDH activity development in both cell types was most pronounced in response to LDLIV, with HDL2 resulting in the lowest activity. In both cell types, the enhancement of differentiation was only evident when the cells were exposed to lipoproteins during the early stage of the program, i.e. before visible formation of lipid droplets. PMID:9787810

  11. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) water extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai Kai; Liu, Chuek Lun; Shiu, Hoi Ting; Wong, Hing Lok; Siu, Wing Sum; Zhang, Cheng; Han, Xiao Qiang; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung; Ko, Chun Hay

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. Previously we found that cocoa tea demonstrated a beneficial effect against high-fat diet induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and hyperlipidemia in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-adipogenic effect of cocoa tea in vitro using preadipocytes 3T3-L1. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O stain, qPCR and Western blot. Our results demonstrated that cocoa tea significantly inhibited triglyceride accumulation in mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Cocoa tea was shown to suppress the expressions of key adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP α). The tea extract was subsequently found to reduce the expressions of adipocyte-specific genes such as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid translocase (FAT) and stearoylcoenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1). In addition, JNK, ERK and p38 phosphorylation were inhibited during cocoa tea inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, this is the first study that demonstrates cocoa tea has the capacity to suppress adipogenesis in pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 similar to traditional green tea PMID:26833256

  12. Strategies of NF-?B signaling modulation by ectromelia virus in BALB/3T3 murine fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Struzik, Justyna; Szulc-D?browska, Lidia; Winnicka, Anna; Niemia?towski, Marek

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) is a pleiotropic transcription factor that regulates the expression of immune response genes. NF-?B signaling can be disrupted by pathogens that prevent host immune response. In this work, we examined the influence of ectromelia (mousepox) virus (ECTV) on NF-?B signaling in murine BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Activation of NF-?B via tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (TNFR1) in these cells induces proinflammatory cytokine secretion. We show that ECTV does not recruit NF-?B to viral factories or induce NF-?B nuclear translocation in BALB/3T3 cells. Additionally, ECTV counteracts TNF-?-induced p65 NF-?B nuclear translocation during the course of infection. Inhibition of TNF-?-induced p65 nuclear translocation was also observed in neighboring cells that underwent fusion with ECTV-infected cells. ECTV inhibits the key step of NF-?B activation, i.e. Ser32 phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor ?B? (I?B?) induced by TNF-?. We also observed that ECTV prevents TNF-?-induced Ser536 of p65 phosphorylation in BALB/3T3 cells. Studying TNFR1 signaling provides information about regulation of inflammatory response and cell survival. Unraveling poxviral immunomodulatory strategies may be helpful in drug target identification as well as in vaccine development. PMID:26232502

  13. Lipid synthesis is promoted by hypoxic adipocyte-derived exosomes in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Sano, Soichi; Izumi, Yasukatsu; Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Takanori; Tanaka, Masako; Shiota, Masayuki; Osada-Oka, Mayuko; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Wei, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Iwao, Hiroshi; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2014-03-01

    Hypoxia occurs within adipose tissues as a result of adipocyte hypertrophy and is associated with adipocyte dysfunction in obesity. Here, we examined whether hypoxia affects the characteristics of adipocyte-derived exosomes. Exosomes are nanovesicles secreted from most cell types as an information carrier between donor and recipient cells, containing a variety of proteins as well as genetic materials. Cultured differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to hypoxic conditions and the protein content of the exosomes produced from these cells was compared by quantitative proteomic analysis. A total of 231 proteins were identified in the adipocyte-derived exosomes. Some of these proteins showed altered expression levels under hypoxic conditions. These results were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Especially, hypoxic adipocyte-released exosomes were enriched in enzymes related to de novo lipogenesis such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fatty acid synthase (FASN). The total amount of proteins secreted from exosomes increased by 3-4-fold under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, hypoxia-derived exosomes promoted lipid accumulation in recipient 3T3-L1 adipocytes, compared with those produced under normoxic conditions. FASN levels were increased in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells treated with FASN-containing hypoxic adipocytes-derived exosomes. This is a study to characterize the proteomic profiles of adipocyte-derived exosomes. Exosomal proteins derived from hypoxic adipocytes may affect lipogenic activity in neighboring preadipocytes and adipocytes. PMID:24513287

  14. Isoflavones in Chickpeas Inhibit Adipocyte Differentiation and Prevent Insulin Resistance in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yinging; Ren, Guixing

    2015-11-11

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia arising from defects in insulin secretion. This study investigated the effects of isoflavones in chickpea sprouts germinated in light (IGL) and isoflavones in chickpea seeds (ICS) on insulin resistance through their role in suppression of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Results showed that IGL and ICS inhibit the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes induced by differentiation medium in a dose-dependent manner, and the suppressive effect of IGL was stronger (p < 0.05) than that of ICS, evidenced by a decrease of Oil Red O staining and intracellular triacylglycerol content in the mature adipocytes. IGL and ICS also stimulated glucose uptake significantly (p < 0.05). Besides, IGL and ICS treatment caused a significant decrease in mRNA and protein expression levels of adipogenesis-related transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?). Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (ap2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2), and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) in 3T3-L1 cells were also markedly down-regulated (p < 0.05). PMID:26494490

  15. S-phase induction and transformation of quiescent NIH 3T3 cells by microinjection of phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Ryu, Sungho; Suh, Panghill; Rhee, Suegoo; Kung, Hsiangfu )

    1989-05-01

    Two inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes (PLC-I and -II) have been purified from bovine brain. When PLC-I or PLC-II was microinjected into quiescent NIH 3T3 cells, a time- and dose-dependent induction of DNA synthesis occurred, as demonstrated by ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation into nuclear DNA. In addition, {approx} 8 hr after PLC injection, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts appeared spindle-shaped, refractile, and highly vacuolated, displaying a morphology similar to transformed cells. The morphologic transformation was apparent for 26-30 hr after which the injected cells reverted back to a normal phenotype. Microinjected PLC at a high concentration was cytotoxic, dissolving the cytoplasmic membrane and leaving behind cellular ghosts. PLC is a key regulatory enzyme involved in cellular membrane signal transduction. Introduction of exogenous PLC into NIH 3T3 cells by microinjection induced a growth and oncogenic potential, as demonstrated by the ability of microinjected PLC to override the cellular G{sub 0} block, inducing DNA synthesis and morphologic transformation of growth-arrested fibroblast cells.

  16. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) water extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Kai; Liu, Chuek Lun; Shiu, Hoi Ting; Wong, Hing Lok; Siu, Wing Sum; Zhang, Cheng; Han, Xiao Qiang; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung; Ko, Chun Hay

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. Previously we found that cocoa tea demonstrated a beneficial effect against high-fat diet induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and hyperlipidemia in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-adipogenic effect of cocoa tea in vitro using preadipocytes 3T3-L1. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O stain, qPCR and Western blot. Our results demonstrated that cocoa tea significantly inhibited triglyceride accumulation in mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Cocoa tea was shown to suppress the expressions of key adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR ?) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP ?). The tea extract was subsequently found to reduce the expressions of adipocyte-specific genes such as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid translocase (FAT) and stearoylcoenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1). In addition, JNK, ERK and p38 phosphorylation were inhibited during cocoa tea inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, this is the first study that demonstrates cocoa tea has the capacity to suppress adipogenesis in pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 similar to traditional green tea. PMID:26833256

  17. Inhibition of NIH 3T3 cell proliferation by a mutant ras protein with preferential affinity for GDP.

    PubMed Central

    Feig, L A; Cooper, G M

    1988-01-01

    Substitution of asparagine for serine at position 17 decreased the affinity of rasH p21 for GTP 20- to 40-fold without significantly affecting its affinity for GDP. Transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with a mammalian expression vector containing the Asn-17 rasH gene and a Neor gene under the control of the same promoter yielded only a small fraction of the expected number of G418-resistant colonies, indicating that expression of Asn-17 p21 inhibited cell proliferation. The inhibitory effect of Asn-17 p21 required its localization to the plasma membrane and was reversed by coexpression of an activated ras gene, indicating that the mutant p21 blocked the endogenous ras function required for NIH 3T3 cell proliferation. NIH 3T3 cells transformed by v-mos and v-raf, but not v-src, were resistant to inhibition by Asn-17 p21, indicating that the requirement for normal ras function can be bypassed by these cytoplasmic oncogenes. The Asn-17 mutant represents a novel reagent for the study of ras function by virtue of its ability to inhibit cellular ras activity in vivo. Since this phenotype is likely associated with the preferential affinity of the mutant protein for GDP, analogous mutations might also yield inhibitors of other proteins whose activities are regulated by guanine nucleotide binding. Images PMID:3145408

  18. Carnosic Acid Inhibits Lipid Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes Through Attenuation of Fatty Acid Desaturation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mi-Young; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excess body fat accumulation contributes to the development of metabolic disorders that can cause adverse health effects. Carnosic acid (CA), a major bioactive component of rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis), has been suggested to possess anti-adipogenic properties. The present study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism underlying the anti-adipogenic effects of CA. Methods: 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were treated with CA (0.1, 1, and 10 ?M) from day 0 to day 8 of differentiation. On day 8, biochemical markers of lipid accumulation and the degree of fatty acid desaturation were measured. Results: Oil Red O staining results, triglyceride (TG) accumulation, and glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity suggested that CA significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CA significantly decreased mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-? in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, it decreased the ratio of both C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0, with reduced expression of stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 mRNA and protein. Conclusions: These results suggest that CA efficiently suppressed adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its action, at least in part, is associated with the downregulation of adipogenesis-related genes and the fatty acid composition of TG accumulated in adipocytes. PMID:25853102

  19. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Akio; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshida, Izumi; Harada, Teppei; Mishima, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Aculeatin promoted adipocyte differentiation. • Aculeatin improved glucose uptake. • Aculeatin enhanced adipocyte lipolysis. - Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes.

  20. Collagen-derived dipeptide prolyl-hydroxyproline promotes differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kimira, Yoshifumi; Ogura, Kana; Taniuchi, Yuri; Kataoka, Aya; Inoue, Naoki; Sugihara, Fumihito; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro; Mano, Hiroshi

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Pro-Hyp did not affect MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and matrix mineralization. • Pro-Hyp significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity. • Pro-Hyp significantly upregulated gene expression of Runx2, Osterix, and Col1α1. - Abstract: Prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) is one of the major constituents of collagen-derived dipeptides. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Pro-Hyp on the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Addition of Pro-Hyp did not affect MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and matrix mineralization but alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly increased. Furthermore, cells treated with Pro-Hyp significantly upregulated gene expression of Runx2, Osterix, and Col1α1. These results indicate that Pro-Hyp promotes osteoblast differentiation. This study demonstrates for the first time that Pro-Hyp has a positive effect on osteoblast differentiation with upregulation of Runx2, Osterix, and Collα1 gene expression.

  1. Development of dry coal feeders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonin, J. H.; Cantey, D. E.; Daniel, A. D., Jr.; Meyer, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Design and fabrication of equipment of feed coal into pressurized environments were investigated. Concepts were selected based on feeder system performance and economic projections. These systems include: two approaches using rotating components, a gas or steam driven ejector, and a modified standpipe feeder concept. Results of development testing of critical components, design procedures, and performance prediction techniques are reviewed.

  2. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 ; Taguchi, Sadayoshi

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via decreased glucose uptake and lipogenic protein expression and increased basal lipolysis. Such an hypoxia-induced decrease in lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against lipid-associated metabolic diseases.

  3. MicroRNA-125b-5p inhibits proliferation and promotes adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Dan; Ye, Yaqiong; Guo, Dongguang; Yu, Xiaofang; Chen, Jian; Qi, Junjie; Tan, Xiaotong; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Yongjiang; Li, Yugu

    2015-05-01

    Previous evidence has indicated that the microRNA-125b (miR-125b) family plays important roles in the regulation of cancer cell growth, development, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, whether they contribute to the process of adipocyte differentiation remains unclear. In the present study, we revealed that the expression level of miR-125b-5p, a member of miR-125b family, was dramatically up-regulated during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte into mature adipocyte. Supplement of miR-125b-5p into 3T3-L1 cells promoted adipogenic differentiation as evidenced by increased lipid droplets and mRNA levels of adipocyte-specific molecular markers, including peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor ?, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?, fatty acid-binding protein 4, and lipoprotein lipase, and by triglyceride accumulation. CCK-8 assay showed that miR-125b-5p supplementation significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that miR-125b-5p impaired G1/S phase transition as well as the mRNA and protein expression of G1/S-related genes, such as Cyclin D2, Cyclin D3, and CDK4. Nevertheless, it had no effect on apoptosis. Additionally, by target gene prediction, we demonstrated that smad4 may be a potential target of miR-125b-5p in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, accounting for some of miR-125b-5p's functions. Taken together, these data indicated that miR-125b-5p may serve as an important positive regulator in adipocyte differentiation, at least partially through down-regulating smad4. PMID:25918183

  4. High-level expression of human insulin receptor cDNA in mouse NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, J.; Okamoto, A.K.; Thys, R.; Bell, G.I.; Steiner, D.F.; Hofmann, C.A.

    1987-08-01

    In order to develop a simple, efficient system for the high-level expression of human insulin receptors in eukaryotic cells, a full-length human kidney insulin receptor cDNA was inserted into a bovine papilloma virus vector under the control of the mouse metallothionein promoter. After transfection of mouse NIH 3T3 cells with this construct, seven cell lines expressing insulin receptors were isolated; two cell lines had more than 10/sup 6/ receptors per cell. The cell line with the highest /sup 125/I-insulin binding (NIH 3T3 HIR3.5) had 6 x 10/sup 6/ receptors with a K/sub d/ of 10/sup -9/ M. This level was not dependent on exposure to metals but could be increased further to 2 x 10/sup 7/ receptors per cell by addition of sodium butyrate to the culture medium. The ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits had apparent molecular weights of 147,000 and 105,000, respectively (compared to 135,000 and 95,000 in IM-9 human lymphocytes), values identical to those of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of the insulin receptors of nontransformed NIH 3T3 cells. This size difference was due to altered carbohydrate composition, as N-glycanase digestion reduced the apparent receptor subunit size of the transfected cells and IM-9 lymphocytes to identical values. The alteration in N-linked oligosaccharide composition could not be ascribed to differences in the kinetics of posttranslational processing of the insulin receptors, which was comparable to that of other cells studied. The basal rate of glycogen synthesis in the cells overexpressing insulin receptors was increased 4- to 5-fold compared with controls. Low levels of added insulin (0.1 nM) caused a 50% increase in the rate of glycogen synthesis

  5. Effect of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) on the morphology and viability of 3T3 murine fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bandala, Cindy; Tern-Melo, Juan Luis; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz; Meja-Barradas, Cesar Miguel; Domnguez-Rubio, Rene; la Garza-Montano, Paloma De; Alfaro-Rodrguez, Alfonso; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: BoNTA is used in the treatment of ophthalmological disorders, muscular hyperactivity and pain. In recent years it has been described that BoNTA reduces cellular viability and induces apoptosis in prostate cells lines. Studies about the effect of BoNTA are no well known. There have been studies about the effect of BoNTA on the expression levels of collagenase in fibroblasts, but not on its morphological impact on these cells. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of BoNTA on the morphology and viability of the 3T3 fibroblast cell line. Material and methods: The 3T3 fibroblast cell line was cultured and the experimental group received 10 U BoNTA added to a 0.9% sterile saline solution in a reconstituted vial. The control group received saline solution only. Cultured cells were observed and photographed at 5, 10, 15 and 20 h. Cell viability was evaluated by means of the trypan blue test, and cell proliferation with the Proliferation Assay kit (PROMEGA). Results: The application of BoNTA to 3T3 fibroblast cells induced morphological changes, such as a loss of normal fibroblast morphology. Additionally, we observed the cytoplasmic retraction and spread phenomena. The nuclei showed other important changes with Giemsa staining. Conclusion: The results indicate that BoNTA induced a loss of spindle form, increase in cytoplasmic vesicles, and the presence of nuclear vesicles (compacted chromatin surrounded by a nuclear envelope). This suggests an apoptotic process and decreased cell viability. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanisms of these alterations. PMID:26464704

  6. Responses of differentiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells to reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Fatokun, Amos A; Stone, Trevor W; Smith, Robert A

    2008-06-10

    MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells represent a suitable model for studying osteogenic development in vitro. The current investigation extends our previous work on the response of these cells to hydrogen peroxide by considering the effects of reactive oxygen species from other sources, and by determining whether differentiation alters sensitivity to oxidative damage. Aspects of hydrogen peroxide-mediated apoptotic and necrotic death were also examined. Cell viability was determined using the Alamar Blue assay; and accompanying morphological changes monitored by phase-contrast microscopy. Sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide increased significantly in cultures which had been induced to differentiate. Hydrogen peroxide and copper (II) ions, when combined, produced greater damage than hydrogen peroxide alone, whilst the hydroxyl radical scavengers mannitol or dimethylsulphoxide had no effect. Cyclosporin A and nicotinamide afforded partial protection. The tryptophan metabolite, 3-hydroxykynurenine significantly reduced viability, although 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid did not. The xanthine/xanthine oxidase system also reduced cell viability, an effect prevented by catalase but potentiated by superoxide dismutase. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine did not impair viability at the concentrations tested. Cultures were resistant to mitochondrial poisoning by potassium cyanide, but succumbed to 24-h exposures to 3-nitropropionic acid (1 mM). The results reveal a differential sensitivity of MC3T3-E1 cells to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, an enhancement of sensitivity by cellular differentiation, and a potential preference for the glycolytic pathway by MC3T3-E1 cells. This study gives new insight into how bone cells may succumb to the toxic effects of oxidative stress generated by different stimuli and has relevance to conditions such as osteoporosis. PMID:18448093

  7. Radicicol, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, inhibits differentiation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yonghan; Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 ; Li, Ying; Zhang, Shuocheng; Perry, Ben; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 ; Zhao, Tiantian; Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, Canada M1C 1A4 ; Wang, Yanwen; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 ; Sun, Changhao

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Radicicol suppressed intracellular fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Radicicol inhibited the expression of FAS and FABP4. •Radicicol blocked cell cycle at the G1-S phase during cell differentiation. •Radicicol inhibited the PDK1/Akt pathway in adipocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is involved in various cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As adipocyte differentiation plays a critical role in obesity development, the present study investigated the effect of an Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and potential mechanisms. The cells were treated with different concentrations of radicicol during the first 8 days of cell differentiation. Adipogenesis, the expression of adipogenic transcriptional factors, differentiation makers and cell cycle were determined. It was found that radicicol dose-dependently decreased intracellular fat accumulation through down-regulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR{sub γ}) and CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBP{sub α}), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that radicicol blocked cell cycle at G1-S phase. Radicicol redcued the phosphorylation of Akt while showing no effect on β-catenin expression. Radicicol decreased the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). The results suggest that radicicol inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation through affecting the PDK1/Akt pathway and subsequent inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion and the expression/activity of adipogenic transcriptional factors and their downstream adipogenic proteins.

  8. Restriction Enzyme Analysis of DNA Methylation in Condensed Chromatin of Ha-Ras-Transformed NIH 3T3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Maria Luiza S.; Chambers, Ann F.; Vidal, Benedicto C.; Planding, Wolfgang; Schenck, Ulrich

    2000-01-01

    Increased amounts of chromatin condensation (i.e., localized areas of high DNA density, or chromatin higher order packing state) have been described in NIH 3T3 cells transformed with the Ha?ras oncogene. The structural basis for this oncogene?mediated alteration in nuclear organization is unknown. Since DNA methylation is likely to be involved in regulating the nucleosomal level of DNA packaging, we studied the role of DNA methylation in higher?order chromatin organization induced by Ha?ras. CpG?methylated DNA content was estimated in condensed chromatin of Ha?ras?transformed NIH 3T3 cell lines which differ in ras expression and ras?induced metastatic ability but present approximately the same values of condensed chromatin areas. The question posed was that if DNA methylation were involved with the chromatin higher?order organization induced by Ha?ras in these cell lines, the methylated DNA density in the condensed chromatin would also be the same. The DNA evaluation was performed by video image analysis in Feulgen?stained cells previously subjected to treatment with Msp I and Hpa II restriction enzymes, which distinguish between methylated and non?methylated DNA. The amount of methylated CpG sequences not digested by Hpa II in condensed chromatin regions was found to vary in the studied ras?transformed cell lines. DNA CpG methylation status is thus suggested not to be involved with the higher order chromatin condensation induced by ras transformation in the mentioned NIH 3T3 cell lines. PMID:11205319

  9. Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol isolated from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Jonghyun; Choi, Hyounjeong; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeong, Jinhyun; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Sunyoung

    2012-03-16

    A water-soluble extract from the stems of Cucurbita moschata, code named PG105, was previously found to contain strong anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. One of its biological characteristics is that it inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. To isolate the biologically active compound(s), conventional solvent fractionation was performed, and the various fractions were tested for anti-adipogenic activity using Oil Red O staining method. A single spot on thin layer chromatography of the chloroform fraction showed a potent anti-adipogenic activity. When purified, the structure of its major component was resolved as dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan, by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. In 3T3-L1 cells, synthesized DHCA significantly reduced the expression of several adipocyte marker genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (Pparg), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (Cebpa), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), sterol response element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (Scd), and decreased lipid accumulation without affecting cell viability. DHCA also suppressed the mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes (an early event of adipogenesis), probably by suppressing the DNA binding activity of C/EBP?, and lowered the production level of cyclinA and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), coinciding with the decrease in DNA synthesis and cell division. In addition, DHCA directly inhibited the expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1. Similar observations were made, using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Taken together, our data indicate that DHCA may contain dual activities, affecting both adipogenesis and lipogenesis. PMID:22262865

  10. Bioconversion of Citrus unshiu peel extracts with cytolase suppresses adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Heejin; Yeo, Eunju; Song, Eunju; Chang, Yun-Hee; Han, Bok-Kyung; Choi, Hyuk-Joon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Citrus flavonoids have a variety of physiological properties such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and anti-obesity. We investigated whether bioconversion of Citrus unshiu with cytolase (CU-C) ameliorates the anti-adipogenic effects by modulation of adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Glycoside forms of Citrus unshiu (CU) were converted into aglycoside forms with cytolase treatment. Cell viability of CU and CU-C was measured at various concentrations in 3T3L-1 cells. The anti-adipogenic and lipolytic effects were examined using Oil red O staining and free glycerol assay, respectively. We performed real time-polymerase chain reaction and western immunoblotting assay to detect mRNA and protein expression of adipogenic transcription factors, respectively. RESULTS Treatment with cytolase decreased flavanone rutinoside forms (narirutin and hesperidin) and instead, increased flavanone aglycoside forms (naringenin and hesperetin). During adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with CU or CU-C at a dose of 0.5 mg/ml. Adipocyte differentiation was inhibited in CU-C group, but not in CU group. CU-C markedly suppressed the insulin-induced protein expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) as well as the mRNA levels of CEBP?, PPAR?, and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). Both CU and CU-C groups significantly increased the adipolytic activity with the higher release of free glycerol than those of control group in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CU-C is particularly superior in suppression of adipogenesis, whereas CU-C has similar effect to CU on stimulation of lipolysis. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that bioconversion of Citrus unshiu peel extracts with cytolase enhances aglycoside flavonoids and improves the anti-adipogenic metabolism via both inhibition of key adipogenic transcription factors and induction of adipolytic activity. PMID:26634048

  11. Endothelin-1 inhibits TNF?-induced iNOS expression in 3T3-F442A adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mrial-Kieny, Christelle; Lonchampt, Michel; Cog, Francis; Verwaerde, Patrick; Galizzi, Jean-Pierre; Boutin, Jean A; Lafontan, Max; Levens, Nigel; Galitzky, Jean; Fltou, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) by their action on adipocytes have been independently linked to the pathogenesis of insulino-resistance. In isolated adipocytes, TNF? induces the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The purpose of the present work was, in the 3T3-F442A adipocyte cell line, to characterise TNF?-induced iNOS expression and to determine whether or not ET-1 could influence TNF?-induced iNOS expression and NO production. In differentiated 3T3-F442A, treatment with TNF? (20 ng ml?1) induced the expression of a functional iNOS as demonstrated by nitrite assay, Western blot, reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis. TNF?-induced iNOS expression requires nuclear factor ?B activation, but does not necessitate the activation of the PI-3 kinase/Akt and P38MAP kinase pathways. ET-1, but not ET-3, inhibited the TNF?-induced expression of iNOS protein and mRNA as well as nitrite production. The effects of ET-1 were blocked by a specific ETA (BQ123, pA2 7.4) but not by a specific ETB receptor antagonist (BQ788). 3T3-F442A adipocytes express the mRNAs for prepro-ET-1 and the ET-A receptor subtype, but not for the ET-B subtype. The inhibitory effect of ET-1 was not affected by bisindolylmaleimide, SB 203580 or indomethacin, inhibitors of protein kinase C, p38-MAP kinase and cyclooxygenase, respectively, and was not associated with cAMP production. However, the effect of ET-1 was partially reversed by wortmannin, suggesting the involvement of PI3 kinase in the transduction signal of ET-1. Differentiated 3T3-F442A adipocytes did not release ET-1 with or without exposure to TNF?, although the mRNA for preproET-1 was detected in both pre- and differentiated adipocytes. Thus, these results confirm that adipocytes are a target for circulating ET-1 and demonstrate that the activation of the ETA receptor subtype can prevent TNF?-induced iNOS expression. PMID:12839867

  12. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) Reduces Cell Growth, Lipid Acquisition and Increases Adiponectin Expression in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Chia-Rou; Lee, Sea-Ming; Popovich, David G.

    2011-01-01

    An American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) extract (GE) that contained a quantifiable amount of ginsenosides was investigated for the potential to inhibit proliferation, affect the cell cycle, influence lipid acquisition and adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Six fingerprint ginsenosides were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and the respective molecular weights were confirmed by LC-ESI-MS analysis. The extract contained Rg1 (347.3 ± 99.7 μg g−1, dry weight), Re (8280.4 ± 792.3 μg g−1), Rb1 (1585.8 ± 86.8 μg g−1), Rc (32.9 ± 8 μg g−1), Rb2 (62.6 ± 10.6 μg g−1) and Rd (90.4 ± 3.2 μg g−1). The GE had a dose-dependent effect on 3T3-L1 cell growth, the LC50 value was determined to be 40.3 ± 5 μg ml−1. Cell cycle analysis showed modest changes in the cell cycle. No significant changes observed in both G1 and G2/M phases, however there was a significant decrease (P < .05) in the S phase after 24 and 48 h treatment. Apoptotic cells were modest but significantly (P < .05) increased after 48 h (3.2 ± 1.0%) compared to untreated control cells (1.5 ± 0.1%). Lipid acquisition was significantly reduced (P < .05) by 13 and 22% when treated at concentrations of 20.2 and 40.3 μg ml−1 compared to untreated control cells. In relation to adiponectin activation, western blot analysis showed that the protein expression was significantly (P < .05) increased at concentrations tested. A quantified GE reduced the growth of 3T3-L1 cells, down-regulated the accumulation of lipid and up-regulated the expression of adiponectin in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell model. PMID:21799682

  13. Influence of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast culture on the corrosion of a T6-treated AZ91 alloy

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Emily K.; Tobias, Menachem E.; Yang, Shuying; Bone, Lawrence B.; Ehrensberger, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the corrosion of artificially aged T6 heat-treated Mg-9%Al-1%Zn (AZ91) for biomedical applications. Corrosion tests and surface analysis were completed both with and without a monolayer of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the sample. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICPMS) were used to explore the corrosion processes after either 3 or 21 days of AZ91 incubation in cell culture medium (CCM). The EIS showed both the inner layer resistance (Rin) and outer layer resistance (Rout) were lower for samples without cells cultured on the surface at 3 days (Rin = 2.64 e4 Ω/cm2, Rout = 140 Ω/cm2) compared to 21 days (Rin = 3.60 e4 Ω/cm2, Rout = 287 Ω/cm2) due to precipitation of magnesium and calcium phosphates over time. Samples with preosteoblasts cultured on the surface had a slower initial corrosion (3 day, Rin = 1.88 e5 Ω/cm2, Rout = 1060 Ω/cm2) which was observed to increase over time (21 day, Rin = 2.99 e4 Ω/cm2, Rout = 287 Ω/cm2). Changes in the corrosion processes were thought to be related to changes in the coverage provided by the cell layer. Our results reveal that the presence of cells and biological processes are able to significantly influence the corrosion rate of AZ91. PMID:25715925

  14. Anti-obesity and antioxidative effects of purple sweet potato extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jae-Hyun; Yoon, Hong-Sup; Park, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Mi-Young; Shin, Hyeun-Kil; Park, Kun-Young; Yang, Jin-Oh; Sohn, Min-Shik; Do, Myoung-Sool

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of an extract of purple sweet potatoes (PSPs) on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. For this purpose, differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with a PSP extract at concentrations of 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 μg/mL for 24 hours. Then, we measured the changes in the sizes of the adipocytes, the secretion of leptin, and the mRNA/protein expression of lipogenic, inflammatory, and lipolytic factors after the treatment with the PSP extract. The PSP extract diminished leptin secretion, indicating that growth of fat droplets was suppressed. The extract also suppressed the expression of mRNAs of lipogenic and inflammatory factors and promoted lipolytic action. The antioxidative activity of the PSP extract was also measured using three different in vitro methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing ability potential assay, and chelating activity of transition metal ions. Taken together, our study shows that PSP extract has antilipogenic, anti-inflammatory, and lipolytic effects on adipocytes and has radical scavenging and reducing activity. PMID:21861722

  15. Gel Microstructure Regulates Proliferation and Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells Encapsulated in Alginate Beads

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Baek-Hee; Li, Bing; Guelcher, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    For cell transplantation into damaged tissues, viable cells must be delivered to the defect site in a suitable carrier. However, the hypoxic and nutrient-limited environment in the carrier can induce massive cell death. The aims of this study were to increase the viability and regulate the behavior of osteoprogenitor cells encapsulated in alginate hydrogels through control of the gel microstructure. Cell survivability in alginate beads was improved through the use of α-MEM as the solvent for alginic acid sodium salt and CaCl2 solutions, which supplied additional nutrients for the cells compared to water or buffer. The mesh size and shear modulus of the hydrogel were hypothesized to regulate proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. MC3T3-E1 cells demonstrated enhanced osteoblast differentiation when encapsulated in high-density alginate with smaller mesh size and more rigid mechanical properties, as confirmed by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin secretion. However, MC3T3-E1 cells encapsulated in low-density alginate beads with a larger mesh size and more compliant mechanical properties exhibited increased proliferation. These results demonstrate that the microstructure of alginate hydrogels can regulate the behavior of osteoprogenitor cells, thus suggesting that the tuning the properties of the gel may be a useful approach for enhancing new bone formation. PMID:22306825

  16. Phosphoprotein phosphatase 1CB (PPP1CB), a novel adipogenic activator, promotes 3T3-L1 adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Lai; Min, Jeong-Ki; Roh, Kyung Min; Kim, Won Kon; Han, Baek Soo; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Lee, Sang Chul; Chung, Sang J; Kang, Hyo Jin

    2015-11-13

    Understanding the molecular networks that regulate adipogenesis is crucial for gaining insight into obesity and identifying medicinal targets thereof is necessary for pharmacological interventions. However, the identity and molecular actions of activators that promote the early development of adipocytes are still largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for phosphoprotein phosphatase 1CB (PPP1CB) as a potent adipogenic activator that promotes adipocyte differentiation. PPP1CB expression increased in vitro during the early phase of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis and in the murine model of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Depletion of PPP1CB dramatically suppressed the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into mature adipocytes, with a concomitant change in adipocyte marker genes and significantly inhibited clonal expansion. We also showed that knockdown of PPP1CB caused a significant decrease in C/EBPδ expression, which in turn resulted in attenuation of PPARγ, C/EBPα, adiponectin, and aP2. In addition, we elucidated the functional significance of PPP1CB by linking p38 activation to C/EBPδ expression in early adipogenesis. Overall, our findings demonstrate a novel function of PPP1CB in promoting adipogenesis and suggest that PPP1CB may be a promising therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26449462

  17. The anti-obesity effect of Lethariella cladonioides in 3T3-L1 cells and obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Ju-Hyun; Chon, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Mi-Ae; Park, Jin-Kyung; Woo, Jeong-Taek

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a water extract of L. cladonioides (LC) has an anti-obesity effect in 3T3-L1 cells and obese mice. Treatment of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with LC caused a significant increase in glycerol release and reduced the protein expression of the adipogenic transcription factors, PPARγ and C/EBPα. In an animal model, obese mice were artificially induced by a high fat diet for 10 weeks. Experimental groups were treated with LC (100 mg/kg/day) by gavage for the next 10 weeks. At the end of experiment, the body weight of the LC group mice was reduced by 14.2% compared to the high fat diet (HFD) group. The treatment also decreased liver (31.0%), epididymal (18.0%) and retroperitoneal (19.3%) adipose tissue, and kidney (6.7%) weights, respectively, compared with those of the HFD group. LC prevented diet-induced increases in the serum level of TC (22.6%), TG (11.6%), and glucose (35.0%), respectively, compared with the HFD group. However, the HDL-C level was higher in the LC group (26.1%) than the HFD group. The results of this study thus suggest that LC suppressed lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic transcription factors, and increased the amount of glycerol release. LC also indicated an anti-obese and anti-hyperlipidemic effect. PMID:22259674

  18. 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes Exhibit Heightened Monocyte-Chemoattractant Protein-1 Response to Acute Fatty Acid Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dordevic, Aimee L.; Konstantopoulos, Nicky; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    Preadipocytes contribute to the inflammatory responses within adipose tissue. Whilst fatty acids are known to elicit an inflammatory response within adipose tissue, the relative contribution of preadipocytes and mature adipocytes to this is yet to be determined. We aimed to examine the actions of common dietary fatty acids on the acute inflammatory and adipokine response in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and differentiated mature adipocytes. Gene expression levels of key adipokines in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes were determined following incubation with palmitic acid, myristic acid or oleic acid and positive inflammatory control, lipopolysaccharide for 2 and 4 h. Inflammatory kinase signalling was assessed by analysis of nuclear factor-κB, p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun amino-terminal kinase phosphorylation. Under basal conditions, intracellular monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 gene expression levels were increased in preadipocytes, whereas mature adipocytes expressed increased gene expression levels of leptin and adiponectin. Fatty acid exposure at 2 and 4 h increased both monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 gene expression levels in preadipocytes to greater levels than in mature adipocytes. There was an accompanying increase of inhibitor of κB-α degradation and nuclear factor-κB (p65) (Ser536) phosphorylation with fatty acid exposure in the preadipocytes only. The current study points to preadipocytes rather than the adipocytes as the contributors to both immune cell recruitment and inflammatory adipokine secretion with acute increases in fatty acids. PMID:24911931

  19. Alliin, a Garlic (Allium sativum) Compound, Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Fabin, Saray; Ortuo-Sahagn, Daniel; Vzquez-Carrera, Manuel; Lpez-Roa, Roco Ivette

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide), a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. Incubation of cells for 24?h with 100??mol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100?ng/mL LPS for 1?h. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is involved in LPS-induced inflammation in adipocytes, was decreased following alliin treatment. Furthermore, the gene expression profile by microarrays evidentiate an upregulation of genes involved in immune response and downregulation of genes related with cancer. The present results have shown that alliin is able to suppress the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile and by modifying adipocyte metabolic profile. PMID:24453416

  20. Interaction of plasma lipoprotein subfractions with differentiating 3T3-L1 and human mammary preadipocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Stanton, L A; van de Venter, M; Oelofsen, W

    1999-08-01

    Differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (murine fatty fibroblasts) and human preadipocytes interact with human lipoprotein subfractions (HDL2 and LDLII/III) at all stages of the differentiation program, displaying saturable binding behavior. Both cell types interact similarly with LDLII/III as differentiation proceeds, showing increased binding affinities and capacities and maximal rates of uptake in the mature cells, as compared with the preadipocyte stage. These changes coincide with the intracellular appearance of lipid droplets. However, with regard to HDL2, a markedly different pattern of interaction is evident in both cell types. For 3T3-L1 cells, lowered binding and uptake affinities and capacities are apparent in the fully differentiated state for HDL2, as compared with LDLII/III. Human preadipocytes displayed two distinct affinity binding sites for HDL2 during the early stages of differentiation (days 2 and 3), as compared with a single affinity site for LDLII/III at all stages. However, in the fully differentiated human cells, only a single affinity site, indistinguishable from the high-affinity site present on day 2, is evident, and probably represents the only binding site of physiological significance in these cells. All the cellular developments appear to be largely unaffected by exposure of both preadipocyte types to added lipoproteins (HDL + LDL) in the medium during the early stages of the conversion process. PMID:10404388

  1. Environmental Endocrine Disruptors Promote Adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 Cell Line through Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sargis, Robert M.; Johnson, Daniel N.; Choudhury, Rashikh A.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning obesity and diabetes epidemics threaten health worldwide, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are incompletely understood. Recently, attention has focused on the potential contributions of environmental pollutants that act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Because glucocorticoid signaling is central to adipocyte differentiation, the ability of EDCs to stimulate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and drive adipogenesis was assessed in the 3T3-L1 cell line. Various EDCs were screened for glucocorticoid-like activity using a luciferase reporter construct, and four (bisphenol A (BPA), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), endrin, and tolylfluanid (TF)) were shown to significantly stimulate GR without significant activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were then treated with EDCs and a weak differentiation cocktail containing dehydrocorticosterone (DHC) in place of the synthetic dexamethasone. The capacity of these compounds to promote adipogenesis was assessed by quantitative oil red O staining and immunoblotting for adipocyte-specific proteins. The four EDCs increased lipid accumulation in the differentiating adipocytes and also upregulated the expression of adipocytic proteins. Interestingly, proadipogenic effects were observed at picomolar concentrations for several of the EDCs. Because there was no detectable adipogenesis when the preadipocytes were treated with compounds alone, the EDCs are likely promoting adipocyte differentiation by synergizing with agents present in the differentiation cocktail. Thus, EDCs are able to promote adipogenesis through the activation of the GR, further implicating these compounds in the rising rates of obesity and diabetes. PMID:19927138

  2. Benzyl butyl phthalate promotes adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes: A High Content Cellomics and metabolomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lei; Yu, Kevin Shengyang; Lu, Kun; Yu, Xiaozhong

    2016-04-01

    Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) has been known to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity. However, its association with dysregulation of adipogenesis has been poorly investigated. The present study aimed to examine the effect of BBP on the adipogenesis, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms using the 3T3-L1 cells. The capacity of BBP to promote adipogenesis was evaluated by multiple staining approaches combined with a High Content Cellomics analysis. The dynamic changes of adipogenic regulatory genes and proteins were examined, and the metabolite profile was identified using GC/MC based metabolomic analysis. The High Content analysis showed BBP in contrast with Bisphenol A (BPA), a known environmental obesogen, increased lipid droplet accumulation in a similar dose-dependent manner. However, the size of the lipid droplets in BBP-treated cells was significantly larger than those in cells treated with BPA. BBP significantly induced mRNA expression of transcriptional factors C/EBP? and PPAR?, their downstream genes, and numerous adipogenic proteins in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, GC/MC metabolomic analysis revealed that BBP exposure perturbed the metabolic profiles that are associated with glyceroneogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Altogether, our current study clearly demonstrates that BBP promoted the differentiation of 3T3-L1 through the activation of the adipogenic pathway and metabolic disturbance. PMID:26820058

  3. Ethanolic extract of Actaea racemosa (black cohosh) potentiates bone nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, B Y; Lau, K S; Jiang, B; Kennelly, E J; Kronenberg, F; Kung, A W C

    2008-09-01

    Aceaea racemosa (formerly Cimicifuga racemosa, black cohosh, AR) extracts have been widely used as an alternative to hormonal replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms. Recent evidences suggest AR extracts are also effective in protecting against postmenopausal bone loss. To determine whether AR has any direct anabolic effect on osteoblasts, we investigated the ethanolic extract of AR on bone nodule formation in mouse MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells. AR did not stimulate osteoblast proliferation. Rather, at high doses of 1000 ng/mL for 48 h, AR suppressed (7.2+/-0.9% vs. control) osteoblast proliferation. At 500 ng/mL, a significant increase in bone nodule formation was seen with Von Kossa staining. Using quantitative PCR analysis, AR was shown to enhance the gene expression of runx2 and osteocalcin. Co-treatment with ICI 182,780, the selective estrogen receptor antagonist, abolished the stimulatory effect of AR on runx2 and osteocalcin gene induction, as well as on bone nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 cells. This is a first report of the direct effect of AR on enhancement of bone nodule formation in osteoblasts, and this action was mediated via an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism. The results provide a scientific rationale at the molecular level for the claim that AR can offer effective prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. PMID:18555764

  4. PPAR? partial agonist GQ-16 strongly represses a subset of genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Milton, Flora Aparecida; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Amato, Angelica A; Sieglaff, Douglas H; Filgueira, Carly S; Arumanayagam, Anithachristy Sigamani; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; Pitta, Ivan Rocha; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Webb, Paul

    2015-08-28

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists that improve insulin resistance but trigger side effects such as weight gain, edema, congestive heart failure and bone loss. GQ-16 is a PPAR? partial agonist that improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mouse models of obesity and diabetes without inducing weight gain or edema. It is not clear whether GQ-16 acts as a partial agonist at all PPAR? target genes, or whether it displays gene-selective actions. To determine how GQ-16 influences PPAR? activity on a gene by gene basis, we compared effects of rosiglitazone (Rosi) and GQ-16 in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes using microarray and qRT-PCR. Rosi changed expression of 1156 genes in 3T3-L1, but GQ-16 only changed 89 genes. GQ-16 generally showed weak effects upon Rosi induced genes, consistent with partial agonist actions, but a subset of modestly Rosi induced and strongly repressed genes displayed disproportionately strong GQ-16 responses. PPAR? partial agonists MLR24 and SR1664 also exhibit disproportionately strong effects on transcriptional repression. We conclude that GQ-16 displays a continuum of weak partial agonist effects but efficiently represses some negatively regulated PPAR? responsive genes. Strong repressive effects could contribute to physiologic actions of GQ-16. PMID:26168725

  5. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology Yoshizaki, Takayuki; Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  6. Protective effect of apocynin on antimycin A-induced cell damage in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Mi; Lee, Young Soon

    2012-09-01

    Apocynin is a naturally occurring methoxy-substituted catechol, experimentally used as an inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of apocynin on antimycin A (AMA)-induced toxicicy in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to AMA caused significant cell viability loss, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) dissipation, complex IV inactivation, ATP loss, intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) elevation and oxidative stress. Pretreatment with apocynin prior to AMA exposure significantly reduced AMA-induced cell damage by preventing MMP dissipation, complex IV inactivation, ATP loss, [Ca2+]i elevation and oxidative stress. These results suggest that apocynin has a protective effect against AMA-induced cell damage by its antioxidant effects and the attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction. Apocynin also induced the activation of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), Akt (protein kinase B) and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) inhibited by AMA. All these data indicate that apocynin may reduce or prevent osteoblasts degeneration in osteoporosis or other degenerative disorders. PMID:21538410

  7. Alliin, a garlic (Allium sativum) compound, prevents LPS-induced inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Fabin, Saray; Ortuo-Sahagn, Daniel; Vzquez-Carrera, Manuel; Lpez-Roa, Roco Ivette

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide), a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. Incubation of cells for 24 h with 100 ?mol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100 ng/mL LPS for 1 h. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is involved in LPS-induced inflammation in adipocytes, was decreased following alliin treatment. Furthermore, the gene expression profile by microarrays evidentiate an upregulation of genes involved in immune response and downregulation of genes related with cancer. The present results have shown that alliin is able to suppress the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile and by modifying adipocyte metabolic profile. PMID:24453416

  8. Resveratrol Metabolites Modify Adipokine Expression and Secretion in 3T3-L1 Pre-Adipocytes and Mature Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eseberri, Itziar; Lasa, Arrate; Churruca, Itziar; Portillo, María P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Due to the low bioavailability of resveratrol, determining whether its metabolites exert any beneficial effect is an interesting issue. Methods 3T3-L1 maturing pre-adipocytes were treated during differentiation with 25 µM of resveratrol or with its metabolites and 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes were treated for 24 hours with 10 µM resveratrol or its metabolites. The gene expression of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and apelin was assessed by Real Time RT-PCR and their concentration in the incubation medium was quantified by ELISA. Results Resveratrol reduced mRNA levels of leptin and increased those of adiponectin. It induced the same changes in leptin secretion. Trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and trans-resveratrol-4′-O-glucuronide increased apelin and visfatin mRNA levels. Trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate reduced leptin mRNA levels and increased those of apelin and visfatin. Conclusions The present study shows for the first time that resveratrol metabolites have a regulatory effect on adipokine expression and secretion. Since resveratrol has been reported to reduce body-fat accumulation and to improve insulin sensitivity, and considering that these effects are mediated in part by changes in the analyzed adipokines, it may be proposed that resveratrol metabolites play a part in these beneficial effects of resveratrol. PMID:23717508

  9. Increase of adipogenesis by ginsenoside (Rh2) in 3T3-L1 cell via an activation of glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Niu, C-S; Yeh, C-H; Yeh, M-F; Cheng, J-T

    2009-04-01

    Adipocyte plays an important role in lipid regulation in mammals. Understanding of adipocyte differentiation becomes a key issue for the development of anti-obesity agent. Glucocorticoids (GCs) regulate lipid metabolism through promoting lipogenesis in adipose tissue. Ginsenoside Rh2, with a similar chemical structure as GCs, shows antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer actions both in vivo and in vitro. However, effect of Rh2 on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) for an increase of adipogenesis like GCs remains unclear. In the present study, we employed ginsenoside Rh2 to investigate the changes in adipogenetic process of 3T3-L1, one of the widely used preadipocytes, through activating GR or not. In leuciferase assay, we found that ginsenoside Rh2 induced GRs transitivity in a way as dexamethasone, which was deleted by RU486 at concentrations sufficient to block GR. Moreover, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes by adipogenic induction medium containing 0.01 to 1 microM of ginsenoside Rh2. Also, RU486 blocked this adipogenesis induced by ginsenoside Rh2 or dexamethasone. The obtained results suggest that ginsenoside Rh2 can promote preadipocytes differentiation through activating GR. This finding seems helpful for the understanding of ginsenosides in the regulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:19048455

  10. Effects and Molecular Mechanism of GST-Irisin on Lipolysis and Autocrine Function in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shanshan; Li, Fangmin; Li, Huimin; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Yu; Chen, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Irisin, which was recently identified as a myokine and an adipokine, transforms white adipose tissue to brown adipose tissue and has increasingly caught the attention of the medical and scientific community. However, the signaling pathway of irisin and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the lipolysis effect remain unclear. In this study, we established an efficient system for the expression and purification of GST-irisin in Escherichia coli. The biological activity of GST-irisin was verified using the cell counting kit-8 assay and by detecting the mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1. Our data showed that GST-irisin regulates mRNA levels of lipolysis-related genes such as adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase and proteins such as the fatty acid-binding protein 4, leading to increased secretion of glycerol and decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, exogenous GST-irisin can increase its autocrine function in vitro by regulating the expression of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5. GST-irisin could regulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Hence, we believe that recombinant GST-irisin could promote lipolysis and its secretion in vitro and can potentially prevent obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:26799325

  11. Macrophage-conditioned medium inhibits differentiation-induced Rb phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarmo, Michelle N.; Landry, Anne; Molgat, Andre S.D.; Gagnon, AnneMarie; Sorisky, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    This study examines the mechanisms underlying the anti-adipogenic effect of macrophage-secreted products. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate over 8 days in medium conditioned by murine J774 macrophages (MacCM). The inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic markers was diminished when addition of MacCM was delayed to day 2 of differentiation. Clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, was reduced in the presence of MacCM (89%; n = 3; p < 0.001), and BrdU incorporation was impaired by 55% (n = 3; p < 0.01). Activation of ERK1/2 was not affected by MacCM, and neither was the expression of p27{sup kip1}, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. However, phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), required for cell cycle progression, was impaired by MacCM (94% inhibition; n = 3; p < 0.01). Differentiation-dependent expression, nuclear localization, and DNA binding ability of C/EBP{beta} were not inhibited by MacCM. Alterations in cell cycle-associated proteins may be important with respect to the anti-adipogenic action of MacCM.

  12. Panax notoginseng stimulates alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, and mineralization in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhe; Cheng, Yizhao; Yuan, Puwei; Dang, Xiaoqian; Guo, Xiong; Wang, Weizhuo

    2015-10-01

    Total Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS) has been extensively used to treat a variety of diseases, such as bone fractures, soft tissue injuries, etc. In this study, mouse calvaria-original osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in various concentrations of PNS (0.005-5mg/mL) during the period (1, 5, 14, and 23d). At the endpoint, the osteogenic capacity of MC3T3-E1 cells was investigated by measuring the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, the deposited calcium, and the expression of osteogenic-related markers, including bone collagen type 1 (Col1) and osteocalcin (OCN). Compared with all groups in each period, the most pronounced effect was observed at the concentration range between 0.05 and 0.5mg/mL (P?

  13. Ionic responses rapidly elicited by porcine platelet-derived growth factor in Swiss 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Rivas, A; Stroobant, P; Waterfield, M D; Rozengurt, E

    1984-01-01

    Addition of porcine platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells caused a marked, dose-dependent stimulation of Na+ influx and Na-K pump-mediated 86Rb+ uptake. Porcine PDGF (a single component in SDS polyacrylamide gels) stimulated ion fluxes to the same maximal extent as partially purified preparations, and exhibited half-maximal effect at 6 ng/ml (2 X 10(-10) M). Maximal effect was achieved at 30 ng/ml (10(-9) M). In the presence of insulin, PDGF elicited mitogenesis at comparable concentrations. PDGF stimulated ion uptake in a time-dependent fashion; maximal effect was obtained after 5 min of exposure to the growth factor. PDGF stimulates Na+ influx via an amiloride-sensitive pathway, suggesting that PDGF enhances the activity of a Na+/H+ antiport system. In accordance with this possibility, the mitogen caused an increase of intracellular pH by 0.15 pH units, as judged by the steady-state distribution of labelled 5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione (DMO). Porcine PDGF stimulated E-type prostaglandin synthesis and cAMP accumulation but these events could be dissociated from the stimulation of the ionic fluxes, which was detected within minutes and was not blocked by indomethacin. It is suggested that PDGF elicits multiple signals to stimulate cell proliferation in 3T3 cells. PMID:6329747

  14. Prevalidation study of the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay for assessment of carcinogenic potential of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Noriho; Bohnenberger, Susanne; Kunkelmann, Thorsten; Munaro, Barbara; Ponti, Jessica; Poth, Albrecht; Sabbioni, Enrico; Sakai, Ayako; Salovaara, Susan; Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Thomas, B Claire; Umeda, Makoto

    2012-04-11

    The cell transformation assays (CTAs) have attracted attention within the field of alternative methods due to their potential to reduce the number of animal experiments in the field of carcinogenicity. The CTA using BALB/c 3T3 cells has proved to be able to respond to chemical carcinogens by inducing morphologically transformed foci. Although a considerable amount of data on the performance of the assay has been collected, a formal evaluation focusing particularly on reproducibility, and a standardised protocol were considered important. Therefore the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) decided to coordinate a prevalidation study of the BALB/c 3T3 CTA. Three different laboratories from Japan and Europe participated. In the study the following modules were assessed stepwise: test definition (Module 1) consisted of the standardisation of the protocol, the selection of the cell lineage, and the preparation of a photo catalogue on the transformed foci. The within-laboratory reproducibility (Module 2) and the transferability (Module 3) were assessed using non-coded and coded 3-methylcholanthrene. Then, five coded chemicals were tested for the assessment of between-laboratory reproducibility (Module 4). All three laboratories obtained positive results with benzo[a]pyrene, phenanthrene and o-toluidine HCl. 2-Acetylaminofluorene was positive in two laboratories and equivocal in one laboratory. Anthracene was negative in all three laboratories. The chemicals except phenanthrene, which is classified by IARC (http://monographs.iarc.fr) as group 3 "not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to human", were correctly predicted as carcinogens. Further studies on phenanthrene will clarify this discrepancy. Thus, although only a few chemicals were tested, it can be seen that the predictive capacity of the BALB/c 3T3 CTA is satisfactory. On the basis of the outcome of this study, an improved protocol, incorporating some changes related to data interpretation, has been developed. It is recommended that this protocol be used in the future to provide more data that may confirm the robustness of this protocol and the performance of the assay itself. During the study it became clear that selecting the most appropriate concentrations for the transformation assay is crucial. PMID:22198331

  15. New anthracene glycosides from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa stimulate osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, Nguyen Huu; Ding, Yan; Choi, Eun Mi; Van Kiem, Phan; Van Minh, Chau; Kim, Young Ho

    2009-04-01

    Two new anthracene glycosides (1, 2) were isolated from aerial parts of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, along with three known compounds (3-5). The structures of two new compounds were established to be 4,8,9,10-tetrahydroxy-2,3,7-trimethoxyanthracene-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 2,4,7,8,9,10-hexahydroxy-3-methoxyanthracene-6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) based on spectroscopic and chemical methods. Among them, compound 1, 2, and 5 significantly (P<0.05) increased the alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, and mineralization of the nodules of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells compared to those of the control, respectively. PMID:19407968

  16. Cultured 3T3L1 adipocytes dispose of excess medium glucose as lactate under abundant oxygen availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabater, David; Arriarán, Sofía; Romero, María Del Mar; Agnelli, Silvia; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià

    2014-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) produces lactate in significant amount from circulating glucose, especially in obesity;Under normoxia, 3T3L1 cells secrete large quantities of lactate to the medium, again at the expense of glucose and proportionally to its levels. Most of the glucose was converted to lactate with only part of it being used to synthesize fat. Cultured adipocytes were largely anaerobic, but this was not a Warburg-like process. It is speculated that the massive production of lactate, is a process of defense of the adipocyte, used to dispose of excess glucose. This way, the adipocyte exports glucose carbon (and reduces the problem of excess substrate availability) to the liver, but the process may be also a mechanism of short-term control of hyperglycemia. The in vivo data obtained from adipose tissue of male rats agree with this interpretation.

  17. Iodixanol Gradient Centrifugation to Separate Components of the Low-Density Membrane Fraction from 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Jessica B A; Lamb, Christopher A; Gould, Gwyn W; Bryant, Nia J

    2016-01-01

    We optimized a set of fractionation techniques to facilitate the isolation of subcellular compartments containing insulin-sensitive glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4), which is mobilized from GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) in fat and muscle cells in response to insulin. In the absence of insulin, GLUT4 undergoes a continuous cycle of GSV formation and fusion with other compartments. Full membrane fractionation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes produces a low-density membrane fraction that contains both the constitutive recycling pool (the endosomal recycling compartments) and the insulin-sensitive pool (the GSVs). These two pools can be separated based on density using iodixanol gradient centrifugation, described here. PMID:26832683

  18. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast attachment and proliferation on porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds fabricated with nanophase powder

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ian O; McCabe, Laura R; Baumann, Melissa J

    2006-01-01

    Porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds were fabricated using both nano hydroxyapatite (nano HA) powder (20 nm average particle size) and micro HA powder (10 ?m average particle size), resulting in sintered scaffolds of 59 vol% porosity and 8.61.9 ?m average grain size and 72 vol% porosity and 58855 nm average grain size, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to measure both the grain size and pore size. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast (OB) attachment and proliferation on both nano HA and micro HA porous scaffolds were quantified. As expected, OB cell number was greater on nano HA scaffolds compared with similarly processed micro HA scaffolds 5 days after seeding, while OB attachment did not appear greater on the nano HA scaffolds (p<0.05). PMID:17722535

  19. Lactobacillus plantarum LG42 Isolated from Gajami Sik-Hae Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocyte

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Eun; Oh, Suk-Heung; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether lactic acid bacteria isolated from gajami sik-hae (GLAB) are capable of reducing the intracellular lipid accumulation by downregulating the expression of adipogenesis-related genes in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The GLAB, Lactobacillus plantarum LG42, significantly decreased the intracellular triglyceride storage and the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA expression of transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) ? involved in adipogenesis was markedly decreased by the GLAB treatment. Moreover, the GLAB also decreased the expression level of adipogenic markers like adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2), leptin, GPDH, and fatty acid translocase (CD36) significantly. These results suggest that the GLAB inhibits lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocyte through downregulating the expression of adipogenic transcription factors and other specific genes involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:23555088

  20. Sp1 mediates repression of the resistin gene by PPAR{gamma} agonists in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.S.; Choi, H.H.; Cho, Y.M.; Lee, H.K.; Park, K.S. . E-mail: kspark@snu.ac.kr

    2006-09-15

    Resistin is an adipokine related to obesity and insulin resistance. Expression of the resistin gene is repressed by the treatment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists, thiazolidinediones (TZDs). In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which TZDs inhibit the resistin gene expression. Resistin gene expression was decreased by TZD in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was abolished after treatment of cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor). TZD could not repress the expression of the resistin gene in the presence of mithramycin A (an Sp1 binding inhibitor). Sp1 binding site of the resistin promoter (-122/-114 bp) was necessary for the repression. Further investigation of the effect of TZDs on the modification of Sp1 showed that the level of O-glycosylation of Sp1 was decreased in this process. These results suggest that PPAR{gamma} activation represses the expression of the resistin gene by modulating Sp1 activity.

  1. Increased NIH 3T3 fibroblast functions on cell culture dishes which mimic the nanometer fibers of natural tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Traditional flat tissue cell culture dishes have consisted of polystyrene treated with plasma gases for growing, subculturing, and studying cell behavior in vitro. However, increasingly it has been observed that mimicking natural tissue properties (such as chemistry, three-dimensional structure, mechanical properties, etc) in vitro can lead to a better correlation of in vitro to in vivo cellular functions. The following studies compared traditional NIH 3T3 fibroblasts functions on XanoMatrix scaffolds to standard tissue culture polystyrene. Results found significantly greater fibroblast adhesion and proliferation on XanoMatrix cell culture dishes which mimic the nanoscale geometry of natural tissue fibers with true, tortuous fiber beds creating a robust, consistent, and versatile growth platform. In this manner, this study supports that cell culture dishes which mimic features of natural tissues should be continually studied for a wide range of applications in which mimicking natural cellular functions are important. PMID:26345155

  2. Permethrin alters adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and causes insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonggun; Park, Yooheon; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, J Marshall; Park, Yeonhwa

    2014-09-01

    Pyrethroids are a class of insecticides structurally derived from the naturally occurring insecticides called pyrethrins. Along with emerging evidence that exposure to insecticides is linked to altered weight gain and glucose homeostasis, exposure to pyrethroids has been linked to altered blood glucose levels in humans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the role of permethrin on lipid and glucose metabolisms. Permethrin was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myoblasts to determine its role in lipid and glucose metabolisms, respectively. Permethrin treatment resulted in increased expression of key markers of adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adipocytes. Permethrin significantly reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in myotubes. This is the first report on the role of permethrin in altered lipid metabolism in adipocytes and impaired glucose homeostasis in myotubes. These results may help elucidate fundamental underlying mechanisms between insecticide exposure, particularly permethrin, and potential risk of developing obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:24911977

  3. Cranberries (Oxycoccus quadripetalus) inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes and vascular complications. Systemic inflammation, as seen in obesity, is associated with high plasmatic levels of pro-inflammatory, pro-atherogenic and pro-thrombotic adipokines. Here we studied the effects of lyophilized cranberries (LCB) on the secretion and expression of PAI-1, IL-6, MCP-1 and leptin in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes under baseline conditions and excessive inflammatory response elicitation by stimulation with H2O2. Our data demonstrated that LCB significantly reduced the expression and secretion of IL-6, MCP-1 and leptin, as well as suppressed the overexpression of PAI-1 induced by H2O2. Our findings suggested that LCB counteracted the stimulatory effect of H2O2 on secretion and expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines, implying a potential anti-inflammatory effect during the inflammatory process induced via oxidative stress in adipose tissue. PMID:26593599

  4. Characterization of the respiration of 3T3 cells by laser-induced fluorescence during a cyclic heating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuthan, J.; Dressler, C.; Zabarylo, U.; Minet, O.

    2010-04-01

    The use of lasers in the near infrared spectral range for laser-induced tumor therapy (LITT) demands a new understanding of the thermal responses to repetitive heat stress. The analysis of laser-induced fluorescence during vital monitoring offers an excellent opportunity to solve many of the related issues in this field. The laser-induced fluorescence of the cellular coenzyme NADH was investigated for its time and intensity behavior under heat stress conditions. Heat was applied to vital 3T3 cells (from 22°C to 50°C) according to a typical therapeutical time regime. A sharp increase in temperature resulted in non-linear time behavior when the concentration of this vital coenzyme changed. There are indications that biological systems have a delayed reaction on a cellular level. These results are therefore important for further dosimetric investigations.

  5. A filter paper assay for hyaluronic acid synthetase: application to the enzyme from Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, N M; Cysyk, R L; August, E M

    1995-04-01

    An improved assay for hyaluronic acid (HA) synthetase is described that is suitable for rapid processing of large numbers of samples. High background levels of unincorporated radioactivity are removed by passage of the reaction through a Sephadex G-50 spin column. The labeled HA product is then precipitated onto glass fiber filters with cetylpyridinium chloride. Apparent Km values for HA synthetase from Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts are 10.8 and 58.4 microM for UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, respectively. HA synthetase activity of quiescent cells is 4.5% of that found in actively growing cells and is stimulated in response to 10% calf serum. There is a greater than 10-fold increase in HA synthetase activity when cells are harvested with hyaluronidase as compared with trypsin. PMID:7549931

  6. Low-Dose Bisphenol-A Impairs Adipogenesis and Generates Dysfunctional 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ariemma, Fabiana; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Liguoro, Domenico; Oriente, Francesco; Cabaro, Serena; Liotti, Antonietta; Cimmino, Ilaria; Longo, Michele; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro; Valentino, Rossella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs), including bisphenol-A (BPA), have been recently involved in obesity and diabetes by dysregulating adipose tissue function. Our aim was to examine whether prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA could affect adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolic functions. Therefore, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were cultured for three weeks with BPA 1nM to mimic human environmental exposure. We evaluated BPA effect on cell proliferation, differentiation, gene expression and adipocyte metabolic function. BPA significantly increased pre-adipocyte proliferation (p<0.01). In 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiated in the presence of BPA, the expression of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4/Adipocyte Protein 2 (FABP4/AP2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα) was increased by 3.5, 1.5 and 3 folds, respectively. Mature adipocytes also showed a significant increase in lipid accumulation (p<0.05) and alterations of insulin action, with significant reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose utilization (p<0.001). Moreover, in mature adipocytes, mRNA levels of Leptin, interleukin-6 (IL6) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) were significantly increased (p<0.05). In conclusion, BPA prolonged exposure at low doses, consistent with those found in the environment, may affect adipocyte differentiation program, enhancing pre-adipocyte proliferation and anticipating the expression of the master genes involved in lipid/glucose metabolism. The resulting adipocytes are hypertrophic, with impaired insulin signaling, reduced glucose utilization and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, these data supported the hypothesis that BPA exposure, during critical stages of adipose tissue development, may cause adipocyte metabolic dysfunction and inflammation, thereby increasing the risk of developing obesity-related diseases. PMID:26942597

  7. Low-Dose Bisphenol-A Impairs Adipogenesis and Generates Dysfunctional 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ariemma, Fabiana; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Liguoro, Domenico; Oriente, Francesco; Cabaro, Serena; Liotti, Antonietta; Cimmino, Ilaria; Longo, Michele; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro; Valentino, Rossella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs), including bisphenol-A (BPA), have been recently involved in obesity and diabetes by dysregulating adipose tissue function. Our aim was to examine whether prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA could affect adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolic functions. Therefore, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were cultured for three weeks with BPA 1nM to mimic human environmental exposure. We evaluated BPA effect on cell proliferation, differentiation, gene expression and adipocyte metabolic function. BPA significantly increased pre-adipocyte proliferation (p<0.01). In 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiated in the presence of BPA, the expression of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4/Adipocyte Protein 2 (FABP4/AP2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα) was increased by 3.5, 1.5 and 3 folds, respectively. Mature adipocytes also showed a significant increase in lipid accumulation (p<0.05) and alterations of insulin action, with significant reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose utilization (p<0.001). Moreover, in mature adipocytes, mRNA levels of Leptin, interleukin-6 (IL6) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) were significantly increased (p<0.05). In conclusion, BPA prolonged exposure at low doses, consistent with those found in the environment, may affect adipocyte differentiation program, enhancing pre-adipocyte proliferation and anticipating the expression of the master genes involved in lipid/glucose metabolism. The resulting adipocytes are hypertrophic, with impaired insulin signaling, reduced glucose utilization and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, these data supported the hypothesis that BPA exposure, during critical stages of adipose tissue development, may cause adipocyte metabolic dysfunction and inflammation, thereby increasing the risk of developing obesity-related diseases. PMID:26942597

  8. Depletion of mitoferrins leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and impairment of adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-C; Wu, Y-T; Wei, Y-H

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of iron homeostasis is a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance. Iron transported into mitochondria by mitoferrins is mainly utilized for the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters, heme, and other cofactors. Recent studies revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction leads to impaired adipogenesis and insulin insensitivity in adipocytes. However, it is unknown whether mitochondrial iron import and iron status affect the biogenesis and function of mitochondria during adipogenic differentiation. In this study, we used double knockdown of mitoferrin 1 and mitoferrin 2 (Mfrn1/2) to investigate the role of mitochondrial iron homeostasis in mitochondrial bioenergetic function and adipogenic differentiation. The results showed that depletion of Mfrn1/2 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes impaired the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur proteins in mitochondria due to a decrease in mitochondrial iron content. This was associated with a decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate and intracellular ATP level in adipocytes with Mfrn1/2 knockdown. Remarkably, Mfrn1/2 deficiency reduced the expression of adipogenic genes and lipid production during adipogenic differentiation. Moreover, insulin-induced glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation at the Ser473 residue were decreased concurrently in adipocytes differentiated from 3T3-L1 preadipocytes after knockdown of Mfrn1/2. These findings suggest that dysregulation of mitochondrial iron metabolism elicited by knockdown of Mfrn1/2 results in mitochondrial dysfunction, which culminates in the compromise of differentiation and insulin insensitivity of adipocytes. This scenario may explain the recent findings that iron deficiency or alterations in iron metabolism are associated with the pathogenesis of T2DM. PMID:26118715

  9. Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and angiogenesis and obesity in C57/BL mice.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Asma; Wu, Dayong; Kwan, Paul; Meydani, Mohsen

    2009-05-01

    Angiogenesis is necessary for the growth of adipose tissue. Dietary polyphenols may suppress growth of adipose tissue through their antiangiogenic activity and by modulating adipocyte metabolism. We investigated the effect of curcumin, the major polyphenol in turmeric spice, on angiogenesis, adipogenesis, differentiation, apoptosis, and gene expression involved in lipid and energy metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocyte in cell culture systems and on body weight gain and adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet (22%) supplemented with 500 mg curcumin/kg diet for 12 wk. Curcumin (5-20 micromol/L) suppressed 3T3-L1 differentiation, caused apoptosis, and inhibited adipokine-induced angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Supplementing the high-fat diet of mice with curcumin did not affect food intake but reduced body weight gain, adiposity, and microvessel density in adipose tissue, which coincided with reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR-2. Curcumin increased 5'AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, reduced glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase-1, and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 expression, which led to increased oxidation and decreased fatty acid esterification. The in vivo effect of curcumin on the expression of these enzymes was also confirmed by real-time RT-PCR in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In addition, curcumin significantly lowered serum cholesterol and expression of PPARgamma and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, 2 key transcription factors in adipogenesis and lipogenesis. The curcumin suppression of angiogenesis in adipose tissue together with its effect on lipid metabolism in adipocytes may contribute to lower body fat and body weight gain. Our findings suggest that dietary curcumin may have a potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:19297423

  10. Role of Sandhika: a polyherbal formulation on MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Yamini B; Tripathi, Pratibha; Korlagunta, Kiranmayi; Chai, Sheau Ching; Smith, Brenda J; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2008-02-01

    Sandhika is a polyherbal formulation, (water soluble fraction of Commiphora mukul, Boswellia serrata, Semecarpus anacardium and Strychnos nux vomica), which has been in clinical use in India for last 20 years. Its modified formulation BHUx has shown specific inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and lipoxygenase (LOX)-15 and has prevented diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. In order to explore the possibility of the use of Sandhika for the management of osteoporosis, we have examined its influence on MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells in presence of lipopolysaccharide (1 microg/ml) in terms of calcium nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase activity. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells (80% confluence in 6-well plates) were treated with water extract of Sandhika, for 10 days, in the concentration range of 0.5 to 16 mg/ml final concentration, in presence of LPS. Media was changed on every third day and culture supernatant was collected after every change to assess the alkaline phosphatase activity and on the tenth day, cells were washed and stained with "Alizarin S" for visualization of calcium nodules by using Meta Morph software (Universal Imaging, Downingtown, PA). The results showed significant enhancement in calcium nodule formation in the dose dependent manner up to 2 mg/ml, followed by gradual decrease at higher concentrations. This change was accompanied with the increase in the alkaline phosphatase activity in these plates, indicating a potential anabolic effect of this polyherbal formulation on osteoblast-like cells under inflammatory conditions induced by LPS. PMID:17687634

  11. Adiponectin and AMP kinase activator stimulate proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Ippei; Yamaguchi, Toru; Yano, Shozo; Yamauchi, Mika; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2007-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is a key mediator of the metabolic syndrome that is caused by visceral fat accumulation. Adiponectin and its receptors are known to be expressed in osteoblasts, but their actions with regard to bone metabolism are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Results Adiponectin receptor type 1 (AdipoR1) mRNA was detected in the cells by RT-PCR. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase) was phosphorylated by both adiponectin and a pharmacological AMP kinase activator, 5-amino-imidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside (AICAR), in the cells. AdipoR1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection potently knocked down the receptor mRNA, and the effect of this knockdown persisted for as long as 10 days after the transfection. The transfected cells showed decreased expressions of type I collagen and osteocalcin mRNA, as determined by real-time PCR, and reduced ALP activity and mineralization, as determined by von Kossa and Alizarin red stainings. In contrast, AMP kinase activation by AICAR (0.010.5 mM) in wild-type MC3T3-E1 cells augmented their proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization. BrdU assay showed that the addition of adiponectin (0.011.0 ?g/ml) also promoted their proliferation. Osterix, but not Runx-2, appeared to be involved in these processes because AdipoR1 siRNA transfection and AICAR treatments suppressed and enhanced osterix mRNA expression, respectively. Conclusion Taken together, this study suggests that adiponectin stimulates the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts via the AdipoR1 and AMP kinase signaling pathways in autocrine and/or paracrine fashions. PMID:18047638

  12. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on chemerin secretion in 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; López-Yoldi, Miguel; Sinal, Christopher J; Martínez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2016-03-01

    Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and insulin resistance. α-Lipoic acid (α-LA) has shown beneficial properties on diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of α-LA on chemerin production in adipocytes in absence or presence of TNF-α, insulin and AICAR. The potential signaling pathways involved in α-LA effects on chemerin were also analyzed. α-LA actions on chemerin were tested in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in some cases in human subcutaneous and omental adipocytes. Chemerin mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR and the amount of chemerin secreted to culture media was determined by ELISA. α-LA induced a concentration-dependent inhibition on both chemerin secretion and mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The AMPK activator AICAR and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 dramatically abrogated both chemerin secretion and gene expression, and further potentiated the inhibitory effect of α-LA on chemerin secretion. Insulin was able to partially reverse the inhibitory action of α-LA on chemerin secretion. α-LA also reduced basal chemerin secretion in both subcutaneous and omental adipocytes from overweight/obese subjects. Moreover, α-LA was able to abolish the stimulatory effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α on chemerin secretion. Our data demonstrated the ability of α-LA to inhibit chemerin production, an adipokine associated to obesity and metabolic syndrome, suggesting that the reduction of chemerin could contribute to the antiobesity/antidiabetic properties described for α-LA. PMID:26721419

  13. Osmotic shrinkage elicits FAK- and Src phosphorylation and Src-dependent NKCC1 activation in NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Mller, Helene Steenkr Holm; Jrgensen, Bente; Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2015-01-15

    The mechanisms linking cell volume sensing to volume regulation in mammalian cells remain incompletely understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Src, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and Janus kinase-2 (Jak2) occurs after osmotic shrinkage of NIH3T3 fibroblasts and contributes to volume regulation by activation of NKCC1. FAK phosphorylation at Tyr397, Tyr576/577, and Tyr861 was increased rapidly after exposure to hypertonic (575 mOsm) saline, peaking after 10 (Tyr397, Tyr576/577) and 10-30 min (Tyr861). Shrinkage-induced Src family kinase autophosphorylation (pTyr416-Src) was induced after 2-10 min, and immunoprecipitation indicated that this reflected phosphorylation of Src itself, rather than Fyn and Yes. Phosphorylated Src and FAK partly colocalized with vinculin, a focal adhesion marker, after hypertonic shrinkage. The Src inhibitor pyrazolopyrimidine-2 (PP2, 10 ?M) essentially abolished shrinkage-induced FAK phosphorylation at Tyr576/577 and Tyr861, yet not at Tyr397, and inhibited shrinkage-induced NKCC1 activity by ?50%. The FAK inhibitor PF-573,228 augmented shrinkage-induced Src phosphorylation, and inhibited shrinkage-induced NKCC1 activity by ?15%. The apparent role of Src in NKCC1 activation did not reflect phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase (MLC), which was unaffected by shrinkage and by PP2, but may involve Jak2, a known target of Src, which was rapidly activated by osmotic shrinkage and inhibited by PP2. Collectively, our findings suggest a major role for Src and possibly the Jak2 axis in shrinkage-activation of NKCC1 in NIH3T3 cells, whereas no evidence was found for major roles for FAK and MLC in this process. PMID:25377086

  14. Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTP) Associates with Cytosolic Lipid Droplets in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Delia B.; Harris, Carla M.; Johnson, Joyce E.; Mohler, Peter J.; Jerome, W. Gray; Swift, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets are intracellular energy storage organelles composed of a hydrophobic core of neutral lipid, surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipid and a diverse array of proteins. The function of the vast majority of these proteins with regard to the formation and/or turnover of lipid droplets is unknown. Our laboratory was the first to report that microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), a lipid transfer protein essential for the assembly of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, was expressed in adipose tissue of humans and mice. In addition, our studies suggested that MTP was associated with lipid droplets in both brown and white fat. Our observations led us to hypothesize that MTP plays a key role in lipid droplet formation and/or turnover. The objective of these studies was to gain insight into the function of MTP in adipocytes. Using molecular, biochemical, and morphologic approaches we have shown: 1) MTP protein levels increase nearly five-fold as 3T3-L1 cells differentiate into adipocytes. 2) As 3T3-L1 cells undergo differentiation, MTP moves from the juxtanuclear region of the cell to the surface of lipid droplets. MTP and perilipin 2, a major lipid droplet surface protein, are found on the same droplets; however, MTP does not co-localize with perilipin 2. 3) Inhibition of MTP activity has no effect on the movement of triglyceride out of the cell either as a lipid complex or via lipolysis. 4) MTP is found associated with lipid droplets within hepatocytes from human fatty livers, suggesting that association of MTP with lipid droplets is not restricted to adipocytes. In summary, our data demonstrate that MTP is a lipid droplet-associated protein. Its location on the surface of the droplet in adipocytes and hepatocytes, coupled with its known function as a lipid transfer protein and its increased expression during adipocyte differentiation suggest a role in lipid droplet biology. PMID:26267806

  15. Effect of a dominant inhibitory Ha-ras mutation on mitogenic signal transduction in NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, H; Szebernyi, J; Cooper, G M

    1990-01-01

    We used a dominant inhibitory mutation of c-Ha-ras which changes Ser-17 to Asn-17 in the gene product p21 [p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras] to investigate ras function in mitogenic signal transduction. An NIH 3T3 cell line [NIH(M17)] was isolated that displayed inducible expression of the mutant Ha-ras gene (Ha-ras Asn-17) via the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat and was growth inhibited by dexamethasone. The effect of dexamethasone induction on response of quiescent NIH(M17) cells to mitogens was then analyzed. Stimulation of DNA synthesis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was completely blocked by p21(Asn-17) expression, and stimulation by serum, fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor was partially inhibited. However, the induction of fos, jun, and myc by EGF and TPA was not significantly inhibited in this cell line. An effect of p21(Asn-17) on fos induction was, however, demonstrated in transient expression assays in which quiescent NIH 3T3 cells were cotransfected with a fos-cat receptor plasmid plus a Ha-ras Asn-17 expression vector. In this assay, p21(Asn-17) inhibited chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression induced by EGF and other growth factors. In contrast to its effect on DNA synthesis, however, Ha-ras Asn-17 expression did not inhibit fos-cat expression induced by TPA. Conversely, downregulation of protein kinase C did not inhibit fos-cat induction by activated ras or other oncogenes. These results suggest that ras proteins are involved in at least two parallel mitogenic signal transduction pathways, one of which is independent of protein kinase C. Although either pathway alone appears to be sufficient to induce fos, both appear to be necessary to induce the full mitogenic response. Images PMID:2118993

  16. The Effect of Bovine Parathyroid Hormone Withdrawal on MC3T3-E1 Cell Proliferation and Phosphorus Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sijia; Cui, Tongxia; Li, Zhonghe; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zhuo; Wu, Jianxiong; Liang, Xinling; Lin, Zheng; Shi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia are common complications after parathyroidectomy (PTX). Sudden removal of high circulating levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes decreased osteoclastic resorption resulting in a decreased bone remodeling space. These phenomena are likely due to an increased influx of calcium and phosphorus into bone. However, there are currently no data to support this hypothesis. In this study, we found that PTX significantly reduced levels of PTH, calcium and phosphate. Compared with preoperative levels, after 1 year, postoperative PTH, calcium and phosphate levels were 295.6 173.7 pg/mL (P < 0.05), 86.62 15.98 mg/dL (P < 0.05) and 5.56 2.03 mg/dL (P < 0.05), respectively. We investigated continuous bovine PTH administration as well as withdrawal of bovine PTH stimulation in the mouse osteoblast precursor cell line MC3T3-E1. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with continuous bovine PTH treatment for 20 days or with transient bovine PTH treatment for 10 days. High doses of continuous bovine PTH exposure strongly reduced cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and the number of mineralized calcium nodules. However, withdrawal of bovine PTH (100 ng/mL) significantly increased the number of mineralized calcium nodules and caused a rapid decline in calcium and phosphorus content of culture medium. In conclusion, continuous exposure to bovine PTH inhibited osteoblast differentiation and reduced the formation of mineralized nodules. However, this inhibition was removed and mineralized nodule formation resumed with withdrawal of bovine PTH. According to the results of our clinical examinations and in vitro experiments, we hypothesize that the sudden removal of high levels of PTH may cause an increased influx of calcium and phosphorus into bone after PTX. PMID:25775025

  17. Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3T3-L1 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella; Masserdotti, Alice; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Papa, Matteo; Caimi, Luigi; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2016-04-15

    Trace concentration of EDs (endocrine disrupting compounds) in water bodies caused by wastewater treatment plant effluents is a recognized problem for the health of aquatic organisms and their potential to affect human health. In this paper we show that continuous exposure of male mice from early development to the adult life (140days) to unrestricted drinking of wastewater collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant, is associated with an increased adipose deposition and weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. In parallel, bisphenol A (BPA) at the administration dose of 5μg/kg/body weight, shows an increasing effect on total body weight and fat mass. In vitro, a solid phase extract (SPE) of the wastewater (eTW), caused stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at dilutions of 0.4 and 1 % in the final culture medium which contained a concentration of BPA of 40nM and 90nM respectively. Pure BPA also promoted adipocytes differentiation at the concentration of 50 and 80μM. BPA effect in 3T3-L1 cells was associated to the specific activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in undifferentiated cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in differentiated cells. BPA also activated the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) upregulating a minimal 3XPPARE luciferase reporter and the PPARγ-target promoter of the aP2 gene in adipose cells, while it was not effective in preadipocytes. The pure estrogen receptor agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) played an opposite action to that of BPA inhibiting PPARγ activity in adipocytes, preventing cell differentiation, activating ERα in preadipocytes and inhibiting ERα and ERβ regulation in adipocytes. The results of this work show that the drinking of chemically-contaminated wastewater promotes fat deposition in male mice and that EDs present in sewage are likely responsible for this effect through a nuclear receptor-mediated mechanism. PMID:26944108

  18. [Determination of the activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase in the differentiated 3T3-F442A cells by enzyme-linked spectrophotometric assay].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Sha; Wang, Yan; Du, Ying; Li, Sanqiang; Xuan, Xiaoyan; Tang, Yue

    2008-10-01

    In order to probe into the patho-physiology semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), we determined the variation of its activity in the days of 3T3-F442A cells' differentiation into adipocytes in vitro. The differentiated 3T3-F442A cells were collected in various days and disrupted by ultrasonication. Then we studied the SSAO activity of the collected cells by oxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay. In the course of 3T3-F442A cells' differentiation, SSAO expression was shown by a curve graph. There was no SSAO detected in 3T3-F442A preadipocyte, and only a little of SSAO was detected in the cells on the 3rd day of differentiation. Since then, SSAO significantly increased and reached to a maximum level six or seven days after the cells' differentiation. PMID:19024467

  19. Fucoxanthin exerts differing effects on 3T3-L1 cells according to differentiation stage and inhibits glucose uptake in mature adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Seong-Il; Ko, Hee-Chul; Shin, Hye-Sun; Kim, Hyo-Min; Hong, Youn-Suk; Lee, Nam-Ho; Kim, Se-Jae; Jeju Sasa Industry Development Agency, Jeju National University, Jejusi, Jeju 690-756

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} Fucoxanthin enhances 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at an early stage. {yields} Fucoxanthin inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at intermediate and late stages. {yields} Fucoxanthin attenuates glucose uptake by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IRS in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. {yields} Fucoxanthin exerts its anti-obesity effect by inhibiting the differentiation of adipocytes at both intermediate and late stages, as well as glucose uptake in mature adipocytes. -- Abstract: Progression of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation is divided into early (days 0-2, D0-D2), intermediate (days 2-4, D2-D4), and late stages (day 4 onwards, D4-). In this study, we investigated the effects of fucoxanthin, isolated from the edible brown seaweed Petalonia binghamiae, on adipogenesis during the three differentiation stages of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When fucoxanthin was applied during the early stage of differentiation (D0-D2), it promoted 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, as evidenced by increased triglyceride accumulation. At the molecular level, fucoxanthin increased protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), and aP2, and adiponectin mRNA expression, in a dose-dependent manner. However, it reduced the expression of PPAR{gamma}, C/EBP{alpha}, and SREBP1c during the intermediate (D2-D4) and late stages (D4-D7) of differentiation. It also inhibited the uptake of glucose in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by reducing the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). These results suggest that fucoxanthin exerts differing effects on 3T3-L1 cells of different differentiation stages and inhibits glucose uptake in mature adipocytes.

  20. Influence of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast culture on the corrosion of a T6-treated AZ91 alloy.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Emily K; Tobias, Menachem E; Yang, Shuying; Bone, Lawrence B; Ehrensberger, Mark T

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the corrosion of artificially aged T6 heat-treated Mg-9%Al-1%Zn (AZ91) for biomedical applications. Corrosion tests and surface analysis were completed both with and without a monolayer of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the sample. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICPMS) were used to explore the corrosion processes after either 3 or 21 days of AZ91 incubation in cell culture medium (CCM). The EIS showed both the inner layer resistance (Rin ) and outer layer resistance (Rout ) were lower for samples without cells cultured on the surface at 3 days (Rin ?=?2.64e4 ?/cm(2) , Rout ?=?140 ?/cm(2) ) compared to 21 days (Rin ?=?3.60e4 ?/cm(2) , Rout ?=?287 ?/cm(2) ) due to precipitation of magnesium and calcium phosphates over time. Samples with preosteoblasts cultured on the surface had a slower initial corrosion (3 day, Rin ?=?1.88e5 ?/cm(2) , Rout ?=?1060 ?/cm(2) ) which was observed to increase over time (21 day, Rin ?=?2.99e4 ?/cm(2) , Rout ?=?287 ?/cm(2) ). Changes in the corrosion processes were thought to be related to changes in the coverage provided by the cell layer. Our results reveal that the presence of cells and biological processes are able to significantly influence the corrosion rate of AZ91. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 253-262, 2016. PMID:25715925

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Purple Sweet Potato Leaf Extract on the Proliferation and Lipogenesis of the 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shou-Lun; Lee, Hsien-Kuang; Chin, Ting-Yu; Tu, Ssu-Chieh; Kuo, Ming-Hsun; Kao, Ming-Ching; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purple sweet potato leaves (PSPLs) are healthy vegetable that is rich in anti-oxidants. A solution of boiling water extract of PSPL (PSPLE) is believed to be able to prevent obesity and metabolic syndrome in the countryside of Taiwan, but its efficacy has not yet been verified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible anti-adipogenesis effect of PSPLE in vitro. PSPLE was used to treat the 3T3-L1 cells, and the effects on cell proliferation and adipogenesis were investigated. The results showed that PSPLE caused a dose-dependent decrease in the cell proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, but did not alter the cell viability. In addition, PSPLE induced ERK inactivation in the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, pre-treatment of confluent 3T3-L1 cells with PSPLE led to reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The inhibition of lipogenesis could result from the PSPLE-induced down-regulation of the expression of the C/EBP? and SREBP-1 transcription factors during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that PSPLE not only inhibits cell proliferation at an early stage but also inhibits adipogenesis at a later stage of the differentiation program. PMID:26205968

  2. Suppression of lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by autophagy during initial infection in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jang, Gun-Hee; Lee, Jihui; Kim, Na-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Hyeon; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Han, Minsub; Ahn, Soon Kil; Kang, Hara; Lee, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the infectious cause of the angioproliferative neoplasm Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). We first confirmed the susceptibility of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to KSHV by infecting them with BCP-1-derived KSHV. Lytic replication of KSHV was confirmed by PCR amplification of viral DNA isolated from culture supernatants of KSHV-infected cells. The template from KSHV-infected NIH 3T3 cells resulted in an intense viral DNA PCR product. A time course experiment revealed the disappearance of KSHV-specific DNA in culture supernatant of NIH 3T3 cells during a period between 48 h and 72 h postinfection. Furthermore, 3 days postinfection, infected NIH 3T3 cells showed no evidence of latent or lytic transcripts, including LANA, vFLIP, vCyclin, and vIL-6. These results imply that KSHV infection in NIH 3T3 cells is unstable and is rapidly lost on subsequent culturing. Additionally, we detected an enhancement of autophagy early in infection with KSHV. More interestingly, inhibition of autophagy by Beclin 1 siRNA or 3-methyladenine significantly increased the amount of KSHV-specific DNA in the culture supernatant of NIH 3T3 cells when compared to the group treated with KSHV infection alone, implying that autophagy prevents lytic replication of KSHV. Taken together, our data suggest that autophagy could be one of the cellular mechanisms utilized by host cells to promote viral clearance. PMID:26620587

  3. Murine 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Cell Differentiation Model: Validated Reference Genes for qPCR Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arsenijevic, Tatjana; Grgoire, Franoise; Delforge, Valrie; Delporte, Christine; Perret, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of gene expression at the mRNA level, using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), mandatorily requires reference genes (RGs) as internal controls. However, increasing evidences have shown that RG expression may vary considerably under experimental conditions. We sought for an appropriate panel of RGs to be used in the 3T3-L1 cell line model during their terminal differentiation into adipocytes. To this end, the expression levels of a panel of seven widely used RG mRNAs were measured by qRT-PCR. The 7 RGs evaluated were -actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase I (HPRT), ATP synthase H+ transporting mitochondrial F1 complex beta subunit (ATP-5b), tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5- monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (Ywhaz), Non-POU-domain containing octamer binding protein (NoNo), and large ribosomal protein L13a (RPL). Methodology/Principal Findings Using three Excel applications, GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, we observed that the number and the stability of potential RGs vary significantly during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. mRNA expression analyses using qRT-PCR revealed that during the entire differentiation program, only NoNo expression is relatively stable. Moreover, the RG sets that were acceptably stable were different depending on the phase of the overall differentiation process (i.e. mitotic clonal expansion versus the terminal differentiation phase). RPL, ACTB, and Ywhaz, are suitable for terminal differentiation, whereas ATP-5b and HPRT, are suitable during mitotic clonal expansion. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that special attention must be given to the choice of suitable RGs during the various well defined phases of adipogenesis to ensure accurate data analysis and that the use of several RGs is absolutely required. Consequently, our data show for the first time, that during mitotic clonal expansion, the most suitable RGs are ATP-5b, NoNo and HPRT, while during terminal differentiation the most suitable RGs are, NoNo, RPL, ACTB and Ywhaz. PMID:22629413

  4. Fluid Shear-Induced ATP Secretion Mediates Prostaglandin Release in MC3T3-E1 Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Genetos, Damian C.; Geist, Derik J.; Dawei, Liu; Donahue, Henry J.; Duncan, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    ATP is rapidly released from osteoblasts in response to mechanical load. We examined the mechanisms involved in this release and established that shear-induced ATP release was mediated through vesicular fusion and was dependent on Ca2+ entry into the cell via L-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels. Degradation of secreted ATP by apyrase prevented shear-induced PGE2 release. Introduction Fluid shear induces a rapid rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in osteoblasts that mediates many of the cellular responses associated with mechanotransduction in bone. A potential mechanism for this increase in [Ca2+]i is the activation of purinergic (P2) receptors resulting from shear-induced extracellular release of ATP. This study was designed to determine the effects of fluid shear on ATP release and the possible mechanisms associated with this release. Methods MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts were plated on type I collagen, allowed to proliferate to 90% confluency, then subjected to 12 dynes/cm2 laminar fluid flow using a parallel plate flow chamber. ATP release into the flow media was measured using a luciferin/luciferase assay. Inhibitors of channels, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and vesicular formation were added prior to shear and maintained in the flow medium for the duration of the experiment. Results and Conclusions Fluid shear produced a transient increase in ATP release compared to static MC3T3-E1 cells (59.815.7nM vs. 6.21.8nM, respectively), peaking within 1 min of onset. Inhibition of calcium entry through the L-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel (L-VSCC) with nifedipine or verapamil significantly attenuated shear-induced ATP release. Channel inhibition had no effect on basal ATP release in static cells. Ca2+ -dependent ATP release in response to shear appeared to result from vesicular release, and not through gap hemichannels, since vesicle disruption with N-ethylmaleimide, brefeldin A, or monensin prevented increases in flow-induced ATP release, whereas inhibition of gap hemichannels with either 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid or 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid did not. Degradation of extracellular ATP with apyrase prevented shear-induced increases in PGE2 release. These data suggest a time line of mechanotransduction wherein fluid shear activates L-VSCC's to promote Ca2+ entry that, in turn, stimulates vesicular ATP release. Further, these data suggest that P2 receptor activation by secreted ATP mediates flow-induced prostaglandin release. PMID:15619668

  5. THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSES OF FEEDER CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle causes reduced performance and in the most severe cases death, thus resulting in the loss of millions of dollars in revenue to the cattle industry. A study was designed to investigate the thermoregulatory responses of feeder cattle to both acute and chronic exposures t...

  6. Suppressive effects of saponin-enriched extracts from quinoa on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Gao, Yue; Shi, Zhenxing; Hu, Yibo; Ren, Guixing

    2015-10-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of quinoa saponins (QS) on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. QS inhibited triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the mature adipocytes, evidenced by oil-red O staining and intracellular quantification. Real time-PCR analysis and western blot analysis showed that QS significantly down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of key adipogenic transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?), however, they had no significant effect on CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBP?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBP?) which are the upstream regulators for adipogenesis compared with mature adipocytes. QS also reduced mRNA and protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) related to the late stage of adipogenesis. Furthermore, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), adipocyte protein 2 (aP2) and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4), as adipocyte specific genes, were decreased in mature adipocytes by QS treatment. These findings indicate that QS are capable of suppressing adipogenesis and therefore they seem to be natural bioactive factors effective in adipose tissue mass modulation. PMID:26242624

  7. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer of human phenylalanine hydroxylase into NIH 3T3 and hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ledley, F.D.; Grenett, H.E.; McGinnis-Shelnutt, M.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1986-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). A full-length human PAH cDNA sequence has been inserted into pzip-neoSV(X), which is a retroviral vector containing the bacterial neo gene. The recombinant has been transfected into Psi2 cells, which provide synthesis of the retroviral capsid. Recombinant virus was detected in the culture medium of the transfected Psi2 cells, which is capable of transmitting the human PAH gene into mouse NIH 3T3 cells by infection leading to stable incorporation of the recombinant provirus. Infected cells express PAH mRNA, immunoreactive PAH protein, and exhibit pterin-dependent phenylaline hydroxylase activity. The recombinant virus is also capable of infecting a mouse hepatoma cell line that does not normal synthesize PAH. PAH activity is present in the cellular extracts and the entire hydroxylation system is reconstituted in the hepatoma cells infected with the recombinant viruses. Thus, recombinant viruses containing human PAH cDNA provide a means for introducing functional PAH into mammalian cells of hepatic origin and can potentially be introduced into whole animals as a model for somatic gene therapy for PKU.

  8. Curcumin induces brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 and primary white adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lone, Jameel; Choi, Jae Heon; Kim, Sang Woo; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances have been made in the understanding of pharmacological and dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipose tissue in order to combat obesity by promoting energy expenditure. Here, we show that curcumin induces browning of 3T3-L1 and primary white adipocytes via enhanced expression of brown fat-specific genes. Curcumin-induced browning in white adipocytes was investigated by determining expression levels of brown adipocyte-specific genes/proteins by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot analysis and immunocytochemical staining. Curcumin increased mitochondrial biogenesis, as evidenced by transmission electronic microscopic detection and enhanced expression of proteins involved in fat oxidation. Cucurmin also increased protein levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and p-acyl-CoA carboxylase, suggesting its possible role in augmentation of lipolysis and suppression of lipogenesis. Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown adipocyte-specific markers was possibly mediated by curcumin-induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) based on the fact that inhibition of AMPK by dorsomorphin abolished expression of PRDM16, UCP1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha while the activator 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide elevated expression of these brown marker proteins. Our findings suggest that curcumin plays a dual modulatory role in inhibition of adipogenesis as well as induction of the brown fat-like phenotype and thus may have potential therapeutic implications for treatment of obesity. PMID:26456563

  9. Effect of germinated soybean protein hydrolysates on adipogenesis and adipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    González-Espinosa de los Monteros, L A; Ramón-Gallegos, E; Torres-Torres, N; Mora-Escobedo, R

    2011-11-01

    Germination of soybeans increases the bioavailability of some nutrients. An evaluation was done to determine if germination increased the anti-adipogenic and lipolytic effects of soybean. Soybeans were germinated for 0 to 6 days and protein concentrates extracted from beans germinated at each period. Soy protein concentrates can retain notable amounts of phytochemicals with anti-adipogenic activity. For this reason, it was evaluated the effect of protein hydrolysates with and without phytochemicals in the adipocyte-like cells after 3T3-L1 (murine fibroblasts) cell line differentiation. Cell viability decreased with exposure to the germinated soybean protein hydrolysates during the differentiation stage, but not during the fibroblast or mature adipocyte stages. Adipogenesis and triglycerides accumulation were strongly inhibited by the hydrolysate from soybeans germinated for 2 days (with ethanol-soluble phytochemicals), when compared to ungerminated soybean. Adipolysis increased with exposure to hydrolysates from beans germinated for 2 days (with phytochemicals) and 5 days (without phytochemicals). Germinated soy protein hydrolysates had an effect on inhibition of lipid storage in adypocites and increasing lipolysis, which was improved by changes of the protein and increased phytochemical content due to germination. PMID:22108960

  10. Basis for defective responses of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid lymphocytes to anti-CD3 (T3) antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Lotz, M; Tsoukas, C D; Robinson, C A; Dinarello, C A; Carson, D A; Vaughan, J H

    1986-01-01

    Synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC) from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis characteristically respond poorly to mitogens. In this study, mitogenic antibodies reactive with the CD3(T3) antigen on human T lymphocytes were used to analyze the basis for the deficiency. OKT3-induced proliferation and release of interleukin 1 (IL-1) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) from SFMC were depressed in all patients. Purified IL-1 or recombinant IL-2 restored proliferative responses in SFMC and increased IL-2 receptor density. Exogenous IL-1 also enhanced IL-2 release. Fractionation of SFMC supernatants on phosphocellulose columns revealed the presence of IL-1 and a potent IL-1 inhibitor. The monocyte-derived IL-1 inhibitor blocked IL-1-dependent responses of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes to OKT3, but had no effect on IL-2-dependent events. These results suggest that IL-1 inhibitor(s) in SFMC impair(s) OKT3-induced mitogenesis by interfering with the effects of IL-1 on T lymphocytes. The net result is deficient IL-2 secretion, IL-2 receptor expression, and impaired cellular proliferation. This novel inhibitory circuit provides a rational explanation for the diminished function of synovial fluid T lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID:3091636

  11. Dietary polyphenols preconditioning protects 3T3-L1 preadipocytes from mitochondrial alterations induced by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Baret, Pascal; Septembre-Malaterre, Axelle; Rigoulet, Michel; Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Christian; Priault, Muriel; Gonthier, Marie-Paule; Devin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly affects white adipose tissue biology and leads to an inflammatory profile and insulin resistance, which could contribute to obesity-associated diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Mitochondria play a key role in adipose tissue energy metabolism and constitute the main source of cellular ROS such as H(2)O(2). Polyphenols constitute the most abundant antioxidants provided by the human diet. Indeed, they are widely distributed in fruits, vegetables and some plant-derived beverages such as coffee and tea. Thus, the biological effects of dietary polyphenols that may increase the antioxidant capacity of the body against obesity-induced oxidative stress are of high interest. Here, we studied the capacity of polyphenols to modulate the impact of oxidative stress on the mitochondria of preadipocytes, which are important cells governing the adipose tissue development for energy homeostasis. Whereas H(2)O(2) treatment induces a proliferation arrest associated with an increase in mitochondrial content in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, preconditioning with some major dietary polyphenols totally or partially protects the cells against oxidative stress consequences. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Bioenergetic dysfunction, adaptation and therapy. PMID:23103716

  12. Mechano-regulatory cellular behaviors of NIH/3T3 in response to the storage modulus of liquid crystalline substrates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Wang, Lei; Huang, Hao; Tan, Ruizhe; Zhao, Jupeng; Yang, Shenyu; Zeng, Rong; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Jiaqing; Yu, Bin; Tu, Mei

    2016-04-01

    The extent of substrate stiffness has been shown to be predominant in regulating cellular behaviors. Previous studies have used matrices such as elastomers or hydrogels to understand cell behavior. Herein, liquid crystalline matrices that resemble movable morphology of biomembrane and viscoelasticity were fabricated with tunable storage modulus for the evaluation of the modulus-driven cell behaviors. Our results demonstrated that NIH/3T3 cells showed a hypersensitive response to the storage modulus of liquid crystalline substrates by the alteration in attachment, spreading, proliferation and viability, polarization, cell cycle and apoptosis, and activity of mechano-transduction-related signal molecules including FAK, paxillin and ERK. The octyl hydroxypropyl cellulose substrates (OPC-1-5) with intermediate storage modulus of 12,312Pa and 7228Pa (OPC-2 and OPC-3 respectively) could provide more beneficial adhesion conditions leading to a larger spreading area, more elongated morphology and higher proliferation rates possibly through paxillin-ERK pathway, whereas the substrates with the highest or lowest storage modulus (16,723Pa, OPC-1; and 41Pa, OPC-5, respectively) appeared unfavorable for cell growth. Our study provides insights into the mechanism of modulus-driven cellular behaviors for better design of bioengineered cell substrates. PMID:26703364

  13. Mechanically induced c-fos expression is mediated by cAMP in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    In serum-deprived MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, mechanical stimulation caused by mild (287 x g) centrifugation induced a 10-fold increase in mRNA levels of the proto-oncogene, c-fos. Induction of c-fos was abolished by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89, suggesting that the transient c-fos mRNA increase is mediated by cAMP. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment failed to significantly reduce c-fos induction, suggesting that TPA-sensitive isoforms of PKC are not responsible for c-fos up-regulation. In addition, 287 x g centrifugation increased intracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels 2.8-fold (P<0. 005). Since we have previously shown that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can induce c-fos expression via a cAMP-mediated mechanism, we asked whether the increase in c-fos mRNA was due to centrifugation-induced PGE2 release. Pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and flurbiprofen did not hinder the early induction of c-fos by mechanical stimulation. We conclude that c-fos expression induced by mild mechanical loading is dependent primarily on cAMP, not PKC, and initial induction of c-fos is not necessarily dependent on the action of newly synthesized PGE2.

  14. TNF-? reduces g0s2 expression and stimulates lipolysis through PPAR-? inhibition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dan; Sun, Jun; Huang, Jing; He, Yiduo; Yu, An; Yu, Xiaoling; Yang, Zaiqing

    2014-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a multifunctional cytokine that acts as a mediator of obesity-linked insulin resistance (IR). It is commonly accepted that macrophage-derived TNF-? acts in a paracrine manner on adjacent adipocytes, induces lipolysis, which contributes to obesity-linked hyperglycemia. Several studies suggested that G0/G1 switch gene 2 (g0s2) was up-regulated during adipogenesis, and its protein could be degraded in response to TNF-? stimulation. The aim of the present work was to investigate the transcriptional regulation of g0s2 by TNF-? stimulation. In this study, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated, and treated with TNF-? for 24h. The effects of TNF-? on lipolysis and lipase expression were then examined. Our results revealed that TNF-? exerted dose- and time-dependent lipolytic effects, which could be partially reversed by overexpression of g0s2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (ppar-?). In addition, TNF-? treatment significantly reduced the expression of adiponectin, ppar-?, hormone-sensitive Lipase (hsl), adipose triglyceride lipase (atgl) as well as ATGL co-factors. Interestingly, TNF-? significantly decreased adiponectin and PPAR-? protein levels, while treatment with the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 maintained PPAR-? levels. Degradation of PPAR-? almost completely abolished the binding of PPAR-? to the g0s2 promoter in adipocytes treated with TNF-?. We propose that proteasomal degradation of PPAR-? and the reduction of g0s2 content are permissive for prolonged TNF-? induced lipolysis. PMID:24993166

  15. The uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate exacerbates reactive oxygen species production and inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipose cells.

    PubMed

    Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; Saldanha, Juliana F; Yi, Dan; Mafra, Denise; Fouque, Denis; Soulage, Christophe O

    2016-03-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are common features of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and many uremic solutes retained in these patients could be involved in these processes, among which protein-bound solutes such as indoxyl sulfate (IS). White adipose tissue recently gained attention as an important source of inflammation and oxidative stress. To examine the effect of IS on adipocytes, 3T3-L1 adipose cells were incubated with IS to mimic the conditions encountered in uremic patients. Incubation of adipose cells with IS increased reactive oxygen species production generated mainly through activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase since it was prevented by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Exposure to IS furthermore exacerbated the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 by adipose cells. This inflammatory response was prevented by NADPH oxidase inhibition pinpointing the pivotal role of intracellular oxidative stress. IS induces adipocyte perturbation and promotes inflammatory state mainly through induction of oxidative stress. IS, a uremic toxin, accumulates in CKD patients could, therefore, be an important mediator of adipocyte dysfunction in these patients. PMID:26617268

  16. Deoxyactein stimulates osteoblast function and inhibits bone-resorbing mediators in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Mi

    2013-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. In order to improve the treatment of osteoporosis, identification of anabolic agents with minimal side effects is highly desirable. Cimicifuga racemosa has a long and diverse history of medicinal use and deoxyactein isolated from this species is one of the major constituents. In the present study, the effect of deoxyactein on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells was studied. Deoxyactein caused a significant elevation of cell growth, alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen content, and mineralization in the cells (P?

  17. Curcumin improves hypoxia induced dysfunctions in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by protecting mitochondria and down regulating inflammation.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, Ariyapalli; Anusree, Sasidharan Suseela; Nisha, Vijayakumar Marykutty; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity induced metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. It is characterized by excessive expansion of white adipose tissue which leads to hypoxia and impairs normal metabolism. Recent studies reveal that hypoxia could be one of the factors for inflammation, insulin resistance and other obesity related complications. There is a high demand for anti-obese phytoceuticals to control and manage the complications resulting from obesity. In this study, we investigated how hypoxia affect the physiological functions of 3T3-L1 adipocytes emphasizing on oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial functions. We also evaluated the protective role of various doses of curcumin, a well-known dietary antioxidant, on hypoxia induced alterations. The results revealed that hypoxia significantly altered the vital parameters of adipocyte biology like HIF 1? expression (103.47% ?), lactate, and glycerol release (184.34% and 69.1% ?, respectively), reactive oxygen species production (432.53% ?), lipid and protein oxidation (376.6% and 566.6% ?, respectively), reduction in antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) status, secretion of inflammatory markers (TNF ?, IL 6, IL 1?, and IFN ?), and mitochondrial functions (mitochondrial mass, membrane potential, permeability transition pore integrity, and superoxide generation). Curcumin substantially protected adipocytes from toxic effects of hypoxia in a dose dependent manner by protecting mitochondria and down regulating inflammation. Acriflavine is used as a positive control. A detailed investigation is required for the development of curcumin as an effective nutraceutical against obesity. PMID:25110893

  18. Effects of yerba mat, a plant extract formulation ("YGD") and resveratrol in 3T3-L1 adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Juliana C; Gotardo, Erica M F; Brianti, Mitsue T; Piraee, Mahmood; Gambero, Alessandra; Ribeiro, Marcelo L

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of yerba mat, YGD (a herbal preparation containing yerba mat, guarana and damiana), and resveratrol on adipogenesis. The anti-adipogenic effects of yerba mate, YGD, resveratrol and YGD + resveratrol and yerba mate + resveratrol combinations were evaluated in 3T3-L1 cells by Oil Red staining, cellular triglyceride content, and PCR quantitative array. The results demonstrated that all of the tested compounds inhibited adipogenesis. Yerba mat extract significantly down-regulated the expression of genes that play an important role in regulating adipogenesis, such as Adig, Axin, Cebpa, Fgf10, Lep, Lpl, and Ppar?2. In addition, these genes, YGD also repressed Bmp2, Ccnd1, Fasn, and Srebf1. Resveratrol also modulated the expression of Adig, Bmp2, Ccnd1, C/EBP?, Fasn, Fgf10, Lep, Lpl, and Ppar?2. Moreover, resveratrol repressed Cebpb, Cdk4, Fgf2, and Klf15. The yerba mat extract and YGD up-regulated the expression of genes involved in inhibiting adipogenesis, such as Dlk-1, Klf2, and Ucp1. Resveratrol also induced the expression of Klf2 and Ucp1. In addition resveratrol modulated the Ddit3, Foxo1, Sirt1, and Sirt2. The combined effects of these compounds on gene expression showed similar results observed from individual treatments. Our data indicates that the synergy between the compounds favors the inhibition of adipogenesis. PMID:25338179

  19. The protective effects of guaran extract (Paullinia cupana) on fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells exposed to sodium nitroprusside.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, L S; Machado, D C; Machado, M M; Dos Santos, G F F; Algarve, T D; Marinowic, D R; Ribeiro, E E; Soares, F A A; Barbisan, F; Athayde, M L; Cruz, I B M

    2013-03-01

    The antioxidant effects of the hydro-alcoholic guaran extract (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart.) on nitric oxide (NO) and other compounds generated from the degradation of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in an embryonic fibroblast culture (NIH-3T3 cells) were evaluated. The guaran bioactive compounds were initially determined by high-performance liquid chromatography: caffeine=12.240 mg/g, theobromine=6.733 mg/g and total catechins=4.336 mg/g. Cells were exposed to 10 ?M SNP during a 6 h period because the cells exhibited >90% mortality at this concentration. Guaran was added to the cultures in five concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/mL). The guaran antioxidant effect was evaluated by viability assays, biochemical oxidation [lipid peroxidation, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity] and genotoxicity (DNA Comet assay) analysis. Additionally, oxidative stress was evaluated by a 2,7-dihydrodichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence assay. Guaran reverted the SNP toxicity mainly at lower concentrations (<5 mg), which decreased cell mortality, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and cell oxidative stress as well as increased the SOD levels. These results demonstrate that guaran has an antioxidant effect on NO metabolism in situations with higher cellular NO levels. PMID:23220610

  20. Fluid shear-induced mechanical signaling in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts requires cytoskeleton-integrin interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavalko, F. M.; Chen, N. X.; Turner, C. H.; Burr, D. B.; Atkinson, S.; Hsieh, Y. F.; Qiu, J.; Duncan, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation of bone induces new bone formation in vivo and increases the metabolic activity and gene expression of osteoblasts in culture. We investigated the role of the actin cytoskeleton and actin-membrane interactions in the transmission of mechanical signals leading to altered gene expression in cultured MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Application of fluid shear to osteoblasts caused reorganization of actin filaments into contractile stress fibers and involved recruitment of beta1-integrins and alpha-actinin to focal adhesions. Fluid shear also increased expression of two proteins linked to mechanotransduction in vivo, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the early response gene product c-fos. Inhibition of actin stress fiber development by treatment of cells with cytochalasin D, by expression of a dominant negative form of the small GTPase Rho, or by microinjection into cells of a proteolytic fragment of alpha-actinin that inhibits alpha-actinin-mediated anchoring of actin filaments to integrins at the plasma membrane each blocked fluid-shear-induced gene expression in osteoblasts. We conclude that fluid shear-induced mechanical signaling in osteoblasts leads to increased expression of COX-2 and c-Fos through a mechanism that involves reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Thus Rho-mediated stress fiber formation and the alpha-actinin-dependent anchorage of stress fibers to integrins in focal adhesions may promote fluid shear-induced metabolic changes in bone cells.

  1. Regulation of cell differentiation by hNUDC via a Mpl-dependent mechanism in NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yuping; Tang Yongsong; Chen Xushen; Xu Peilin

    2007-09-10

    Thrombopoietin receptor (Mpl) belongs to the cytokine receptor surperfamily with a large extracellular N-terminal portion responsible for cytokine recognition and binding. Thrombopoietin (TPO) has so far been the only widely studied cytokine for Mpl. However we have recently identified human NUDC (hNUDC), previously described as a human homolog of a fungal nuclear migration protein, as another putative binding partner of Mpl. The purpose of this study is to test the extent of the functioning of hNUDC by identifying protein-protein interactions with Mpl in mammalian cells. The full-length cDNAs encoding Mpl and hNUDC were cloned into pEGFP-N1 and pDsRed2-N1 respectively which were subsequently expressed as Mpl-EGFP (green) and hNUDC-DsRed (red) fusion proteins. Using ELISA and immunofluorescence studies, we have demonstrated the direct binding of hNUDC to cell surface-captured Mpl. We also observed that hNUDC induced significant changes in cellular morphology in NIH 3T3 cells stably transfected with pMpl-EGFP. Interestingly, these morphological changes were characteristic of cells undergoing megakaryocyte differentiation. Extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) have been shown to mediate such megakaryocyte-like differentiation. In addition, co-expression of Mpl-EGFP and hNUDC-DsRed led to the release of hNUDC-DsRed into the culture medium.

  2. Discovery of natural alkaloid bouchardatine as a novel inhibitor of adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yong; Liu, Hong; Gao, Lin; Yu, Hong; Tan, Jia-Heng; Ou, Tian-Miao; Huang, Shi-Liang; Gu, Lian-Quan; Ye, Ji-Ming; Huang, Zhi-Shu

    2015-08-01

    Bouchardatine (1), a naturally occurring ?-indoloquinazoline alkaloid, was synthesized. For the first time, the lipid-lowering effect and mechanism of 1 was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our study showed that 1 could significantly reduce lipid accumulation without cytotoxicity and mainly inhibited early differentiation of adipocyte through proliferation inhibition and cell cycle arrested in dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the inhibition of early differentiation was reflected by down-regulation of key regulators of adipogenesis/lipogenesis, including CCAAT enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP?, C/EBP?, C/EBP?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR?) and sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), in both of mRNA and protein levels. Subsequently decreasing the protein levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and stearyl coenzyme A desaturated enzyme 1 (SCD-1), the rate-limited metabolic enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, were also observed. Further studies revealed that 1 persistently activated adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) during differentiation, suggesting that the AMPK may be an upstream mechanism for the effect of 1 on adipogenesis and lipogenesis. Our data suggest that 1 can be a candidate for the development of new therapeutic drugs against obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:26088335

  3. Chemical constituents of Triticum aestivum and their effects on adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tai, Bui Huu; Lim, Ji Young; Ki, Hyeon Hui; Kim, Dae Ki; Lee, Young Mi; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of wheat sprouts and their component compounds. Twenty compounds (1-20) were isolated from Triticum aestivum. Among them, glycolipids 1-5 were determined for the first time from T. aestivum and its sprouts. The HPLC analysis demonstrated that compounds 1-3, 5, 8, 12, and 14 were major peak in the HPLC chromatogram of the active fraction. The effects of the compounds on lipid accumulation were assessed at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 100 μM. At concentration of 10.0 μM, compounds 1-7, 10-15, and 17-19 significantly decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Glycolipids 1, 2, and phenolic 17 significantly reduced lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Quantitative analysis based on measurement of the optical density of Oil Red O indicated that, at 100 μM, compounds 1, 2, and 17 reduced lipid accumulation by 41, 37, and 48%, respectively, compared with the positive control. PMID:25241774

  4. MC3T3-E1 cell response to stainless steel 316L with different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyu; Han, Jianmin; Sun, Yulong; Huang, Yongling; Zhou, Ming

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, stainless steel 316L samples with polishing, aluminum oxide blasting, and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating were prepared and characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical interferometer (surface roughness, Sq), contact angle, surface composition and phase composition analyses. Osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion on the samples was investigated by cell morphology using a SEM (4h, 1d, 3d, 7d), and cell proliferation was assessed by MTT method at 1d, 3d, and 7d. In addition, adsorption of bovine serum albumin on the samples was evaluated at 1h. The polished sample was smooth (Sq: 1.8nm), and the blasted and HA coated samples were much rougher (Sq: 3.2?m and 7.8?m). Within 1d of incubation, the HA coated samples showed the best cell morphology (e.g., flattened shape and complete spread), but there was no significant difference after 3d and 7d of incubation for all the samples. The absorbance value for the HA coated samples was the highest after 1d and 3d of incubation, indicating better cell viability. However, it reduced to the lowest value at 7d. Protein adsorption on the HA coated samples was the highest at 1h. The results indicate that rough stainless steel surface improves cell adhesion and morphology, and HA coating contributes to superior cell adhesion, but inhibits cell proliferation. PMID:26249561

  5. High-density lipoprotein contribute to G0-G1/S transition in Swiss NIH/3T3 fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Angius, Fabrizio; Spolitu, Stefano; Uda, Sabrina; Deligia, Stefania; Frau, Alessandra; Banni, Sebastiano; Collu, Maria; Accossu, Simonetta; Madeddu, Clelia; Serpe, Roberto; Batetta, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDLs) play a crucial role in removing excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues. Although their concentration is lower during conditions of high cell growth rate (cancer and infections), their involvement during cell proliferation is not known. To this aim, we investigated the replicative cycles in synchronised Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts in different experimental conditions: i) contact-inhibited fibroblasts re-entering cell cycle after dilution; ii) scratch-wound assay; iii) serum-deprived cells induced to re-enter G1 by FCS, HDL or PDGF. Analyses were performed during each cell cycle up to quiescence. Cholesterol synthesis increased remarkably during the replicative cycles, decreasing only after cells reached confluence. In contrast, cholesteryl ester (CE) synthesis and content were high at 24 h after dilution and then decreased steeply in the successive cycles. Flow cytometry analysis of DiO-HDL, as well as radiolabeled HDL pulse, demonstrated a significant uptake of CE-HDL in 24 h. DiI-HDL uptake, lipid droplets (LDs) and SR-BI immunostaining and expression followed the same trend. Addition of HDL or PDGF partially restore the proliferation rate and significantly increase SR-BI and pAKT expression in serum-deprived cells. In conclusion, cell transition from G0 to G1/S requires CE-HDL uptake, leading to CE-HDL/SR-BI pathway activation and CEs increase into LDs. PMID:26640042

  6. Genes Responsive to Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound in MC3T3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Sugahara, Yuuki; Ikegame, Mika; Suzuki, Nobuo; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro; Kondo, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Although low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been shown to enhance bone fracture healing, the underlying mechanism of LIPUS remains to be fully elucidated. Here, to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying cellular responses to LIPUS, we investigated gene expression profiles in mouse MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells exposed to LIPUS using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and computational gene expression analysis tools. Although treatment of the cells with a single 20-min LIPUS (1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm2) did not affect the cell growth or alkaline phosphatase activity, the treatment significantly increased the mRNA level of Bglap. Microarray analysis demonstrated that 38 genes were upregulated and 37 genes were downregulated by 1.5-fold or more in the cells at 24-h post-treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis demonstrated that the gene network U (up) contained many upregulated genes that were mainly associated with bone morphology in the category of biological functions of skeletal and muscular system development and function. Moreover, the biological function of the gene network D (down), which contained downregulated genes, was associated with gene expression, the cell cycle and connective tissue development and function. These results should help to further clarify the molecular basis of the mechanisms of the LIPUS response in osteoblast cells. PMID:24252911

  7. The effect of cultureware surfaces on functional and structural components of differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Pavlikova, Nela; Weiszenstein, Martin; Pala, Jan; Halada, Petr; Seda, Ondrej; Elkalaf, Moustafa; Trnka, Jan; Kovar, Jan; Polak, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Experiments using cultured primary cells or cell lines are a routine in vitro approach used across multiple biological disciplines, However, the structural and functional influences of various cultureware materials on cultured cells is not clearly understood. Surface treatments of cultureware have proven to have profound effects on cell viability and proliferation. In this study, we investigated the impact of polystyrene and fluorocarbon cultureware dishes on the proteomic profile of differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. After expansion and differentiation of cells on appropriate cultureware dishes, cell lysates were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and proteins were visualized with Coomassie blue staining. Spots with the highest differential expression between the two culture conditions were subsequently analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and the identified proteins were subjected to pathway analysis. We observed that 43% of all spots were differentially expressed depending on the cultureware. Pathway analysis revealed that glucose metabolism, mitochondrial structure and cell differentiation, represented by 14-3-3 protein-mediated signaling and the mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system (MINOS), were significantly affected by cultureware material. These results indicate that cultureware material can have a profound effect on key adipocyte functional pathways. These effects modifications of the cells should be reflected in the design of in vitro experiments and interpretation of their results. PMID:26636414

  8. Novel effect of helenalin on Akt signaling and Skp2 expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, Corinth A.; Hopkins, Robin G.; Fernandes, Karishma M.; Morrison, Ron F. . E-mail: ron_morrison@uncg.edu

    2006-07-21

    We have previously shown that the F-box protein, Skp2, is highly regulated during preadipocyte proliferation and plays a mechanistic role in p27 degradation during cell cycle progression. Data presented here demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic phytochemical, helenalin is a potent inhibitor of periodic Skp2 protein accumulation during early phases of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, helenalin was shown to completely block p27 degradation, cyclin A accumulation, and G{sub 1}/S transition resulting in G{sub 1} arrest. Helenalin was also shown to block Skp2 mRNA accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner and to completely suppress hormonally induced Skp2 promoter activity suggesting transcriptional mechanisms were involved. Examination of signaling events previously determined to be important for Skp2 upregulation during adipogenesis revealed impaired Akt phosphorylation immediately preceding the inhibitory effect of helenalin on Skp2 mRNA accumulation. These studies demonstrate a novel effect of helenalin on Skp2 regulation and growth factor receptor signaling during early stages of adipocyte differentiation.

  9. Genes responsive to low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Sugahara, Yuuki; Ikegame, Mika; Suzuki, Nobuo; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro; Kondo, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Although low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been shown to enhance bone fracture healing, the underlying mechanism of LIPUS remains to be fully elucidated. Here, to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying cellular responses to LIPUS, we investigated gene expression profiles in mouse MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells exposed to LIPUS using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and computational gene expression analysis tools. Although treatment of the cells with a single 20-min LIPUS (1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm(2)) did not affect the cell growth or alkaline phosphatase activity, the treatment significantly increased the mRNA level of Bglap. Microarray analysis demonstrated that 38 genes were upregulated and 37 genes were downregulated by 1.5-fold or more in the cells at 24-h post-treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis demonstrated that the gene network U (up) contained many upregulated genes that were mainly associated with bone morphology in the category of biological functions of skeletal and muscular system development and function. Moreover, the biological function of the gene network D (down), which contained downregulated genes, was associated with gene expression, the cell cycle and connective tissue development and function. These results should help to further clarify the molecular basis of the mechanisms of the LIPUS response in osteoblast cells. PMID:24252911

  10. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of ricin binding to plasma membranes isolated from NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Blome, Matthew C; Petro, Kimberly A; Schengrund, Cara-Lynne

    2010-01-15

    As the potential for bioterrorism has appeared to increase, the need for simple systems for identifying potential inhibitors of the binding of such biological agents to cell membranes has increased. In this work, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to monitor binding of ricin, a ribosome-inactivating protein, to the plasma membranes of NIH 3T3 cells. Once conditions were established, efficacy of the system for monitoring effectiveness of compounds at inhibiting ricin binding was ascertained by determining the IC(50) values for asialofetuin (ASF) and for bovine serum albumin derivatized with an average of 34 lactosyl moieties (BSA-Lac(34)). Results indicated that SPR is an efficient method for measuring adherence of a toxin to isolated cell plasma membranes. SPR can also indicate whether a compound that is an effective inhibitor of binding when a single ligand such as ASF is used will be as effective when used in studies with cells that may express multiple cell surface ligands for ricin and/or the inhibitor. PMID:19800858

  11. The Effect of OSM on MC3T3-E1 Osteoblastic Cells in Simulated Microgravity with Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Goyden, Jake; Tawara, Ken; Hedeen, Danielle; Willey, Jeffrey S.; Thom Oxford, Julia; Jorcyk, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    Bone deterioration is a challenge in long-term spaceflight with significant connections to patients experiencing disuse bone loss. Prolonged unloading and radiation exposure, defining characteristics of space travel, have both been associated with changes in inflammatory signaling via IL-6 class cytokines in bone. While there is also evidence for perturbed IL-6 class signaling in spaceflight, there has been scant examination of the connections between microgravity, radiation, and inflammatory stimuli in bone. Our lab and others have shown that the IL-6 class cytokine oncostatin M (OSM) is an important regulator of bone remodeling. We hypothesize that simulated microgravity alters osteoblast OSM signaling, contributing to the decoupling of osteolysis and osteogenesis in bone homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, we induced OSM signaling in murine MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells cultured in modeled microgravity using a rotating wall vessel bioreactor with and without exposure to radiation typical of a solar particle event. We measured effects on inflammatory signaling, osteoblast activity, and mineralization. Results indicated time dependent interactions among all conditions in the regulation of IL-6 production. Furthermore, OSM induced the transcription of OSM receptor ß, IL 6 receptor α subunits, collagen α1(I), osteocalcin, sclerostin, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin. Measurements of osteoid mineralization suggest that the spatial organization of the osteoblast environment is an important consideration in understanding bone formation. Taken together, these results support a role for altered OSM signaling in the mechanism of microgravity-induced bone loss. PMID:26030441

  12. Traf2 interacts with Smad4 and regulates BMP signaling pathway in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Koichi; Division of Advanced Dental Treatment, Dental Research Center, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Tokyo ; Ikeda, Kyoko; Ito, Koichi; Division of Advanced Dental Treatment, Dental Research Center, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Tokyo

    2009-12-18

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in osteoblast differentiation and maturation. In mammals, the BMP-induced receptor-regulated Smads form complexes with Smad4. These complexes translocate and accumulate in the nucleus, where they regulate the transcription of various target genes. However, the function of Smad4 remains unclear. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using Smad4 as bait and a cDNA library derived from bone marrow, to indentify the proteins interacting with Smad4. cDNA clones for Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 (Traf2) were identified, and the interaction between the endogenous proteins was confirmed in the mouse osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. To investigate the function of Traf2, we silenced it with siRNA. The level of BMP-2 protein in the medium, the expression levels of the Bmp2 gene and BMP-induced transcription factor genes, including Runx2, Dlx5, Msx2, and Sp7, and the phosphorylated-Smad1 protein level were increased in cells transfected with Traf2 siRNA. The nuclear accumulation of Smad1 increased with TNF-{alpha} stimulation for 30 min at Traf2 silencing. These results suggest that the TNF-{alpha}-stimulated nuclear accumulation of Smad1 may be dependent on Traf2. Thus, the interaction between Traf2 and Smad4 may play a role in the cross-talk between TNF-{alpha} and BMP signaling pathways.

  13. Antagonism by growth hormone of insulin-sensitive hexose transport in 3T3-F442A adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M S; Mynarcik, D C; Corin, R E; Haspel, H C; Sonenberg, M

    1989-11-01

    We have studied the effects of GH on basal and insulin-stimulated hexose transport by 3T3-F442A adipocytes in a hormonally defined serum-free medium. Adipocytes preincubated in defined medium exhibit a low level of hexose transport which is acutely (15 min) stimulated (greater than 5-fold) by insulin (EC50, 0.1-0.2 nM). GH has acute (15-45 min) insulin-mimetic (greater than 2-fold) and chronic (4-48 h) diabetogenic (50-80%) effects on basal and insulin-stimulated hexose transport. The insulin-mimetic effect of GH has a higher EC50 (2 nM) than its diabetogenic effect (EC50, 0.2 nM). Chronic GH exposure decreases the maximal responsiveness (50-80%) and the acute sensitivity (approximately 2-fold) of hexose transport to insulin. Insulin-stimulated transport is more (approximately 5-fold) sensitive to the diabetogenic effect of GH than is basal transport. Insulin binding and degradation were not altered by chronic exposure to GH. The diabetogenic effect of GH may occur at a postinsulin binding level. PMID:2676487

  14. Cranberries (Oxycoccus quadripetalus) inhibit lipid metabolism and modulate leptin and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna; Grajek, W?odzimierz

    2015-10-15

    It has previously been shown that lyophilized cranberries (LCB) decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and inhibited preadipocyte differentiation by down-regulation of the expression of key transcription factors (PPAR?, C/EBP?, SREBP1) of the adipogenesis pathway. To elucidate the molecular basis of anti-lipogenic activity of LCB, the expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin 1 (PLIN1), was examined in the present study. Additionally, the effects of LCB on adiponectin and leptin expression and protein secretion were also investigated. LCB reduced lipid accumulation during preadipocyte differentiation by down-regulation of the mRNA level of aP2, FAS, LPL, HSL and PLIN1. Moreover, LCB decreased leptin gene expression and increased adiponectin gene expression and protein secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore cranberries could be considered as bioactive factors, which are effective in the inhibition of adipose tissue mass production. PMID:25952883

  15. Stimulation of osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells by yeast hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Sun; Jung, Eun-Young; Bae, Song Hwan; Kwon, Ki Han; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2011-05-01

    In a previous study, it was reported that yeast hydrolysate (YH) was effective in promoting bone growth in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. To further clarify the mechanism of YH, the effects of YH on proliferation, differentiation and gene expression in vitro were investigated using osteoblastic cell lines (MC3T3-E1). Cell proliferation increased significantly as much as 110% of the basal value when cells were treated with 100?g/mL of YH. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity increased significantly with a YH concentration of 25-100?g/mL, and the activity increased 152% that of the control at 100?g/mL. The calcium content increased as much as 129% at 100?g/mL YH. The gene expression levels of ALP and collagen type II (COL II) significantly increased approximately 1.3-fold and 1.7-fold of control, respectively, at 100?g/mL. YH increased significantly the mRNA level of bone sialoprotein (BSP) but not in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA levels of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-2, BMP-4, collagen type I (COL I) and osteonectin (ON) did not increase. In summary, YH increased the proliferation of osteoblasts and directly stimulated ALP and bone matrix proteins (e.g. BSP, COL II), and these increases trigger osteoblastic differentiation (e.g. mineralized nodule formation). PMID:21077261

  16. Flavanone exhibits PPAR{gamma} ligand activity and enhances differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takeshi; Abe, Daigo; Sekiya, Keizo

    2009-03-06

    Flavanones are class of polyphenolic compounds, some of which are found in foods and provide health benefits. In this study, we show that flavanone significantly enhances differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. During adipogenesis, flavanone enhanced expression of genes and accumulation of proteins that are involved in adipocyte function. Some reports have indicated that flavanone inhibits proliferation of mammalian cells, and down-regulates expression of growth-related proteins. Such proteins include phosphorylated ERK1/2, cyclins, and Cdks that are important for an early event in adipogenesis, mitotic clonal expansion (MCE). We demonstrated that flavanone did not inhibit MCE or expression of MCE-related proteins, except for a modest inhibition of cyclin D1 expression. Using luciferase reporter assays, we found that flavanone acted as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) ligand in a dose-dependent manner. Together, our results suggest that flavanone enhances adipogenesis, at least in part, through its PPAR{gamma} ligand activity.

  17. Dual role for myosin II in GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fulcher, F. Kent; Smith, Bethany T.; Russ, Misty; Patel, Yashomati M.

    2008-10-15

    Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake requires the activation of several signaling pathways to mediate the translocation and fusion of GLUT4 vesicles to the plasma membrane. Our previous studies demonstrated that GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is a myosin II-dependent process in adipocytes. The experiments described in this report are the first to show a dual role for the myosin IIA isoform specifically in regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. We demonstrate that inhibition of MLCK but not RhoK results in impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Furthermore, our studies show that insulin specifically stimulates the phosphorylation of the RLC associated with the myosin IIA isoform via MLCK. In time course experiments, we determined that GLUT4 translocates to the plasma membrane prior to myosin IIA recruitment. We further show that recruitment of myosin IIA to the plasma membrane requires that myosin IIA be activated via phosphorylation of the RLC by MLCK. Our findings also reveal that myosin II is required for proper GLUT4-vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane. We show that once at the plasma membrane, myosin II is involved in regulating the intrinsic activity of GLUT4 after insulin stimulation. Collectively, our results are the first to reveal that myosin IIA plays a critical role in mediating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-LI adipocytes, via both GLUT4 vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane and GLUT4 activity.

  18. Phenylenediamine derivatives induce GDF-15/MIC-1 and inhibit adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yanagitai, Mika; Kitagawa, Tomomi; Okawa, Kyouji; Koyama, Hiroki; Satoh, Takumi

    2012-01-01

    Phenylenediamine derivatives can function as a hydrogen donor and reportedly exert various biological actions including cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress, possibly by acting as an antioxidant. Previous studies showed that feeding of such compounds to mice reduced their body weight, but the precise mechanism remains unknown at present. Here, we found that these compounds inhibited the in vitro differentiation of mouse preadipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells, into adipocytes, suggesting that, at least in part, reduced generation of adipocytes might contribute to the observed weight loss in mice. Next, we performed array analysis and found that the expression of GDF-15/MIC-1, which is a TGFβ superfamily cytokine, and Trib 3, an intracellular downstream effector of the cytokines, was up-regulated by these derivatives. Thus, we identified the compounds as inducers of GDF-15/MIC-1 and suggest that such induction may have led to inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, which could account for the weight-loss effect of these compounds. PMID:22155240

  19. Derivation of Human Skin Fibroblast Lines for Feeder Cells of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Unger, Christian; Felldin, Ulrika; Rodin, Sergey; Nordenskjld, Agneta; Dilber, Sirac; Hovatta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    After the first derivations of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines on fetal mouse feeder cell layers, the idea of using human cells instead of mouse cells as feeder cells soon arose. Mouse cells bear a risk of microbial contamination, and nonhuman immunogenic proteins are absorbed from the feeders to hESCs. Human skin fibroblasts can be effectively used as feeder cells for hESCs. The same primary cell line, which can be safely used for up to 15 passages after stock preparations, can be expanded and used for large numbers of hESC derivations and cultures. These cells are relatively easy to handle and maintain. No animal facilities or animal work is needed. Here, we describe the derivation, culture, and cryopreservation procedures for research-grade human skin fibroblast lines. We also describe how to make feeder layers for hESCs using these fibroblasts. 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26840224

  20. Mouse Balb/c3T3 cell mutant with low epidermal growth factor receptor activity: induction of stable anchorage-independent growth by transforming growth factor. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Kuratomi, Y.; Ono, M.; Yasutake, C.; Mawatari, M.; Kuwano, M.

    1987-01-01

    A mutant clone (MO-5) was originally isolated as a clone resistant to Na/sup +//K/sup +/ ionophoric antibiotic monensin from mouse Balb/c3T3 cells. MO-5 was found to show low receptor-endocytosis activity for epidermal growth factor (EGF):binding activity for EGF in MO-5 was less than one tenth of that in Balb/c3T3. Anchorage-independent growth of MO-5 was compared to that of Balb/c3T3 when assayed by colony formation capacity in soft agar. Coadministration of EGF and TGF-..beta.. efficiently enhanced anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, but neither factor alone was competent to promote the anchorage-independent growth. The frequency of colonies appearing in soft agar of MO-5 or Balb/c3T3 was significantly enhanced by TGF-..beta.. while EGF did not further enhance that of MO-5 or Balb/c3T3. Colonies of Balb/c3T3 formed in soft agar in the presence of TGF-..beta.. showed low colony formation capacity in soft agar in the absence of TGF-..beta... Colonies of MO-5 formed by TGF-..beta.. in soft agar, however, showed high colony formation capacity in soft agar in the absence of TGF-..beta... Pretreatment of MO-5 with TGF-..beta.. induced secretion of TGF-..beta..-like activity from the cells, while the treatment of Balb/c3T3 did not induce the secretion of a significant amount of TGF-..beta..-like activity. The loss of EGF-receptor activity in the stable expression and maintenance of the transformed phenotype in MO-5 is discussed.

  1. Regulation of Adipogenesis and Key Adipogenic Gene Expression by 1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shuhan; Doumit, Matthew E.; Hill, Rodney A.

    2015-01-01

    The functions of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1, 25-(OH)2D3) in regulating adipogenesis, adipocyte differentiation and key adipogenic gene expression were studied in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Five concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100nM) of 1, 25-(OH)2D3 were studied and lipid accumulation measured by Oil Red O staining and expression of adipogenic genes quantified using quantitative real-time PCR. Adipogenic responses to 1, 25-(OH)2D3 were determined on 6, and 12 h, and days 1-10 after induction of adipogenesis by a hormonal cocktail with or without 1, 25-(OH)2D3. In response to 1, 25-(OH)2D3 (1, 10, and 100 nM), lipid accumulation and the expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, FABP4 and SCD-1 were inhibited through day 10, and vitamin D receptor expression was inhibited in the early time points. The greatest inhibitory effect was upon expression of FABP4. Expression of SREBP-1c was only affected on day 2. The lowest concentrations of 1, 25-(OH)2D3 tested did not affect adipocyte differentiation or adipogenic gene expression. The C/EBPα promoter activity response to 1, 25-(OH)2D3 was also tested, with no effect detected. These results indicate that 1, 25-(OH)2D3 inhibited adipogenesis via suppressing adipogenic-specific genes, and is invoked either during PPARγ activation or immediately up-stream thereof. Gene expression down-stream of PPARγ especially FABP4 was strongly inhibited, and we suggest that the role of 1, 25-(OH)2D3 in regulating adipogenesis will be informed by further studies of adipogenic-specific gene promoter activity. PMID:26030589

  2. Cytocompatibility of UV and visible light photoinitiating systems on cultured NIH/3T3 fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bryant, S J; Nuttelman, C R; Anseth, K S

    2000-01-01

    This work investigates the cytocompatibility of several photoinitiating systems for potential cell encapsulation applications. Both UV and visible light initiating schemes were examined. The UV photoinitiators included 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (Irgacure 651), 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone (Irgacure 184), 2-methyl-1-[4-(methylthio) phenyl]-2-(4-morpholinyl)-1-propanone (Irgacure 907), and 2-hydroxy-1-[4-(hydroxyethoxy)phenyl]-2-methyl-1-propanone (Darocur 2959). The visible light initiating systems included camphorquinone (CQ) with ethyl 4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzoate (4EDMAB) and triethanolamine (TEA) and the photosensitizer isopropyl thioxanthone. A cultured fibroblast cell line, NIH/3T3, was exposed to the photoinitiators at varying concentrations from 0.01% (w/w) to 0.1% (w/w) with and without the presence of initiating light. The results demonstrated that at low photoinitiator concentrations (< or = 0.01% (w/w)), all of the initiator molecules were cytocompatible with the exception of CQ, Irgacure 651, and 4EDMAB which had a relative survival approximately 50% lower than a control. In the presence of low intensity initiating light (approximately 6 mWcm(-2) of 365 nm UV light and approximately 60 mWcm(-2) of 470-490 nm visible light) and initiating radicals, Darocur 2959 at concentrations < or = 0.05% (w/w) and CQ at concentrations < or = 0.01% (w/w) were the most promising cytocompatible UV and visible light initiating systems, respectively. To demonstrate the potential use of cytocompatible photoinitiating systems in cell encapsulation applications, chondrocytes were encapsulated in a photocrosslinked hydrogel using 0.05% (w/w) Darocur 2959 (cytocompatible) and 0.01% (w/w) Irgacure 651 (cyto-incompatible). After photopolymerizing for 10 minutes with approximately 8 mWcm(-2) of 365 nm light, nearly all the chondrocytes survived the process with Darocur 2959 while very few of the chondrocytes survived the process with Irgacure 651. PMID:10896041

  3. Kirenol inhibits adipogenesis through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mi-Bo; Song, Youngwoo; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Kirenol inhibits the adipogenic transcription factors and lipogenic enzymes. • Kirenol stimulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway components. • Kirenol inhibits adipogenesis through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. - Abstract: Kirenol, a natural diterpenoid compound, has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-arthritic activities; however, its anti-adipogenic effect remains to be studied. The present study evaluated the effect of kirenol on anti-adipogenesis through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Kirenol prevented intracellular lipid accumulation by down-regulating key adipogenesis transcription factors [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c)] and lipid biosynthesis-related enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)], as well as adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin). Kirenol effectively activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, in which kirenol up-regulated the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 (LRP6), disheveled 2 (DVL2), β-catenin, and cyclin D1 (CCND1), while it inactivated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) by increasing its phosphorylation. Kirenol down-regulated the expression levels of PPARγ and C/EBPα, which were up-regulated by siRNA knockdown of β-catenin. Overall, kirenol is capable of inhibiting the differentiation and lipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, suggesting its potential as natural anti-obesity agent.

  4. Interaction of cinnamic acid derivatives with commercial hypoglycemic drugs on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Pranav Kumar; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-09-28

    Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives are naturally occurring substances found in fruits, vegetables, and flowers and are consumed as dietary phenolic compounds. The effect of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, eugenol, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, alone and in combination with two commercial oral hypoglycemic drugs (OHD), namely, thiazolidinedione (THZ) and metformin, on the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) by 3T3-L1 adipocytes is studied. All of the phytochemicals other than cinnamic acid show synergistic interaction in 2DG uptake with both of the OHDs. THZ (20 μM) in combination with ferulic acid (25 μM) or p-coumaric acid (25 μM) increases 2DG uptake by 7- or 6.34-fold, respectively, with respect to control, whereas metformin (20 μM), along with ferulic acid (25 μM) or cinnamic acid (25 μM), increases 2DG uptake by 6.45- or 5.87-fold, respectively, when compared to control. Chlorogenic and cinnamic acids increased the expression of PPARγ, whereas other hydroxycinnamic acids enhanced the expression of PI3K, indicating different mechanisms of action between these compounds. These phytochemicals were able to reduce the expressions of the fatty acid synthase and HMG CoA reductase genes, indicating that they may be able to reduce the secondary complications caused by the accumulation of lipids. These studies suggest that hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives may be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. They may act as a supplement with commercial drugs and may reduce the secondary complications caused by OHDs. PMID:21870829

  5. Reduced hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in NIH-3T3 cells expressing the EJ human bladder ras oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Tarpley, W G; Hopkins, N K; Gorman, R R

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the 21-kilodalton protein (p21) Ha-ras gene product shares sequence homology with and may exhibit biochemical properties similar to the mammalian guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. These data suggested that one of the biochemical functions of p21 in the vertebrate cell may be to regulate adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1]. We determined both in intact NIH-3T3 murine cells and in membranes isolated from these cells that the hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity of cells expressing the EJ human bladder carcinoma oncogene (EJ-ras) is significantly reduced compared with control cells. Thus, the levels of cAMP measured in the EJ-ras-transformed cells by radioimmunoassay are reduced 78% and 93% after prostaglandin and isoproterenol stimulation, respectively, compared with the levels in control cells. Treatment of the EJ-ras-transformed cells with pertussis toxin or cholera toxin did not correct the alterations in adenylate cyclase activity. Cells expressing the normal human Ha-ras gene displayed intermediate levels of adenylate cyclase hormone sensitivity; these levels of adenylate cyclase activity were greater than those in the EJ-ras-transformed cells but lower than in control cells. Hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities in cells transfected with Rous sarcoma virus DNA were similar to those in control cells. These data support the hypothesis that both the normal and mutated Ha-ras p21s are related to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Images PMID:3012529

  6. Different effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Kreeft, A; Schuurbiers, J A.E.; Draijer, R

    2001-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are the positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid. In the present study the effects of cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11 CLA) and trans-10, cis-12 CLA (t10,c12 CLA ) on intracellular and heparin-releasable (HR-) lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were investigated. Cells were exposed to the two CLA isomers and linoleic acid, which were bound to bovine serum albumin (BSA). In the adipocytes insulin up-regulated and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) down-regulated HR-LPL activity, which corresponds with the findings in vivo. The experimental fatty acids at low concentrations (<30 µmol/L) moderately increased intracellular and HR-LPL activity. At a concentration of 100 µmol/L, c9,t11 CLA and t10,c12 CLA suppressed HR-LPL activity to 20 and 24% below the BSA control level, respectively, while linoleic acid had no effect unless its concentration was as high as 1000 µmol/L. Insulin abolished the inhibitory effect of c9,t11 CLA, but not of t10,c12 CLA. In the presence of insulin, t10,c12 CLA inhibited HR-LPL activity by 41% compared to BSA control. In contrast to TNFalpha, which suppressed both intracellular LPL and HR-LPL activity, CLAs suppressed HR-LPL activity without decreasing intracellular LPL activity. Additionally, t10,c12 CLA (100 µmol/L) partially prevented TNFalpha-induced decrease of intracellular LPL activity. These results indicate that CLAs differ from linoleic acid in regulating HR-LPL activity, and t10,c12 CLA appeared to be more effective than c9,t11 CLA. PMID:11257467

  7. Flavonoids from Triticum aestivum inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by upregulating the insig pathway.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Barun; Nepali, Sarmila; Xin, Mingjie; Ki, Hyeon-Hui; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Dae-Ki; Lee, Young-Mi

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to compare the potential anti-adipogenic effects and underlying mechanisms of the luteolin, isoscoparin and isoorientin flavonoids, purified from Triticum aestivum sprout (TA) in 3T3-L1 cells. The cells were treated with different concentrations of flavonoids for 8 days and the lipid accumulation was assessed using Oil-Red-O staining. The expression levels of the transcription factors and the genes involved in adipogenesis in the cells were assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results demonstrated that 10 ?M luteolin, isoscoparin or isoorientin inhibited lipid deposition in the cells by 74, 63 and 65%, respectively. The flavonoids also significantly inhibited the transcriptional regulators of adipogenesis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, CAAT/enhancer binding protein-? and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, compared with the control cells. Similarly, there was a significant downregulation of the adipocyte specific markers associated with lipid metabolism, including activating protein-2, fatty acid synthase, hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase, in the flavonoid treated cells. Notably, the cells treated with the flavonoids demonstrated increased expression levels of the insulin-induced genes, insig-1 and insig-2, which may have inhibited the activation of the adipogenic transcription factor, SREBP, eventually leading to the inhibition of adipogenesis. Taken together, these results revealed that the flavonoids from TA possessed an inhibitory effect on adipogenesis through downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors and genes associated with lipid metabolism, and the upregulation of insig 1 and 2, suggesting that the flavonoids from TA may be potential therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:25936595

  8. Controlled release of simvastatin from in situ forming hydrogel triggers bone formation in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Shin; David, Allan E; Park, Kyung Min; Lin, Chia-Ying; Than, Khoi D; Lee, Kyuri; Park, Jun Beom; Jo, Inho; Park, Ki Dong; Yang, Victor C

    2013-04-01

    Simvastatin (SIM), a drug commonly administered for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, has been recently reported to induce bone regeneration/formation. In this study, we investigated the properties of hydrogel composed of gelatin-poly(ethylene glycol)-tyramine (GPT) as an efficient SIM delivery vehicle that can trigger osteogenic differentiation. Sustained delivery of SIM was achieved through its encapsulation in an injectable, biodegradable GPT-hydrogel. Cross-linking of the gelatin-based GPT-hydrogel was induced by the reaction of horse radish peroxidase and H(2)O(2). GPT-hydrogels of three different matrix stiffness, 1,800 (GPT-hydrogel1), 5,800 (GPT-hydrogel2), and 8,400 Pa (GPT-hydrogel3) were used. The gelation/degradation time and SIM release profiles of hydrogels loaded with two different concentrations of SIM, 1 and 3 mg/ml, were also evaluated. Maximum swelling times of GPT-hydrogel1, GPT-hydrogel2, and GPT-hydrogel3 were observed to be 6, 12, and 20 days, respectively. All GPT-hydrogels showed complete degradation within 55 days. The in vitro SIM release profiles, investigated in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) at 37°C, exhibited typical biphasic release patterns with the initial burst being more rapid with GPT-hydrogel1 compared with GPT-hydrogel3. Substantial increase in matrix metalloproteinase-13, osteocalcin expression levels, and mineralization were seen in osteogenic differentiation system using MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with GPT-hydrogels loaded with SIM in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that controlled release of SIM from a biodegradable, injectable GPT-hydrogel had a promising role for long-term treatment of chronic degenerative diseases such as disc degenerative disease. PMID:23250670

  9. Visfatin is involved in TNF?-mediated insulin resistance via an NAD+/Sirt1/PTP1B pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gouranton, Erwan; Romier, Batrice; Marcotorchino, Julie; Tourniaire, Franck; Astier, Julien; Peiretti, Franck; Landrier, Jean-Franois

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) is a well-known mediator of inflammation in the context of obesity in adipose tissue. Its action appears to be directly linked to perturbations of the insulin pathway, leading to the development of insulin resistance. Visfatin has been suspected to be linked to insulin sensitivity, but the mechanism involved is still partly unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of visfatin in the impairment of the insulin pathway by TNF? activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and to unveil the mechanisms involved in such impairment. We demonstrated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes that visfatin was involved in TNF?-mediated insulin resistance in adipocytes. Indeed, after TNF? treatment in 3T3-L1 cells, visfatin was downregulated, leading to decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) concentrations in cells. This decrease was followed by a decrease in Sirt1 activity, which was linked to an increase in PTP1B expression. The modulation of PTP1B by visfatin was likely responsible for the observed decreases in glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Here, we demonstrated a complete pathway involving visfatin, NAD+, Sirt1, and PTP1B that led to the perturbation of insulin signaling by TNF? in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:25068084

  10. Mutational spectrum of myeloid malignancies with inv(3)/t(3;3) reveals a predominant involvement of RAS/RTK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Grschel, Stefan; Sanders, Mathijs A.; Hoogenboezem, Remco; Zeilemaker, Annelieke; Havermans, Marije; Erpelinck, Claudia; Bindels, Eric M. J.; Beverloo, H. Berna; Dhner, Hartmut; Lwenberg, Bob; Dhner, Konstanze; Delwel, Ruud

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid malignancies bearing chromosomal inv(3)/t(3;3) abnormalities are among the most therapy-resistant leukemias. Deregulated expression of EVI1 is the molecular hallmark of this disease; however, the genome-wide spectrum of cooperating mutations in this disease subset has not been systematically elucidated. Here, we show that 98% of inv(3)/t(3;3) myeloid malignancies harbor mutations in genes activating RAS/receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathways. In addition, hemizygous mutations in GATA2, as well as heterozygous alterations in RUNX1, SF3B1, and genes encoding epigenetic modifiers, frequently co-occur with the inv(3)/t(3;3) aberration. Notably, neither mutational patterns nor gene expression profiles differ across inv(3)/t(3;3) acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome cases, suggesting recognition of inv(3)/t(3;3) myeloid malignancies as a single disease entity irrespective of blast count. The high incidence of activating RAS/RTK signaling mutations may provide a target for a rational treatment strategy in this high-risk patient group. PMID:25381062

  11. Cloning and Stable Expression of cDNA Coding For Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule -1 (PECAM-1, CD31) in NIH-3T3 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Salehi-Lalemarzi, Hamed; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Abbasi-Kenarsari, Hajar; Baradaran, Behzad; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Kazemi, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: PECAM-1 (CD31) is a glycoprotein expressed on endothelial and bone marrow precursor cells. It plays important roles in angiogenesis, maintenance and integration of the cytoskeleton and direction of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. We aimed to clone the cDNA coding for human CD31 from KG1a for further subcloning and expression in NIH-3T3 mouse cell line. Methods: CD31 cDNA was cloned from KG1a cell line after total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Pfu DNA polymerase-amplified specific band was ligated to pGEMT-easy vector and sub-cloned in pCMV6-Neo expression vector. After transfection of NIH-3T3 cells using 3 ?g of recombinant construct and 6 ?l of JetPEI transfection reagent, stable expression was obtained by selection of cells by G418 antibiotic and confirmed by surface flow cytometry. Results: 2235 bp specific band was aligned completely to human CD31 reference sequence in NCBI database. Transient and stable expression of human CD31 on transfected NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was achieved (23% and 96%, respectively) as shown by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Due to murine origin of NIH-3T3 cell line, CD31-expressing NIH-3T3 cells could be useful as immunogen in production of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies against human CD31, with no need for purification of recombinant proteins. PMID:26236664

  12. Structural analysis of ITER magnet feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyin, Yuri; Gung, Chen-Yu; Bauer, Pierre; Chen, Yonghua; Jong, Cornelis; Devred, Arnaud; Mitchell, Neil; Lorriere, Philippe; Farek, Jaromir; Nannini, Matthieu

    2012-06-15

    This paper summarizes the results of the static structural analyses, which were conducted in support of the ITER magnet feeder design with the aim of validating certain components against the structural design criteria. While almost every feeder has unique features, they all share many common constructional elements and the same functional specifications. The analysis approach to assess the load conditions and stresses that have driven the design is equivalent for all feeders, except for particularities that needed to be modeled in each case. The mechanical analysis of the feeders follows the sub-modeling approach: the results of the global mechanical model of a feeder assembly are used as input for the detailed models of the feeder' sub-assemblies or single components. Examples of such approach, including the load conditions, stress assessment criteria and solutions for the most critical components, are discussed. It has been concluded that the feeder system is safe in the referential operation scenarios. (authors)

  13. MicroRNA-344 inhibits 3T3-L1 cell differentiation via targeting GSK3? of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hu; Wang, Siqi; Chen, Luxi; Chen, Yaosheng; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Kaifan; Huang, Zheng; Qin, Lijun; Mo, Delin

    2014-01-31

    Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes involves a highly orchestrated series of complex events in which microRNAs might play an essential role. In this study, we found that the overexpression of microRNA-344 (miR-344) inhibits 3T3-L1 cell differentiation and decreases triglyceride accumulation after MDI stimulation. We demonstrated that miR-344 directly targets the 3' UTR of GSK3? (Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta). Knockdown of GSK3? with siRNA results in inhibiting 3T3-L1 differentiation, while its overexpression restores the effect of miR-344. In addition, miR-344 elevates the level of active ?-catenin, which is the downstream effector of GSK3? in the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. These data indicate that miR-344 inhibits adipocyte differentiation via targeting GSK3? and subsequently activating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:24333578

  14. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    An, Lei; Pang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hong-Mei; Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 ; Tao, Li; College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 ; Miao, Kai; Wu, Zhong-Hong; and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  15. Expression of the invertebrate sea urchin P16 protein into mammalian MC3T3 osteoblasts transforms and reprograms them into "osteocyte-like" cells.

    PubMed

    Alvares, Keith; Ren, Yinshi; Feng, Jian Q; Veis, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    P16 is an acidic phosphoprotein important in both sea urchin embryonic spicule development and transient mineralization during embryogenesis, syncytium formation, and mineralization in mature urchin tooth. Anti-P16 has been used to localize P16 to the syncytial membranes and the calcite mineral. Specific amino acid sequence motifs in P16 are similar to sequences in DSPP, a protein common to all vertebrate teeth, and crucial for their mineralization. Here, we examine the effect of P16 on vertebrate fibroblastic NIH3T3 cells and osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. Transfection of NIH3T3 cells with P16 cDNA resulted in profound changes in the morphology of the cells. In culture, the transfected cells sent out long processes that contacted processes from neighboring cells forming networks or syncytia. There was a similar change in morphology in cultured osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. In addition, the MC3T3 developed numerous dendrites as found in osteocytes. Importantly, there was also a change in the expression of the osteoblast and osteocyte specific genes. MC3T3 cells transfected with P16 showed an 18-fold increase in expression of the osteocyte specific Dentin matrix protein (DMP1) gene, accompanied by decreased expression of osteoblast specific genes: Bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN), and ?-catenin decreased by 70%, 64%, and 68 %, respectively. Thus, invertebrate urchin P16 with no previously known analog in vertebrates was able to induce changes in both cell morphology and gene expression, converting vertebrate-derived osteoblast-like precursor cells to an "osteocyte-like" phenotype, an important process in bone biology. The mechanisms involved are presently under study. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 326B:38-46, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26581835

  16. Real Time Monitoring of Inhibition of Adipogenesis and Angiogenesis by (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wenjing; Song, Huanlei; Cai, Wei; Shen, Xiuhua

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on angiogenesis in adipocytes. We aimed to test the effect of EGCG on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in adipocytes. The levels of VEGF secretion, the expression of VEGF message ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and VEGF protein in 3T3-L1 cells were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The xCELLigence real time cell analysis system was used to study the growth and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. A coculture system was used to test the effects of 3T3-L1 cells on proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The conditioned media derived from 3T3-L1 cells treated with or without EGCG was used to culture the HUVECs for a tube formation assay. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), two transcription factors related to both adipogenesis and angiogenesis, were examined to explore the potential mechanism. We found that all the three measurements of VEGF expression in adipocytes (mRNA, protein and secretion in media) were reduced after EGCG treatment. The growth of HUVECs co-cultured with 3T3-L1 cells was significantly increased and the conditioned media from EGCG treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes inhibited tube formation in HUVECs. Both PPARγ and C/EBPα expression in adipocytes were decreased with EGCG treatment. In conclusion, findings from this study suggest that EGCG may inhibit angiogenesis by regulating VEGF expression and secretion in adipocytes. PMID:26516907

  17. Role of the crystalline form of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Rutile, and not anatase, induces toxic effects in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Uboldi, Chiara; Urbán, Patricia; Gilliland, Douglas; Bajak, Edyta; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Ponti, Jessica; Rossi, François

    2016-03-01

    The wide use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in industrial applications requires the investigation of their effects on human health. In this context, we investigated the effects of nanosized and bulk titania in two different crystalline forms (anatase and rutile) in vitro. By colony forming efficiency assay, a dose-dependent reduction of the clonogenic activity of Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts was detected in the presence of rutile, but not in the case of anatase NPs. Similarly, the cell transformation assay and the micronucleus test showed that rutile TiO2 NPs were able to induce type-III foci formation in Balb/3T3 cells and appeared to be slightly genotoxic, whereas anatase TiO2 NPs did not induce any significant neoplastic or genotoxic effect. Additionally, we investigated the interaction of TiO2 NPs with Balb/3T3 cells and quantified the in vitro uptake of titania using mass spectrometry. Results showed that the internalization was independent of the crystalline form of TiO2 NPs but size-dependent, as nano-titania were taken up more than their respective bulk materials. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the cytotoxic, neoplastic and genotoxic effects triggered in Balb/3T3 cells by TiO2 NPs depend on the crystalline form of the nanomaterial, whereas the internalization is regulated by the particle size. PMID:26571344

  18. Structural basis for recognition of H3T3ph and Smac/DIABLO N-terminal peptides by human Survivin.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiamu; Kelly, Alexander E; Funabiki, Hironori; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2012-01-11

    Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis family protein implicated in apoptosis and mitosis. In apoptosis, it has been shown to recognize the Smac/DIABLO protein. It is also a component of the chromosomal passenger complex, a key player during mitosis. Recently, Survivin was identified in vitro and in vivo as the direct binding partner for phosphorylated Thr3 on histone H3 (H3T3ph). We have undertaken structural and binding studies to investigate the molecular basis underlying recognition of H3T3ph and Smac/DIABLO N-terminal peptides by Survivin. Our crystallographic studies establish recognition of N-terminal Ala in both complexes and identify intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions in the Survivin phosphate-binding pocket that contribute to H3T3ph mark recognition. In addition, our calorimetric data establish that Survivin binds tighter to the H3T3ph-containing peptide relative to the N-terminal Smac/DIABLO peptide, and this preference can be reversed through structure-guided mutations that increase the hydrophobicity of the phosphate-binding pocket. PMID:22244766

  19. C2C12 myotubes inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by reducing the expression of glucocorticoid receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Chu, Weiwei; Wei, Wei; Yu, Shigang; Han, Haiyin; Shi, Xiaoli; Sun, Wenxing; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Lifan; Chen, Jie

    2016-03-25

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor to health for its relationship with insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Myocyte-adipocyte crosstalk model plays a significant role in studying the interaction of muscle and adipose development. Previous related studies mainly focus on the effects of adipocytes on the myocytes activity, however, the influence of myotubes on the preadipocytes development remains unclear. The present study was carried out to settle this issue. Firstly, the co-culture experiment showed that the proliferation, cell cycle, and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were arrested, and the apoptosis was induced, by differentiated C2C12 myotubes. Next, the sensitivity of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to glucocorticoids (GCs), which was well known as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis factor, was decreased after co-cultured with C2C12 myotubes. What's more, our results showed that C2C12 myotubes suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, indicating the potential mechanism of GCs sensitivity reduction. Taken together, we conclude that C2C12 myotubes inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocytes proliferation and differentiation by reducing the expression of GR. These data suggest that decreasing GR by administration of myokines may be a promising therapy for treating patients with obesity or diabetes. PMID:26896766

  20. Effects of Zidovudine and Stavudine on Mitochondrial DNA of Differentiating 3T3-F442a Cells Are Not Associated with Imbalanced Deoxynucleotide Pools?

    PubMed Central

    Lynx, Matthew D.; LaClair, Darcy D.; McKee, Edward E.

    2009-01-01

    To test whether zidovudine (3?-azido-3?-deoxythymidine) (AZT) inhibition of thymidine phosphorylation causes depletion of the TTP pool resulting in mitochondrial DNA depletion, 3T3-F442a cells were differentiated in the presence of AZT and analyzed to determine mitochondrial DNA content and deoxynucleotide levels. These results suggest that AZT toxicity may not be related to deoxynucleotide pool alterations. PMID:19104011

  1. Induction of mutagenesis and transformation in BALB/c-3T3 clone A31-1 cells by diverse chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Lubet, R.A. ); Kouri, R.E.; Curren, R.A.; Putman, D.L.; Schechtman, L.M. )

    1990-01-01

    BALB/c-3T3 cells were employed to examine the genotoxic potential of a variety of known chemical carcinogens. BALB/c-3T3 cells displayed a dose-dependent transformation response to a variety of carcinogens (polycyclic hydrocarbons, methylating agents, ethylating agents, aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFT{sub 1}), and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO)). When the ability of these compounds to induce mutagenesis to resistance to the cardiac glycoside ouabain (OUA{sup R}) was examined, the authors found the short chain alkylating agents to be particularly effective mutagens, causing biologic effects at doses below those necessary to induce a transformation response. In contrast, the polycyclic hydrocarbons which were potent transforming agents were weaker, albeit significant, mutagens for the OUA{sup R} locus in this system, while AFB{sub 1} was quite weak. Further studies were performed with 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and the nongenotoxic carcinogen cinnamyl anthranilate (CIN). 5-AZA was a potent transforming agent, but failed to cause mutagenesis. CIN similarly caused in vitro transformation. When a series of eight structurally diverse compounds were examined in both the BALB/c-3T3 and C3H10T1/2 mouse fibroblast transformation systems, the BALB/c-3T3 system was shown to be sensitive to a wide variety of potential carcinogens, whereas the C3H10T1/2 system proved routinely sensitive only to the polycyclic hydrocarbons.

  2. Inhibition of MMP-13 prevents diet-induced obesity in mice and suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chia-Li M; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue remodeling by the matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) is critical for tissue hypertrophy and obesity. MMP-13 is an important protein that is highly expressed in adipose tissue but whose potential role in adipose tissue expansion is poorly characterized. We investigated the effect of pharmacological inhibition of MMP-13 with a selective inhibitor, CP-544439, on adipose tissue mass in mice on a high fat diet, and determined the effect of the inhibitor during in vitro adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. CP-544439 was administered for 6 weeks to mice on a high fat diet. Body adiposity and glucose tolerance was determined. Differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes were also treated with the inhibitor for a maximum of 8 days and adipogenesis assessed. Treatment of mice with the inhibitor resulted in reduction in body adiposity and improvement in glucose clearance. Histological examination of epididymal adipose showed reduced adipocyte hypertrophy accompanied by increased staining for collagen in the inhibitor treated mice. Treatment of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells with the inhibitor resulted in reduced adipocyte differentiation. Knockdown of MMP-13 using small interfering RNA in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells reduced adipocyte differentiation indicated by reduced expression of PPAR?. These results suggest that MMP-13 may play a major role in adipose development and its inhibition could be a potential strategy to prevent obesity. PMID:25682268

  3. Soluble extract of soybean fermented with Aspergillus oryzae GB107 inhibits fat accumulation in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    So, Kyoung-Ha; Suzuki, Yasuki; Yonekura, Shinichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Lee, Chan Ho; Kim, Sung Woo; Katoh, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fermented soybean (FS) extract on adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation using cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with FS and nonfermented soybean (NFS) extract during differentiation for 10 days in vitro. Oil red O staining was performed and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity was measured for analysis of fat accumulation. Expressions of adipogenic genes were measured. RESULTS Soluble extract of soybean fermented with Aspergillus oryzae GB107 contained higher levels of low-molecular-weight protein than conventional soybean protein did. FS extract (50 µg/ml) inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes for 10 days in vitro. Significantly lower GPDH activity was observed in differentiated adipocytes treated with the FS extract than those treated with NFS extract. Treatment with FS extract resulted in decreased expression levels of leptin, adiponectin, and adipogenin genes, which are associated with adipogenesis. CONCLUSIONS This report is the first to demonstrate that the water-soluble extract from FS inhibits fat accumulation and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, the soybean extract fermented with A. oryzae GB107 could be used to control lipid accumulation in adipocytes. PMID:26244085

  4. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction enhances gene transduction of adeno-associated virus in a less-permissive cell type, NIH/3T3

    PubMed Central

    JIN, LIFANG; LI, FAN; WANG, HUIPING; LI, YUNHUA; WEI, FANG; DU, LIANFANG

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a common vector utilized in gene therapy. The NIH/3T3 cell line, which is a potential induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell type, was identified to be a less-permissive cell type to AAV due to its defective endosomal processing. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) enhanced the gene transduction of AAV in permissive cells. However, there are no data concerning UTMD enhancement in less-permissive cells, and the exact mechanism of UTMD enhancement in cellular uptake is unclear. Greater knowledge concerning the rate-limiting steps in NIH/3T3 cells would aid in the elucidation of the mechanism of UTMD enhancement in the gene transduction of AAV. In the present study, UTMD enhanced the gene transduction of AAV in NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting that UTMD-enhanced AAV-mediated gene transduction may be beneficial for gene therapy in iPS cells. The dose dependence of UTMD enhancement indicated that mechanisms other than sonoporation were involved in the cellular uptake of AAV. However, UTMD did not greatly increase the gene transduction of AAV in NIH/3T3 cells. Additionally, the similar degree of enhancement in the two cell types resulted in no correlation between UTMD and endosomal processing. Future studies on UTMD-mediated AAV transduction in other non- or less-permissive cell types may aid in elucidating the exact mechanism of UTMD enhancement in cellular uptake. PMID:23817930

  5. Platelet-derived growth factor stimulation of (/sup 3/H)-glucosamine incorporation in density-arrested BALB/c-3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, M.A.; Wharton, W.; Pledger, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    G/sub 0//G/sub 1/ traverse in density-arrested BALB/c-3T3 cells is controlled by multiple serum-derived growth factors. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) initiates a proliferative response, whereas factors present in plasma facilitate progression through G/sub 0//G/sub 1/. In the absence of competence formation, progression factors are unable to stimulate cell cycle traverse. The authors have identified the stimulation of a biochemical process specific to competence formation in BALB/c-3T3 cells. PDGF treated BALB/c-3T3 cells incorporated 5-10 fold more (/sup 3/H)-glucosamine (GlcN) into acid-insoluble material as compared to platelet-poor plasma (PPP) treated cultures. Increased GlcN incorporation occurred in density-arrested BALB/c-3T3 cells in response to treatment with other competence factors, fibroblast growth factor, and Ca/sub 3/ (PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ and was not due to cell-cycle traverse. Stimulation of (/sup 3/H)-GlcN incorporation by PDGF was time dependent, and increased incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-GlcN into protein required de novo protein synthesis. Several mechanisms through which PDGF could increase GlcN incorporation into cellular material were examined. Results of these studies suggest an increase in the cellular capacity to glycosylate proteins is a response to or a part of competence formation.

  6. Structural Basis for Recognition of H3T3ph and Smac/DIABLO N-terminal Peptides by Human Survivin

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Jiamu; Kelly, Alexander E.; Funabiki, Hironori; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2012-03-02

    Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis family protein implicated in apoptosis and mitosis. In apoptosis, it has been shown to recognize the Smac/DIABLO protein. It is also a component of the chromosomal passenger complex, a key player during mitosis. Recently, Survivin was identified in vitro and in vivo as the direct binding partner for phosphorylated Thr3 on histone H3 (H3T3ph). We have undertaken structural and binding studies to investigate the molecular basis underlying recognition of H3T3ph and Smac/DIABLO N-terminal peptides by Survivin. Our crystallographic studies establish recognition of N-terminal Ala in both complexes and identify intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions in the Survivin phosphate-binding pocket that contribute to H3T3ph mark recognition. In addition, our calorimetric data establish that Survivin binds tighter to the H3T3ph-containing peptide relative to the N-terminal Smac/DIABLO peptide, and this preference can be reversed through structure-guided mutations that increase the hydrophobicity of the phosphate-binding pocket.

  7. Cytotoxicity of folic acid conjugated hollow silica nanoparticles toward Caco2 and 3T3 cells, with and without encapsulated DOX.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kunal; Sundara Raj, Behin; Chen, Yan; Lou, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Hollow silica nanoparticles of two sizes with and without a folic acid targeting ligand were synthesized. Fickian diffusion of the antitumor drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was demonstrated by the produced nanoparticles, achieving a cumulative release of 73% and 45% for 215nm and 430nm particles respectively over a period of 500h. The hollow silica nanoparticles presented a time and dose dependent toxicity, selective to human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco2) cells, over mouse embryonic fibroblast (3T3) cells. At 24h Caco2 cell viability was reduced to 66% using pure hollow silica at a concentration of 50μgmL(-1), while that of 3T3 cells remained at 94% under the same conditions. The selective cytotoxicity of hollow silica nanoparticles was further enhanced by conjugation of folic acid and incorporation of DOX: at 24h and an equivalent DOX concentration of 0.5μgmL(-1), viable Caco2 cells were reduced to 45% while 3T3 cells were reduced to 83%. Interestingly the equivalent dose of free DOX was more toxic to 3T3 than to Caco2 cells, reducing the 3T3 viability to 72% and the Caco2 viability to 80%, which is likely due to the presence of the p-glycoprotein pumps in Caco2 cells. Folic acid conjugation served to enhance the viability of both cell lines in this work. Careful optimization of the folate content should further improve the cell specificity of the hollow silica nanoparticles, thus providing a viable targeting platform for cancer therapy. PMID:26764104

  8. Aspirin Breaks the Crosstalk between 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells by Regulating Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Huang, Yu-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The obesity process is normally accompanied by chronic, low-grade inflammation. Infiltration by inflammatory cytokines and immune cells provides a favorable microenvironment for tumor growth, migration, and metastasis. Epidemiological evidence has shown that aspirin is an effective agent against several types of cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of aspirin on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 4T1 murine breast cancer cells, and their crosstalk. The results showed that aspirin treatment inhibited differentiation and lipid accumulation by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and decreased the secretion of the inflammatory adipokine MCP-1 after stimulation with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or conditioned medium from RAW264.7 cells. In 4T1 cells, treatment with aspirin decreased cell viability and migration, possibly by suppressing MCP-1 and VEGF secretion. Subsequently, culture of 4T1 cells in 3T3-L1 adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM) and co-culture of 3T3-L1 and 4T1 cells using a transwell plate were performed to clarify the relationship between these two cell lines. Aspirin exerted its inhibitory effects in the transwell co-culture system, as well as the conditioned-medium model. Aspirin treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation of 4T1 cells, and decreased the production of MCP-1 and PAI-1 in both the Ad-CM model and co-culture system. Aspirin inhibited inflammatory MCP-1 adipokine production by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the cell growth and migration of 4T1 cells. It also broke the crosstalk between these two cell lines, possibly contributing to its chemopreventive properties in breast cancer. This is the first report that aspirin’s chemopreventive activity supports the potential application in auxiliary therapy against obesity-related breast cancer development. PMID:26794215

  9. Human Dynactin-Associated Protein Transforms NIH3T3 Cells to Generate Highly Vascularized Tumors with Weak Cell-Cell Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Wang, Weixiang; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Daisuke; Togo, Yuki; Tokuyama, Masahiro; Hosoi, Miho; Koseki, Koichi; Wada, Shu-ichi; Nagai, Nobuo; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Nomura, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Makoto; Sasaki, Ryuzo; Mizukami, Tamio

    2015-01-01

    Human dynactin-associated protein (dynAP) is a transmembrane protein that promotes AktSer473 phosphorylation. Here, we report the oncogenic properties of dynAP. In contrast to control NIH3T3 cells expressing LacZ (NIH3T3LacZ), NIH3T3dynAP cells vigorously formed foci in two-dimensional culture, colonies on soft agar, and spheroids in anchorage-deficient three-dimensional culture. NIH3T3dynAP cells injected into nude mice produced tumors with abundant blood vessels and weak cellcell contacts. Expression of dynAP elevated the level of rictor (an essential subunit of mTORC2) and promoted phosphorylation of FOXO3aSer253. FOXO3a is a transcriptional factor that stimulates expression of pro-apoptotic genes and phosphorylation of FOXO3a abrogates its function, resulting in promoted cell survival. Knockdown of rictor in NIH3T3dynAP cells reduced AktSer473 phosphorylation and formation of foci, colony in soft agar and spheroid, indicating that dynAP-induced activation of the mTORC2/AktSer473 pathway for cell survival contributes to cell transformation. E-cadherin and its mRNA were markedly reduced upon expression of dynAP, giving rise to cells with higher motility, which may be responsible for the weak cell-cell adhesion in tumors. Thus, dynAP could be a new oncoprotein and a target for cancer therapy. PMID:26284361

  10. Flavonoids from persimmon (Diospyros kaki) leaves (FPL) attenuate H2O2-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells via the NF-?B pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Zhang, Jianbao; Fang, Kun; Ding, Yan; Zhang, Liyu; Zhang, Yali

    2014-03-01

    The leaves of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) have long been used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of paralysis, frostbite, burns, and to stop bleeding. Flavonoids of persimmon leaves (FPL) are known for their antioxidant activity in murine osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells, but their mechanisms in osteoblast cells injured by oxidative stress are unknown. In this study, the effects of FPL on oxidative damage were investigated by addressing their potential therapeutic or toxic effects on H2O2-stimulated MC3T3-E1 cells. MC3T3-E1 cells were pretreated with FPL (1.25, 2.5 and 5 ?g mL(-1)) for 24 h and were then exposed to 250 ?M H2O2 for an additional 6 h. FPL pre-incubated with MC3T3-E1 cells did not present any cytotoxicity, instead they increased cell viability and ??m in a dose-dependent manner when challenged with H2O2. Treatment with this pro-incubated FPL also significantly suppressed the production of MDA and NO and the activity of iNOS. The mRNA expression of iNOS, COX-2, Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 and the protein expression of NF-?B/p65 showed that FPL significantly inhibited apoptosis in H2O2-stimulated MC3T3-E1 cells. These results suggest that the molecular mechanism of FPL in anti-apoptosis was associated with the suppression of the translocation of NF-?B/p65 into the nucleus. The protective effect of FPL could provide a promising approach for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24488014

  11. Growth hormone-dependent events in the adipose differentiation of 3T3-F442A fibroblasts: modulation of macromolecular synthesis.

    PubMed

    Guller, S; Sonenberg, M; Wu, K Y; Szabo, P; Corin, R E

    1989-11-01

    GH is necessary but not sufficient to induce adipose differentiation of 3T3-F442A fibroblasts in serum-free medium. Human (h) GH (2 nM) treatment of 3T3-F442A cells in serum-free medium caused a time-dependent (maximal at 48-72 h) and dose-dependent (EC50, approximately 0.2 nM) decrease (40-60%) in de nova protein synthesis. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I; 17 nM), PRL (2 nM), and glucagon (20 nM) did not decrease de novo protein synthesis, whereas bovine GH was equipotent with hGH. The half-lives of 35S-labeled proteins of 3T3-F442A cells were 21 and 57 h for cells maintained in serum-free medium for 3 days without or with hGH (2 nM), respectively. The total protein content of cells maintained in hGH (2 nM) for 1-4 days was unaffected compared to cells in serum-free medium alone. IGF-I (17 nM) treatment of cells for 4 days doubled the protein content of cells compared to control values in serum-free medium. hGH (2 nM) pretreatment of cells for 1-4 days had no effect on total RNA synthesis. hGH (2 nM) but not IGF-I (17 nM) treatment (3 days) resulted in a 7-fold decrease in cytoplasmic 18S rRNA content (as measured by DNA-RNA hybridization) of cells compared to that of control cells maintained in serum-free medium. When 3T3-F442A cells were transferred to serum-free medium there was a progressive decrease in DNA synthesis. The presence of hGH enhanced the rate at which DNA synthesis decreased for 3T3-F442A cells. IGF-I (17 nM) increased DNA synthesis by 6- and 8-fold after 2 and 3 days of IGF-I exposure. 3T3-F442A cells maintained in serum-free medium for 3 days responded to the addition of platelet-derived growth factor (2 U/ml) and insulin (1.6 microM) with a 56-fold increase in DNA synthesis, assayed 24 h later. 3T3-F442A cells treated with hGH (2 nM) for 3 days before platelet-derived growth factor and insulin addition exhibited a diminished DNA synthetic response, demonstrating that GH-exposed cells were partially refractory to mitogenic stimulation. GH had no effect on any aspect of macromolecular synthesis in 3T3-C2 cells, which have a low frequency of adipogenesis. Based upon these results a cell cycle model for the role of GH in the adipose differentiation of 3T3-F442A cells was proposed. PMID:2477229

  12. Temperature distribution during ICG-dye-enhanced laser photocoagulation of feeder vessels in treatment of AMD-related choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Banerjee, Rupak K; Salloum, Maher; Bachmann, Albert; Flower, Robert W

    2008-06-01

    Laser photocoagulation of the feeder vessels of age-related macula degeneration-related choroidal neovascularization (CNV) membranes is a compelling treatment modality, one important reason being that the treatment site is removed from the fovea in cases of sub- or juxtafoveal CNV. To enhance the energy absorption in a target feeder vessel, an indocyanine green dye bolus is injected intravenously, and the 805 nm wavelength diode laser beam is applied when the dye bolus transits the feeder vessel; this tends to reduce concomitant damage to adjacent tissue. A 3D theoretical simulation, using the Pennes bioheat equation, was performed to study the temperature distribution in the choroidal feeder vessel and its vicinity during laser photocoagulation. The results indicate that temperature elevation in the target feeder vessel increases by 20% in dye-enhanced photocoagulation, compared to just photocoagulation alone. The dye bolus not only increases the laser energy absorption in the feeder vessel but also shifts the epicenter of maximum temperature away from the sensitive sensory retina and retinal pigment epithelial layers and toward the feeder vessel. Two dominant factors in temperature elevation of the feeder vessel are location of the feeder vessel and blood flow velocity through it. Feeder vessel temperature elevation becomes smaller as distance between it and the choriocapillaris layer increases. The cooling effect of blood flow through the feeder vessel can reduce the temperature elevation by up to 21% of the maximum that could be produced. Calculations were also performed to examine the effect of the size of the laser spot. To achieve the same temperature elevation in the feeder vessel when the laser spot diameter is doubled, the laser power level has to be increased by only 60%. In addition, our results have suggested that more studies are needed to measure the constants in the Arrhenius integral for assessing thermal damage in various tissues. PMID:18532859

  13. Cytotoxic effects in 3T3-L1 mouse and WI-38 human fibroblasts following 72 hour and 7 day exposures to commercial silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Stępnik, Maciej; Arkusz, Joanna; Smok-Pieniążek, Anna; Bratek-Skicki, Anna; Salvati, Anna; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; De Jong, Wim H.; Rydzyński, Konrad

    2012-08-15

    The potential toxic effects in murine (3T3-L1) and human (WI-38) fibroblast cell lines of commercially available silica nanoparticles (NPs), Ludox CL (nominal size 21 nm) and CL-X (nominal size of 30 nm) were investigated with particular attention to the effect over long exposure times (the tests were run after 72 h exposure up to 7 days). These two formulations differed in physico-chemical properties and showed different stabilities in the cell culture medium used for the experiments. Ludox CL silica NPs were found to be cytotoxic only at the higher concentrations to the WI-38 cells (WST-1 and LDH assays) but not to the 3T3-L1 cells, whereas the Ludox CL-X silica NPs, which were less stable over the 72 h exposure, were cytotoxic to both cell lines in both assays. In the clonogenic assay both silica NPs induced a concentration dependent decrease in the surviving fraction of 3T3-L1 cells, with the Ludox CL-X silica NPs being more cytotoxic. Cell cycle analysis showed a trend indicating alterations in both cell lines at different phases with both silica NPs tested. Buthionine sulfoximine (γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor) combined with Ludox CL-X was found to induce a strong decrease in 3T3-L1 cell viability which was not observed for the WI-38 cell line. This study clearly indicates that longer exposure studies may give important insights on the impact of nanomaterials on cells. However, and especially when investigating nanoparticle effects after such long exposure, it is fundamental to include a detailed physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles and their dispersions over the time scale of the experiment, in order to be able to interpret eventual impacts on cells. -- Highlights: ► Ludox CL silica NPs are cytotoxic to WI-38 fibroblasts but not to 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. ► Ludox CL-X silica NPs are cytotoxic to both cell lines. ► In clonogenic assay both silica NPs induce cytotoxicity, higher for CL-X silica. ► Cell cycle analysis shows alterations in both cell lines with both silica NP tested. ► Buthionine sulfoximine enhances cytotoxicity of Ludox CL-X in 3T3-L1 cells.

  14. 7 CFR 1280.107 - Feeder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1280.107 Feeder. Feeder means any person who acquires ownership of lambs and feeds such lambs in the U.S. until they reach...

  15. 7 CFR 1280.107 - Feeder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1280.107 Feeder. Feeder means any person who acquires ownership of lambs and feeds such lambs in the U.S. until they reach...

  16. 7 CFR 1280.107 - Feeder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1280.107 Feeder. Feeder means any person who acquires ownership of lambs and feeds such lambs in the U.S. until they reach...

  17. 7 CFR 1280.107 - Feeder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1280.107 Feeder. Feeder means any person who acquires ownership of lambs and feeds such lambs in the U.S. until they reach...

  18. 7 CFR 1280.107 - Feeder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1280.107 Feeder. Feeder means any person who acquires ownership of lambs and feeds such lambs in the U.S. until they reach...

  19. Feedback Control for Electromagnetic Vibration Feeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Tomoharu; Yoshida, Koji; Tamai, Yutaka; Kono, Katsuaki; Naito, Kazufumi; Ono, Toshiro

    An electromagnetic-type vibratory feeder of is a typical transportation device used in automatic weighers. As existing feeders are driven by feedforward control, the so-called firing angle control, the driver cannot negate sudden disturbances. In this study, we consider applying a feedback control for such a feeder system. First, we give the two details of modelings for the vibration part and for the electromagnetic force part. Next, a feedback control system is constructed for the electromagnetic vibration feeder for which we propose a two-degrees-of-freedom proportional plus integral plus derivative (PID) controller with nonlinear elements. Next, we apply the feedback control to the feeder with a standard trough. Finally, we consider a method compatible with many varieties of troughs by adjusting a nonlinear element. On the basis of the results of some experiments, we confirm that the two-degrees-of-freedom PID control is more effective than the conventional firing angle control.

  20. ITER Magnet Feeder: Design, Manufacturing and Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, Yonghua; ILIN, Y.; M., SU; C., NICHOLAS; BAUER, P.; JAROMIR, F.; LU, Kun; CHENG, Yong; SONG, Yuntao; LIU, Chen; HUANG, Xiongyi; ZHOU, Tingzhi; SHEN, Guang; WANG, Zhongwei; FENG, Hansheng; SHEN, Junsong

    2015-03-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) feeder procurement is now well underway. The feeder design has been improved by the feeder teams at the ITER Organization (IO) and the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP) in the last 2 years along with analyses and qualification activities. The feeder design is being progressively finalized. In addition, the preparation of qualification and manufacturing are well scheduled at ASIPP. This paper mainly presents the design, the overview of manufacturing and the status of integration on the ITER magnet feeders. supported by the National Special Support for R&D on Science and Technology for ITER (Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China-MPS) (No. 2008GB102000)

  1. Insulin resistance by TNF-? is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and is ameliorated by punicic acid, a PPAR? agonist.

    PubMed

    Anusree, S S; Nisha, V M; Priyanka, A; Raghu, K G

    2015-09-15

    Punicic acid (PA), a poly unsaturated fatty acid found abundantly in pomegranate seed oil is reported to have PPAR? agonist property. TNF-? mediated insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and is associated with severe mitochondrial impairment. In this study, PA was evaluated for its ability to ameliorate TNF-? induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. For this, we examined the alterations in mitochondrial energetics, biogenesis, transmembrane potential and dynamics in TNF-? induced insulin resistant model of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PA improved glucose uptake, ROS accumulation, mitochondrial biogenesis and energetics in TNF-? treated cells. In addition, treatment with PA was found to ameliorate TNF-? induced alterations in proteins associated with mitochondrial dynamics like FIS1 and OPA1. These findings suggest that PA can be considered as an active lead for the management of insulin resistance and associated mitochondrial dysfunctions. PMID:26116231

  2. Inhibition of ASCT2 is essential in all-trans retinoic acid-induced reduction of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Katsuhiko; Uchida, Natsumi; Kitanaka, Chisato; Sagara, Chiaki; Imai, Masahiko; Takahashi, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A has preventive effects on obesity. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the active form of vitamin A, inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells in an experimental adipogenesis model. We found that ATRA suppressed up-regulation of the amino acid transporter, Asct2, in adipogenerating 3T3-L1 cells. We observed that Asct2 was up-regulated at 1day after adipogenesis stimuli. The Asct2 inhibitor l-?-glutamyl-p-nitroanilide (GPNA) decreased lipid accumulation. Glutamine-free conditions also suppressed adipogenesis. Suppression of adipogenesis by ATRA may be through Asct2 reduction. These results indicate that Asct2 could be a target for obesity prevention and treatment. PMID:26236584

  3. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from spikes of Prunella vulgaris L. inhibit glycogen phosphorylase and improve insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Qi, Jin; Wang, Lu; Liu, Shou-Jin; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of methanol extract from the spikes of Prunella vulgaris L. led to the isolation of two new pentacyclic triterpenoid glycosides Vulgasides I (1) and II (2) along with 13 known compounds (3-15). Their structures were established on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D) and mass spectroscopic data analysis. All the isolated compounds were screened for glycogen phosphorylase inhibitory activity and also evaluated for their effect on insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Two new compounds (1, 2) did not demonstrate the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitory activity, but other compounds (3-11) exhibited varying degrees of glycogen phosphorylase inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range from 30.69 to 68.85??M. Compounds 3, 6, 7, 11, and 13 demonstrated markedly increased insulin-mediated glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:25278372

  4. Substance P enhances the activation of AMPK and cellular lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells in response to high levels of glucose

    PubMed Central

    DUBON, MARIA JOSE; BYEON, YEJI; PARK, KI-SOOK

    2015-01-01

    The rescue of glucose tolerance and insulin-sensitivity in peripheral tissues, including adipose tissue, is essential in therapeutic strategies for diabetes. The present study demonstrated that substance P (SP) increases the accumulation of lipids in 3T3-L1 cells during their differentiation into adipocytes in response to a high concentration of glucose. SP reciprocally regulated the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt: SP enhanced the activation of AMPK, although the activity of Akt was downregulated. Notably, SP induced an increase in the expression level of glucose transporter 4 in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Therefore, it is possible that SP leads to an increase in glucose uptake and the accumulation of lipids in adipocytes, and may contribute towards the rescue of insulin-sensitivity in diabetes. PMID:26499365

  5. Substance P enhances the activation of AMPK and cellular lipid accumulation in 3T3?L1cells in response to high levels of glucose.

    PubMed

    Dubon, Maria Jose; Byeon, Yeji; Park, Ki-Sook

    2015-12-01

    The rescue of glucose tolerance and insulin?sensitivity in peripheral tissues, including adipose tissue, is essential in therapeutic strategies for diabetes. The present study demonstrated that substanceP (SP) increases the accumulation of lipids in 3T3?L1cells during their differentiation into adipocytes in response to a high concentration of glucose. SP reciprocally regulated the activities of AMP?activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt: SP enhanced the activation of AMPK, although the activity of Akt was downregulated. Notably, SP induced an increase in the expression level of glucose transporter4 in the 3T3?L1adipocytes. Therefore, it is possible that SP leads to an increase in glucose uptake and the accumulation of lipids in adipocytes, and may contribute towards the rescue of insulin?sensitivity in diabetes. PMID:26499365

  6. Differentially expressed genes and signalling pathways are involved in mouse osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells exposed to 17-β estradiol

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Zhen-Zhen; Li, Xin; Sun, Hui-Qiang; Xiao, Guo-Ning; Wang, Cun-Wei; Gong, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Oestrogen is essential for maintaining bone mass, and it has been demonstrated to induce osteoblast proliferation and bone formation. In this study, complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays were used to identify and study the expression of novel genes that may be involved in MC3T3-E1 cells' response to 17-β estradiol. MC3T3-E1 cells were inoculated in minimum essential media alpha (α-MEM) cell culture supplemented with 17-β estradiol at different concentrations and for different time periods. MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 10−8 mol⋅L−1 17-β estradiol for 5 days exhibited the highest proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity; thus, this group was chosen for microarray analysis. The harvested RNA was used for microarray hybridisation and subsequent real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to validate the expression levels for selected genes. The microarray results were analysed using both functional and pathway analysis. In this study, microarray analysis detected 5 403 differentially expressed genes, of which 1 996 genes were upregulated and 3 407 genes were downregulated, 1 553 different functional classifications were identified by gene ontology (GO) analysis and 53 different pathways were involved based on pathway analysis. Among the differentially expressed genes, a portion not previously reported to be associated with the osteoblast response to oestrogen was identified. These findings clearly demonstrate that the expression of genes related to osteoblast proliferation, cell differentiation, collagens and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-related cytokines increases, while the expression of genes related to apoptosis and osteoclast differentiation decreases, following the exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to α-MEM supplemented with 17-β estradiol. Microarray analysis with functional gene classification is critical for a complete understanding of complementary intracellular processes. This microarray analysis provides large-scale gene expression data that require further confirmatory studies. PMID:24556956

  7. Effects of intermedin on proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of OPG/RANKL/M-CSF in the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell line.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongfei; Ren, Hongyu; Li, Xue; Yu, Dongdong; Mu, Shuai; Chen, Zhiguang; Fu, Qin

    2015-11-01

    Bone remodeling is a vital physiological process of healthy bone tissue in humans. It is characterized by the formation of bone by osteoblasts and its resorption by osteoclasts, and the bone resorbed by osteoclasts is replaced through the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts. Imbalances in this vital process lead to pathological conditions, including osteoporosis. Intermedin (IMD) as a newly discovered peptide in the calcitonin (CT) family of peptides, which shares similar functions with CT, calcitonin gene?related peptide and amylin in bone resorption. However, the mechanism underlying its effect remains to be elucidated. This was investigated in the present study using the osteoblastic MC3T3?E1 cell line, which was treated with different doses of IMD (0, 1, 10 and 100 nM). Cell proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of receptor activator of NF??B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and macrophage colony?stimulating factor (M?CSF) were measured following treatment using multiple detection techniques, including an MTT assay, flow cytometry, reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The resulting data demonstrated that IMD significantly inhibited the apoptosis of MC3T3?E1 cells induced by serum?free culture and dexamethasone, however, no significant effects on MC3T3?E1 cell proliferation were observed. IMD had additional functions on the MC3T3?E1 cells, including inhibition of the expression of RANKL and M?CSF, and promotion of the expression of OPG. Previous studies have also demonstrated that RANKL and M?CSF are two vital factor produced by osteoblasts to promote the maturation and differentiation of osteoclasts, and it has been reported that IMD can inhibit the osteoclast formation stimulated by RANKL and M?CSF. Together with these findings, the present study concluded that IMD reduces bone resorption by inhibiting osteoblast apoptosis, decreasing the RANKL/OPG ratio and the expression of M-CSF, and inhibiting osteoclast maturation and differentiation. PMID:26398911

  8. Enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on grid-topographic surface and evidence for involvement of YAP mediator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Gong, He; Sun, Yan; Huang, Yan; Fan, Yubo

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that surface topography can promote cell-substrate associations and deeply influence cell fate. The intracellular mechanism or how micro- or nano-patterned extracellular signal is ultimately linked to activity of nuclear transcription factors remains unknown. It has been reported that Yes-associated protein (YAP) can respond to extracellular matrix microenvironment signals, thus regulates stem cell differentiation process. We propose that YAP may play a role in mediating the topography induced cell differentiation. To this end, we fabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropatterns with grid topology (GT) (3 μm pattern width, 2 μm pattern interval length, 7 μm pattern height); nonpatterned PDMS substrates were used as the planar controls. The MC3T3-E1 cells were then cultured on these surfaces, respectively, in osteogenic inducing medium. Cell differentiation in terms of osteogenesis related gene expression, protein levels, alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization was assessed. It was shown that the cells on GT surfaces had stronger osteogenesis capacity. In addition, expression level of YAP was increased when MC3T3-E1 cells grew on GT substrates, which was similar to the levels of osteogenic differentiation markers. It was also shown that YAP knockdown attenuated GT substrates-induced MC3T3-E1 differentiation, which reduced the osteogenic differentiation effect of the GT substrates. Collectively, our findings indicate that GT substrates-induced MC3T3-E1 differentiation may be associated with YAP. This paper provides new target points for transcriptional mechanism research of microenvironment induced cell differentiation and a useful approach to obtain more biofunctionalization scaffolds for tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1143-1152, 2016. PMID:26748630

  9. Expression of progesterone receptor B is associated with G0/G1 arrest of the cell cycle and growth inhibition in NIH3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, Shinji; Kato, Kiyoko . E-mail: kkatoh@tsurumi.beppu.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Suga, Shin; Takahashi, Akira; Ueoka, Yousuke; Arima, Takahiro; Nishida, Jun-ichi; Hachisuga, Toru; Kawarabayashi, Tatsuhiko; Wake, Norio

    2005-05-01

    Previously, we found a significant reduction of progesterone receptor B (PR-B) expression levels in the Ras-mediated NIH3T3 cell transformation, and re-expression of exogenous PR-B eliminated the tumorigenic potential. We hypothesized that this reduction is of biological significance in cell transformation. In the present study, we determined the correlation between PR-B expression and cell cycle progression. In synchronized NIH3T3 cells, we found an increase in PR-B protein and p27 CDK inhibitor levels in the G0/G1 phase and a reduction due to redistribution in the S and G2/M phases. The MEK inhibitor or cAMP stimulation arrested NIH3T3 cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The expression of PR-B and p27 CDK inhibitors was up-regulated by treatment with both the MEK inhibitor and cAMP. Treatment of synchronized cells with a PKA inhibitor in the presence of 1% calf serum resulted in a significant reduction in both PR-B and p27 levels. The decrease in the PR-B levels caused by anti-sense oligomers or siRNA corresponded to the reduction in p27 levels. PR-B overexpression by adenovirus infection induced p27 and suppressed cell growth. Finally, we showed that PR-B modulation involved in the regulation of NIH3T3 cell proliferation was independent of nuclear estrogen receptor (ER) activity but dependent on non-genomic ER activity.

  10. Lysophosphatidic Acid-induced ERK Activation and Chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 Preosteoblasts are Independent of EGF Receptor Transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiosis, Sue A.; Chrisler, William B.; Bollinger, Nikki; Karin, Norman J.

    2009-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that bone-forming osteoblasts and their progenitors are target cells for the lipid growth factor lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) which is produced by degranulating platelets at sites of injury. LPA is a potent inducer of bone cell migration, proliferation and survival in vitro and an attractive candidate to facilitate preosteoblast chemotaxis during skeletal regeneration in vivo, but the intracellular signaling pathways mediating the effects of this lipid on bone cells are not defined. In this study we measured the ability of LPA to stimulate extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2) in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells and determined the contribution of this pathway to LPA-stimulated chemotaxis. LPA-treated cells exhibited a bimodal activation of ERK1/2 with maximal phosphorylation at 5 and 60 minutes. The kinetics of ERK1/2 phosphorylation were not coupled to Ras activation or LPA-induced elevations in cytosolic Ca2+. While LPA is coupled to the transactivation of the EGF receptor in many cell types, LPA-stimulated ERK1/2 activation in MC3T3-E1 cells was unaffected by inhibition of EGF receptor function. ERK isoforms rapidly accumulated at nuclear sites in LPA-treated cells, a process that was blocked if ERK1/2 phosphorylation was prevented with the MEK1 inhibitor U0126. Blocking ERK1/2 phosphorylation with U0126 also diminished MC3T3-E1 cell migration and altered the normal disassembly of LPA-induced stress fibers, while the inhibition of EGF receptor function had no effect on LPA-coupled preosteoblast motility. Our results identify ERK1/2 activation as a mediatora mediator of LPA-stimulated MC3T3-E1 cell migration that may be relevant to preosteoblast motility during bone repair in vivo.

  11. Effects of intermedin on proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of OPG/RANKL/M-CSF in the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell line

    PubMed Central

    REN, HONGFEI; REN, HONGYU; LI, XUE; YU, DONGDONG; MU, SHUAI; CHEN, ZHIGUANG; FU, QIN

    2015-01-01

    Bone remodeling is a vital physiological process of healthy bone tissue in humans. It is characterized by the formation of bone by osteoblasts and its resorption by osteoclasts, and the bone resorbed by osteoclasts is replaced through the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts. Imbalances in this vital process lead to pathological conditions, including osteoporosis. Intermedin (IMD) as a newly discovered peptide in the calcitonin (CT) family of peptides, which shares similar functions with CT, calcitonin gene-related peptide and amylin in bone resorption. However, the mechanism underlying its effect remains to be elucidated. This was investigated in the present study using the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line, which was treated with different doses of IMD (0, 1, 10 and 100 nM). Cell proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were measured following treatment using multiple detection techniques, including an MTT assay, flow cytometry, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The resulting data demonstrated that IMD significantly inhibited the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum-free culture and dexamethasone, however, no significant effects on MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation were observed. IMD had additional functions on the MC3T3-E1 cells, including inhibition of the expression of RANKL and M-CSF, and promotion of the expression of OPG. Previous studies have also demonstrated that RANKL and M-CSF are two vital factor produced by osteoblasts to promote the maturation and differentiation of osteoclasts, and it has been reported that IMD can inhibit the osteoclast formation stimulated by RANKL and M-CSF. Together with these findings, the present study concluded that IMD reduces bone resorption by inhibiting osteoblast apoptosis, decreasing the RANKL/OPG ratio and the expression of M-CSF, and inhibiting osteoclast maturation and differentiation. PMID:26398911

  12. The micosporine-like amino acids-rich aqueous methanol extract of laver (Porphyra yezoensis) inhibits adipogenesis and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunhee; Lee, Yunjung; Han, Taejun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Increased mass of adipose tissue in obese persons is caused by excessive adipogenesis, which is elaborately controlled by an array of transcription factors. Inhibition of adipogenesis by diverse plant-derived substances has been explored. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of the aqueous methanol extract of laver (Porphyra yezoensis) on adipogenesis and apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of the laver extract. MATERIALS/METHODS 3T3-L1 cells were treated with various concentrations of laver extract in differentiation medium. Lipid accumulation, expression of adipogenic proteins, including CCAAT enhancer-binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, fatty acid binding protein 4, and fatty acid synthase, cell viability, apoptosis, and the total content and the ratio of reduced to oxidized forms of glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were analyzed. RESULTS Treatment with laver extract resulted in a significant decrease in lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which showed correlation with a reduction in expression of adipogenic proteins. Treatment with laver extract also resulted in a decrease in the viability of preadipocytes and an increase in the apoptosis of mature adipocytes. Treatment with laver extract led to exacerbated depletion of cellular glutathione and abolished the transient increase in GSH/GSSG ratio during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CONCLUSION Results of our study demonstrated that treatment with the laver extract caused inhibition of adipogenesis, a decrease in proliferation of preadipocytes, and an increase in the apoptosis of mature adipocytes. It appears that these effects were caused by increasing oxidative stress, as demonstrated by the depletion and oxidation of the cellular glutathione pool in the extract-treated adipocytes. Our results suggest that a prooxidant role of laver extract is associated with its antiadipogenic and proapoptotic effects. PMID:26634047

  13. Ginsenoside F2 possesses anti-obesity activity via binding with PPAR? and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation in the 3T3-L1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Siraj, Fayeza Md; SathishKumar, Natarajan; Kim, Yeon Ju; Kim, Se Young; Yang, Deok Chun

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Panax ginseng Meyer has been shown to be effective in mitigating various diseases. Protopanaxadiols (PPD) and protopanaxatriols (PPT), which are the main constituents of ginseng, have been shown to impact obesity. Therefore, we selected several important ginsenosides to perform our docking study and determine if they had binding affinity with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), which is a major transcription factor in adipocytes. Among them, only a few ginsenosides demonstrated binding affinity with PPAR?. Other than ginsenoside F2 rest of them were previously reported by the researchers in experimental study in case of obesity cell line 3T3-L1 adipocyte. In few recent studies, it was reported that F2 has protective effects on malignant brain tumors as well as anti-cancer activity in breast cancer. Therefore, we felt it was important to focus on F2 when considering obesity. Our study focused on this ginsenoside and analyzed its impact on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Following the molecular interaction studies, further experimental studies were carried out and demonstrated that ginsenoside F2 when treated with different doses reduces the level of lipid accumulated by the 3T3-L1 cell line during adipogenesis. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR results showed reduction in PPAR? and perilipin gene expression levels compared to that of differentiated adipocytes without any treatment. So considering the binding with a major adipocyte transcription factor and the performed experiments, we suggest that ginsenoside F2 may reduce obesity via the inhibition of adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 cell line. PMID:24666293

  14. Effects of modified Shu-Gan-Liang-Xue decoction combined with anastrozole on osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, FEI; HAN, SHUYAN; ZHOU, NING; ZHENG, WENXIAN; LI, PINGPING

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are widely used in the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer and as a result, aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) has become a major concern amongst patients receiving AI treatment. Modified Shu-Gan-Liang-Xue decoction (mSGLXD), a clinical prescription, has been used for ameliorating AIBL in patients with breast cancer for decades and has achieved good clinical efficacy. However, the mechanism underlying how mSGLXD influences bone homeostasis and alleviates AIBL has remained elusive. In the present study, mSGLXD was supplemented with Rhizoma Drynariae containing phytoestrogens, and the safety of mSGLXD was evaluated. mSGLXD did not possess estrogenic activity and significantly inhibited the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7, which suggested that mSGLXD was safe for postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. Subsequently, the effects of mSGLXD alone or in combination with anastrozole on osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and differentiation were investigated. Cell counting kit-8, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and biochemical methods, such as ELISA and alizarin red S staining, were used in the present study. It was revealed that mSGLXD not only stimulated MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, but also upregulated alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin gene and protein expression levels. High concentrations of anastrozole (10 or 100 μmol/l) markedly inhibited MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, but this inhibitory effect was attenuated by mSGLXD. Furthermore, mSGLXD increased MC3T3-E1 cell mineralization following β-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid induction. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that mSGLXD may be a promising adjuvant therapy, with high safety and efficacy, for the prevention and treatment of AIBL in patients with breast cancer who receive AI treatment. PMID:25405542

  15. Cytoprotective role of the fatty acid binding protein 4 against oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Minami, Yoshitaka; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), one of the most abundant proteins in adipocytes, has been reported to have a proinflammatory function in macrophages. However, the physiological role of FABP4, which is constitutively expressed in adipocytes, has not been fully elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that FABP4 was involved in the regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of FABP4 silencing on the oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-nitro-cyclic GMP levels were significantly elevated in the differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes transfected with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Fabp4, although the intracellular levels or enzyme activities of antioxidants including reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase A4 (GSTA4) were not altered. An in vitro evaluation using the recombinant protein revealed that FABP4 itself functions as a scavenger protein against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). FABP4-knockdown resulted in a significant lowering of cell viability of 3T3-L1 adipocytes against H2O2 treatment. Moreover, four kinds of markers related to the ER stress response including the endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1 (Ern1), the signal sequence receptor α (Ssr1), the ORM1-like 3 (Ormdl3), and the spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s), were all elevated as the result of the knockdown of FABP4. Consequently, FABP4 might have a new role as an antioxidant protein against H2O2 and contribute to cytoprotection against oxidative and ER stress in adipocytes. PMID:25161868

  16. Delivering MC3T3-E1 cells into injectable calcium phosphate cement through alginate-chitosan microcapsules for bone tissue engineering*

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Peng-yan; Li, Fang-fang; Dong, Li-min; Xu, Tao; Xie, Qiu-fei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To deliver cells deep into injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) through alginate-chitosan (AC) microcapsules and investigate the biological behavior of the cells released from microcapsules into the CPC. Methods: Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in alginate and AC microcapsules using an electrostatic droplet generator. The two types of cell-encapsulating microcapsules were then mixed with a CPC paste. MC3T3-E1 cell viability was investigated using a Wst-8 kit, and osteogenic differentiation was demonstrated by an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. Cell attachment in CPC was observed by an environment scanning electron microscopy. Results: Both alginate and AC microcapsules were able to release the encapsulated MC3T3-E1 cells when mixed with CPC paste. The released cells attached to the setting CPC scaffolds, survived, differentiated, and formed mineralized nodules. Cells grew in the pores concomitantly created by the AC microcapsules in situ within the CPC. At Day 21, cellular ALP activity in the AC group was approximately four times that at Day 7 and exceeded that of the alginate microcapsule group (P<0.05). Pores formed by the AC microcapsules had a diameter of several hundred microns and were spherical compared with those formed by alginate microcapsules. Conclusions: AC microcapsule is a promising carrier to release seeding cells deep into an injectable CPC scaffold for bone engineering. PMID:24711359

  17. Inhibition of O-GlcNAcase using a potent and cell-permeable inhibitor does not induce insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Matthew S; He, Yuan; Gloster, Tracey M; Stubbs, Keith A; Davies, Gideon J; Vocadlo, David J

    2010-09-24

    To probe increased O-GlcNAc levels as an independent mechanism governing insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a new class of O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitor was studied. 6-Acetamido-6-deoxy-castanospermine (6-Ac-Cas) is a potent inhibitor of OGA. The structure of 6-Ac-Cas bound in the active site of an OGA homolog reveals structural features contributing to its potency. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with 6-Ac-Cas increases O-GlcNAc levels in a dose-dependent manner. These increases in O-GlcNAc levels do not induce insulin resistance functionally, measured using a 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) uptake assay, or at the molecular level, determined by evaluating levels of phosphorylated IRS-1 and Akt. These results, and others described, provide a structural blueprint for improved inhibitors and collectively suggest that increased O-GlcNAc levels, brought about by inhibition of OGA, does not by itself cause insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:20851343

  18. Peanut sprout ethanol extract inhibits the adipocyte proliferation, differentiation, and matrix metalloproteinases activities in mouse fibroblast 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kang, Nam E; Kim, Myung Hwan

    2013-01-01

    3T3-L1 preadipocyte were differentiated to adipocytes, and then treated with 0, 10, 20, and 40 µg/mL of peanut sprout ethanol extract (PSEE). The main component of PSEE is resveratrol which contained 5.55 mg/mL of resveratrol. The MTT assay, Oil-Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, and the triglyceride concentration were determined in 3T3-L1 cells. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as well as mRNA expressions of C/EBP β and C/EBP α were also investigated. As the concentration of PSEE in adipocytes increased, the cell proliferation was decreased in a dose-dependent manner from 4 days of incubation (P < 0.05). The GDPH activity (P < 0.05) and the triglyceride concentration (P < 0.05) were decreased as the PSEE treatment concentration increased. The mRNA expression of C/EBPβ in 3T3-L1 cells was significantly low in groups of PSEE-treated, compared with control group (P < 0.05). The MMP-9 (P < 0.05) and MMP-2 (P < 0.05) activities were decreased in a dose-dependent manner as the PSEE concentration increased from 20 µg/mL. In conclusion, it was found that PSEE has an effect on restricting proliferation and differentiation of adipocytes. PMID:23766875

  19. The ?-SiC Nanowires (~100 nm) Induce Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress in Mouse Osteoblastic Cell Line MC3T3-E1

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Weili; Xie, Qi; Jin, Meishan; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Shao, Zhengkai; Wen, Guangwu

    2014-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC), a compound of silicon and carbon, with chemical formula SiC, the beta modification (?-SiC), with a zinc blende crystal structure (similar to diamond), is formed at temperature below 1700C. ?-SiC will be the most suitable ceramic material for the future hard tissue replacement, such as bone and tooth. The in vitro cytotoxicity of ?-SiC nanowires was investigated for the first time. Our results indicated that 100?nm long SiC nanowires could significantly induce the apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells, compared with 100??m long SiC nanowires. And 100?nm long SiC nanowires increased oxidative stress in MC3T3-E1 cells, as determined by the concentrations of MDA (as a marker of lipid peroxidation) and 8-OHdG (indicator of oxidative DNA damage). Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to evaluate the morphological changes of MC3T3-E1 cells. After treatment with 100?nm long SiC nanowires, the mitochondria were swelled and disintegrated, and the production of ATP and the total oxygen uptake were also decreased significantly. Therefore, ?-SiC nanowires may have limitations as medical material. PMID:24967352

  20. The benefits of the 3T3 NRU test in the safety assessment of cosmetics: long-term experience from pre-marketing testing in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Jrov, D; Kejlov, K; Brabec, M; Bendov, H; Kolrov, H

    2003-01-01

    We have introduced the 3T3 NRU cytotoxicity test for methodological, economical and ethical reasons as a regular part of tier pre-marketing testing to assess local tolerance of raw materials for cosmetics, household chemicals and final cosmetic products. Using the 3T3 cell line according to the standard INVITTOX protocol No.64 (NRU Assay) the borderline concentration, relevant to the highest tolerated dose, is determined for each material. The toxic effect is reached at different concentration levels specific for individual cosmetics categories, depending on their chemical characteristics. Typical ranges of cytotoxicity for specific categories of cosmetics were established after testing of hundreds of materials. The range lies between 1 microg/ml (anti-dandruff shampoos), up to 2000 microg/ml (toothpastes and mouthwashes). The 3T3 NRU cytotoxicity test is a sensitive tool able to identify more aggressive products, that are also more likely to evoke irritation in human skin. It was even possible to detect protective effects of one natural herbal ingredient. The comparative study of cytotoxicity test results and human patch test results from a group of essential oils is presented. Cytotoxicity tests represent a highly ethical approach for estimation of irritancy. On the basis of in vitro test results suggesting low risk we can proceed to confirmatory tests in human volunteers. PMID:14599479

  1. Momordica charantia seed extract reduces pre-adipocyte viability, affects lactate dehydrogenase release, and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Popovich, David G; Lee, Yiyu; Li, Lu; Zhang, Wei

    2011-03-01

    A triterpenoid containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seed (BMS) extract was found to reduce cultured 3T3-L1 cell viability. The 50% lethal concentration values were determined to be 0.78??0.01?mg/mL at 24 hours, 0.69??0.01?mg/mL at 48 hours, and 0.56??0.02?mg/mL at 72 hours. 3T3-L1 cells were utilized as models of pre-adipocyte to adipocyte differentiation. BMS extract also caused a G(2)/M arrest in the cell cycle reducing cells by 23.9%, 37.7%, and 34.7% compared with the control after 72 hours of treatment at concentrations of 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6?mg/mL respectively. BMS extract did not increase the release of lactate dehydrogenase from 3T3-L1 cells, which was unexpected. Furthermore, BMS extract reduced lipid accumulation during differentiation from pre-adipocyte to adipocyte corresponding to reduction in overall triglyceride of 32.4% after 72 hours compared with untreated control cells. BMS is an underutilized agricultural commodity that may have potential for nutraceutical and functional food development. PMID:21332398

  2. Effect of Metformin on Viability, Morphology, and Ultrastructure of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Balb/3T3 Embryonic Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Czyrek, Aleksandra; Basinska, Katarzyna; Trynda, Justyna; Skaradzi?ska, Aneta; Siudzi?ska, Anna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Metformin, a popular drug used to treat diabetes, has recently gained attention as a potentially useful therapeutic agent for treating cancer. In our research metformin was added to in vitro cultures of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and Balb/3T3 fibroblast at concentration of 1?mM, 5?mM, and 10?mM. Obtained results indicated that metformin negatively affected proliferation activity of investigated cells. The drug triggered the formation of autophagosomes and apoptotic bodies in all tested cultures. Additionally, we focused on determination of expression of genes involved in insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathway. The most striking finding was that the mRNA level of IGF2 was constant in both BMSCs and Balb/3T3. Further, the analysis of IGF2 concentration in cell supernatants showed that it decreased in BMSC cultures after 5 and 10?mM metformin treatments. In case of Balb/3T3 the concentration of IGF2 in culture supernatants decreased after 1 and 5?mM and increased after 10?mM of metformin. Our results suggest that metformin influences the cytophysiology of somatic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner causing inhibition of proliferation and abnormalities of their morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:26064951

  3. Antiproliferative activity of flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the MCF7, KB, and NIH/3T3 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Nedel, Fernanda; Begnini, Karine; Carvalho, Pedro Henrique de Azambuja; Lund, Rafael Guerra; Beira, Ftima T A; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto B

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the antiproliferative effect in vitro of the flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB), and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines, using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. A cell density of 210(4)/well was seeded in 96-well plates, and samples at different concentrations ranging from 10 to 500?mg/mL were tested. The optical density was determined in an ELISA multiplate reader (Thermo Plate TP-Reader). Results demonstrated that the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity against both the tumor cell lines KB and MCF-7, presenting a GI(50) (MCF-7=13.09?mg/mL), TGI (KB=37.76?mg/mL), and IL(50) (KB=291.07?mg/mL). Also, the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity toward NIH 3T3 cells GI(50) (183.65?mg/mL), TGI (280.54?mg/mL), and IL(50) (384.59?mg/mL). The results indicate that the flower hexane extract obtained from M. spicata associated with M. rotundifolia presents an antineoplastic activity against KB and MCF-7, although an antiproliferative effect at a high concentration of the extract was observed toward NIH 3T3. PMID:23066647

  4. The glucose transporter 4-regulating protein TUG is essential for highly insulin-responsive glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chenfei; Cresswell, James; Lffler, Michael G; Bogan, Jonathan S

    2007-03-01

    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in fat and muscle by redistributing GLUT4 glucose transporters from intracellular membranes to the cell surface. We previously proposed that, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, TUG retains GLUT4 within unstimulated cells and insulin mobilizes this retained GLUT4 by stimulating its dissociation from TUG. Yet the relative importance of this action in the overall control of glucose uptake remains uncertain. Here we report that transient, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of TUG causes GLUT4 translocation and enhances glucose uptake in unstimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, similar to insulin. Stable TUG depletion or expression of a dominant negative fragment likewise stimulates GLUT4 redistribution and glucose uptake, and insulin causes a 2-fold further increase. Microscopy shows that TUG governs the accumulation of GLUT4 in perinuclear membranes distinct from endosomes and indicates that it is this pool of GLUT4 that is mobilized by TUG disruption. Interestingly, in addition to translocating GLUT4 and enhancing glucose uptake, TUG disruption appears to accelerate the degradation of GLUT4 in lysosomes. Finally, we find that TUG binds directly and specifically to a large intracellular loop in GLUT4. Together, these findings demonstrate that TUG is required to retain GLUT4 intracellularly in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the absence of insulin and further implicate the insulin-stimulated dissociation of TUG and GLUT4 as an important action by which insulin stimulates glucose uptake. PMID:17202135

  5. Free Fatty Acids Activate Renin-Angiotensin System in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through Nuclear Factor-kappa B Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia; Luo, Jinhua; Ruan, Yuting; Xiu, Liangchang; Fang, Bimei; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Ming; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The activity of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the adipose tissue is closely associated with obesity-related diseases. However, the mechanism of RAS activation in adipose tissue is still unknown. In the current study, we found that palmitic acid (PA), one kind of free fatty acid, induced the activity of RAS in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the presence of fetuin A (Fet A), PA upregulated the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and stimulated the secretion of angiotensin II (ANG II) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, the activation of RAS in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was blocked when we blocked Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway using TAK242 or NF-κB signaling pathway using BAY117082. Together, our results have identified critical molecular mechanisms linking PA/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway to the activity of the local renin-angiotensin system in adipose tissue. PMID:26881238

  6. Differentiation to adipocytes in accompanied by an increase in the amounts of Gi- and Go-proteins in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.C.; Northup, J.K.; Malbon, C.C.

    1986-05-01

    Treatment of cultures of 3T3-L1 cells with methylisobutyl-xanthine and dexamethasone has been shown to result in accumulation of lipid and conversion to the morphology of adipocytes in more than 90% of the cells. The status of the stimulatory (Gs), inhibitory (Gi) and Go-proteins during the course of 3T3-L1 differentiation was examined. The amount of alpha subunit of Gs (..cap alpha..Gs), assayed by radiolabeling in the presence of cholera toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/, increased upon differentiation as previously described by others. The amounts of ..cap alpha..Gi and ..cap alpha..Go assayed by radiolabeling in the presence of pertussis toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ increased 3-fold upon differentiation. Immunoblots of cell membranes subjected to gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate were probed with two rabbit antisera raised against bovine brain ..cap alpha..Go and with one raised against the..beta..-subunit of the bovine rod-outer-segment G-protein, referred to as transducin. The immunoblotting data confirm the increase upon differentiation of ..cap alpha..Go and also demonstrate an increase in the amount of the ..beta..-subunit. Thus differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells is accompanied by dramatic changes in the complexion of G-proteins in the membranes.

  7. The β-SiC nanowires (~100 nm) induce apoptosis via oxidative stress in mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weili; Xie, Qi; Jin, Meishan; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Shao, Zhengkai; Wen, Guangwu

    2014-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC), a compound of silicon and carbon, with chemical formula SiC, the beta modification ( β-SiC), with a zinc blende crystal structure (similar to diamond), is formed at temperature below 1700°C. β-SiC will be the most suitable ceramic material for the future hard tissue replacement, such as bone and tooth. The in vitro cytotoxicity of β-SiC nanowires was investigated for the first time. Our results indicated that 100 nm long SiC nanowires could significantly induce the apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells, compared with 100 μm long SiC nanowires. And 100 nm long SiC nanowires increased oxidative stress in MC3T3-E1 cells, as determined by the concentrations of MDA (as a marker of lipid peroxidation) and 8-OHdG (indicator of oxidative DNA damage). Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to evaluate the morphological changes of MC3T3-E1 cells. After treatment with 100 nm long SiC nanowires, the mitochondria were swelled and disintegrated, and the production of ATP and the total oxygen uptake were also decreased significantly. Therefore, β-SiC nanowires may have limitations as medical material. PMID:24967352

  8. cis9, trans11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Differentiates Mouse 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes into Mature Small Adipocytes through Induction of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Satoru; Nishioka, Yuki; Imanishi, Ryohta; Nishikawa, Kenji; Sakamoto, Hirotada; Fujisawa, Junji; Wada, Koichiro; Kamisaki, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to exhibit a number of therapeutic effects in animal models and patients, such as anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-arteriosclerotic, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the underlying mechanism is not well-characterized. In the present study, the effects of cis(c)9, trans(t)11-CLA on the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into mature adipocytes were examined. Treatment with c9, t11-CLA in the presence of insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (differentiation cocktail) significantly stimulated the accumulation of triacylglycerol. The microscopic observation of cells stained by Oil Red O demonstrated that c9, t11-CLA increases the amount and proportion of small mature adipocytes secreting adiponectin, a benign adipocytokine, when compared to the differentiation cocktail alone. Furthermore, c9, t11-CLA increased bioactive peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) levels in a nuclear extract of 3T3-L1 cells, suggesting the enhancing effect of this fatty acid on the nuclear transmission of PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest that the therapeutic effects of c9, t11-CLA on lifestyle-related diseases are partially due to the enhanced formation of small adipocytes from preadipocytes via PPARγ stimulation. PMID:20838573

  9. Activation of AMPK participates hydrogen sulfide-induced cyto-protective effect against dexamethasone in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Huang, Yue; Chen, Jia; Chen, Yi-lei; Ma, Jian-jun; Shi, Pei-hua

    2014-11-01

    Long-time glucocorticoids (GCs) usage causes osteoporosis. In the present study, we explored the potential role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) against dexamethasone (Dex)-induced osteoblast cell damage, and focused on the underlying mechanisms. We showed that two H2S-producing enzymes, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), were significantly downregulated in human osteonecrosis tissues as well as in Dex-treated osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. H2S donor NaHS as well as the CBS activator S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) inhibited Dex-induced viability reduction, death and apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. NaHS activated adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, which participated its cyto-protective activity. AMPK inhibition by its inhibitor (compound C) or reduction by targeted-shRNA suppressed its pro-survival activity against Dex in MC3T3-E1 cells. Further, we found that NaHS inhibited Dex-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ATP depletion. Such effects by NaHS were again inhibited by compound C and AMPKα1-shRNA. In summary, we show that H2S inhibits Dex-induced osteoblast damage through activation of AMPK signaling. H2S signaling might be further investigated as a novel target for anti-osteoporosis treatment. PMID:25445596

  10. Requirement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway and Src for Gas6-Axl mitogenic and survival activities in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Goruppi, S; Ruaro, E; Varnum, B; Schneider, C

    1997-01-01

    Gas6 is a secreted protein previously identified as the ligand of the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase. We have shown that Gas6 is able to induce cell cycle reentry of serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells and to efficiently prevent apoptosis after complete growth factor removal, a survival effect uncoupled from Gas6-induced mitogenesis. Here we report that the mitogenic effect of Gas6 requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity since it is abrogated both by the specific inhibitor wortmannin and by overexpression of the dominant negative P13K p85 subunit. Consistently, Gas6 activates the P13K downstream targets S6K and Akt, whose activation is abrogated by addition of wortmannin. Moreover, rapamycin treatment blocks Gas6-induced entry into the S phase of serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells. We also demonstrate the requirement of Src tyrosine kinase for Gas6 signalling since stable or transient expression of a catalytically inactive form of Src significantly inhibited Gas6-stimulated entry into the S phase. Accordingly, Gas6 addition to serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells causes activation of the intrinsic Src kinase activity. When specifically analyzed in a survival assay, these elements were found to be required for the survival effect of Gas6. Taken together, the evidence presented here identifies elements involved in the Gas6 transduction pathway that are responsible for its antiapoptotic effect and suggests that Src is involved in the events regulating cell survival. PMID:9234702

  11. Toxicity of derivatives from semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase-mediated deamination of methylamine against Toxoplasma gondii after infection of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Sha; Li, Qian-ru; Du, Ying; Yang, Xuan; Fan, Jian-ming; Dong, Zi-ming

    2010-04-01

    Adipose tissue plays an active role in normal metabolic homeostasis as well as in the development of human diseases such as atherosclerosis and diabetes. We report here antimicrobial activities of the metabolites from adipocytes. Specifically, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells was found to utilize methylamine for producing formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, accounting for the inhibition of infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii and its replication in these cells. This was demonstrated by the findings that semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase was extremely high in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells; and that the infection of these cells by T. gondii and its intracellular replication were decreased to 33% and 37% of the control, respectively, when methylamine was provided in micromolar concentrations as the substrate to the aminoxidase. Only one of the two reaction products expected was found inhibitory against T. gondii when added to the infected pre-adipocytes of 3T3-L1. Intracellular replication of this parasite was inhibited by formaldehyde in the range of 10-100 microM and stimulated by hydrogen peroxide at 1-10 microM. The finding indicates that T. gondii may be useful as a sensitive and convenient sentinel for screening agents toxic to eukaryotic cells. PMID:20025955

  12. Effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume on 3T3-L1 Adipogenesis and Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sang Deog; Kim, Mihyun; Min, Byung-Il; Choi, Gi Soon; Kim, Sun-Kwang; Bae, Hyunsu; Kang, Chulhun; Kim, Deok-Gon; Kim, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the antiobesity effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume root water extract in a 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation model and rats fed with a high-fat diet. To investigate the effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume on adipogenesis in vitro, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells in adipocyte-induction media were treated every two days with Achyranthes bidentata Blume at various concentrations (1 to 25 μg/mL) for eight days. We found that Achyranthes bidentata Blume root inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation without affecting cell viability, and Western blot analysis revealed that phospho-Akt expression was markedly decreased, whereas there was no significant change in perilipin expression. Furthermore, administration of Achyranthes bidentata Blume root (0.5 g/kg body weight for six weeks) to rats fed with a high-fat diet significantly reduced body weight gain without affecting food intake, and the level of triglyceride was significantly decreased when compared to those in rats fed with only a high-fat diet. These results suggest that Achyranthes bidentata Blume root water extract could have a beneficial effect on inhibition of adipogenesis and controlling body weight in rats fed with a high-fat diet. PMID:24963319

  13. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Desensitizes MC3T3-E1 Osteoblastic Cells to Estrogen Through Transcriptional Downregulation of Estrogen Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Estrogens exert preferable effects on bone metabolism through two estrogen receptors (ERs), ER1 and ER2, which activate the transcription of a set of genes as ligand-dependent transcription factors. Thus, growth factors and hormones which modulate ER expression in the bone, if any, may possibly modulate the effect of estrogens on bone metabolism. However, research as to which of these molecules regulate the expression of ERs in osteoblasts has not been well documented. Methods A reporter assay system developed in this study was used to explore molecules that modulate ER1 expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results A pilot study using the reporter system revealed that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 negatively regulated ER1, but not ER2, expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Consistently, estradiol-induced reporter activity via an estrogen responsive element was strongly suppressed in MC3T3-E1 cells pretreated with BMP-2. Conclusions BMP-2 desensitizes osteoblastic cells to estrogen through downregulation of ER1 expression. PMID:24524062

  14. Bixin regulates mRNA expression involved in adipogenesis and enhances insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through PPAR{gamma} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Taimatsu, Aki; Egawa, Kahori; Katoh, Sota; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Ohyane, Chie; Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, Young-il; Uemura, Taku; Hirai, Shizuka; Kawada, Teruo

    2009-12-25

    Insulin resistance is partly due to suppression of insulin-induced glucose uptake into adipocytes. The uptake is dependent on adipocyte differentiation, which is controlled at mRNA transcription level. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor, is involved in the differentiation. Many food-derived compounds serve as ligands to activate or inactivate PPAR. In this study, we demonstrated that bixin and norbixin (annatto extracts) activate PPAR{gamma} by luciferase reporter assay using GAL4-PPAR chimera proteins. To examine the effects of bixin on adipocytes, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with bixin or norbixin. The treatment induced mRNA expression of PPAR{gamma} target genes such as adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adiponectin in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and enhanced insulin-dependent glucose uptake. The observations indicate that bixin acts as an agonist of PPAR{gamma} and enhances insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting that bixin is a valuable food-derived compound as a PPAR ligand to regulate lipid metabolism and to ameliorate metabolic syndrome.

  15. A new lectin in red kidney beans called PvFRIL stimulates proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells expressing the Flt3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Moore, J G; Fuchs, C A; Hata, Y S; Hicklin, D J; Colucci, G; Chrispeels, M J; Feldman, M

    2000-07-26

    A new legume lectin has been identified by its ability to specifically stimulate proliferation of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts expressing the Flt3 tyrosine kinase receptor. The lectin was isolated from conditioned medium harvested from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated to secrete cytokines by a crude red kidney bean extract containing phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Untransfected 3T3 cells and 3T3 cells transfected with the related Fms tyrosine kinase receptor do not respond to this lectin, which we called PvFRIL (Phaseolus vulgaris Flt3 receptor-interacting lectin). When tested on cord blood mononuclear cells enriched for Flt3-expressing progenitors, purified PvFRIL fractions maintained a small population of cells that continued to express CD34 after 2 weeks in suspension cultures containing IL3. These cultures did not show the effects of IL3's strong induction of proliferation and differentiation (high cell number and exhausted medium); instead, low cell number at the end of the culture period resulted in persistence of cells in the context of cell death. These observations led to the hypothesis that PvFRIL acts in a dominant manner to preserve progenitor viability and prevent proliferation and differentiation. PMID:10913819

  16. Blueberry Peel Extracts Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and Reduce High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Lee, Soo-Jung; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Gon-Sup; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of blueberry peel extracts (BPE) in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The levels of lipid accumulation were measured, along with the changes in the expression of genes and proteins associated with adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Evidenced by Oil-red O staining and triglyceride assay, BPE dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation at concentrations of 0, 50, and 200 µg/ml. BPE decreased the expression of the key adipocyte differentiation regulator C/EBPβ, as well as the C/EBPα and PPARγ genes, during the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Moreover, BPE down-regulated adipocyte-specific genes such as aP2 and FAS compared with control adipocytes. The specific mechanism mediating the effects of BP revealed that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was strongly decreased, and its downstream substrate, phospho-GSK3β, was downregulated by BPE treatment in 3T3-L1 cells. Together, these data indicated that BP exerted anti-adipogenic activity by inhibiting the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPβ and the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Next, we investigated whether BP extracts attenuated HFD-induced obesity in rats. Oral administration of BPE reduced HFD-induced body weight gain significantly without affecting food intake. The epididymal or perirenal adipose tissue weights were lower in rats on an HFD plus BPE compared with the tissue weights of HFD-induced obese rats. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the rats fed BPE were modestly reduced, and the HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFD plus BP-fed rats compared with those of HFD-fed rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of BP on adipogenesis through the down-regulation of C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and PPARγ and the reduction of the phospho-Akt adipogenic factor in 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, BPE reduced body weight gain and inhibited fat accumulation in an HFD-induced animal model of obesity. PMID:23936120

  17. Shikonin suppresses ERK 1/2 phosphorylation during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The naphthoquinone pigment, shikonin, is a major component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and has been shown to have various biological functions, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation and its mechanism of action in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods To investigate the effects of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate using 3-isobutyl-1-methylzanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI) for 8 days in the presence of 0–2 μM shikonin. Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. To elucidate the anti-adipogenic mechanism of shikonin, adipogenic transcription factors, the phosphorylation levels of ERK, and adipogenic gene expression were analyzed by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. To further confirm that shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation through downregulation of ERK 1/2 activity, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with shikonin in the presence of FGF-2, an activator, or PD98059, an inhibitor, of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Results Shikonin effectively suppressed adipogenesis and downregulated the protein levels of 2 major transcription factors, PPARγ and C/EBPα, as well as the adipocyte specific gene aP2 in a dose-dependent manner. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that shikonin inhibited mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related genes, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and aP2. Adipocyte differentiation was mediated by ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, which was confirmed by pretreatment with PD98059 (an ERK 1/2 inhibitor) or FGF-2 (an ERK 1/2 activator). The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during the early stages of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited by shikonin. We also confirmed that FGF-2-stimulated ERK 1/2 activity was attenuated by shikonin. Conclusions These results demonstrate that shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation via suppression of the ERK signaling pathway during the early stages of adipogenesis. PMID:23919458

  18. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Vicente; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Tang, Yu-ping; Park, Charlie; Hyde, Anthony; Wright, Timothy F.; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH) by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird), the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9–11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings) of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future. PMID:26694402

  19. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Vicente; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Tang, Yu-Ping; Park, Charlie; Hyde, Anthony; Wright, Timothy F; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH) by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird), the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9-11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings) of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future. PMID:26694402

  20. Effects of Feeder Cell Types on Culture of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun-Gwi; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Eun-Young; Hyun, Hyuk; Shin, Min-Young; Son, Yeo-Jin; Kim, Su-Young; Park, Se-Pill

    2015-01-01

    The suitable feeder cell layer is important for culture of embryonic stem (ES) cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of two kinds of the feeder cell, MEF cells and STO cells, layer to mouse ES (mES) cell culture for maintenance of stemness. We compare the colony formations, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities, expression of pluripotency marker genes and proteins of D3 cell colonies cultured on MEF feeder cell layer (D3/MEF) or STO cell layers (D3/STO) compared to feeder free condition (D3/–) as a control group. Although there were no differences to colony formations and AP activities, interestingly, the transcripts level of pluripotency marker genes, Pou5f1 and Nanog were highly expressed in D3/MEF (79 and 93) than D3/STO (61and 77) or D3/– (65 and 81). Also, pluripotency marker proteins, NANOG and SOX-2, were more synthesized in D3/MEF (72.8±7.69 and 81.2±3.56) than D3/STO (32.0±4.30 and 56.0±4.90) or D3/– (55.0±4.64 and 62.0±6.20). These results suggest that MEF feeder cell layer is more suitable to mES cell culture. PMID:27004268

  1. Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

  2. A Study on UV Filter Chemicals from Annex VII of European Union Directive 76/768/EEC, in the In Vitro 3T3 NRU Phototoxicity Test.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, H; Balls, M; Dupuis, J; Pape, W J; de Silva, O; Holzhtter, H G; Gerberick, F; Liebsch, M; Lovell, W W; Pfannenbecker, U

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, the Scientific Committee on Cosmetology of DGXXIV of the European Commission asked the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods to test eight UV filter chemicals from the 1995 edition of Annex VII of Directive 76/768/EEC in a blind trial in the in vitro 3T3 cell neutral red uptake phototoxicity (3T3 NRU PT) test, which had been scientifically validated between 1992 and 1996. Since all the UV filter chemicals on the positive list of EU Directive 76/768/EEC have been shown not to be phototoxic in vivo in humans under use conditions, only negative effects would be expected in the 3T3 NRU PT test. To balance the number of positive and negative chemicals, ten phototoxic and ten non-phototoxic chemicals were tested under blind conditions in four laboratories. Moreover, to assess the optimum concentration range for testing, information was provided on appropriate solvents and on the solubility of the coded chemicals. In this study, the phototoxic potential of test chemicals was evaluated in a prediction model in which either the Photoirritation Factor (PIF) or the Mean Photo Effect (MPE) were determined. The results obtained with both PIF and MPE were highly reproducible in the four laboratories, and the correlation between in vitro and in vivo data was almost perfect. All the phototoxic test chemicals provided a positive result at concentrations of 1?/ml, while nine of the ten non-phototoxic chemicals gave clear negative results, even at the highest test concentrations. One of the UV filter chemicals gave positive results in three of the four laboratories only at concentrations greater than 100?/ml; the other laboratory correctly identified all 20 of the test chemicals. An analysis of the impact that exposure concentrations had on the performance of the test revealed that the optimum concentration range in the 3T3 NRU PT test for determining the phototoxic potential of chemicals is between 0.1?g/ml and 10?g/ml, and that false positive results can be obtained at concentrations greater than 100?g/ml. Therefore, the positive results obtained with some of the UV filter chemicals only at concentrations greater than 100?g/ml do not indicate a phototoxic potential in vivo. When this information was taken into account during calculation of the overall predictivity of the 3T3 NRU PT test in the present study, an almost perfect correlation of in vitro versus in vivo results was obtained (between 95% and 100%), when either PIF or MPE were used to predict the phototoxic potential. The management team and participants therefore conclude that the 3T3 NRU PT test is a valid test for correctly assessing the phototoxic potential of UV filter chemicals, if the defined concentration limits are taken into account. PMID:26042493

  3. A commercial formulation of glyphosate inhibits proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Martini, Claudia N; Gabrielli, Matas; Vila, Mara del C

    2012-09-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used for weed control all over the world. Therefore, it is important to investigate the putative toxic effects of these formulations which include not only glyphosate itself but also surfactants that may also be toxic. 3T3-L1 fibroblasts are a useful tool to study adipocyte differentiation, this cell line can be induced to differentiate by addition of a differentiation mixture containing insulin, dexamethasone and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. We used this cell line to investigate the effect of a commercial formulation of glyphosate (GF) on proliferation, survival and differentiation. It was found that treatment of exponentially growing cells with GF for 48h inhibited proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with GF dilution 1:2000 during 24 or 48h inhibited proliferation and increased cell death, as evaluated by trypan blue-exclusion, in a time-dependent manner. We showed that treatment of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts with GF increased caspase-3 like activity and annexin-V positive cells as evaluated by flow cytometric analysis, which are both indicative of induction of apoptosis. It was also found that after the removal of GF, remaining cells were able to restore proliferation. On the other hand, GF treatment severely inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes. According to our results, a glyphosate-based herbicide inhibits proliferation and differentiation in this mammalian cell line and induces apoptosis suggesting GF-mediated cellular damage. Thus, GF is a potential risk factor for human health and the environment. PMID:22546541

  4. Phenyllactic Acid from Lactobacillus plantarum PromotesAdipogenic Activity in 3T3-L1 Adipocyte via Up-Regulationof PPAR-?2.

    PubMed

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Kim, Da Hye; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Srigopalram, Srisesharam; Sivanesan, Ravikumar; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic drugs are commonly used to cure various human ailments at present. However, the uses of synthetic drugs are strictly regulated because of their adverse effects. Thus, naturally occurring molecules may be more suitable for curing disease without unfavorable effects. Therefore, we investigated phenyllactic acid (PLA) from Lactobacillus plantarum with respect to its effects on adipogenic genes and their protein expression in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes by qPCR and western blot techniques. PLA enhanced differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells at the concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 ?M. Maximum differentiation and lipid accumulation were observed at a concentration of 100 ?M of PLA, as compared with control adipocytes (p < 0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of PPAR-?2, C/EBP??, adiponectin, fatty acid synthase (FAS), and SREBP-1 were increased by PLA treatment as compared with control adipocytes (p < 0.05). PLA stimulates PPAR-? mRNA expression in a concentration dependent manner, but this expression was lesser than agonist (2.83 0.014 fold) of PPAR-?2. Moreover, PLA supplementation enhances glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes (11.81 0.17 mM) compared to control adipocytes, but this glucose uptake was lesser than that induced by troglitazone (13.75 0.95 mM) and insulin treatment (15.49 0.20 mM). Hence, we conclude that PLA treatment enhances adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake via activation of PPAR-?2, and PLA may thus be the potential candidate for preventing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). PMID:26305241

  5. Ultrastructural evidence for the accumulation of insulin in nuclei of intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes by an insulin-receptor mediated process

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Jarett, L.

    1987-01-01

    Monomeric ferritin-labeled insulin (F/sub m/-Ins), a biologically active, electron-dense marker of occupied insulin receptors, was used to characterize the internalization of insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. F/sub m/-Ins bound specifically to insulin receptors and was internalized in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. In the nucleus, several F/sub m/-Ins particles usually were found in the same general location-near nuclear pores, associated with the periphery of the condensed chromatin. Addition of a 250-fold excess of unlabeled insulin or incubation at 15/sup 0/C reduced the number of F/sub m/-Ins particles found in nuclei after 90 min by 99% or 92%, respectively. Nuclear accumulation of unlabeled ferritin was only 2% of that found with F/sub m/-Ins after 90 min at 37/sup 0/C. Biochemical experiments utilizing /sup 125/I-labeled insulin and subcellular fractionation indicated that intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes internalized insulin rapidly and that approx. = 3% of the internalized ligand accumulated in nuclei after 1 hr. These data provide biochemical and high-resolution ultrastructural evidence that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate potentially significant amounts of insulin in nuclei by an insulin receptor-mediated process. The transport of insulin or the insulin-receptor complex to nuclei in this cell or in others may be directly involved in the long-term biological effects of insulin - in particular, in the control of DNA and RNA synthesis.

  6. Co-culture with periodontal ligament stem cells enhanced osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and osteoclastic differentiation of RAW264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shulan; Ye, Xin; Yu, Xinbo; Xu, Quanchen; Pan, Keqing; Lu, Shulai; Yang, Pishan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are characterized by having multipotential differentiation and immunoregulatory properties, which are the main mechanisms of PDLSCs-mediated periodontal regeneration. Periodontal or bone regeneration requires coordination of osteoblast and osteoclast, however, very little is known about the interactions between PDLSCs and osteoblast-like cells or osteoclast precursors. In this study, the indirect co-culture approach was introduced to preliminarily elucidate the effects of PDLSCs on differentiation of osteoblast-like cells and osteoclast precursors in vitro. Materials and methods: Human PDLSCs were obtained from premolars extracted and their stemness was identified in terms of their colony-forming ability, proliferative capacity, cell surface epitopes and multi-lineage differentiation potentials. A noncontact co-culture system of PDLSCs and preosteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 or osteoclast precursor cell line RAW264.7 was established, and osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 and osteoclastic differentiation of RAW264.7 were evaluated. Results: PDLSCs exhibited features of mesenchymal stem cells. Further investigation through indirect co-culture system showed that PDLSCs enhanced ALP activity, expressions of ALP, Runx2, BSP, OPN mRNA and BSP, OPN proteins and mineralization matrix deposition in MC3T3-E1. Meanwhile, they improved maturation of osteoclasts and expressions of TRAP, CSTK, TRAF6 mRNA and TRAP, TRAF6 proteins in RAW264.7. Conclusions: PDLSCs stimulates osteoblastic differentiation of osteoblast precursors and osteoclastic differentiation of osteoclast precursors, at least partially, in a paracrine fasion. PMID:26823783

  7. Regulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts by sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Stadel, J.M.; Poksay, K.S.; Nakada, M.T.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts contain beta-adrenergic receptors (BAR), predominantly of the B/sub 1/ subtype. Incubation of these cells with 2-10 mM sodium butyrate (SB) for 24-48 hr results in a switch in the BAR subtype from B/sub 1/ to B/sub 2/ and promotes a 1.5 to 2.5 fold increase in total BAR number. Other short chain acids were not as effective as SB in promoting changes in BAR. BAR were assayed in membranes prepared from the 3T3-L1 cells using the radiolabeled antagonist (/sup 125/I)-cyanopindolol and the B/sub 2/ selective antagonist ICI 118.551. BAR subtype switch was confirmed functionally by measuring cellular cAMP accumulation in response to agonists. The structure and amount of the alpha subunits of the guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ were determined by ADP-ribosylation using /sup 32/P-NAD and either cholera toxin or pertussis toxin for labeling of the respective subunits. Preincubation of cells with 5 mM SB for 48 hr resulted in a 2-3 fold increase in the labeling of the alpha subunits of both N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A protein of M/sub r/ = 44,000 showed enhanced labeling by cholera toxin following SB treatment of the cells. These data indicate SB concomitantly regulates expression of BAR subtype and components of the adenylate cyclase in 3T3-L1 cells.

  8. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has an anti-oxidant effect via the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kusunoki, Chisato; Yang, Liu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Motoyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA has a direct anti-oxidant effect in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPA and DHA induce HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA and its end-product, 4-HHE, activates the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA protects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress is produced in adipose tissue of obese subjects and has been associated with obesity-related disorders. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ({omega}3-PUFA) has beneficial effects in preventing atherosclerotic diseases and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, the role of {omega}3-PUFA on adipocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE). {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); whereas no changes in the well-known anti-oxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were observed. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) significantly reduced EPA, DHA or 4-HHE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Also, pretreatment with {omega}3-PUFA prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in a HO-1 dependent manner. In conclusion, treatment with EPA and DHA induced HO-1 through the activation of Nrf-2 and prevented oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-oxidant defense may be of high therapeutic value for clinical conditions associated with systemic oxidative stress.

  9. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. Results: The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.028.3) and (225.021.2) ?g/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.02.0) ?g/ml for methanol extracts and (8.01.0) ?g/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. Conclusions: The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects. PMID:24599694

  10. Downregulation of JE and KC genes by glucocorticoids does not prevent the G0----G1 transition in BALB/3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rameh, L E; Armelin, M C

    1992-01-01

    The effects of glucocorticoid hormones on the expression of the growth factor-inducible genes JE, KC, and c-myc were analyzed in parental BALB/3T3 and polyomavirus middle-T antigen-transfected cell lines. Northern (RNA) blot hybridization and run-on transcription analysis showed that (i) glucocorticoid hormones selectively inhibit JE and KC expression at the transcriptional level and (ii) the downregulatory effect of glucocorticoids on JE and KC expression is partial for serum-stimulated and middle T antigen-transformed cells and total for quiescent and exponentially growing cells. Gel mobility assays using AP-1 oligonucleotides showed a positive correlation between glucocorticoid downregulating effect and presence of the AP-1 complex. JE and KC downregulation by means of the AP-1 complex may play a role in the actions of glucocorticoids as anti-inflammatory and antitumor agents. The ability of glucocorticoids to downregulate JE and KC was used to investigate the relevance of these genes to the mitogenic response to serum growth factors. Hydrocortisone did not alter the basal DNA synthesis level displayed by quiescent 3T3 cells, but it potentiated both the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor and c-myc induction by serum growth factors. Upon serum restimulation, untreated and dexamethasone-treated quiescent 3T3 cultures entered the S phase after an identical time lag (G1). These results suggest that (i) JE and KC are not necessary for the G0----G1----S transition and (ii) c-myc overexpression is likely to be the basis for the potentiating effect of glucocorticoids on serum growth factors. Images PMID:1406651

  11. Sustained release of Semaphorin 3A from α-tricalcium phosphate based cement composite contributes to osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-Ning; Pi, Bin; Wang, Peng; Li, Xue-Feng; Yang, Hui-Lin; Zhu, Xue-Song

    2015-09-01

    The reinforcement of calcium phosphate materials with silk fibroin (SF) has been one of the strategies to overcome the brittleness. However, the lack of osteoinductivity may still restrict their further use. This study aimed to investigate the biocompatibility and osteogenesis capacity of a novel Semaphorin 3A-loaded chitosan microspheres/SF/α-tricalcium phosphate composite (Sema3A CMs/SF/α-TCP) in vitro. Sema3A was first incorporated into CMs, and the Sema3A CMs/SF/α-TCP composite was then prepared. The morphology of the CMs was observed using SEM. The in vitro release kinetics, cytotoxicity, and cell compatibility were evaluated, and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used to evaluate the osteogenesis capacity of the composite. The in vitro release of Sema3A from the Sema3A CMs/SF/α-TCP composite showed a temporally controlled manner. The extract of the Sema3A CMs/SF/α-TCP composite presented no obvious side effect on the MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, nor promote cell proliferation. The MC3T3-E1 cells were well-spread and presented an elongated shape on the Sema3A CMs/SF/α-TCP composite surface; the ALP activity and the osteogenic-related gene expression were higher than those seeded on the surface of the CMs/SF/α-TCP and SF/α-TCP composites. In conclusion, Sema3A CMs/SF/α-TCP has excellent biocompatibility and contributes to the osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells.

  12. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase enzyme 1 inhibition reduces glucose utilization for de novo fatty acid synthesis and cell proliferation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yee, Jennifer K; Wahjudi, Paulin N; Vega, Juan; Lim, Shu; Martin, Ashley; Patterson, Mary E; Cohen, Joshua N; Mao, Catherine S; Lee, Wai-Nang P

    2013-08-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase enzyme 1 (SCD1) is a lipogenic enzyme that is upregulated in obesity, insulin resistance, and cancer. Since glucose is a substrate for both de novo fatty acid synthesis and deoxyribose synthesis, we hypothesized that SCD1 affects these multiple synthetic pathways through changes in glucose utilization. This study determined glucose utilization for fatty acid synthesis and cell proliferation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes during SCD1 inhibition. The effects of SCD1 on cellular metabolism as mediated by its monounstaurated fatty acid products (palmitoleate and oleate) were also observed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes underwent differentiation induction in conjunction with one of the following treatments for 4 days: (A) no treatment, (B) SCD1 inhibitor CGX0290, (C) CGX0290 + palmitoleate, or (D) CGX0290 + oleate. All cells received medium with 50 % [U(13)C]-glucose. Cells were harvested on day 7 for studies of fatty acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activities, and deoxyribose synthesis. CGX0290 decreased fatty acid desaturation, glucose utilization for fatty acid synthesis (acetyl-CoA enrichment), and de novo synthesis. CGX0290 treatment also led to decreased cell density through increased cell death. Further analysis showed that deoxyribose new synthesis and oxidative pentose phosphate pathway activity were unchanged, while non-oxidative transketolase pathway activity was stimulated. Palmitoleate and oleate supplementation each partially ameliorated the effects of CGX0290. In 3T3-L1 cells, SCD1 promotes glucose utilization for fatty acid synthesis. In cell proliferation, SCD1 may promote cell survival, but does not impact the oxidative pathway of deoxyribose production. These effects may be mediated through the production of palmitoleate and oleate. PMID:24039619

  13. Multifunctional chitosan/polyvinyl pyrrolidone/45S5 Bioglass® scaffolds for MC3T3-E1 cell stimulation and drug release.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingqing; Li, Wei; Yu, Shanshan; Ma, Liwei; Jin, Dayong; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Novel chitosan-polyvinyl pyrrolidone/45S5 Bioglass® (CS-PVP/BG) scaffolds were prepared via foam replication and chemical cross-linking techniques. The pristine BG, CS-PVP coated BG and genipin cross-linked CS-PVP/BG (G-CS-PVP/BG) scaffolds were synthesized and characterized in terms of chemical composition, physical structure and morphology respectively. Resistance to enzymatic degradation of the scaffold is improved significantly with the use of genipin cross-linked CS-PVP. The bio-effects of scaffolds on MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were evaluated by studying cell viability, adhesion and proliferation. The CCK-8 assay shows that cell viability on the resulting G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold is improved obviously after cross-linking of genipin. Cell skeleton images exhibit that well-stretched F-actin bundles are obtained on the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. SEM results present significant improvement on the cell adhesion and proliferation for cells cultured on the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. The drug release performance on the as-synthesized scaffold was studied in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. Vancomycin is found to be released in burst fashion within 24h from the pristine BG scaffold, however, the release period from the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold is enhanced to 7days, indicating improved drug release properties of the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. Our results suggest that the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffolds possess promising physicochemical properties, sustained drug release capability and good biocompatibility for MC3T3-E1 cells' proliferation and adhesion, suggesting their potential applications in areas such as MC3T3-E1 cell stimulation and bone tissue engineering. PMID:26249617

  14. The novel anti-adipogenic effect and mechanisms of action of SGI-1776, a Pim-specific inhibitor, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Yu-Kyoung; Hong, Victor Sukbong; Lee, Tae-Yoon; Lee, Jinho; Choi, Jong-Soon; Park, Dong-Soon; Park, Gi-Young; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2016-01-01

    The proviral integration site for moloney murine leukemia virus(Pim) kinases, consisting of Pim-1, Pim-2 and Pim-3, belongs to a family of serine/threonine kinases that are involved in controlling cell growth and differentiation. Pim kinases are emerging as important mediators of adipocyte differentiation. SGI-1776, an inhibitor of Pim kinases, is widely used to assess the physiological roles of Pim kinases, particularly cell functions. In the present study, we examined the effects of SGI-1776 on adipogenesis. The anti?adipogenic effect of SGI?1776 was measured by OilRedO staining and AdipoRed assays. The effect of SGI?1776 on the growth of 3T3?L1 adipocytes was determined by cell count analysis. The effects of SGI?1776 on the protein and mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related proteins and adipokines in 3T3?L1 adipocytes were also evaluated by western blot analysis and RT?PCR, respectively. Notably, SGI-1776 markedly inhibited lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. On a mechanistic level, SGI-1776 inhibited not only the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-?(C/EBP-?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?(PPAR-?) and fatty acid synthase(FAS), but also the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3(STAT-3). Moreover, SGI-1776 decreased the expression of adipokines, including the expression of leptin and regulated on activation, normal Tcell expressed and secreted(RANTES) during adipocyte differentiation. These findings demonstrate that SGI-1776 inhibits adipogenesis by downregulating the expression and/or phosphorylation levels of C/EBP-?, PPAR-?, FAS and STAT-3. PMID:26719859

  15. The interaction of /sup 125/I-insulin with cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes: quantitative analysis by the hypothetical grain method

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J.Y.; Carpentier, J.L.; Van Obberghen, E.; Blackett, N.M.; Grunfeld, C.; Gorden, P.; Orci, L.

    1983-07-01

    The murine 3T3-L1 fibroblast under appropriate incubation conditions differentiates into an adipocyte phenotype. This 3T3-L1 adipocyte exhibits many of the morphologic, biochemical, and insulin-responsive features of the normal rodent adipocyte. Using quantitative electron microscopic (EM) autoradiography we find that, when /sup 125/I-insulin is incubated with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, the ligand at early times of incubation localizes to the plasma membrane of the cell preferentially to microvilli and coated pits. When the incubation is continued at 37 degrees C, /sup 125/I-insulin is internalized by the cells and preferential binding to the villous surface is lost. With the internalization of the ligand, two intracellular structures become labeled, as determined by the method of hypothetical grain analysis. These include large clear, presumably endocytotic, vesicles and multivesicular bodies. Over the first hour of incubation the labeling of these structures increases in parallel, but in the second hour they diverge: the labeling of multivesicular bodies and other lysosomal forms continuing to increase and the labeling of large clear vesicles decreasing. At 3 hours limited but significant labeling occurs in small Golgi-related vesicles that have the typical distribution of GERL. The distinct morphologic features of this cell make it ideal for a quantitative morphologic analysis and allow for an unambiguous view of the sequence of events involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis of a polypeptide hormone. These events are likely to be representative of the processing of insulin by the mature rodent adipocyte.

  16. N-Oleoyl glycine, a lipoamino acid, stimulates adipogenesis associated with activation of CB1 receptor and Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocyte.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songbo; Xu, Qi; Shu, Gang; Wang, Lina; Gao, Ping; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Yongliang; Jiang, Qingyan; Zhu, Xiaotong

    2015-10-23

    Adipose tissue plays a vital role in the development of obesity and related diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of N-Oleoyl glycine (OLGly), a lipoamino acid, on 3T3-L1 adipogenesis and to explore the likely mechanisms underlying this process. Lipid accumulation were evaluated using Oil Red O staining and triglyceride content assay. The mRNA expressions of cannabinoid receptors and the protein expressions of adipogenic genes and intracellular signaling pathway were determined by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot, respectively. The results indicated that OLGly itself, but not its degradation products, stimulated lipid accumulation and significantly increased adipogenic genes (PPAR? and aP2), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, OLGly markedly increased the mRNA expression of CB1 receptor (CB1R) and the inhibition of CB1R by its antagonist SR141716 abolished the promotive effects of OLGly on lipid accumulation and the protein expression of PPAR? and aP2. Furthermore, OLGly increased the ratio of p-Akt/Akt and p-FoxO1/FoxO1, which could be reversed by SR141716. Moreover, OLGly-induced enhancement of adipogenesis, activation of insulin-mediated Akt signaling pathway and inactivation of FoxO1 were effectively blocked by Wortmannin, a specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor, indicating the essential role of Akt signaling pathway in the process of OLGly-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. In conclusion, OLGly, a lipoamino acid, was able to promote 3T3-L1 adipogenesis through the activation of CB1 receptor and the enhancement of insulin-mediated Akt signaling pathway. These findings suggested the potential role of OLGly in increasing insulin sensitivity and suppressing obesity and diabetes. PMID:26365347

  17. The influence of EPA and DHA on markers of inflammation in 3T3-L1 cells at different stages of cellular maturation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background EPA and DHA have been reported to have anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies revealed that these positive actions of n-3 PUFA at least partially are connected with their influence on metabolism and secretory functions of the adipose tissue. However, their impact on old adipocytes is still poorly understood. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of EPA and DHA on markers of inflammation in 3T3-L1 cells at different stages of cellular maturation. Methods Young, mature and old differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured for 48h in the presence of 100?M EPA, or 50?M DHA complexed to albumin, whereas in control conditions only albumin was added to the medium. The Oil Red O staining was used to confirm adipocytes differentiation, and measure triglycerides content in cells. The concentration of adipokines (interleukin 6, adiponectin and leptin) in conditioned media was measured using mouse-specific ELISA kits. Results The fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was positively correlated with their age; however, EPA and DHA did not affect lipid accumulation on any stage of maturation. EPA and DHA increased the concentration of secreted adiponectin when compared with control, but only in the case of young adipocytes (58% and 35%, respectively). Moreover, EPA supplementation increased interleukin 6 concentration in conditioned medium, while DHA exerted an opposite effect on all stages of cellular maturation. Furthermore, EPA treatment increased leptin release from young cells, while DHA did not affect the secretion of this adipokine. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes both experimental factors decreased synthesis of leptin; however, in old cells no impact of these PUFA was noted. Conclusions In summary, age is an important determinant of fat accumulation in adipocytes and affects adipokines secretion by these cells. Moreover, the impact of investigated fatty acids: EPA and DHA on fat cells varies depending on the stage of maturation, and seems to be stronger in young cells than in mature and old ones. Docosahexaenoic acid exerts an anti-inflammatory action; however, on the basis of the obtained data it was not possible to determine whether eicosapentaenoic acid shows anti- or pro-inflammatory properties. PMID:24387137

  18. Effects of large and small T antigens on DNA synthesis and cell division in simian virus 40-transformed BALB/c 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, J B; Brockman, W W

    1982-01-01

    The roles of the large T and small t antigens of simian virus 40 in cellular DNA synthesis and cell division were analyzed in BALB/c 3T3 mouse cells transformed by wild-type, temperature-sensitive A (tsA), or tsA-deletion (tsA/dl) double mutants. Assessment of DNA replication and cell cycle distribution by radioautography of [3H]thymidine-labeled nuclei and by flow microfluorimetry indicate that tsA transformants do not synthesize DNA or divide at the restrictive temperature to the same extent as they do at the permissive temperature or as wild-type transformants do at the restrictive temperature. This confirms earlier studies suggesting that large T induces DNA synthesis and mitosis in transformed cells. Inhibition of replication in tsA transformants at the restrictive temperature, however, is not complete. Some residual cell division does occur but is in large part offset by cell detachment and death. This failure to revert completely to the parental 3T3 phenotype, as indicated by residual cell cycling at the restrictive temperature, was also observed in cells transformed by tsA/dl double mutants which, in addition to producing a ts large T, make no small t protein. Small t, therefore, does not appear to be responsible for the residual cell cycling and plays no demonstrable role in the induction of DNA synthesis or cell division in stably transformed BALB/c 3T3 cells. Comparison of cell cycling in tsA and tsA/dl transformants, normal 3T3 cells, and a transformation revertant suggests that the failure of tsA transformants to revert completely may be due to leakiness of the tsA mutation as well as to a permanent cellular alteration induced during viral transformation. Finally, analysis of cells transformed by tsA/dl double mutants indicates that small t is not required for full expression of growth properties characteristic of transformed cells. Images PMID:6292518

  19. Isoflavonoids from Crotalaria albida Inhibit Adipocyte Differentiation and Lipid Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Cells via Suppression of PPAR-? Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qinhu; Chou, Guixin

    2015-01-01

    Two 2?-isopropenyl dihydrofuran isoflavonoids (1 and 3), one 2?-isopropenyl dihydrofuran chromone (2), as well as 13 known compounds were isolated from the herbs of Crotalaria albida. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated via NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The 2? S absolute configuration of 1 and 2 were deduced by comparing their NOESY spectra with that of 3, which was determined via single crystal X-ray diffraction (CuK?). The 3R absolute configuration of 1 was determined by CD. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 inhibit the adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 through down-regulation of PPAR-? activity. PMID:26285147

  20. A growth factor-responsive gene of murine BALB/c 3T3 cells encodes a protein homologous to human tissue factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hartzell, S.; Ryder, K.; Lanahan, A.; Nathans, D.; Lau, L.F.

    1989-06-01

    Polypeptide growth factors rapidly induce the transcription of a set of genes that appear to mediate cell growth. The authors report that one of the genes induced in BALB/c mouse 3T3 cells encodes a transmembrane protein (mTF) homologous to human tissue factor, which is involved in the proteolytic activation of blood clotting. mTF mRNA is present in many murine tissues and cell lines. The authors' results raise the possibility that mTF may also play a role in cell growth.

  1. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lumbera, Wenchie Marie L; Dela Cruz, Joseph; Yang, Seung-Hak; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2016-03-01

    There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0) through incubation at 42C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 ?g/mL) increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of AGN in heat shock amelioration among 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through heat shock factor and proteins augmentation and enhanced adipogenic marker expression. PMID:26950875

  2. Antiobesity effects of the water-soluble fraction of the ethanol extract of Smilax china L. leaf in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yun Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Kon; Kim, Dae Jung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Several medicinal properties of Smilax china L. have been studied including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. However, the antiobesity activity and mechanism by which the water-soluble fraction of this plant mediates its effects are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the lipolytic actions of the water-soluble fraction of Smilax china L. leaf ethanol extract (wsSCLE) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The wsSCLE was identified by measuring the total polyphenol and flavonoid content. The wsSCLE was evaluated for its effects on cell viability, lipid accumulation, glycerol, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) contents. In addition, western blot analysis was used to evaluate the effects on protein kinase A (PKA), PKA substrates (PKAs), and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). For the lipid accumulation assay, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of wsSCLE for 9 days starting 2 days post-confluence. In other cell experiments, mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated for 24 h with wsSCLE. RESULTS Results showed that treatment with wsSCLE at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.25 mg/mL had no effect on cell morphology and viability. Without evidence of toxicity, wsSCLE treatment decreased lipid accumulation compared with the untreated adipocyte controls as shown by the lower absorbance of Oil Red O stain. The wsSCLE significantly induced glycerol release and cAMP production in mature 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, protein levels of phosphorylated PKA, PKAs, and HSL significantly increased following wsSCLE treatment. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that the potential antiobesity activity of wsSCLE is at least in part due to the stimulation of cAMP-PKA-HSL signaling. In addition, the wsSCLE-stimulated lipolysis induced by the signaling is mediated via activation of the ?-adrenergic receptor. PMID:26634049

  3. Arctiin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and decreases adiposity and body weight in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Min, Byulchorong; Lee, Heejin; Song, Ji Hye; Han, Myung Joo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to examine the effects and associated mechanisms of arctiin, a lignan compound found in burdock, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Also, the effects of arctiin supplementation in obese mice fed a high-fat diet on adiposity were examined. MATERIALS/METHODS 3T3-L1 cells were treated with arctiin (12.5 to 100 µM) during differentiation for 8 days. The accumulation of lipid droplets was determined by Oil Red O staining and intracellular triglyceride contents. The expressions of genes related to adipogenesis were measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. For in vivo study, C57BL/6J mice were first fed either a control diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HF) to induce obesity, and then fed CON, HF, or HF with 500 mg/kg BW arctiin (HF + AC) for four weeks. RESULTS Arctiin treatment to 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes markedly decreased adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The arctiin treatment significantly decreased the protein levels of the key adipogenic regulators PPARγ and C/EBPα, and also significantly inhibited the expression of SREBP-1c, fatty acid synthase, fatty acid-binding protein and lipoprotein lipase. Also, arctiin greatly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target phosphorylated-acetyl CoA carboxylase. Furthermore, administration of arctiin significantly decreased the body weight in obese mice fed with the high-fat diet. The epididymal, perirenal or total visceral adipose tissue weights of mice were all significantly lower in the HF + AC than in the HF. Arctiin administration also decreased the sizes of lipid droplets in the epididymal adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS Arctiin inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the inhibition of PPARγ and C/EBPα and the activation of AMPK signaling pathways. These findings suggest that arctiin has a potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:25489405

  4. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine ameliorates an insulin resistant-like state in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by regulating TACE/TIMP3 expression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Du, Wen; Zafar, Mohammad Ishraq; Shafqat, Raja Adeel; Jian, Liumeng; Cai, Qin; Lu, Furong

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) is highly correlated with soluble tumor necrosis factor-α (sTNF-α), which is released from transmembranous TNF-α by TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE). In vivo, TACE activity is suppressed by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3). Agents that can interact with TACE/TIMP3 to improve obesity-related IR would be highly valuable. In the current study, we assessed whether (2S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) could modulate TACE/TIMP3 and ameliorate an obesity-induced IR-like state in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Materials and methods 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated in the presence of 25 mM glucose and 0.6 nM insulin to induce an IR-like state, and were then treated with different concentrations of 4-HIL or 10 µM pioglitazone (positive control). The glucose uptake rate was determined using the 2-deoxy-[3H]-d-glucose method, and the levels of sTNF-α in the cell supernatant were determined using ELISA. The protein expression of TACE, TIMP3, and insulin signaling-related molecules was measured using western blotting. Results Exposure to high glucose and insulin for 18 hours increased the levels of sTNF-α in the cell supernatant. The phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) Ser307 and Akt Ser473 was increased, whereas the protein expression of IRS-1, Akt, and glucose transporter-4 was decreased. The insulin-induced glucose uptake was reduced by 67% in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which indicated the presence of an IR-like state. The above indexes, which demonstrated the successful induction of an IR-like state, were reversed by 4-HIL in a dose-dependent manner by downregulating and upregulating the protein expression of TACE and TIMP3 proteins, respectively. Conclusion 4-HIL improved an obesity-associated IR-like state in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by targeting TACE/TIMP3 and the insulin signaling pathway. PMID:26527864

  5. Rheological effects of the presence of hyaluronic acid in the extracellular media of differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Calvo, J C; Gandjbakhche, A H; Nossal, R; Hascall, V C; Yanagishita, M

    1993-05-01

    The viscoelastic properties of culture medium obtained from confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, after differentiation with isobutyl-methylxanthine and dexamethasone, were studied with a rotational Couette viscometer. In close association with adipocyte differentiation, the culture medium showed gel-like properties, in concert with an increase in viscosity. This behavior vanishes after digestion by Streptomyces hyaluronidase or chondroitinase ABC, but not after application of collagenase, pronase, trypsin, DNase, or neuraminidase, or by treatment with EDTA or mercaptoethanol, indicating that the primary substance responsible for this behavior is hyaluronic acid. The material revealed a non-Newtonian behavior with an irreversible disruption of the network by shear force at high speeds. The viscosity of the medium, containing about 1 microgram/ml of hyaluronic acid, was calculated to be similar to that of a solution containing 1.7 mg high molecular weight hyaluronic acid per milliliter of stock culture medium. The comparison of rheological properties between the culture medium and solutions of hyaluronic acid indicated the possibility of a highly organized network in the culture medium that is more complicated than a simple interaction between homologous hyaluronic acid molecules. The non-Newtonian behavior depends on the hyaluronic acid concentration in the medium as well as on the length of exposure of the 3T3-L1 cells to the isobutyl-methylxanthine/dexamethasone mixture. The results point toward the possibility of interaction between hyaluronic acid and binding proteins. PMID:7683859

  6. Traditional Korean Herbal Formula Samsoeum Attenuates Adipogenesis by Regulating the Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Adipogenesis is the cell differentiation process from preadipocytes into adipocytes and the critical action in the development of obesity. In the present study, we conducted in vitro analyses to investigate the inhibitory effects of Samsoeum (SSE), a traditional herbal decoction. SSE had no significant cytotoxic effect against either the undifferentiated or differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Oil Red O staining results showed that SSE significantly inhibited fat accumulation in adipocytes. SSE treatment consistently reduced the intracellular triglyceride content in the cells. SSE significantly inactivated glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), a major link between carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and markedly inhibited the production of leptin, an important adipokine, in differentiated cells. SSE markedly suppressed the mRNA expression of the adipogenesis-related genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-α), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4). Importantly, SSE increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not p38 MAPK and JNK, in adipose cells. Overall, our results indicate that SSE exerts antiadipogenic activity and modulates expressions of adipogenesis-related genes and ERK1/2 activation in adipocytes. PMID:26483846

  7. Effects of nickel-smelting fumes on the regulation of NIH/3T3 cell viability, necrosis, and expression of hMLH1 and RASSF1A.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yu, Cui-Ping; Hu, Xue-Ying; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nickel is widely used and distributed in various industries. This study investigated the effect of nickel-smelting fumes on the regulation of NIH/3T3 cell viability, apoptosis, and necrosis and the expression of the tumor suppressor genes hMLH1 and RASSF1A. Cell viability was determined using a methylthiazolyl tetrazolium colorimetric assay. NIH/3T3 cell viability was reduced after exposure to different concentrations of nickel-smelting fumes, but cell apoptosis and necrosis were induced. Moreover, cell morphology changed significantly after exposure to different concentrations of nickel-smelting fumes, as determined using an inverted microscope or transmission electron microscope. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that exposure of cells to concentrations of ?100 g/mL of nickel-smelting fumes upregulated the expression of hMLH1 and RASSF1A compared to the negative controls. These data suggest that nickel-smelting fumes could be toxic to cells, upregulating the expression of hMLH1 and RASSF1A and in turn inducing cell apoptosis and necrosis. PMID:24579805

  8. Piperine, a component of black pepper, decreases eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in non-chemosensory 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeo Cho; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Hye Jeong; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of black pepper and its constituent, piperine, on odorant-induced signal transduction in non-chemosensory cells. An ethanol extract of black pepper decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells with no toxicity. Phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) was down-regulated by the black pepper extract. The concentration (133.8mg/g) and retention time (5.5min) of piperine in the ethanol extract were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. Pretreatment with piperine decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in 3T3-L1 cells. Piperine also decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, which is up-regulated by eugenol. These results suggest that piperine inhibits the eugenol-induced signal transduction pathway through modulation of cAMP and calcium levels and phosphorylation of CREB in non-chemosensory cells. PMID:25685661

  9. Simulated microgravity inhibits L-type calcium channel currents partially by the up-regulation of miR-103 in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhongyang; Cao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Hu, Zebing; Zhang, Lianchang; Wang, Han; Zhou, Hua; Li, Dongtao; Zhang, Shu; Xie, Manjiang

    2015-01-01

    L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (LTCCs), particularly Cav1.2 LTCCs, play fundamental roles in cellular responses to mechanical stimuli in osteoblasts. Numerous studies have shown that mechanical loading promotes bone formation, whereas the removal of this stimulus under microgravity conditions results in a reduction in bone mass. However, whether microgravity exerts an influence on LTCCs in osteoblasts and whether this influence is a possible mechanism underlying the observed bone loss remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that simulated microgravity substantially inhibited LTCC currents and suppressed Cav1.2 at the protein level in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. In addition, reduced Cav1.2 protein levels decreased LTCC currents in MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, simulated microgravity increased miR-103 expression. Cav1.2 expression and LTCC current densities both significantly increased in cells that were transfected with a miR-103 inhibitor under mechanical unloading conditions. These results suggest that simulated microgravity substantially inhibits LTCC currents in osteoblasts by suppressing Cav1.2 expression. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Cav1.2 expression and the inhibition of LTCCs caused by mechanical unloading in osteoblasts are partially due to miR-103 up-regulation. Our study provides a novel mechanism for microgravity-induced detrimental effects on osteoblasts, offering a new avenue to further investigate the bone loss induced by microgravity. PMID:25627864

  10. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles carrying BMP-7 plasmid DNA induce an osteogenic response in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Hadjicharalambous, Chrystalleni; Kozlova, Diana; Sokolova, Viktoriya; Epple, Matthias; Chatzinikolaidou, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles with osteogenic activity were prepared. Polyethyleneimine-stabilized calcium phosphate nanoparticles were coated with a shell of silica and covalently functionalized by silanization with thiol groups. Between the calcium phosphate surface and the outer silica shell, plasmid DNA which encoded either for bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) or for enhanced green fluorescent protein was incorporated as cargo. The plasmid DNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles were used for the transfection of the pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The cationic nanoparticles showed high transfection efficiency together with a low cytotoxicity. Their potential to induce an osteogenic response by transfection was demonstrated by measuring the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition with alizarin red staining. The expression of the osteogenic markers Alp, Runx2, ColIa1 and Bsp was investigated by means of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. It was shown that phBMP-7-loaded nanoparticles can provide a means of transient transfection and localized production of BMP-7 in MC3T3-E1 cells, with a subsequent increase of two osteogenic markers, specifically ALP activity and calcium accumulation in the extracellular matrix. Future strategies to stimulate bone regeneration focus into enhancing transfection efficiency and achieving higher levels of BMP-7 produced by the transfected cells. PMID:26097146

  11. Adipogenesis stimulates the nuclear localization of EWS with an increase in its O-GlcNAc glycosylation in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qiang; Kamemura, Kazuo

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: The majority of EWS localizes stably in the cytosol in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Adipogenic stimuli induce the nuclear localization of EWS. Adipogenesis promotes O-GlcNAcylation of EWS. O-GlcNAcylation stimulates the recruitment of EWS to the nuclear periphery. - Abstract: Although the Ewing sarcoma (EWS) proto-oncoprotein is found in the nucleus and cytosol and is associated with the cell membrane, the regulatory mechanisms of its subcellular localization are still unclear. Here we found that adipogenic stimuli induce the nuclear localization of EWS in 3T3-L1 cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation in the C-terminal PY-nuclear localization signal of EWS was negative throughout adipogenesis. Instead, an adipogenesis-dependent increase in O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation of EWS was observed. Pharmacological inactivation of O-GlcNAcase in preadipocytes promoted perinuclear localization of EWS. Our findings suggest that the nuclear localization of EWS is partly regulated by the glycosylation.

  12. PRELP (proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein) promotes osteoblastic differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by regulating the ?-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiying; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Chengzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Liang; Wang, Huaxin; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-02-12

    Proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP) is a collagen-binding proteoglycan highly expressed in the developing bones. Recent studies indicated that PRELP could inhibit osteoclastogenesis as a NF-?B inhibitor. However, its role during osteoblast differentiation is still unclear. In this study, we confirmed that the expression of PRELP increased with the osteogenesis induction of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Down-regulation of PRELP expression by shRNA reduced ALP activity, mineralization and expression of osteogenic marker gene Runx2. Our microarray analysis data suggested that ?-catenin may act as a hub gene in the PRELP-mediated gene network. We validated furtherly that PRELP knockdown could inhibit the level of connexin43, a key regulator of osteoblast differentiation by affecting ?-catenin protein expression, and its nuclear translocation in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Therefore, this study established a new role of PRELP in modulating ?-catenin/connexin43 pathway and osteoblast differentiation. PMID:26809092

  13. Oncogenic H-Ras up-regulates expression of Ku80 to protect cells from gamma-ray irradiation in NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, In-Youb; Youn, Cha-Kyung; Kim, Hong-Beum; Kim, Mi-Hwa; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Young; Lee, Yun-Sil; Chung, Myung-Hee; You, Ho Jin

    2005-08-01

    The Ras activation contributes to radioresistance, but the mechanism is unclear. This article shows that the expression of the dominant-positive H-Ras increased the Ku80 level, which is one of the key enzymes involved in repairing dsDNA breaks (DSB). After exposing the cells to ionizing radiation and analyzing them using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, it was found that activated H-Ras expression in NIH3T3 cells increases the DNA-binding activity of Ku80 and increases the DSB repair activity. Ku80 small interfering RNA expression was shown to reduce the oncogenic H-Ras-mediated increase in the DSBs and suppress the oncogenic H-Ras-mediated resistance of the cells to gamma-ray irradiation, whereas Ku80 overexpression in the NIH3T3 cells significantly increased the radioresistance. These results suggest that the Ku80 expression induced by oncogenic H-Ras seems to play an important role in protecting cells against gamma-ray irradiation. PMID:16061663

  14. Effect of borate glass composition on its conversion to hydroxyapatite and on the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Brown, Roger F; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Dwilewicz, Agatha B; Huang, Wenhai; Day, Delbert E; Li, Yadong; Bal, B Sonny

    2009-02-01

    Glasses containing varying amounts of B(2)O(3) were prepared by partially or fully replacing the SiO(2) in silicate 45S5 bioactive glass with B(2)O(3). The effects of the B(2)O(3) content of the glass on its conversion to hydroxyapatite (HA) and on the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells were investigated in vitro. Conversion of the glasses to HA in dilute (20 mM) K(2)HPO(4) solution was monitored using weight loss and pH measurements. Proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was determined qualitatively by assay of cell density at the glass interface after incubation for 1 day and 3 days, and quantitatively by fluorescent measurements of total DNA in cultures incubated for 4 days. Higher B(2)O(3) content of the glass increased the conversion rate to HA, but also resulted in a greater inhibition of cell proliferation under static culture conditions. For a given mass of glass in the culture medium, the inhibition of cell proliferation was alleviated by using glasses with lower B(2)O(3) content, by incubating the cell cultures under dynamic rather than static conditions, or by partially converting the glass to HA prior to cell culture. PMID:18306284

  15. Phototoxicity of bituminous tars-correspondence between results of 3T3 NRU PT, 3D skin model and experimental human data.

    PubMed

    Jirov, D; Kejlov, K; Bendov, H; Ditrichov, D; Mezulnikov, M

    2005-10-01

    Bituminous tars (Ichthammol and Ichthyol Pale) are widely used in pharmaceutical, veterinary and cosmetic industries for their anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic effects. In contrast to coal tar, no phototoxicity of bituminous tars has been reported in man, although both Ichthammol and Ichthyol Pale exhibit UV absorption which is higher and broader for the former. The validated 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test indicated phototoxic potential of both substances. The phototoxicity test in a 3D human skin model (EpiDerm) only confirmed phototoxicity for Ichthammol. Human data on Ichthammol phototoxicity are missing. A photopatch test in human volunteers was performed in order to clarify the discrepancy between the phototoxicity found in the skin model and the absence of reported human phototoxicity. Following 4h exposure to 5% and 10% aqueous solutions of Ichthammol and Ichthyol Pale the test sites were irradiated with a UVA dose of 5 J/cm(2). Early phototoxic reaction (erythema) within 4-6h after irradiation was only elicited by Ichthammol and not by Ichthyol Pale. These data correspond well with those from the 3D skin model test and suggest the necessity to employ several test systems for final phototoxicity assessment. In addition to the results obtained in 3T3 NRU PT, further testing on 3D skin models may better reflect bioavailability of a given chemical in the skin, relevant to the situation in humans. PMID:16061351

  16. Role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy in regulation of insulin sensitivity in serum-starved 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yemin; Ye, Mao; Chen, Leyuan Jack; Li, Mingxin; Tang, Zhao; Wang, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy are two conserved intracellular proteolytic pathways, responsible for degradation of most cellular proteins in living cells. Currently, both the UPS and autophagy have been suggested to be associated with pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes. However, underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of the UPS and autophagy on insulin sensitivity in serum-starved 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results show that serum depletion resulted in activation of the UPS and autophagy, accompanied with increased insulin sensitivity. Inhibition of the UPS with bortezomib (BZM), a highly selective, reversible 26S proteasome inhibitor induced compensatory activation of autophagy but did not affect significantly insulin action. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy dramatically mitigated serum starvation-elevated insulin sensitivity. In addition, autophagy inhibition compromised UPS function and led to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). Inability of the UPS by BMZ exacerbated autophagy inhibition-induced ER stress and UPR. These results suggest that protein quality control maintained by the UPS and autophagy is required for preserving insulin sensitivity. Importantly, adaptive activation of autophagy plays a critical role in serum starvation-induced insulin sensitization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:25959705

  17. Diacylglycerol stimulates DNA synthesis and cell division in mouse 3T3 cells: role of Ca2+-sensitive phospholipid-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Rozengurt, E; Rodriguez-Pena, A; Coombs, M; Sinnett-Smith, J

    1984-01-01

    The synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol competes directly with [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate for common binding sites in monolayer cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells and rapidly stimulates the phosphorylation of a Mr 80,000 cellular protein that has recently been shown to reflect the activation of protein kinase C in intact cells. Thus, this diacylglycerol provided a useful tool to determine whether exogenously added diacylglycerols can mimic the potent tumor promoter phorbol ester in eliciting DNA synthesis and cell division in quiescent cells. We found that OAG acts synergistically with insulin and other growth factors to stimulate reinitiation of cell proliferation, and several lines of evidence indicate that OAG shares with phorbol esters a common pathway of mitogenic action via stimulation of protein kinase C activity in intact 3T3 cells. The findings support the hypothesis that diacylglycerols represent endogenous analogs of phorbol esters and raise the possibility that diacylglycerols generated in the plasma membrane could act as a mitogenic signal for quiescent cells. Images PMID:6237364

  18. Quercitrin and taxifolin stimulate osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells and inhibit osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Satu, Mara; Arriero, Maria del Mar; Monjo, Marta; Ramis, Joana Maria

    2013-11-15

    Flavonoids are natural antioxidants that positively influence bone metabolism. The present study screened among different flavonoids to identify biomolecules for potential use in bone regeneration. For this purpose, we used MC3T3-E1 and RAW264.7 cells to evaluate their effect on cell viability and cell differentiation. First, different doses of chrysin, diosmetin, galangin, quercitrin and taxifolin were analyzed to determine the optimum concentration to induce osteoblast differentiation. After 48h of treatment, doses ?100?M of diosmetin and galangin and also 500?M taxifolin revealed a toxic effect on cells. The same effect was observed in cells treated with doses ?100?M of chrysin after 14 days of treatment. However, the safe doses of quercitrin (200 and 500?M) and taxifolin (100 and 200?M) induced bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin mRNA expression. Also higher osteocalcin secreted levels were determined in 100?M taxifolin osteoblast treated samples when compared with the control ones. On the other hand, quercitrin and taxifolin decreased Rankl gene expression in osteoblasts, suggesting an inhibition of osteoclast formation. Indeed, osteoclastogenesis suppression by quercitrin and taxifolin treatment was observed in RAW264.7 cells. Based on these findings, the present study demonstrates that quercitrin and taxifolin promote osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells and also inhibit osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells, showing a positive effect of these flavonoids on bone metabolism. PMID:24060614

  19. Exposure to p,p'-DDE enhances differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a model of sub-optimal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mangum, Lauren H; Howell, George E; Chambers, Janice E

    2015-10-14

    The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. Recently, exposure to environmental contaminants, especially organochlorines such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), has been implicated as a possible causative factor in the increasing obesity epidemic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of DDE to alter adipogenesis in a model of sub-optimal differentiation. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence of DDE (0.01-100?M) using a sub-optimal differentiation cocktail. Eight days after the initiation of differentiation, adipogenesis was assessed through neutral lipid staining, triglyceride accumulation, and expression of markers of terminal differentiation. Exposure to DDE induced a concentration dependent increase in intracellular neutral lipid accumulation as determined by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride assay. Alterations in lipid accumulation were accompanied by upregulation of genetic markers of differentiation. DDE (10?M) enhanced expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 and Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c at the 2.5 and 20?M concentrations. DDE (2.5, 10, and 20?M) induced upregulation of leptin and fatty acid synthase, as compared to sub-optimal vehicle control (0.05% ethanol). Our results indicate that DDE is capable of enhancing adipogenesis and intracellular lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells through upregulation of molecular targets responsible for lipid storage. PMID:26200599

  20. Flow perfusion culture of MC3T3-E1 osteogenic cells on gradient calcium polyphosphate scaffolds with different pore sizes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Song, Wei; Markel, David C; Shi, Tong; Muzik, Otto; Matthew, Howard; Ren, Weiping

    2016-02-01

    Calcium polyphosphate is a biodegradable bone substitute. It remains a challenge to prepare porous calcium polyphosphate with desired gradient porous structures. In this study, a modified one-step gravity sintering method was used to prepare calcium polyphosphate scaffolds with desired-gradient-pore-size distribution. The differences of porous structure, mechanical strength, and degradation rate between gradient and homogenous calcium polyphosphate scaffolds were evaluated by micro-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical testing. Preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded onto gradient and homogenous calcium polyphosphate scaffolds and cultured in a flow perfusion bioreactor. The distribution, proliferation, and differentiation of the MC3T3-E1 cells were compared to that of homogenous calcium polyphosphate scaffolds. Though no significant difference of cell proliferation was found between the gradient and the homogenous calcium polyphosphate scaffolds, a much higher cell differentiation and mineralization were observed in the gradient calcium polyphosphate scaffolds than that of the homogenous calcium polyphosphate scaffolds, as manifested by increased alkaline phosphatase activity (p < 0.05). The improved distribution and differentiation of cultured cells within gradient scaffolds were further supported by both (18)F-fluorine micro-positron emission tomography scanning and in vitro tetracycline labeling. We conclude that the calcium polyphosphate scaffold with gradient pore sizes enhances osteogenic cell differentiation as well as mineralization. The in vivo performance of gradient calcium polyphosphate scaffolds warrants further investigation in animal bone defect models. PMID:26675750

  1. The environmental obesogen tributyltin chloride acts via peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma to induce adipogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Ycaza, John; Blumberg, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Obesogens are chemicals that predispose exposed individuals to weight gain and obesity by increasing the number of fat cells, storage of fats into existing cells, altering metabolic rates, or disturbing the regulation of appetite and satiety. Tributyltin exposure causes differentiation of multipotent stromal stem cells (MSCs) into adipocytes; prenatal TBT exposure leads to epigenetic changes in the stem cell compartment that favor the production of adipocytes at the expense of bone, in vivo. While it is known that TBT acts through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma to induce adipogenesis in MSCs, the data in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes are controversial. Here we show that TBT can activate the RXR-PPARγ heterodimer even in the presence of the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. We found that GW9662 has a ten-fold shorter half-life in cell culture than do PPARγ activators such as rosiglitazone (ROSI), accounting for previous observations that GW9662 did not inhibit TBT-mediated adipogenesis. When the culture conditions are adjusted to compensate for the short half-life of GW-9662, we found that TBT induces adipogenesis, triglyceride storage and the expression of adipogenic marker genes in 3T3-L1 cells in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Our results are broadly applicable to the study of obesogen action and indicate that ligand stability is an important consideration in the design and interpretation of adipogenesis assays. PMID:21397693

  2. Expression of chimeric tRNA-driven antisense transcripts renders NIH 3T3 cells highly resistant to Moloney murine leukemia virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Sullenger, B A; Lee, T C; Smith, C A; Ungers, G E; Gilboa, E

    1990-01-01

    NIH 3T3 cells infected with Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) express high levels of virus-specific RNA. To inhibit replication of the virus, we stably introduced chimeric tRNA genes encoding antisense templates into NIH 3T3 cells via a retroviral vector. Efficient expression of hybrid tRNA-MoMLV antisense transcripts and inhibition of MoMLV replication were dependent on the use of a particular type of retroviral vector, the double-copy vector, in which the chimeric tRNA gene was inserted in the 3' long terminal repeat. MoMLV replication was inhibited up to 97% in cells expressing antisense RNA corresponding to the gag gene and less than twofold in cells expressing antisense RNA corresponding to the pol gene. RNA and protein analyses suggest that inhibition was exerted at the level of translation. These results suggest that RNA polymerase III-based antisense inhibition systems can be used to inhibit highly expressed viral genes and render cells resistant to viral replication via intracellular immunization strategies. Images PMID:2247070

  3. Anthraquinone Glycoside Aloin Induces Osteogenic Initiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells: Involvement of MAPK Mediated Wnt and Bmp Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pengjam, Yutthana; Madhyastha, Harishkumar; Madhyastha, Radha; Yamaguchi, Yuya; Nakajima, Yuichi; Maruyama, Masugi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone pathology leading to increased fracture risk and challenging the quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an anthraquinone glycoside, aloin, on osteogenic induction of MC3T3-E1 cells. Aloin increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, an early differentiation marker of osteoblasts. Aloin also increased the ALP activity in adult human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC), indicating that the action of aloin was not cell-type specific. Alizarin red S staining revealed a significant amount of calcium deposition in cells treated with aloin. Aloin enhanced the expression of osteoblast differentiation genes, Bmp-2, Runx2 and collagen 1a, in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that noggin and inhibitors of p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK signals attenuated aloin-promoted expressions of Bmp-2 and Runx2 proteins. siRNA mediated blocking of Wnt-5a signaling pathway also annulled the influence of aloin, indicating Wnt-5a dependent activity. Inhibition of the different signal pathways abrogated the influence of aloin on ALP activity, confirming that aloin induced MC3T3-E1 cells into osteoblasts through MAPK mediated Wnt and Bmp signaling pathway. PMID:26869456

  4. Anti-obesity effects of seaweeds of Jeju Island on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and obese mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Nalae; Ko, Seok-Chun; Kim, Young-Bum; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-04-01

    The seaweeds were collected from the coast of Jeju Island, South Korea. We investigated ethanol extracts from seaweed as potential antiobesity agents by testing their effect on adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among the red algae extracts tested, the Plocamium telfairiae extract (PTE) showed the highest inhibitory effect on lipogenesis in adipocytes and, thus, was selected as a potential antiobesity agent. PTE treatment significantly decreased the expression of the adipogenic-specific proteins peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, and fatty acid-binding protein 4 compared with that in the untreated 3T3-L1 cells. PTE also inhibited high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in male C57BL/6 mice. Oral administration of PTE significantly reduced the body weight, fatty liver, amount of white adipose tissue, and levels of triglyceride and glucose in the tested animals. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PTE can be developed as a therapeutic agent for obesity. PMID:26845612

  5. Regulation of collagenase-3 and osteocalcin gene expression by collagen and osteopontin in differentiating MC3T3-E1 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Alonzo, Richard C.; Kowalski, Aaron J.; Denhardt, David T.; Nickols, G. Allen; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2002-01-01

    Both collagenase-3 and osteocalcin mRNAs are expressed maximally during the later stages of osteoblast differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that collagenase-3 mRNA expression in differentiating MC3T3-E1 cells is dependent upon the presence of ascorbic acid, is inhibited in the presence of the collagen synthesis inhibitor, 3,4-dehydroproline, and is stimulated by growth on collagen in the absence of ascorbic acid. Transient transfection studies show that collagenase-3 promoter activity increases during cell differentiation and requires the presence of ascorbic acid. Additionally, we show that, in differentiating MC3T3-E1 cells, collagenase-3 gene expression increases in the presence of an anti-osteopontin monoclonal antibody that binds near the RGD motif of this protein, whereas osteocalcin expression is inhibited. Furthermore, an RGD peptidomimetic compound, designed to block interaction of ligands to the alpha(v) integrin subunit, increases osteocalcin expression and inhibits collagenase-3 expression, suggesting that the RGD peptidomimetic initiates certain alpha(v) integrin signaling in osteoblastic cells. Overall, these studies demonstrate that stimulation of collagenase-3 expression during osteoblast differentiation requires synthesis of a collagenous matrix and that osteopontin and alpha(v) integrins exert divergent regulation of collagenase-3 and osteocalcin expression during osteoblast differentiation.

  6. Variation in capacity for anchorage-independent growth among agar-derived clones of spontaneously transformed BALB/3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Romerdahl, C.A.; Rubin, H.

    1984-12-01

    A subline of cloned spontaneously transformed BALB/3T3 cells had a colony-forming efficiency (CFE) in agar of 5 to 20%. Individual agar colonies isolated and reseeded into agar were not significantly more efficient at initiating colonies than the original unselected subline. Four successive cycles of agar growth and selection also failed to increase the mean CFE in agar. Randomly selected clones isolated on a plastic surface all had the capacity to grow in agar. These results suggest that the failure of the majority of the cells to grow in agar is not the result of an intrinsic or heritable inability to do so. The ability to initiate a colony in agar seems to vary phenotypically from cell to cell. In contrast, agar colonies isolated from some tumor cell lines (originating from related spontaneously transformed 3T3 cells) and reseeded in agar had a higher CFE than the unselected tumor cell lines. In one case, this increased CFE in agar was lost when the cells were passaged on plastic without further selection for agar growth. Thus, expression of the anchorage-independent phenotype may vary, even among related cloned populations of transformed cells. 39 references, 3 tables.

  7. Amelioration of Mitochondrial Dysfunction-Induced Insulin Resistance in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via Inhibition of NF-κB Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hafizi Abu Bakar, Mohamad; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Kai, Cheng Kian; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways is among the inflammatory mechanism involved in the development of insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues derived from obese animal and human subjects. Nevertheless, little is known about the roles of NF-κB pathways in regulating mitochondrial function of the adipose tissues. In the present study, we sought to investigate the direct effects of celastrol (potent NF-κB inhibitor) upon mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Celastrol ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction by altering mitochondrial fusion and fission in adipocytes. The levels of oxidative DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation were down-regulated. Further, the morphology and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets revealed the decrease of intracellular lipid accumulation with reduced lipolysis. Moreover, massive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were markedly depleted. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity was restored with the enhancement of insulin signaling pathways. This study signified that the treatments modulated towards knockdown of NF-κB transcription factor may counteract these metabolic insults exacerbated in our model of synergy between mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NF-κB inhibition modulates mitochondrial dysfunction induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:25474091

  8. Glucocorticoid Receptor and Sequential P53 Activation by Dexamethasone Mediates Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest of Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Qian, Wenwei; Weng, Xisheng; Wu, Zhihong; Li, Huihua; Zhuang, Qianyu; Feng, Bin; Bian, Yanyan

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids play a pivotal role in the proliferation of osteoblasts, but the underlying mechanism has not been successfully elucidated. In this report, we have investigated the molecular mechanism which elucidates the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. It was found that the inhibitory effects were largely attributed to apoptosis and G1 phase arrest. Both the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were dependent on glucocorticoid receptor (GR), as they were abolished by GR blocker RU486 pre-treatment and GR interference. G1 phase arrest and apoptosis were accompanied with a p53-dependent up-regulation of p21 and pro-apoptotic genes NOXA and PUMA. We also proved that dexamethasone can’t induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest when p53 was inhibited by p53 RNA interference. These data demonstrate that proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cell was significantly and directly inhibited by dexamethasone treatment via aberrant GR activation and subsequently P53 activation. PMID:22719835

  9. Cadmium-109 uptake by tumors derived from Balb C/3T3 cell lines with varying degrees of the transformed phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, K.; Alazraki, N.; Winge, D.; Lynch, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    To determine if tumors are rich in metallothionein, the authors measured the vivo uptake of subcutaneously-injected carrier-free cadmium-109 in tumors and in normal tissues of Balb/C mice. The tumors were grown in the mice from cultured Balb/3T3 cells transformed by the Moloney murine sarcoma virus. Uptake of cadmium-109 per gram of tissue was greatest for liver, kidney, and spleen. However, tumor uptake of cadmium-109 was markedly greater than that in blood, skeletal muscle, bones, intestine or adipose tissue. B Sephadex G-75 chromatography, the radioactivity in tumor and in liver lysates eluted with cytochrome-C, a molecule similar in molecular weight to metal-lothionein. To determine if metallothionein levels are related to the degree of malignancy of tumors, cadmium-109 uptake in the tumors from the virally-transformed cells was compared to that in tumors from non-transformed Balb/3T3 cells and two derivative chemically transformed cell lines. There was strong correlation between the substrate-independent growth in soft agarose of the four cell lines, the rate of growth of the corresponding tumors, and the amount of cadmium-109 uptake in the tumors. The authors conclude that metallothionein levels may be elevated in tumors as a function of the degree of expression of the transformed phenotype.

  10. The Mos/MAP kinase pathway stabilizes c-Fos by phosphorylation and augments its transforming activity in NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, K; Sagata, N

    1995-01-01

    The c-mos proto-oncogene product, Mos, is a serine/threonine kinase that can activate ERK1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases by direct phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK). ERK activation is essential for oncogenic transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by Mos. In this study, we examined how mitogenic and oncogenic signalling from the Mos/MEK/ERK pathway reaches the nucleus to activate downstream target genes. We show that c-Fos (the c-fos protooncogene product), which is an intrinsically unstable nuclear protein, is metabolically highly stabilized, and greatly enhances the transforming efficiency of NIH 3T3 cells, by Mos. This stabilization of c-Fos required Mos-induced phosphorylation of its C-terminal region on Ser362 and Ser374, and double replacements of these serines with acidic (Asp) residues markedly increased the stability and transforming efficiency of c-Fos even in the absence of Mos. Moreover, activation of the ERK pathway was necessary and sufficient for the c-Fos phosphorylation and stabilization by Mos. These results indicate that c-Fos undergoes stabilization, and mediates at least partly the oncogenic signalling, by the Mos/MEK/ERK pathway. The present findings also suggest that, in general, the ERK pathway may regulate the cell fate and function by affecting the metabolic stability of c-Fos. Images PMID:7588633

  11. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-02-26

    Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation. PMID:23295454

  12. Simulated microgravity inhibits L-type calcium channel currents partially by the up-regulation of miR-103 in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongyang; Cao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Hu, Zebing; Zhang, Lianchang; Wang, Han; Zhou, Hua; Li, Dongtao; Zhang, Shu; Xie, Manjiang

    2015-01-01

    L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (LTCCs), particularly Cav1.2 LTCCs, play fundamental roles in cellular responses to mechanical stimuli in osteoblasts. Numerous studies have shown that mechanical loading promotes bone formation, whereas the removal of this stimulus under microgravity conditions results in a reduction in bone mass. However, whether microgravity exerts an influence on LTCCs in osteoblasts and whether this influence is a possible mechanism underlying the observed bone loss remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that simulated microgravity substantially inhibited LTCC currents and suppressed Cav1.2 at the protein level in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. In addition, reduced Cav1.2 protein levels decreased LTCC currents in MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, simulated microgravity increased miR-103 expression. Cav1.2 expression and LTCC current densities both significantly increased in cells that were transfected with a miR-103 inhibitor under mechanical unloading conditions. These results suggest that simulated microgravity substantially inhibits LTCC currents in osteoblasts by suppressing Cav1.2 expression. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Cav1.2 expression and the inhibition of LTCCs caused by mechanical unloading in osteoblasts are partially due to miR-103 up-regulation. Our study provides a novel mechanism for microgravity-induced detrimental effects on osteoblasts, offering a new avenue to further investigate the bone loss induced by microgravity. PMID:25627864

  13. Anthraquinone Glycoside Aloin Induces Osteogenic Initiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells: Involvement of MAPK Mediated Wnt and Bmp Signaling.

    PubMed

    Pengjam, Yutthana; Madhyastha, Harishkumar; Madhyastha, Radha; Yamaguchi, Yuya; Nakajima, Yuichi; Maruyama, Masugi

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone pathology leading to increased fracture risk and challenging the quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an anthraquinone glycoside, aloin, on osteogenic induction of MC3T3-E1 cells. Aloin increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, an early differentiation marker of osteoblasts. Aloin also increased the ALP activity in adult human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC), indicating that the action of aloin was not cell-type specific.Alizarin red S staining revealed a signifiant amount of calcium deposition in cells treated with aloin. Aloin enhanced the expression of osteoblast differentiation genes, Bmp-2, Runx2 and collagen 1a, in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that noggin and inhibitors of p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK signals attenuated aloin-promoted expressions of Bmp-2 and Runx2 proteins. siRNA mediated blocking of Wnt-5a signaling pathway also annulled the influenceof aloin, indicating Wnt-5a dependent activity. Inhibition of the different signal pathways abrogated the influenceof aloin on ALP activity, confirmingthat aloin induced MC3T3-E1 cells into osteoblasts through MAPK mediated Wnt and Bmp signaling pathway. PMID:26869456

  14. Indian culinary plants enhance glucose-induced insulin secretion and glucose consumption in INS-1 ?-cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Han, Kyoung-Sik; Bains, Kiran; Singh, Harjinder

    2011-12-01

    Six Indian plants, commonly used as culinary plants, herbs or spices (kikar; jamun; neem; harad; fenugreek; bitter gourd), were screened and compared for their antidiabetic potential in vitro. Aqueous plant extracts were prepared and assessed for their effect on the insulin secretion activity of rat pancreatic INS-1 ?-cells and glucose consumption in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes in order to study their specific mechanisms of action. The effect of the plant extract concentration (25-1000?g/ml) on insulin release and glucose consumption was also studied. All the extracts had a significant stimulatory effect on the insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. In the presence of kikar extract (100?g/ml), an increase of 228% in insulin release was recorded compared to the control (5.6mM glucose) whereas that was 270% and 367% in the presence of kikar and jamun extracts (500?g/ml), respectively. 3T3-L1 cells treated with jamun extract (100?g/ml) exhibited the highest increase in glucose consumption by the cells (94%, compared with the control) followed by harad (53%) and fenugreek (50%) extracts. A significant inhibitory effect of the fenugreek, kikar and jamun extracts on glucose diffusion across a dialysis membrane suggested that these extracts could partly act by decreasing glucose absorption in the small intestine. The results showed that a combination of these plants in diet could help in the management of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25212346

  15. A novel Mn(2+)-doped core/shell quantum dot-based intracellular probe for fluoride anions sensing in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Hu, Tian-Yu; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Zhang, Xiu-Yun; Wang, Ying; Duan, Xiao-Qin; Liu, Da-Wei; Jing, Ling; Ma, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, 3-aminobenzeneboronic acid functionalized Mn(2+)-doped ZnTe/ZnSe quantum dots (APBA-dQDs) were prepared. The APBA functional groups had strong binding ability with F(-), resulting in the quenchment of dQDs photoluminescence (PL). Under the optimal condition, the fluorescence intensity of APBA-dQDs was related linearly to the concentration of F(-) in the range of 0.25-1.5mol/L with a detection limit of 0.1mol/L. The selectivity of fluorescence quenching of APBA-dQDs for F(-) was enhanced. Moreover, the proposed methodology for the sensing of F(-) at EM 560nm in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells was demonstrated and got a satisfactory results. The results indicate that the APBA-dQDs are promising candidates for intracellular in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. To the best of our knowledge, it was the first report of F(-) sensing by using the quenched fluorescence of APBA-dQDs in non-cancerous cells. PMID:26717843

  16. Caffeine inhibits adipogenesis through modulation of mitotic clonal expansion and the AKT/GSK3 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah-Reum; Yoon, Bo Kyung; Park, Hyounkyoung; Seok, Jo Woon; Choi, Hyeonjin; Yu, Jung Hwan; Choi, Yoonjeong; Song, Su Jin; Kim, Ara; Kim, Jae-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Caffeine has been proposed to have several beneficial effects on obesity and its related metabolic diseases; however, how caffeine affects adipocyte differentiation has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that caffeine suppressed 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and inhibited the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)? and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?, two main adipogenic transcription factors. Anti-adipogenic markers, such as preadipocyte secreted factor (Pref)-1 and Krppel-like factor 2, remained to be expressed in the presence of caffeine. Furthermore, 3T3-L1 cells failed to undergo typical mitotic clonal expansion in the presence of caffeine. Investigation of hormonal signaling revealed that caffeine inhibited the activation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3 in a dose-dependent manner, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Our data show that caffeine is an anti-adipogenic bioactive compound involved in the modulation of mitotic clonal expansion during adipocyte differentiation through the AKT/GSK3 pathway. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(2): 111-115]. PMID:26350746

  17. Economic feeder for recharging and ``topping off''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fickett, Bryan; Mihalik, G.

    2000-04-01

    Increasing the size of the melt charge significantly increases yield and reduces costs. Siemens Solar Industries is optimizing a method to charge additional material after meltdown (top-off) using an external feeder system. A prototype feeder system was fabricated consisting of a hopper and feed delivery system. The low-cost feeder is designed for simple operation and maintenance. The system is capable of introducing up to 60 kg of granular silicon while under vacuum. An isolation valve permits refilling of the hopper while maintaining vacuum in the growth furnace. Using the feeder system in conjunction with Siemens Solar Industries' energy efficient hot zone dramatically reduces power and argon consumption. Throughput is also improved as faster pull speeds can be attained. The increased pull speeds have an even greater impact when the charge size is increased. Further cost reduction can be achieved by refilling the crucible after crystal growth and pulling a second ingot run. Siemens Solar Industries is presently testing the feeder in production.

  18. Extracellular matrix mineralization in murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures: an ultrastructural, compositional and comparative analysis with mouse bone.

    PubMed

    Addison, W N; Nelea, V; Chicatun, F; Chien, Y-C; Tran-Khanh, N; Buschmann, M D; Nazhat, S N; Kaartinen, M T; Vali, H; Tecklenburg, M M; Franceschi, R T; McKee, M D

    2015-02-01

    Bone cell culture systems are essential tools for the study of the molecular mechanisms regulating extracellular matrix mineralization. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell cultures are the most commonly used in vitro model of bone matrix mineralization. Despite the widespread use of this cell line to study biomineralization, there is as yet no systematic characterization of the mineral phase produced in these cultures. Here we provide a comprehensive, multi-technique biophysical characterization of this cell culture mineral and extracellular matrix, and compare it to mouse bone and synthetic apatite mineral standards, to determine the suitability of MC3T3-E1 cultures for biomineralization studies. Elemental compositional analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed calcium and phosphorus, and trace amounts of sodium and magnesium, in both biological samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) on resin-embedded intact cultures demonstrated that similar to 1-month-old mouse bone, apatite crystals grew with preferential orientations along the (100), (101) and (111) mineral planes indicative of guided biogenic growth as opposed to dystrophic calcification. XRD of crystals isolated from the cultures revealed that the mineral phase was poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite with 10 to 20nm-sized nanocrystallites. Consistent with the XRD observations, electron diffraction patterns indicated that culture mineral had low crystallinity typical of biological apatites. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed apatitic carbonate and phosphate within the biological samples. With all techniques utilized, cell culture mineral and mouse bone mineral were remarkably similar. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy showed that the cultures had a dense fibrillar collagen matrix with small, 100nm-sized, collagen fibril-associated mineralization foci which coalesced to form larger mineral aggregates, and where mineralized sites showed the accumulation of the mineral-binding protein osteopontin. Light microscopy, confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions showed that some cells had dendritic processes and became embedded within the mineral in an osteocyte-like manner. In conclusion, we have documented characteristics of the mineral and matrix phases of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures, and have determined that the structural and compositional properties of the mineral are highly similar to that of mouse bone. PMID:25460184

  19. Identification of differentially expressed proteins by treatment with PUGNAc in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through analysis of ATP-binding proteome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Ja-Hye; Moon, Pyong-Gon; Baek, Moon-Chang

    2013-10-01

    O-GlcNAc (2-acetamino-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranose), an important modification for cellular processes, is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase. O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene) amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc) is a nonselective inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase, which increases the level of protein O-GlcNAcylation and is known to induce insulin-resistance in adipose cells due to uncharacterized targets of this inhibitor. In this study, using ATP affinity chromatography, we applied a targeted proteomic approach for identification of proteins induced by treatment with PUGNAc. For optimization of proteomic methods using ATP affinity chromatography, comparison of two cell lines (3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes) and two different digestion steps was performed using four different structures of immobilized ATP-bound resins. Using this approach, based on DNA sequence homologies, we found that the identified proteins covered almost half of ATP-binding protein families classified by PROSITE. The optimized ATP affinity chromatography approach was applied for identification of proteins that were differentially expressed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes following treatment with PUGNAc. For label-free quantitation, a gel-assisted method was used for digestion of the eluted proteins, and analysis was performed using two different MS modes, data-independent (671 proteins identified) and data-dependent (533 proteins identified) analyses. Among identified proteins, 261 proteins belong to nucleotide-binding proteins and we focused on some nucleotide-binding proteins, ubiquitin-activation enzyme 1 (E1), Hsp70, vasolin-containing protein (Vcp), and Hsp90, involved in ubiquitin-proteasome degradation and insulin signaling pathways. In addition, we found that treatment with PUGNAc resulted in increased ubiquitination of proteins in a time-dependent manner, and a decrease in both the amount of Akt and the level of phosphorylation of Akt, a key component in insulin signaling, through downregulation of Hsp90. In this study, based on a targeted proteomic approach using ATP affinity chromatography, we found four proteins related to ubiquitination and insulin signaling pathways that were induced by treatment with PUGNAc. This result would provide insight into understanding functions of PUGNAc in 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:23946262

  20. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Contributes Significantly to Synthesis of Odd-Chain and Even-Chain Fatty Acids in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Crown, Scott B; Marze, Nicholas; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2015-01-01

    The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, leucine and isoleucine have been implicated in a number of diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Adipose tissue plays an important role in BCAA homeostasis by actively metabolizing circulating BCAA. In this work, we have investigated the link between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using parallel 13C-labeling experiments, mass spectrometry and model-based isotopomer data analysis. Specifically, we performed parallel labeling experiments with four fully 13C-labeled tracers, [U-13C]valine, [U-13C]leucine, [U-13C]isoleucine and [U-13C]glutamine. We measured mass isotopomer distributions of fatty acids and intracellular metabolites by GC-MS and analyzed the data using the isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA) framework. We demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate significant amounts of even chain length (C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0) and odd chain length (C15:0 and C17:0) fatty acids under standard cell culture conditions. Using a novel GC-MS method, we demonstrate that propionyl-CoA acts as the primer on fatty acid synthase for the production of odd chain fatty acids. BCAA contributed significantly to the production of all fatty acids. Leucine and isoleucine contributed at least 25% to lipogenic acetyl-CoA pool, and valine and isoleucine contributed 100% to lipogenic propionyl-CoA pool. Our results further suggest that low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and mass action kinetics of propionyl-CoA on fatty acid synthase result in high rates of odd chain fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overall, this work provides important new insights into the connection between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes and underscores the high capacity of adipocytes for metabolizing BCAA. PMID:26710334

  1. Phosphorylation of mRNA Decapping Protein Dcp1a by the ERK Signaling Pathway during Early Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yu-Lun; Kao, Ching-Han; Lin, Nien-Yi; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Wang, Shun-Chang; Chang, Geen-Dong; Lee, Sheng-Chung; Chang, Ching-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background Turnover of mRNA is a critical step in the regulation of gene expression, and an important step in mRNA decay is removal of the 5? cap. We previously demonstrated that the expression of some immediate early gene mRNAs is controlled by RNA stability during early differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that the mouse decapping protein Dcp1a is phosphorylated via the ERK signaling pathway during early differentiation of preadipocytes. Mass spectrometry analysis and site-directed mutagenesis combined with a kinase assay identified ERK pathwaymediated dual phosphorylation at Ser 315 and Ser 319 of Dcp1a. To understand the functional effects of Dcp1a phosphorylation, we examined protein-protein interactions between Dcp1a and other decapping components with co-immunoprecipitation. Dcp1a interacted with Ddx6 and Edc3 through its proline-rich C-terminal extension, whereas the conserved EVH1 (enabled vasodilator-stimulated protein homology 1) domain in the N terminus of Dcp1a showed a stronger interaction with Dcp2. Once ERK signaling was activated, the interaction between Dcp1a and Ddx6, Edc3, or Edc4 was not affected by Dcp1a phosphorylation. Phosphorylated Dcp1a did, however, enhanced interaction with Dcp2. Protein complexes immunoprecipitated with the recombinant phosphomimetic Dcp1a(S315D/S319D) mutant contained more Dcp2 than did those immunoprecipitated with the nonphosphorylated Dcp1a(S315A/S319A) mutant. In addition, Dcp1a associated with AU-rich element (ARE)-containing mRNAs such as MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), whose mRNA stability was analyzed under the overexpression of Dcp1a constructs in the Dcp1a knockdown 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that ERK-phosphorylated Dcp1a enhances its interaction with the decapping enzyme Dcp2 during early differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:23637887

  2. Inhibitory effects of tannic acid in the early stage of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiation by down-regulating PPAR? expression.

    PubMed

    Nie, Fangyuan; Liang, Yan; Xun, Hang; Sun, Jia; He, Fei; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is a medical condition of excess body fat negatively influencing morbidity and mortality via non-communicable disease risks. Adipogenesis, the process in which preadipocytes differentiate into adipocytes, plays a pivotal role in obesity. Our previous study proved that tannic acid (TA) showed anti-adipogenesis effect in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. However, the precise mechanism involved in the inhibition in adipocytes differentiation by TA is unclear, and thus this is the subject of the present investigation. In this study, we determined the effect of TA on different stages of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiation, and found that when treating in the early stage of differentiation, TA reduced lipid accumulation significantly. However, TA did not reduce lipid accumulation when treating in mid- and late-stages of adipocyte differentiation. To further study which gene TA had an impact on in the early stage of differentiation, we identified a number of genes associated with lipid metabolism. The results showed that compared to the control group, the mRNA levels of FAS, C/EBP?, and PPAR? were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas the mRNA levels of adipsin, ap2 were increased (p < 0.05). However, TA had no effect on mRNA levels of ACC1 and ACC2. Western blot results showed that TA down-regulated the expression of PPAR?, which is a major factor in preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, TA did not affect the PI3 K/AKT pathway. These results indicate that the anti-adipogenesis effect of TA involves down-regulation of PPAR? in the early stage of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Some potential limitations of this study should be considered. All the results in this study were based on cell experiments. However, the human bioavailability of TA is not clear. In the present study, the concentration of TA was 5 ?M; therefore, there were concerns about whether oral intake of TA could reach the effective concentrations. This important point needs to be clarified in vivo. PMID:25623997

  3. UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol coating on polystyrene surfaces is converted to active vitamin D by osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Satu, Mara; Crdoba, Alba; Ramis, Joana M; Monjo, Marta

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of UV irradiation on the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), which has been coated onto a polystyrene surface, to cholecalciferol (D3), and the resulting effect on the formation of vitamin D (1,25-D3) by MC3T3-E1 cells. The changes in gene expression of the enzymes regulating its hydroxylation, Cyp27b1 and Cyp27a1, were monitored as well as the net effect of the UV-treated 7-DHC coating on cell viability and osteoblast differentiation. MC3T3-E1 cells were found to express the enzymes required for synthesizing active 1,25-D3, and we found a dose-dependent increase in the production of both 25-D3 and 1,25-D3 levels for UV-activated 7-DHC samples unlike UV-untreated ones. Cell viability revealed no cytotoxic effect for any of the treatments, but only for the highest dose of 7-DHC (20 nmol per well) that was UV-irradiated. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was increased in cells treated with some of the higher doses of 7-DHC when UV-irradiated, as shown by collagen-I, osterix and osteocalcin relative mRNA levels. The conversion of 7-DHC to preD3 exogenously by UV irradiation and later to 25-D3 by MC3T3-E1 cells was determined for the optimum 7-DHC dose (0.2 nmol per well), i.e. 8.6 0.7% of UV-activated 7-DHC was converted to preD3 and 6.7 2.8% of preD3 was finally converted to 25-D3 under the conditions studied. In conclusion, we demonstrate that an exogenous coating of 7-DHC, when UV-irradiated, can be used to endogenously produce active vitamin D. We hereby provide the scientific basis for UV-activated 7-DHC coating as a feasible approach for implant therapeutics focused on bone regeneration. PMID:23538933

  4. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Peng; School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 ; Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu; Sun, Guifan; Andersen, Melvin E.; Pi, Jingbo

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs{sup 3+} decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 {mu}M) inorganic arsenite (iAs{sup 3+}) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs{sup 3+} exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs{sup 3+} exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4 expression may also be involved in arsenic-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes. Taken together our studies suggest that prolonged low-level iAs{sup 3+} exposure activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response, which impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling that is involved in ISGU, and thus causes insulin resistance in adipocytes.

  5. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Contributes Significantly to Synthesis of Odd-Chain and Even-Chain Fatty Acids in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Crown, Scott B.; Marze, Nicholas; Antoniewicz, Maciek R.

    2015-01-01

    The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, leucine and isoleucine have been implicated in a number of diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Adipose tissue plays an important role in BCAA homeostasis by actively metabolizing circulating BCAA. In this work, we have investigated the link between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using parallel 13C-labeling experiments, mass spectrometry and model-based isotopomer data analysis. Specifically, we performed parallel labeling experiments with four fully 13C-labeled tracers, [U-13C]valine, [U-13C]leucine, [U-13C]isoleucine and [U-13C]glutamine. We measured mass isotopomer distributions of fatty acids and intracellular metabolites by GC-MS and analyzed the data using the isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA) framework. We demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate significant amounts of even chain length (C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0) and odd chain length (C15:0 and C17:0) fatty acids under standard cell culture conditions. Using a novel GC-MS method, we demonstrate that propionyl-CoA acts as the primer on fatty acid synthase for the production of odd chain fatty acids. BCAA contributed significantly to the production of all fatty acids. Leucine and isoleucine contributed at least 25% to lipogenic acetyl-CoA pool, and valine and isoleucine contributed 100% to lipogenic propionyl-CoA pool. Our results further suggest that low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and mass action kinetics of propionyl-CoA on fatty acid synthase result in high rates of odd chain fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overall, this work provides important new insights into the connection between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes and underscores the high capacity of adipocytes for metabolizing BCAA. PMID:26710334

  6. Citrus auraptene acts as an agonist for PPARs and enhances adiponectin production and MCP-1 reduction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroyanagi, Kayo; Kang, Min-Sook; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Hirai, Shizuka; Ohyama, Kana; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Yano, Masamichi; Sasaki, Takao; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2008-02-01

    Citrus fruit compounds have many health-enhancing effects. In this study, using a luciferase ligand assay system, we showed that citrus auraptene activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}. Auraptene induced up-regulation of adiponectin expression and increased the ratio of the amount of high-molecular-weight multimers of adiponectin to the total adiponectin. In contrast, auraptene suppressed monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Experiments using PPAR{gamma} antagonist demonstrated that these effects on regulation of adiponectin and MCP-1 expression were caused by PPAR{gamma} activations. The results indicate that auraptene activates PPAR{gamma} in adipocytes to control adipocytekines such as adiponectin and MCP-1 and suggest that the consumption of citrus fruits, which contain auraptene can lead to a partial prevention of lipid and glucose metabolism abnormalities.

  7. Anti-transforming nature of ascorbic acid and its derivatives examined by two-stage cell transformation using BALB/c 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Kato-Masatsuji, E; Tsuzuki, T; Umeda, M

    2000-11-10

    The anti-transforming effects of sodium ascorbate and its stable derivatives were examined in the two-stage transformation assay. When BALB/c 3T3 cells were treated with 0.2 microg/ml 20-methylcholanthrene as an initiator, and 100 ng/ml 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate as a promoter, the addition at the promotion stage of L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate ester magnesium (APM) was most marked in the inhibition of transformation. The inhibitory effects of sodium ascorbate and ascorbic acid-2-glucoside (AG) were comparable, but weaker than those of APM; L (+)-ascorbic acid-2-sulfate ester disodium 2H(2)O showed little effect. When phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) were used as promoters, APM also effectively suppressed transformation. PMID:11098084

  8. The fungal chimerolectin MOA inhibits protein and DNA synthesis in NIH/3T3 cells and may induce BAX-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cordara, Gabriele; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J; Krengel, Ute; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2014-05-16

    The Marasmius oreades mushroom agglutinin (MOA) is a blood group B-specific lectin carrying an active proteolytic domain. Its enzymatic activity has recently been shown to be critical for toxicity of MOA toward the fungivorous soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we present evidence that MOA also induces cytotoxicity in a cellular model system (murine NIH/3T3 cells), by inhibiting protein synthesis, and that cytotoxicity correlates, at least in part, with proteolytic activity. A peptide-array screen identified the apoptosis mediator BAX as a potential proteolytic substrate and further suggests a variety of bacterial and fungal peptides as potential substrates. These findings are in line with the suggestion that MOA and related proteases may play a role for host defense. PMID:24747075

  9. Adipogenesis stimulates the nuclear localization of EWS with an increase in its O-GlcNAc glycosylation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Kamemura, Kazuo

    2014-07-18

    Although the Ewing sarcoma (EWS) proto-oncoprotein is found in the nucleus and cytosol and is associated with the cell membrane, the regulatory mechanisms of its subcellular localization are still unclear. Here we found that adipogenic stimuli induce the nuclear localization of EWS in 3T3-L1 cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation in the C-terminal PY-nuclear localization signal of EWS was negative throughout adipogenesis. Instead, an adipogenesis-dependent increase in O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation of EWS was observed. Pharmacological inactivation of O-GlcNAcase in preadipocytes promoted perinuclear localization of EWS. Our findings suggest that the nuclear localization of EWS is partly regulated by the glycosylation. PMID:24928395

  10. Reduction of adipogenesis and lipid accumulation by Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion) extracts in 3T3L1 adipocytes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez-Castejn, Marta; Garca-Carrasco, Beln; Fernndez-Dacosta, Raquel; Dvalos, Alberto; Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa

    2014-05-01

    In this in vitro study, we have investigated the ability of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. HPLC analysis of the three plant extracts used in this study-leaf and root extracts and a commercial root powder-identified caffeic and chlorogenic acids as the main phenolic constituents. Oil Red O staining and triglyceride levels analysis showed decreased lipid and triglyceride accumulation, respectively. Cytotoxicity was assessed with the MTT assay showing non-toxic effect among the concentrations tested. DNA microarray analysis showed that the extracts regulated the expression of a number of genes and long non-coding RNAs that play a major role in the control of adipogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that the dandelion extracts used in this study may play a significant role during adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, and thus, supporting their therapeutic interest as potential candidates for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23956107

  11. Enamel Matrix Derivative Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells via Activation of TGF-?RI Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Reinhard; Bosshardt, Dieter D.; Miron, Richard J.; Gemperli, Anja C.; Buser, Daniel; Sculean, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Enamel matrix derivative (EMD), an extract of fetal porcine enamel, and TGF-? can both suppress adipogenic differentiation. However, there have been no studies that functionally link the role of EMD and TGF-? in vitro. Herein, we examined whether TGF-? signaling contributes to EMD-induced suppression of adipogenic differentiation. Adipogenesis was studied with 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in the presence of SB431542, an inhibitor of TGF-?RI kinase activity. SB431542 reversed the inhibitory effect of EMD on adipogenic differentiation, based on Oil Red O staining and mRNA expression of lipid regulated genes. SB431542 also reduced EMD-stimulated expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), an autocrine inhibitor of adipogenic differentiation. Moreover, short interfering (si)RNAs for CTGF partially reversed the EMD-induced suppression of lipid regulated genes. We conclude that the TGF-?RI - CTGF axis is involved in the anti-adipogenic effects of EMD in vitro. PMID:23951076

  12. Ameliorating effects of fermented rice bran extract on oxidative stress induced by high glucose and hydrogen peroxide in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongyeop; Han, Gi Dong

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we investigated whether fermented rice bran (FRB) can ameliorate the oxidative stress induced by high glucose and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by analyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS), oil red O staining, as well as the expression of mRNAs related to glucose homeostasis and adipogenesis. It was first confirmed that rice bran fermented by Issatchenkia orientalis MFST1 extract increased free phenolic content compared to non-fermented rice bran. The FRB extract strongly inhibited ROS generation and upregulated the expression of PPAR-? and adiponectin. Moreover, FRB upregulated GLUT4 related to glucose transportation and insulin sensitivity. Taken together, FRB extract ameliorated oxidative stress-induced insulin resistance by neutralizing free radicals and upregulating adiponectin in adipocytes. Our results provide information toward understanding the beneficial effects of FRB on oxidative stress. PMID:21748436

  13. Adipogenic effects of piperlonguminine in 3T3-L1 cells and plasma concentrations of several amide constituents from Piper chaba extracts after treatment of mice.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Itadaki; Matsuda, Hisashi; Zhang, Hailong; Hamao, Makoto; Yamashita, Chihiro; Kogami, Yuichiro; Kon'I, Haruka; Murata, Megumi; Nakamura, Seikou; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study, piperlonguminine from the fruit of Piper chaba was reported to promote adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells like the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist, troglitazone. In the present study, the mode of action of piperlonguminine in cells was examined. Piperlonguminine increased mRNA levels of adiponectin, glucose transporter 4, and fatty acid-binding protein (aP2). It also increased mRNA levels of PPAR?2 but, unlike troglitazone, piperlonguminine did not activate PPAR? directly in a nuclear receptor cofactor assay. Analyses of plasma from mice treated with piperlonguminine, piperine, and retrofractamide A, and an extract of the fruit, showed that concentrations of piperlonguminine were higher than those of piperine and retrofractamide A, and that the "area-under-the-curve" of piperine increased following in vivo administration of the extract. PMID:23584920

  14. Overexpression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), leads to mitochondrial aberrations in mouse fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells

    PubMed Central

    Im, Chang-Nim; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo uncontrolled proliferation, and aberrant mitochondrial alterations. Tumor necrosis factor receptorassociated protein 1 (TRAP1) is a mitochondrial heat shock protein. TRAP1 mRNA is highly expressed in some cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. However, the effects of its overexpression on mitochondria are unclear. In this study, we assessed mitochondrial changes accompanying TRAP1 overexpression, in a mouse cell line, NIH/3T3. We found that overexpression of TRAP1 leads to a series of mitochondrial aberrations, including increase in basal ROS levels, and decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis, together with a decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) mRNA levels. We also observed increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and enhanced proliferation of TRAP1 overexpressing cells. This study suggests that overexpression of TRAP1 might be a critical link between mitochondrial disturbances and carcinogenesis. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(5): 280-285] PMID:24286320

  15. New pyrano-pyrone from Goniothalamus tamirensis enhances the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tai, Bui Huu; Huyen, Vu Thi; Huong, Tran Thu; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Choi, Eun-Mi; Kim, Jeong Ah; Long, Pham Quoc; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2010-04-01

    The new pyrano-pyrone, (+)-8-epi-9-deoxygoniopypyrone (1) and (+)-9-deoxygoniopypyrone (2) were isolated from a chloroform extract of Goniothalamus tamirensis leaves. Their absolute stereostructures were discussed and confirmed by using infrared (IR), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), one (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, Mosher's method, and comparison with the known compounds leiocapin A (3), deoxygoniopypyrone A (4), and (-)-8-epi-9-deoxygoniopypyrone (5). At concentrations of 2.67 microM, compounds 1 and 2 significantly increased the growth of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and caused a significant elevation of collagen content, alkaline phosphatase activity, and nodule mineralization in the cells (p<0.05). Our data suggest that the enhancement of osteoblast function by 1 and 2 may result in the prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:20410636

  16. Substance P antagonist also inhibits specific binding and mitogenic effects of vasopressin and bombesin-related peptides in Swiss 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, I.; Rozengurt, E.

    1986-05-29

    While vasopressin and peptides of the bombesin family bind to different receptors in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells, the antagonist (D-Arg/sup 1/,D-Pro/sup 2/,D-Trp/sup 7,9/,Leu/sup 11/) substance P blocks the specific binding of both (/sup 3/H) vasopressin and /sup 125/I-gastrin-releasing peptide to these cells. In addition, the antagonist inhibits the mobilization of Ca/sup 2 +/ and induction of DNA synthesis by vasopressin. These results indicate that (D-Arg/sup 1/,D-Pro,D-Trp/sup 7,9/,Leu/sup 11/) substance P has the ability to interact with the receptors for three structurally unrelated peptide hormones.

  17. Elevated phosphocholine concentration in ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells arises from increased choline kinase activity, not from phosphatidylcholine breakdown.

    PubMed Central

    Macara, I G

    1989-01-01

    The cellular concentration of phosphocholine has been reported to be significantly elevated in Ha-ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells, but not in v-sis transformants (J. C. Lacal, J. Moscat, and S. A. Aaronson, Nature [London] 330:269-271, 1987). It was suggested that the phosphocholine arises from constitutive hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase C, an activity that would also account for the elevated 1,2-diacylglycerol found in ras-transformed cells. I have demonstrated that the increased phosphocholine arises through the induction of choline kinase activity. No increased breakdown of phosphatidylcholine was observed in ras-transformed cells. The elevation in diacylglycerol is therefore unlikely to be a consequence of phosphatidylinositol or phosphatidylcholine turnover. PMID:2538723

  18. Potentiation of endothelin-1-induced prostaglandin E2 formation by Ni(2+) and Sr(2+) in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Leis, Hans Jrg; Windischhofer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Cation recognition mechanisms beyond calcium-sensing receptors are still largely unexplored and consequently there is surprisingly little information on linking of this primary event to key metabolic features of different cell systems, such as arachidonic acid metabolism. However, information on the modulatory role of extracellular cations in cellular function is scarce. In this study we have demonstrated, that Ni(2+) and Sr(2+) potentiate endothelin-1 induced prostaglandin E2 formation in the osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1, even in the absence of extracellular calcium. The effect is strictly dependent of receptor-mediated signal transduction processes evoked by endothelin-1 and arachidonate release involves cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity. The ligation sites, at least for Ni(2+) are extracellular. The data suggest a novel activation mechanism for arachidonate release and subsequent prostaglandin formation that does not require calcium. PMID:26653747

  19. Lipoamide or lipoic acid stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the endothelial NO synthase-cGMP-protein kinase G signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Weili; Hao, Jiejie; Feng, Zhihui; Tian, Chuan; Chen, Weijun; Packer, Lester; Shi, Xianglin; Zang, Weijin; Liu, Jiankang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Metabolic dysfunction due to loss of mitochondria plays an important role in diabetes, and stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by anti-diabetic drugs improves mitochondrial function. In a search for potent stimulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, we examined the effects and mechanisms of lipoamide and ?-lipoic acid (LA) in adipocytes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with lipoamide or LA. Mitochondrial biogenesis and possible signalling pathways were examined. KEY RESULTS Exposure of 3T3-L1 cells to lipoamide or LA for 24 h increased the number and mitochondrial mass per cell. Such treatment also increased mitochondrial DNA copy number, protein levels and expression of transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, including PGC-1?, mitochondrial transcription factor A and nuclear respiratory factor 1. Lipoamide produced these effects at concentrations of 1 and 10 molL?1, whereas LA was most effective at 100 molL?1. At 10 molL?1, lipoamide, but not LA, stimulated mRNA expressions of PPAR-?, PPAR-? and CPT-1?. The potency of lipoamide was 10100-fold greater than that of LA. Lipoamide dose-dependently stimulated expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and formation of cGMP. Knockdown of eNOS (with small interfering RNA) prevented lipoamide-induced mitochondrial biogenesis, which was also blocked by the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ and the protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor, KT5823. Thus, stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by lipoamide involved signalling via the eNOS-cGMP-PKG pathway. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our data suggest that lipoamide is a potent stimulator of mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocyte, and may have potential therapeutic application in obesity and diabetes. PMID:21108628

  20. Phlorotannins isolated from the edible brown alga Ecklonia stolonifera exert anti-adipogenic activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes by downregulating C/EBP? and PPAR?.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Ah; Jung, Hee Jin; Jeong, Hyun Young; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Ali, Md Yousof; Choi, Jae Sue

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic increase in obesity-related diseases emphasizes the need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fat metabolism. Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation has been suggested to be an important strategy for preventing or treating obesity. In our previous study, we characterized an Ecklonia stolonifera extract and non-polar fractions thereof, including dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. We showed that these fractions inhibited adipocyte differentiation and lipid formation/accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, as assessed by Oil Red O staining. As part of our ongoing search for anti-obesity agents derived from E. stolonifera, in this work, we characterized five known phlorotannins, including phloroglucinol, eckol, dieckol, dioxinodehydroeckol, and phlorofucofuroeckol A, all of which were isolated from the active ethyl acetate fraction of E. stolonifera. We determined the chemical structures of these phlorotannins through comparisons of published nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data. Furthermore, we screened these phlorotannins for their abilities to inhibit adipogenesis over a range of concentrations (12.5-100 ?M). Of these five phlorotannins, phloroglucinol, eckol, and phlorofucofuroeckol A significantly concentration-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells without affecting cell viability. In addition, the five isolated phlorotannins also significantly reduced the expression levels of several adipocyte marker genes, including proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?), although they did so to different extents. These results suggest that the molecular weight of a phlorotannin is an important factor affecting its ability to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and modulate the expression levels of adipocyte marker genes. PMID:24334103