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1

Comparative analysis of human-derived feeder layers with 3T3 fibroblasts for the ex vivo expansion of human limbal and oral epithelium.  

PubMed

Corneal transplantation with cultivated limbal or oral epithelium is a feasible treatment option for limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Currently utilized co-culture of stem cells with murine 3T3 feeder layer renders the epithelial constructs as xenografts. To overcome the potential risks involved with xenotransplantation, we investigated the use of human-derived feeder layers for the ex vivo expansion of epithelial (stem) cells. Human limbal and oral epithelium was co-cultured with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, human dermal fibroblasts (DF), human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and with no feeder cells (NF). Cell morphology was monitored with phase-contrast microscopy, and stem cell characteristics were assessed by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR for p63 and ABCG2, (stem cell markers), and by colony-forming efficiency (CFE) assay. Immunohistochemical analysis detected positive staining for CK3 (cornea specific marker) and I?1 and p63 (putative stem cell markers) in all culture conditions. The level of I?1 and p63 was significantly higher in both limbal and oral cells cultured on the 3T3 feeder, as compared to the MSC or NF group (p<0.01). This level was comparable to the cells cultured on DF. Expression of p63 and ABCG2 in limbal and oral epithelial cells in the 3T3 and DF groups was significantly higher than that in the MSC or NF group (p<0.01). No statistical difference was detected between 3T3 and DF groups. The CFE of both limbal and oral cells co-cultured on 3T3 fibroblasts was comparable to cells grown on DF, and was significantly higher than that of cells co-cultured with MSC or NF (p<0.01). Epithelial cells grown on a DF feeder layer maintained a stem cell-like phenotype, comparable to cells grown on a 3T3 feeder layer. In conclusion, DF provides a promising substitute for 3T3 feeder cells during cultivation of xenobiotic-free corneal equivalents. PMID:21964568

Sharma, Sandhya M; Fuchsluger, Thomas; Ahmad, Sajjad; Katikireddy, Kishore R; Armant, Myriam; Dana, Reza; Jurkunas, Ula V

2012-09-01

2

Identification of Human Fibroblast Cell Lines as a Feeder Layer for Human Corneal Epithelial Regeneration  

PubMed Central

There is a great interest in using epithelium generated in vitro for tissue bioengineering. Mouse 3T3 fibroblasts have been used as a feeder layer to cultivate human epithelia including corneal epithelial cells for more than 3 decades. To avoid the use of xeno-components, we evaluated human fibroblasts as an alternative feeder supporting human corneal epithelial regeneration. Five human fibroblast cell lines were used for evaluation with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts as a control. Human epithelial cells isolated from fresh corneal limbal tissue were seeded on these feeders. Colony forming efficiency (CFE) and cell growth capacity were evaluated on days 5–14. The phenotype of the regenerated epithelia was evaluated by morphology and immunostaining with epithelial markers. cDNA microarray was used to analyze the gene expression profile of the supportive human fibroblasts. Among 5 strains of human fibroblasts evaluated, two newborn foreskin fibroblast cell lines, Hs68 and CCD1112Sk, were identified to strongly support human corneal epithelial growth. Tested for 10 passages, these fibroblasts continually showed a comparative efficiency to the 3T3 feeder layer for CFE and growth capacity of human corneal epithelial cells. Limbal epithelial cells seeded at 1×104 in a 35-mm dish (9.6 cm2) grew to confluence (about 1.87–2.41×106 cells) in 12–14 days, representing 187–241 fold expansion with over 7–8 doublings on these human feeders. The regenerated epithelia expressed K3, K12, connexin 43, p63, EGFR and integrin ?1, resembling the phenotype of human corneal epithelium. DNA microarray revealed 3 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated genes, which may be involved in the functions of human fibroblast feeders. These findings demonstrate that commercial human fibroblast cell lines support human corneal epithelial regeneration, and have potential use in tissue bioengineering for corneal reconstruction. PMID:22723892

Lu, Rong; Bian, Fang; Lin, Jing; Su, Zhitao; Qu, Yangluowa; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan

2012-01-01

3

Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts Are as Efficient as Mouse Fibroblasts as a Feeder Layer to Improve Human Epidermal Cell Culture Lifespan  

PubMed Central

A fibroblast feeder layer is currently the best option for large scale expansion of autologous skin keratinocytes that are to be used for the treatment of severely burned patients. In a clinical context, using a human rather than a mouse feeder layer is desirable to reduce the risk of introducing animal antigens and unknown viruses. This study was designed to evaluate if irradiated human fibroblasts can be used in keratinocyte cultures without affecting their morphological and physiological properties. Keratinocytes were grown either with or without a feeder layer in serum-containing medium. Our results showed that keratinocytes grown either on an irradiated human feeder layer or irradiated 3T3 cells (i3T3) can be cultured for a comparable number of passages. The average epithelial cell size and morphology were also similar. On the other hand, keratinocytes grown without a feeder layer showed heavily bloated cells at early passages and stop proliferating after only a few passages. On the molecular aspect, the expression level of the transcription factor Sp1, a useful marker of keratinocytes lifespan, was maintained and stabilized for a high number of passages in keratinocytes grown with feeder layers whereas Sp1 expression dropped quickly without a feeder layer. Furthermore, gene profiling on microarrays identified potential target genes whose expression is differentially regulated in the absence or presence of an i3T3 feeder layer and which may contribute at preserving the growth characteristics of these cells. Irradiated human dermal fibroblasts therefore provide a good human feeder layer for an effective expansion of keratinocytes in vitro that are to be used for clinical purposes. PMID:23443166

Bisson, Francis; Rochefort, Eloise; Lavoie, Amelie; Larouche, Danielle; Zaniolo, Karine; Simard-Bisson, Carolyne; Damour, Odile; Auger, Francois A.; Guerin, Sylvain L.; Germain, Lucie

2013-01-01

4

In vitro Culture of Primary Plasmacytomas Requires Stromal Cell Feeder Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to grow primary murine plasmacytomas in vitro have, to date, been largely unsuccessful. In this study, we demonstrate that long-term in vitro growth of primary plasmacytomas is accomplished by using feeder layers composed of stromal cells from the initial site of plasmacytomagenesis. The early neoplastic lines established in this manner are dependent on physical contact with the stromal layer,

Alberto Degrassi; David M. Hilbert; Stuart Rudikoff; Arthur O. Anderson; Michael Potter; Hayden G. Coon

1993-01-01

5

Effects of different feeder layers on culture of bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells in vitro.  

PubMed

To find a suitable feeder layer is important for successful culture conditions of bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells. In this study, expression of pluripotency-related genes OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG in bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers at 1-5 passages were monitored in order to identify the possible reason that bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells could not continue growth and passage. Here, we developed two novel feeder layers, mixed embryonic fibroblast feeder layers of mouse and bovine embryonic fibroblast at different ratios and sources including mouse fibroblast cell lines. The bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells generated in our study displayed typical stem cell morphology and expressed specific markers such as OCT4, stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 and 4, alkaline phosphatase, SOX2, and NANOG mRNA levels. When feeder layers and cell growth factors were removed, the bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells formed embryoid bodies in a suspension culture. Furthermore, we compared the expression of the pluripotent markers during bovine embryonic stem cell-like cell in culture on mixed embryonic fibroblast feeder layers, including mouse fibroblast cell lines feeder layers and mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results suggested that mixed embryonic fibroblast and sources including mouse fibroblast cell lines feeder layers were more suitable for long-term culture and growth of bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells than mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers. The findings may provide useful experimental data for the establishment of an appropriate culture system for bovine embryonic stem cell lines. PMID:24807816

Cong, Shan; Cao, Guifang; Liu, Dongjun

2014-12-01

6

Inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer promote directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells into functional neurons.  

PubMed

Intact spiral ganglion neurons are required for cochlear implantation or conventional hearing amplification as an intervention for sensorineural hearing loss. Treatment strategies to replace the loss of spiral ganglion neurons are needed. Recent reports have suggested that amniotic fluid-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into neuron-like cells in response to cytokines and are not tumorigenic. Amniotic fluid stem cells represent a potential resource for cellular therapy of neural deafness due to spiral ganglion pathology. However, the directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells is undetermined in the absence of cytokines and the consequence of inner ear supporting cells from the mouse cochlea organ of Corti on the differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells remains to be defined. In an effort to circumvent these limitations, we investigated the effect of inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer on amniotic fluid stem cells differentiation in vitro. An inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer direct contact system was established to induce differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells. Our results showed that inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer successfully promoted directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells into neurons with characteristics of functionality. Furthermore, we showed that Wnt signaling may play an essential role in triggering neurogenesis. These findings indicate the potential use of inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer as a nerve-regenerative scaffold. A reliable and effective amniotic fluid stem cell differentiation support structure provided by inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer should contribute to efforts to translate cell-based strategies to the clinic. PMID:25124154

Zong, Ling; Chen, Kaitian; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Di; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Xuemei; Jiang, Hongyan

2014-10-01

7

Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain iPS cell pluripotency by inhibiting endogenous DNA methyltransferase 1  

PubMed Central

Maintaining induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in an undifferentiated, self-renewing state during long-term cultivation is, at present, a major challenge. We previously showed that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) were able to provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic or spermatogonial stem cells; however, the epigenetic mechanisms have not been elucidated. In the present study, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and HuAECs were compared as feeder layers for the long-term culture of human iPS cells. The HuAEC feeders allowed human iPS cells to maintain a high level of alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and to express key stem cell markers during long-term subculture whereas the MEF feeders did not,. Moreover, the HuAEC feeders significantly affected the cell cycle regulation of the iPS cells, maintaining them in the resting stage and the early stage of DNA synthesis (G0/G1 stage). Furthermore, the CpG islands of the Nanog and Oct4 promoters were hypomethylated, while the Nanog- and Oct4-specific loci exhibited higher levels of histone H3 acetylation and lower levels of H3K27 trimethylation in iPS cells cultured on HuAECs compared with those cultured on MEFs. The DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression in iPS cells cultured on HuAECs was shown to be lower than in those cultured on MEFs. In addition, DNMT1-silenced human iPS cells were able to maintain pluripotency over long-term culture on MEFs. In combination, these results suggest that endogenous DNMT1 expression in human iPS cells may be regulated by HuAEC feeder cells and that Nanog and Oct4 are crucial components required for the maintenance of iPS cells in an undifferentiated, proliferative state, capable of self-renewal. PMID:24223636

CHEN, QING; QIU, CHAOLIN; HUANG, YONGYI; JIANG, LIZHEN; HUANG, QIN; GUO, LIHE; LIU, TE

2013-01-01

8

Coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells  

SciTech Connect

Mouse or human fibroblasts are commonly used as feeder cells to prevent differentiation in stem or primary cell culture. In the present study, we addressed whether fibroblasts can affect the differentiation of adipocytes. We found that the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was strongly suppressed when the cells were cocultured with human fibroblast (BJ) cells. BrdU incorporation analysis indicated that mitotic clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis, was not affected by BJ cells. The 3T3-L1 cell expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}2, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP{alpha}), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and Krueppel-like factor 15, but not those of C/EBP{beta} or C/EBP{delta}, were decreased by coculture with BJ cells. When mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cocultured with BJ cells, their lipid contents were significantly reduced, with decreased fatty acid synthase expression and increased phosphorylated form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1. Our data indicate that coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreases the lipogenesis of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

Jeong, Hyun Jeong [Department of Biochemistry, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwondo 210-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwondo 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sahng Wook [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hojeong [Department of Anatomy, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwondo 210-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Anatomy, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwondo 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Kyu, E-mail: 49park@kd.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwondo 210-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwondo 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dojun, E-mail: mozart@kd.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwondo 210-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwondo 210-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-02-19

9

Coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Mouse or human fibroblasts are commonly used as feeder cells to prevent differentiation in stem or primary cell culture. In the present study, we addressed whether fibroblasts can affect the differentiation of adipocytes. We found that the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was strongly suppressed when the cells were cocultured with human fibroblast (BJ) cells. BrdU incorporation analysis indicated that mitotic clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis, was not affected by BJ cells. The 3T3-L1 cell expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and Krüppel-like factor 15, but not those of C/EBPbeta or C/EBPdelta, were decreased by coculture with BJ cells. When mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cocultured with BJ cells, their lipid contents were significantly reduced, with decreased fatty acid synthase expression and increased phosphorylated form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1. Our data indicate that coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreases the lipogenesis of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:20096664

Jeong, Hyun Jeong; Park, Sahng Wook; Kim, Hojeong; Park, Sang-Kyu; Yoon, Dojun

2010-02-19

10

Activated Mast Cells Are Fibrogenic for 3T3 Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of mast cell direct involvement in fibrosis is not defined as yet. In the present study we assessed whether long-term co-culture (up to 7 d) of functionally active rat peritoneal mast cells with 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and mast cell activation can affect fibroblast proliferation and collagen production. Co-culture of subconfluent 3T3 fibroblasts with resting mast cells or with

Francesca Levi-Schaffer; Evelina Rubinchik

1995-01-01

11

Developmental Competence of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells Over Different Homologous Feeder Layers and the Comparative Evaluation with Various Extracellular Matrices  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Use of somatic cells as a feeder layer to maintain the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in undifferentiated state limits the stem cell research design, since experimental data may result from a combined ESCs and feeder cell response to various stimuli. Therefore, present study was designed to evaluate the developmental competence of the buffalo ESCs over different homogenous feeders and compare with various extracellular matrices using different concentrations of LIF. Methods and Results Inner cell masses (ICMs) of in vitro hatched blastocysts were cultured onto homologous feeders viz. fetal fibroblast, granulosa and oviductal cell feeder layers and synthetic matrices viz. fibronectin, collagen type I and matrigel in culture medium. Developmental efficiency was found higher for ESCs cultured on fetal fibroblast and granulosa layers (83.33%) followed by fibronectin (77.78%) at 30 ng LIF. Oviductal feeder was found to be the least efficient feeder showing only 11.11% undifferentiated primary ESC colonies at 30 ng LIF. However, neither feeder layer nor synthetic matrix could support the development of primary colonies at 10 ng LIF. Expression of SSEA- 4, TRA-1-60 and Oct-4 were found positive in ESC colonies from all the feeders and synthetic matrices with 20 ng and 30 ng LIF. Conclusions Fetal fibroblast and granulosa cell while, amongst synthetic matrices, fibronectin were found to be equally efficient to support the growth and maintenance of ESCs pluripotency with 30 ng LIF. This well-defined culture conditions may provide an animal model for culturing human embryonic stem cells in the xeno-free or feeder-free conditions for future clinical applications. PMID:24298371

Sharma, Manjinder; Dubey, Pawan K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Nath, Amar; Kumar, G. Sai; Sharma, G. Taru

2013-01-01

12

Bird Feeder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners construct bird feeders and set them up at to investigate bird behavior for one or two weeks. Multiple feeder designs are suggested. Learners are encouraged to observe how different birds approach the feeder, whether any birds bully other birds, what foods visiting birds eat, how often and at what times of day different birds visit, and how birds react to models of other birds on the feeder.

Science, Lawrence H.

1979-01-01

13

The use of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells as the feeder layer to establish human embryonic stem cell lines.  

PubMed

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells that have the potential to differentiate into the three germ layers and possibly all tissues of the human body. To fulfil the clinical potentials for cell-based therapy, banks of hESC lines that express different combinations of the major histocompatibility genes should be established, preferably without exposing such cells to animal cells and proteins. In this study, we tested human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) as feeder cells to support the growth of hESCs. Our results indicated that mitomycin-treated AFMSCs were able to support the newly established hESC lines CGLK-1 and CGLK-2. The hESC colonies cultured on AFMSCs expressed alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, Oct-4, Nanog and Sox-2, which are markers for undifferentiated hESCs. Chromosomal analyses of both hESC lines, CGLK-1 and CGLK-2, which were cultured on AFMSC feeders for 22 and 14 passages, respectively, were confirmed to be normal karyotypes (46, XX). The ability of AFMSCs as feeder cells to maintain the undifferentiated growth and pluripotency of hESCs was confirmed by in vivo formation of teratomas derived on AFMSC hESCs in severe combined immune-compromised mice. The use of AFMSCs for feeder cells to culture hESCs has several advantages, in that AFMSCs are not tumourigenic and can be expanded extensively with a short doubling time. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23460275

Soong, Yung-Kwei; Huang, Shang-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Hsiang; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Chang, Kuo-Hsuan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Shaw, S W Steven

2013-03-01

14

Growth stimulation of 3T3 fibroblasts by Cystatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of cultures of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts with Cystatin C, a thiol-proteinase inhibitor isolated from chicken egg white, resulted in an enhanced rate of cell proliferation. This stimulation was demonstrated using two independent assay systems: (a) assessment of total cell number and (b) measurement of (ÂłH)thymidine incorporated into acid-precipitable DNA. In both assays, the dose-response curves of Cystatin stimulation showed

Quan Sun

1989-01-01

15

Organelle relationships in cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes  

PubMed Central

In differentiating 3T3-L1 cells, lipid spheres, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), microperoxisomes, and mitochondria form "constellations" that may reflect the interplay of lipid metabolizing enzymes in these organelles. ER cisternae are also situated very close to "rosettes,"plasmalemmal specializations found in mature adipocytes in vivo. As in hepatocytes and absorptive cells of the intestine, this spatial relationship of ER and plasmalemma suggests a role for rosettes in the uptake of exogenous lipid precursors. The morphological differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes includes the loss of "stress fibers" and the appearance of microfilament like structures that encase, in a complex manner, the cytosolic lipid spheres that appear during differentiation. Other features described for the first time in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes include: (a) the presence of an extensive acid phosphatase (AcPase) positive GERL from which coated vesicles apparently arise (these coated vesicles display AcPase activity and are much smaller and far more numerous than the coated vesicles that seem to arise from the plasmalemmal coated pits); (b) the abundance of AcPase-positive autophagic vacuoles; and (c) a high level of alpha- naphthyl-acetate-esterase activity which, by light microscopy cytochemistry, appears to be localized in the cytosol. PMID:7191426

1980-01-01

16

Density-dependent growth inhibiting interactions between 3T3 and SV40-3T3 cells in mixed cultures.  

PubMed

3T3 cells are shown to reduce SV40-3T3 cell population growth in a denisty-dependent manner in co-cultures of 3T3 and SV40-3T3 cells. The development of this inhibitory activity roughly parallels the development of density-dependent inhibition of growth in homogeneous 3T3 control cultures. The extent of reduction of SV40-3T3 growth can be manipulated by pretreatment of 3T3 cells with a high serum concentration. SV40-3T3 growth rates are reduced by factors between 10 and 20 under optimum inhibitory conditions as compared to SV40-3T3 growth in control cultures. PMID:222083

van der Bosch, J; Maier, H

1979-01-01

17

Formation of Ni-Base Self-Fluxing Alloy Layers by Diode Laser Cladding with Powder Feeder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diode laser is more compact and the electro-optical-efficiency is higher about one order of magnitude. This is an advantage in both the small-size manufacturing field and large-size construction out door field. Another advantage is the wavelength. Due to shorter wave length most of the metals absorb diode laser (808 nm) radiation more efficiently compared with CO2 laser (10600 nm) enabling together with high power the use of wide beam optics. The deposition efficiency and energy balance were investigated. At the powder feeder nozzle angle of 45°, the Ni-base self-fusing alloy layers of more than 650 ?m in thickness were formed. The layers formed at laser power of 200 W and angle of 45deg; had a high hardness of HV1012.

Kusuhara, Takayoshi; Morimoto, Junji; Ozaki, Taisuke; Abe, Nobuyuki; Tsukamoto, Masahiro

2010-10-01

18

Characterization of hyaluronate binding proteins isolated from 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus transformed 3T3 cells  

SciTech Connect

A hyaluronic acid binding fraction was purified from the supernatant media of both 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus (MSV) transformed 3T3 cultures by hyaluronate and immunoaffinity chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved the hyaluronate affinity-purified fraction into three major protein bands of estimated molecular weight (M/sub r,e/) 70K, 66K, and 56K which contained hyaluronate binding activity and which were termed hyaluronate binding proteins (HABP). Hyaluronate affinity chromatography combined with immunoaffinity chromatography, using antibody directed against the larger HABP, allowed a 20-fold purification of HABP. Fractions isolated from 3T3 supernatant medium also contained additional binding molecules in the molecular weight range of 20K. This material was present in vanishingly small amounts and was not detected with a silver stain or with (/sup 35/S)methionine label. The three protein species isolated by hyaluronate affinity chromatography (M/sub r,e/ 70K, 66K, and 56K) were related to one another since they shared antigenic determinants and exhibited similar pI values. In isocratic conditions, HABP occurred as aggregates of up to 580 kilodaltons. Their glycoprotein nature was indicated by their incorporation of /sup 3/H-sugars. Enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay showed they were antigenically distinct from other hyaluronate binding proteins such as fibronectin, cartilage link protein, and the hyaluronate binding region of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The results are discussed with regard both to the functional significance of hyaluronate-cell surface interactions in transformed as well as normal cells and to the relationship of HABP to other reported hyaluronate binding proteins.

Turley, E.A.; Moore, D.; Hayden, L.J.

1987-06-02

19

Precision powder feeder  

DOEpatents

A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Schmale, David T. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Michael S. (Sandia Park, NM)

2001-07-10

20

Controlling cell interactions by micropatterning in co-cultures: Hepatocytes and 3T3 fibroblasts  

E-print Network

Controlling cell interactions by micropatterning in co-cultures: Hepatocytes and 3T3 fibroblasts. Micropatterning technology, or the ability nerve),2 and liver (hepatocyte and sinusoidal endothe- to spatially

Bhatia, Sangeeta

21

Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain human iPS cell pluripotency via inhibited endogenous microRNA-145 and increased Sox2 expression  

SciTech Connect

Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation on Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs feeder layers maintain human iPS cells pluripotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs negatively regulates the synthesis of primary precursor miRNA in human iPS.

Liu, Te, E-mail: liute79@yahoo.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shanghai Geriatric Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200031 (China); Cheng, Weiwei [International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)] [International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Huang, Yongyi [Laboratoire PROTEE, Batiment R, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, 83957 LA GARDE Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire PROTEE, Batiment R, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, 83957 LA GARDE Cedex (France); Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)] [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Guo, Lihe, E-mail: liute79@yahoo.com [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)] [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

2012-02-15

22

Resveratrol Stimulates the Proliferation and Differentiation of Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional and pharmacological factors are needed to prevent bone loss that occurs with increasing age. The chemical compounds that act on bone metabolism as nutrients in food, however, are poorly understood. The effect of resveratrol, a natural phytoestrogen, on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells was studied. Resveratrol dose-dependently increased DNA synthesis (10?9?10?7M) of MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition,

Kenichi Mizutani; Katsumi Ikeda; Yasuhiro Kawai; Yukio Yamori

1998-01-01

23

Bombesin Stimulation of DNA Synthesis and Cell Division in Cultures of Swiss 3T3 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bombesin is shown to be a potent mitogen for Swiss 3T3 cells. At nanomolar concentrations the peptide markedly enhances the ability of fresh serum to stimulate DNA synthesis in confluent and quiescent cultures of these cells. In the presence of a low concentration (3.5%) of serum, bombesin stimulates 3T3 cell proliferation. In serum-free medium, bombesin induces DNA synthesis in the

Enrique Rozengurt; James Sinnett-Smith

1983-01-01

24

Rapamycin Inhibits Clonal Expansion and Adipogenic Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiating 3T3-L1 cells express an immunophilin early during the adipocyte conversion program as described in this issue [Yeh, W.-C., Li, T.-K., Bierer, B. E. & McKnight, S. L. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 11081-11085]. The temporal expression profile of this protein, designated FK506-binding protein (FKBP) 51, is concordant with the clonal-expansion period undertaken by 3T3-L1 cells after exposure

Wen-Chen Yeh; Barbara E. Bierer; Steven L. McKnight

1995-01-01

25

Pear pomace water extract inhibits adipogenesis and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Obesity occurs when a person's calorie intake exceeds the amount of energy burns, which may lead to pathologic growth of adipocytes and the accumulation of fat in the tissues. In this study, the effect and mechanism of pear pomace extracts on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and apoptosis of mature adipocytes were investigated. The effects of pear pomace extract on cell viability and the anti-adipogenic and proapoptotic effects were investigated via MTT assay, Oil red O staining, western blot analysis and apoptosis assay. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were stimulated with DMEM containing 10% FBS, 0.5 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), 5 µg/ml insulin and 1 µM dexamethasone for differentiation to adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured with PBS or water extract of pear pomace. Water extract of pear pomace effectively inhibited lipid accumulations and expressions of PPAR-? and C/EBP? in 3T3-L1 cells. It also increased expression of p-AMPK and decreased the expression of SREBP-1c and FAS in 3T3-L1 cells. The induction of apoptosis was observed in 3T3-L1 cells treated with pear pomace. These results indicate that pear pomace water extract inhibits adipogenesis and induces apoptosis of adipocytes and thus can be used as a potential therapeutic substance as part of prevention or treatment strategy for obesity. PMID:24611103

Rhyu, Jin; Kim, Min Sook; You, Mi-Kyoung; Bang, Mi-Ae

2014-01-01

26

Mitigative Effect of Erythromycin on PMMA Challenged Preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Background. Aseptic loosening (AL) is a major complication of total joint replacement. Recent approaches to limiting AL have focused on inhibiting periprosthetic inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. Questions/Purposes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of erythromycin (EM) on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particle-challenged MC3T3 osteoblast precursor cells. Methods. MC3T3 cells were pretreated with EM (0–10??g/mL) and then stimulated with PMMA (1?mg/mL). Cell viability was evaluated by both a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay and cell counts. Cell differentiation was determined by activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Gene expression was measured via real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results. We found that exposure to PMMA particles reduced cellular viability and osteogenetic potential in MC3T3 cell line. EM treatment mitigated the effects of PMMA particles on the proliferation, viability and differentiation of MC3T3 cells. PMMA decreased the gene expression of Runx2, osterix and osteocalcin, which can be partially restored by EM treatment. Furthermore, EM suppressed PMMA- induced increase of NF-?B gene expression. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that EM mitigates the effects of PMMA on MC3T3 cell viability and differentiation, in part through downregulation of NF-?B pathway. EM appeared to represent an anabolic agent on MC3T3 cells challenged with PMMA particles. PMID:25110723

Shen, Yi; Wang, Weili; Li, Xiaomiao; Markel, David C.; Ren, Weiping

2014-01-01

27

Epac, not PKA catalytic subunit, is required for 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP plays a critical role in adipocyte differentiation and maturation. However, it is not clear which of the two intracellular cAMP receptors, exchange protein directly activated by cAMP/cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor or protein kinase A/cAMP-dependent protein kinase, is essential for cAMP-mediated adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we utilized a well-defined adipose differentiation model system, the murine preadipocyte line 3T3-L1, to address this issue. We showed that knocking down Epac expression in 3T3-L1 cells using lentiviral based small hairpin RNAs down-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and dramatically inhibited adipogenic conversion of 3T3-L1 cells while inhibiting PKA catalytic subunit activity by two mechanistically distinct inhibitors, heat stable protein kinase inhibitor and H89, had no effect on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, cAMP analog selectively activating Epac was not able to stimulate adipogenic conversion. Our study demonstrated that while PKA catalytic activity is dispensable, activation of Epac is necessary but not sufficient for adipogenic conversion of 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:20036887

Ji, Zhenyu; Mei, Fang C.; Cheng, Xiaodong

2009-01-01

28

Effect of Biodegradable Shape-Memory Polymers on Proliferation of 3T3 Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article evaluates the in vitro biocompatibility for biodegradable shape-memory polymers (BSMP) invented by the authors. 3T3 cells (3T3-Swiss albino GNM 9) of primary and passaged cultures were inoculated into two kinds of carriers: the BSMP carrier and the control group carrier. Viability, proliferation, and DNA synthesis (the major biocompatibility parameters), were measured and evaluated for both the BSMP and naked carrier via cell growth curve analysis, MTT colorimetry and addition of 3H-TdR to culture media. The results showed that there was no difference between the BSMP carrier and the control dish in terms of viability, proliferation, and metabolism of the 3T3 cells. Overall, the BSMP carrier provides good biocompatibility and low toxicity to cells in vitro, and could indicate future potential for this medium as a biological material for implants in vivo.

Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Ying-Ming

2011-07-01

29

Polyomavirus transforms rat F111 and mouse NIH 3T3 cells by different mechanisms.  

PubMed Central

Polyomavirus middle tumor antigen (mT) was expressed in a line of mouse NIH 3T3 cells under control of the dexamethasone-regulatable mouse mammary tumor virus promotor. Contrary to rat F111 cells which were rendered anchorage independent by mT expression alone (L. Raptis, H. Lamfrom, and T.L. Benjamin, Mol. Cell. Biol. 5:2476-2487, 1985), mT-producing NIH 3T3 cells were unable to grow in agar even after full mT induction. The mT:pp60c-src-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase was activated in these cells to a degree similar to that in fully transformed cells expressing the small and large T antigens, in addition to mT. We therefore propose that the stimulation of this phosphatidylinositol kinase, although apparently necessary, is not sufficient for transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by polyomavirus. Images PMID:2463382

Raptis, L; Bolen, J B

1989-01-01

30

Cranberries (Oxycoccus quadripetalus) inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Cranberries (Oxycoccus quadripetalus) are a valuable source of bioactive substances with high antioxidant potential and well documented beneficial health properties. In the present study, the activity of cranberries, in terms of the inhibiting effects of adipogenesis, was investigated using the 3T3-L1 cell line. The obtained results showed that cranberries reduced proliferation and viability of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with cranberries decreased the number of adipocytes and reduced lipid accumulation in maturing 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, demonstrating an inhibitory effect on lipogenesis. Moreover, it was found that cranberries directly induced lipolysis in adipocytes and down-regulated the expression of major transcription factors of the adipogenesis pathway, such as PPAR?, C/EBP? and SREBP1. These findings indicate that cranberries are capable of suppressing adipogenesis and therefore they seem to be natural bioactive factors effective in adipose tissue mass modulation. PMID:24262553

Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna; Grajek, W?odzimierz

2014-04-01

31

PACAP up-regulates the expression of apolipoprotein D in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DRG/3T3-L1 co-cultures study.  

PubMed

The existence of a cross-talk between nerves and fatty tissue is increasingly recognized. Using co-cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-derived cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we have previously shown that the presence of fat cells enhances neurite outgrowth and number of synapses. Vice versa, neural cells induced expression of neurotrophic adipokines apolipoprotein D and E (ApoD, ApoE) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) by adipocytes. Here, we tested whether pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), which is released by sensory fibres and causes Ca(2+) influx into fat cells, is involved in ApoD induction. Using 3T3-L1 cell cultures, we found that PACAP at a dose of 1 nM up-regulated the expression of ApoD protein and mRNA approx. 2.5 fold. This effect was driven by ERK1/2 acting upon PAC1/VPAC2 receptors. In turn, PACAP-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in co-cultures with DRG cells enhanced neurite ramification of neurofilament 200 (NF200)-positive neurons (measured using fluorescence microscopy) and neurofilament 68 protein levels (measured using Western blot analysis). This effect could be blocked using the PAC1/VPAC2 antagonist PACAP(6-38). Scanning cytometry revealed PACAP/ApoD induced low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) and ApoE receptor 2 (apoER2) in NF200-positive cells. Thus, a bidirectional loop seems to exist regulating the innervation of fatty tissues: PACAP released from sensory fibres might stimulate fat cells to synthesize neurotrophic adipokines, which, in turn, support peripheral innervation. PMID:20920539

Kosacka, Joanna; Schröder, Thomas; Bechmann, Ingo; Klöting, Nora; Nowicki, Marcin; Mittag, Anja; Gericke, Martin; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina; Blüher, Matthias

2011-01-01

32

6-gingerol inhibits rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of 6-gingerol ((S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-decanone) on the inhibition of rosiglitazone (RGZ)-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. The morphological changes were photographed based on staining lipid accumulation by Oil-Red O in RGZ (1 µmol/l)-treated 3T3-L1 cells without or with various concentrations of 6-gingerol on differentiation day 8. Quantitation of triglycerides content was performed in cells on day 8 after differentiation induction. Differentiated cells were lysed to detect mRNA and protein levels of adipocyte-specific transcription factors by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. 6-gingerol (50 µmol/l) effectively suppressed oil droplet accumulation and reduced the sizes of the droplets in RGZ-induced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. The triglyceride accumulation induced by RGZ in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells was also reduced by 6-gingerol (50 µmol/l). Treatment of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with 6-gingerol (50 µmol/l) antagonized RGZ-induced gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?. Additionally, the increased levels of mRNA and protein in adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein 4 and fatty acid synthase induced by RGZ in 3T3-L1 cells were decreased upon treatment with 6-gingerol. Our data suggests that 6-gingerol may be beneficial in obesity, by reducing adipogenesis partly through the down-regulating PPAR? activity. PMID:23519881

Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

2014-02-01

33

Vasopressin rapidly stimulates protein kinase C in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells.  

PubMed

Addition of vasopressin to quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells caused a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of an acidic molecular weight 80,000 cellular protein (termed 80K). The effect was concentration- and time-dependent; enhancement in 80K phosphorylation could be detected as early as 30 sec after the addition of the hormone. Recently, a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of an 80K cellular protein following treatment with phorbol esters or diacylglycerol has been shown to reflect the activation of protein kinase C in intact Swiss 3T3 cells. Here we show that the 80K phosphoproteins generated in response to vasopressin and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PBt2) were identical as judged by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and peptide mapping following partial proteolysis with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. In addition, prolonged pretreatment of 3T3 cells with PBt2 which leads to the disappearance of protein kinase C activity blocked the ability of vasopressin to stimulate the phosphorylation of 80K. The effect of vasopressin on 80K phosphorylation and mitogenesis was selectively blocked by the vasopressin antagonist (Pmp1-O-Me-Tyr2-Arg8) vasopressin suggesting that these responses are mediated by its specific receptor in these cells. The removal of vasopressin leads to dephosphorylation (within minutes) of the 80K phosphoprotein. We conclude that vasopressin rapidly stimulates protein kinase C activity in intact 3T3 cells. PMID:2944907

Rodriguez-Pena, A; Rozengurt, E

1986-10-01

34

Fluorescence lifetime imaging of lipids during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity is becoming a big health problem in these days. Since increased body weight is due to increased number and size of the triglyceride-storing adipocytes, many researchers are working on differentiation conditions and processes of adipocytes. Adipocytes also work as regulators of whole-body energy homeostasis by secreting several proteins that regulate processes as diverse as haemostasis, blood pressure, immune function, angiogenesis and energy balance. 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype under appropriate conditions. In this paper, we propose an effective fluorescence lifetime imaging technique which can easily distinguish lipids in membrane and those in lipid droplets. Nile red dyes are attached to lipids in 3T3-L1 cells. Fluorescence lifetime images were taken for 2 week during differentiation procedure of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. We used 488 nm pulsed laser with 5MHz repetition rate and emission wavelength is 520 nm of Nile Red fluorescent dye. Results clearly show that the lifetime of Nile red in lipid droplets are smaller than those in cell membrane. Our results suggest that fluorescence lifetime imaging can be a very powerful tool to monitor lipid droplet formation in adipocytes from 3T3-L1 cells.

Song, Young Sik; Won, Young Jae; Lee, Sang-Hak; Kim, Dug Young

2014-03-01

35

Effects of growth hormone antagonists on 3T3-F442A preadipocyte differentiation  

E-print Network

and undergo terminal differentiation into mature adipose cells. Many differentiation-related changes-term GH-inducible events were studied during adipose differ- entiation, including late marker gene. 1982, Nixon & Green 1984, Zezulak & Green 1986). When 3T3-F442A cells achieve quiescence, serum factors

Gu, Tingyue

36

Effect of Gambisan on the Inhibition of Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to explore the antiadipogenic effect and possible mechanism of Gambisan on 3T3-L1 cells. For quality control, Gambisan was standardized by HPLC and the standard compounds ephedrine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and caffeine were screened. Cultured 3T3-L1 cells that had been induced to differentiate were treated with various concentrations of Gambisan or its major component extracts (Ephedra intermedia Schrenk, Atractylodes lancea DC., and Thea sinensis L.) for 72 hours for MTT assay to determine cell viability or 10 days for LDH assay, triglyceride assay, DNA content measurement, Oil red O staining, RT-PCR, and western blot. Gambisan significantly inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by reducing triglyceride contents and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner without obvious cytotoxicity. Viability and DNA content in 3T3-L1 cells treated with Gambisan were significantly higher than cells treated with the major component extracts at every concentration. The anti-adipogenic effects of Gambisan appeared to be mediated by a significant downregulation of the expression of lipoprotein lipase mRNA and PPAR ? , C/EBP ? , and SREBP-1 protein apart from the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase. Gambisan could act as a possible therapeutic agent for obesity. However, further studies including in vivo assays and clinical trials are needed to confirm the efficacy, safety and mechanisms of the antiobesity effects of Gambisan. PMID:24069055

Kang, Jung Won; Nam, Dongwoo; Kim, Kun Hyung; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jae-Dong

2013-01-01

37

Effect of Gambisan on the Inhibition of Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to explore the antiadipogenic effect and possible mechanism of Gambisan on 3T3-L1 cells. For quality control, Gambisan was standardized by HPLC and the standard compounds ephedrine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and caffeine were screened. Cultured 3T3-L1 cells that had been induced to differentiate were treated with various concentrations of Gambisan or its major component extracts (Ephedra intermedia Schrenk, Atractylodes lancea DC., and Thea sinensis L.) for 72 hours for MTT assay to determine cell viability or 10 days for LDH assay, triglyceride assay, DNA content measurement, Oil red O staining, RT-PCR, and western blot. Gambisan significantly inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by reducing triglyceride contents and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner without obvious cytotoxicity. Viability and DNA content in 3T3-L1 cells treated with Gambisan were significantly higher than cells treated with the major component extracts at every concentration. The anti-adipogenic effects of Gambisan appeared to be mediated by a significant downregulation of the expression of lipoprotein lipase mRNA and PPAR?, C/EBP?, and SREBP-1 protein apart from the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase. Gambisan could act as a possible therapeutic agent for obesity. However, further studies including in vivo assays and clinical trials are needed to confirm the efficacy, safety and mechanisms of the antiobesity effects of Gambisan. PMID:24069055

Kang, Jung Won; Nam, Dongwoo; Kim, Kun Hyung; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jae-Dong

2013-01-01

38

A Nanodot Array Modulates Cell Adhesion and Induces an Apoptosis-Like Abnormality in NIH-3T3 Cells  

PubMed Central

Micro-structures that mimic the extracellular substratum promote cell growth and differentiation, while the cellular reaction to a nanostructure is poorly defined. To evaluate the cellular response to a nanoscaled surface, NIH 3T3 cells were grown on nanodot arrays with dot diameters ranging from 10 to 200 nm. The nanodot arrays were fabricated by AAO processing on TaN-coated wafers. A thin layer of platinum, 5 nm in thickness, was sputtered onto the structure to improve biocompatibility. The cells grew normally on the 10-nm array and on flat surfaces. However, 50-nm, 100-nm, and 200-nm nanodot arrays induced apoptosis-like events. Abnormality was triggered after as few as 24 h of incubation on a 200-nm dot array. For cells grown on the 50-nm array, the abnormality started after 72 h of incubation. The number of filopodia extended from the cell bodies was lower for the abnormal cells. Immunostaining using antibodies against vinculin and actin filament was performed. Both the number of focal adhesions and the amount of cytoskeleton were decreased in cells grown on the 100-nm and 200-nm arrays. Pre-coatings of fibronectin (FN) or type I collagen promoted cellular anchorage and prevented the nanotopography-induced programed cell death. In summary, nanotopography, in the form of nanodot arrays, induced an apoptosis-like abnormality for cultured NIH 3T3 cells. The occurrence of the abnormality was mediated by the formation of focal adhesions. PMID:20596320

2009-01-01

39

A Nanodot Array Modulates Cell Adhesion and Induces an Apoptosis-Like Abnormality in NIH-3T3 Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-structures that mimic the extracellular substratum promote cell growth and differentiation, while the cellular reaction to a nanostructure is poorly defined. To evaluate the cellular response to a nanoscaled surface, NIH 3T3 cells were grown on nanodot arrays with dot diameters ranging from 10 to 200 nm. The nanodot arrays were fabricated by AAO processing on TaN-coated wafers. A thin layer of platinum, 5 nm in thickness, was sputtered onto the structure to improve biocompatibility. The cells grew normally on the 10-nm array and on flat surfaces. However, 50-nm, 100-nm, and 200-nm nanodot arrays induced apoptosis-like events. Abnormality was triggered after as few as 24 h of incubation on a 200-nm dot array. For cells grown on the 50-nm array, the abnormality started after 72 h of incubation. The number of filopodia extended from the cell bodies was lower for the abnormal cells. Immunostaining using antibodies against vinculin and actin filament was performed. Both the number of focal adhesions and the amount of cytoskeleton were decreased in cells grown on the 100-nm and 200-nm arrays. Pre-coatings of fibronectin (FN) or type I collagen promoted cellular anchorage and prevented the nanotopography-induced programed cell death. In summary, nanotopography, in the form of nanodot arrays, induced an apoptosis-like abnormality for cultured NIH 3T3 cells. The occurrence of the abnormality was mediated by the formation of focal adhesions.

Pan, Hsu-An; Hung, Yao-Ching; Su, Chia-Wei; Tai, Shih-Ming; Chen, Chiun-Hsun; Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Steve Huang, G.

2009-08-01

40

Proteomic analysis of rosiglitazone and guggulsterone treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.  

PubMed

Adipogenesis is the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes which is marked by the accumulation of lipid droplets. Adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells is achieved by exposing the cells to Insulin, Dexamethasone and IBMX for 5-7 days. Thiazolidinedione drugs, like rosiglitazone are potent insulin sensitizing agents and have been shown to enhance lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 cells, a model cell line for preadipocyte differentiation. Guggulsterone is a natural drug extracted from the gum resin of tree Commiphora mukul. Guggulsterone has been shown to inhibit adipogenesis and induce apoptosis in 3T3-L1 cells. In this study we treated the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with rosiglitazone and guggulsterone and assessed the protein expression profile using 2D gel electrophoresis-based proteomics to find out differential target proteins of these drugs. The proteins that were identified upon rosiglitazone treatment generally regulate cell proliferation and/or exhibit anti-inflammatory effect which strengthens its differentiation-inducing property. Guggulsterone treatment resulted in the identification of the apoptosis-inducing proteins to be up regulated which rightly is in agreement with the apoptosis-inducing property of guggulsterone in 3T3-L1 cells. Some of the proteins identified in our proteomic screen such as Galectin1, AnnexinA2 & TCTP were further confirmed by Real Time qPCR. Thus, the present study provides a better outlook of proteins being differentially regulated/expressed upon treatment with rosiglitazone and guggulsterone. The detailed study of the differentially expressed proteins identified in this proteomic screen may further provide the better molecular insight into the mode of action of these anti-diabetic drugs rosiglitazone and guggulsterone. PMID:23275126

Pal, Pooja; Kanaujiya, Jitendra K; Lochab, Savita; Tripathi, Shashi B; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Behre, Gerhard; Trivedi, Arun K

2013-04-01

41

Recommended protocol for the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay.  

PubMed

The present protocol has been developed for the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay (CTA), following the prevalidation study coordinated by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and reported in this issue (Tanaka et al. [16]). Based upon the experience gained from this effort and as suggested by the Validation Management Team (VMT), some acceptance and assessment criteria have been refined compared to those used during the prevalidation study. The present protocol thus describes cell culture maintenance, the dose-range finding (DRF) experiment and the transformation assay, including cytotoxicity and morphological transformation evaluation. Use of this protocol and of the associated photo catalogue included in this issue (Sasaki et al. [17]) is recommended for the future conduct of the BALB/c 3T3 CTA. PMID:22212201

Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Bohnenberger, Susanne; Hayashi, Kumiko; Kunkelmann, Thorsten; Muramatsu, Dai; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Poth, Albrecht; Sakai, Ayako; Salovaara, Susan; Tanaka, Noriho; Thomas, B Claire; Umeda, Makoto

2012-04-11

42

Expression of Nanog gene promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation  

SciTech Connect

Cells are the functional elements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A large number of cells are usually needed for these purposes. However, there are numbers of limitations for in vitro cell proliferation. Nanog is an important self-renewal determinant in embryonic stem cells. However, it remains unknown whether Nanog will influence the cell cycle and cell proliferation of mature cells. In this study, we expressed Nanog in NIH3T3 cells and showed that expression of Nanog in NIH3T3 promoted cells to enter into S phase and enhanced cell proliferation. This suggests that Nanog gene might function in a similar fashion in mature cells as in ES cells. In addition, it may provide an approach for in vitro cell expansion.

Zhang Jingyu [Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Wang Xia [Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Chen Bing [Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Suo Guangli [Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhao Yanhong [Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Duan Ziyuan [Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Dai Jianwu [Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: jwdai@genetics.ac.cn

2005-12-16

43

Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA-induced malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells  

SciTech Connect

A biological function for human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) DNA was demonstrated by transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. HPV 16 DNA has been found frequently in genital cancer and has been classified as a papillomavirus on the basis of DNA homology. A recombinant HPV 16 DNA (pSHPV16d), which contains a head-to-tail dimer of the full-length HPV 16 genome, induced morphologic transformation; the transformed cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. Expression of transforming activity was unique because of the long latency period (more than 4 weeks) required for induction of morphologic transformation and because the transfected DNA existed primarily in a multimeric form with some rearrangement. Furthermore, virus-specific RNAs were expressed in the transformants. The transformation of NIH 3T3 cells provides a model for analyzing the functions of HPV 16, which is associated with cervical carcinomas.

Yasumoto, S.; Burkhardt, A.L.; Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

1986-02-01

44

Experimental Metastasis in Nude Mice of NIH 3T3 Cells Containing Various ras Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

These studies have compared the ability of NIH 3T3 cells containing different ras oncogenes to form tumor nodules in the lungs of nude mice after tail vein injection. The genes studied include the normal cellular and bladder tumor ras genes, recombinant viral\\/cellular ras genes, recombinant yeast\\/mammalian ras genes, and a constructed gene with yeast RAS1 sequences significantly modified by deletions

Matthews O. Bradley; Andrew R. Kraynak; Richard D. Storer; Jackson B. Gibbs

1986-01-01

45

The Effects of AICAR on Adipocyte Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), has been found to inhibit the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, if added at an early phase of differentiation. AICAR blocks the expression of the late adipogenic markers, fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and of the transcription factors, C\\/EBP? and PPAR?. It also inhibits early clonal expansion of pre-adipocytes, prevents the

Susan A. Habinowski; Lee A. Witters

2001-01-01

46

Export of Galectin-3 from Nuclei of Digitonin-Permeabilized Mouse 3T3 Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galectin-3 is a galactose-\\/lactose-binding protein (Mr ?30,000), identified as a required factor in the splicing of pre-mRNA. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that galectin-3 distributes differentially between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, depending on the proliferative state of the cells under analysis. Using digitonin-permeabilized mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, we provide evidence that galectin-3 is rapidly and selectively exported from the nucleus. Although both

Yeou-Guang Tsay; Nancy Y. Lin; Patricia G. Voss; Ronald J. Patterson; John L. Wang

1999-01-01

47

Conjugated linoleic acid suppresses triglyceride accumulation and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four sets of experiments were conducted to examine the influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers during proliferation\\u000a and differentiation of cultures of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using physiological culturing conditions. Cultures treated with either\\u000a albumin [bovine serum albumin (BSA) vehicle] or linoleic acid (LA) served as controls. For the proliferation study (Expt.\\u000a 1), cells were cultured in media containing a crude

M. Evans; C. Geigerman; J. Cook; L. Curtis; B. Kuebler; M. McIntosh

2000-01-01

48

Molecular Mechanisms of Apoptosis Induced by Ajoene in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Determine the biochemical pathways involved in induction of apoptosis by ajoene, an organosulfur compound from garlic.Research Methods and Procedures: Mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with ajoene at concentrations up to 200 ?M. Viability and apoptosis were quantified using an MTS-based cell viability assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), respectively. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production

Jeong-Yeh Yang; Mary Anne Della-Fera; Cass Nelson-Dooley; Clifton A. Baile

2006-01-01

49

Ultrasound associated uptake of chitosan nanoparticles in MC3T3-E1 cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chitosan is a natural linear polysaccharide that has been well known for its applications in drug delivery system due to its unique physicochemical and biological properties. However, challenges still remain for it to become a fully realized therapeutic agent. In this study, we investigated the uptake of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) under the ultrasound stimulation, using a model cell culture system (MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts). The CNP were fabricated by an ionic gelation method and were lyophilized prior to characterization and delivery to cells. Particle size and zeta potential were measured using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS); the efficiency of chitosan complexation was measured using the ninhydrin assay. Cytotoxicity was examined by neutral red assay within 48 hours after delivery. The effect of ultrasound (US) on the efficiency of nanoparticle delivery to the MC3T3-E1 cells was examined at 1MHz and at either 1 or 2 W/cm2. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated-CNP were used to visualize the internalized particles within the cytosol. The uptake of FITC-CNP exhibits a dose and time dependent effect, a strong FITC fluorescence was detected at the concentration of 500microg/mL under fluorescence microscope. Ultrasound assisted uptake of FITC-CNP performed a significant positive effect at 2W/cm2 with 60s of ultrasound exposure time. CNP displayed a slightly decrease in cell viability from 25microg/mL to 100microg/mL, while higher concentration of CNP facilitates the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Less than 10% of reduction in cell viability was observed for US at 1W/cm2 and 2W/cm2 with 30s and 60s of exposure time, which suggest a mild effect of US to MC3T3-E1 cell line.

Wu, Junyi

50

Expression of lysyl oxidase isoforms in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covalent intermolecular cross-linking of collagen is initiated by the action of lysyl oxidase (LOX) on the telopeptidyl lysine and hydroxylysine residues. Recently, several LOX isoforms, i.e., LOX-like proteins 1–4 (LOXL1–4), have been identified but their specific tissue distribution and functions are still largely unknown. In this study, mRNA expression of LOX and LOXL1–4 in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells was screened by

Phimon Atsawasuwan; Yoshiyuki Mochida; Duenpim Parisuthiman; Mitsuo Yamauchi

2005-01-01

51

The serum growth and survival requirements of SV40-transformed 3T3 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Simian virus 40-transformed 3T3 cells are dependent on serum for survival and growth. This growth activity can be separated on a pH 2 Sephadex G100 column into two fractions: a high molecular weight activity and a low molecular weight substance that has recently been characterized as containing as its major agent, biotin. To replace the remainder of the serum

Delano V. Young; Michael C. Dean; Peter Heit; Stewart D. Chipman

1980-01-01

52

Extract of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) stimulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has long been used as a folk medicine due to its numerous biological functions such as antibacterial, antiallergic, antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities. In the present study, it was found that the I. obliquus hot water extract (IOWE) activated adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Even in the absence of adipogenic stimuli by insulin, the IOWE strongly induced adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The major constituent of IOWE was glucose-rich polysaccharides with a molecular mass of 149? kDa. IOWE enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, increasing TG (triacylglycerol) accumulation that is critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype, in a dose-dependent manner. IOWE stimulated gene expression of C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?) and PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ?) during adipocyte differentiation, and induced the expression of PPAR? target genes such as aP2 (adipocyte protein 2), LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and CD36 (fatty acid translocase). Immunoblot analysis revealed that IOWE increased the expression of adipogenic makers such as PPAR? and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4). The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that IOWE did not exhibit PPAR? ligand activity. Although these results require further investigation, the ability of natural mushroom product to increase PPAR? transcriptional activities may be expected to be therapeutic targets for dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21031614

Joo, Jeong In; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Jong Won

2010-11-01

53

Exogenous MC3T3 Preosteoblasts Migrate Systemically and Mitigate the Adverse Effects of Wear Particles  

PubMed Central

Understanding how relevant cell types respond to wear particles will reveal new avenues for treating osteolysis following joint replacements. In this study, we investigate the effects of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles on preosteoblast migration and function. We infused UHMWPE particles or saline into the left femur of mice and injected luciferase-expressing preosteoblasts (MC3T3 cells) into each left ventricle. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) confirmed systemic administration of MC3T3 cells. BLI throughout the 28-day experiment showed greater MC3T3 migration to the site of particle infusion than to the site of saline infusion, with significant differences on days 0, 4, and 6 (p?0.055). Immunostaining revealed a greater number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the particle-infused femora, indicating greater bone turnover. The bone mineralization of the particle-infused femora increased significantly when compared to saline-infused femora (an increase of 146.4±27.9 vs. 12.8±8.7?mg/mL, p=0.008). These results show that infused preosteoblasts can migrate to the site of wear particles. Additionally, as the migrated cells were associated with increased bone mineralization in spite of the presence of particles, increasing osteoblast recruitment is a potential strategy for combating bone loss due to increased osteoclast/macrophage number and decreased osteoblast function. PMID:22741555

Fritton, Kate; Ren, Pei-Gen; Gibon, Emmanuel; Rao, Allison J.; Ma, Ting; Biswal, Sandip; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

2012-01-01

54

Cyclopia maculata (honeybush tea) stimulates lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

We have previously, for the first time, demonstrated that hot water extracts of Cyclopia maculata and Cyclopia subternata, endemic South African plants that are consumed as herbal teas, inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The aim of this study was to extend the anti-obesity investigations of these plants by quantifying lipolysis in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glycerol concentration in culture supernatants was used as a marker of adipocyte lipolysis. Isoproterenol, a ?-adrenergic agonist and a known lipolytic agent, was used as a positive control in our assays. Lipolysis was stimulated by all extracts, although statistical significance was noted for fermented (oxidised) C. maculata only. A concentration of 80?g/ml of C. maculata extract induced maximal lipolysis (1.8-fold, p<0.001). The increased lipolysis was accompanied by an increase in the expression of hormone sensitive lipase (1.6-fold, p<0.05) and perilipin (1.6-fold, p<0.05). The plant extracts, at the concentration range assayed (0-100?g/ml), were not cytotoxic in terms of mitochondrial dehydrogenase and adenosine-5'-triphosphate activity. These results showed that C. maculata stimulates lipolysis in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, providing further support for the anti-obesity effects of Cyclopia spp. PMID:23880330

Pheiffer, Carmen; Dudhia, Zulfaqar; Louw, Johan; Muller, Christo; Joubert, Elizabeth

2013-10-15

55

Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ? Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ? ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ? Activation of PPAR-? recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-? and interleukin-1? reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion.

Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan) [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40, Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan)] [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40, Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayoshi [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

2013-02-01

56

Stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Increases Insulin Sensitivity in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.  

PubMed

Stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana has been reported to exert antihyperglycemic effects in both rat and human subjects. There have been few studies on these effects in vitro. In this paper, radioactive glucose uptake assay was implemented in order to assess improvements in insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells by elevation of glucose uptake following treatment with stevioside. Oil Red-O staining and MTT assay were utilized to confirm adipocyte differentiation and cell viability, respectively. Findings from this research showed a significant increase in absorbance values in mature adipocytes following Oil Red-O staining, confirming the differentiation process. Stevioside was noncytotoxic to 3T3-L1 cells as cell viability was reduced by a maximum of 17%, making it impossible to determine its IC50. Stevioside increased glucose uptake activities by 2.1 times (p < 0.001) in normal conditions and up to 4.4 times (p < 0.001) in insulin-resistant states. At times, this increase was higher than that seen in positive control group treated with rosiglitazone maleate, an antidiabetic agent. Expressions of pY20 and p-IRS1 which were measured via Western blot were improved by stevioside treatment. In conclusion, stevioside has direct effects on 3T3-L1 insulin sensitivity via increase in glucose uptake and enhanced expression of proteins involved in insulin-signalling pathway. PMID:24391675

Mohd-Radzman, Nabilatul Hani; Ismail, Wan Iryani Wan; Jaapar, Siti Safura; Adam, Zainah; Adam, Aishah

2013-01-01

57

207 Gsa signalling suppresses PPARg2 generation and inhibits 3T3L1 adipogenesis  

E-print Network

Since TSH receptor (TSHR) expression increases during adipogenesis and signals via cAMP/phospho-cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), reported to be necessary and sufficient for adipogenesis, we hypothesised that TSHR activation would induce preadipocyte differentiation. Retroviral vectors introduced constitutively active TSHR (TSHR*) into 3T3L1 preadipocytes; despite increased cAMP (RIA) and phospho-CREB (western blot) there was no spontaneous adipogenesis (assessed morphologically, using oil red O and QPCR measurement of adipogenesis markers). We speculated that Gbg signalling may be inhibitory but failed to induce adipogenesis using activated Gsa (gsp*). Inhibition of phosphodiesterases did not promote adipogenesis in TSHR * or gsp * populations. Furthermore, differentiation induced by adipogenic medium with pioglitazone was reduced in TSHR * and abolished in gsp * expressing 3T3L1 cells. TSHR * and gsp * did not inactivate PPARg (PPARG as listed in the HUGO database) by phosphorylation but expression of PPARg1 was reduced and PPARg2 undetectable in gsp*. FOXO1 phosphorylation (required to inactivate this repressor of adipogenesis) was lowest in gsp * despite the activation of AKT by phosphorylation. PROF is a mediator that facilitates FOXO1 phosphorylation by phospho-Akt. Its transcript levels remained constantly low in the gsp* population. In most measurements, the TSHR * cells were between the gsp * and control 3T3L1 preadipocytes. The enhanced down-regulation of PREF1 (adipogenesis inhibitor) permits retention of some adipogenic potential in the TSHR * population. We conclude that Gsa signalling impedes FOXO1 phosphorylation and thus inhibits PPARg transcription and the alternative promoter usage required to generate PPARg2, the fat-specific transcription factor necessary for adipogenesis.

Lei Zhang; Carol Paddon; Mark D Lewis; Fiona Grennan-jones; Marian Ludgate

58

The accumulation and metabolism of zidovudine in 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Cultured pre-adipocytes accumulate and metabolize zidovudine (ZDV), but its mode of accumulation into these cells is unclear. We investigated the mode of accumulation of [3H]-ZDV, and the impact of changes in external pH and modulators of drug transporters on its accumulation and metabolism. Experimental approach: The initial rate and steady-state accumulation of [3H]-ZDV were measured in 3T3-F442A cells. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression was detected by Western blotting. External pH was varied, and modulators of intracellular pH and drug transporters were used to study the mode of accumulation of ZDV. Phosphorylated ZDV metabolites were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Key results: Intracellular accumulation of ZDV was rapid, reaching equilibrium within 20 min; nigericin increased accumulation by 1.9-fold, but this did not alter the generation of ZDV mono-, di- and triphosphate. The accumulation and metabolism were pH dependent, being maximal at pH 7.4 and least at pH 5.1. Monensin, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxy) phenyl hydrazone, brefeldin A, bafilomycin A1 and concanamycin A increased accumulation; 2-deoxyglucose, dipyridamole, thymidine and tetraphenylphosphonium inhibited accumulation. The accumulation was saturable; the derived Kd and capacity of binding were 250 nmol per 106 cells and 265 nM respectively. 3T3-F442A cells express P-gp; inhibitors of P-gp (XR9576 and verapamil), P-gp/BCRP (GF120918), multidrug resistance protein (MRP) (MK571) and MRP/OATP (probenecid) increased the accumulation of ZDV. Saquinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir and lopinavir increased accumulation. Conclusions and implications: The accumulation of ZDV in 3T3-F442A cells was rapid, energy dependent, saturable and pH sensitive. Western blot analysis showed that 3T3-F442A cells express P-gp, and direct inhibition assays suggest that ZDV is a substrate of P-gp and MRP. PMID:20015290

Janneh, Omar; Owen, Andrew; Bray, Patrick G; Back, David J; Pirmohamed, Munir

2010-01-01

59

Nanog transforms NIH3T3 cells and targets cell-type restricted genes Dan Piestun a,1  

E-print Network

Nanog transforms NIH3T3 cells and targets cell-type restricted genes Dan Piestun a,1 , Bose S March 2006 Abstract The transcription factor Nanog is uniquely expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells transformation, we expressed Nanog in NIH3T3 cells, and these cells showed an increased growth rate

Domany, Eytan

60

Umbelliferone increases the expression of adipocyte-specific genes in 3?t3-l1 adipocyte.  

PubMed

Umbelliferone (UMB), a natural product of coumarin family, has been shown to reduce blood glucose and to improve lipid profiles in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our objective was to examine the effect of UMB on adipogenesis by investigating its stimulatory effect on lipid accumulation and mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors and adipocyte-specific genes in 3?T3-L1 preadipocyte culture. An Oil Red O staining was used to monitor lipid accumulation, and we found that UMB treatment at concentration range of 10-100??M significantly increased lipid accumulation of differentiating 3?T3-L1 cells. At the molecular level of adipogenesis, we examined the mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c. Those transcription factors were increased by UMB at 10-100??M. Interestingly, UMB also stimulated the mRNA expression of adipocyte-specific genes, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase, fatty acid translocase, and adiponectin. Our findings indicate that the stimulatory effect of UMB on adipocyte differentiation likely occurs through up-regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and downstream adipocyte-specific gene expression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24853372

Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Chung, Choon Hee; Choi, Ran; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

2014-11-01

61

Persistent induction of cyclooxygenase in p60 sup v-src -transformed 3T3 fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

A BALB/c 3T3 cell line infected with the temperature-sensitive Rous sarcoma virus strain LA90 has been used to investigate early, p60{sup v-src}-dependent changes in gene expression (protein synthesis). Giant two-dimensional electrophoresis, which can resolve >3,000 polypeptides from ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled cell lysates, was used to detect the induction of a p72-74 (72-74 kDa) doublet (pI 7.5) after activation of p60{sup v-src} at 35{degree}C. Antiserum against cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin synthase or prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase) specifically immunoprecipitated the p72-74 doublet. The p72-74 doublet was also induced by platelet-derived growth factor and by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and was elevated in an NIH 3T3 cell line transformed by wild-type src. Activation of p60{sup v-src} caused a persistant increase in p72-74, whereas the effect of the growth factor was transient. These dissimilar kinetics of induction were paralleled by changes in cyclooxygenase activity. Although induction of this enzyme may not be directly involved in transformation, the data support the view that oncogenic transformation may result, not from expression of transformation-specific genes, but from persistent changes in the expression of genes normally induced only transiently during passage from the G{sub 0} stage of the cell cycle.

Han, Jiawen; Sadowski, H.; Young, D.A.; Macara, I.G. (Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, NY (USA))

1990-05-01

62

Selection of Revertants of Kirsten Sarcoma Virus Transformed Nonproducer BALB/3T3 Cells  

PubMed Central

Revertants of Kirsten sarcoma virus transformed nonproducer BALB/3T3 cells (KA31 cells) were isolated after exposing the transformed cells to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine at high cell density, or when suspended in methylcellulose. Revertants were also isolated by treating KA31 cells with the lectin, concanavalin A, which is manyfold more toxic to transformed cells than for normal cells. The revertants resemble BALB/3T3 cells in their morphology and growth characteristics in that they have a low saturation density, fail to grow in 1% calf serum or when suspended in methylcellulose, and cease to synthesize DNA after reaching their saturation density. Infection by murine leukemia virus rescues Kirsten sarcoma virus from only the concanavalin-A-selected variants, though all the revertants are susceptible to infection by leukemia virus. The concanavalin A revertants also become transformed after infection with murine leukemia virus. All the revertants can be transformed by Kirsten sarcoma virus but not by simian virus 40. Images PMID:4367900

Ozanne, Brad; Vogel, Arthur

1974-01-01

63

Digital Image Analysis of Reactive Oxygen Species and CA2+ in Mouse 3T3 Fibroblasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, analysis of digital images with confocal microscope has become a routine technique and indispensable tool for cell biological studies and molecular investigations. Because the light emitted from the point out-of-focus is blocked by the pinhole and can not reach the detector, thus only an image of the fluorescence from the focal plane is imaged. In present studies, we use the probes 2', 7'-dichlorof luorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA) and Fluo-3 AM to research reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ in mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, respectively. Our results indicate that the distribution of ROS and Ca2+ were clearly seen in mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, we acquired and quantified the fluorescence intensity of ROS and Ca2+ with Leica Confocal Software. It was found that the quantified fluorescence intensity of ROS and Ca2+ was 123.30.26±8.99 and 125.13±12.16, respectively. Taken together, our results indicate that it is a good method to research the distribution and fluorescence intensity of ROS and Ca2+ in cultured cells with confocal microscope.

Xu, Hongzhi; Liu, Dongwu; Chen, Zhiwei

64

Tunable swelling of polyelectrolyte multilayers in cell culture media for modulating NIH-3T3 cells adhesion.  

PubMed

For polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) assembled by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique, their nanostructure and properties can be governed by many parameters during the building process. Here, it was demonstrated that the swelling of the PEMs containing poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) in cell culture media could be tuned with changing supporting salt solutions during the assembly process. Importantly, the influence of the PEMs assembled in different salt solutions on NIH-3T3 cell adhesion was observable. Specifically, the cells could possess a higher affinity for the films assembled in low salt concentration (i.e. 0.15M NaCl) or no salt, the poorly swelling films in cell culture media, which was manifested by the large cell spreading area and focal adhesions. In contrast, those were assembled in higher salt concentration, highly swelling films in cell culture media, were less attractive for the fibroblasts. As a result, the cell adhesion behaviors may be manipulated by tailoring the physicochemical properties of the films, which could be performed by changing the assembly conditions such as supporting salt concentration. Such a finding might promise a great potential in designing desired biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 4071-4077, 2014. PMID:24470104

Qi, Wei; Cai, Peng; Yuan, Wenjing; Wang, Hua

2014-11-01

65

Toxicity of Bordetella avium beta-cystathionase toward MC3T3-E1 osteogenic cells.  

PubMed

Bordetella avium is the etiological agent of an upper respiratory disease in birds which, symptomatically and pathologically, resembles bordetellosis in humans. Studies of the virulence of this organism revealed a novel cytotoxic protein, designated osteotoxin, that was lethal for MC3T3-E1 osteogenic cells, fetal bovine trabecular cells, UMR106-01(BSP) rat osteosarcoma cells, and embryonic bovine tracheal cells. The osteotoxin lacked dermonecrotic toxin activity, exhibited no cross-reactivity with antibody against B. avium dermonecrotic toxin, and was non-proteolytic. Osteotoxin (M(r) approximately 80,000 by gel filtration, pI 5.4) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from B. avium 197. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometric analyses showed that the native protein was a homodimer and that each of the non-covalently linked subunits (M(r) approximately 41,000) contained one molecule of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Microsequencing of the first 32 amino acids from the NH2 terminus allowed the synthesis of two oligonucleotide probes, which, together with polyclonal antibody to the purified protein, facilitated cloning, sequencing, and expression of the osteotoxin gene product in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 396 amino acid residues (M(r) = 42,606, calculated pI 5.9), whose sequence exhibits approximately 38% identity (approximately 60% similarity) to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent beta-cystathionase(s) from E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and rat liver. The characteristic motif, TKYXXGHSD, associated with binding the cofactor in these enzymes is also present in osteotoxin. Physicochemical and enzymatic analyses established the coidentity of osteotoxin with beta-cystathionase. The region upstream of the beta-cystathionase (metC) gene in B. avium 197 lacked regulatory sequences ("Met boxes") described for metC in enteric species, and enzyme production was not repressed by methionine. Incubation of MC3T3-E1 osteogenic cells in medium containing L-[35S]cystine and purified beta-cystathionase resulted in 35S-labeling of the enzyme and at least one major MC3T3-E1 cell protein (M(r) approximately 50,000). cytotoxicity can be attributed to: 1) beta-cystathionase-catalyzed cleavage of L-cystine in the medium and formation of reactive sulfane-containing derivative(s), and 2) transfer of sulfane sulfur to metabolically sensitive or structurally important proteins in the osteogenic cells. PMID:8463265

Gentry-Weeks, C R; Keith, J M; Thompson, J

1993-04-01

66

Capsaicin Induces "Brite" Phenotype in Differentiating 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes  

PubMed Central

Objective Targeting the energy storing white adipose tissue (WAT) by pharmacological and dietary means in order to promote its conversion to energy expending “brite” cell type holds promise as an anti-obesity approach. Present study was designed to investigate/revisit the effect of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation with special reference to induction of “brite” phenotype during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methods Multiple techniques such as Ca2+ influx assay, Oil Red-O staining, nutrigenomic analysis in preadipocytes and matured adipocytes have been employed to understand the effect of capsaicin at different doses. In addition to in-vitro experiments, in-vivo studies were carried out in high-fat diet (HFD) fed rats treated with resiniferatoxin (RTX) (a TRPV1 agonist) and in mice administered capsaicin. Results TRPV1 channels are expressed in preadipocytes but not in adipocytes. In preadipocytes, both capsaicin and RTX stimulate Ca2+ influx in dose-dependent manner. This stimulation may be prevented by capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist. At lower doses, capsaicin inhibits lipid accumulation and stimulates TRPV1 gene expression, while at higher doses it enhances accumulation of lipids and suppresses expression of its receptor. In doses of 0.1–100 µM, capsaicin promotes expression of major pro-adipogenic factor PPAR? and some of its downstream targets. In concentrations of 1 µM, capsaicin up-regulates anti-adipogenic genes. Low-dose capsaicin treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiating into adipocytes results in increased expression of brown fat cell marker genes. In white adipose of mice, capsaicin administration leads to increase in browning-specific genes. Global TRPV1 ablation (i.p. by RTX administration) leads to increase in locomotor activity with no change in body weight. Conclusion Our findings suggest the dual modulatory role of capsaicin in adipogenesis. Capsaicin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 via TRPV1 activation and induces brown-like phenotype whereas higher doses. PMID:25072597

Baboota, Ritesh K.; Singh, Dhirendra P.; Sarma, Siddhartha M.; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sandhir, Rajat; Boparai, Ravneet K.; Kondepudi, Kanthi K.; Bishnoi, Mahendra

2014-01-01

67

Reduction of 3T3 Fibroblast Adhesion on SS316L by Methyl-Terminated SAMs  

PubMed Central

Inhibiting the non-specific adhesion of cells and proteins to biomaterials such as stents, catheters and guide wires is an important interfacial issue that needs to be addressed in order to reduce surface-related implant complications. Medical grade stainless steel 316L was used as a model system to address this issue. To alter the interfacial property of the implant, self assembled monolayers of long chain phosphonic acids with ?CH3, ?COOH, ?OH tail groups were formed on the native oxide surface of medical grade stainless steel 316L. The effect of varying the tail groups on 3T3 fibroblast adhesion was investigated. The methyl terminated phosphonic acid significantly prevented cell adhesion however presentation of hydrophilic tail groups at the interface did not significantly reduce cell adhesion when compared to the control stainless steel 316L. PMID:21461313

Raman, Aparna; Gawalt, Ellen S.

2010-01-01

68

Prednisolone induces the Wnt signalling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Synthetic glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs but show dose-dependent metabolic side effects such as the development of insulin resistance and obesity. The precise mechanisms involved in these glucocorticoid-induced side effects, and especially the participation of adipose tissue in this are not completely understood. We used a combination of transcriptomics, antibody arrays and bioinformatics approaches to characterize prednisolone-induced alterations in gene expression and adipokine secretion, which could underlie metabolic dysfunction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Several pathways, including cytokine signalling, Akt signalling, and Wnt signalling were found to be regulated at multiple levels, showing that these processes are targeted by prednisolone. These results suggest that mechanisms by which prednisolone induce insulin resistance include dysregulation of wnt signalling and immune response processes. These pathways may provide interesting targets for the development of improved glucocorticoids. PMID:23506355

Fleuren, Wilco W. M.; Linssen, Margot M. L.; Toonen, Erik J. M.; van der Zon, Gerard C. M.; Guigas, Bruno; de Vlieg, Jacob; Dokter, Wim H. A.; Ouwens, D. Margriet

2013-01-01

69

Trigonelline attenuates the adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Trigonelline is a natural alkaloid mainly found in Trigonella Foenum Graecum (fenugreek) Fabaceae and other edible plants with a variety of medicinal applications. Therefore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of trigonelline (TG) on the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Trigonelline suppressed lipid droplet accumulation in a concentration (75 and 100 ?M) dependent manner. Treatment of adipocyte with of TG down regulates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR?) and CCAAT element binding protein (C/EBP-?) mRNA expression, which leads to further down regulation of other gene such as adiponectin, adipogenin, leptin, resistin and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) as compared with respective control cells on 5th and 10th day of differentiation. Further, addition of triognelline along with troglitazone to the adipocyte attenuated the troglitazone effects on PPAR? mediated differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Trigonelline might compete against troglitazone for its binding to the PPAR?. In addition, adipocyte treated with trigonelline and isoproterenol separately. Isoproterenol, a lipolytic agent which inhibits the fatty acid synthase and GLUT-4 transporter expression via cAMP mediated pathway, we found that similar magnitude response of fatty acid synthase and GLUT-4 transporter expression in trigonelline treated adipocyte. These results suggest that the trigonelline inhibits the adipogenesis by its influences on the expression PPAR?, which leads to subsequent down regulation of PPAR-? mediated pathway during adipogenesis. Our findings provide key approach to the mechanism underlying the anti-adipogenic activity of trigonelline. PMID:24369814

Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Kim, Da Hye; Roh, Sang Gun; Park, Hyung Su; Choi, Gi Jun; Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar; Choi, Ki Choon

2014-04-15

70

Expression of extracellular superoxide dismutase during adipose differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Obesity is known to be the primary causal component in metabolic syndrome. Adipocytes in obese patients exhibit increased oxidative stress via the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing systems and inactivation of antioxidant enzymes. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an anti-inflammatory enzyme that protects cells from the damaging effects of ROS. An earlier report showed that plasma EC-SOD levels in type 2 diabetic patients were significantly and inversely related to body mass index and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index. Moreover, the administration of pioglitazone, an antidiabetic agent, significantly increased the plasma level of EC-SOD. In this report, the expression of EC-SOD was compared to other adipocytokines in mice 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. EC-SOD expression levels were increased after the induction of differentiation and then declined, which was similar to adiponectin and transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-alpha). On the other hand, the expression levels of pro-inflammatory adipocytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), increased markedly in the development stage of cells. It was observed that the expression of EC-SOD in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells co-cultured with LPS-stimulated J774 macrophages was up-regulated, while the addition of TNF-alpha down-regulated EC-SOD and adiponectin expression in adipocytes. It is known that infiltrated and activated macrophages produce extracellular ROS at high levels in adipose tissue. It is possible that the expression of EC-SOD in adipocytes was stimulated to protect them from oxidative stress in the co-culture system. PMID:19161676

Adachi, Tetsuo; Toishi, Taisuke; Wu, Haoshu; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu

2009-01-01

71

Tannic acid stimulates glucose transport and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major risk factor for Syndrome X and type II diabetes (T2D). However, most antidiabetic drugs that are hypoglycemic also promote weight gain, thus alleviating one symptom of T2D while aggravating a major risk factor that leads to T2D. Adipogenesis, the differentiation and proliferation of adipocytes, is a major mechanism leading to weight gain and obesity. It is highly desirable to develop pharmaceuticals and treatments for T2D that reduce blood glucose levels without inducing adipogenesis in patients. Previously, we reported that an extract from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (banaba) possessed activities that both stimulated glucose transport and inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Using glucose uptake assays and Western/Northern blot analyses as major tools and 3T3-L1 cells as a model, we showed that the banaba extract (BE) with tannin removed was devoid of the 2 activities, and tannic acid (TA), a major component of tannins, had the same 2 activities as BE. Inhibitors known to abolish insulin-induced glucose transport also blocked TA-induced glucose transport. We further detected that TA induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and Akt, as well as translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4), the protein factors involved in the signaling pathway of insulin-mediated glucose transport. We also demonstrated that TA inhibited the expression of key genes for adipogenesis. Differences between samples with or without TA in all of the quantitative assays were significant (P < 0.05). These results suggest that TA may be useful for the prevention and treatment of T2D and its associated obesity. TA may have the potential to become the lead compound in the development of new types of antidiabetic pharmaceuticals that are able to reduce blood glucose levels without increasing adiposity. PMID:15671208

Liu, Xueqing; Kim, Jae-kyung; Li, Yunsheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Fang; Chen, Xiaozhuo

2005-02-01

72

Berberine reverses free-fatty-acid-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through targeting IKK?  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of berberine on improving insulin resistance induced by free fatty acids (FFAs) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. METHODS: The model of insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was established by adding palmic acid (0.5 mmol\\/L) to the culture medium. Berberine treatment was performed at the same time. Glucose uptake rate was determined by the 2-deoxy-(

Ping Yi; Fu-Er Lu; Li-Jun Xu; Guang Chen; Hui Dong; Kai-Fu Wang

2008-01-01

73

Effect of tumor-conditioned medium on intercellular communication and proliferation of Balb\\/c 3T3 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible role of tumor cell-derived factors in the regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication and proliferation of fibroblasts was studied in a model system of Balb\\/c 3T3 cells growing in tumor conditioned medium by Lucifer Yellow CH dye-transfer and BrdU incorporation assays. Six to 24 h incubation of Balb\\/c 3T3 cells in a medium conditioned by WiDr adenocarcinoma cells

László Tóth; Gabriella Pásti; Attila Sárváry; Margit Balázs; Róza Ádány

2000-01-01

74

The licorice root derived isoflavan glabridin increases the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glabridin, an isoflavan purified from licorice root, exhibits diverse biological activities, including estrogen-like activity. To investigate the bioactivities of glabridin, which act on bone metabolism, the effects of glabridin on the function of mouse osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) and the production of local factors in osteoblasts were studied. Glabridin (1–10?M) significantly increased the growth of MC3T3-E1 cells and caused a

Eun-Mi Choi

2005-01-01

75

Lipoprotein Lipase Suppression in 3T3-L1 Cells by an Endotoxin-Induced Mediator from Exudate Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditioned medium from cultures of mouse peritoneal exudate cells incubated with endotoxin contains a mediator that markedly suppresses (>90%) lipoprotein lipase (triacylglycero-protein acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.34) activity in differentiating 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocytes. The effect is dependent upon the amount of mediator and is evident as early as 30 min after the addition of the mediator-containing medium to 3T3-L1 cell cultures. Neither

Masanobu Kawakami; Phillip H. Pekala; Anthony Cerami

1982-01-01

76

Construction of a Recombinant Eukaryotic Expression Plasmid Containing Human Calcitonin Gene and Its Expression in NIH3T3 Cells  

PubMed Central

Aim. To construct a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid containing human calcitonin (hCT) gene and express the gene in murine fibroblast NIH3T3 cells. Materials and Methods. A murine Ig?-chain leader sequence and hCT gene were synthesized and cloned into pCDNA3.0 to form the pCDNA3.0-Ig?-hCT eukaryotic expression vector, which was transfected into NIH3T3 cells. The mRNA and protein expressions and secretion of hCT were detected. Primarily cultured osteoclasts were incubated with the supernatant of pCDNA3.0-Igk-hCT-transfected NIH3T3 cells, and their numbers were counted and morphology observed. Results. The expression and secretion of hCT were successfully detected in pCDNA3.0-Igk-hCT-transfected NIH3T3 cells. The number of osteoclasts was decreased and the cells became crumpled when they were incubated with the supernatant of pCDNA3.0-Igk-hCT-transfected NIH3T3 cells. Conclusion. A recombinant eukaryotic expression vector containing hCT gene was successfully constructed and expressed in NIH3T3 cells. The secreted recombinant hCT inhibited the growth and morphology of osteoclasts. PMID:19696904

Li, Xiaolin; Jiang, Guozhong; Wu, Dan; Wang, Xiuli; Zeng, Bingfang

2009-01-01

77

ATF3 inhibits adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of ATF3 inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of ATF3 represses C/EBP{alpha} expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATF3 directly binds to mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter spanning from -1928 to -1907. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATF3 may play a role in hypoxia-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: ATF3 is a stress-adaptive gene that regulates proliferation or apoptosis under stress conditions. However, the role of ATF3 is unknown in adipocyte cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the functional role of ATF3 in adipocytes. Both lentivirus-mediated overexpression of ATF3 and stably-overexpressed ATF3 inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, as revealed by decreased lipid staining with oil red staining and reduction in adipogenic genes. Thapsigargin treatment and overexpression of ATF3 decreased C/EBP{alpha} transcript and repressed the activity of the 3.6-kb mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter, demonstrating that ATF3 downregulates C/EBP{alpha} expression. Transfection studies using mutant constructs containing 5 Prime -deletions in the C/EBP{alpha} promoter revealed that a putative ATF/CRE element, GGATGTCA, is located between -1921 and -1914. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 directly binds to mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter spanning from -1928 to -1907. Both chemical hypoxia-mimetics or physical hypoxia led to reduce the C/EBP{alpha} mRNA and repress the promoter activity of the C/EBP{alpha} gene, whereas increase ATF3 mRNA, suggesting that ATF3 may contribute to the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in hypoxia through downregulation of C/EBP{alpha} expression. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ATF3 represses the C/EBP{alpha} gene, resulting in inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and thus plays a role in hypoxia-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation.

Jang, Min Kyung; Kim, Cho Hee [School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, 30 Beom-eo ri, Mulguem-eup, Yangsan-si, Gyeongnam 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, 30 Beom-eo ri, Mulguem-eup, Yangsan-si, Gyeongnam 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Je Kyung [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Myeong Ho, E-mail: jung0603@pusan.ac.kr [School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, 30 Beom-eo ri, Mulguem-eup, Yangsan-si, Gyeongnam 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-04-27

78

ATP-mediated mineralization of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures.  

PubMed

While bone is hypomineralized in hypophosphatemia patients and in tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (Tnsalp)-deficient mice, the extensive mineralization that nevertheless occurs suggests involvement of other phosphatases in providing phosphate ions for mineral deposition. Although the source of phosphate liberated by these phosphatases is unknown, pyrophosphate, ATP, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and phoshoethanolamine (PEA) are likely candidates. In this study, we have induced mineralization of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures using ATP, and have investigated potential phosphatases involved in this mineralization process. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were cultured for 12 days and treated either with beta-glycerophosphate (betaGP) or ATP. Matrix and mineral deposition was examined by biochemical, cytochemical, ultrastructural and X-ray microanalytical methods. ATP added at levels of 4-5 mM resulted in mineral deposition similar to that following conventional treatment with betaGP. Collagen levels were similarly normal in ATP-mineralized cultures and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis confirmed hydroxyapatite mineral deposition along the collagen fibrils in the ECM. Phosphate release from 4 mM ATP into the medium was rapid and resulted in approximately twice the phosphate levels than after release from 10 mM betaGP. ATP treatment did not affect mineralization by altering the expression of mineral-regulating genes such as Enpp1, Ank, and Mgp, nor phosphatase genes indicating that ATP induces mineralization by serving as a phosphate source for mineral deposition. Levamisole, an inhibitor of TNSALP, completely blocked mineralization in betaGP-treated cultures, but had minor effects on ATP-mediated mineralization, indicating that other phosphatases such as plasma membrane Ca2+ transport ATPase 1 (PMCA1) and transglutaminase 2 (TG2) are contributing to ATP hydrolysis. To examine their involvement in ATP-mediated mineralization, the inhibitors cystamine (TG2 inhibitor) and ortho-vanadate (PMCA inhibitor) were added to the cultures - both inhibitors significantly reduced mineralization whereas suppression of the phosphate release by ortho-vanadate was minor comparing to other two inhibitors. The contribution of PMCA1 to mineralization may occur through pumping of calcium towards calcification sites and TG2 can likely act as an ATPase in the ECM. Unlike the GTPase activity of TG2, its ATPase function was resistant to calcium, demonstrating the potential for participation in ATP hydrolysis and mineral deposition within the ECM at elevated calcium concentrations. PMID:17669706

Nakano, Yukiko; Addison, William N; Kaartinen, Mari T

2007-10-01

79

Hindered diffusion of inert tracer particles in the cytoplasm of mouse 3T3 cells.  

PubMed Central

Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we have studied the diffusion of fluorescein-labeled, size-fractionated Ficoll in the cytoplasmic space of living Swiss 3T3 cells as a probe of the physical chemical properties of cytoplasm. The results reported here corroborate and extend the results of earlier experiments with fluorescein-labeled, size-fractionated dextran: diffusion of nonbinding particles in cytoplasm is hindered in a size-dependent manner. Extrapolation of the data suggests that particles larger than 260 A in radius may be completely nondiffusible in the cytoplasmic space. In contrast, diffusion of Ficoll in protein solutions of concentration comparable to the range reported for cytoplasm is not hindered in a size-dependent manner. Although we cannot at present distinguish among several physical chemical models for the organization of cytoplasm, these results make it clear that cytoplasm possesses some sort of higher-order intermolecular interactions (structure) not found in simple aqueous protein solutions, even at high concentration. These results also suggest that, for native cytoplasmic particles whose smallest radial dimension approaches 260 A, size may be as important a determinant of cytoplasmic diffusibility as binding specificity. This would include most endosomes, polyribosomes, and the larger multienzyme complexes. PMID:3474634

Luby-Phelps, K; Castle, P E; Taylor, D L; Lanni, F

1987-01-01

80

Withaferin A induces apoptosis and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Withaferin A (WA), a highly oxygenated steroidal lactone that is found in the medicinal plant Withania somnifera (also called ashwagandha) has been reported to have anti-tumor, anti-angiogenesis, and pro-apoptotic activity. We investigated the effects of WA on viability, apoptosis and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Pre- and post-confluent preadipocytes and mature adipocytes were treated with WA (1-25 microM) up to 24 hrs. Viability and apoptosis were measured by CellTiter-Blue Cell Viability Assay and single strand DNA ELISA Assay, respectively. WA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in all stages of cells. Induction of apoptosis by WA in mature adipocytes was mediated by increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and altered Bax and Bcl2 protein expression. The effect of WA on adipogenesis was examined by AdipoRed Assay after treating with WA (0.1-1 microM) during the differentiation period. WA decreased lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner and decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein. The effects on apoptosis and lipid accumulation were also confirmed with Hoechst staining and Oil Red O staining, respectively. These results show that WA acts on adipocytes to reduce cell viability and adipogenesis and also induce apoptosis. PMID:19346589

Park, Hea Jin; Rayalam, Srujana; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Ambati, Suresh; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Baile, Clifton A

2008-01-01

81

Induction of Adipocyte Differentiation by Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in 3T3-L1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants that were extensively used in commercial products. PBDEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that are both lipophilic and bioaccumulative. Effects of PBDEs on adipogenesis were studied in the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model in the presence and absence of a known adipogenic agent, dexamethasone (DEX). A PBDE mixture designed to mimic body burden of North Americans was tested, in addition to the technical mixture DE-71 and the individual congener BDE-47. The mixture, DE-71, and BDE-47 all induced adipocyte differentiation as assessed by markers for terminal differentiation [fatty acid binding protein 4 (aP2) and perilipin] and lipid accumulation. Characterization of the differentiation process in response to PBDEs indicated that adipogenesis induced by a minimally effective dose of DEX was enhanced by these PBDEs. Moreover, C/EBP?, PPAR?, and LXR? were induced late in the differentiation process. Taken together, these data indicate that adipocyte differentiation is induced by PBDEs; they act in the absence of glucocorticoid and enhance glucocorticoid-mediated adipogenesis. PMID:24722056

Tung, Emily W. Y.; Boudreau, Adele; Wade, Michael G.; Atlas, Ella

2014-01-01

82

Oleic acid promotes adaptability against oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 cells through lipohormesis.  

PubMed

Although fatty acids are important components of biological membranes, energy sources, and signal transducers or precursors of lipid mediators, excess intake of fatty acids and their accumulation cause obesity and metabolic syndrome. Thus, fatty acid quantity is known to be an important factor for obesity-related diseases, but the effects of different types of fatty acids (i.e., fatty acid quality) on human health are not completely understood. We here focused on the relationship between fatty acid quality and oxidative stress by investigating whether resistibility to tert-butyl hydrperoxide (t-BuOOH)-induced oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 cells varied according to the fatty acid type. Among eight fatty acids (both saturated and unsaturated) tested, oleic acid (OA) exerted the most pronounced cytoprotective effects, with efficacy over a wide range of concentrations. OA treatment markedly enhanced the intracellular levels of lipid peroxidation markers, including N(?)-(hexanoyl)lysine, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and acrolein. The levels of these markers in OA-treated cells were decreased after t-BuOOH exposure, whereas the levels in untreated control cells were notably increased after t-BuOOH exposure. Our results suggested that unsaturated fatty acids, particularly OA, could promote an adaptive response and enhance cell tolerance through increased cellular antioxidative capacity via OA-induced mild lipid peroxidation (lipohormesis), and thus protect cells against subsequent oxidative stress-related injury. PMID:24234346

Haeiwa, Haruna; Fujita, Takashi; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

2014-01-01

83

Inducible production of c-fos antisense RNA inhibits 3T3 cell proliferation.  

PubMed Central

Antisense RNA complementary to c-fos mRNA was produced in mouse 3T3 cells by gene transfer techniques. Transcriptional units were constructed consisting of a steroid-inducible mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter, mouse or human 5' c-fos gene fragments in either the sense (5' to 3') or antisense (3' to 5') orientation, and splice and poly(A) signals from the human beta-globin gene. A gene that confers neomycin resistance was included in the vectors to allow isolation of stable transformants. Dexamethasone caused a marked induction of hybrid MMTV-fos-globin RNA. Induction of the hybrid transcript containing antisense c-fos RNA decreased colony formation following DNA transfer and inhibited the proliferation of cells into which the antisense transcriptional unit had been integrated. In contrast, colony formation and cell proliferation were not inhibited by induction of hybrid RNA containing c-fos RNA sequences in the sense orientation. These results indicate that the strategy of generating antisense RNA to inhibit gene expression may be useful in delineating the function of protooncogenes. The c-fos gene product appears to have a required role in normal cell division. Images PMID:3523478

Holt, J T; Gopal, T V; Moulton, A D; Nienhuis, A W

1986-01-01

84

New indices in morphometry of nuclear structure in the NIH 3T3 cell line.  

PubMed

We analyzed the connection of changes in nucleus ploidy with changes in nucleolar apparatus of NIH 3T3 cells. The quantity of nucleoli does not depend on the quantity of nucleolar DNA, but instead depends on euploidy: the majority of euploid cells have 1-3 nucleoli. The quantity of DNA in the nucleolus is correlated with the quantity of nucleolar DNA, and does not depend on ploidy changes. The nucleolar area has a tendency to increase in line with an increase in their numbers in the nucleus. The relationship of the quantity of DNA in the nucleolus with that of the nucleus is stable. During the process of increase in the number of nucleoli in a nucleus, there is a corresponding decrease in the quantity of DNA in each nucleolus, and there is likewise no increase in the sum of nucleolar DNA. The ratio of sums of the nucleolar perimeters to nuclear perimeter is a significant factor, which increases linearly along with an increase in the number of nucleoli in a nucleus. PMID:14499660

Karalyan, Z A; Djaghatspanyan, N G; Gasparyan, M H; Hakobyan, L A; Abroyan, L O; Magakyan, Y H; Ter-Pogossyan, Z R; Kamalyan, L A; Avagyan, V Y; Karalova, E M

2003-01-01

85

Lunasin-aspirin combination against NIH/3T3 cells transformation induced by chemical carcinogens.  

PubMed

Carcinogenesis is a multistage process involving a number of molecular pathways sensitive to intervention. Chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural and/or synthetic substances to block, reverse, or retard the process of carcinogenesis. To achieve greater inhibitory effects on cancer cells, combination of two or more chemopreventive agents is commonly considered as a better preventive and/or therapeutic strategy. Lunasin is a promising cancer preventive peptide identified in soybean and other seeds. Its efficacy has been demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo models. This peptide has been found to inhibit human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells proliferation, suppressing cell cycle progress and inducing cell apoptosis. Moreover, lunasin potentiates the effects on these cells of different synthetic and natural compounds, such as aspirin and anacardic acid. This study explored the role of lunasin, alone and in combination with aspirin and anacardic acid on cell proliferation and foci formation of transformed NIH/3T3 cells induced by chemical carcinogens 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene or 3-methylcholanthrene. The results revealed that lunasin, acting as a single agent, inhibits cell proliferation and foci formation. When combined with aspirin, these effects were significantly increased, indicating that this combination might be a promising strategy to prevent/treat cancer induced by chemical carcinogens. PMID:21562729

Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; de Lumen, Ben O

2011-06-01

86

Secreted Nucleobindin-2 Inhibits 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Nucleobindin-2 is a 420 amino acid EF-hand Ca2+ binding protein that can be further processed to generate an 82 amino terminal peptide termed Nesfatin-1. To examine the function of secreted Nucleobindin-2 in adipocyte differentiation, cultured 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with either 0 or 100 nM of GST, GST-Nucleobindin-2, prior to and during the initiation of adipocyte differentiation. Nucleobindin-2 treatment decreased neutral lipid accumulation (Oil-Red O staining) and expression of several marker genes for adipocyte differentiation (PPAR?, aP2, and adipsin). When Nucleobindin-2 was constitutively secreted into cultured medium, cAMP content and insulin stimulated CREB phosphorylation were significantly reduced. On the other hand, intracellularly overexpressed Nucleobindin-2 failed to affect cAMP content and CREB phosphorylation. Taken together, these data indicate that secreted Nucleobindin-2 is a suppressor of adipocyte differentiation through inhibition of cAMP production and insulin signal. PMID:22486620

Tagaya, Yuko; Osaki, Aya; Miura, Atsuko; Okada, Shuichi; Ohshima, Kihachi; Hashimoto, Koshi; Yamada, Masanobu; Satoh, Tetsurou; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Mori, Masatomo

2012-01-01

87

6-Hydroxydaidzein enhances adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Fermented soybean foods have been shown to reduce incidence of diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity. 6-Hydroxydaidzein (6-HD) is a bioactive ingredient isolated from fermented soybean. In this study, we examined the effects of 6-HD on adipocyte differentiation and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, as well as the mechanisms involved. In our experiments, 6-HD enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in a dosage-dependent manner. In addition, 6-HD increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) gene expression and PPAR? transcriptional activity. 6-HD increased CCAAT/enhanced binding protein alpha (C/EBP?) expression as well. Although having no effects on glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) gene expression, 6-HD facilitated GLUT4 protein translocation to the cell membranes. Our results indicate that 6-HD exhibited the actions of promoting adipocyte differentiation and improving insulin sensitivity by increasing the expression of C/EBP? and facilitating the translocation of GLUT4 via the activation of PPAR?, suggesting that 6-HD can be promising in diabetes management. PMID:24180341

Chen, Li; Li, Qun-Yi; Shi, Xiao-Jin; Mao, Shi-Long; Du, Yong-Li

2013-11-13

88

Differentiation of the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

SciTech Connect

3T3-L1 fibroblasts differentiate in culture to resemble adipocytes both morphologically and biochemically. Insulin-sensitive glucose transport, as measured by 2-deoxy-(1-/sup 14/C)- glucose uptake in the undifferentiated cell is small (2X). In contrast, the rate of glucose transport in fully differentiated cells is elevated 15-fold over basal in the presence of insulin. To determine if this is due to an increase in the number of transporters/cell or accessibility to the transporters, the number of transporters was measured in subcellular fractions over differentiation using a /sup 3/H-cytochalasin B binding assay. The increase in the rate of insulin-sensitive glucose transport directly parallels an increase in the number of transporters which reside in an insulin-responsive intracellular compartment. This observation was confirmed by identifying the transporters by immunoblotting using an antibody generated against the human erythrocyte transporter. The molecular weight of this transporter increases over differentiation from a single band of 40kDa to a heterogeneous triplet of 40, 44 and 48kDa. These data suggest that the transporter undergoes differential processing and that the functional, insulin-responsive transporter may be different from the insulin-insensitive (basal) transporter.

Frost, S.C.; Baly, D.L.; Cushman, S.W.; Lane, M.D.; Simpson, I.A.

1986-05-01

89

Malignant Transformation Induced by Incorporated Radionuclides in BALB/3T3 Mouse Embryo Fibroblasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The induction of lethality and malignant transformation by 5-[125I]iododeoxyuridine and [3H]thymidine incorporated into cellular DNA and by x-irradiation was studied in vitro in BALB/3T3 cells. Under these conditions, 125I radiation is highly localized to small regions of the DNA at the site of each decay and produces DNA double-strand breaks with high efficiency. Incorporated 125I was found to be 12-16 times as lethal per decay as incorporated 3H. For the induction of malignant transformation, however, 125I was approximately 25 times as effective per decay as 3H. When the frequencies of transformation induced at various levels of survival by 125I, 3H, and x-rays were compared, lethality was found to correlate closely with transformation at doses that yielded significant cell killing. An exception occurred at low doses, where 125I appeared much more efficient than x-irradiation in inducing transformation; transformation frequencies equal to those induced by 3-5 Gy of x-rays resulted from 125I exposures that yielded little or no cell killing.

Lemotte, Peter K.; Adelstein, S. James; Little, John B.

1982-12-01

90

Mouse osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) expresses extracellular calcium (Ca2+o)-sensing receptor and its agonists stimulate chemotaxis and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays key roles in extracellular calcium ion (Ca2+o) homeostasis in parathyroid gland and kidney. Osteoblasts appear at sites of osteoclastic bone resorption during bone remodeling in the "reversal" phase following osteoclastic resorption and preceding bone formation. Bone resorption produces substantial local increases in Ca2+o that could provide a signal for osteoblasts in the vicinity, leading us to determine whether such osteoblasts express the CaR. In this study, we used the mouse osteoblastic, clonal cell line MC3T3-E1. Both immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, using an antiserum specific for the CaR, detected CaR protein in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also identified CaR transcripts in MC3T3-E1 cells by Northern analysis using a CaR-specific riboprobe and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with CaR-specific primers, followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplified products. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to high Ca2+o (up to 4.8 mM) or the polycationic CaR agonists, neomycin and gadolinium (Gd3+), stimulated both chemotaxis and DNA synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Therefore, taken together, our data strongly suggest that the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 possesses both CaR protein and mRNA very similar, if not identical, to those in parathyroid and kidney. Furthermore, the CaR in these osteoblasts could play a key role in regulating bone turnover by stimulating the proliferation and migration of such cells to sites of bone resorption as a result of local release of Ca2+o.

Yamaguchi, T.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Kifor, O.; Butters, R. R. Jr; Sugimoto, T.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

91

Effect of black soybean koji extract on glucose utilization and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Adipocyte differentiation and the extent of subsequent fat accumulation are closely related to the occurrence and progression of diseases such as insulin resistance and obesity. Black soybean koji (BSK) is produced by the fermentation of black soybean with Aspergilllus awamori. Previous study indicated that BSK extract has antioxidative and multifunctional bioactivities, however, the role of BSK in the regulation of energy metabolism is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of glucose utilization on insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipogenesis-related protein expression in differentiated adipocytes with BSK treatment. Cytoxicity assay revealed that BSK did not adversely affect cell viability at levels up to 200 µg/mL. The potential for glucose utilization was increased by increased glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), GLUT4 and protein kinase B (AKT) protein expression in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 cells in response to BSK treatment. Simultaneously, BSK inhibited lipid droplet accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The inhibitory effect of adipogenesis was associated with downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g (PPAR?) level and upregulated Acrp30 protein expression. Our results suggest that BSK extract could improve glucose uptake by modulating GLUT1 and GLUT4 expression in a 3T3-L1 insulin-resistance cell model. In addition, BSK suppressed differentiation and lipid accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which may suggest its potential for food supplementation to prevent obesity and related metabolic abnormalities. PMID:24821545

Huang, Chi-Chang; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hou, Chien-Wen; Chi, Yu-Wei; Huang, Hui-Yu

2014-01-01

92

Effect of Black Soybean Koji Extract on Glucose Utilization and Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Adipocyte differentiation and the extent of subsequent fat accumulation are closely related to the occurrence and progression of diseases such as insulin resistance and obesity. Black soybean koji (BSK) is produced by the fermentation of black soybean with Aspergilllus awamori. Previous study indicated that BSK extract has antioxidative and multifunctional bioactivities, however, the role of BSK in the regulation of energy metabolism is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of glucose utilization on insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipogenesis-related protein expression in differentiated adipocytes with BSK treatment. Cytoxicity assay revealed that BSK did not adversely affect cell viability at levels up to 200 ?g/mL. The potential for glucose utilization was increased by increased glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), GLUT4 and protein kinase B (AKT) protein expression in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 cells in response to BSK treatment. Simultaneously, BSK inhibited lipid droplet accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The inhibitory effect of adipogenesis was associated with downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) level and upregulated Acrp30 protein expression. Our results suggest that BSK extract could improve glucose uptake by modulating GLUT1 and GLUT4 expression in a 3T3-L1 insulin-resistance cell model. In addition, BSK suppressed differentiation and lipid accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which may suggest its potential for food supplementation to prevent obesity and related metabolic abnormalities. PMID:24821545

Huang, Chi-Chang; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hou, Chien-Wen; Chi, Yu-Wei; Huang, Hui-Yu

2014-01-01

93

Analysis of Transcription Factor Network Underlying 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Lipid accumulation in adipocytes reflects a balance between enzymatic pathways leading to the formation and breakdown of esterified lipids, primarily triglycerides. This balance is extremely important, as both high and low lipid levels in adipocytes can have deleterious consequences. The enzymes responsible for lipid synthesis and breakdown (lipogenesis and lipolysis, respectively) are regulated through the coordinated actions of several transcription factors (TFs). In this study, we examined the dynamics of several key transcription factors (TFs) - PPAR?, C/EBP?, CREB, NFAT, FoxO1, and SREBP-1c - during adipogenic differentiation (week 1) and ensuing lipid accumulation. The activation profiles of these TFs at different times following induction of adipogenic differentiation were quantified using 3T3-L1 reporter cell lines constructed to secrete the Gaussia luciferase enzyme upon binding of a TF to its DNA binding element. The dynamics of the TFs was also modeled using a combination of logical gates and ordinary differential equations, where the logical gates were used to explore different combinations of activating inputs for PPAR?, C/EBP?, and SREBP-1c. Comparisons of the experimental profiles and model simulations suggest that SREBP-1c could be independently activated by either insulin or PPAR?, whereas PPAR? activation required both C/EBP? as well as a putative ligand. Parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis indicate that feedback activation of SREBP-1c by PPAR? is negligible in comparison to activation of SREBP-1c by insulin. On the other hand, the production of an activating ligand could quantitatively contribute to a sustained elevation in PPAR? activity. PMID:25075860

Choi, KyungOh; Ghaddar, Bassel; Moya, Colby; Shi, Hai; Sridharan, Gautham V.; Lee, Kyongbum; Jayaraman, Arul

2014-01-01

94

A proteomic approach to investigate AuNPs effects in Balb/3T3 cells.  

PubMed

Although gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are currently used in several industrial products and biomedical applications, information about their biological effects is very limited. Thus, it is becoming crucial to assess their safety and adequately investigate the complexity of cell-nanoparticles interactions. In this work, the Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line was selected as an in vitro model to study the effects of AuNPs. Alteration of cellular processes and biochemical pathways caused by AuNPs exposure was investigated by analysing the differentially expressed proteome. Of interest was the difference observed in the protein pattern expression of cells exposed to AuNPs. It was found that 88 and 83 proteins were de-regulated after exposure to 5 and 15nm AuNPs, respectively. Analysis of the proteome revealed that AuNPs triggers several pathways related to cellular growth and proliferation, cell morphology, cell cycle regulation, cellular function and maintenance, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Moreover, SPR analysis showed an increase of ECM proteins biosynthesis in cells exposed to AuNPs. We observed by TEM analysis that NPs are internalized and confined mainly in autophagosomes. Endoplasmic reticulum stressed and modification at mitochondrial level occurred. This study aims to improve existing knowledge necessary for a correct assessment of the balance between AuNPs potential adverse and beneficial effects and might have important implications for biomedical applications (e.g. nanomedicine). To conclude proteomics link to system biology analysis is a valuable tool to understand and predict nanoparticles' toxicity, furthermore it has the potential to reveal pathways that may not be immediately evident with classical toxicological assays. PMID:24780912

Gioria, Sabrina; Chassaigne, Hubert; Carpi, Donatella; Parracino, Antonietta; Meschini, Stefania; Barboro, Paola; Rossi, François

2014-07-15

95

Minimal effects of Darunavir on adipocyte differentiation and metabolism in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Darunavir (DRV) has been confirmed to be an effective option for antiretroviral-naďve and experienced patients. It results in a more favorable lipid and glucose profile than other antiretrovirals. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms that could underline the lack of toxicity of DRV to metabolism and the better profile observed in HIV-infected patients in comparison with other drugs. The effects of DRV on adipogenesis were evaluated by oil red O staining after 8 days of induction of differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, a very adequate and convenient cell culture model for investigation of adipose function. Several adipogenic genes (C/EBP?, PPAR?, Pref-1, and AP2) were analyzed by real time-PCR. Fully differentiated adipocytes were also incubated with DRV for 24 h and glucose utilization and lactate and glycerol production were quantified by use of an autoanalyzer. No effects of DRV on murine adipocyte differentiation were observed. Significant decreases in lipolysis, glucose uptake, and lactate production were observed at the highest concentration used (50 ?M:) (p < 0.01-p < 0.001). However, DRV treatment did not modify the percentage of glucose transformed into lactate. Co-treatment with RTV did not induce any further effects on lipolysis and glucose metabolism. This study suggests that the decrease in lipolysis observed after DRV treatment could explain, at least in part, the lower plasma lipids observed in patients under DRV/r treatment in comparison with other drugs. The lack of effects of RTV co-treatment on glucose and lipid metabolism emphasizes the safety of this treatment. PMID:22245882

Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Blanco, José Ramón; Oteo, José Antonio

2012-08-01

96

Positive regulations of adipogenesis by Italian ryegrass [Lolium multiflorum] in 3T3-L1 cells  

PubMed Central

Back ground Intramuscular fat deposition in the meat animal is relatively new strategy for developing the meat quality. Fat deposition is largely depending on the adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of chloroform extract of L. multiflorum [CELM] on cell proliferation, lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and body weight of mouse. Results We identified 6,9-Octadecatrienoic acid, Hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, butane-2,3-diol and hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexaol in CELM. L. multiflorum extract increased the cell viability, lipid accumulation, cell cycle progression and key transcriptional and secretory factors like PPRA?2, C/CEBP-?, adiponectin, aP2, GLUT-4, FAS and SREBP-1 mRNA expression as compared with control cells. For in-vivo, mice administered with CELM significantly increased body weight throughout the experiment periods. Further, the identified fatty acids like 3, 6, 9-Octadecatrienoic acid and Hexadecanoic acid was docked with target protein [PPRA?2] using HEX 6.12. The least binding energy considered as high affinity with target protein. The maximum affinity with the target protein was observed in the Hexadecanoic acid followed by 3, 6, 9-Octadecatrienoic acid. The binding efficacy of Hexadecanoic acid and 3, 6, 9-Octadecatrienoic acid to the active site of PPAR-?2 may be enhanced the adipocyte differentiations. Conclusion These findings suggest that CELM stimulates adipogenesis via activating the PPAR?-mediated signaling pathway in adipocyte which could be useful for the development of meat quality in animals. PMID:24917384

2014-01-01

97

Mitogenic stimuli and phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover in cultured 3T3 fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

The hydrolysis of PI and polyphosphoinositides by phopholipase C is an early and rapid response to cell activation by a variety of neurotransmitters, hormones, growth factors and pharmacological agonists. The authors have examined the role of PI turnover and the generation of second messengers (diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate) in the mitogenic response of cultured Balb/c and Swiss 3T3 cells to polypeptide growth factors. Cells were prelabelled with /sup 3/H inositol for 18-20 hours, washed and suspended in Herpes + Li/sup +/ buffer, and stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vasopressin, insulin, and other growth factors. PI turnover was measured as the increase in total inositol phosphate (IP) production. IP1, IP2, and IP3 were characterized by sequential elution from a Dowex column. Partially purified PDGF produced a 2-4 fold stimulation of total IP production. This was seen as early as 30 seconds after stimulation and increased for up to 1-2 hours. Balb/c cells were more sensitive than Swiss cells to the mitogenic and PI effects of PDGF. Other mitogenic stimuli had differential effects on PI turnover. Vasopressin (4-400 ng/ml) markedly stimulated PI turnover (3-6 fold) in Swiss, but not Balb/c cells. Insulin (100 ng/ml - 10 ..mu..g/ml) increased total IP to a greater degree in Balb/c cells. Epidermal growth factor (10 ng/ml - 10 ..mu..g/ml) had no effect on PI turnover and fibroblast growth factor (10 ng/ml - 10 ..mu..g/ml) only stimulated at the higher concentrations in Swiss cells. Thrombin (1U/ml - 10 U/ml) produced a 1.5 - 2 fold stimulation in Balb/c cells. Thus, various polypeptide growth factors have differential effects on PI turnover depending on their mitogenic potential and the effector cell type.

Kohler, C.; Petersen, R.

1986-03-01

98

Differential expression of fatty acid uptake in 3T3-L1 cells  

SciTech Connect

Cultured 3T3-L1 cells have been used as a model system to investigate the mechanism of fatty acid uptake by adipose tissue. Using a 1:1 molar ratio of /sup 14/C-oleate and defatted bovine serum albumin (BSA), fatty acid (FA) uptake was quantitated at 4/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/ as cell associated radioactivity. The profile of FA uptake in preadipocytes and adipocytes was biphasic; an initial rapid phase (1-20s) followed by a second slower phase (60-480s). At 37/sup 0/ the initial rate of FA accumulation in preadipocytes was identical to that in adipocytes, whereas the rate of accumulation during the second phase increased 7-fold (100 ..mu..M total FA) as a consequence of adipose conversion. When uptake measurements were made at 4/sup 0/ in adipocytes, the initial rate was identical to that at 37/sup 0/, however the rate of second phase decreased 5-fold. Incubation of /sup 14/C-BSA and nonradiolabeled FA with adipocyte monolayers (100 ..mu..M total FA) resulted in the rapid association (t/sub 1/2/ = 20s) of the BSA-FA complex with the cell surface. Incubation of 100, 10, and 1 ..mu..M total FA with adipocytes resulted in a 50-fold change in FA accumulation during the second phase. These results suggest that (1) FA uptake is significantly increased after differentiation, suggesting the participation of specialized proteins, (2) the temperature-insensitive initial FA accumulation can be attributed to rapid association of the BSA-FA complex to the cell surface, (3) the second phase of FA accumulation represents uptake.

Waggoner, D.; Bernlohr, D.A.

1987-05-01

99

Human lung-derived mature mast cells cultured alone or with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts maintain an ultrastructural phenotype different from that of human mast cells that develop from human cord blood cells cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts.  

PubMed Central

Culture systems designed to maintain or develop human mast cells have proved difficult, yet these systems would provide valuable resources for future investigations of human mast cell biology. Cocultures of either isolated mature human lung mast cells (Levi-Schaffer et al., J Immunol 1987, 139:494-500) or human cord blood mononuclear cells (Furitsu, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989, 86:10039-10043) with 3T3 embryonic mouse skin fibroblasts have implicated fibroblasts as an important factor in the successful maintenance and development of human mast cells in vitro. The authors cultured isolated, mature human lung mast cells either with or without 3T3 cells for 1 month and examined their ultrastructural phenotype. Mast cell viability in each circumstance was equivalent, but mast cell yield was improved in the presence of 3T3 cells. The ultrastructural phenotype was identical in both culture systems. Mast cells were shown to maintain the phenotype of their in vivo lung counterparts (ie, scroll granules predominanted, and numerous lipid bodies were present). This ultrastructural phenotype differs from that of mast cells that develop in cocultures of human cord blood cells and 3T3 cells, where developing mast cells with crystalline granules and few lipid bodies prevail, a phenotype much like that of human skin mast cells in vivo (Furitsu, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989, 86:10039-10043). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1750506

Dvorak, A. M.; Furitsu, T.; Estrella, P.; Ishizaka, T.

1991-01-01

100

Polyphosphates inhibit extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures  

PubMed Central

Studies on various compounds of inorganic phosphate, as well as on organic phosphate added by post-translational phosphorylation of proteins, all demonstrate a central role for phosphate in biomineralization processes. Inorganic polyphosphates are chains of orthophosphates linked by phosphoanhydride bonds that can be up to hundreds of orthophosphates in length. The role of polyphosphates in mammalian systems, where they are ubiquitous in cells, tissues and bodily fluids, and are at particularly high levels in osteoblasts, is not well understood. In cell-free systems, polyphosphates inhibit hydroxyapatite nucleation, crystal formation and growth, and solubility. In animal studies, polyphosphate injections inhibit induced ectopic calcification. While recent work has proposed an integrated view of polyphosphate function in bone, little experimental data for bone are available. Here we show in osteoblast cultures producing an abundant collagenous matrix that normally shows robust mineralization, that two polyphosphates (PolyP5 and PolyP65, polyphosphates of 5 and 65 phosphate residues in length) are potent mineralization inhibitors. Twelve-day MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures with added ascorbic acid (for collagen matrix assembly) and ?-glycerophosphate (a source of phosphate for mineralization) were treated with either PolyP5 or PolyP65. Von Kossa staining and calcium quantification revealed that mineralization was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both polyphosphates, with complete mineralization inhibition at 10 ?M PolyP. Cell proliferation and collagen assembly were unaffected by polyphosphate treatment, indicating that polyphosphate inhibition of mineralization results not from cell and matrix effects but from direct inhibition of mineralization. This was confirmed by showing that PolyP5 and PolyP65 bound to synthetic hydroxyapatite in a concentration-dependent manner. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, ALPL) efficiently hydrolyzed the two PolyPs as measured by Pi release. Importantly, at the concentrations of polyphosphates used in this study which inhibited bone cell culture mineralization, the polyphosphates competitively saturated TNAP, thus potentially interfering with its ability to hydrolyze mineralization-inhibiting pyrophosphate (PPi) and mineralizing-promoting ?-glycerophosphate (in cell culture). In the biological setting, TNAP may regulate mineralization by shielding the essential inhibitory substrate pyrophosphate from TNAP degradation, and in the same process, delay the release of phosphate from this source. In conclusion, the inhibition of mineralization by polyphosphates is shown to occur via direct binding to apatitic mineral and by mixed inhibition of TNAP. PMID:23337041

Hoac, Betty; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Millán, José Luis; McKee, Marc D.

2013-01-01

101

Effect of cortisol on calpains in the C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to understand the effect of cortisol on calpain system in the C2C12 and 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells under co-culture system. Cells were co-cultured by using transwell inserts with a 0.4 ?m porous membrane to separate C2C12 and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. Each cell type was grown independently on the transwell plates. Following cell differentiation, inserts containing 3T3-L1 cells were transferred to C2C12 plates. Ten microgram per milliliter of cortisol was added to the medium. Following treatment for 3 days, the cells in the lower well were harvested for analysis. Calpains such as ?-calpain, m-calpain, and calpastatin were selected for the analysis. RT-PCR results indicated the significant increase in the mRNA expression of ?-calpain, m-calpain, and calpastatin. In addition, the confocal microscopical investigation indicated the cortisol treatment increases calpain expression in the C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. Taking all these together, cortisol treatment with co-culture system shows most reliable status of calpains expression in the cells, which is quite distinct from one-dimensional monocultured cells. PMID:24497045

Muthuraman, Pandurangan; Ravikumar, Sambandam; Muthuviveganandavel, Veerappan; Kim, Jongpil

2014-03-01

102

Iodothyronine Interactions with the System L1 Amino Acid Exchanger in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones enter isolated white adipocytes largely by a System L1-type amino acid transporter en route to exerting genomic actions. Differentiated 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes in culture express mRNA for LAT1 (the catalytic subunit of high-affinity System L1). L-[125I]-T3 uptake into 3T3-L1 adipocytes included a substantial saturable component inhibited by leucine. L-[3H]phenylalanine uptake into 3T3-L1 cells was saturable (Km of 31??M), competitively inhibited by T3 (Ki of 1.2??M) and blocked by leucine, BCH, and rT3 as expected for substrate interactions of System L1. Efflux of preloaded L-[3H]phenylalanine from 3T3-L1 adipocytes was trans stimulated by external leucine, demonstrating the obligatory exchange mechanism of System L1 transport. T3 (10??M) did not significantly trans stimulate L-[3H]phenylalanine efflux, but did competitively inhibit the trans stimulatory effect of 10 ?M leucine. The results highlight strong competitive interactions between iodothyronines (T3, rT3) and amino acids for transport by System L1 in adipocytes, which may impact cellular iodothyronine exchanges during altered states of protein nutrition. PMID:21048841

Mitchell, Fiona E.; Roy, Lisa A.; Taylor, Peter M.

2010-01-01

103

The short term exposition of AgNO3 on 3T3 mouse fibroblasts cell line.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in using of silver coated (silver nitrate, silver alloy, silver oxide) catheters for hospital patients. Clinical trials with silver-coated urinary catheters have shown conflicting results. The most often performed catheterization is for a short period of time. The above observations have encouraged the authors to investigate the influence of silver nitrate (AgNO3) on 3T3 fibroblasts viability in vitro during a short time experiment (3 and 12 h). 3T3 fibroblast culture was established. The influence of AgNO3 on the viability of murine 3T3 fibroblasts with the use of trypan blue staining was evaluated. The regression curves and lethal concentrations for 90, 50 and 10% viability were calculated. The lethal concentrations of AgNO3 after 3 h exposition were as follows LC10=0.98, LC50=6.44 and LC90=21.38. The lethal concentrations of AgNO3 after 12 h exposition were as follows LC10=1.05, LC50=6.91 and LC90=22.96. The LC values were similar for 3 and 12 h exposure as well. In conclusion, the silver nitrate has the similar toxic effect on 3T3 fibroblasts during the short and long exposition. Attention should be paid when catheter has a close contact to injured urothelium even for a short period of time. PMID:17665868

Drewa, Tomasz; Szmytkowska, Krystyna; Chaberski, Micha?

2007-01-01

104

Molecular mechanism of 9-cis-retinoic acid inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? We examined the effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis in mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1. ? 9-cis-RA inhibited lipid accumulation in adipogenetically-induced 3T3-L1 cells. ? A RXR pan-antagonist suppressed the inhibitory effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis. ? This antagonist had no effects on RXR? and PPAR? levels in 9-cis-RA-treated cells. ? 9-cis-RA-induced decrease in both RXR? and PPAR? was independent of RXR activation. -- Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is mediated by specific nuclear hormone receptors. Here we examined the effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis in mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. 9-cis-RA inhibits the lipid accumulation of adipogenetically induced 3T3-L1 cells. The complex of retinoid X receptor ? (RXR?) with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a major transcription factor in the process of adipogenesis, and the levels of these molecules were decreased by 9-cis-RA treatment. A RXR pan-antagonist suppressed 9-cis-RA’s inhibitory effects on adipogenesis, but not on the intracellular levels of both RXR? and PPAR?. These results suggest that 9-cis-RA could inhibit adipogenesis by activating RXR, and decrease both RXR and PPAR?s levels in a RXR activation-independent manner.

Sagara, Chiaki; Takahashi, Katsuhiko [Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8501 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8501 (Japan); Kagechika, Hiroyuki [School of Biomedical Science, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)] [School of Biomedical Science, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Takahashi, Noriko, E-mail: t-noriko@hoshi.ac.jp [Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8501 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8501 (Japan)

2013-03-29

105

Effects of oxidative stress on adiponectin secretion and lactate production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is an increasing nutritional disorder in developed countries, and oxidative stress has been identified as a key factor in numerous pathologies such as diabetes, inflammation, and atherosclerosis, which are favored by obesity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipose cells on two parameters involved in metabolic complications associated with

A. F. Soares; M. Guichardant; D. Cozzone; N. Bernoud-Hubac; N. Bouzaďdi-Tiali; M. Lagarde; A. Géloën

2005-01-01

106

Evidence for the Progressive and Adaptive Nature of Spontaneous Transformation in the NIH 3T3 Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NIH 3T3 mouse cell line is widely used as a recipient of DNA from tumors to demonstrate the presence of transforming oncogenes. We show that these cells produce transformed foci spontaneously if kept in the confluent state for more than 10 days. The formation of foci depends on the type and concentration of bovine serum used in the medium

H. Rubin; K. Xu

1989-01-01

107

Pigeons discriminate between human feeders.  

PubMed

Considered as plague in many cities, pigeons in urban areas live close to human activities and exploit this proximity to find food which is often directly delivered by people. In this study, we explored the capacity of feral pigeons to take advantage of this human-based food resource and discriminate between friendly and hostile people. Our study was conducted in an urban park. Pigeons were fed by two experimenters of approximately the same age and skin colour but wearing coats of different colours. During the training sessions, the two human feeders displayed different attitudes: one of the feeders was neutral and the second was hostile and chased away the pigeons. During the two test phases subsequent to the training phase, both feeders became neutral. Two experiments were conducted, one with one male and one female feeder and the second with two female feeders. In both experiments, the pigeons learned to quickly (six to nine sessions) discriminate between the feeders and maintained this discrimination during the test phases. The pigeons avoided the hostile feeder even when the two feeders exchanged their coats, suggesting that they used stable individual characteristics to differentiate between the experimenter feeders. Thus, pigeons are able to learn quickly from their interactions with human feeders and use this knowledge to maximize the profitability of the urban environment. This study provides the first experimental evidence in feral pigeons for this level of human discrimination. PMID:21647649

Belguermi, Ahmed; Bovet, Dalila; Pascal, Anouck; Prévot-Julliard, Anne-Caroline; Saint Jalme, Michel; Rat-Fischer, Lauriane; Leboucher, Gérard

2011-11-01

108

Bovine Collagen Peptides Compounds Promote the Proliferation and Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Pre-Osteoblasts  

PubMed Central

Objective Collagen peptides (CP) compounds, as bone health supplements, are known to play a role in the treatment of osteoporosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of this process remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of bovine CP compounds on the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Methods Mouse pre-osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cells were treated with bovine CP compounds. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assays and the cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry scanning. Furthermore, MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation was analyzed at the RNA level by real-time PCR and at the protein level by western blot analysis for runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), a colorimetric p-nitrophenyl phosphate assay for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and ELISA for osteocalcin (OC). Finally, alizarin red staining for mineralization was measured using Image Software Pro Plus 6.0. Results Cell proliferation was very efficient after treatment with different concentrations of bovine CP compounds, and the best concentration was 3 mg/mL. Bovine CP compounds significantly increased the percentage of MC3T3-E1 cells in G2/S phase. Runx2 expression, ALP activity, and OC production were significantly increased after treatment with bovine CP compounds for 7 or 14 days. Quantitative analyses with alizarin red staining showed significantly increased mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells after treatment with bovine CP compounds for 14 or 21 days. Conclusions Bovine CP compounds increased osteoblast proliferation, and played positive roles in osteoblast differentiation and mineralized bone matrix formation. Taking all the experiments together, our study indicates a molecular mechanism for the potential treatment of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. PMID:24926875

Liu, JunLi; Zhang, Bing; Song, ShuJun; Ma, Ming; Si, ShaoYan; Wang, YiHu; Xu, BingXin; Feng, Kai; Wu, JiGong; Guo, YanChuan

2014-01-01

109

Perilipin A mediates the reversible binding of CGI-58 to lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Perilipins, the major structural proteins coating the surfaces of mature lipid droplets of adipocytes, play an important role in the regulation of triacylglycerol storage and hydrolysis. We have used proteomic analysis to identify CGI-58, a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold family of enzymes, as a component of lipid droplets of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CGI-58 mRNA is highly expressed in adipose tissue and testes, tissues that also express perilipins, and at lower levels in liver, skin, kidney, and heart. Both endogenous CGI-58 and an ectopic CGI-58-GFP chimera show diffuse cytoplasmic localization in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, but localize almost exclusively to the surfaces of lipid droplets in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The localization of endogenous CGI-58 was investigated in 3T3-L1 cells stably expressing mutated forms of perilipin using microscopy. CGI-58 binds to lipid droplets coated with perilipin A or mutated forms of perilipin with an intact C-terminal sequence from amino acid 382 to 429, but not to lipid droplets coated with perilipin B or mutated perilipin A lacking this sequence. Immunoprecipitation studies confirmed these findings, but also showed co-precipitation of perilipin B and CGI-58. Remarkably, activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase by the incubation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with isoproterenol and isobutylmethylxanthine disperses CGI-58 from the surfaces of lipid droplets to a cytoplasmic distribution. This shift in subcellular localization can be reversed by the addition of propanolol to the culture medium. Thus, CGI-58 binds to perilipin A-coated lipid droplets in a manner that is dependent upon the metabolic status of the adipocyte and the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. PMID:15292255

Subramanian, Vidya; Rothenberg, Alexis; Gomez, Carlos; Cohen, Alex W; Garcia, Anne; Bhattacharyya, Sucharita; Shapiro, Lawrence; Dolios, Georgia; Wang, Rong; Lisanti, Michael P; Brasaemle, Dawn L

2004-10-01

110

Berberine reverses free-fatty-acid-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through targeting IKK?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of berberine on improving insulin resistance induced by free fatty acids (FFAs) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. METHODS: The model of insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was established by adding palmic acid (0.5 mmol/L) to the culture medium. Berberine treatment was performed at the same time. Glucose uptake rate was determined by the 2-deoxy-[3H]-D-glucose method. The levels of IkB kinase beta (IKK?) Ser181 phosphorylation, insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1) Ser307 phosphorylation, expression of IKK?, IRS-1, nuclear transcription factor kappaB p65 (NF-?B p65), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p85 (PI-3K p85) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) proteins were detected by Western blotting. The distribution of NF-?B p65 proteins inside the adipocytes was observed through confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). RESULTS: After the intervention of palmic acid for 24 h, the insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was inhibited by 67%. Meanwhile, the expression of IRS-1 and PI-3K p85 protein was reduced, while the levels of IKK? Ser181 and IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65 protein were increased. However, the above indexes, which indicated the existence of insulin resistance, were reversed by berberine although the expression of GLUT4, IKK? and total NF-?B p65 protein were not changed during this study. CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance induced by FFAs in 3T3-L1 adipocytes can be improved by berberine. Berberine reversed free-fatty-acid-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through targeting IKK?. PMID:18240344

Yi, Ping; Lu, Fu-Er; Xu, Li-Jun; Chen, Guang; Dong, Hui; Wang, Kai-Fu

2008-01-01

111

Effect of Ganoderma applanatum Mycelium Extract on the Inhibition of Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.  

PubMed

Abstract Ganoderma applanatum (GA) and related fungal species have been used for over 2000 years in China to prevent and treat various human diseases. However, there is no critical research evaluating the functionality of GA grown using submerged culture technology. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of submerged culture GA mycelium (GAM) and its active components (protocatechualdehyde [PCA]) on preadipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Mouse-derived preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells were treated with differentiation inducers in the presence or absence of GAM extracts. We determined triglyceride accumulations, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activities, and differentiation makers. PCA, the active component of GAM extract, was also used to treat 3T3-L1 cells. The MTT assay showed that the GAM extract (0.01-1?mg/mL) was not toxic to 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. Treatment of cells with GAM extracts and its active components significantly decreased the GPDH activity and lipid accumulation, a marker of adipogenesis, in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis results showed that the protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) were inhibited by the GAM extract. In addition, adipogenic-specific genes such as perilipin, fatty acid synthase (FAS), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the GAM extract contained 1.14?mg/g PCA. GAM extracts suppressed differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, in part, through altered regulation of PPAR?, C/EBP?, and SREBP1. These results suggest that GAM extracts and PCA may suppress adipogenesis by inhibiting differentiation of preadipocytes. PMID:25140758

Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Sung-Jin; Yu, Mi-Hee; Lee, Sam-Pin

2014-10-01

112

Phorbol ester-mediated association of protein kinase C to the nuclear fraction in NIH 3T3 cells.  

PubMed

Treatment of intact NIH 3T3 cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) causes a rapid redistribution (stabilization) of protein kinase C to the particulate fraction. Part of the enzyme activity stabilized to the membrane fraction in response to TPA can be recovered associated with nuclear-cytoskeletal components. An apparently pure nuclear fraction prepared from NIH 3T3 cells was found to contain 25-30% of the total membrane-associated protein kinase C activity when isolated in the presence of Ca2+. In untreated control cells, most of this activity found with the nuclear fraction can be extracted by chelators. Phorbol ester (TPA) treatment of NIH 3T3 cells induces the tight association of protein kinase C to the nucleus; this tightly bound activity is not dissociable by chelators and can be recovered only by solubilization with detergent. Nuclei purified from untreated human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells contain higher amounts of chelator-stable, detergent-extractable protein kinase C activity compared with control NIH 3T3 cells. However, TPA treatment of HL-60 cells does not enhance the amount of protein kinase C found tightly associated with the nuclear fraction. Immunohistochemical studies with polyclonal antibodies directed against protein kinase C further indicate that TPA treatment of NIH 3T3 cells does significantly enhance the amount of protein kinase C found tightly associated with the nucleus and cytoskeleton, whereas exposure of HL-60 cells to TPA does not appreciably alter the amount of protein kinase C observed to be associated with the nuclear fraction. The TPA-mediated association (activation) of protein kinase C to the nuclear and cytoskeletal fractions with NIH 3T3 cells is further supported by the enhanced phosphorylation of specific endogenous proteins noted when purified nuclei and cytoskeletal preparations are incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP. These results suggest that tumor promoters may induce association (activation) of protein kinase C with different subcellular components to alter the availability of endogenous substrates. This may result in differential responses by different cell types during exposure to tumor promoters. PMID:3127041

Thomas, T P; Talwar, H S; Anderson, W B

1988-04-01

113

Targeted inactivation of the insulin receptor gene in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts via homologous recombination.  

PubMed Central

To study the role of the insulin receptor in determining adipocyte differentiation of the mouse cell line 3T3-L1, we have introduced a mutation that inactivates the insulin receptor gene by homologous recombination. In two independent clones, inactivation of one allele of the insulin receptor gene was associated with a 50-70% reduction in the number of insulin receptors. In addition, both clones were markedly impaired in their ability to differentiate into adipocytes. The defect in adipocyte-specific differentiation was corrected by expression of transfected human insulin receptor cDNA. These data suggest that the insulin receptor may play an important role in promoting differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes in vitro. Images PMID:2052553

Accili, D; Taylor, S I

1991-01-01

114

FGF-2 signaling induces downregulation of TAZ protein in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells  

SciTech Connect

Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) protein is a coactivator of Runx2 and corepressor of PPAR{gamma}. It also induces differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. In this study, we found that FGF-2, which inhibits bone mineralization and stimulates cell proliferation, reduced the TAZ protein expression level in osteoblast-like cells, MC3T3-E1. This reduction was recovered by removing FGF-2 from the culture medium, which also restored the osteoblastic features of MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, FGF-2-induced reduction of TAZ is blocked by a SAPK/JNK-specific inhibitor. These findings suggest that the expression of TAZ protein is involved in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. This may help elucidate the discrepancies in the effect of FGF-2 and contribute to the understanding of FGF/FGFR-associated craniosynostosis syndrome etiology and treatment.

Eda, Homare [Department of Biochemistry, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Aoki, Katsuhiko [Department of Biochemistry, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Marumo, Keishi; Fujii, Katsuyuki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Ohkawa, Kiyoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan)], E-mail: pko@jikei.ac.jp

2008-02-08

115

Chemical constituents of Morus alba L. and their inhibitory effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation.  

PubMed

Mulberry leaf, an important traditional Chinese medicine, possesses many biological activities, including effects of anti-obesity. However, which constituents of mulberry leaf are responsible for its anti-adipogenic action is unclear. This study primarily investigated the chemical constituents from mulberry leaf and their bioactivity on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. A new flavane derivative, (2S)-4'-hydroxy-7-methoxy-8-prenylflavan (1), together with twelve known compounds including three flavanes (2-4), three chalcones (5-7), two flavones (8-9), two benzofurans (10-11) and two coumarin (12-13) was isolated from mulberry leaf. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by various spectroscopic methods including UV, HR-ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR and CD. The results of activity screening showed that compound 2, 6 and 7 inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. PMID:25128426

Yang, Yongyu; Yang, Xiding; Xu, Bing; Zeng, Guangyao; Tan, Jianbing; He, Xi; Hu, Changping; Zhou, YingJun

2014-10-01

116

Effects of C-reactive protein on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP increases TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 genes expression in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP suppresses adiponectin, leptin and PPAR-{gamma} mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wortmannin reverses effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin mRNA levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP may regulate IR, obesity and metabolic syndrome by this mechanism. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is now recognized to be an important endocrine organ, secreting a variety of adipokines that are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered as one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation. A number of studies have shown that elevation of CRP concentrations is an independent predictive parameter of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is also strongly associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of CRP on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that CRP inhibited adiponectin, leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-{gamma}) genes expression and raised tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose and time-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase by wortmannin partially reversed the effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin genes expression. These results collectively suggest that CRP regulates adiponectin, TNF-{alpha}, leptin, IL-6 and PPAR-{gamma} genes expression, and that might represent a mechanism by which CRP regulates insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Yuan, Guoyue, E-mail: yuanguoyue@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Jia, Jue; Di, Liangliang [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Zhou, Libin [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China)] [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China); Dong, Sijing; Ye, Jingjing; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ling; Wang, Jifang [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Li, Lianxi [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, 600, Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China)] [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, 600, Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Yang, Ying [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China)] [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China); Mao, Chaoming [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001 (China); Chen, Mingdao, E-mail: mingdaochensh@yahoo.com [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China)] [Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197, Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China)

2012-08-03

117

Dimethylfumarate suppresses adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through inhibition of STAT3 activity.  

PubMed

The excessive accumulation of adipocytes contributes to the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases. The interactions of several transcription factors, such as C/EBP?, PPAR?, C/EBP?, Nrf2, and STAT3, are required for adipogenic differentiation. Dimethylfumarate (DMF), an immune modulator and antioxidant, may function as an inhibitor of STAT3 and an activator of Nrf2. This study examined whether DMF inhibits adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by inhibiting STAT3 or activating Nrf2. DMF suppressed 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation to mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner as determined by Oil Red O staining. The mRNA and protein levels of adipogenic genes, including C/EBP?, C/EBP?, PPAR?, SREBP-1c, FAS, and aP2, were significantly lower in DMF-treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Suppression of adipogenic differentiation by DMF treatment resulted primarily from inhibition of the early stages of differentiation. DMF inhibits clonal expansion during adipogenic differentiation through induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest. Additionally, DMF regulates cell cycle-related proteins, such as p21, pRb, and cyclin D. DMF treatment markedly inhibited differentiation medium-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and inhibited STAT3 transcriptional activation of a reporter construct composed of four synthetic STAT3-response elements. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous Nrf2 activity using a dominant negative Nrf2 did not abolish the DMF-induced inhibition of adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In summary, DMF is a negative regulator of adipogenic differentiation based on its regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and cell cycle proteins. This negative regulation by DMF is mediated by STAT3 inhibition, but is unlikely to involve Nrf2 activation. PMID:23637829

Kang, Hyeon-Ji; Seo, Hyun-Ae; Go, Younghoon; Oh, Chang Joo; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

2013-01-01

118

Effects of NYGGF4 knockdown on insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

NYGGF4 is a recently discovered gene that is involved in obesity-associated insulin resistance. It has been suggested that mitochondrial\\u000a dysfunction might be responsible for the development of insulin resistance induced by NYGGF4 overexpression. In the present\\u000a study, we aimed to define the impact of down-regulating NYGGF4 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) on the insulin sensitivity\\u000a and mitochondrial function of 3T3-L1

Chun-Mei Zhang; Xue-Qi Zeng; Rong Zhang; Chen-Bo Ji; Mei-Ling Tong; Xia Chi; Xi-Ling Li; Jia-Zheng Dai; Min Zhang; Yan Cui; Xi-Rong Guo

2010-01-01

119

Diol and Triol-Type Ginseng Saponins Potentiate the Apoptosis of NIH3T3 Cells Exposed to Methyl Methanesulfonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the effect of ginseng saponins on the p53-dependent apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells exposed to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), an alkylating agent. Trypan blue exclusion assay, cell morphology studies, and apoptotic index determined by acridine orange staining showed that the postincubation of MMS-exposed cells in medium containing diol- (PD) or triol-type (PT) ginseng saponins potentiate the apoptotic

Sung Jin Hwang; Jae Young Cha; Seh Geun Park; Gi Jung Joe; Hyung Min Kim; Hyung Bae Moon; Se Jin Jeong; Jung Sup Lee; Dong Hwa Shin; Sung Ryong Ko; Jong Kun Park

2002-01-01

120

Establishment and use of 3t3 NRU assay for assessment of phototoxic hazard of cosmetic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish an alternative 3T3 mouse fibroblast neutral red uptake assay and investigate the feasibility of utilizing an alternative in vitro method to replace the animal testing, in particular, in phototoxicity assessment of cosmetics. Method: Fifteen phototoxic and nine non-phototoxic chemicals were tested and 20 functional cosmetic products were assessed. The mean photo effect (MPE) and the photo-irritation factor

Ying Yanga; Xikun Xiong; Xinfen Yang; Junming Huan; Xiaohua Tan; Qing Li; Xiwen He

121

Repression of GLUT4 expression by the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of GLUT4 is decreased in adipocytes in obesity and type 2 diabetes, contributing to the insulin resistance of these states. Recent investigations suggest a role for activation of the ER stress response in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. We investigated activation of the ER stress response in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We show that activation of the ER stress response

Ryan S. Miller; Daniel Diaczok; David W. Cooke

2007-01-01

122

Cirsium brevicaule A. GRAY leaf inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and C57BL/6 mice  

PubMed Central

Background Various flavonoids obtained from the genus Cirsium have been reported to exhibit beneficial effects on health. The present study evaluated the antiobesity effects of Cirsium brevicaule A. GRAY leaf (CL) by using 3T3-L1 cells and C57BL/6 mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods Dried CL powder was serially extracted with solvents of various polarities, and these extracts were tested for antiadipogenic activity using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mice were fed experimental HFD supplemented with dried CL powder for 4 wk. Lipid levels and mRNA levels of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver of mice fed on a HFD. Results Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with a hexane extract of CL significantly reduced cellular lipid accumulation and expression of the fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene. Dietary CL reduced the serum levels of non-esterified fatty acids in HFD-fed mice. Significant decreases in subcutaneous WAT weight and associated FASN gene expression were observed in the mice fed the experimental CL diet. Dietary CL also reduced the hepatic lipid and serum levels of a hepatopathic indicator in the HFD-fed mice. A significant reduction in mRNA levels of FASN and HMG-CoA reductase were observed in the livers of the CL-diet group. Dietary CL, on the other hand, increased in the hepatic mRNA levels of genes related to ?-oxidation, namely peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, calnitine palmitoyltrasferase 1A, and uncoupling protein 2. Expression of the insulin receptor gene was also significantly increased in the livers of mice-fed the CL diet. Conclusions The present study therefore demonstrated that CL suppresses lipid accumulation in the WAT and liver partly through inhibiting mRNA levels of FASN gene and enhancing the lipolysis-related gene expression. PMID:23945333

2013-01-01

123

Dynamic tracking and mobility analysis of single GLUT4 storage vesicle in live 3T3-L1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose transporting into the insulin-sensitive fat and muscle cells. The dynamics of GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) remains to be explored and it is unclear how GSVs are arranged based on their mobility. We examined this issue in 3T3-L1 cells via investigating the three-dimensional mobility of single GSV labeled with EGFP-fused GLUT4. A

Chen Hong LI; Li BAI; Dong Dong LI; Sheng XIA; Tao XU

2004-01-01

124

Ionic Responses Rapidly Elicited by Activation of Protein Kinase C in Quiescent Swiss 3T3 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diacylglycerol and phorbol esters activate protein kinase C in intact cells. We report here that addition of the synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG) to quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells caused a marked increase in the rate of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake, a measure of the activity of the Na+\\/K+ pump. The effect was dose-dependent and could be detected after 1 min

Francisco Vara; Jerry A. Schneider; Enrique Rozengurt

1985-01-01

125

Protein Kinase C Activation Enhances cAMP Accumulation in Swiss 3T3 Cells: Inhibition by Pertussis Toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PBt2) in the presence of forskolin or cholera toxin caused marked (6- to 8-fold) and rapid accumulation of cAMP in Swiss 3T3 cells. The effect of PBt2 is mediated by protein kinase C because the synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2 acetylglycerol substitutes for PBt2 in enhancing cAMP accumulation and because the enhancing effect of either PBt2 or 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol

Enrique Rozengurt; Mary Murray; Ian Zachary; Mary Collins

1987-01-01

126

Coordinate Control of 3T3 cell Proliferation by Platelet-Derived Growth Factor and Plasma Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA synthesis and cell division were measured in Swiss mouse 3T3 cells cultured in different concentrations of cell-free plasma-derived serum and increasing amounts of a platelet-derived growth factor. In plasma-derived serum alone, the cells were quiescent and they were arrested in the G0\\/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Addition of a platelet-derived growth factor to quiescent cells maintained in plasma-derived

Arthur Vogel; Elaine Raines; Beverly Kariya; Mary-Jane Rivest; Russell Ross

1978-01-01

127

Photo catalogue for the classification of foci in the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay.  

PubMed

This catalogue is a display of focus photos representative of the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay (CTA). It is intended as a visual aid for the identification and the scoring of foci in the conduct of the assay. A proper training from experienced personnel together with the protocol reported in this issue and the present photo catalogue will support method transfer and consistency in the assay results. PMID:22331008

Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Bohnenberger, Susanne; Hayashi, Kumiko; Kunkelmann, Thorsten; Muramatsu, Dai; Poth, Albrecht; Sakai, Ayako; Salovaara, Susan; Tanaka, Noriho; Thomas, B Claire; Umeda, Makoto

2012-04-11

128

Kinetic Analysis of Regulatory Events in G1 Leading to Proliferation or Quiescence of Swiss 3T3 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic analysis of cellular response to serum deprivation or inhibition of protein synthesis was performed on Swiss 3T3 cells. Time-lapse cinematographic analysis of individual cells transiently exposed to serum-free medium (with or without the addition of purified growth factors) or cycloheximide enabled a detailed mapping of the magnitude and variability of cellular response in different parts of the cell cycle.

A. Zetterberg; Olle Larsson

1985-01-01

129

Effect of microfibrillar collagen on growth and differentiation of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of microfibrillar collagen on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells was studied using MC3T3-E1\\u000a (E1) cells. In order to achieve direct contact of microfibrillar collagen with E1 cells, they were embedded in denatured collagen\\u000a gel, and DNA content, [3H] thymidine incorporation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and45Ca accumulation were examined after long-term culture. Microfibrillar collagen embedded with E1 cells increased

Shigeyuki Tsukagoshi; Toshio Matsurnoto; Shun-ici Harada; Etsuro Ogata

1992-01-01

130

R -?-Lipoic acid and acetyl- l -carnitine complementarily promote mitochondrial biogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The aim of the study was to address the importance of mitochondrial function in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and\\u000a also to identify effective agents for ameliorating insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. We examined the effect of two mitochondrial\\u000a nutrients, R-?-lipoic acid (LA) and acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC), as well as their combined effect, on mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

W. Shen; K. Liu; C. Tian; L. Yang; X. Li; J. Ren; L. Packer; C. W. Cotman; J. Liu

2008-01-01

131

Bisphenol A in combination with insulin can accelerate the conversion of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The confluent cultures of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts were treated with or without bisphenol A (BPA) for 2 days and subsequently treated with insulin (INS) alone for 9 days. When BPA was absent during the first 2-day treatment period, the cultures contained 1.6 ? g\\/ ? g DNA of triacyl- glycerol (TG), 202 mU\\/mg DNA of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and 462

Hiroshi Masuno; Teruki Kidani; Keizo Sekiya; Kenshi Sakayama; Takahiko Shiosaka; Haruyasu Yamamoto; Katsuhisa Honda

132

Bisphenol A Accelerates Terminal Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells into Adipocytes through the Phosphatidylinositol 3Kinase Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify whether bisphenol A (BPA) acts as an adipogenic agent, following the hormonal induction of differen- tiation into adipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells were treated for six days with BPA alone. Treatment with BPA increased the triacylglycerol (TG) content of the cultures, increased the percentage of Oil Red O-staining cells in the cultures, and increased the levels of lipoprotein

Hiroshi Masuno; Jun Iwanami; Teruki Kidani; Kenshi Sakayama; Katsuhisa Honda

2005-01-01

133

Magnetic resonance detects changes in phosphocholine associated with Ras activation and inhibition in NIH 3T3 cells  

PubMed Central

Ras is frequently mutated in cancer, and novel therapies are being developed to target Ras signalling. To identify non-invasive surrogate markers of Ras activation and inhibition, we used31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and investigated NIH 3T3 cells compared to a mutant ras transfected counterpart. The MR spectra indicated that phosphocholine (PC) levels increased significantly from 3 ± 2 fmol cell?1in NIH 3T3 cells to 13?±?4 ?fmol cell?1in the transfected cells. The PC/NTP ratio increased significantly from 0.3?±?0.1 to 0.7 ± 0.3. This could not be explained by either a faster proliferation rate or by alterations in cell cycle distribution. Both cell lines were treated with simvastatin, 17-AAG and R115777, agents which inhibit Ras signalling. Cell proliferation was inhibited in both cell lines. The spectrum of NIH 3T3 cells was not affected by treatment. In contrast, in the ras transfected cells growth inhibition was associated with an average 35?±?5% drop in PC levels and a comparable drop in PC/NTP. Thus the MRS visible increase in phosphocholine is associated with Ras activation, and response to treatment is associated with partial reversal of phosphocholine increase in ras transfected cells. MRS might therefore be a useful tool in detecting Ras activation and its inhibition following targeted therapies. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11237392

Ronen, S M; Jackson, L E; Beloueche, M; Leach, M O

2001-01-01

134

S-phase induction and transformation of quiescent NIH 3T3 cells by microinjection of phospholipase C  

SciTech Connect

Two inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes (PLC-I and -II) have been purified from bovine brain. When PLC-I or PLC-II was microinjected into quiescent NIH 3T3 cells, a time- and dose-dependent induction of DNA synthesis occurred, as demonstrated by ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation into nuclear DNA. In addition, {approx} 8 hr after PLC injection, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts appeared spindle-shaped, refractile, and highly vacuolated, displaying a morphology similar to transformed cells. The morphologic transformation was apparent for 26-30 hr after which the injected cells reverted back to a normal phenotype. Microinjected PLC at a high concentration was cytotoxic, dissolving the cytoplasmic membrane and leaving behind cellular ghosts. PLC is a key regulatory enzyme involved in cellular membrane signal transduction. Introduction of exogenous PLC into NIH 3T3 cells by microinjection induced a growth and oncogenic potential, as demonstrated by the ability of microinjected PLC to override the cellular G{sub 0} block, inducing DNA synthesis and morphologic transformation of growth-arrested fibroblast cells.

Smith, M.R.; Ryu, Sungho; Suh, Panghill; Rhee, Suegoo; Kung, Hsiangfu (National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (USA))

1989-05-01

135

Actein isolated from black cohosh promotes the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.  

PubMed

Actein, isolated from black cohosh, was subjected to in vitro experiments to investigate its functional bioactivities in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Actein caused a significant elevation of alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, osteocalcin production, mineralization, and glutathione content in the cells, suggesting that actein has a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation or has potential activity against osteoporosis. We investigated the protective effects of actein on mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor, antimycin A induced toxicity in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to antimycin A caused significant decrease in cell viability and mineralization. However, pretreatment with actein prior to antimycin A exposure significantly reduced antimycin A-induced cell damage by preventing mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, complex IV inactivation, cardiolipin oxidation, ROS release, and nitrotyrosine increase, suggesting that actein may be useful for protecting mitochondria against a burst of oxidative stress. In addition, actein increased the phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) inhibited by antimycin A and decreased the production of TNF-? induced by antimycin A. These findings suggest that actein could prevent oxidative damage to osteoblasts in osteoporotic patients. PMID:24552231

Lee, Young Soon; Choi, Eun Mi

2014-04-01

136

Restoration of the cholesterol metabolism in 3T3 cell lines derived from the sphingomyelinosis mouse (spm\\/spm) by transfer of a human chromosome 18  

Microsoft Academic Search

We searched for a human chromosome that would restore the cholesterol metabolism in 3T3 cell lines (SPM-3T3) derived from homozygous sphingomyelinosis mice (spm\\/spm). Mouse A9 cells containing a single copy of pSV2neo-tagged chromosomes 9, 11, or 18 derived from normal human fibroblasts served as donor cells for transfer of human chromosomes. Purified A9 microcells were fused with SPM-3T3 cells, and

Akihiro Kurimasa; Kousaku Ohno; Mitsuo Oshimura

1993-01-01

137

Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via decreased glucose uptake and lipogenic protein expression and increased basal lipolysis. Such an hypoxia-induced decrease in lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against lipid-associated metabolic diseases.

Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)] [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)] [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)] [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan) [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 (Japan); Taguchi, Sadayoshi [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)] [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

2013-10-11

138

Radicicol, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, inhibits differentiation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Radicicol suppressed intracellular fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Radicicol inhibited the expression of FAS and FABP4. •Radicicol blocked cell cycle at the G1-S phase during cell differentiation. •Radicicol inhibited the PDK1/Akt pathway in adipocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is involved in various cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As adipocyte differentiation plays a critical role in obesity development, the present study investigated the effect of an Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and potential mechanisms. The cells were treated with different concentrations of radicicol during the first 8 days of cell differentiation. Adipogenesis, the expression of adipogenic transcriptional factors, differentiation makers and cell cycle were determined. It was found that radicicol dose-dependently decreased intracellular fat accumulation through down-regulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR{sub ?}) and CCAAT element binding protein ? (C/EBP{sub ?}), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that radicicol blocked cell cycle at G1-S phase. Radicicol redcued the phosphorylation of Akt while showing no effect on ?-catenin expression. Radicicol decreased the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). The results suggest that radicicol inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation through affecting the PDK1/Akt pathway and subsequent inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion and the expression/activity of adipogenic transcriptional factors and their downstream adipogenic proteins.

He, Yonghan [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China) [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China); Li, Ying [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China)] [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Zhang, Shuocheng [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada)] [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Perry, Ben [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada) [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Zhao, Tiantian [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada) [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, Canada M1C 1A4 (Canada); Wang, Yanwen, E-mail: yanwen.wang@nrc.ca [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada) [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Sun, Changhao, E-mail: sun2002changhao@yahoo.com [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China)] [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China)

2013-06-28

139

Changes in chromatin structure in NIH 3T3 cells induced by valproic acid and trichostatin A.  

PubMed

Valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA) are known histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) with epigenetic activity that affect chromatin supra-organization, nuclear architecture, and cellular proliferation, particularly in tumor cells. In this study, chromatin remodeling with effects extending to heterochromatic areas was investigated by image analysis in non-transformed NIH 3T3 cells treated for different periods with different doses of VPA and TSA under conditions that indicated no loss of cell viability. Image analysis revealed chromatin decondensation that affected not only euchromatin but also heterochromatin, concomitant with a decreased activity of histone deacetylases and a general increase in histone H3 acetylation. Heterochromatin protein 1-? (HP1-?), identified immunocytochemically, was depleted from the pericentromeric heterochromatin following exposure to both HDACIs. Drastic changes affecting cell proliferation and micronucleation but not alteration in CCND2 expression and in ratios of Bcl-2/Bax expression and cell death occurred following a 48-h exposure of the NIH 3T3 cells particularly in response to higher doses of VPA. Our results demonstrated that even low doses of VPA (0.05?mM) and TSA (10?ng/ml) treatments for 1?h can affect chromatin structure, including that of the heterochromatin areas, in non-transformed cells. HP1-? depletion, probably related to histone demethylation at H3K9me3, in addition to the effect of VPA and TSA on histone H3 acetylation, is induced on NIH 3T3 cells. Despite these facts, alterations in cell proliferation and micronucleation, possibly depending on mitotic spindle defects, require a longer exposure to higher doses of VPA and TSA. PMID:24913611

Felisbino, Marina Barreto; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari; Mello, Maria Luiza S

2014-11-01

140

Microarray analysis of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-treated MC3T3-E1 cells.  

PubMed

The active form of Vitamin D, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)], demonstrates potent antiproliferative actions on normal as well as on malignant cell types by blocking the transition from the G1- to the S-phase of the cell cycle. Key target genes for 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) in this non-classic effect remain largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims to identify genes that, through changes in expression after 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) treatment, contribute to the observed antiproliferative effect. cDNA microarrays containing 4600 genes were used to investigate changes in gene expression in MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblasts at 6 and at 12h after treatment with 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) (10(-8)M), preceding (6h) or coinciding with (12h) the G1/S block in these cells. Approximately one fifth of the genes that were significantly down-regulated after a 12h incubation period with 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) were genes involved in the DNA replication process, a basic process for cell growth that starts at the end of G1-phase and continues in S-phase. Down-regulation of these genes by 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR in MC3T3-E1. In conclusion, cDNA microarrays revealed that treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) resulted in the down-regulation of DNA replication genes in parallel with the observed G1/S-arrest. PMID:15225810

Eelen, Guy; Verlinden, Lieve; Van Camp, Mark; Mathieu, Chantal; Carmeliet, Geert; Bouillon, Roger; Verstuyf, Annemieke

2004-05-01

141

Influence of sodium hypochlorite treatment of electropolished and magnetoelectropolished nitinol surfaces on adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells.  

PubMed

The influence of 6 % sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatment on adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells seeded on electropolished (EP) and magnetoelectropolished (MEP) nitinol surfaces were investigated. The chemistry, topography, roughness, surface energy, wettability of EP and MEP nitinol surfaces before and after NaClO treatment were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), profilometry, and contact angle meter. In vitro interaction of osteoblast cell and NaClO treated EP and MEP nitinol surfaces were assessed after 3 days of incubation by scanning electron microscopy. The XPS analysis shows that NaClO treatment increases oxygen content especially in subsurface oxide layer of EP and MEP nitinol. The changes of both basic components of nitinol, namely nickel and titanium in oxide layer, were negligible. The NaClO treatment did not influence physico-morphological surface properties of EP and MEP nitinol to a big extent. The osteoblast cells show remarkable adherence and proliferation improvement on NaClO treated EP and MEP nitinol surfaces. After 3 days of incubation they show almost total confluence on both NaClO treated surfaces. The present study shows that NaClO treatment of EP and MEP nitinol surfaces alters oxide layer by enriching it in oxygen and by this improves bone cell-nitinol interaction. PMID:22661249

Rokicki, Ryszard; Haider, Waseem; Hryniewicz, Tadeusz

2012-09-01

142

The inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 cell extract on the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Cells.  

PubMed

Some probiotics and their cell components are known to modulate lipid metabolism in vitro and/or in vivo. This study was carried out to investigate possible anti-adipogenic action of a probiotic cell extract, Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 cell extract (KY1032-CE), in vitro using 3T3-L1 cells. Lipid regulation in the cell culture system was assessed by AdipoRed assay and Oil red O staining of intracellular lipids and real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis of adipogenesis-related factors. AdipoRed assay revealed that KY1032-CE treatment significantly decreased lipid accumulation in maturing 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Oil red O staining demonstrated that KY1032-CE reduced the number of lipid-containing rounded cells. KY1032-CE down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of four adipocyte-specific genes: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-?, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein. Accordingly, these results indicate that KY1032-CE can reduce fat mass by modulating adipogenesis in maturing preadipocytes. Further studies are needed to elucidate its mode of actions in efficacy tests of KY1032-CE in vivo. PMID:21554138

Park, Do-Young; Ahn, Young-Tae; Huh, Chul-Sung; Jeon, Seon-Min; Choi, Myung-Sook

2011-06-01

143

Protein kinase C activation enhances cAMP accumulation in Swiss 3T3 cells: inhibition by pertussis toxin.  

PubMed

Addition of phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PBt2) in the presence of forskolin or cholera toxin caused marked (6- to 8-fold) and rapid accumulation of cAMP in Swiss 3T3 cells. The effect of PBt2 is mediated by protein kinase C because the synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2 acetylglycerol substitutes for PBt2 in enhancing cAMP accumulation and because the enhancing effect of either PBt2 or 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol was prevented by down-regulation of protein kinase C. Vasopressin, which activates protein kinase C but does not directly affect adenylate cyclase in 3T3 cells, also enhanced cAMP accumulation in cells treated with cholera toxin or forskolin. This effect was abolished by down-regulation of protein kinase C. Treatment with pertussis toxin blocked the enhancing effect of PBt2 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Pertussis toxin neither prevented protein kinase C activation by PBt2 nor other biologic responses elicited by PBt2. The results presented here suggest an unusual function for a pertussis toxin substrate--namely, coupling protein kinase C activation to cAMP production. PMID:3031676

Rozengurt, E; Murray, M; Zachary, I; Collins, M

1987-04-01

144

Diacylglycerol treatment rapidly decreases the affinity of the epidermal growth factor receptors of Swiss 3T3 cells.  

PubMed

The synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl glycerol (OAG) and phorbol esters activate protein kinase C in intact cells. We report here that OAG inhibits the binding of 125I-labelled epidermal growth factor (125I-EGF) to Swiss 3T3 cells. The inhibition was detected as early as 1 min after treatment at 37 degrees C and persisted for at least 120 min. The effect of OAG was reversed upon removal of this diacylglycerol. Detailed Scatchard analysis of 125I-EGF binding to Swiss 3T3 cells at 4 degrees C after a 1 h incubation with a saturating dose of OAG at 37 degrees C, demonstrates that this OAG pretreatment does not change the apparent number of EGF receptors but causes a marked decrease in their apparent affinity for the ligand. Prolonged treatment (40 h) of the cells with phorbol dibutyrate (PBt2) which causes a marked decrease in the number of phorbol ester binding sites and in the activity of protein kinase C, prevented the inhibition of 125I-EGF binding by both PBt2 and OAG. The results support the possibility that protein kinase C plays a role in the transmodulation of the EGF receptor in intact cells. PMID:2995413

Sinnett-Smith, J W; Rozengurt, E

1985-07-01

145

Ionic responses rapidly elicited by activation of protein kinase C in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells.  

PubMed

Diacylglycerol and phorbol esters activate protein kinase C in intact cells. We report here that addition of the synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG) to quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells caused a marked increase in the rate of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake, a measure of the activity of the Na+/K+ pump. The effect was dose-dependent and could be detected after 1 min of exposure to the diacylglycerol. OAG stimulated Na+ influx via an amiloride-sensitive pathway and increased intracellular pH by 0.15 pH unit. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PBt2) also enhanced ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake and amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ influx. Prolonged treatment (40 hr) of 3T3 cells with PBt2 at a saturating dose, which reduces the number of PBt2 binding sites and protein kinase C activity, abolished the ionic response of the cells to a subsequent addition of either OAG or PBt2. Appropriate controls using acid "loads" and the Na+ ionophore monensin showed that the function of the Na+/H+ antiport system and of the Na+/K+ pump was not impaired in the PBt2-desensitized cells. We suggest that activation of protein kinase C elicits, either directly or indirectly, enhanced Na+/H+ antiport activity, which, in turn, leads to Na+ influx, intracellular pH modulation, and stimulation of the Na+/K+ pump. PMID:2581246

Vara, F; Schneider, J A; Rozengurt, E

1985-04-01

146

Ionic responses rapidly elicited by activation of protein kinase C in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells  

SciTech Connect

Diacylglycerol and phorbol esters activate protein kinase C in intact cells. The authors report here that addition of the synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG) to quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells caused a marked increase in the rate of ouabain-sensitive YWRb uptake, a measure of the activity of the Na /K pump. The effect was dose-dependent and could be detected after 1 min of exposure to the diacylglycerol. OAG stimulated Na influx via an amiloride-sensitive pathway and increased intracellular pH by 0.15 pH unit. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PBt2) also enhanced ouabain sensitive YWRb uptake and amiloride-sensitive SSNa influx. Prolonged treatment (40 hr) of 3T3 cells with PBt2 at a saturating dose, which reduces the number of PBt2 binding sites and protein kinase C activity, abolished the ionic response of the cells to a subsequent addition of either OAG or PBt2. They suggest that activation of protein kinase C elicits, either directly or indirectly, enhanced Na /H antiport activity, which, in turn, leads to Na influx, intracellular pH modulation, and stimulation of the Na /K pump.

Vara, F.; Schneider, J.A.; Rozengurt, E.

1985-04-01

147

Alliin, a Garlic (Allium sativum) Compound, Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide), a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. Incubation of cells for 24?h with 100??mol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100?ng/mL LPS for 1?h. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is involved in LPS-induced inflammation in adipocytes, was decreased following alliin treatment. Furthermore, the gene expression profile by microarrays evidentiate an upregulation of genes involved in immune response and downregulation of genes related with cancer. The present results have shown that alliin is able to suppress the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile and by modifying adipocyte metabolic profile. PMID:24453416

Quintero-Fabian, Saray; Ortuno-Sahagun, Daniel; Vazquez-Carrera, Manuel; Lopez-Roa, Rocio Ivette

2013-01-01

148

Ionic responses rapidly elicited by porcine platelet-derived growth factor in Swiss 3T3 cells.  

PubMed Central

Addition of porcine platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells caused a marked, dose-dependent stimulation of Na+ influx and Na-K pump-mediated 86Rb+ uptake. Porcine PDGF (a single component in SDS polyacrylamide gels) stimulated ion fluxes to the same maximal extent as partially purified preparations, and exhibited half-maximal effect at 6 ng/ml (2 X 10(-10) M). Maximal effect was achieved at 30 ng/ml (10(-9) M). In the presence of insulin, PDGF elicited mitogenesis at comparable concentrations. PDGF stimulated ion uptake in a time-dependent fashion; maximal effect was obtained after 5 min of exposure to the growth factor. PDGF stimulates Na+ influx via an amiloride-sensitive pathway, suggesting that PDGF enhances the activity of a Na+/H+ antiport system. In accordance with this possibility, the mitogen caused an increase of intracellular pH by 0.15 pH units, as judged by the steady-state distribution of labelled 5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione (DMO). Porcine PDGF stimulated E-type prostaglandin synthesis and cAMP accumulation but these events could be dissociated from the stimulation of the ionic fluxes, which was detected within minutes and was not blocked by indomethacin. It is suggested that PDGF elicits multiple signals to stimulate cell proliferation in 3T3 cells. PMID:6329747

Lopez-Rivas, A; Stroobant, P; Waterfield, M D; Rozengurt, E

1984-01-01

149

Anti-Obesity Effects of Hispidin and Alpinia zerumbet Bioactives in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.  

PubMed

Obesity and its related disorders have become leading metabolic diseases. In the present study, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes to investigate the anti-obesity activity of hispidin and two related compounds that were isolated from Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia) rhizomes. The results showed that hispidin, dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK), and 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) have promising anti-obesity properties. In particular, all three compounds significantly increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations by 81.2% ± 0.06%, 67.0% ± 1.62%, and 56.9% ± 0.19%, respectively. Hispidin also stimulated glycerol release by 276.4% ± 0.8% and inhibited lipid accumulation by 47.8% ± 0.16%. Hispidin and DDK decreased intracellular triglyceride content by 79.5% ± 1.37% and 70.2% ± 1.4%, respectively, and all three compounds inhibited glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and pancreatic lipase, with hispidin and DDK being the most potent inhibitors. Finally, none of the three compounds reduced 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability. These results highlight the potential for developing hispidin and its derivatives as anti-obesity compounds. PMID:25322285

Tu, Pham Thi Be; Tawata, Shinkichi

2014-01-01

150

Protective effect of apocynin on antimycin A-induced cell damage in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.  

PubMed

Apocynin is a naturally occurring methoxy-substituted catechol, experimentally used as an inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of apocynin on antimycin A (AMA)-induced toxicicy in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to AMA caused significant cell viability loss, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) dissipation, complex IV inactivation, ATP loss, intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) elevation and oxidative stress. Pretreatment with apocynin prior to AMA exposure significantly reduced AMA-induced cell damage by preventing MMP dissipation, complex IV inactivation, ATP loss, [Ca2+]i elevation and oxidative stress. These results suggest that apocynin has a protective effect against AMA-induced cell damage by its antioxidant effects and the attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction. Apocynin also induced the activation of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), Akt (protein kinase B) and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) inhibited by AMA. All these data indicate that apocynin may reduce or prevent osteoblasts degeneration in osteoporosis or other degenerative disorders. PMID:21538410

Choi, Eun Mi; Lee, Young Soon

2012-09-01

151

The anti-obesity effect of Lethariella cladonioides in 3T3-L1 cells and obese mice  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate whether a water extract of L. cladonioides (LC) has an anti-obesity effect in 3T3-L1 cells and obese mice. Treatment of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with LC caused a significant increase in glycerol release and reduced the protein expression of the adipogenic transcription factors, PPAR? and C/EBP?. In an animal model, obese mice were artificially induced by a high fat diet for 10 weeks. Experimental groups were treated with LC (100 mg/kg/day) by gavage for the next 10 weeks. At the end of experiment, the body weight of the LC group mice was reduced by 14.2% compared to the high fat diet (HFD) group. The treatment also decreased liver (31.0%), epididymal (18.0%) and retroperitoneal (19.3%) adipose tissue, and kidney (6.7%) weights, respectively, compared with those of the HFD group. LC prevented diet-induced increases in the serum level of TC (22.6%), TG (11.6%), and glucose (35.0%), respectively, compared with the HFD group. However, the HDL-C level was higher in the LC group (26.1%) than the HFD group. The results of this study thus suggest that LC suppressed lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic transcription factors, and increased the amount of glycerol release. LC also indicated an anti-obese and anti-hyperlipidemic effect. PMID:22259674

Sung, Ju-Hyun; Chon, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Mi-Ae; Park, Jin-Kyung; Woo, Jeong-Taek

2011-01-01

152

Downregulation of the taurine transporter TauT during hypo-osmotic stress in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The present work was initiated to investigate regulation of the taurine transporter TauT by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts during acute and long-term (4 h) exposure to low-sodium/hypo-osmotic stress. Taurine influx is reduced following reduction in osmolarity, keeping the extracellular Na(+) concentration constant. TonEBP activity is unaltered, whereas TauT transcription as well as TauT activity are significantly reduced under hypo-osmotic conditions. In contrast, TonEBP activity and TauT transcription are significantly increased following hyperosmotic exposure. Swelling-induced ROS production in NIH3T3 fibroblasts is generated by NOX4 and by increasing total ROS, by either exogenous application of H(2)O(2) or overexpressing NOX4, we demonstrate that TonEBP activity and taurine influx are regulated negatively by ROS under hypo-osmotic, low-sodium conditions, whereas the TauT mRNA level is unaffected. Acute exposure to ROS reduces taurine uptake as a result of modulated TauT transport kinetics. Thus, swelling-induced ROS production could account for the reduced taurine uptake under low-sodium/hypo-osmotic conditions by direct modulation of TauT. PMID:22383044

Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Friis, Martin Barfred; Hoffmann, Else Kay; Lambert, Ian Henry

2012-02-01

153

Inhibition of adipogenesis and leptin production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by a derivative of meridianin C.  

PubMed

Meridianin C, a marine alkaloid, is a potent protein kinase inhibitor and has anti-cancer activity. We have recently developed a series of meridianin C derivatives (compound 7a-7j) and reported their proviral integration Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (pim) kinases' inhibitory and anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia cells. Here we investigated the effect of these meridianin C derivatives on adipogenesis. Strikingly, among the derivatives tested, compound 7b most strongly inhibited lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. However, meridianin C treatment was largely cytotoxic to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. On mechanistic levels, compound 7b reduced not only the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-? (C/EBP-?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) but also the phosphorylation levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and STAT-5 during adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, compound 7b repressed leptin, but not adiponectin, expression during adipocyte differentiation. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that a meridianin C derivative inhibits adipogenesis by down-regulating expressions and/or phosphorylations of C/EBP-?, PPAR-?, FAS, STAT-3 and STAT-5. PMID:25245291

Park, Yu-Kyoung; Lee, Tae-Yoon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Hong, Victor Sukbong; Lee, Jinho; Park, Jong-Wook; Jang, Byeong-Churl

2014-10-01

154

Insulin responsiveness of glucose transporter 4 in 3T3-L1 cells depends on the presence of sortilin  

PubMed Central

Insulin-dependent translocation of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) to the plasma membrane of fat and skeletal muscle cells plays the key role in postprandial clearance of blood glucose. Glut4 represents the major cell-specific component of the insulin-responsive vesicles (IRVs). It is not clear, however, whether the presence of Glut4 in the IRVs is essential for their ability to respond to insulin stimulation. We prepared two lines of 3T3-L1 cells with low and high expression of myc7-Glut4 and studied its translocation to the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation, using fluorescence-assisted cell sorting and cell surface biotinylation. In undifferentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, translocation of myc7-Glut4 was low regardless of its expression levels. Coexpression of sortilin increased targeting of myc7-Glut4 to the IRVs, and its insulin responsiveness rose to the maximal levels observed in fully differentiated adipocytes. Sortilin ectopically expressed in undifferentiated cells was translocated to the plasma membrane regardless of the presence or absence of myc7-Glut4. AS160/TBC1D4 is expressed at low levels in preadipocytes but is induced in differentiation and provides an additional mechanism for the intracellular retention and insulin-stimulated release of Glut4. PMID:23966466

Huang, Guanrong; Buckler-Pena, Dana; Nauta, Tessa; Singh, Maneet; Asmar, Agnes; Shi, Jun; Kim, Ju Youn; Kandror, Konstantin V.

2013-01-01

155

Diol- and triol-type ginseng saponins potentiate the apoptosis of NIH3T3 cells exposed to methyl methanesulfonate.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the effect of ginseng saponins on the p53-dependent apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells exposed to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), an alkylating agent. Trypan blue exclusion assay, cell morphology studies, and apoptotic index determined by acridine orange staining showed that the postincubation of MMS-exposed cells in medium containing diol- (PD) or triol-type (PT) ginseng saponins potentiate the apoptotic cell death. FACS analysis indicated that the increased apoptotic cell population in the saponin-postincubation group was accompanied by the accumulation of cells in G0/G1 phase. By Western blot analyses it was demonstrated that postincubation of saponins increases the expression of p53 and p21 in MMS-exposed cells but decreased that of CDK2, cyclin E and D1, and PCNA. The upregulation of p53 and p21 and downregulation of CDK2 was shown to be p53-dependent in experiments using the p53 antisense oligonucleotide. These results suggest that ginseng saponins contain components potentiating the apoptosis of MMS-exposed NIH3T3 cells via p53 and p21 activation, accompanied with by downregulation of cell cycle-related protein expression. PMID:12079428

Hwang, Sung Jin; Cha, Jae Young; Park, Seh Geun; Joe, Gi Jung; Kim, Hyung Min; Moon, Hyung Bae; Jeong, Se Jin; Lee, Jung Sup; Shin, Dong Hwa; Ko, Sung Ryong; Park, Jong Kun

2002-06-15

156

Prevalidation study of the BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay for assessment of carcinogenic potential of chemicals.  

PubMed

The cell transformation assays (CTAs) have attracted attention within the field of alternative methods due to their potential to reduce the number of animal experiments in the field of carcinogenicity. The CTA using BALB/c 3T3 cells has proved to be able to respond to chemical carcinogens by inducing morphologically transformed foci. Although a considerable amount of data on the performance of the assay has been collected, a formal evaluation focusing particularly on reproducibility, and a standardised protocol were considered important. Therefore the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) decided to coordinate a prevalidation study of the BALB/c 3T3 CTA. Three different laboratories from Japan and Europe participated. In the study the following modules were assessed stepwise: test definition (Module 1) consisted of the standardisation of the protocol, the selection of the cell lineage, and the preparation of a photo catalogue on the transformed foci. The within-laboratory reproducibility (Module 2) and the transferability (Module 3) were assessed using non-coded and coded 3-methylcholanthrene. Then, five coded chemicals were tested for the assessment of between-laboratory reproducibility (Module 4). All three laboratories obtained positive results with benzo[a]pyrene, phenanthrene and o-toluidine HCl. 2-Acetylaminofluorene was positive in two laboratories and equivocal in one laboratory. Anthracene was negative in all three laboratories. The chemicals except phenanthrene, which is classified by IARC (http://monographs.iarc.fr) as group 3 "not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to human", were correctly predicted as carcinogens. Further studies on phenanthrene will clarify this discrepancy. Thus, although only a few chemicals were tested, it can be seen that the predictive capacity of the BALB/c 3T3 CTA is satisfactory. On the basis of the outcome of this study, an improved protocol, incorporating some changes related to data interpretation, has been developed. It is recommended that this protocol be used in the future to provide more data that may confirm the robustness of this protocol and the performance of the assay itself. During the study it became clear that selecting the most appropriate concentrations for the transformation assay is crucial. PMID:22198331

Tanaka, Noriho; Bohnenberger, Susanne; Kunkelmann, Thorsten; Munaro, Barbara; Ponti, Jessica; Poth, Albrecht; Sabbioni, Enrico; Sakai, Ayako; Salovaara, Susan; Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Thomas, B Claire; Umeda, Makoto

2012-04-11

157

Automatic optimal feeder design in steel casting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for automatic optimal feeder design in steel casting processes is presented. The initial design is the casting part (without feeders) which is placed in a suitable mold box. Design of each feeder contains the following steps: determination of the feeder-neck connection point on the casting surface, initial feeder design, feeder shape optimization and feeder topology optimization. Completing designing

Rohallah Tavakoli; Parviz Davami

2008-01-01

158

Co-culture of C2C12 and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells alters the gene expression of calpains, caspases and heat shock proteins.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to understand the co-culture effect of C2C12 and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells on calpain, caspase, and heat shock protein (Hsp) systems. Calpains, caspases, and heat shock proteins play critical roles in the growth and development of mammalian cells. Cells were co-cultured using transwell inserts with a 0.4-?m porous membrane to separate C2C12 and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. Each cell type was grown independently on the transwell plates. Following cell differentiation, inserts containing 3T3-L1 cells were transferred to C2C12 plates and inserts containing C2C12 transferred to 3T3-L1 plates. Following co-culture for 24 and 48 h, the cells in the lower well were harvested for analysis. Calpains include ?-calpain, m-calpain, and their specific inhibitor calpastatin. The expression pattern of ?-calpain did not change in the co-cultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells, whereas m-capain mRNA expression significantly reduced in the 48-h co-cultured 3T3-L1 cells. Calpastatin mRNA expression significantly increased in the 48-h co-cultured C2C12 cells. Caspase-7 mRNA expression did not change in the 24- and 48-h co-cultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. Caspase-3 mRNA expression significantly reduced in the 24- and 48-h co-cultured 3T3-L1 cells; caspase-9 mRNA had a significant reduction only at 48 h, whereas caspase-9 mRNA expression significantly increased in the 48-h co-cultured C2C12 cells. Hsp27 and Hsp90 mRNA expressions are significantly reduced in the 24- and 48-h co-cultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells, whereas Hsp70 mRNA expression significantly increased in the 48-h co-cultured 3T3-L1 cells. The co-culture reflects three-dimensional views of C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cell types as in vivo, which is quite distinct from the one-dimensional monocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:23054441

Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Jeong, Dawoon; Amna, Touseef; Van Ba, Hoa; Hwang, Inho

2012-10-01

159

No activation of new initiation points for deoxyribonucleic acid replication in BALB/c 3T3 cells transformed by Kirsten sarcoma virus  

SciTech Connect

BALB/c 3T3 cells were transformed by Kirsten sarcoma virus, and five clones were isolated in soft agar. Average replicon sizes of the transformed cell lines were stimated by the method of fiber-autoradiography and found to be the same size as the nontransformed 3T3 cells, analyzed in parallel. The results indicate that, unlike simian virus 40 and Epstein-Barr virus, Kirsten sarcoma virus does not activate new initiation points for cellular deoxyribonucleic acid replication in murine sarcome virus-transformed BALB/c 3T3 cells.

Oppenheim, A.; Horowitz, A.T.

1981-08-01

160

Lactobacillus plantarum LG42 Isolated from Gajami Sik-Hae Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocyte  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether lactic acid bacteria isolated from gajami sik-hae (GLAB) are capable of reducing the intracellular lipid accumulation by downregulating the expression of adipogenesis-related genes in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The GLAB, Lactobacillus plantarum LG42, significantly decreased the intracellular triglyceride storage and the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA expression of transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) ? involved in adipogenesis was markedly decreased by the GLAB treatment. Moreover, the GLAB also decreased the expression level of adipogenic markers like adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2), leptin, GPDH, and fatty acid translocase (CD36) significantly. These results suggest that the GLAB inhibits lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocyte through downregulating the expression of adipogenic transcription factors and other specific genes involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:23555088

Park, Jeong-Eun; Oh, Suk-Heung; Cha, Youn-Soo

2013-01-01

161

Cultured 3T3L1 adipocytes dispose of excess medium glucose as lactate under abundant oxygen availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White adipose tissue (WAT) produces lactate in significant amount from circulating glucose, especially in obesity;Under normoxia, 3T3L1 cells secrete large quantities of lactate to the medium, again at the expense of glucose and proportionally to its levels. Most of the glucose was converted to lactate with only part of it being used to synthesize fat. Cultured adipocytes were largely anaerobic, but this was not a Warburg-like process. It is speculated that the massive production of lactate, is a process of defense of the adipocyte, used to dispose of excess glucose. This way, the adipocyte exports glucose carbon (and reduces the problem of excess substrate availability) to the liver, but the process may be also a mechanism of short-term control of hyperglycemia. The in vivo data obtained from adipose tissue of male rats agree with this interpretation.

Sabater, David; Arriarán, Sofía; Romero, María Del Mar; Agnelli, Silvia; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Mariŕ

2014-01-01

162

Permethrin alters adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and causes insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes.  

PubMed

Pyrethroids are a class of insecticides structurally derived from the naturally occurring insecticides called pyrethrins. Along with emerging evidence that exposure to insecticides is linked to altered weight gain and glucose homeostasis, exposure to pyrethroids has been linked to altered blood glucose levels in humans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the role of permethrin on lipid and glucose metabolisms. Permethrin was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myoblasts to determine its role in lipid and glucose metabolisms, respectively. Permethrin treatment resulted in increased expression of key markers of adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adipocytes. Permethrin significantly reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in myotubes. This is the first report on the role of permethrin in altered lipid metabolism in adipocytes and impaired glucose homeostasis in myotubes. These results may help elucidate fundamental underlying mechanisms between insecticide exposure, particularly permethrin, and potential risk of developing obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:24911977

Kim, Jonggun; Park, Yooheon; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, J Marshall; Park, Yeonhwa

2014-09-01

163

Selective expression of high molecular weight basic fibroblast growth factor confers a unique phenotype to NIH 3T3 cells.  

PubMed Central

The phenotypes of NIH 3T3 cells transfected with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) cDNAs that express only the high molecular weight (HMW) forms of bFGF, the 18-kDa form, or all forms were examined. Cells producing the 18 kDa or all forms of bFGF were transformed at high levels of growth factor expression but were nontransformed at low levels. Cell producing low levels of HMW forms of bFGF were growth impaired when compared with the parental cells. These cells tended to form multinucleated giant cells, did not grow in soft agar, were nontumorigenic, had a normal bFGF receptor number, and had a nontransformed morphology. Cells expressing high levels of HMW bFGFs had a transformed morphology and were tumorigenic. These data suggest a specific functional role for HMWbFGF. Images PMID:1660309

Quarto, N; Talarico, D; Florkiewicz, R; Rifkin, D B

1991-01-01

164

Differential effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in promoting the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of enrichment with n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Enrichment with DHA but not EPA significantly increased the differentiation markers compared to control differentiated cells. DHA compared to EPA treatment led to a greater increase in adiponectin secretion and, conditioned media collected from DHA treated cells inhibited monocyte migration. Moreover, DHA treatment resulted in inhibition of pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. DHA treated cells predominantly accumulated DHA in phospholipids whereas EPA treatment led to accumulation of both EPA and its elongation product docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), an n-3 fatty acid. Of note, adding DPA to DHA inhibited DHA-induced differentiation. The differential effects of EPA and DHA on preadipocyte differentiation may be due, in part, to differences in their intracellular modification which could impact the type of n-3 fatty acids incorporated into the cells. PMID:24332315

Murali, Ganesan; Desouza, Cyrus V; Clevenger, Michelle E; Ramalingam, Ramesh; Saraswathi, Viswanathan

2014-01-01

165

Sp1 mediates repression of the resistin gene by PPAR{gamma} agonists in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

SciTech Connect

Resistin is an adipokine related to obesity and insulin resistance. Expression of the resistin gene is repressed by the treatment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists, thiazolidinediones (TZDs). In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which TZDs inhibit the resistin gene expression. Resistin gene expression was decreased by TZD in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was abolished after treatment of cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor). TZD could not repress the expression of the resistin gene in the presence of mithramycin A (an Sp1 binding inhibitor). Sp1 binding site of the resistin promoter (-122/-114 bp) was necessary for the repression. Further investigation of the effect of TZDs on the modification of Sp1 showed that the level of O-glycosylation of Sp1 was decreased in this process. These results suggest that PPAR{gamma} activation represses the expression of the resistin gene by modulating Sp1 activity.

Chung, S.S. [Genome Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Disease, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H.H. [Genome Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Disease, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Y.M. [Genome Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Disease, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.K. [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, K.S. [Genome Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Disease, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kspark@snu.ac.kr

2006-09-15

166

Lactobacillus plantarum LG42 isolated from gajami sik-hae inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocyte.  

PubMed

We investigated whether lactic acid bacteria isolated from gajami sik-hae (GLAB) are capable of reducing the intracellular lipid accumulation by downregulating the expression of adipogenesis-related genes in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The GLAB, Lactobacillus plantarum LG42, significantly decreased the intracellular triglyceride storage and the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA expression of transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) ? involved in adipogenesis was markedly decreased by the GLAB treatment. Moreover, the GLAB also decreased the expression level of adipogenic markers like adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2), leptin, GPDH, and fatty acid translocase (CD36) significantly. These results suggest that the GLAB inhibits lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocyte through downregulating the expression of adipogenic transcription factors and other specific genes involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:23555088

Park, Jeong-Eun; Oh, Suk-Heung; Cha, Youn-Soo

2013-01-01

167

Inhibition by Chondroitin Sulfate E Can Specify Functional Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling Thresholds in NIH3T3 Fibroblasts*  

PubMed Central

Aberrant activation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway is frequently associated with human disease, including cancer, and thus represents a key therapeutic target. However, Wnt/?-catenin signaling also plays critical roles in many aspects of normal adult tissue homeostasis. The identification of mechanisms and strategies to selectively inhibit the disease-related functions of Wnt signaling, while preserving normal physiological functions, is in its infancy. Here, we report the identification of exogenous chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E) as an inhibitor of specific molecular and biological outcomes of Wnt3a signaling in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. We demonstrate that CS-E can decrease Wnt3a signaling through the negative regulation of LRP6 receptor activation. However, this inhibitory effect of CS-E only affected Wnt3a-mediated induction, but not repression, of target gene expression. We went on to identify a critical Wnt3a signaling threshold that differentially affects target gene induction versus repression. This signaling threshold also controlled the effects of Wnt3a on proliferation and serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Limiting Wnt3a signaling to this critical threshold, either by CS-E treatment or by ligand dilution, interfered with Wnt3a-mediated stimulation of proliferation but did not impair Wnt3a-mediated reduction of serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Treatment with pharmacological inhibitors demonstrated that both induction and repression of Wnt3a target genes in NIH3T3 cells require the canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling cascade. Our data establish the feasibility of selective inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin transcriptional programs and biological outcomes through the exploitation of intrinsic signaling thresholds. PMID:22915582

Willis, Catherine M.; Kluppel, Michael

2012-01-01

168

Bombesin enhancement of cAMP accumulation in Swiss 3T3 cells: evidence of a dual mechanism of action.  

PubMed

Addition of bombesin in the presence of either forskolin or cholera toxin caused a marked (4-6 fold) enhancement of cAMP accumulation in Swiss 3T3 cells. This effect was time and concentration dependent, induced by various bombesin-like peptides and blocked by a bombesin antagonist. Enhancement of cAMP accumulation by bombesin was diminished by chronic pretreatment with phorbol dibutyrate implicating the involvement of protein kinase C in the activation. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin, which uncouples protein kinase C activation from cAMP accumulation (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 84:2282, 1987) also inhibited bombesin enhancement of cAMP. Bombesin was also shown to release E type prostaglandins into the medium, an effect which was abolished by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Low concentrations (100 nM) of indomethacin partially inhibited the accumulation of cAMP by bombesin in the presence of forskolin indicating that the release of E type prostaglandins into the medium is also involved in the accumulation of cAMP by bombesin. The additive nature of PBt2-mediated down-regulation and treatment with indomethacin suggests that activation of protein kinase C and the release of E type prostaglandins provide two distinct pathways involved in the enhancement of cAMP accumulation by bombesin. Finally, bombesin in the presence of forskolin stimulated the phosphorylation of the intermediate filament component vimentin, identified in the accompanying paper as a substrate for a cAMP dependent protein kinase in intact Swiss 3T3 cells. PMID:2848040

Millar, J B; Rozengurt, E

1988-11-01

169

Redistribution of clathrin-coated vesicle adaptor complexes during adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms for intracellular retention of proteins are induced during adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. To investigate the potential role of clathrin lattices in these retention processes, we performed a morphological and biochemical analysis of coated vesicle components in 3T3-L1 cells. Optical sectioning and image restoration revealed a marked increase in the staining of clathrin and beta adaptins in the perinuclear region of cells with differentiation. In addition, predominance of beta (subunit of the AP-2, plasma membrane adaptor) over beta' (subunit of the AP-1, Golgi adaptor) adaptin was observed in immunoblots of clathrin-coated vesicles purified from nondifferentiated fibroblasts, and this ratio was reversed in coated vesicles purified from differentiated adipocytes. These results indicate that the relative abundance of TGN-derived clathrin lattices increases markedly during adipocytic differentiation. Subcellular fractionation indicated that cytosolic AP-1 and AP-2 adaptors comprised approximately 70% of the total cellular adaptor pool. Interestingly, neither the concentration nor the relative ratio of cytosolic AP-1 to AP-2 adaptors increased significantly during differentiation. These data suggest that the increase in TGN-derived lattices results from differentiation-induced mechanisms for enhanced assembly or stabilization of adaptors on Golgi membranes. Interestingly, double- immunofluorescence microscopy also revealed that whereas extensive colocalization between clathrin and beta adaptins occurred both in fibroblasts and adipocytes, structures stained only with anti-adaptin antibody could be detected. Taken together these results suggest that membranes coated with adaptors, but not clathrin, can exist in these cells. PMID:8408208

1993-01-01

170

St. John's wort promotes adipocyte differentiation and modulates NF-?B activation in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

St. John's wort (SJW), or Hypericum perforatum, is a perennial herb that has been used in the treatment of depression in several countries. Though its therapeutic effect on depression has been extensively studied, its influence on metabolic syndrome is yet to be fully characterized. Therefore, we investigated the effect of SJW extract on adipocyte differentiation and its anti-inflammatory effects by using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Oil Red O staining indicated that SJW promotes adipocyte differentiation, while immunoblots indicated that SJW increases the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?), a nuclear receptor regulating adipocyte differentiation, and adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of SJW was demonstrated by its inhibition of the activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), an inflammatory transcription factor. Stimulation of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) decreased the expression of the NF-?B inhibitor I?B?, and increased its phosphorylation. Treatment with SJW further decreased the TNF-?-induced perturbation in I?B? expression and phosphorylation, which indicated that SJW mediated the inhibition of NF-?B activation. In addition, SJW decreased the TNF-?-induced increase in the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory adipokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Collectively, our results indicate that SJW treatment could promote adipocyte differentiation probably through its anti-inflammatory activity, which in turn suggests that SJW has the potential to minimize the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24989005

Hatano, Tomoko; Sameshima, Yuka; Kawabata, Mami; Yamada, Shizuo; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu; Mizuno, Hideya

2014-01-01

171

An angiotensin II AT 1 receptor antagonist, telmisartan augments glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence has accumulated that some of the angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonists have insulin-sensitizing property. We thus examined the effect of telmisartan on insulin action using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With standard differentiation inducers, a higher dose of telmisartan effectively facilitated differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Treatment of both differentiating adipocytes and fully differentiated adipocytes with telmisartan caused a dose-dependent increase in mRNA

Muneya Fujimoto; Hiroaki Masuzaki; Tomohiro Tanaka; Shintaro Yasue; Tsutomu Tomita; Kayoko Okazawa; Junji Fujikura; Hideki Chusho; Ken Ebihara; Tatsuya Hayashi; Kiminori Hosoda; Kazuwa Nakao

2004-01-01

172

GLUT4 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is repressed by proteasome inhibition, but not by inhibition of calpains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of recent studies showing linkage of type 2 diabetes with the calpain 10 gene, we investigated the ability of calpains to regulate GLUT4 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the calpain inhibitor ALLN significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression of GLUT4. GLUT4 expression was not affected by treatment with the more selective calpain inhibitors PD150606,

David W. Cooke; Yashomati M. Patel

2005-01-01

173

Effects of pyrethroid insecticides on gap junctional intercellular communications in Balb\\/c3T3 cells by dye-transfer assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fenvalerate, esfenvalerate, permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, p-chlorophenylisovaleric acid (CPIA, major metabolite of fenvalerate) and DDT, a liver tumor promoter, on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) were examined in Balb\\/c3T3 cells by dye-transfer assay. Separate groups of Balb\\/c3T3 cells were exposed to the chemicals for 1 day. On the following day, GJIC was measured by counting the number of

Chise Tateno; Seiichi Ito; Mina Tanaka; Akira Yoshitake

1993-01-01

174

Expression of transformation in cell hybrids. II. Nonsuppression of the transformed phenotype in hybrids between a chemically transformed and nontransformed derivatives of Balb/3T3.  

PubMed

Hybrid clones derived from a nitrosocarbaryl-transformed Balb/3T3 cell line, Clone H, and a nontransformed cell line THO2 resemble the transformed parent in the clone morphology, higher saturation density, colony formation in medium with reduced serum concentration, growth in agarose and ability to form clones on Balb/3T3 monolayer. Results are discussed in the framework of genetic models which permit or require dominant mutations for the expression of transformed phenotype. PMID:701383

Jha, K K; Cacciapuoti, J; Ozer, H L

1978-11-01

175

Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and peritoneal mast cells as targets of a growth activity secreted by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

When fibroblast cell lines were cultured in contact with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (CMC), both NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cell lines supported the proliferation of CMC. In contrast, when contact between fibroblasts and CMC was prohibited by Biopore membranes or soft agar, only BALB/3T3 fibroblasts supported CMC proliferation, suggesting that BALB/3T3 but not NIH/3T3 cells secreted a significant amount of a mast cell growth activity. Moreover, the BALB/3T3-derived growth activity induced the incorporation of (3H)thymidine by CMC and the clonal growth of peritoneal mast cells in methylcellulose. The mast cell growth activity appeared to be different from interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), because mRNAs for these interleukins were not detectable in BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Although mast cells are genetically deficient in tissues of W/Wv mice, CMC did develop when bone marrow cells of W/Wv mice were cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cell-conditioned medium. Because BALB/3T3 fibroblast-conditioned medium (BALB-FCM) did not induce the incorporation of (3H)thymidine by W/Wv CMC, the growth activity in BALB-FCM appeared to be a ligand for the receptor encoded by the W (c-kit) locus. Because CMC and peritoneal mast cells are obtained as homogeneous suspensions rather easily, these cells may be potentially useful as targets for the fibroblast-derived mast cell growth activity.

Jozaki, K.; Kuriu, A.; Hirota, S.; Onoue, H.; Ebi, Y.; Adachi, S.; Ma, J.Y.; Tarui, S.; Kitamura, Y. (Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan))

1991-03-01

176

Lipid Rafts\\/Caveolae Are Essential for Insulin-like Growth Factor1 Receptor Signaling during 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Differentiation Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid rafts\\/caveolae are found to be essential for insu- lin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor signaling during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation induction. In 3T3-L1 cells, IGF-1 receptor is located in lipid rafts\\/ caveolae of the plasma membrane and can directly in- teract with caveolin-1, the major protein component in caveolae. Disruption of lipid rafts\\/caveolae by depleting cellular cholesterol with cholesterol-binding reagent, -methylcyclodextrin

Hairong Huo; Xuemin Guo; Shangyu Hong; Manrong Jiang; Xinyuan Liu; Kan Liao

2003-01-01

177

Regulation of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells: insulin-independent and combined effects of fatty acids and insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insulin-independent and combined effects of fatty acids (FA; linoleic and oleic acids) and insulin in modulating lipid accumulation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was investigated using a novel protocol avoiding the effects of a complex hormone 'induction' mixture. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) plus serum (control) or in DMEM plus either 0.3 mmol\\/l linoleic

T. A. Kokta; A. L. Strat; M. R. Papasani; J. I. Szasz; M. V. Dodson; R. A. Hill

2008-01-01

178

Response of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells on bioactive titanium fabricated by a chemical treatment process using a calcium-phosphate slurry.  

PubMed

We recently developed a chemical treatment process using a calcium-phosphate slurry for fabricating new layers consisting of hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) on titanium (Ti) substrate. In this study, the response of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells on Ti substrate treated with a calcium-phosphate slurry was investigated to elucidate its behavior in a biological environment. The cellular adhesiveness and proliferation capacity did not differ significantly between the treated and untreated Ti substrates, suggesting that the slurry treatment did not cause cytotoxicity. The slurry treatment did not affect the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity after the induction of cell differentiation, whereas it was found to be significantly advantageous for the calcification behavior on the slurry-treated Ti substrate. In consequence, the hard-tissue compatibility of Ti is expected to be improved by the chemical treatment process using a calcium-phosphate slurry. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 3838-3845, 2014. PMID:24307316

Ohtsu, Naofumi; Hirano, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Hirofumi

2014-11-01

179

Defective endocytosis of low-density lipoprotein in monensin-resistant mutants of the mouse Balb/3T3 cell line.  

PubMed

Two monensin-resistant clones show similar low-density lipoprotein binding activity but less internalization or degradation of low-density lipoprotein than the parental Balb/3T3 or other resistant clone. Sterol synthesis from radioactive acetate in the resistant mutant, MO-5, is inhibited by more than 70% of control in the presence of tenfold higher amounts of low-density lipoprotein than the dose that inhibits the parental Balb/3T3 to similar level. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity of Balb/3T3 and MO-5 is inhibited by 48% and 27% of control, respectively, in the presence of 10 micrograms/ml of low-density lipoprotein. Colloidal silica gradient centrifugation shows that transport of low-density lipoprotein from the surface membrane to the lysosome is much slower in MO-5 cells than in Balb/3T3 cells. Down regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptors on the cell surface in Balb/3T3 is observed by exposing the cells to 5-15 micrograms/ml low-density lipoprotein, whereas only slight if any down regulation is observed when MO-5 cells are treated with low-density lipoprotein. The altered endocytosis of low-density lipoprotein behaves as a dominant trait in hybrids of MO-5 and THO2-2, a derivative of Balb/3T3 resistant to both ouabain and 6-thioguanine. PMID:3988813

Tomita, K; Ono, M; Masuda, A; Akiyama, S; Kuwano, M

1985-06-01

180

Fabrication of corneal epithelial cell sheets maintaining colony-forming cells without feeder cells by oxygen-controlled method.  

PubMed

The use of murine 3T3 feeder cells needs to be avoided when fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets for use in treating ocular surface diseases. However, the expression level of the epithelial stem/progenitor cell marker, p63, is down-regulated in feeder-free culture systems. In this study, in order to fabricate corneal epithelial cell sheets that maintain colony-forming cells without using any feeder cells, we investigated the use of an oxygen-controlled method that was developed previously to fabricate cell sheets efficiently. Rabbit limbal epithelial cells were cultured under hypoxia (1-10% O2) and under normoxia during stratification after reaching confluence. Multilayered corneal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated using an oxygen-controlled method, and immunofluorescence analysis showed that cytokeratin 3 and p63 was expressed in appropriate localization in the cell sheets. The colony-forming efficiency of the cell sheets fabricated by the oxygen-controlled method without feeder cells was significantly higher than that of cell sheets fabricated under 20% O2 without feeder cells. These results indicate that the oxygen-controlled method has the potential to achieve a feeder-free culture system for fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets for corneal regeneration. PMID:24184720

Nakajima, Ryota; Takeda, Shizu

2014-01-01

181

Characterization and cloning of a receptor for BMP-2 and BMP-4 from NIH 3T3 cells.  

PubMed Central

The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-related factors whose only receptor identified to date is the product of the daf-4 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans. Mouse embryonic NIH 3T3 fibroblasts display high-affinity 125I-BMP-4 binding sites. Binding assays are not possible with the isoform 125I-BMP-2 unless the positively charged N-terminal sequence is removed to create a modified BMP-2, 125I-DR-BMP-2. Cross-competition experiments reveal that BMP-2 and BMP-4 interact with the same binding sites. Affinity cross-linking assays show that both BMPs interact with cell surface proteins corresponding in size to the type I (57- to 62-kDa) and type II (75- to 82-kDa) receptor components for TGF-beta and activin. Using a PCR approach, we have cloned a cDNA from NIH 3T3 cells which encodes a novel member of the transmembrane serine/threonine kinase family most closely resembling the cloned type I receptors for TGF-beta and activin. Transient expression of this receptor in COS-7 cells leads to an increase in specific 125I-BMP-4 binding and the appearance of a major affinity-labeled product of approximately 64 kDa that can be labeled by either tracer. This receptor has been named BRK-1 in recognition of its ability to bind BMP-2 and BMP-4 and its receptor kinase structure. Although BRK-1 does not require cotransfection of a type II receptor in order to bind ligand in COS cells, complex formation between BRK-1 and the BMP type II receptor DAF-4 can be demonstrated when the two receptors are coexpressed, affinity labeled, and immunoprecipitated with antibodies to either receptor subunit. We conclude that BRK-1 is a putative BMP type I receptor capable of interacting with a known type II receptor for BMPs. Images PMID:8065329

Koenig, B B; Cook, J S; Wolsing, D H; Ting, J; Tiesman, J P; Correa, P E; Olson, C A; Pecquet, A L; Ventura, F; Grant, R A

1994-01-01

182

Inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion mediates fisetin-exerted prevention of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Adipocytes are the key player in adipose tissue inflammation and subsequent systemic insulin resistance and its development involves complex process of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes. Fistein, a polyphenol flavonoid, is known to exert anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-diabetic effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fisetin on adipocyte proliferation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line and its mechanism of action. We found that fisetin inhibits adipocyte differentiation in a concentration dependent manner, which were evidenced by Oil Red O staining and the protein expression of mature adipocyte marker genes fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?. Moreover, the proliferation of preadipocytes was also markedly suppressed by treatment of fisetin for 24 and 48 h in the differentiation medium. We also found that fisetin inhibition of adipocyte differentiation was largely due to the effect on mitotic clonal expansion. Fisetin suppression of preadipocyte proliferation at early stage of differentiation was accompanied by the changes of expression of a series of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Altogether, our results suggest that the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by fisetin may be at least in part mediated by cell cycle arrest during adipogenesis. PMID:23918651

Lee, Youngyi; Bae, Eun Ju

2013-11-01

183

Oxygen uptake rates and liver-specific functions of hepatocyte and 3T3 fibroblast co-cultures.  

PubMed

Bioartificial liver (BAL) devices have been developed to treat patients undergoing acute liver failure. One of the most important parameters to consider in designing these devices is the oxygen consumption rate of the seeded hepatocytes which are known to have oxygen consumption rates 10 times higher than most other cell types. Hepatocytes in various culture configurations have been tested in BAL devices including those formats that involve co-culture of hepatocytes with other cell types. In this study, we investigated, for the first time, oxygen uptake rates (OUR)s of hepatocytes co-cultured with 3T3-J2 fibroblasts at various hepatocyte to fibroblast seeding ratios. OURs were determined by measuring the rate of oxygen disappearance using a ruthenium-coated optical probe after closing and sealing the culture dish. Albumin and urea production rates were measured to assess hepatocyte function. Lower hepatocyte density co-cultures demonstrated significantly higher OURs (2 to 3.5-fold) and liver- specific functions (1.6-fold for albumin and 4.5-fold for urea production) on a per cell basis than those seeded at higher densities. Increases in OUR correlated well with increased liver-specific functions. OURs (V(m)) were modeled by fitting Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the model predictions closely correlated with the experimental data. This study provides useful information for predicting BAL design parameters that will avoid oxygen limitations, as well as maximize metabolic functions. PMID:17054120

Cho, Cheul H; Park, Jaesung; Nagrath, Deepak; Tilles, Arno W; Berthiaume, François; Toner, Mehmet; Yarmush, Martin L

2007-05-01

184

Fluid shear-induced mechanical signaling in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts requires cytoskeleton-integrin interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical stimulation of bone induces new bone formation in vivo and increases the metabolic activity and gene expression of osteoblasts in culture. We investigated the role of the actin cytoskeleton and actin-membrane interactions in the transmission of mechanical signals leading to altered gene expression in cultured MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Application of fluid shear to osteoblasts caused reorganization of actin filaments into contractile stress fibers and involved recruitment of beta1-integrins and alpha-actinin to focal adhesions. Fluid shear also increased expression of two proteins linked to mechanotransduction in vivo, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the early response gene product c-fos. Inhibition of actin stress fiber development by treatment of cells with cytochalasin D, by expression of a dominant negative form of the small GTPase Rho, or by microinjection into cells of a proteolytic fragment of alpha-actinin that inhibits alpha-actinin-mediated anchoring of actin filaments to integrins at the plasma membrane each blocked fluid-shear-induced gene expression in osteoblasts. We conclude that fluid shear-induced mechanical signaling in osteoblasts leads to increased expression of COX-2 and c-Fos through a mechanism that involves reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Thus Rho-mediated stress fiber formation and the alpha-actinin-dependent anchorage of stress fibers to integrins in focal adhesions may promote fluid shear-induced metabolic changes in bone cells.

Pavalko, F. M.; Chen, N. X.; Turner, C. H.; Burr, D. B.; Atkinson, S.; Hsieh, Y. F.; Qiu, J.; Duncan, R. L.

1998-01-01

185

Mechanically induced c-fos expression is mediated by cAMP in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In serum-deprived MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, mechanical stimulation caused by mild (287 x g) centrifugation induced a 10-fold increase in mRNA levels of the proto-oncogene, c-fos. Induction of c-fos was abolished by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89, suggesting that the transient c-fos mRNA increase is mediated by cAMP. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment failed to significantly reduce c-fos induction, suggesting that TPA-sensitive isoforms of PKC are not responsible for c-fos up-regulation. In addition, 287 x g centrifugation increased intracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels 2.8-fold (P<0. 005). Since we have previously shown that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can induce c-fos expression via a cAMP-mediated mechanism, we asked whether the increase in c-fos mRNA was due to centrifugation-induced PGE2 release. Pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and flurbiprofen did not hinder the early induction of c-fos by mechanical stimulation. We conclude that c-fos expression induced by mild mechanical loading is dependent primarily on cAMP, not PKC, and initial induction of c-fos is not necessarily dependent on the action of newly synthesized PGE2.

Fitzgerald, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

1999-01-01

186

Inhibition of Adipogenesis by Oligonol through Akt-mTOR Inhibition in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Polyphenols have recently become an important focus of study in obesity research. Oligonol is an oligomerized polyphenol, typically comprised of catechin-type polyphenols from a variety of fruits, which has been found to exhibit better bioavailability and bioreactivity than natural polyphenol compounds. Here, we demonstrated that Oligonol inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by reducing adipogenic gene expression. During adipogenesis, Oligonol downregulated the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins ? (C/EBP?), and ? (C/EBP?) in a dose-dependent manner and the expression of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. The antiadipogenic effect of Oligonol appears to originate from its ability to inhibit the Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway by diminishing the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), a downstream target of mTOR and forkhead box protein O1 (Foxo1). These results suggest that Oligonol may be a potent regulator of obesity by repressing major adipogenic genes through inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway, which induces the inhibition of lipid accumulation, ultimately inhibiting adipogenesis. PMID:25295069

Park, Jae-Yeo; Kim, Younghwa; Im, Jee Ae; You, Seungkwon

2014-01-01

187

Effects of Yerba maté, a Plant Extract Formulation ("YGD") and Resveratrol in 3T3-L1 Adipogenesis.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of yerba maté, YGD (a herbal preparation containing yerba maté, guarana and damiana), and resveratrol on adipogenesis. The anti-adipogenic effects of yerba mate, YGD, resveratrol and YGD + resveratrol and yerba mate + resveratrol combinations were evaluated in 3T3-L1 cells by Oil Red staining, cellular triglyceride content, and PCR quantitative array. The results demonstrated that all of the tested compounds inhibited adipogenesis. Yerba maté extract significantly down-regulated the expression of genes that play an important role in regulating adipogenesis, such as Adig, Axin, Cebpa, Fgf10, Lep, Lpl, and Ppar?2. In addition, these genes, YGD also repressed Bmp2, Ccnd1, Fasn, and Srebf1. Resveratrol also modulated the expression of Adig, Bmp2, Ccnd1, C/EBP?, Fasn, Fgf10, Lep, Lpl, and Ppar?2. Moreover, resveratrol repressed Cebpb, Cdk4, Fgf2, and Klf15. The yerba maté extract and YGD up-regulated the expression of genes involved in inhibiting adipogenesis, such as Dlk-1, Klf2, and Ucp1. Resveratrol also induced the expression of Klf2 and Ucp1. In addition resveratrol modulated the Ddit3, Foxo1, Sirt1, and Sirt2. The combined effects of these compounds on gene expression showed similar results observed from individual treatments. Our data indicates that the synergy between the compounds favors the inhibition of adipogenesis. PMID:25338179

Santos, Juliana C; Gotardo, Erica M F; Brianti, Mitsue T; Piraee, Mahmood; Gambero, Alessandra; Ribeiro, Marcelo L

2014-01-01

188

Enhanced proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in coculture.  

PubMed

The interactions between adipocytes and endothelial cells in adipose tissue development are poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the growth and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in planar and collagen gel cocultures. In planar coculture, preadipocyte proliferation was up to three times as great as in the control culture with only preadipocytes, where the increase was proportional to the HUVEC fraction in the seeding mixture. In the collagen gel coculture, triglyceride (TG) content (per adipocyte) was up to 3.4 times as much as in the control with only adipocytes. This effect depended on the total density and composition of the seeding mixture, with the largest increase observed at the highest density (2 x 10(6) cells/mL collagen) and preadipocyte:HUVEC ratio (90:10) tested in this study. Immunostaining showed that the collagen gel coculture also supported the elongation of endothelial cells. Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) abolished the adipogenesis- and neovascularization-related effects of the coculture. Taken together, our results indicate that endothelial cell-mediated enhancement of adipocyte differentiation requires the activation of VEGFR2. PMID:18767968

Lai, Ning; Jayaraman, Arul; Lee, Kyongbum

2009-05-01

189

Cytotoxic and cell transforming activities of the fungicide methyl thiophanate on BALB/c 3T3 cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic and cell-transforming activities of methyl thiophanate a systemic fungicide capable of entering plant cells and thus controlling fungal diseases that have already started were studied in an in vitro medium-term (6-8 weeks) experimental model utilizing BALB/c 3T3 cells. Cells were exposed to the chemical, dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, in the absence or presence of an exogenous metabolizing system derived from rat livers supplemented with cofactors (S9 mix). In the absence of metabolic activation, methyl thiophanate exerted cytotoxic activity, evidenced through the formation of cell colonies, at low doses (> 10 micrograms/ml). However, the cytotoxic activity was greatly reduced by the S9 mix-induced metabolic activation of the chemical. Without bioactivation, cell-transforming potential, evidenced through the induction of transformation foci, was observable only at the highest (weakly toxic) dose employed (25 micrograms/ml). On the contrary, in the presence of metabolic activation, the cell-transforming activity was detectable at all tested doses (i.e. from 20 to 200 micrograms/ml) and it was particularly evident in a level-II transformation amplification test when the cells were allowed to perform active proliferative activity. These results, providing further information on the activity of methyl thiophanate in multistep carcinogenesis as possible genotoxic and/or co-carcinogenic agent, may contribute to better evaluate the oncogenic risk to man. PMID:9434840

Perocco, P; Del Ciello, C; Mazzullo, M; Rocchi, P; Ferreri, A M; Paolini, M; Pozzetti, L; Cantelli-Forti, G

1997-11-27

190

Stimulation of osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells by yeast hydrolysate.  

PubMed

In a previous study, it was reported that yeast hydrolysate (YH) was effective in promoting bone growth in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. To further clarify the mechanism of YH, the effects of YH on proliferation, differentiation and gene expression in vitro were investigated using osteoblastic cell lines (MC3T3-E1). Cell proliferation increased significantly as much as 110% of the basal value when cells were treated with 100?µg/mL of YH. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity increased significantly with a YH concentration of 25-100?µg/mL, and the activity increased 152% that of the control at 100?µg/mL. The calcium content increased as much as 129% at 100?µg/mL YH. The gene expression levels of ALP and collagen type II (COL II) significantly increased approximately 1.3-fold and 1.7-fold of control, respectively, at 100?µg/mL. YH increased significantly the mRNA level of bone sialoprotein (BSP) but not in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA levels of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-2, BMP-4, collagen type I (COL I) and osteonectin (ON) did not increase. In summary, YH increased the proliferation of osteoblasts and directly stimulated ALP and bone matrix proteins (e.g. BSP, COL II), and these increases trigger osteoblastic differentiation (e.g. mineralized nodule formation). PMID:21077261

Lee, Hyun-Sun; Jung, Eun-Young; Bae, Song Hwan; Kwon, Ki Han; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

2011-05-01

191

Nck? Adapter Regulates Actin Polymerization in NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts in Response to Platelet-Derived Growth Factor bb  

PubMed Central

The SH3-SH3-SH3-SH2 adapter Nck represents a two-gene family that includes Nck? (Nck) and Nck? (Grb4/Nck2), and it links receptor tyrosine kinases to intracellular signaling networks. The function of these mammalian Nck genes has not been established. We report here a specific role for Nck? in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced actin polymerization in NIH 3T3 cells. Overexpression of Nck? but not Nck? blocks PDGF-stimulated membrane ruffling and formation of lamellipoda. Mutation in either the SH2 or the middle SH3 domain of Nck? abolishes its interfering effect. Nck? binds at Tyr-1009 in human PDGF receptor ? (PDGFR-?) which is different from Nck?'s binding site, Tyr-751, and does not compete with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase for binding to PDGFR. Microinjection of an anti-Nck? but not an anti-Nck? antibody inhibits PDGF-stimulated actin polymerization. Constitutively membrane-bound Nck? but not Nck? blocks Rac1-L62-induced membrane ruffling and formation of lamellipodia, suggesting that Nck? acts in parallel to or downstream of Rac1. This is the first report of Nck?'s role in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:11027258

Chen, Min; She, Hongyun; Kim, Airie; Woodley, David T.; Li, Wei

2000-01-01

192

Dual role for myosin II in GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

SciTech Connect

Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake requires the activation of several signaling pathways to mediate the translocation and fusion of GLUT4 vesicles to the plasma membrane. Our previous studies demonstrated that GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is a myosin II-dependent process in adipocytes. The experiments described in this report are the first to show a dual role for the myosin IIA isoform specifically in regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. We demonstrate that inhibition of MLCK but not RhoK results in impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Furthermore, our studies show that insulin specifically stimulates the phosphorylation of the RLC associated with the myosin IIA isoform via MLCK. In time course experiments, we determined that GLUT4 translocates to the plasma membrane prior to myosin IIA recruitment. We further show that recruitment of myosin IIA to the plasma membrane requires that myosin IIA be activated via phosphorylation of the RLC by MLCK. Our findings also reveal that myosin II is required for proper GLUT4-vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane. We show that once at the plasma membrane, myosin II is involved in regulating the intrinsic activity of GLUT4 after insulin stimulation. Collectively, our results are the first to reveal that myosin IIA plays a critical role in mediating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-LI adipocytes, via both GLUT4 vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane and GLUT4 activity.

Fulcher, F. Kent; Smith, Bethany T.; Russ, Misty [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27402 (United States); Patel, Yashomati M. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27402 (United States)], E-mail: ympatel@uncg.edu

2008-10-15

193

Curcumin improves hypoxia induced dysfunctions in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by protecting mitochondria and down regulating inflammation.  

PubMed

Obesity induced metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. It is characterized by excessive expansion of white adipose tissue which leads to hypoxia and impairs normal metabolism. Recent studies reveal that hypoxia could be one of the factors for inflammation, insulin resistance and other obesity related complications. There is a high demand for anti-obese phytoceuticals to control and manage the complications resulting from obesity. In this study, we investigated how hypoxia affect the physiological functions of 3T3-L1 adipocytes emphasizing on oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial functions. We also evaluated the protective role of various doses of curcumin, a well-known dietary antioxidant, on hypoxia induced alterations. The results revealed that hypoxia significantly altered the vital parameters of adipocyte biology like HIF 1? expression (103.47% ?), lactate, and glycerol release (184.34% and 69.1% ?, respectively), reactive oxygen species production (432.53% ?), lipid and protein oxidation (376.6% and 566.6% ?, respectively), reduction in antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) status, secretion of inflammatory markers (TNF ?, IL 6, IL 1?, and IFN ?), and mitochondrial functions (mitochondrial mass, membrane potential, permeability transition pore integrity, and superoxide generation). Curcumin substantially protected adipocytes from toxic effects of hypoxia in a dose dependent manner by protecting mitochondria and down regulating inflammation. Acriflavine is used as a positive control. A detailed investigation is required for the development of curcumin as an effective nutraceutical against obesity. © 2014 BioFactors, 40(5):513-523, 2014. PMID:25110893

Priyanka, Ariyapalli; Anusree, Sasidharan Suseela; Nisha, Vijayakumar Marykutty; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

2014-09-10

194

The roles of multiple pathways in regulating bombesin-stimulated phospholipase D activity in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts.  

PubMed Central

The regulation of bombesin-stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) activity in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts was examined. Increasing protein-tyrosine phosphorylation by using pervanadate to inhibit tyrosine phosphatases was found to stimulate protein kinase C (PKC)-independent [3H]phosphatidylbutanol ([3H]PtdBut) accumulation within 5 min, which continued to increase up to 30 min. The stimulation of PLD activity in response to submaximal [bombesin] could be decreased by approx. 50% by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, whereas pretreatment with genistein and the PKC inhibitor Ro-31-8220 completely abolished the generation of [3H]PtdBut in response to a maximal concentration of bombesin. The addition of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) into permeabilized cells resulted in an increase in [3H]PtdBut, which was abolished by depletion of cellular ATP. The additional presence of 30 microM GTP[S] did not increase the stimulation of PLD activity by any [bombesin] tested, whereas it was synergistic with that stimulated in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. These findings suggest that bombesin-stimulated PLD activity is indirectly regulated by G-proteins, possibly through a kinase intermediate. Furthermore, activation of protein tyrosine kinases is proposed to account for the PKC-independent arm of bombesin-stimulated PLD activity. No evidence was obtained for a form of PLD directly regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7864797

Briscoe, C P; Martin, A; Cross, M; Wakelam, M J

1995-01-01

195

TNF-? reduces g0s2 expression and stimulates lipolysis through PPAR-? inhibition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a multifunctional cytokine that acts as a mediator of obesity-linked insulin resistance (IR). It is commonly accepted that macrophage-derived TNF-? acts in a paracrine manner on adjacent adipocytes, induces lipolysis, which contributes to obesity-linked hyperglycemia. Several studies suggested that G0/G1 switch gene 2 (g0s2) was up-regulated during adipogenesis, and its protein could be degraded in response to TNF-? stimulation. The aim of the present work was to investigate the transcriptional regulation of g0s2 by TNF-? stimulation. In this study, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated, and treated with TNF-? for 24h. The effects of TNF-? on lipolysis and lipase expression were then examined. Our results revealed that TNF-? exerted dose- and time-dependent lipolytic effects, which could be partially reversed by overexpression of g0s2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (ppar-?). In addition, TNF-? treatment significantly reduced the expression of adiponectin, ppar-?, hormone-sensitive Lipase (hsl), adipose triglyceride lipase (atgl) as well as ATGL co-factors. Interestingly, TNF-? significantly decreased adiponectin and PPAR-? protein levels, while treatment with the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 maintained PPAR-? levels. Degradation of PPAR-? almost completely abolished the binding of PPAR-? to the g0s2 promoter in adipocytes treated with TNF-?. We propose that proteasomal degradation of PPAR-? and the reduction of g0s2 content are permissive for prolonged TNF-? induced lipolysis. PMID:24993166

Jin, Dan; Sun, Jun; Huang, Jing; He, Yiduo; Yu, An; Yu, Xiaoling; Yang, Zaiqing

2014-10-01

196

Energy-dependent protein-triacylglycerol interaction in a cell-free system from 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Triacylglycerol is synthesized from the precursors sn-1,2-diacylglycerol and and palmitoyl-CoA in a reaction catalyzed by the microsomal enzyme diacylglycerol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.20). Isolated 3T3-L1 adipocyte microsomal vesicles from cells pulse-labeled with L-[35S]methionine were found to release microsomal proteins into a low density form during the synthesis of triacylglycerol. The proteins released, which represent a subset of those present in the labeled microsomes, include a 62-kDa protein found in high concentration in mature fat droplets. The formation of the triacylglycerol-protein complexes was dependent on time and temperature, was not stimulated by cytosol, and required ATP as well as diacylglycerol and palmitoyl-CoA. Only nucleoside triphosphates and not non-hydrolyzable analogues could replace ATP in the reaction. Unlike the enzyme reaction that measures the synthesis of triacylglycerol, the formation of low density membrane is thus dependent on ATP hydrolysis as well as enzyme substrates. The newly formed, low density particles are selectively enriched in triacylglycerol synthesized during the reaction as well as that synthesized prior to the reaction. The cell-free system described thus appears to represent an early adipogenic event leading to the lipid vacuoles found in mature adipocytes. PMID:8276882

Hare, J F; Taylor, K; Holocher, A

1994-01-01

197

Regulation of cell differentiation by hNUDC via a Mpl-dependent mechanism in NIH 3T3 cells  

SciTech Connect

Thrombopoietin receptor (Mpl) belongs to the cytokine receptor surperfamily with a large extracellular N-terminal portion responsible for cytokine recognition and binding. Thrombopoietin (TPO) has so far been the only widely studied cytokine for Mpl. However we have recently identified human NUDC (hNUDC), previously described as a human homolog of a fungal nuclear migration protein, as another putative binding partner of Mpl. The purpose of this study is to test the extent of the functioning of hNUDC by identifying protein-protein interactions with Mpl in mammalian cells. The full-length cDNAs encoding Mpl and hNUDC were cloned into pEGFP-N1 and pDsRed2-N1 respectively which were subsequently expressed as Mpl-EGFP (green) and hNUDC-DsRed (red) fusion proteins. Using ELISA and immunofluorescence studies, we have demonstrated the direct binding of hNUDC to cell surface-captured Mpl. We also observed that hNUDC induced significant changes in cellular morphology in NIH 3T3 cells stably transfected with pMpl-EGFP. Interestingly, these morphological changes were characteristic of cells undergoing megakaryocyte differentiation. Extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) have been shown to mediate such megakaryocyte-like differentiation. In addition, co-expression of Mpl-EGFP and hNUDC-DsRed led to the release of hNUDC-DsRed into the culture medium.

Zhang Yuping; Tang Yongsong; Chen Xushen [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of Education Ministry, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xu Peilin [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of Education Ministry, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)], E-mail: xupeilin@hotmail.com

2007-09-10

198

Inhibition of Adipogenesis and Induction of Apoptosis and Lipolysis by Stem Bromelain in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

The phytotherapeutic protein stem bromelain (SBM) is used as an anti-obesity alternative medicine. We show at the cellular level that SBM irreversibly inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by reducing adipogenic gene expression and induces apoptosis and lipolysis in mature adipocytes. At the molecular level, SBM suppressed adipogenesis by downregulating C/EBP? and PPAR? independent of C/EBP? gene expression. Moreover, mRNA levels of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (ap2), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), CD36, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were also downregulated by SBM. Additionally, SBM reduced adiponectin expression and secretion. SBM's ability to repress PPAR? expression seems to stem from its ability to inhibit Akt and augment the TNF? pathway. The Akt–TSC2–mTORC1 pathway has recently been described for PPAR? expression in adipocytes. In our experiments, TNF? upregulation compromised cell viability of mature adipocytes (via apoptosis) and induced lipolysis. Lipolytic response was evident by downregulation of anti-lipolytic genes perilipin, phosphodiestersae-3B (PDE3B), and GTP binding protein Gi?1, as well as sustained expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). These data indicate that SBM, together with all-trans retinoic-acid (atRA), may be a potent modulator of obesity by repressing the PPAR?-regulated adipogenesis pathway at all stages and by augmenting TNF?-induced lipolysis and apoptosis in mature adipocytes. PMID:22292054

Dave, Sandeep; Kaur, Naval Jit; Nanduri, Ravikanth; Dkhar, H. Kitdorlang; Kumar, Ashwani; Gupta, Pawan

2012-01-01

199

IGF 2 expression in 3T3 adipocytes in response to serum from hypophysectomized or diabetic swine  

SciTech Connect

Expression of IGF-2 and changes in its expression in response to systemic endocrine alterations have not been demonstrated for adipocytes. Adipocytes were induced to develop within cultures of 3T3-L1 cells using a medium containing 0.5mM isobutylmethylxanthine, 1uM insulin and 100ng hydrocortisone/ml for 48 hours of exposure. Cultures containing developing adipocytes were incubated with 10% pig serum and 1 uM insulin for several days. The resultant adipocyte cultures were then treated with either 10% pig serum, diabetic pig serum or hypophysectomized pig serum in DMEM for 48 hours. Adipocytes within the cultures were separated from undifferentiated cells using percoll density gradient centrifugation. Total RNA was isolated from adipocytes and dot blotted. Blots were probed with a {sup 32}P-cDNA probe for rat IGF-2. IGF-2 was expressed by the adipocytes and the pattern of expression showed specific differences between serum treatments; IGF-2 expression was highest in cells exposed to normal pig serum, less expressed in cells exposed to diabetic serum and with minimal expression in adipocytes incubated with hypophysectomized pig serum. These data suggest that adipocyte expression of IGF-2 is influenced by endocrine factors present in pig serum.

Srinivas, V.; White, M.E.; Ramsay, T.G. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

1990-02-26

200

A study of the Influence of mevalonic acid and its metabolites on the morphology of swiss 3T3 cells  

PubMed Central

We used two model systems to investigate the effect of compactin, a competitive inhibitor of beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase, on the shape of Swiss 3T3 cells. We maintained cells in a quiescent state in medium deficient in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), or we added PDGF to quiescent cells to initiate traverse through a single cell cycle. In both systems, the cells responded to compactin by acquiring a characteristic rounded shape. Cell rounding seemed to depend on an induced deficiency of mevalonic acid (MVA) since the response could be prevented or reversed by adding MVA to the culture medium. Compactin-induced rounding appeared in PDGF-stimulated cells concomitantly with a compactin-mediated inhibition of DNA synthesis, and both effects had similar sensitivities to exogenous compactin and MVA. However, cell rounding seemed to be unrelated to other, previously observed effects of MVA deficiency. Compactin did not influence the total content of cell cholesterol, and little cholesterol was formed when we added radioactive MVA to round cells to effect shape change reversal. Measurement of the dolichol-dependent glycosylation of cell protein revealed no evidence of dolichol deficiency. In addition, reversal of cell rounding by MVA was not prevented by concentrations of tunicamycin that effectively blocked the incorporation of radioactive mannose into cell protein or by concentrations of cycloheximide that blocked protein synthesis. Taken together, our results suggest a new role for MVA or its products in the maintenance of cell shape. PMID:7142283

1982-01-01

201

Insulin Induces an Increase in Cytosolic Glucose Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells with Inhibited Glycogen Synthase Activation  

PubMed Central

Glucose is an important source of energy for mammalian cells and enters the cytosol via glucose transporters. It has been thought for a long time that glucose entering the cytosol is swiftly phosphorylated in most cell types; hence the levels of free glucose are very low, beyond the detection level. However, the introduction of new fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based glucose nanosensors has made it possible to measure intracellular glucose more accurately. Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ) to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in which glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis was inhibited. The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. However, in cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation, insulin induced a robust increase in cytosolic free glucose. The insulin-induced increase in cytosolic glucose in these cells is due to an imbalance between the glucose transported into the cytosol and the use of glucose in the cytosol. In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic glucose level. This is the first report of dynamic measurements of cytosolic glucose levels in cells devoid of the glycogen synthesis pathway. PMID:25279585

Chowdhury, Helena H.; Kreft, Marko; Jensen, J?rgen; Zorec, Robert

2014-01-01

202

Retroviral-mediated gene transfer of human phenylalanine hydroxylase into NIH 3T3 and hepatoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). A full-length human PAH cDNA sequence has been inserted into pzip-neoSV(X), which is a retroviral vector containing the bacterial neo gene. The recombinant has been transfected into Psi2 cells, which provide synthesis of the retroviral capsid. Recombinant virus was detected in the culture medium of the transfected Psi2 cells, which is capable of transmitting the human PAH gene into mouse NIH 3T3 cells by infection leading to stable incorporation of the recombinant provirus. Infected cells express PAH mRNA, immunoreactive PAH protein, and exhibit pterin-dependent phenylaline hydroxylase activity. The recombinant virus is also capable of infecting a mouse hepatoma cell line that does not normal synthesize PAH. PAH activity is present in the cellular extracts and the entire hydroxylation system is reconstituted in the hepatoma cells infected with the recombinant viruses. Thus, recombinant viruses containing human PAH cDNA provide a means for introducing functional PAH into mammalian cells of hepatic origin and can potentially be introduced into whole animals as a model for somatic gene therapy for PKU.

Ledley, F.D.; Grenett, H.E.; McGinnis-Shelnutt, M.; Woo, S.L.C.

1986-01-01

203

Basis for defective responses of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid lymphocytes to anti-CD3 (T3) antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC) from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis characteristically respond poorly to mitogens. In this study, mitogenic antibodies reactive with the CD3(T3) antigen on human T lymphocytes were used to analyze the basis for the deficiency. OKT3-induced proliferation and release of interleukin 1 (IL-1) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) from SFMC were depressed in all patients. Purified IL-1 or recombinant IL-2 restored proliferative responses in SFMC and increased IL-2 receptor density. Exogenous IL-1 also enhanced IL-2 release. Fractionation of SFMC supernatants on phosphocellulose columns revealed the presence of IL-1 and a potent IL-1 inhibitor. The monocyte-derived IL-1 inhibitor blocked IL-1-dependent responses of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes to OKT3, but had no effect on IL-2-dependent events. These results suggest that IL-1 inhibitor(s) in SFMC impair(s) OKT3-induced mitogenesis by interfering with the effects of IL-1 on T lymphocytes. The net result is deficient IL-2 secretion, IL-2 receptor expression, and impaired cellular proliferation. This novel inhibitory circuit provides a rational explanation for the diminished function of synovial fluid T lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID:3091636

Lotz, M; Tsoukas, C D; Robinson, C A; Dinarello, C A; Carson, D A; Vaughan, J H

1986-01-01

204

Visfatin is involved in TNF?-mediated insulin resistance via an NAD+/Sirt1/PTP1B pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) is a well-known mediator of inflammation in the context of obesity in adipose tissue. Its action appears to be directly linked to perturbations of the insulin pathway, leading to the development of insulin resistance. Visfatin has been suspected to be linked to insulin sensitivity, but the mechanism involved is still partly unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of visfatin in the impairment of the insulin pathway by TNF? activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and to unveil the mechanisms involved in such impairment. We demonstrated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes that visfatin was involved in TNF?-mediated insulin resistance in adipocytes. Indeed, after TNF? treatment in 3T3-L1 cells, visfatin was downregulated, leading to decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) concentrations in cells. This decrease was followed by a decrease in Sirt1 activity, which was linked to an increase in PTP1B expression. The modulation of PTP1B by visfatin was likely responsible for the observed decreases in glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Here, we demonstrated a complete pathway involving visfatin, NAD+, Sirt1, and PTP1B that led to the perturbation of insulin signaling by TNF? in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:25068084

Gouranton, Erwan; Romier, Beatrice; Marcotorchino, Julie; Tourniaire, Franck; Astier, Julien; Peiretti, Franck; Landrier, Jean-Francois

2014-01-01

205

Melatonin promotes osteoblast differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells under hypoxic conditions through activation of PKD/p38 pathways.  

PubMed

Osteoblastic differentiation and bone-forming capacity are known to be suppressed under hypoxic conditions. Melatonin has been shown to influence cell differentiation. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that melatonin also has an anabolic effect on bone, by promoting osteoblastic differentiation. However, the precise mechanisms and the signaling pathways involved in this process, particularly under hypoxic conditions, are unknown. This study investigated whether melatonin could promote osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells under hypoxic conditions. Additionally, we examined the molecular signaling pathways by which melatonin mediates this process. We found that melatonin is capable of promoting differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured under hypoxic conditions. Melatonin upregulated ALP activity and mRNA levels of Alp, Osx, Col1, and Ocn in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Alizarin red S staining showed that the mineralized matrix in hypoxic MC3T3-E1 cells formed in a manner that was dependent on melatonin concentration. Moreover, melatonin stimulated phosphorylation of p38 Mapk and Prkd1 in these MC3T3-E1 cells. We concluded that melatonin promotes osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells under hypoxic conditions via the p38 Mapk and Prkd1 signaling pathways. PMID:25250639

Son, Jang-Ho; Cho, Yeong-Cheol; Sung, Iel-Yong; Kim, In-Ryoung; Park, Bong-Soo; Kim, Yong-Deok

2014-11-01

206

Controlled release of simvastatin from in situ forming hydrogel triggers bone formation in MC3T3-E1 cells.  

PubMed

Simvastatin (SIM), a drug commonly administered for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, has been recently reported to induce bone regeneration/formation. In this study, we investigated the properties of hydrogel composed of gelatin-poly(ethylene glycol)-tyramine (GPT) as an efficient SIM delivery vehicle that can trigger osteogenic differentiation. Sustained delivery of SIM was achieved through its encapsulation in an injectable, biodegradable GPT-hydrogel. Cross-linking of the gelatin-based GPT-hydrogel was induced by the reaction of horse radish peroxidase and H(2)O(2). GPT-hydrogels of three different matrix stiffness, 1,800 (GPT-hydrogel1), 5,800 (GPT-hydrogel2), and 8,400 Pa (GPT-hydrogel3) were used. The gelation/degradation time and SIM release profiles of hydrogels loaded with two different concentrations of SIM, 1 and 3 mg/ml, were also evaluated. Maximum swelling times of GPT-hydrogel1, GPT-hydrogel2, and GPT-hydrogel3 were observed to be 6, 12, and 20 days, respectively. All GPT-hydrogels showed complete degradation within 55 days. The in vitro SIM release profiles, investigated in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) at 37°C, exhibited typical biphasic release patterns with the initial burst being more rapid with GPT-hydrogel1 compared with GPT-hydrogel3. Substantial increase in matrix metalloproteinase-13, osteocalcin expression levels, and mineralization were seen in osteogenic differentiation system using MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with GPT-hydrogels loaded with SIM in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that controlled release of SIM from a biodegradable, injectable GPT-hydrogel had a promising role for long-term treatment of chronic degenerative diseases such as disc degenerative disease. PMID:23250670

Park, Yoon Shin; David, Allan E; Park, Kyung Min; Lin, Chia-Ying; Than, Khoi D; Lee, Kyuri; Park, Jun Beom; Jo, Inho; Park, Ki Dong; Yang, Victor C

2013-04-01

207

Trichostatin A Modulates Thiazolidinedione-Mediated Suppression of Tumor Necrosis Factor ?-Induced Lipolysis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

In obesity, high levels of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) stimulate lipolysis in adipocytes, leading to hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), the insulin-sensitizing drugs, antagonize TNF?-induced lipolysis in adipocytes, thereby increasing insulin sensitivity in diabetes patients. The cellular target of TZDs is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), a nuclear receptor that controls many adipocyte functions. As a transcription factor, PPAR? is closely modulated by coregulators, which include coactivators and corepressors. Previous studies have revealed that in macrophages, the insulin-sensitizing effect of PPAR? may involve suppression of proinflammatory gene expression by recruiting the corepressor complex that contains corepressors and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Therefore, we investigated whether the corepressor complex is involved in TZD-mediated suppression of TNF?-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Trichostatin A (TSA), a pan HDAC inhibitor (HDACI) that inhibits class I and II HDACs, was used to examine the involvement of HDACs in the actions of TZDs. TSA alone increased basal lipolysis and attenuated TZD-mediated suppression of TNF?-induced lipolysis. Increased basal lipolysis may in part result from class I HDAC inhibition because selective class I HDACI treatment had similar results. However, attenuation of TZD-mediated TNF? antagonism may be specific to TSA and related hydroxamate-based HDACI rather than to HDAC inhibition. Consistently, corepressor depletion did not affect TZD-mediated suppression. Interestingly, TSA treatment greatly reduced PPAR? levels in differentiated adipocytes. Finally, extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) mediated TNF?-induced lipolysis, and TZDs suppressed TNF?-induced ERK phosphorylation. We determined that TSA increased basal ERK phosphorylation, and attenuated TZD-mediated suppression of TNF?-induced ERK phosphorylation, consistent with TSA’s effects on lipolysis. These studies suggest that TSA, through down-regulating PPAR?, attenuates TZD-mediated suppression of TNF?-induced ERK phosphorylation and lipolysis in adipocytes. PMID:23951179

Lu, Juu-Chin; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Wang, Chih-Tien; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Chun-Ken; Wu, Zhong-Sheng

2013-01-01

208

Influence of nanometer smoothness and fibronectin immobilization of titanium surface on MC3T3-E1 cell behavior.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of mechanical treatment, namely, nanometer smoothing (Ra: approximately 2.0 nm) and sandblasting (Ra: approximately 1.0 ?m), as well as biochemical treatment, namely, fibronectin immobilization, of a titanium surface on osteoblast-like cell behavior. Cell proliferation was monitored by measurements of DNA content and ALP activity; osteocalcin production and mineralization behavior were also evaluated, in addition to morphological observation of attached cells. Fibronectin could be immobilized by the tresyl chloride-activation method. A sandblasted surface resulted in significantly more DNA than a nanometer-smooth surface, but fibronectin immobilization did not result in a significant increase of DNA at 52 days of cell culture. The nanometer-smooth surface showed highest ALP activity and osteocalcin production. FN immobilization decreased ALP activity for the nanometer-smooth surface, but increased it for the sandblasted surface. The nanometer-smooth surface also showed the highest osteocalcin production. Scanning electron microscopy showed interesting phenomena of the attached cells. Attached cell area was more rapidly increased on the nanometer-smooth surface than on the sandblasted surface. It was suggested that cultured cells on the nanometer-smooth surface began to spread earlier and that the proportion of spreading cells among total attached cells increased sooner on the nanometer-smooth surface than on the sandblasted rough surface. It appeared that FN immobilization influenced the arrangement of attached cells. In conclusion, the nanometer-smooth surface employed in the present study was beneficial for the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. FN immobilization influenced the morphologies of attached cells. PMID:22447768

Yoshida, Eiji; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Uo, Motohiro; Yoshinari, Masao; Hayakawa, Tohru

2012-06-01

209

Neutral actions of Raltegravir on adipogenesis, glucose metabolism and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Raltegravir (RAL) has been shown to be virologically effective in both treatment naive and triple class resistant patients. A more favourable metabolic profile associated with RAL in comparison with other antiretroviral drugs has also been observed. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms that could explain the lack of toxicity of this drug in metabolism. Thus, the effects of RAL on adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism were analyzed using 3T3-L1 cells, a very adequate and convenient cell culture model for the investigation of adipose differentiation and metabolism. The effects of RAL on adipogenesis were evaluated by the Oil Red O staining after 8 days of induction of differentiation. Several adipogenic genes (C/EBP, PPAR, Pref-1 and AP2) were analyzed by real time PCR. Fully differentiated adipocytes were also incubated with RAL for 24 hours and glucose utilization, lactate production and glycerol release were analyzed. Thus, minimal effects of RAL on murine adipocyte differentiation were observed. Basal glucose uptake and lactate production were not affected by RAL at any of the concentrations used. No effects were also found on the percentage of glucose that is metabolized to lactate. Lipolysis was only slightly inhibited by Raltegravir (-10%) at the highest concentration used (50 µM), while no effects were observed with lower doses. Our results suggest that the absence of significant actions of RAL on adipogenesis and glucose and lipid metabolism in adipocytes could explain, at least in part, the neutral metabolic effects of RAL in clinical studies. PMID:21585335

Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Blanco, José R; Oteo, José A

2011-04-01

210

Butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids increase the rate of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

PubMed Central

We determined the effect of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on rates of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Prolonged treatment with butyrate (5 mM) increased the rate of lipolysis approximately 2–3-fold. Aminobutyric acid and acetate had little or no effect on lipolysis, however propionate stimulated lipolysis, suggesting that butyrate and propionate act through their shared activity as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Consistent with this, the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (1 µM) also stimulated lipolysis to a similar extent as did butyrate. Western blot data suggested that neither mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation nor perilipin down-regulation are necessary for SCFA-induced lipolysis. Stimulation of lipolysis with butyrate and trichostatin A was glucose-dependent. Changes in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation mediated by glucose were independent of changes in rates of lipolysis. The glycolytic inhibitor iodoacetate prevented both butyrate- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-(TNF-?) mediated increases in rates of lipolysis indicating glucose metabolism is required. However, unlike TNF-?– , butyrate-stimulated lipolysis was not associated with increased lactate release or inhibited by activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) with dichloroacetate. These data demonstrate an important relationship between lipolytic activity and reported HDAC inhibitory activity of butyrate, other short-chain fatty acids and trichostatin A. Given that HDAC inhibitors are presently being evaluated for the treatment of diabetes and other disorders, more work will be essential to determine if these effects on lipolysis are due to inhibition of HDAC. PMID:25320679

Rumberger, John M.; Arch, Jonathan R.S.

2014-01-01

211

New stilbenoids isolated from fungus-challenged black skin peanut seeds and their adipogenesis inhibitory activity in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

One new stilbene derivative (3,5,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-5'-isopentenylstilbene, MIP) and two new stilbene dimers (arahypin-11 and arahypin-12) together with three known stilbenoids (arachidin-1, arachidin-3, and SB-1) were isolated from black skin peanut seeds challenged by the fungal strain Rhizopus oligoporus . The structures of the three new compounds were elucidated by analysis of HRESIMS, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectra. The antiadipogenic and cytotoxic effects of the isolated compounds were investigated using 3T3-L1 cells at a concentration range of 1-10 ?M. Among the compounds tested, arachidin-1 inhibited the 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation dose-dependently, whereas arahypin-11 and arahypin-12 exhibited significant cytotoxicity in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. PMID:23560846

Liu, Zhongwei; Wu, Ji'en; Huang, Dejian

2013-05-01

212

Enhanced MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast response and bone formation on the addition of nano-needle and nano-porous features to microtopographical titanium surfaces.  

PubMed

Micro/nanotopographical modifications on titanium surfaces constitute a new process to increase osteoblast response to enhance bone formation. In this study, we utilized alkali heat treatment at high (SB-AH1) and low temperatures (SB-AH2) to nano-modify sandblasted titanium with microtopographical surfaces. Then, we evaluated the surface properties, biocompatibility and osteogenic capability of SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 in vitro and in vivo, and compared these with conventional sandblast-acid etching (SLA) and Ti control surfaces. SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 surfaces exhibited micro/nanotopographical modifications of nano-needle structures and nano-porous network layers, respectively, compared with the sole microtopographical surface of macro and micro pits on the SLA surface and the relatively smooth surface on the Ti control. SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 showed different roughness and elemental components, but similar wettability. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts anchored closely on the nanostructures of SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 surfaces, and these two surfaces more significantly enhanced cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than others, while the SB-AH2 surface exhibited better cell proliferation and higher ALP activity than SB-AH1. All four groups of titanium domes with self-tapping screws were implanted in rabbit calvarial bone models, and these indicated that SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 surfaces achieved better peri-implant bone formation and implant stability, while the SB-AH2 surface achieved the best percentage of bone-implant contact (BIC%). Our study demonstrated that the micro/nanotopographical surface generated by sandblasting and alkali heat treatment significantly enhanced preosteoblast proliferation, ALP activity and bone formation in vitro and in vivo, and nano-porous network topography may further induce better preosteoblast proliferation, ALP activity and BIC%. PMID:24945708

Zhuang, X-M; Zhou, B; Ouyang, J-L; Sun, H-P; Wu, Y-L; Liu, Q; Deng, F-L

2014-08-01

213

Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)] [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)] [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China) [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China) [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)] [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)] [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

2012-11-23

214

The inhibitory effect of pterostilbene on inflammatory responses during the interaction of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation is characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in obese adipose tissue. Accumulations of adipose tissue macrophages enhance a chronic inflammatory state in adipose tissues. Many studies have indicated that the adipocyte-related inflammatory response in obesity is characterized by an enhanced infiltration of macrophages. The aim of this work was to study the inhibitory effects of garcinol and pterostilbene on the change in inflammatory response due to the interaction between 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages. In the TNF-?-induced 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, garcinol and pterostilbene significantly decreased the mRNA expression of COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, and IL-1? and IL-6 secretion by suppressing phosphorylation of p-I?B? and p-p65. In a coculture model of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages, pterostilbene suppressed IL-6 and TNF-? secretion and proinflammatory mRNA expression and also reduced the migration of macrophages toward adipocytes. In the RAW 264.7 macrophage-derived conditioned medium (RAW-CM)-induced 3T3-L1 adipocyte and 3T3-CM-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage models, pterostilbene significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF-? secretion and proinflammatory mRNA expression (COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, TNF-?, PAI-1, CRP, MCP-1, resistin, and leptin). Our findings suggest that garcinol and pterostilbene may provide novel and useful applications to reduce the chronic inflammatory properties of adipocytes. We also found that pterostilbene inhibits proinflammatory responses during the interaction between 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages. PMID:23268743

Hsu, Chin-Lin; Lin, Yu-Jyun; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin

2013-01-23

215

The effects of the insulin-like growth factors and transforming growth factor ? on the jun proto-oncogene family in MC3T3-E1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that when cells of the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 are exposed to IGF-I and IGF-II they exhibit rapid and transient induction of the transcript from the proto-oncogene c-fos [8]. To clarify the relationship between induction of cell proliferation and proto-oncogene expression in MC3T3-E1 cells, the acute affects of IGF-I and IGF-II, growth factors that stimulate

D. D. Strong; H. L. Merriman; E. C. Landale; D. J. Baylink; S. Mohan

1994-01-01

216

Restoration of normal appearance, growth behavior, and calcium content to transformed 3T3 cells by magnesium deprivation.  

PubMed Central

A spontaneously transformed clone was isolated from repeatedly passaged BALB/c 3T3 cells. The transformed cells were rounded or slender and elongated, were randomly arranged in an overlapping pattern, grew to high cell density, and had a low requirement for serum. The rates of multiplication and DNA synthesis of the nontransformed and the transformed lines were reduced for several days by drastic reduction in the Mg2+ concentration of the medium, but the rate of DNA synthesis in the Mg2+-deprived cultured increased after 6--8 days, suggesting an adaptation of the cells or a change in local environment. When maintained in very low Mg2+ concentrations the transformed cells assumed the appearance and arrangement of nontransformed cells within 1 day. The rate of DNA synthesis in the transformed cultures in 1.0 mM Mg2+ was independent of serum concentration. After 3 days of Mg2+ deprivation, however, the rate of DNA synthesis became highly dependent on both serum concentration and population density, thus resembling the growth behavior of nontransformed cells. Neither deprivation of K+ or Ca2+ nor addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP produced these effects. The Mg2+ contents of nontransformed and transformed cells in physiological concentrations of Mg2+ were similar and only slightly reduced by incubation for 4 days in Mg2+-deficient medium. In 1.0 mM Mg2+, the Ca2+ content of the nontransformed cells was approximately 3 times higher than that of the transformed cells. After incubation in Mg2+-deficient medium, the Ca2+ contents of both cells types increased; that of the transformed cells slightly exceeded that of the nontransformed cells in Mg2+-sufficient medium. The results show that Mg2+-deprived transformed cells closely resemble nontransformed cells in appearance, requirement for serum, response to cell population density, and Ca2+ content. They also show that these parameters can be regulated coordinately by Mg2+ and support the suggestion that a defect in regulation by Mg2+ is a basic feature of the malignant transformation. Images PMID:6941293

Rubin, H; Vidair, C; Sanui, H

1981-01-01

217

Transformation of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells by MUC16 mucin (CA125) is driven by its cytoplasmic tail.  

PubMed

MUC16 (CA125) is a transmembrane mucin that contributes to the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Expression of MUC16 is not detectable in the epithelial surface of normal ovaries. MUC16 expression is, however, common in serous EOC as well as in metastatic and recurrent tumors. Despite these observations, its contribution to the development of EOC is unknown. We stably expressed either empty vector, MUC16 C-terminal domain (MUC16 CTD) or MUC16 TMU (a construct that lacks the cytoplasmic tail) in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. In this study, we provide evidence for the role of MUC16 CTD in oncogenic transformation. We show that ectopic expression of MUC16 CTD enhances the growth of NIH3T3 cells under normal and low serum conditions, and promotes anchorage-dependent colony formation. The deletion of the cytoplasmic tail abrogated these effects. MUC16 CTD expression in NIH3T3 cells also enhances the formation of colony in soft agar as compared to MUC16 TMU. MUC16 CTD expression enhances tumor formation in nude mice. Our findings provide the first evidence that MUC16 induces the transformation of NIH3T3 cells and indicate that MUC16 functions as an oncogene. Furthermore, our data suggest that the cytoplasmic tail is critical for MUC16 oncogenic properties. PMID:25338620

Giannakouros, Panagiota; Matte, Isabelle; Rancourt, Claudine; Piché, Alain

2015-01-01

218

Chemopreventive effect of punicalagin, a novel tannin component isolated from Terminalia catappa, on H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells.  

PubMed

Terminalia catappa and its major tannin component, punicalagin, have been characterized to possess antioxidative and anti-genotoxic activities. However, their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated carcinogenesis are still unclear. In the present study, H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells were used to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of T. catappa water extract (TCE) and punicalagin. In the cell proliferation assay, TCE and punicalagin suppressed the proliferation of H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells with a dose-dependent manner but only partially affected non-transformed NIH3T3 cells proliferation. The differential cytotoxicity of TCE/punicalagin on the H-ras-transformed and non-transformed NIH3T3 cells indicated the selectivity of TCE/punicalagin against H-ras induced transformation. TCE or punicalagin treatment reduced anchorage-independent growth that could be due to a cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. The intracellular superoxide level, known to modulate downstream signaling of Ras protein, was decreased by punicalagin treatments. The levels of phosphorylated JNK-1 and p38 were also decreased with punicalagin treatments. Thus, the chemopreventive effect of punicalagin against H-ras induced transformation could result from inhibition of the intracellular redox status and JNK-1/p38 activation. PMID:16242868

Chen, Pin-Shern; Li, Jih-Heng

2006-05-01

219

Thiazolidinediones exhibit different effects on preadipocytes isolated from rat mesenteric fat tissue and cell line 3T3-L1 cells derived from mice.  

PubMed

The effects of PPAR-gamma agonists, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), on preadipocytes isolated from rat mesenteric adipose tissue and murine cell line 3T3-L1 were compared using an in vitro cell culture system. After each cell formed a confluent monolayer under appropriate medial conditions, pioglitazone or troglitazone was applied at 10 microM to each medium for cell maturation. We observed morphological changes in each cell, especially the accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, during the culture periods. At the end of culture, DNA content, triglyceride (TG) content and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity were determined. Adiponectin concentrations in each culture medium were also measured during appropriate experimental periods. Application of TZDs increased the DNA content, TG accumulation and GPDH activity in the 3T3-L1 cells but not in the mesenteric adipocytes. Although TG accumulation was unchanged, the number of lipid particles was decreased and the size of lipid particles in the mesenteric adipocytes was increased by TZD application. Although the TZDs increased adiponectin release from the 3T3-L1 cells, adiponectin release from mesenteric adipocytes was suppressed (P<0.05). Thus, the effects of TZDs differed between the primary culture of mesenteric adipose cells and the line cell culture of 3T3-L1 cells. The source of adipocytes is an important factor in determining the action of TZDs in vitro, and particular attention should be paid when evaluating the effect of PPAR-gamma agonists on adipose tissues. PMID:17350863

Mineo, Hitoshi; Oda, Chikako; Chiji, Hideyuki; Kawada, Teruo; Shimizu, Kyoko; Taira, Toshio

2007-07-01

220

Carnosic acid inhibits TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Carnosic acid (CA), found in rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) leaves, is known to exhibit anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory activities. However, whether its anti-inflammatory potency can contribute to the amelioration of obesity has not been elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of CA on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with CA (0-20 µM) for 1 h, followed by treatment with LPS for 30 min; mRNA expression of adipokines and protein expression of TLR4-related molecules were then measured. RESULTS LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed elevated mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and CA significantly inhibited the expression of these adipokine genes. LPS-induced up regulation of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88, TNF receptor-associated factor 6, and nuclear factor-?B, as well as phosphorylated extracellular receptor-activated kinase were also suppressed by pre-treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with CA. CONCLUSIONS Results of this study suggest that CA directly inhibits TLR4-MyD88-dependent signaling pathways and decreases the inflammatory response in adipocytes.

Park, Mi-Young

2014-01-01

221

2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone promoted glucose uptake and imposed a paradoxical effect on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (DMC), one of the flavonoids isolated and purified from the dried flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus, was explored for its function in glucose uptake/glycogen synthesis in insulin-sensitive tissue cells and its effect and mechanism on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. DMC (10 ?M) treatment remarkably promoted glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes (P < 0.05 vs control group), whereas the glucose uptake in L6 myoblasts and glycogen synthesis in HepG2 hepatocytes were not affected by the treatment. DMC had paradoxical effects on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells compared with differentiation control. High concentrations of DMC (10 and 20 ?M) markedly diminished lipid accumulation; however, a low concentration of DMC (2.5 ?M) enhanced lipid storage in 3T3-L1 cells (P < 0.01 vs differentiation control group), and 5 ?M DMC did not impose a significant effect. It was demonstrated that the effect of DMC in lipid accumulation was controlled by the expression of PPAR-?. PMID:24517891

Hu, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Wei-Gang; Mi, Ting-Yan; Zhou, Lu-Xian; Huang, Nan; Hoptroff, Michael; Lu, Yan-Hua

2014-02-26

222

Inhibition of Calcium-Independent Phospholipases A2beta or A2gamma Inhibit Hormone-Induced Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for identifying an agonist exhibiting molecular or pharmacologic inhibition which is effective against the activity of at least one of iPLA(sub 2)beta and iPLA(sub 2)gamma which comprises culturing 3T3-L1 cells and transfecting them with negative...

R. W. Gross

2004-01-01

223

miR-709 inhibits 3T3-L1 cell differentiation by targeting GSK3? of Wnt/?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

Adipocyte differentiation is tightly regulated by altering gene expression in which microRNAs might be strong post-transcriptional regulators. In this study, we examined the roles of miR-709 in adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. We found that miR-709 expression was down-regulated during adipogenesis after MDI (1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, dexamethasone and insulin) stimulation in normal cultured 3T3-L1 cells, while up-regulated after LiCl treatment. Overexpression of miR-709 inhibited adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. We demonstrated that miR-709 directly targeted 3' UTR of GSK3? (glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta). Overexpression of miR-709 decreased GSK3? protein but not mRNA level. Furthermore, the inhibition of miR-709 could be counteracted by overexpression of GSK3? during 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation. In addition, miR-709 increased both protein and mRNA levels of ?-catenin, which is the downstream effector of GSK3? in Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, and subsequently elevated the expression of target of ?-catenin which represses adipogenesis. These data indicate that miR-709 inhibits adipocyte differentiation through targeting GSK3? and subsequently activating Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:25038456

Chen, Hu; Mo, Delin; Li, Ming; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Luxi; Zhang, Xumeng; Li, Mingsen; Zhou, Xingyu; Chen, Yaosheng

2014-11-01

224

Proteomics of Oxidative Stress Using Inducible CYP2E1 Expressing HepG2 Cells and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes as Model Systems  

E-print Network

The overall goal of this research was to investigate oxidative stress related changes to the proteomes of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and an inducible CYP2E1 expressing HepG2 cells. Enhanced oxidative stress in hypertrophic adipocytes is associated...

Newton, Billy Walker

2012-07-16

225

Expression of ectolipid phosphate phosphohydrolases in 3T3F442A preadipocytes and adipocytes. Involvement in the control of lysophosphatidic acid production.  

PubMed

Because of its production by adipocytes and its ability to increase preadipocyte proliferation, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) could participate in the paracrine control of adipose tissue development. The aim of the present study was to determine which enzyme activities are involved in exogenous LPA hydrolysis by preadipocytes and adipocytes. Using a quantitative method, we observed that extracellular LPA rapidly disappeared from the culture medium of 3T3F442A preadipocytes. This disappearance was strongly slowed down in the presence of the phosphatase inhibitors, sodium vanadate and sodium pervanadate. By using [(33)P]LPA on intact 3T3F442A preadipocytes, we found that 90% of LPA hydrolysis resulted from LPA phosphatase activity biochemically related to previously described ectolipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPPs). Quantitative real time reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that 3T3F442A preadipocytes expressed mRNAs of three known Lpp gene subtypes (1, 2, and 3), with a predominant expression of Lpp1 and Lpp3. Differentiation of 3T3F442A preadipocytes into adipocytes led to an 80% reduction in ecto-LPA phosphatase activity, with a concomitant down-regulation in Lpp1, Lpp2, and Lpp3 mRNA expression. Despite this regulation, treatment of 3T3F442A adipocytes with sodium vanadate increased LPA production in the culture medium, suggesting the involvement of ecto-LPA phosphatase activity in the control of extracellular production of LPA by adipocytes. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that hydrolysis of extracellular LPA by preadipocytes and adipocytes mainly results from a dephosphorylation activity. This activity (i) occurs at the extracellular face of cell membrane, (ii) exhibits biochemical characteristics similar to those of the LPP, (iii) is negatively regulated during adipocyte differentiation, and (iv) plays an important role in the control of extracellular LPA production by adipocytes. Ecto-LPA phosphatase activity represents a potential target to control adipose tissue development. PMID:11956205

Simon, Marie Francoise; Rey, Astrid; Castan-Laurel, Isabelle; Grés, Sandra; Sibrac, David; Valet, Philippe; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien

2002-06-28

226

Feeder Automation modeling in IEC61850  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeder Automation is one important part of distribution automation. Considering frequent change of network due to rapid growing of system, it is necessary to find a high efficient configuration way. Open and interoperability feature of IEC61850 makes it possible to model the feeder automation in IEC61850. This paper introduced the modeling of FA in IEC61850, including architecture, data, topology and

Zhao Wang; Lei Jing; Wenxiao Ma

2008-01-01

227

Expression of transformation in cell hybrids. I. Isolation and application of density-inhibited Balb/3T3 cells deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase and resistant to ouabain.  

PubMed

A cell line, THO2, was isolated from Balb/3T3 clone A31 after sequential nitrosoguanidine treatments and selection for resistance to 6-thioguanine and ouabain. THO2 retains the properties of density-dependent inhibition of growth and serum dependence of DNA synthesis characteristic of 3T3. The codominant expression of ouabain resistance and inability of THO2 to utilize exogenous hypoxanthine in the presence of aminopterin allows isolation of somatic cell hybrids involving THO2 and any ouabain-sensitive, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase-positive cell line. Hybrid clones derived from THO2 and SV40-transformed cells show dominant expression of the transformed phenotype with respect to multilayered arrangement of cells and ability to synthesize DNA in 1% calf-serum medium. PMID:1028169

Jha, K K; Ozer, H L

1976-05-01

228

Growth factor-deprived BALB/c 3T3 murine fibroblasts can enter the S phase after induction of c-myc gene expression.  

PubMed Central

Induction of quiescent BALB/c 3T3 murine fibroblasts by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or fibroblast growth factor (FGFs) is accompanied by induction of c-myc gene expression. To study the role of c-myc in cell growth, we transfected BALB/c 3T3 cells with a plasmid construct containing a glucocorticoid-inducible c-myc gene. When these transfected cells were growth arrested in PDGF-FGF-freedefined medium, glucocorticoid treatment induced S-phase DNA synthesis. This induction of DNA synthesis was inefficient, and cell proliferation was not evident, suggesting that growth factors act through stimulation of c-myc expression together with other intracellular events. Images PMID:3316981

Cavalieri, F; Goldfarb, M

1987-01-01

229

Effect of tumor promoters on soft-agar growth of Swiss 3T3 cells infected with SV40 tsA mutants.  

PubMed

The availability of many SV40 mutants, in which the ability of the virus to transform fibroblasts is variously affected, has prompted us to investigate the effect of treating SV40-infected cells with known tumor promoters on the expression of the transformed phenotype. Using mouse Swiss 3T3 cells and various SV40 tsA mutants unable to transform these cells at 39 degrees C, we have observed a dramatic effect of the potent phorbol ester promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, on the formation of macroscopic colonies in soft-agar at the restrictive temperature of 39 degrees C. The efficiency of other phorbol esters and various substances such as anthralin, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, mellitin, griseofulvin and benzoyl peroxide, was in agreement with their reported promoting activities suggesting that mouse Swiss 3T3 cells infected with SV40 tsA mutants could provide a quick and easy test to detect promoters. PMID:6288284

Daya-Grosjean, L; Sarasin, A; Monier, R

1982-01-01

230

Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The treatment of choice for profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is direct electrical stimulation of spiral ganglion cells (SGC) via a cochlear implant (CI). The number and excitability of SGC seem to be critical for the success that can be achieved via CI treatment. However, SNHL is associated with degeneration of SGC. Long-term drug delivery to the inner ear for improving SGC survival may be achieved by functionalisation of CI electrodes with cells providing growth factors. Therefore, the capacity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-secreting NIH3T3 cells grown on cylindrically shaped silicone elastomers (SE) to exert local and sustained neuroprotective effects was assessed in vitro and in vivo. An in vitro model to investigate adhesion and cell growth of lentivirally modified NIH3T3 cells synthesising BDNF on SE was established. The bioactivity of BDNF was characterised by co-cultivation of SGC with cell-coated SE. In addition, cell-coated SE were implanted into deafened guinea pigs. The recombinant NIH3T3 cells proliferated on silicone surfaces during 14 days of cultivation and expressed significantly increasing BDNF levels. Enhanced survival rates and neurite outgrowth of SGC demonstrated the bioactivity of BDNF in vitro. Implantation of SE with adhering BDNF-secreting NIH3T3 cells into the cochleae of systemically deafened guinea pigs induced a significant increase in SGC survival in comparison to SE without cell coating. Our data demonstrate a novel approach of cell-based long-term drug delivery to support SGC survival in vitro and in vivo. This therapeutic strategy--once transferred to cells suitable for clinical application--may improve CI performance. PMID:22564255

Warnecke, Athanasia; Sasse, Susanne; Wenzel, Gentiana I; Hoffmann, Andrea; Gross, Gerhard; Paasche, Gerrit; Scheper, Verena; Reich, Uta; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Lenarz, Thomas; Stöver, Timo; Wissel, Kirsten

2012-07-01

231

31 P NMR analysis of intracellular pH of Swiss mouse 3T3 cells: Effects of extracellular Na + and K + and mitogenic stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Swiss mouse 3T3 cells grown on microcarrier beads were superfused with electrolyte solution during continuous NMR analysis. Conventional31P and19F probes of intracellular pH (pHc) were found to be impracticable. Cells were therefore superfused with 1 to 4mm 2-deoxyglucose, producing a large intracellular, pH-sensitive signal of 2-deoxyglucose phosphate (2DGP). The intracellular incorporation of 2DGP inhibited the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. However, intracellular

Mortimer M. Civan; Stephen R. Williams; David G. Gadian; Enrique Rozengurt

1986-01-01

232

Wortmannin and LY294002 inhibit myo-inositol accumulation by cultured bovine aorta endothelial cells and murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that myo-inositol uptake and metabolism is reduced in human fibroblasts derived from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Treating normal fibroblasts with 10-100 microM wortmannin duplicates some of the phenotypic properties of AT fibroblasts including the decrease in myo-inositol accumulation. In the present study we examined whether treatment of other types of mammalian cells with wortmannin or LY294002 altered myo-inositol uptake. Cultured bovine aorta endothelial cells or 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with either wortmannin or LY294002, and afterwards, myo-inositol uptake and SMIT mRNA levels were determined. Incubating cultured bovine aorta endothelial cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes with either wortmannin or LY294002 caused a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in myo-inositol accumulation that was independent of changes in SMIT mRNA levels. The effect of wortmannin and LY294002 on myo-inositol accumulation was not due to an increase in myo-inositol secretion. The effect of LY294002 on myo-inositol accumulation was reversible. Furthermore, the LY294002-induced decrease in myo-inositol accumulation was specific since the uptake of serine or choline by cultured bovine aorta endothelial cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with LY294002 was not significantly decreased. Co-incubation of cultured bovine aorta endothelial cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes with either wortmannin or LY294002 and hyperosmotic medium caused a significant decrease in the induction of myo-inositol accumulation by hyperosmolarity without significantly affecting the hyperosmotic-induced increase in SMIT mRNA levels. These data suggest that myo-inositol accumulation is regulated post-translationally by wortmannin and LY294002. PMID:10996657

Yorek, M A; Dunlap, J A; Lowe, W L

2000-09-20

233

Wen-pi-tang-Hab-Wu-ling-san, a Polyherbal Medicine, Attenuates ER Stress in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes by Promoting the Insulin Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle that functions to synthesize, fold, and transport proteins. ER stress is a key link between type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated the effect of WHW on the ER stress response and the insulin signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, and ER stress was then induced by treatment with tunicamycin. ER stress-induced adipocytes were treated with different concentrations of WHW for 24?h. The expression of ER stress-related molecules such as X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), C/EBP-homologous protein 10 (CHOP10), and eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) and signaling molecules such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), insulin receptor substrates-1 (IRS-1), and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) were investigated. WHW significantly inhibited the expression of XBP-1, GRP78, CHOP10, and eIF2? in ER stress-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. WHW also increased the PI3K expression and the IRS-1 phosphorylation but decreased the phosphorylation of JNK in ER stress-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results indicate that WHW inhibits ER stress in adipocytes by suppressing the expression of ER stress-mediated molecules and the insulin signaling pathway, suggesting that WHW may be an attractive therapeutic agent for managing T2D. PMID:24454515

Han, Yunkyung; Jung, Hyo Won; Bae, Hyo Sang; Park, Yong-Ki

2013-01-01

234

Wen-pi-tang-Hab-Wu-ling-san, a Polyherbal Medicine, Attenuates ER Stress in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes by Promoting the Insulin Signaling Pathway.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle that functions to synthesize, fold, and transport proteins. ER stress is a key link between type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated the effect of WHW on the ER stress response and the insulin signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, and ER stress was then induced by treatment with tunicamycin. ER stress-induced adipocytes were treated with different concentrations of WHW for 24?h. The expression of ER stress-related molecules such as X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), C/EBP-homologous protein 10 (CHOP10), and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 ? (eIF2 ? ) and signaling molecules such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), insulin receptor substrates-1 (IRS-1), and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) were investigated. WHW significantly inhibited the expression of XBP-1, GRP78, CHOP10, and eIF2 ? in ER stress-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. WHW also increased the PI3K expression and the IRS-1 phosphorylation but decreased the phosphorylation of JNK in ER stress-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results indicate that WHW inhibits ER stress in adipocytes by suppressing the expression of ER stress-mediated molecules and the insulin signaling pathway, suggesting that WHW may be an attractive therapeutic agent for managing T2D. PMID:24454515

Han, Yunkyung; Jung, Hyo Won; Bae, Hyo Sang; Park, Yong-Ki

2013-01-01

235

Screening of Dried Plant Seed Extracts for Adiponectin Production Activity and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Inhibitory Activity on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity\\u000a on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan.\\u000a komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

Yoshinori Okada; Mizue Okada; Yumi Sagesaka

2010-01-01

236

Mastoparan, a novel mitogen for Swiss 3T3 cells, stimulates pertussis toxin-sensitive arachidonic acid release without inositol phosphate accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mastoparan, a basic tetradecapeptide iso- lated from wasp venom, is a novel mitogen for Swiss 3T3 cells. This peptide induced DNA synthesis in syn- ergy with insulin in a concentration-dependent man- ner; half-maximum and maximum responses were achieved at 14 and 17 #M, respectively. Mastoparan also stimulated DNA synthesis in the presence of other growth promoting factors including bombesin, insulin-like

Joan Gil; Theresa Higgins; Enrique Rozengurt

1991-01-01

237

Hydrogen sulfide protects MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells against H 2O 2-induced oxidative damage—implications for the treatment of osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a bone disease that leads to an increased risk of fracture. Oxidative damage is an important contributor to the morphological and functional changes in the development of osteoporosis. We found in this study that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel endogenous gaseous mediator, protected MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury. NaHS, an H2S donor, increased cell

Zhong-Shi Xu; Xin-Yu Wang; De-Ming Xiao; Li-Fang Hu; Ming Lu; Zhi-Yuan Wu; Jin-Song Bian

2011-01-01

238

Cytoprotective role of the fatty acid binding protein 4 against oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

PubMed Central

The fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), one of the most abundant proteins in adipocytes, has been reported to have a proinflammatory function in macrophages. However, the physiological role of FABP4, which is constitutively expressed in adipocytes, has not been fully elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that FABP4 was involved in the regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of FABP4 silencing on the oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-nitro-cyclic GMP levels were significantly elevated in the differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes transfected with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Fabp4, although the intracellular levels or enzyme activities of antioxidants including reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase A4 (GSTA4) were not altered. An in vitro evaluation using the recombinant protein revealed that FABP4 itself functions as a scavenger protein against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). FABP4-knockdown resulted in a significant lowering of cell viability of 3T3-L1 adipocytes against H2O2 treatment. Moreover, four kinds of markers related to the ER stress response including the endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1 (Ern1), the signal sequence receptor ? (Ssr1), the ORM1-like 3 (Ormdl3), and the spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s), were all elevated as the result of the knockdown of FABP4. Consequently, FABP4 might have a new role as an antioxidant protein against H2O2 and contribute to cytoprotection against oxidative and ER stress in adipocytes. PMID:25161868

Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Minami, Yoshitaka; Harashima, Hideyoshi

2014-01-01

239

Thiazolidinediones (PPARg agonists) but not PPARa agonists increase IRS-2 gene expression in 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiazolidinediones (TZD) improve insu- lin sensitivity in human as well as in different animal models of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. However, no clear link to the insulin signaling events has been identified. Using differentiated 3T3-L1 adipo- cytes, we found that TZD rapidly and markedly in- creased IRS-2 gene expression. This effect was specific for PPARg agonists and was

ULF SMITH; SILVIA GOGG; AINO JOHANSSON; TORBJORN OLAUSSON; VICTORIA ROTTER; BIRGITTA SVALSTEDT

240

An Extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. Has Insulin-Like Glucose Uptake-Stimulatory and Adipocyte Differentiation-Inhibitory Activities in 3T3-L1 Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of extracts isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (banaba) on glucose transport and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells were studied. Glucose uptake-inducing activity of banaba extract (BE) was investigated in differentiated adipocytes using a radioactive assay, and the ability of BE to induce differentiation in preadipocytes was examined by Northern and Western blot analyses. The hot water BE and

Fang Liu; Jae-kyung Kim; Yunsheng Li; Xue-qing Liu; Jing Li; Xiaozhuo Chen

241

The interaction of Fe(III), adriamycin and daunomycin with nucleotides and DNA and their effects on cell growth of fibroblasts (NIH-3T3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of the iron complexes of the anthracycline antitumour drugs daunomycin (DN) and adriamycin (ADM) with the mononucleotide AMP, herring sperm DNA, plasmic pBR322 and immortalized 3T3 fibroblasts were studied. By means of Mössbauer spectroscopy it was demonstrated that DNA is a powerful ferric iron chelator as compared with AMP, which is not able to compete with DN or

Italia Liegro; Alessandro Cestelli; Berthold F. Matzanke; Eckhard Bill; Alfred X. Trautwein

1996-01-01

242

An extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. has insulin-like glucose uptake-stimulatory and adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory activities in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

The effects of extracts isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (banaba) on glucose transport and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells were studied. Glucose uptake-inducing activity of banaba extract (BE) was investigated in differentiated adipocytes using a radioactive assay, and the ability of BE to induce differentiation in preadipocytes was examined by Northern and Western blot analyses. The hot water BE and the banaba methanol eluent (BME) stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with an induction time and a dose-dependent response similar to those of insulin. Furthermore, there were no additive or synergistic effects found between BE and insulin on glucose uptake, and the glucose uptake activity of insulin could be reduced to basal levels by adding increasing amounts of BE. Unlike insulin, BE did not induce adipocyte differentiation in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and dexamethasone (DEX). BE inhibited the adipocyte differentiation induced by insulin plus IBMX and DEX (IS-IBMX-DEX) of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The differences in the glucose uptake and differentiation inhibitory activities between untreated cells and those treated with BE were significant (P < 0.01). The inhibitory activity was further demonstrated by drastic reductions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2) mRNA and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) protein in cells induced from preadipocytes with IS-IBMX-DEX in the presence of BE. The unique combination of a glucose uptake stimulatory activity, the absence of adipocyte differentiation activity and effective inhibition of adipocyte differentiation induced by IS-IBMX-DEX in 3T3-L1 cells suggest that BE may be useful for prevention and treatment of hyperglycemia and obesity in type II diabetics. PMID:11533261

Liu, F; Kim, J; Li, Y; Liu, X; Li, J; Chen, X

2001-09-01

243

Effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume on 3T3-L1 Adipogenesis and Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the antiobesity effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume root water extract in a 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation model and rats fed with a high-fat diet. To investigate the effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume on adipogenesis in vitro, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells in adipocyte-induction media were treated every two days with Achyranthes bidentata Blume at various concentrations (1 to 25??g/mL) for eight days. We found that Achyranthes bidentata Blume root inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation without affecting cell viability, and Western blot analysis revealed that phospho-Akt expression was markedly decreased, whereas there was no significant change in perilipin expression. Furthermore, administration of Achyranthes bidentata Blume root (0.5?g/kg body weight for six weeks) to rats fed with a high-fat diet significantly reduced body weight gain without affecting food intake, and the level of triglyceride was significantly decreased when compared to those in rats fed with only a high-fat diet. These results suggest that Achyranthes bidentata Blume root water extract could have a beneficial effect on inhibition of adipogenesis and controlling body weight in rats fed with a high-fat diet. PMID:24963319

Oh, Sang Deog; Kim, Mihyun; Min, Byung-Il; Choi, Gi Soon; Kim, Sun-Kwang; Bae, Hyunsu; Kang, Chulhun; Kim, Deok-Gon; Kim, Chang Keun

2014-01-01

244

Identification of tumor promotion marker genes for predicting tumor promoting potential of chemicals in BALB/c 3T3 cells.  

PubMed

Tumor promoters can cause development of tumors in initiated cells and the majority of them are non-genotoxic carcinogens. The detection of tumor promoters is important for the prevention of cancer. The in vitro two-stage transformation assay, using BALB/c 3T3 cells, is a useful system, and benefits from a convenient protocol and high predictability of mammalian carcinogenicity. But these assays are time-consuming and often require expertise for microscopic observation. To construct an in vitro tumor promoting activity test system, we performed large-scale gene expression analyses, using DNA microarrays, of BALB/c 3T3 cells following treatment with nine chemicals that are known to induce tumor promotion: TPA, zinc chloride, sodium orthovanadate, okadaic acid, insulin, lithocolic acid, phenobarbital sodium, sodium saccharide, sodium arsenite. As a result of DNA microarray and real time PCR analyses, 22 marker genes were identified. These consisted of genes related to cell cycle, regulation of transcription, anti-apoptosis, and positive regulation of cell proliferation. There was a correlation between these 22 marker genes and the cell transformation assay results in BALB/c 3T3 cells. These results suggest that this tumor promoting activity test system, based on 22 marker genes, can become a valuable tool for screening potential tumor promoters. PMID:19000923

Maeshima, Hideki; Ohno, Katsutoshi; Tanaka-Azuma, Yukimasa; Nakano, Shigeru; Yamada, Toshihiro

2009-02-01

245

Effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume on 3T3-L1 Adipogenesis and Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the antiobesity effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume root water extract in a 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation model and rats fed with a high-fat diet. To investigate the effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume on adipogenesis in vitro, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells in adipocyte-induction media were treated every two days with Achyranthes bidentata Blume at various concentrations (1 to 25? ? g/mL) for eight days. We found that Achyranthes bidentata Blume root inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation without affecting cell viability, and Western blot analysis revealed that phospho-Akt expression was markedly decreased, whereas there was no significant change in perilipin expression. Furthermore, administration of Achyranthes bidentata Blume root (0.5?g/kg body weight for six weeks) to rats fed with a high-fat diet significantly reduced body weight gain without affecting food intake, and the level of triglyceride was significantly decreased when compared to those in rats fed with only a high-fat diet. These results suggest that Achyranthes bidentata Blume root water extract could have a beneficial effect on inhibition of adipogenesis and controlling body weight in rats fed with a high-fat diet. PMID:24963319

Oh, Sang Deog; Kim, Mihyun; Min, Byung-Il; Choi, Gi Soon; Kim, Sun-Kwang; Bae, Hyunsu; Kang, Chulhun; Kim, Deok-Gon; Park, Byoung-Jin; Kim, Chang Keun

2014-01-01

246

Peanut sprout ethanol extract inhibits the adipocyte proliferation, differentiation, and matrix metalloproteinases activities in mouse fibroblast 3T3-L1 preadipocytes  

PubMed Central

3T3-L1 preadipocyte were differentiated to adipocytes, and then treated with 0, 10, 20, and 40 µg/mL of peanut sprout ethanol extract (PSEE). The main component of PSEE is resveratrol which contained 5.55 mg/mL of resveratrol. The MTT assay, Oil-Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, and the triglyceride concentration were determined in 3T3-L1 cells. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as well as mRNA expressions of C/EBP ? and C/EBP ? were also investigated. As the concentration of PSEE in adipocytes increased, the cell proliferation was decreased in a dose-dependent manner from 4 days of incubation (P < 0.05). The GDPH activity (P < 0.05) and the triglyceride concentration (P < 0.05) were decreased as the PSEE treatment concentration increased. The mRNA expression of C/EBP? in 3T3-L1 cells was significantly low in groups of PSEE-treated, compared with control group (P < 0.05). The MMP-9 (P < 0.05) and MMP-2 (P < 0.05) activities were decreased in a dose-dependent manner as the PSEE concentration increased from 20 µg/mL. In conclusion, it was found that PSEE has an effect on restricting proliferation and differentiation of adipocytes. PMID:23766875

Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kang, Nam E; Kim, Myung Hwan

2013-01-01

247

Endothelin-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization by 3T3-L1 adipocytes is suppressed by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.  

PubMed

The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) contributes to metabolic changes in disease states such as insulin resistance. However, the mechanism by which TNFalpha alters cellular function in these conditions is poorly understood. Because changes in intracellular calcium concentration plays a critical role in hormone action we investigated the effect of TNFalpha on calcium homeostasis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In these studies we show that TNFalpha causes a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) mRNA levels and myo-inositol accumulation as well as a decrease in myo-inositol incorporation into phosphoinositides. These changes coincided with a decrease in endothelin-1-induced phosphatidylinositol (PI) cycle activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes chronically exposed to TNFalpha. Endothelin-1-induced mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores was also diminished by TNFalpha. The effect of TNFalpha on endothelin-1-induced PI cycle activity and calcium mobilization was not due to a decrease in endothelin receptors. However, TNFalpha did cause a moderate decrease in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Combined, a decrease in phosphoinositide production and PIP2-specific PLC activity could be responsible for altering PI cycle activity and the generation of the second messenger myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, thereby reducing calcium mobilization. Such changes in intracellular signaling may contribute to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance associated with TNFalpha. PMID:9882452

Yorek, M; Jaipaul, N; Dunlap, J; Bielefeldt, K

1999-01-15

248

Differentiation to adipocytes in accompanied by an increase in the amounts of Gi- and Go-proteins in 3T3-L1 cells  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of cultures of 3T3-L1 cells with methylisobutyl-xanthine and dexamethasone has been shown to result in accumulation of lipid and conversion to the morphology of adipocytes in more than 90% of the cells. The status of the stimulatory (Gs), inhibitory (Gi) and Go-proteins during the course of 3T3-L1 differentiation was examined. The amount of alpha subunit of Gs (..cap alpha..Gs), assayed by radiolabeling in the presence of cholera toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/, increased upon differentiation as previously described by others. The amounts of ..cap alpha..Gi and ..cap alpha..Go assayed by radiolabeling in the presence of pertussis toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ increased 3-fold upon differentiation. Immunoblots of cell membranes subjected to gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate were probed with two rabbit antisera raised against bovine brain ..cap alpha..Go and with one raised against the..beta..-subunit of the bovine rod-outer-segment G-protein, referred to as transducin. The immunoblotting data confirm the increase upon differentiation of ..cap alpha..Go and also demonstrate an increase in the amount of the ..beta..-subunit. Thus differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells is accompanied by dramatic changes in the complexion of G-proteins in the membranes.

Watkins, D.C.; Northup, J.K.; Malbon, C.C.

1986-05-01

249

Inhibition of O-GlcNAcase Using a Potent and Cell-Permeable Inhibitor Does Not Induce Insulin Resistance in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Summary To probe increased O-GlcNAc levels as an independent mechanism governing insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a new class of O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitor was studied. 6-Acetamido-6-deoxy-castanospermine (6-Ac-Cas) is a potent inhibitor of OGA. The structure of 6-Ac-Cas bound in the active site of an OGA homolog reveals structural features contributing to its potency. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with 6-Ac-Cas increases O-GlcNAc levels in a dose-dependent manner. These increases in O-GlcNAc levels do not induce insulin resistance functionally, measured using a 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) uptake assay, or at the molecular level, determined by evaluating levels of phosphorylated IRS-1 and Akt. These results, and others described, provide a structural blueprint for improved inhibitors and collectively suggest that increased O-GlcNAc levels, brought about by inhibition of OGA, does not by itself cause insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:20851343

Macauley, Matthew S.; He, Yuan; Gloster, Tracey M.; Stubbs, Keith A.; Davies, Gideon J.; Vocadlo, David J.

2010-01-01

250

Inhibition of O-GlcNAcase using a potent and cell-permeable inhibitor does not induce insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

To probe increased O-GlcNAc levels as an independent mechanism governing insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a new class of O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitor was studied. 6-Acetamido-6-deoxy-castanospermine (6-Ac-Cas) is a potent inhibitor of OGA. The structure of 6-Ac-Cas bound in the active site of an OGA homolog reveals structural features contributing to its potency. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with 6-Ac-Cas increases O-GlcNAc levels in a dose-dependent manner. These increases in O-GlcNAc levels do not induce insulin resistance functionally, measured using a 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) uptake assay, or at the molecular level, determined by evaluating levels of phosphorylated IRS-1 and Akt. These results, and others described, provide a structural blueprint for improved inhibitors and collectively suggest that increased O-GlcNAc levels, brought about by inhibition of OGA, does not by itself cause insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:20851343

Macauley, Matthew S; He, Yuan; Gloster, Tracey M; Stubbs, Keith A; Davies, Gideon J; Vocadlo, David J

2010-09-24

251

Antiproliferative activity of flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the MCF7, KB, and NIH/3T3 cell lines.  

PubMed

This study assessed the antiproliferative effect in vitro of the flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB), and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines, using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. A cell density of 2×10(4)/well was seeded in 96-well plates, and samples at different concentrations ranging from 10 to 500?mg/mL were tested. The optical density was determined in an ELISA multiplate reader (Thermo Plate TP-Reader). Results demonstrated that the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity against both the tumor cell lines KB and MCF-7, presenting a GI(50) (MCF-7=13.09?mg/mL), TGI (KB=37.76?mg/mL), and IL(50) (KB=291.07?mg/mL). Also, the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity toward NIH 3T3 cells GI(50) (183.65?mg/mL), TGI (280.54?mg/mL), and IL(50) (384.59?mg/mL). The results indicate that the flower hexane extract obtained from M. spicata associated with M. rotundifolia presents an antineoplastic activity against KB and MCF-7, although an antiproliferative effect at a high concentration of the extract was observed toward NIH 3T3. PMID:23066647

Nedel, Fernanda; Begnini, Karine; Carvalho, Pedro Henrique de Azambuja; Lund, Rafael Guerra; Beira, Fátima T A; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto B

2012-11-01

252

Delivering MC3T3-E1 cells into injectable calcium phosphate cement through alginate-chitosan microcapsules for bone tissue engineering*  

PubMed Central

Objective: To deliver cells deep into injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) through alginate-chitosan (AC) microcapsules and investigate the biological behavior of the cells released from microcapsules into the CPC. Methods: Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in alginate and AC microcapsules using an electrostatic droplet generator. The two types of cell-encapsulating microcapsules were then mixed with a CPC paste. MC3T3-E1 cell viability was investigated using a Wst-8 kit, and osteogenic differentiation was demonstrated by an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. Cell attachment in CPC was observed by an environment scanning electron microscopy. Results: Both alginate and AC microcapsules were able to release the encapsulated MC3T3-E1 cells when mixed with CPC paste. The released cells attached to the setting CPC scaffolds, survived, differentiated, and formed mineralized nodules. Cells grew in the pores concomitantly created by the AC microcapsules in situ within the CPC. At Day 21, cellular ALP activity in the AC group was approximately four times that at Day 7 and exceeded that of the alginate microcapsule group (P<0.05). Pores formed by the AC microcapsules had a diameter of several hundred microns and were spherical compared with those formed by alginate microcapsules. Conclusions: AC microcapsule is a promising carrier to release seeding cells deep into an injectable CPC scaffold for bone engineering. PMID:24711359

Qiao, Peng-yan; Li, Fang-fang; Dong, Li-min; Xu, Tao; Xie, Qiu-fei

2014-01-01

253

Gadolinium promoted proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblast NIH3T3 cells through Rac and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a fibrosing disorder disease developed in patients with underlying renal insufficiency following exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Previous studies have demonstrated that GdCl3 can promote NIH3T3 fibroblast cell proliferation, which provide a new clue to the role of GBCAs in the development of NSF. In the present study, we further clarify the molecular mechanism of Gd-promoted proliferation. The results showed that intervention with the Rac inhibitor NSC23766 abrogated Gd-promoted proliferation. The levels of active Rac1 significantly increased in Gd-treated cells detected by pull-down assays. In addition, the phosphorylation of Akt was significantly elevated in the treatment group, which was blocked by NSC23766. NSC23766 also reduced the migration of NIH3T3 cells enhanced by Gd. Moreover, the F-actin cytoskeleton was strengthened and the mitotic cell numbers was significantly increased after exposure to Gd. These results suggest that Rac and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, as well as integrin-mediated signal pathway may play important roles in Gd-induced cell proliferation. In addition, under serum-free condition, Gd could decrease ROS accumulation and increase NIH3T3 cell survival. PMID:25037060

Shen, Liming; Yang, Aochu; Yao, Pengwei; Sun, Xiaohong; Chen, Cheng; Mo, Cuiping; Shi, Lei; Chen, Youjiao; Liu, Qiong

2014-08-01

254

The benefits of the 3T3 NRU test in the safety assessment of cosmetics: long-term experience from pre-marketing testing in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

We have introduced the 3T3 NRU cytotoxicity test for methodological, economical and ethical reasons as a regular part of tier pre-marketing testing to assess local tolerance of raw materials for cosmetics, household chemicals and final cosmetic products. Using the 3T3 cell line according to the standard INVITTOX protocol No.64 (NRU Assay) the borderline concentration, relevant to the highest tolerated dose, is determined for each material. The toxic effect is reached at different concentration levels specific for individual cosmetics categories, depending on their chemical characteristics. Typical ranges of cytotoxicity for specific categories of cosmetics were established after testing of hundreds of materials. The range lies between 1 microg/ml (anti-dandruff shampoos), up to 2000 microg/ml (toothpastes and mouthwashes). The 3T3 NRU cytotoxicity test is a sensitive tool able to identify more aggressive products, that are also more likely to evoke irritation in human skin. It was even possible to detect protective effects of one natural herbal ingredient. The comparative study of cytotoxicity test results and human patch test results from a group of essential oils is presented. Cytotoxicity tests represent a highly ethical approach for estimation of irritancy. On the basis of in vitro test results suggesting low risk we can proceed to confirmatory tests in human volunteers. PMID:14599479

Jírová, D; Kejlová, K; Brabec, M; Bendová, H; Kolárová, H

2003-01-01

255

Quercetin reversed lipopolysaccharide-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation through the mitogen?activated protein kinase pathway in MC3T3-E1 cells.  

PubMed

Quercetin, a flavonoid found in onions and other vegetables, has potential inhibitory effects on bone resorption in vivo and in vitro. In our previous study it was identified that quercetin triggered the apoptosis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?induced osteoclasts and inhibited bone resorption. Currently, little information is available detailing the effect of quercetin on osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in bacteria?induced inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3?E1 osteoblasts stimulated with LPS. LPS significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of osteoblast?related genes in the MC3T3?E1 cells. By contrast, quercetin significantly restored the LPS?suppressed mRNA expression of osteoblast?related genes in a dose?dependent manner. Quercetin also restored the protein expression of Osterix in MC3T3?E1 cells suppressed by LPS. Furthermore, quercetin selectively triggered the activation of the mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by enhancing the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and reducing the expression of c?Jun N?terminal kinase. These data suggest that quercetin reversed the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation induced by LPS through MAPK signaling. These findings suggest that quercetin may be of potential use as a therapeutic agent to restore osteoblast function in bacteria?induced bone diseases. PMID:25323558

Wang, Xin-Chun; Zhao, Nzhi-Jun; Guo, Chun; Chen, Jing-Tao; Song, Jin-Ling; Gao, Li

2014-12-01

256

3T3-L1 adipocytes induce dysfunction of MIN6 insulin-secreting cells via multiple pathways mediated by secretory factors in a co-culture system.  

PubMed

Pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction is an important pathological change in type 2 diabetes, which is tightly related to obesity. However, the direct role of adipose tissue in beta-cell dysfunction has not been well understood. In this study, we examined the effects of 3T3-L1 adipocytes on MIN6 insulin-secreting cells in a co-culture system. MIN6 cells used here kept most of beta-cell functions but less sensitive to glucose stimulation. Tolbutamide, the KATP channel blocker, was therefore used to stimulate insulin secretion in this report. MIN6 cells co-cultured with 3T3-L1 adipocytes had significantly reduced intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and lost the ability to secrete insulin in response to tolbutamide, compared to the control cells. 3T3-L1 adipocytes significantly decreased the expression of insulin, glucokinase and Kir6.2 genes but increased the expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) in MIN6 cells after one week of co-culture, as measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. 3T3-L1 adipocyte-conditioned medium also significantly decreased insulin secretion and the expression of insulin, glucokinase and Kir6.2 genes in MIN6 cells. The conditioned medium also reduced tyrosine kinase activity in MIN6 cells. The inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinase, genistein, decreased the expression of glucokinase and Kir6.2 in MIN6 cells, while two free fatty acids, oleic acid and linoleic acids, were found to increase UCP-2 expression. The present study demonstrates that 3T3-L1 adipocytes directly impair insulin secretion and the expression of important genes in MIN6 cells. The effects of T3-L1 adipocytes on MIN6 cells are ascribed to secreted bioactive factors and may be mediated via multiple pathways, which include the upregulation of UCP-2 expression via free fatty acids, and downregulation of glucokinase and Kir6.2 expression via decreasing protein tyrosine kinase activity. PMID:17709898

Zhao, Yu-Feng; Feng, Dan-Dan; Hernandez, Maria; Chen, Chen

2007-02-01

257

Enucleation of feeder cells and egg cells with psoralens.  

PubMed

The cell nucleus must be inactivated or destroyed in order to generate feeder layers for cultured cells or to prepare recipient egg cells for nuclear transfer. Existing enucleation techniques are either cumbersome or employ toxic chemicals. Here we report a new method to enucleate cells by treatment with a psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet light. The technique is >90% efficient and causes little cytoplasmic damage to the treated cell. We have used psoralen treatment to enucleate a wide variety of cells, including eggs, sperm, HeLa cells, and fibroblasts. Colonies of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human keratinocyte precursors grown on psoralen-treated feeders are indistinguishable from those grown on gamma-irradiated or mitomycin C-treated cells. Psoralen enucleation provides a rapid, simple, and non-toxic method to generate feeder cells. The technique is also useful for nuclear transfer studies in species with large eggs whose cleavage divisions are not regulated by cell-cycle checkpoints. PMID:19705441

McGarry, Thomas J; Bonaguidi, Michael; Lyass, Ljuba; Kessler, John A; Bodily, Jason M; Doglio, Lynn

2009-10-01

258

Measuring value added characteristics in feeder cattle  

E-print Network

over seven years from regular and special feeder cattle sales at Joplin Regional Stockyards were used. The effects of explanatory variables on sale price were analyzed using ordinary least squares regression hedonic model. Type of sale, seasonality...

Mathews, Crystal Dawn

2009-05-15

259

Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

260

Activation and inactivation of the volume-sensitive taurine leak pathway in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and Ehrlich Lettre ascites cells.  

PubMed

Hypotonic exposure provokes the mobilization of arachidonic acid, production of ROS, and a transient increase in taurine release in Ehrlich Lettre cells. The taurine release is potentiated by H(2)O(2) and the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate and reduced by the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) inhibitors bromoenol lactone (BEL) and manoalide, the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor ETH-615139, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyl iodonium (DPI), and antioxidants. Thus, swelling-induced taurine efflux in Ehrlich Lettre cells involves Ca(2+)-independent (iPLA(2))/secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) plus 5-LO activity and modulation by ROS. Vanadate and H(2)O(2) stimulate arachidonic acid mobilization and vanadate potentiates ROS production in Ehrlich Lettre cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts under hypotonic conditions. However, vanadate-induced potentiation of the volume-sensitive taurine efflux is, in both cell types, impaired in the presence of BEL and DPI and following restoration of the cell volume. Thus, potentiation of the volume-sensitive taurine efflux pathway following inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase activity reflects increased arachidonic acid mobilization and ROS production for downstream signaling. Vanadate delays the inactivation of volume-sensitive taurine efflux in NIH3T3 cells, and this delay is impaired in the presence of DPI. Vanadate has no effect on the inactivation of swelling-induced taurine efflux in Ehrlich Lettre cells. It is suggested that increased tyrosine phosphorylation of regulatory components of NADPH oxidase leads to increased ROS production and a subsequent delay in inactivation of the volume-sensitive taurine efflux pathway and that NADPH oxidase or antioxidative capacity differ between NIH3T3 and Ehrlich Lettre cells. PMID:17537804

Lambert, Ian Henry

2007-07-01

261

EGF receptor is involved in WNT3a-mediated proliferation and motility of NIH3T3 cells via ERK pathway activation.  

PubMed

WNT3a stimulates proliferation of NIH3T3 cells via activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. The RAF-1-->MEK-->ERK cascade was immediately increased by WNT3a treatment, however, the upstream event triggering ERK pathway activation by WNT3a is not clear. WNT3a activated RAS and WNT3a-induced ERK activation was blocked by dominant-negative RAS, indicating that WNT3a might act upstream of RAS. WNT3a-induced ERK pathway activations were blocked by AG1478, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, and EGFR siRNA. The WNT3a-induced ERK pathway activation was not observed in fibroblasts retaining defective EGFR, but the WNT3a effect was restored by EGFR reconstitution. These results indicate involvement of EGFR in the WNT3a-induced ERK pathway activation. WNT3a-induced motility and cytoskeletal rearrangement as well as proliferation of NIH3T3 cells were blocked by AG1478 and EGFR siRNA or abolished in EGFR knock-out fibroblasts, indicating involvement of EGFR in those cellular processes. WNT3a-induced ERK pathway activation was not affected by Dickkoff-1 (DKK-1), although WNT3a-induced activations of the WNT/beta-catenin pathway and proliferation were reduced by DKK-1. EGFR is involved in WNT3a-induced proliferation via both routes dependent on and independent of the WNT/beta-catenin pathway. These results indicate that WNT3a stimulates proliferation and motility of NIH3T3 fibroblasts via EGFR-mediated ERK pathway activation. PMID:17374561

Kim, Sung-Eun; Choi, Kang-Yell

2007-07-01

262

Over-expression of NYGGF4 inhibits glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via attenuated phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt  

PubMed Central

Aim: NYGGF4 is a novel gene that is abundantly expressed in the adipose tissue of obese patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of NYGGF4 on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes and to understand the underlying mechanisms. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes transfected with either an empty expression vector (pcDNA3.1Myc/His B) or an NYGGF4 expression vector were differentiated into mature adipocytes. Glucose uptake was determined by measuring 2-deoxy-D-[3H]glucose uptake into the adipocytes. Immunoblotting was performed to detect the translocation of insulin-sensitive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Immunoblotting also was used to measure the phosphorylation and total protein contents of insulin signaling proteins such as the insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, Akt, ERK1/2, p38, and JNK. Results: NYGGF4 over-expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and impaired insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. It also diminished insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and serine phosphorylation of Akt without affecting the phosphorylation of IR, ERK1/2, p38, and JNK. Conclusion: NYGGF4 regulates the functions of IRS-1 and Akt, decreases GLUT4 translocation and reduces glucose uptake in response to insulin. These observations highlight the potential role of NYGGF4 in glucose homeostasis and possibly in the pathogenesis of obesity. PMID:19079291

Zhang, Chun-mei; Chen, Xiao-hui; Wang, Bin; Liu, Feng; Chi, Xia; Tong, Mei-ling; Ni, Yu-hui; Chen, Rong-hua; Guo, Xi-rong

2009-01-01

263

Vasopressin rapidly stimulates protein kinase C in digitonin-permeabilized Swiss 3T3 cells: involvement of a pertussis toxin-insensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein.  

PubMed

Guanine nucleotides and pertussis toxin were used to test for the involvement of a guanine nucleotide binding protein in the vasopressin V1 receptor-mediated stimulation of protein kinase C activity in Swiss 3T3 cells. Addition of vasopressin in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP and digitonin caused a marked and rapid increase (8 +/- 1-fold after 1 min) in the phosphorylation of an Mr = 80,000 cellular protein (80K), a specific marker for protein kinase C activation. This phosphorylation was selectively blocked by the V1 receptor antagonist Pmp1-0-Me-Tyr2 [Arg8] vasopressin, indicating that the effect was mediated through the vasopressin V1 receptor. Down regulation of protein kinase C by prior prolonged pretreatment of intact cells with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PBt2) blocked the ability of vasopressin to stimulate the phosphorylation of 80K in digitonin-permeabilized cells. Addition of a submaximal concentration of vasopressin together with the GTP analogue GTP-gamma-S caused a synergistic stimulation of 80K phosphorylation. The GDP analogue GDP-beta-S caused a 50% inhibition of the phosphorylation of 80K induced by a saturating concentration of vasopressin and shifted the vasopressin dose-response curve to the right. GDP-beta-S had no effect on the dose-response for the stimulation of 80K phosphorylation induced by PBt2. Prior incubation of intact quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells with pertussis toxin did not impair either vasopressin-induced increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] or activation of protein kinase C. These findings provide functional evidence for the involvement of a pertussis toxin-insesitive G protein in the vasopressin V1 receptor-mediated stimulation of protein kinase C in Swiss 3T3 cells. PMID:2530240

Erusalimsky, J D; Rozengurt, E

1989-11-01

264

Localization of transferrin receptors and insulin-like growth factor II receptors in vesicles from 3T3-L1 adipocytes that contain intracellular glucose transporters  

PubMed Central

Transferrin receptors in detergent extracts of subcellular membrane fractions prepared from 3T3-L1 adipocytes were measured by a binding assay. There was a small but significant increase (1.2-fold) in the amount of receptor in a crude plasma membrane fraction and a 40% decrease in the number of transferrin receptors in microsomal membranes prepared from insulin-treated cells, when compared with corresponding fractions from control cells. Intracellular vesicles containing insulin- responsive glucose transporters (GT) have been isolated by immunoadsorption from the microsomal fraction (Biber, J. W., and G. E. Lienhard. 1986. J. Biol. Chem. 261:16180-16184). All of the transferrin receptors in this fraction were localized in these vesicles; however, because the GT vesicles contain approximately 30-fold fewer transferrin receptors than GT, on the average only one vesicle in three contains a transferrin receptor. The binding of 125I-pentamannose 6-phosphate BSA to 3T3-L1 adipocytes at 4 degrees C was used to monitor surface insulin- like growth factor II (IGF-II)/mannose 6-phosphate receptors. Exposure of cells to insulin at 37 degrees C for 5 min resulted in a 2.5-4.5- fold increase in surface receptors. There was a corresponding 20% decrease in the amount of IGF-II receptors in the microsomal membranes prepared from insulin-treated cells, as assayed by immunoblotting. Moreover, the IGF-II receptors and GT were located in the same intracellular vesicles, since antibodies to the carboxyterminal peptide of either protein immunoadsorbed vesicles containing 70-95% of both proteins initially present in the microsomal fraction. In conjunction with other studies, these results indicate that in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, three membrane proteins (the GT, the transferrin receptor, and the IGF- II receptor) respond similarly to insulin, by redistributing to the surface from intracellular compartment(s) in which they are colocalized. PMID:2538483

1989-01-01

265

Regulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts by sodium butyrate  

SciTech Connect

Mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts contain beta-adrenergic receptors (BAR), predominantly of the B/sub 1/ subtype. Incubation of these cells with 2-10 mM sodium butyrate (SB) for 24-48 hr results in a switch in the BAR subtype from B/sub 1/ to B/sub 2/ and promotes a 1.5 to 2.5 fold increase in total BAR number. Other short chain acids were not as effective as SB in promoting changes in BAR. BAR were assayed in membranes prepared from the 3T3-L1 cells using the radiolabeled antagonist (/sup 125/I)-cyanopindolol and the B/sub 2/ selective antagonist ICI 118.551. BAR subtype switch was confirmed functionally by measuring cellular cAMP accumulation in response to agonists. The structure and amount of the alpha subunits of the guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ were determined by ADP-ribosylation using /sup 32/P-NAD and either cholera toxin or pertussis toxin for labeling of the respective subunits. Preincubation of cells with 5 mM SB for 48 hr resulted in a 2-3 fold increase in the labeling of the alpha subunits of both N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A protein of M/sub r/ = 44,000 showed enhanced labeling by cholera toxin following SB treatment of the cells. These data indicate SB concomitantly regulates expression of BAR subtype and components of the adenylate cyclase in 3T3-L1 cells.

Stadel, J.M.; Poksay, K.S.; Nakada, M.T.; Crooke, S.T.

1986-05-01

266

Novel ATP-binding heat-inducible protein of Mr = 37,000 that is sensitive to transformation in BALB/3T3 cells  

SciTech Connect

Using affinity chromatography on ATP-agarose, we have identified a major ATP-binding protein in Nonidet P-40 extracts of avian and mammalian cells labeled with (35S)methionine. After washing ATP-agarose beads with high-ionic-strength buffer (0.4 M NaCl), the 37-kD protein was shown to be one of the major ATP-binding proteins while p72 and grp78, which are members of the hsp70 family, also bound to ATP-agarose. This protein consisted of several spots on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the most basic spot was approximately 9.2 in chick embryo fibroblasts, whereas it was about 8.8 in mouse 3T3 cells. The identities of these proteins in mouse and chick cells were confirmed by peptide mapping. After heat-shock treatment of BALB/3T3 cells, the major heat-shock protein, hsp70, was shown to be induced very rapidly after heat shock and was recovered in the ATP-binding fraction. Besides hsp70, a 37-kD protein was also found to be induced by heat shock. This protein was drastically induced by treating the cells with alpha,alpha'-dipyridyl, an iron chelating reagent, but not with sodium arsenite, calcium ionophore, or tunicamycin. The synthesis and the total amount of this ATP-binding protein increased in mouse 3T3 cells transformed by simian virus 40, methylcholanthrene, or activated c-Ha-ras oncogene compared to their normal counterparts. The incorporation of (32P)orthophosphate was not detected in either normal or transformed cells. These studies established that a major ATP-binding protein of Mr = 37,000 is a heat-inducible protein and that the synthesis of this protein is regulated by malignant transformation.

Nakai, A.; Hirayama, C.; Ohtsuka, K.; Hirayoshi, K.; Nagata, K. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

1990-06-01

267

Effect of Surface Topography and Bioactive Properties on Early Adhesion and Growth Behavior of Mouse Preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 Cells.  

PubMed

The effects of bioactive properties and surface topography of biomaterials on the adhesion and spreading properties of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells was investigated by preparation of different surfaces. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) electrospun fibers (ES) were produced as a porous rough surface. In our study, coverslips were used as a substrate for the immobilization of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and collagen type I (COL I) in the preparation of bioactive surfaces. In addition, COL I was immobilized onto porous electrospun fibers surfaces (E-COL) to investigate the combined effects of bioactive molecules and topography. Untreated coverslips were used as controls. Early adhesion and growth behavior of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the different surfaces were studied at 6, 12, and 24 h. Evaluation of cell adhesion and morphological changes showed that the all the surfaces were favorable for promoting the adhesion and spreading of cells. CCK-8 assays and flow cytometry revealed that both topography and bioactive properties were favorable for cell growth. Analysis of ?1, ?1, ?2, ?5, ?10 and ?11 integrin expression levels by immunofluorescence, real-time RT-PCR, and Western blot and indicated that surface topography plays an important role in the early stage of cell adhesion. However, the influence of topography and bioactive properties of surfaces on integrins is variable. Compared with any of the topographic or bioactive properties in isolation, the combined effect of both types of properties provided an advantage for the growth and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells. This study provides a new insight into the functions and effects of topographic and bioactive modifications of surfaces at the interface between cells and biomaterials for tissue engineering. PMID:25211771

Li, Na; Chen, Gang; Liu, Jue; Xia, Yang; Chen, Hanbang; Tang, Hui; Zhang, Feimin; Gu, Ning

2014-10-01

268

Triiodothyronine Increases mRNA and Protein Leptin Levels in Short Time in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes by PI3K Pathway Activation  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to examine the effects of thyroid hormone (TH), more precisely triiodothyronine (T3), on the modulation of leptin mRNA expression and the involvement of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway in adipocytes, 3T3-L1, cell culture. We examined the involvement of this pathway in mediating TH effects by treating 3T3-L1 adipocytes with physiological (P=10nM) or supraphysiological (SI=100 nM) T3 dose during one hour (short time), in the absence or the presence of PI3K inhibitor (LY294002). The absence of any treatment was considered the control group (C). RT-qPCR was used for mRNA expression analyzes. For data analyzes ANOVA complemented with Tukey’s test was used at 5% significance. T3 increased leptin mRNA expression in P (2.26 ± 0.36, p< 0.001), SI (1.99 ±0.22, p< 0.01) compared to C group (1± 0.18). This increase was completely abrogated by LY294002 in P (1.31±0.05, p< 0.001) and SI (1.33±0.31, p< 0.05). Western blotting confirmed these results at protein level, indicating the PI3K pathway dependency. To examine whether leptin is directly induced by T3, we used the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX). In P, the presence of CHX maintained the levels mRNA leptin, but was completely abrogated in SI (1.14±0.09, p> 0.001). These results demonstrate that the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway has a role in TH-mediated direct and indirect leptin gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:24058635

de Oliveira, Miriane; Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; De Sibio, Maria Teresa; Conde, Sandro Jose; Biz Rodrigues Silva, Carolina; Moretto, Fernanda Cristina Fontes; Nogueira, Celia Regina

2013-01-01

269

Effect of quinupristin/dalfopristin on 3T3 and Eahy926 cells in vitro in comparison to other antimicrobial agents with the potential to induce infusion phlebitis.  

PubMed

Infusion phlebitis is a common clinical problem that is observed with some antimicrobial agents, when being administered intravenously. In this study, cultured murine fibroblasts and immortalised human endothelial cells were exposed to three antibiotics at clinically relevant concentrations to assess their toxic potential in two established cytotoxicity assays. BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts and Eahy926 endothelial cells were exposed to quinupristin/dalfopristin (QD), erythromycin and levofloxacin at increasing concentrations. For assessment of cytotoxicity the cells were incubated with neutral red (NR) or stained with crystal violet (CV). Measurements were done by photometry. At the concentration range tested QD and erythromycin showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect in both cell cultures. In 3T3 cells the half-maximal effect concentration (EC50) was 20 mg/l for QD and 340 mg/l for erythromycin in the NR uptake test and 12 and 200 mg/l, respectively, in the CV assay. In Eahy926 cells the EC50 was 50 mg/l for QD and 880 mg/l for erythromycin in the NR uptake test and 40 and 750 mg/l, respectively, in the CV assay. No EC50 could be established in both cell types for levofloxacin. Eahy926 cells were less sensitive to cytotoxic stimuli than 3T3 fibroblasts. Cytotoxic effects in both cell cultures occurred in the following order: QD > erythromycin > levofloxacin. This ranking correlates well with the frequency of local adverse effects observed with the infusion of these antibiotics in patients. Thus, these in vitro assays may serve as an estimate for the prediction of local tolerability of antibiotics when administered parenterally. PMID:17119926

Kruse, Matthias; Kilic, Bülent; Flick, Burkhard; Stahlmann, Ralf

2007-06-01

270

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has an anti-oxidant effect via the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA has a direct anti-oxidant effect in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPA and DHA induce HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA and its end-product, 4-HHE, activates the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA protects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress is produced in adipose tissue of obese subjects and has been associated with obesity-related disorders. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ({omega}3-PUFA) has beneficial effects in preventing atherosclerotic diseases and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, the role of {omega}3-PUFA on adipocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE). {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); whereas no changes in the well-known anti-oxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were observed. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) significantly reduced EPA, DHA or 4-HHE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Also, pretreatment with {omega}3-PUFA prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in a HO-1 dependent manner. In conclusion, treatment with EPA and DHA induced HO-1 through the activation of Nrf-2 and prevented oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-oxidant defense may be of high therapeutic value for clinical conditions associated with systemic oxidative stress.

Kusunoki, Chisato, E-mail: yosizaki@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Yang, Liu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Motoyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Nishio, Yoshihiko [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

2013-01-04

271

Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (˝MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. Results: The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0±28.3) and (225.0±21.2) ?g/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0±2.0) ?g/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0±1.0) ?g/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ˝MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. Conclusions: The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects. PMID:24599694

Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

2014-01-01

272

p300-Dependent Acetylation of Activating Transcription Factor 5 Enhances C/EBP? Transactivation of C/EBP? during 3T3-L1 Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Adipogenesis is a multistep process by which 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiate into mature adipocytes through mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) and terminal differentiation. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) is an important transcription factor that takes part in both of these processes. C/EBP? not only transactivates C/EBP? and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), which cause 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to enter terminal adipocyte differentiation, but also is required to activate cell cycle genes necessary for MCE. The identification of potential cofactors of C/EBP? will help to explain how C/EBP? undertakes these specialized roles during the different stages of adipogenesis. In this study, we found that activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) can bind to the promoter of C/EBP? via its direct interaction with C/EBP? (which is mediated via the p300-dependent acetylation of ATF5), leading to enhanced C/EBP? transactivation of C/EBP?. We also show that p300 is important for the interaction of ATF5 with C/EBP? as well as for the binding activity of this complex on the C/EBP? promoter. Consistent with these findings, overexpression of ATF5 and an acetylated ATF5 mimic both promoted 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, whereas short interfering RNA-mediated ATF5 downregulation inhibited this process. Furthermore, we show that the elevated expression of ATF5 is correlated with an obese phenotype in both mice and humans. In summary, we have identified ATF5 as a new cofactor of C/EBP? and examined how C/EBP? and ATF5 (acetylated by a p300-dependent mechanism) regulate the transcription of C/EBP?. PMID:24216764

Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Ya-Dong; Zhang, You-You; Qian, Shu-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Chun; Li, Shu-Fen; Guo, Liang; Liu, Yuan; Wen, Bo; Lei, Qun-Ying; Tang, Qi-Qun

2014-01-01

273

Coptis chinensis alkaloids exert anti-adipogenic activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes by downregulating C/EBP-? and PPAR-?.  

PubMed

Obesity is a complex, multifactorial, and chronic disease that increases the risk for type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension, and has become a major worldwide health problem. Developing novel anti-obesity drugs from natural products is a promising solution to the global health problem of obesity. While screening anti-obesity potentials of natural products, the methanol extract of the rhizome of Coptis chinensis (Coptidis Rhizoma) was found to significantly inhibit adipocyte differentiation and lipid contents in 3T3-L1 cells, as assessed by Oil-Red O staining. Five known alkaloids, berberine, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, and magnoflorine, were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction of the methanol extract of Coptidis Rhizoma. We determined the chemical structure of these alkaloids through comparisons of published nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data. Furthermore, we screened these alkaloids for their ability to inhibit adipogenesis over a range of concentrations (12.5-50?M). All five Coptidis Rhizoma alkaloids significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells without affecting cell viability in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, the five alkaloids significantly reduced the expression levels of several adipocyte marker genes including proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-? (C/EBP-?). In the present study, we found that the isolated alkaloids inhibited adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 cells; this inhibition was attributed to their abilities to downregulate the protein levels of the adipocyte marker proteins PPAR-? and C/EBP-?. Thus, these results suggest that Coptidis Rhizoma extract and its isolated alkaloids may be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity. PMID:25128422

Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Ji-Hye; Ali, Md Yousof; Min, Byung-Sun; Kim, Gun-Do; Jung, Hyun Ah

2014-10-01

274

Substance P Activates the Wnt Signal Transduction Pathway and Enhances the Differentiation of Mouse Preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Recent experiments have explored the impact of Wnt/?-catenin signaling and Substance P (SP) on the regulation of osteogenesis. However, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of SP on the formation of osteoblasts is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of SP on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The osteogenic effect of SP was observed at different SP concentrations (ranging from 10?10 to 10?8 M). To unravel the underlying mechanism, the MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with SP after the pretreatment by neurokinin-1 (NK1) antagonists and Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and gene expression levels of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway components, as well as osteoblast differentiation markers (collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and Runx2), were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, protein levels of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway were detected using Western blotting and the effects of SP, NK1 antagonist, and DKK1 on ?-catenin activation were investigated by immunofluorescence staining. Our data indicated that SP (10?9 to 10?8 M) significantly up-regulated the expressions of osteoblastic genes. SP (10?8 M) also elevated the mRNA level of c-myc, cyclin D1, and lymphocyte enhancer factor-1 (Lef1), as well as c-myc and ?-catenin protein levels, but decreased the expression of Tcf7 mRNA. Moreover, SP (10?8 M) promoted the transfer of ?-catenin into nucleus. The effects of SP treatment were inhibited by the NK1 antagonist and DKK1. These findings suggest that SP may enhance differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells via regulation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:24733069

Mei, Gang; Zou, Zhenlv; Fu, Su; Xia, Liheng; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Yongtao; Tuo, Yonghua; Wang, Zhao; Jin, Dan

2014-01-01

275

The influence of EPA and DHA on markers of inflammation in 3T3-L1 cells at different stages of cellular maturation  

PubMed Central

Background EPA and DHA have been reported to have anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies revealed that these positive actions of n-3 PUFA at least partially are connected with their influence on metabolism and secretory functions of the adipose tissue. However, their impact on old adipocytes is still poorly understood. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of EPA and DHA on markers of inflammation in 3T3-L1 cells at different stages of cellular maturation. Methods Young, mature and old differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured for 48 h in the presence of 100 ?M EPA, or 50 ?M DHA complexed to albumin, whereas in control conditions only albumin was added to the medium. The Oil Red O staining was used to confirm adipocytes differentiation, and measure triglycerides content in cells. The concentration of adipokines (interleukin 6, adiponectin and leptin) in conditioned media was measured using mouse-specific ELISA kits. Results The fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was positively correlated with their age; however, EPA and DHA did not affect lipid accumulation on any stage of maturation. EPA and DHA increased the concentration of secreted adiponectin when compared with control, but only in the case of young adipocytes (58% and 35%, respectively). Moreover, EPA supplementation increased interleukin 6 concentration in conditioned medium, while DHA exerted an opposite effect on all stages of cellular maturation. Furthermore, EPA treatment increased leptin release from young cells, while DHA did not affect the secretion of this adipokine. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes both experimental factors decreased synthesis of leptin; however, in old cells no impact of these PUFA was noted. Conclusions In summary, age is an important determinant of fat accumulation in adipocytes and affects adipokines secretion by these cells. Moreover, the impact of investigated fatty acids: EPA and DHA on fat cells varies depending on the stage of maturation, and seems to be stronger in young cells than in mature and old ones. Docosahexaenoic acid exerts an anti-inflammatory action; however, on the basis of the obtained data it was not possible to determine whether eicosapentaenoic acid shows anti- or pro-inflammatory properties. PMID:24387137

2014-01-01

276

Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. antagonizes H2O2-induced rat osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 apoptosis by inhibiting expressions of caspases 3, 6, 7, and 9.  

PubMed

Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (EuO), also known as Duzhong, native to China, has been reported to have antioxidative function, but its cellular mechanism is not fully examined yet. We investigated inhibitory effects of EuO leaf ethanol extracts on H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in rat osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and underlying mechanisms. Locally-grown Duzhong leaves were extracted with ethanol. MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with EuO (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml) for 24 h, and then H(2)O(2) (800 µmol/L) for an additional 24 h. Cell survival rate, percentage of apoptosis, and expressions of caspases 3, 6, 7, and 9 were examined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, microscopic analysis, Western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The final EuO leaf ethanol extract powder was detected to contain caffeotannic acid at 58 mg/g and geniposide at 3.45 mg/g by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). EuO remarkably restrained cell oxidative damage and increased cell survival rate in a dose-dependent manner: 0 µg/ml, 0.21; 6.25 µg/ml, 0. 28; 12.5 µg/ml, 0.31; 25 µg/ml, 0.48; 50 µg/ml, 0.54; and 100 µg/ml, 0.66 (P<0.05), with the half-effective concentration being around 25 µg/ml. MTT results were confirmed by microscopic analysis. Western blotting and RT-PCR analyses showed that the expressions of caspases 3, 6, 7, and 9 were significantly decreased in the EuO-treated cells compared with the control (EuO- and H(2)O(2)-free) (P<0.05), with the half-effective concentration of EuO ranging from 12.5 to 25 µg/ml. We conclude that the ethanol-extracted EuO leaf extracts promoted the growth of MC3T3-E1 cells, and suppressed the H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in a rat MC3T3-E1 osteogenic cell model, likely due to the inhibition of caspases' activities. The results indicate that EuO is a potent antioxidant, which may contribute to its many cellular protective functions, including the promotion of bone growth. PMID:21194186

Lin, Jun; Fan, Yi-jing; Mehl, Christian; Zhu, Jia-jun; Chen, Hong; Jin, Ling-yan; Xu, Jing-hong; Wang, Hui-ming

2011-01-01

277

Pasteurella multocida toxin, a potent mitogen, stimulates protein kinase C-dependent and -independent protein phosphorylation in Swiss 3T3 cells.  

PubMed

Pasteurella multocida toxin, either native or recombinant (rPMT), is an extremely effective mitogen for Swiss 3T3 cells and acts at picomolar concentrations (Rozengurt, E., Higgins, T. E., Chanter, N., Lax, A. J., and Staddon, J. M. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 87, 123-127). Here, we show that similar concentrations of rPMT markedly stimulated the phosphorylation of an acidic 80-kDa protein in [32P]Pi-labeled Swiss 3T3 cells. Co-migration on one- and two-dimensional gels and phosphopeptide analysis indicated that this phosphoprotein was indistinguishable from 80K, a known protein kinase C substrate. In parallel cultures, the stimulation of 80K phosphorylation by rPMT (5-10-fold) was comparable to that induced by bombesin or phorbol dibutyrate (PBt2). However, the increase in phosphorylation by rPMT occurred after a pronounced lag period (1-3 h, depending upon the concentration of rPMT) in contrast to the relatively immediate stimulation by PBt2 or bombesin. Early, but not late, addition of either PMT antiserum or the lysosomotrophic agent methylamine selectively inhibited 80K phosphorylation in response to rPMT. 80K phosphorylation persisted after removal of free toxin and was not inhibited by cycloheximide. It appears that rPMT enters the cells via an endocytotic pathway to initiate and perpetuate events leading to 80K phosphorylation. rPMT, like PBt2, also stimulated the phosphorylation of 87-kDa and 33-kDa proteins in Swiss 3T3 cells. Phosphorylation of the 80K and 87-kDa proteins by rPMT or PBt2 were greatly attenuated in cells depleted of protein kinase C. In contrast, phosphorylation of the 33-kDa protein by rPMT, but not by PBt2, persisted in the absence of protein kinase C. rPMT, like bombesin, caused a translocation of protein kinase C to the cellular particulate fraction. The toxin enhanced the cellular content of diacylglycerol. rPMT also caused a time- and dose-dependent decrease in the binding of 125I-epidermal growth factor to its receptor which was blocked by methylamine and dependent only in part upon the presence of protein kinase C. We conclude that rPMT stimulates protein kinase C-dependent and -independent protein phosphorylation in Swiss 3T3 cells. PMID:2365704

Staddon, J M; Chanter, N; Lax, A J; Higgins, T E; Rozengurt, E

1990-07-15

278

Phase balancing optimization for radial feeder systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the power distribution systems, unbalanced feeder causes deteriorating power quality and increases investment and operating costs. There are two approaches to balance a feeder system. One approach is feeder reconfiguration, the other is phase swapping. Feeder reconfiguration is an on-line operation of sectionalizing switches. However, feeder reconfiguration is difficult to find the phase balancing solution for a unbalanced feeder system. On the other hand, phase swapping is a direct and effective approach for phase balancing. Phase swapping is an off-line operation of re-tapping loads/laterals to the phase lines during maintenance and restoration periods. Unfortunately, phase balancing problem has not received its deserved importance. Deregulation in power industry has arisen phase balancing issue because it can improve power quality, improve service reliability, and reduce total costs. Thus, phase balancing can enhance utility competitive capability. This research provides utilities the optimization tools to maximize the benefits of phase balancing and minimize the costs. This dissertation proposed several mathematical formulations, including Mixed-integer programming (MIP), Dynamic programming (DP), Simulated annealing (SA), and Fuzzy logic (FL), to perform phase swapping to balance phase in a radial feeder. Due to the discrete nature of phase swapping, a MIP model is proposed to find the optimal phase swapping scheme for small-sized feeder. Candidate sets and monitored branches are then introduced to solve the large-scale feeder systems. Possibilistic integer programming (PIP) is proposed to incorporate load uncertainties in phase swapping problems. The tests show that the load uncertainties may change the optimal phase swapping. DP computation is significant reduced by introducing the tighter upper/lower bounds. The upper bound can be quickly obtained by assignment algorithm. Even though SA is a time-consuming heuristic method, it can provide better solution than other heuristic methods. FL can efficiently identify the most effective phase swapping for large-scale feeder systems. The results can be easily fine-tuned to match the expectation of decision-maker. Finally, the computation efforts and optimality are compared between the proposed methods. Several examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Zhu, Jinxiang

279

Phorbol esters and diacylglycerol inhibit vasopressin-induced increases in cytoplasmic-free Ca2+ and 45Ca2+ efflux in Swiss 3T3 cells.  

PubMed

Vasopressin increased intracellular free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in quin-2-loaded quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. This effect of vasopressin was rapidly inhibited by biologically active tumour promoters including phorbol dibutyrate (PBt2) and by the synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol (OAG). Prolonged pretreatment of Swiss 3T3 cells with PBt2 causes a loss of protein kinase C activity (Rodriguez-Pena & Rozengurt, Biochem biophys res commun 120 (1984) 1053) [28]. This pretreatment abolished the inhibition by PBt2 or OAG of vasopressin-mediated increases in [Ca2+]i. Vasopressin also stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux from cells pre-loaded with the isotope. This effect of the hormone was also inhibited by PBt2. Prolonged pretreatment with PBt2 prevented the inhibition of vasopressin-stimulated 45Ca2+ release by PBt2. Thus, protein kinase C stimulation inhibits vasopressin-mediated increases in [Ca2+]i and 45Ca2+ efflux apparently by blocking the increased release of Ca2+ from an intracellular store caused by the hormone. These findings suggest that activation of protein kinase C may act as a feedback inhibitor to modulate ligand-mediated increases in [Ca2+]i. PMID:3458589

Mendoza, S A; Lopez-Rivas, A; Sinnett-Smith, J W; Rozengurt, E

1986-06-01

280

Soluble Forms of the Notch Ligands Delta1 and Jagged1 Promote in Vivo Tumorigenicity in NIH3T3 Fibroblasts with Distinct Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

We previously found that soluble forms of the Notch ligands Jagged1 and Delta1 induced fibroblast growth factor receptor-dependent cell transformation in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. However, the phenotypes of these lines differed, indicating distinct functional differences among these Notch ligands. In the present study, we used allografts to test the hypothesis that NIH3T3 fibroblasts that express soluble forms of Delta1 and Jagged1 accelerate tumorigenicity in vivo. With the exception of the full-length Jagged1 transfectant, all other cell lines, including the control, generated tumors when injected subcutaneously in athymic mice. Suppression of Notch signaling by the soluble ligands significantly increased tumor onset and growth, whereas full-length Jagged1 completely suppressed tumor development. In addition, there were striking differences in tumor pathology with respect to growth kinetics, vascularization, collagen content, size and number of necrotic foci, and invasiveness into the underlying tissue. Further, the production of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor, also differed among the tumor types. Lastly, both Jagged1- and Delta1-derived tumors contained phenotypically distinct populations of lipid-filled cells that corresponded with increased expression of adipocyte markers. The divergence of tumor phenotype may be attributed to ligand-specific alterations in Notch receptor responses in exogenous and endogenous cell populations within the allographs. Our findings demonstrate distinct functional properties for these Notch ligands in the promotion of tumorigenicity in vivo. PMID:18688026

Urs, Sumithra; Roudabush, Alice; O'Neill, Christine F.; Pinz, Ilka; Prudovsky, Igor; Kacer, Doreen; Tang, Yuefang; Liaw, Lucy; Small, Deena

2008-01-01

281

The protective effects of Achyranthes bidentata root extract on the antimycin A induced damage of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.  

PubMed

Achyranthes bidentata (A. bidentata) Blume is a medicinal herb with the property of strengthening bones and muscles and ensuring proper downward flow of blood in terms of the therapeutic theory of traditional medicine. In the present study, the effect of A. bidentata root extract (AE) on osteoblast function was investigated in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. AE caused a significant elevation of alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, osteocalcin production, and mineralization in the cells (P < 0.05). AE also decreased the production of TNF-?, IL-6, and RANKL induced by antimycin A, mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to antimycin A caused significant reduction of cell viability and mineralization. However, pretreatment with AE prior to antimycin A exposure significantly reduced antimycin A-induced cell damage by preventing mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, ATP loss, ROS release, and nitrotyrosine increase, suggesting that AE may be useful for protecting mitochondria against a burst of oxidative stress. Moreover, AE increased the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein inhibited by antimycin A. Our study demonstrates that A. bidentata could significantly prevent osteoblast damage in aged patients. PMID:24113920

Suh, Kwang Sik; Lee, Young Soon; Choi, Eun Mi

2014-12-01

282

Gadolinium-containing bioparticles as an active entity to promote cell cycle progression in mouse embryo fibroblast NIH3T3 cells.  

PubMed

In the present study, we demonstrated that gadolinium-containing particles formed in cell culture medium acted as a biologically active entity to mediate cell cycle progression in NIH3T3 cells. The particles were observed to accumulate at the cell surface by scanning electron microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis was undertaken and confirmed that gadolinium was incorporated in the agglomerated particles. Moreover, the smaller gadolinium particles exhibited a stronger cell-cycle-promoting effect than the larger ones, but they shared the common signaling pathways. Both extracellular signal regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways were activated by gadolinium-containing particles and may account for their proliferation-promoting effect on NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, the study showed that the free gadolinium ion released from gadolinium-containing particles may be responsible for the proliferation effect. This study will be helpful to clarify the biological effect of the insoluble species formed from Gd(3+) as well as other multivalent metal ions under physiological conditions and will help to improve their medical applications. PMID:20076980

Li, Jin-Xia; Liu, Jing-Cheng; Wang, Kui; Yang, Xiao-Gai

2010-05-01

283

Chicoric acid induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through ROS-mediated PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Chicoric acid has been reported to possess various bioactivities. However, the antiobesity effects of chicoric acid remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of chicoric acid on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and its molecular mechanisms of apoptosis. Chicoric acid inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes which was characterized by chromatin condensation and poly ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, Bax/Bcl-2 dysregulation, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation were observed, indicating mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induced by chicoric acid. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt and MAPK (p38 MAPK, JNK, and ERK1/2) signaling pathways were involved in chicoric acid-induced apoptosis. The employment of protein kinase inhibitors LY294002, SB203580, SP600125, and U0126 revealed that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway interplayed with MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, chicoric acid induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly blocked cell death and changes of Akt and MAPK signalings induced by chicoric acid. In addition, chicoric acid down regulated HO-1 and COX-2 via the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:23363008

Xiao, Haifang; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Li; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

2013-02-20

284

Effects of Panicum miliaceum L. extract on adipogenic transcription factors and fatty acid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

The dietary intake of whole grains is known to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. To investigate whether there are anti-adipogenic activities in various Korean cereals, we assessed water extracts of nine cereals. The results showed that treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, Setaria italica Beauvois, or Panicum miliaceum L. extract significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation, as determined by measuring oil red-O staining, triglyceride accumulation, and glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Among the nine cereals, P. miliaceum L. showed the highest anti-adipogenic activity. The effects of P. miliaceum L. on mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-? were evaluated, revealing that the extract significantly decreased the expression of these genes in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, P. miliaceum L. extract changed the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in adipocytes, which is related to biological activity and cell characteristics. These results suggest that some cereals efficiently suppress adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In particular, the effect of P. miliaceum L. on adipocyte differentiation is associated with the downregulation of adipogenic genes and fatty acid accumulation in adipocytes. PMID:21779521

Park, Mi-Young; Seo, Dong-Won; Lee, Jin-Young; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Young-Min; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Choi, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Hyn; Park, Dong-Sik

2011-06-01

285

Effects of Panicum miliaceum L. extract on adipogenic transcription factors and fatty acid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

PubMed Central

The dietary intake of whole grains is known to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. To investigate whether there are anti-adipogenic activities in various Korean cereals, we assessed water extracts of nine cereals. The results showed that treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, Setaria italica Beauvois, or Panicum miliaceum L. extract significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation, as determined by measuring oil red-O staining, triglyceride accumulation, and glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Among the nine cereals, P. miliaceum L. showed the highest anti-adipogenic activity. The effects of P. miliaceum L. on mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-? were evaluated, revealing that the extract significantly decreased the expression of these genes in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, P. miliaceum L. extract changed the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in adipocytes, which is related to biological activity and cell characteristics. These results suggest that some cereals efficiently suppress adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In particular, the effect of P. miliaceum L. on adipocyte differentiation is associated with the downregulation of adipogenic genes and fatty acid accumulation in adipocytes. PMID:21779521

Park, Mi-Young; Seo, Dong-Won; Lee, Jin-Young; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Young-Min; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Choi, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Hyn

2011-01-01

286

Low-level laser therapy on tissue-engineered skin substitutes: effect on the proliferation rate of 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of tissue engineering and gene therapy, collagen-based biomaterials are frequently used as cell transplant devices; an example is tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In this study of low level laser therapy (LLLT) we determined the influence of the irradiation and treatment parameters on the proliferation rate of 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells cultured on collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) lattices and Petri dishes for up to 4 and 7 days respectively. Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser at 1 - 4 J/cm2 was used to irradiate the cells. Using 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) fluorescence, studies on the proliferation rate of irradiated cells before and after cell attachment, and on different treatment days were conducted. The viability of cells on collagen-GAG lattices were assessed using the MTT assay. It was found that in terms of cell proliferation, the cells irradiated at different fluences and treatment modes (at 3 J/cm2) showed no statistically significant difference from the control cells. Control cells on collagen-GAG lattices were found to be more viable than the irradiated cells. It was concluded that with existing experimental conditions, LLLT was found to have no statistically significant effect on the post-cell attachment proliferation and viability of 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells.

Ho, Gideon; Grant, M. Helen; Barbenel, Joseph C.; Henderson, Catherine J.

2004-09-01

287

Hop and Acacia Phytochemicals Decreased Lipotoxicity in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes, db/db Mice, and Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The plant-based compounds rho-iso-alpha acids (RIAA) from Humulus lupulus (hops) and proanthocyanidins (PAC) from Acacia nilotica have been shown to modulate insulin signaling in vitro. We investigated their effects on triglyceride (TG) deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, glucose and insulin in obese mouse models, and metabolic syndrome markers in adults with metabolic syndrome. The combination of RIAA and PAC synergistically increased TG content and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes under hyperinsulinemic conditions and reduced glucose or insulin in obese mice. In a clinical trial, tablets containing 100?mg RIAA and 500?mg PAC or placebo were administered to metabolic syndrome subjects (3 tablets/day, n = 35; 6 tablets/day, n = 34; or placebo, n = 35) for 12 weeks. Compared to placebo, subjects taking 3 tablets daily showed greater reductions in TG, TG : HDL, fasting insulin, and HOMA scores. The combination of RIAA : PAC at 1 : 5 (wt : wt) favorably modulates dysregulated lipids in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. PMID:20721358

Minich, Deanna M.; Lerman, Robert H.; Darland, Gary; Babish, John G.; Pacioretty, Linda M.; Bland, Jeffrey S.; Tripp, Matthew L.

2010-01-01

288

Cadmium-109 uptake by tumors derived from Balb C/3T3 cell lines with varying degrees of the transformed phenotype  

SciTech Connect

To determine if tumors are rich in metallothionein, the authors measured the vivo uptake of subcutaneously-injected carrier-free cadmium-109 in tumors and in normal tissues of Balb/C mice. The tumors were grown in the mice from cultured Balb/3T3 cells transformed by the Moloney murine sarcoma virus. Uptake of cadmium-109 per gram of tissue was greatest for liver, kidney, and spleen. However, tumor uptake of cadmium-109 was markedly greater than that in blood, skeletal muscle, bones, intestine or adipose tissue. B Sephadex G-75 chromatography, the radioactivity in tumor and in liver lysates eluted with cytochrome-C, a molecule similar in molecular weight to metal-lothionein. To determine if metallothionein levels are related to the degree of malignancy of tumors, cadmium-109 uptake in the tumors from the virally-transformed cells was compared to that in tumors from non-transformed Balb/3T3 cells and two derivative chemically transformed cell lines. There was strong correlation between the substrate-independent growth in soft agarose of the four cell lines, the rate of growth of the corresponding tumors, and the amount of cadmium-109 uptake in the tumors. The authors conclude that metallothionein levels may be elevated in tumors as a function of the degree of expression of the transformed phenotype.

Morton, K.; Alazraki, N.; Winge, D.; Lynch, R.E.

1986-05-01

289

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.  

PubMed

Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation. PMID:23295454

Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

2013-02-26

290

Effects of uremic toxin p-cresol on proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Malnutrition is a common feature seen in chronic dialysis patients, and the survival rate of obese patients receiving such treatment is higher than that of lean patients. Irrespective of obesity or diabetes, dialysis patients commonly have insulin resistance, and the leading cause of death is cardiovascular (CV) disease. It has been reported that the concentration of p-cresol, a uremic toxin, is highly associated with CV events. As uremic toxin levels are high in dialysis patients, they may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and CV disease in this population. However, little is known so far. Thus, we focused on this uremic toxin to examine its effects on adipocytes and their precursors. 3T3-L1 cells, a mouse preadipocyte cell line, were cultured until 90% confluency. The cells were then differentiated with 500??M 3-isobutyl-methylxanthine, 250?nM dexamethasone, and 10??g/mL insulin. Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counting and bromodeoxyuridine (Brd-U) incorporation assay. Glucose uptake was estimated using radiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose. The range of concentrations of p-cresol used in the experiments was from 2 to 200??M. The investigation of cell proliferation by cell counting revealed that, compared with control, 3T3-L1 cells treated with 100 and 200??M p-cresol were significantly decreased in number at day 3 and day 7 of culture. The Brd-U incorporation assay also demonstrated similar inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, suggesting that p-cresol affected the normal cell cycle. Oil Red O staining at day 7 showed that the number of mature adipocytes was decreased by treatment with 200??M p-cresol. Consistent with that finding, the number of apoptotic cells at day 7 was increased by treatment with 100 and 200??M p-cresol. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) mRNA expression increased time-dependently during the differentiation process of 3T3-L1 cells. p-Cresol dose-dependently decreased differentiation-induced mRNA expression of PPAR?. Uptake of 3H-labeled 2-deoxyglucose was markedly decreased by 200??M p-cresol in the presence or in the absence of insulin, mainly because of the decreased number of mature adipocytes. High concentrations of p-cresol disturbed the cell cycle, induced apoptosis, inhibited the differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes, and decreased glucose uptake at baseline and after insulin stimulation. These findings indicate that accumulated p-cresol may induce reduction in adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and malnutrition, eventually leading to poor outcomes in chronic dialysis patients. PMID:24417700

Tanaka, Sayuri; Yano, Shozo; Sheikh, Abdullah M; Nagai, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

2014-07-01

291

Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs{sup 3+} decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 {mu}M) inorganic arsenite (iAs{sup 3+}) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs{sup 3+} exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs{sup 3+} exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4 expression may also be involved in arsenic-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes. Taken together our studies suggest that prolonged low-level iAs{sup 3+} exposure activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response, which impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling that is involved in ISGU, and thus causes insulin resistance in adipocytes.

Xue, Peng [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States) [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)] [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Sun, Guifan [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)] [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Andersen, Melvin E. [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)] [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jpi@thehamner.org [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)] [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

2011-04-08

292

Phosphorylation of mRNA Decapping Protein Dcp1a by the ERK Signaling Pathway during Early Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Turnover of mRNA is a critical step in the regulation of gene expression, and an important step in mRNA decay is removal of the 5? cap. We previously demonstrated that the expression of some immediate early gene mRNAs is controlled by RNA stability during early differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that the mouse decapping protein Dcp1a is phosphorylated via the ERK signaling pathway during early differentiation of preadipocytes. Mass spectrometry analysis and site-directed mutagenesis combined with a kinase assay identified ERK pathway–mediated dual phosphorylation at Ser 315 and Ser 319 of Dcp1a. To understand the functional effects of Dcp1a phosphorylation, we examined protein-protein interactions between Dcp1a and other decapping components with co-immunoprecipitation. Dcp1a interacted with Ddx6 and Edc3 through its proline-rich C-terminal extension, whereas the conserved EVH1 (enabled vasodilator-stimulated protein homology 1) domain in the N terminus of Dcp1a showed a stronger interaction with Dcp2. Once ERK signaling was activated, the interaction between Dcp1a and Ddx6, Edc3, or Edc4 was not affected by Dcp1a phosphorylation. Phosphorylated Dcp1a did, however, enhanced interaction with Dcp2. Protein complexes immunoprecipitated with the recombinant phosphomimetic Dcp1a(S315D/S319D) mutant contained more Dcp2 than did those immunoprecipitated with the nonphosphorylated Dcp1a(S315A/S319A) mutant. In addition, Dcp1a associated with AU-rich element (ARE)-containing mRNAs such as MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), whose mRNA stability was analyzed under the overexpression of Dcp1a constructs in the Dcp1a knockdown 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that ERK-phosphorylated Dcp1a enhances its interaction with the decapping enzyme Dcp2 during early differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:23637887

Su, Yu-Lun; Kao, Ching-Han; Lin, Nien-Yi; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Wang, Shun-Chang; Chang, Geen-Dong; Lee, Sheng-Chung; Chang, Ching-Jin

2013-01-01

293

Phosphorylation of the human transferrin receptor by protein kinase C is not required for endocytosis and recycling in mouse 3T3 cells.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the role of phosphorylation in the endocytosis of the human transferrin receptor (TR) by replacing its phosphorylation site, Ser24, with Ala through site-directed mutagenesis of the TR cDNA. The TR Ala24 mutant expressed in mouse 3T3 cells was not phosphorylated, even following stimulation of protein kinase C by phorbol ester. However, in spite of this defect the mutant was efficiently endocytosed and recycled back to the plasma membrane with kinetics similar to those of TR and a control mutant TR Ala63. Thus, these results confirm earlier results by Davis et al. (1986, J. Biol. Chem., 261-9034-9041) that Ser24 of human TR is the phosphorylation site for protein kinase C but do not support a role of this modification as a signal for TR endocytosis and recycling. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3479328

Zerial, M; Suomalainen, M; Zanetti-Schneider, M; Schneider, C; Garoff, H

1987-01-01

294

Anti-transforming nature of ascorbic acid and its derivatives examined by two-stage cell transformation using BALB/c 3T3 cells.  

PubMed

The anti-transforming effects of sodium ascorbate and its stable derivatives were examined in the two-stage transformation assay. When BALB/c 3T3 cells were treated with 0.2 microg/ml 20-methylcholanthrene as an initiator, and 100 ng/ml 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate as a promoter, the addition at the promotion stage of L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate ester magnesium (APM) was most marked in the inhibition of transformation. The inhibitory effects of sodium ascorbate and ascorbic acid-2-glucoside (AG) were comparable, but weaker than those of APM; L (+)-ascorbic acid-2-sulfate ester disodium 2H(2)O showed little effect. When phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) were used as promoters, APM also effectively suppressed transformation. PMID:11098084

Tsuchiya, T; Kato-Masatsuji, E; Tsuzuki, T; Umeda, M

2000-11-10

295

Morphological transformation induced by multiwall carbon nanotubes on Balb/3T3 cell model as an in vitro end point of carcinogenic potential.  

PubMed

In this work we investigated the toxicological effects of nude and chemically functionalised (-NH(2), -OH and -COOH groups) multiwall carbon nanotubes (mwCNTs) using immortalised mouse fibroblasts cell line (Balb/3T3) as in vitro model, alternative to the use of animals, to assess basal cytotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, genotoxicity and cell interaction of nanomaterials (NM). Combining in vitro tests such as cell transformation assay and micronucleus with physicochemical and topological analysis, we obtained results showing no cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Carcinogenic potential and mwCNTs interaction with cells were instead evident. We stressed the importance that different toxicological end points have to be considered when studying NM, therefore, assays able to detect long-term effects, such as carcinogenicity, must be taken into account together with a panel of tests able to detect more immediate effects like basal cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. PMID:22279961

Ponti, Jessica; Broggi, Francesca; Mariani, Valentina; De Marzi, Laura; Colognato, Renato; Marmorato, Patrick; Gioria, Sabrina; Gilliland, Douglas; Pascual Garcěa, César; Meschini, Stefania; Stringaro, Annarita; Molinari, Agnese; Rauscher, Hubert; Rossi, François

2013-03-01

296

Chromosomal locations of the gene coding for the CD3 (T3) gamma subunit of the human and mouse CD3/T-cell antigen receptor complexes.  

PubMed

The gene coding for the Mr 26000 gamma chain of the human CD3 (T3) antigen/T-cell antigen receptor complex was mapped to chromosome band 11q23 by using a cDNA clone (pJ6T3 gamma-2), by in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes and by Southern blot analysis of a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids. The mouse homolog, here termed Cdg-3, was mapped to chromosome 9 using the mouse gamma cDNA clone pB10.AT3 gamma-1 and a panel of mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrids. Similar locations for the CD3 delta genes have been described previously. Thus, the corporate results indicate that the CD3 gamma and delta genes have remained together since they duplicated about 200 million years ago. PMID:2820874

Krissansen, G W; Gorman, P A; Kozak, C A; Spurr, N K; Sheer, D; Goodfellow, P N; Crumpton, M J

1987-01-01

297

Banded Spherulitic Morphology in Blends of Poly(propylene fumarate) and Poly( -caprolactone) and Interaction with MC3T3-E1 Cells  

SciTech Connect

The thermal properties, morphological development, crystallization behavior, and miscibility of semicrystalline PCL and its 25, 50, and 75 wt% blends with amorphous PPF in spin-coated thin films crystallized at various crystallization temperatures (T{sub c}) from 25 to 52 C are investigated. The surface roughness of PPF/PCL ({phi}{sub PCL} = 75%) films increases with increasing T{sub c} and consequently the adsorption of serum proteins is also increased. No significant variance is found in surface hydrophilicity or in mouse MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation on PPF/PCL ({phi}{sub PCL} = 75%) films crystallized isothermally at 25, 37, and 45 C, because of low ridge height, nonuniformity in structures, and PPF surface segregation

Wang, Kan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Wang, Shanfeng [ORNL

2012-01-01

298

Ameliorating effects of fermented rice bran extract on oxidative stress induced by high glucose and hydrogen peroxide in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated whether fermented rice bran (FRB) can ameliorate the oxidative stress induced by high glucose and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by analyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS), oil red O staining, as well as the expression of mRNAs related to glucose homeostasis and adipogenesis. It was first confirmed that rice bran fermented by Issatchenkia orientalis MFST1 extract increased free phenolic content compared to non-fermented rice bran. The FRB extract strongly inhibited ROS generation and upregulated the expression of PPAR-? and adiponectin. Moreover, FRB upregulated GLUT4 related to glucose transportation and insulin sensitivity. Taken together, FRB extract ameliorated oxidative stress-induced insulin resistance by neutralizing free radicals and upregulating adiponectin in adipocytes. Our results provide information toward understanding the beneficial effects of FRB on oxidative stress. PMID:21748436

Kim, Dongyeop; Han, Gi Dong

2011-09-01

299

MC3T3-E1 cell response of amorphous phase/TiO2 nanocrystal composite coating prepared by microarc oxidation on titanium.  

PubMed

Bioactive amorphous phase/TiO2 nanocrystal (APTN) composite coatings were fabricated by microarc oxidation (MAO) on Ti. The APTN coatings are composed of much amorphous phase with Si, Na, Ca, Ti and O elements and a few TiO2 nanocrystals. With increasing applied voltage, the micropore density of the APTN coating decreases and the micropore size of the APTN coating increases. The results indicate that less MC3T3-E1 cells attach on the APTN coatings as compared to Ti. However, the APTN coatings greatly enhance the cell proliferation ability and the activity of alkaline phosphatase. The amorphous phase and the concentrations of the released Ca and Si from the APTN coatings during cell culture have significant effects on the cell response. PMID:24863215

Zhou, Rui; Wei, Daqing; Yang, Haoyue; Feng, Wei; Cheng, Su; Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Yaming; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

2014-06-01

300

Chemokine network during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells: Differential response between growth and proinflammatory factor in preadipocytes vs. adipocytes.  

PubMed

Obesity is recognized as a low-grade chronic inflammatory state which involves a chemokine network contributing to a variety of diseases. As a first step toward understanding the roles of the obesity-driven chemokine network, we used a 3T3-L1 cell differentiation model to identify the chemokine profiles elicited during adipogenesis and how this profile is modified by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) as a growth and proinflammatory factor, respectively. The chemokine network was monitored using PCR arrays and qRT-PCR while main signaling pathways of EGF and TNF were measured using immunoblotting. The dominant chemokines in preadipocytes were CCL5, CCL8, CXCL1, and CXCL16, and in adipocytes CCL6 and CXCL13. The following chemokines were found in both preadipocytes and adipocytes: CCL2, CCL7, CCL25, CCL27, CXCL5, CXCL12, and CX3CL1. Among chemokine receptors, CXCR7 was specific for preadipocytes and CXCR2 for adipocytes. These findings indicate the development of a CXCL12-CXCR7 axis in preadipocytes and a CXCL5-CXCR2 axis in adipocytes. In addition to induction of CCL2 and CCL7 in both preadipocytes and adipocytes, EGF enhanced specifically CXCL1 and CXCL5 in adipocytes, indicating the potentiation of CXCR2-mediated pathway in adipocytes. TNF induced CCL2, CCL7, and CXCL1 in preadipocytes but had no response in adipocytes. EGFR downstream activation was dominant in adipocytes whereas NF?B activation was dominant in preadipocytes. Taken together, the adipocyte-driven chemokine network in the 3T3-L1 cell differentiation model involves CXCR2-mediated signaling which appears more potentiated to growth factors like EGF than proinflammatory factors like TNF. PMID:24719782

Kabir, Syeda M; Lee, Eun-Sook; Son, Deok-Soo

2014-04-01

301

A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John's wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Background Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. Methods We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712–2), its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712–1) and unsuccussed solvent (0712–3) on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined “wound field”. All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. Results None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712–2) exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9%) vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712–1) at 1:100 dilutions (p??0.05). Preparation (0712–2) at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p?3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis. PMID:22809174

2012-01-01

302

Functional interaction of p53 with HPV18 E6, c-myc and H-ras in 3T3 cells.  

PubMed

Wild-type (wt) p53 has been suggested to be the product of a tumor-suppressor gene. Recently, it has been shown that the E6 oncoproteins of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, like the SV40 large T antigen, are physically associated with wt p53. We have investigated the functional interaction of wt p53 with the viral oncogene products of HPV16 and 18 and with cellular oncogenes by transfection of NIH3T3 cells with p53 wt alone or with several oncogene(s). We found that over-expression of HPV18 E6, c-myc or activated H-ras, like SV40 large T, can partially overcome the growth-inhibitory effect of wt p53 in NIH3T3 cells, while HPV16 E6 and E7, HPV18 E7, k-fgf, c-fos and mutant (mt) p53 do not. Further studies indicate that HPV18 E6 and c-myc can overcome the antiproliferative effect, but not the antitransforming effect, of wt p53, while activated H-ras can overcome both the antiproliferative and antitransforming effects of wt p53. These data show evidence of a functional interaction between HPV18 E6 and wt p53, and suggest that the cooperation of HPV E6 and cellular oncogenes c-myc and H-ras, which are activated in several cases of human cervical cancers, may be necessary to overcome completely the anti-oncogenic function of p53 in the development of these tumors. PMID:1321402

Chen, T M; Defendi, V

1992-08-01

303

Inhibitory Effect of Vitamin U (S-Methylmethionine Sulfonium Chloride) on Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Pre-adipocyte Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Background S-methylmethionine sulfonium chloride was originally called vitamin U because of its inhibition of ulceration in the digestive system. Vitamin U is ubiquitously expressed in the tissues of flowering plants, and while there have been reports on its hypolipidemic effect, its precise function remains unknown. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the anti-obesity effect of vitamin U in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell lines. Methods We cultured the pre-adipocyte cell line 3T3L1 to overconfluency and then added fat differentiation-inducing media (dexamethasone, IBMX [isobutylmethylxanthine], insulin, indomethacin) and different concentrations (10, 50, 70, 90, 100 mM) of vitamin U. Then, we evaluated changes in the levels of triglycerides (TGs), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), adipocyte-specific markers (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? [PPAR-?], CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? [C/EBP-?], adipocyte differentiation and determination factor 1 [ADD-1], adipsin, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase) and apoptosis-related signals (Bcl-2, Bax). Results There was a gradual decrease in the level of TGs, C/EBP-?, PPAR-?, adipsin, ADD-1 and GPDH activity with increasing concentrations of vitamin U. In contrast, we observed a significant increase in AMPK activity with increasing levels of vitamin U. The decrease in bcl-2 and increase in Bax observed with increasing concentrations of vitamin U in the media were not statistically significant. Conclusion This study suggests that vitamin U inhibits adipocyte differentiation via down-regulation of adipogenic factors and up-regulation of AMPK activity. PMID:22363154

Lee, Na Young; Park, Kui Young; Min, Hye Jung; Lim, Yun Young; Park, Juhee; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

2012-01-01

304

Exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP is involved in the regulation of adipogenic genes during 3T3-L1 fibroblasts differentiation.  

PubMed

Adipogenesis is stimulated in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts by a combination of insulin, dexamethasone and isobutylmethylxanthine, IBMX, (I+D+M). Two transcription factors are important for the acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype, C/EBP beta (CCAT enhancer-binding protein beta) and PPAR gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma). IBMX increases cAMP content, which can activate protein kinase A (PKA) and/or EPAC (exchange protein activated by cAMP). To investigate the importance of IBMX in the differentiation mixture, we first evaluated the effect of the addition of IBMX on the increase of C/EBP beta and PPAR gamma and found an enhancement of the amount of both proteins. IBMX addition (I+D+M) or its replacement with a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl-cAMP or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2-O'-methyl-cAMP (8CPT-2-Me-cAMP), the latter activates EPAC and not PKA, remarkably increased PPAR gamma mRNA. However, neither I+D nor any of the inducers alone, increased PPAR gamma mRNA to a similar extent, suggesting the importance of the presence of both IBMX and I+D. It was also found that the addition of IBMX or 8CPT-2-Me-cAMP was able to increase the content of C/EBP beta with respect to I+D. In agreement with these findings, a microarray analysis showed that the presence of either 8CPT-2-Me-cAMP or IBMX in the differentiation mixture was able to upregulate PPAR gamma and PPAR gamma-activated genes as well as other genes involved in lipid metabolism. Our results prove the involvement of IBMX-cAMP-EPAC in the regulation of adipogenic genes during differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and therfore contributes to elucidate the role of cyclic AMP in this process. PMID:24444094

Gabrielli, Matías; Martini, Claudia N; Brandani, Javier N; Iustman, Laura J R; Romero, Damián G; del C Vila, María

2014-02-01

305

Transformer 2? homolog (Drosophila) (TRA2B) Regulates Protein Kinase C ?I (PKC?I) Splice Variant Expression during 3T3L1 Preadipocyte Cell Cycle.  

PubMed

Obesity is characterized by adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy. We previously showed that PKC? expression is dysregulated in obesity (Carter, G., Apostolatos, A., Patel, R., Mathur, A., Cooper, D., Murr, M., and Patel, N. A. (2013) ISRN Obes. 2013, 161345). Using 3T3L1 preadipocytes, we studied adipogenesis in vitro and showed that expression of PKC? splice variants, PKC?I and PKC?II, have different expression patterns during adipogenesis (Patel, R., Apostolatos, A., Carter, G., Ajmo, J., Gali, M., Cooper, D. R., You, M., Bisht, K. S., and Patel, N. A. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 26834-26846). Here, we evaluated the role of PKC?I splice variant during adipogenesis. Our results indicate that PKC?I expression level is high in preadipocytes and decreasing PKC?I accelerated terminal differentiation. Our results indicate that PKC?I is required for mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes. We next evaluated the splice factor regulating the expression of PKC?I during 3T3L1 adipogenesis. Our results show TRA2B increased PKC?I expression. To investigate the molecular mechanism, we cloned a heterologous splicing PKC? minigene and showed that inclusion of PKC? exon 9 is increased by TRA2B. Using mutagenesis and a RNA-immunoprecipitation assay, we evaluated the binding of Tra2? on PKC?I exon 9 and show that its association is required for PKC?I splicing. These results provide a better understanding of the role of PKC?I in adipogenesis. Determination of this molecular mechanism of alternative splicing presents a novel therapeutic target in the management of obesity and its co-morbidities. PMID:25261467

Patel, Rekha S; Carter, Gay; Cooper, Denise R; Apostolatos, Hercules; Patel, Niketa A

2014-11-14

306

The cAMP signalling pathway activates CREB through PKA, p38 and MSK1 in NIH 3T3 cells.  

PubMed

Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) was originally shown to induce gene transcription through activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and subsequent phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein, CREB, at serine-133. However, elevated cAMP levels may activate multiple signalling pathways with protein kinases that can phosphorylate CREB at serine-133. We analysed the pathways involved in CREB phosphorylation and activation in NIH 3T3 cells exposed to the cAMP elevating agent forskolin. PKA represented the predominant pathway during the burst phase, while the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 pathway became activated in a PKA-dependent fashion in forskolin treated cells. The phosphorylation kinetics of p38 was delayed compared to PKA activation. Activated p38 stimulated CREB-mediated transcription and potentiated the transcriptional strength of CREB provoked by forskolin. The p38-mediated activation of CREB was inhibited by dominant negative mutants of MSK-1 and by the PKA/MSK-1 inhibitor H89, but not by dominant negative mutants of MSK-2/RSK-B and MAPKAPK2. Our results suggest that forskolin-induced CREB phosphorylation and activation in NIH 3T3 cells is mediated directly by PKA and by a time-delayed PKA-dependent p38/MSK-1 pathway. This bifurcation and time-dependent regulation of the cAMP-responsive signalling pathways may enable the cell to endure and/or enforce a cellular response provoked by a cAMP-elevating stimulus. PMID:16125054

Delghandi, Marit Pedersen; Johannessen, Mona; Moens, Ugo

2005-11-01

307

The cytotoxicity of the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice nonstructural proteins in FR3T3 rat cells depends on oncogene expression.  

PubMed Central

The nonstructural (NS) proteins of the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice are involved in viral DNA replication and in the regulation of homologous and heterologous promoters. Moreover, NS products have proved to be cytotoxic, especially for transformed cells. We show here that intracellular accumulation of NS products is not sufficient to kill rat fibroblasts from the established cell line FR3T3, which is phenotypically normal in several respects. FRNS cell lines were obtained by stable transfection of FR3T3 cells by a vector carrying the NS genes under the control of the hormone-inducible long terminal repeat promoter of the mouse mammary tumor virus. In the presence of dexamethasone, the NS proteins were synthesized without associated cell death. Transformation of FRNS cells with the c-Ha-ras oncogene or polyomavirus oncogenes had little effect on their capacity for NS induction, as measured at both concentration and transactivating activity levels, yet the transformants were now dying within a few days in the presence of the inducer. The same results were obtained with cells stably transfected by a vector expressing the NS1 product alone, suggesting that in this system there is no cooperation between NS1 and NS2 for maximal cytopathic effect. Cell mortality after NS protein induction was quantitatively related to the yield of oncogene expression, while NS-1 was not limiting in this respect. Our results show that the NS1 protein is not lethal unless cellular factors that may depend on oncogene expression trigger its cytotoxicity. Images PMID:8083981

Mousset, S; Ouadrhiri, Y; Caillet-Fauquet, P; Rommelaere, J

1994-01-01

308

Phorbol ester and bryostatin differentially regulate the hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine in Ha-ras- and raf-oncogene-transformed NIH 3T3 cells.  

PubMed Central

Previously it was reported that transformation of NIH 3T3 fibroblast by the Ha-ras, v-src, v-fms, and A-raf oncogenes decreased the stimulatory effects of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 'TPA'), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), on the phosphorylation of an endogenous 80 kDa substrate and on 86Rb uptake [Wolfman, Wingrove, Blackshear & Macara (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 16546-16552], as well as on sphingomyelin synthesis [Kiss, Rapp & Anderson (1988) FEBS Lett. 240, 221-226]. Here, we investigated how transformation affects the PMA-stimulated hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), a recently characterized mechanism which may contribute to the generation of the second messengers phosphatidic acid and 1,2-diacylglycerol. The effects of PMA were compared with those of bryostatin, a non-tumour-promoter activator of PKC. Transformation of NIH 3T3 cells with Ha-ras, v-raf, or A-raf enhanced the stimulatory effect of PMA on the phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of PtdEtn. On the other hand, the effects of bryostatin on PtdEtn hydrolysis were only slightly increased, if at all, in cells transformed with these oncogenes. In crude membrane preparations isolated from these transformed cells, PMA, but not bryostatin, enhanced the combined stimulatory effects of ATP and the GTP analogue guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate on phospholipase D-mediated PtdEtn hydrolysis. The PKC inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine inhibited the stimulatory effect of PMA only in intact cells. These results indicate that transformation of cells by certain oncogenes differentially affects phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of PtdEtn induced by PMA and bryostatin, suggesting that the action of PMA might involve two different mechanisms. PMID:2049075

Kiss, Z; Rapp, U R; Pettit, G R; Anderson, W B

1991-01-01

309

Selective inhibition of formation of suppressor glutamine tRNA in Moloney murine leukemia virus-infected NIH-3T3 cells by Avarol.  

PubMed

Avarol is a sesquiterpenoid hydroquinone, which displays no inhibitory potencies on mammalian DNA polymerases alpha, beta, and gamma, on mammalian RNA polymerases I, II, and III, or on reverse transcriptases from Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) and from HIV. For a further elucidation of the antiviral effect of Avarol, we used NIH-3T3 cells infected with Mo-MuLV as a model system. The results show that in uninfected NIH-3T3 cells Avarol (i) causes a 50% reduction of the growth rate only at the high concentration of 29.6 microM and (ii) is accumulated in the cytoplasm close to the nucleus. At the much lower concentrations of 1-3 microM, Avarol causes an almost complete inhibition of viral progeny release. Moreover, it is shown that at 3 microM Avarol, the increase of the Mo-MuLV-induced UAG suppressor glutamine tRNA (tRNA(UmUGGln) was reduced to the normal level. Dot blot hybridization studies revealed that Avarol displays no inhibitory activity on cellular and viral mRNA synthesis. Taking the processing pathway of viral polyprotein Pr180gag,pol to p80 (reverse transcriptase) as an example, our Western blotting experiments showed that the final maturation process, conversion of p110 to p80, is inhibited in Avarol-treated cells. From these data we conclude that Avarol prevents the suppression of the UAG termination codon at the gag-pol junction of the retroviral genome. The functional consequence of this event is very likely an inhibition of the readthrough of the retroviral protease gene which overlaps the pol and gag genes, resulting in the reduction of the protease synthesis which is necessary for the viral proliferation. PMID:2457280

Kuchino, Y; Nishimura, S; Schröder, H C; Rottmann, M; Müller, W E

1988-08-01

310

Anti-adipogenic activity of the edible brown alga Ecklonia stolonifera and its constituent fucosterol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Fucosterol is a sterol metabolite of brown algae and regulates genes involved with cholesterol homeostasis. As a part of our continuous search for anti-obesity agents from natural marine sources, the anti-adipogenic activities of Ecklonia stolonifera and its sterol, fucosterol, were evaluated for the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and lipid formation. Oil Red O staining was used to evaluate triglyceride contents in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes primed by differentiation medium (DM) I and DM II. The methanolic extract of E. stolonifera showed strong anti-adipogenic activity, and was thus fractionated with several solvents. Among the tested fractions, the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) fraction was found to be the most active fraction, with significant inhibition (40.5 %) of intracellular lipid accumulation at a non-toxic concentration, followed by the ethyl acetate fraction (30.2 %) at the same concentration, while the n-butanol and water fractions did not show inhibitory activity within the tested concentrations. The strong anti-adipogenic CH2Cl2-soluble fraction was further purified by a repeated chromatography to yield fucosterol. Fucosterol reduced lipid contents in a concentration-dependent manner without showing any cytotoxicity. Fucosterol treatment also yielded a decrease in the expression of the adipocyte marker proteins peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that fucosterol inhibits expression of PPAR? and C/EBP?, resulting in a decrease of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, indicating that the potential use of E. stolonifera and its bioactive fucosterol as an anti-obesity agent. PMID:24014306

Jung, Hyun Ah; Jung, Hee Jin; Jeong, Hyun Young; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min-Sun; Choi, Jae Sue

2014-06-01

311

PPAR? agonist fenofibrate attenuates TNF-?-induced CD40 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the SIRT1-dependent signaling pathway  

SciTech Connect

The ligand-activated transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) participates in the regulation of cellular inflammation. More recent studies indicated that sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylase, regulates the inflammatory response in adipocytes. However, whether the role of PPAR? in inflammation is mediated by SIRT1 remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of PPAR? agonist fenofibrate on the expressions of SIRT1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine CD40 and underlying mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that fenofibrate inhibited CD40 expression and up-regulated SIRT1 expression in tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-stimulated adipocytes, and these effects of fenofibrate were reversed by PPAR? antagonist GW6471. Moreover, SIRT1 inhibitors sirtinol/nicotinamide (NAM) or knockdown of SIRT1 could attenuate the effect of fenofibrate on TNF-?-induced CD40 expression in adipocytes. Importantly, NF-?B inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) augmented the effect of fenofibrate on CD40 expression in adipocytes. Further study found that fenofibrate decreased the expression of acetylated-NF-?B p65 (Ac-NF-?B p65) in TNF-?-stimulated adipocytes, and the effect of fenofibrate was abolished by SIRT1 inhibition. In addition, fenofibrate up-regulated SIRT1 expression through AMPK in TNF-?-stimulated adipocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that PPAR? agonist fenofibrate inhibits TNF-?-induced CD40 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the SIRT1-dependent signaling pathway. -- Highlights: • Fenofibrate up-regulates SIRT1 expression in TNF-?-stimulated adipocytes. • Fenofibrate inhibits CD40 expression through SIRT1 in adipocytes. • The effects of fenofibrate on CD40 and SIRT1 expressions are dependent on PPAR?. • Fenofibrate inhibits CD40 expression via SIRT1-dependent deacetylation of NF-?B. • Fenofibrate increases SIRT1 expression through PPAR? and AMPK in adipocytes.

Wang, Weirong [Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Lin, Qinqin [Physical Education College, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); Lin, Rong, E-mail: linrong63@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Zhang, Jiye [Faculty of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Ren, Feng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Ji, Meixi; Li, Yanxiang [Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China)

2013-06-10

312

Lipoamide or lipoic acid stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the endothelial NO synthase-cGMP-protein kinase G signalling pathway  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Metabolic dysfunction due to loss of mitochondria plays an important role in diabetes, and stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by anti-diabetic drugs improves mitochondrial function. In a search for potent stimulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, we examined the effects and mechanisms of lipoamide and ?-lipoic acid (LA) in adipocytes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with lipoamide or LA. Mitochondrial biogenesis and possible signalling pathways were examined. KEY RESULTS Exposure of 3T3-L1 cells to lipoamide or LA for 24 h increased the number and mitochondrial mass per cell. Such treatment also increased mitochondrial DNA copy number, protein levels and expression of transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, including PGC-1?, mitochondrial transcription factor A and nuclear respiratory factor 1. Lipoamide produced these effects at concentrations of 1 and 10 µmol·L?1, whereas LA was most effective at 100 µmol·L?1. At 10 µmol·L?1, lipoamide, but not LA, stimulated mRNA expressions of PPAR-?, PPAR-? and CPT-1?. The potency of lipoamide was 10–100-fold greater than that of LA. Lipoamide dose-dependently stimulated expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and formation of cGMP. Knockdown of eNOS (with small interfering RNA) prevented lipoamide-induced mitochondrial biogenesis, which was also blocked by the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ and the protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor, KT5823. Thus, stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by lipoamide involved signalling via the eNOS-cGMP-PKG pathway. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our data suggest that lipoamide is a potent stimulator of mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocyte, and may have potential therapeutic application in obesity and diabetes. PMID:21108628

Shen, Weili; Hao, Jiejie; Feng, Zhihui; Tian, Chuan; Chen, Weijun; Packer, Lester; Shi, Xianglin; Zang, Weijin; Liu, Jiankang

2011-01-01

313

ToF-SIMS depth profiling of cells: z-correction, 3D imaging, and sputter rate of individual NIH/3T3 fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Proper display of three-dimensional time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) imaging data of complex, nonflat samples requires a correction of the data in the z-direction. Inaccuracies in displaying three-dimensional ToF-SIMS data arise from projecting data from a nonflat surface onto a 2D image plane, as well as possible variations in the sputter rate of the sample being probed. The current study builds on previous studies by creating software written in Matlab, the ZCorrectorGUI (available at http://mvsa.nb.uw.edu/), to apply the z-correction to entire 3D data sets. Three-dimensional image data sets were acquired from NIH/3T3 fibroblasts by collecting ToF-SIMS images, using a dual beam approach (25 keV Bi(3)(+) for analysis cycles and 20 keV C(60)(2+) for sputter cycles). The entire data cube was then corrected by using the new ZCorrectorGUI software, producing accurate chemical information from single cells in 3D. For the first time, a three-dimensional corrected view of a lipid-rich subcellular region, possibly the nuclear membrane, is presented. Additionally, the key assumption of a constant sputter rate throughout the data acquisition was tested by using ToF-SIMS and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the same cells. For the dried NIH/3T3 fibroblasts examined in this study, the sputter rate was found to not change appreciably in x, y, or z, and the cellular material was sputtered at a rate of approximately 10 nm per 1.25 × 10(13) ions C(60)(2+)/cm(2). PMID:22530745

Robinson, Michael A; Graham, Daniel J; Castner, David G

2012-06-01

314

Kirenol stimulates osteoblast differentiation through activation of the BMP and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways in MC3T3-E1 cells.  

PubMed

Kirenol has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-adipogenic, and anti-arthritic activities; however, its effect on osteoblast differentiation has not yet been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kirenol on osteoblast differentiation through activation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways in MC3T3-E1 cells. Kirenol markedly promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization. Kirenol not only increased the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, such as ALP, type I collagen (ColA1), and osteopontin (OPN), but also increased the expression of osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (OPG/RANKL) ratio. The effects of kirenol on osteoblast differentiation were accompanied by stimulating the expression of the BMP and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways, including BMP2, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx), low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 5 (LRP5), disheveled 2 (DVL2), ?-catenin, cyclin D1 (CCND1), and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?). In addition, kirenol up-regulated the expression of ?-catenin, CCND1, ALP, and ColA1 which were down-regulated by siRNA knockdown of ?-catenin. Overall, these results demonstrate that kirenol is capable of promoting osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells through activation of the BMP and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways, suggesting that it is a potential candidate target for treating or preventing osteoporosis. PMID:25062891

Kim, Mi-Bo; Song, Youngwoo; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

2014-10-01

315

Carnosic acid and carnosol inhibit adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 cells through induction of phase2 enzymes and activation of glutathione metabolism.  

PubMed

In the previous studies, we reported that carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS) originating from rosemary protected cortical neurons by activating the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway, which activation was initiated by S-alkylation of the critical cysteine thiol of the Keap1 protein by the "electrophilic"quinone-type of CA or CS. Here, we found that CA and CS inhibited the in vitro differentiation of mouse preadipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells, into adipocytes. In contrast, other physiologically-active and rosemary-originated compounds were completely negative. These actions seemed to be mediated by activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) and induction of phase2 enzymes. This estimation is justified by our present findings that only CA and CS among rosemary-originated compounds significantly activated the ARE and induced the phase2 enzymes. Next, we performed cDNA microarray analysis in order to identify the gene(s) responsible for these biological actions and found that phase2 enzymes (Gsta2, Gclc, Abcc4, and Abcc1), all of which are involved in the metabolism of glutathione (GSH), constituted 4 of the top 5 CA-induced genes. Furthermore, CA and CS, but not the other compounds tested, significantly increased the intracellular level of total GSH. Thus, we propose that the stimulation of GSH metabolism may be a critical step for the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suggest that pro-electrophilic compounds such as CA and CS may be potential drugs against obesity-related diseases. PMID:19289108

Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tabuchi, Takahito; Tamaki, Yosei; Kosaka, Kunio; Takikawa, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Takumi

2009-05-01

316

Sea cucumber and blue mussel: new sources of phospholipid enriched omega-3 fatty acids with a potential role in 3T3-L1 adipocyte metabolism.  

PubMed

Omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), namely docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are known to reduce the risk of insulin resistance and ameliorate obesity-associated disorders. DHA and EPA structured in the phospholipid form possess superior biological effects compared to the triglyceride form available in fish oil. In this study, we have found that sea cucumber (SC) and blue mussel (BM) from Newfoundland and Labrador are rich sources of n-3 PUFA structured in the phospholipid form. Treatment with SC and BM methanolic extracts (250 and 100 ?g mL(-1), respectively) significantly (p < 0.01) increased triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, along with an increase in the mRNA expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (37 and 39%, respectively) and adiponectin (57 and 56%, respectively) compared with control cells (p < 0.05). Only SC extracts (250 ?g mL(-1)) increased the mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). Treatment with higher concentrations of SC and BM extracts (500 and 750 ?g mL(-1), respectively) significantly (p < 0.01) decreased triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells as opposed to an increase in triglyceride accumulation at lower concentrations. This was due to inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and SREBP-1 mRNA expression compared to control cells (p < 0.05). There was no effect of the extracts on the mRNA expression of hormone sensitive lipase or lipolysis, suggesting that the decrease in triglyceride accumulation at higher concentrations is not due to breakdown and release of fat. This is the first report to show that SC and BM are new sources of phospholipid bonded n-3 PUFA, with the potential to target insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:25347322

Vaidya, Hitesh; Cheema, Sukhinder K

2014-11-19

317

Luteolin protects osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells from antimycin A-induced cytotoxicity through the improved mitochondrial function and activation of PI3K\\/Akt\\/CREB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luteolin is a flavonoid found in many herbal extracts including celery, green pepper, parsley, perilla leaf and seeds, and chamomile. Antimycin A (AMA) is an inhibitor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. In the present study, the protective effect of luteolin on AMA-induced cell damage was investigated in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Luteolin significantly increased the viability of MC3T3-E1 cells in

Eun Mi Choi

318

The catalytic domain of PKC-?, in reciprocal PKC-? and -? chimeras, is responsible for conferring tumorgenicity to NIH3T3 cells, whereas both regulatory and catalytic domains of PKC-? contribute to in vitro transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein kinase C-? (PKC-?) has been shown to increase growth and cause malignant transformation when overexpressed in NIH3T3 cells, whereas PKC-? reduced fibroblast growth. Two reciprocal chimeric proteins (PKC-?d and PKC-?e were constructed by exchanging the regulatory and catalytic domains of PKC-? and -? and were stably overexpressed in NIH3T3 cells. Fibroblasts that overexpressed either chimera showed maximum cell density

Qiming J Wang; Peter Acs; JoAnne Goodnight; Peter M Blumberg; Harald Mischak; J Frederic Mushinski

1998-01-01

319

Using Bird Feeders for Wintertime Ecological Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes studies at winter bird feeders which enhance instruction of ecology at the University of Michigan biological station. Background material is provided for field activities in which black-capped chickadees are observed and for home range determination and population estimate activities. (DH)

Gannon, John E.; Weber, Peter G.

1985-01-01

320

Derivation of stable zebrafish ES-like cells in feeder-free culture.  

PubMed

Zebrafish offers an excellent opportunity to combine embryological, genetic and molecular analyses of vertebrate development in vivo. Embryonic stem (ES) cells have enormous potential to study developmental potency and differentiation in vitro and thus to complement in vivo approaches. Zebrafish ES-like cells have been produced on a feeder cell layer. Here, we report the derivation of Z428, a zebrafish ES-like cell line, from blastula embryos in feeder-free culture. Fetal bovine serum, fish serum, fish embryo extract, basic fibroblast growth factor, non-essential amino acids and 2-mercaptoethanol were found to be important for Z428 growth. After more than 120 passages and many freezing/thawing cycles over a period of 20 years, Z428 exhibits stable growth and manifests many ES cell features including an ES cell phenotype, high alkaline phosphatase activity and spontaneous differentiation in culture. Most importantly, Z428 was transplantable to blastula hosts and capable of contributing to embryonic tissues and organ systems of the three germ layers. Therefore, Z428 is a stable cell line and contains ES-like cells with pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and a feeder layer is dispensable for ES-like cell derivation in zebrafish. The derivation and easy maintenance of zebrafish ES-like cells under feeder-free conditions provide a useful extension of the present toolbox for studying development and differentiation in the zebrafish model. PMID:24850275

Hong, Ni; Schartl, Manfred; Hong, Yunhan

2014-09-01

321

Functional proteomic analysis of long-term growth factor stimulation and receptor tyrosine kinase coactivation in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts.  

PubMed

In Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, long-term stimulation with PDGF, but not insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or EGF, results in the establishment of an elongated migratory phenotype, characterized by the formation of retractile dendritic protrusions and absence of actin stress fibers and focal adhesion complexes. To identify receptor tyrosine kinase-specific reorganization of the Swiss 3T3 proteome during phenotypic differentiation, we compared changes in the pattern of protein synthesis and phosphorylation during long-term exposure to PDGF, IGF-1, EGF, and their combinations using 2DE-based proteomics after (35)S- and (33)P-metabolic labeling. One hundred and five differentially regulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and some of these extensively validated. PDGF stimulation produced the highest overall rate of protein synthesis at any given time and induced the most sustained phospho-signaling. Simultaneous activation with two or three of the growth factors revealed both synergistic and antagonistic effects on protein synthesis and expression levels with PDGF showing dominance over both IGF-1 and EGF in generating distinct proteome compositions. Using signaling pathway inhibitors, PI3K was identified as an early site for signal diversification, with sustained activity of the PI3K/AKT pathway critical for regulating late protein synthesis and phosphorylation of target proteins and required for maintaining the PDGF-dependent motile phenotype. Several proteins were identified with novel PI3K/Akt-dependent synthesis and phosphorylations including eEF2, PRS7, RACK-1, acidic calponin, NAP1L1, Hsp73, and fascin. The data also reveal induction/suppression of key F-actin and actomyosin regulators and chaperonins that enable PDGFR to direct the assembly of a motile cytoskeleton, despite simultaneous antagonistic signaling activities. Together, the study demonstrates that long-term exposure to different growth factors results in receptor tyrosine kinase-specific regulation of relatively small subproteomes, and implies that the strength and longevity of receptor tyrosine kinase-specific signals are critical in defining the composition and functional activity of the resulting proteome. PMID:22956732

Nagano, Kohji; Akpan, Akunna; Warnasuriya, Gayathri; Corless, Steven; Totty, Nick; Yang, Alice; Stein, Robert; Zvelebil, Marketa; Stensballe, Allan; Burlingame, Al; Waterfield, Michael; Cramer, Rainer; Timms, John F; Naaby-Hansen, Sřren

2012-12-01

322

Dioscin inhibits adipogenesis through the AMPK/MAPK pathway in 3T3-L1 cells and modulates fat accumulation in obese mice.  

PubMed

Dioscin (DS) is a steroidal saponin present in a number of medicinal plants and has been shown to exert anticancer, antifungal and antiviral effects. The present study aimed to deternube the effects DS on the regulation of adipogenesis and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In vitro experiments were performed using differentiating 3T3-L1 cells treated with various concentrations (0-4 µM) of DS for 6 days. A cell viability assay was performed on differentiating cells following exposure to DS. Oil Red O staining and triglyceride content assay were performed to evaluate the lipid accumulation in the cells. We also carried out the following experiments: i) flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis, ii) quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for measuring adipogenesis-related gene expression, and iii) western blot analysis to measure the expression of adipogenesis transcription factors and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. In vivo experiements were performed using mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) that were treated with or without DS for 7 weeks. DS suppressed lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cells without affecting viability at a dose of up to 4 µM. It also delayed cell cycle progression 48 h after the initiation of adipogenesis. DS inhibited adipocyte differentiation by the downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors and attenuated the expression of adipogenesis-associated genes. In addition, it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK and its target molecule, ACC, during the differentiation of the cells. Moreover, the inhibition of adipogenesis by DS was mediated through the suppression of the phosphorylation of MAPKs, such as extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, but not c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). DS significantly reduced weight gain in the mice with HFD-induced obesity; this was evident by the suppression of fat accumulation in the abdomen. the present study reveals an anti-adipogenic effect of DS in vitro and in vivo and highlights AMPK/MAPK signaling as targets for DS during adipogenesis. PMID:25189808

Poudel, Barun; Lim, Seong-Won; Ki, Hyeon-Hui; Nepali, Sarmila; Lee, Young-Mi; Kim, Dae-Ki

2014-11-01

323

SPARC is over-expressed in adipose tissues of diet-induced obese rats and causes insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a secretory multifunctional matricellular glycoprotein. High circulating levels of SPARC have been reported to be associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether SPARC induces insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes. Our results showed that feeding high fat diet to rats for 12 weeks significantly increased SPARC expression in adipose tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, SPARC overexpression in stably transfected 3T3-L1 cells induced insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction, as evidenced by inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose transport, lower ATP synthesis and mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mature adipocytes. Finally, overexpression of SPARC also modulated the expression levels of several inflammatory cytokines, which play important roles in insulin resistance, glucose and lipid metabolism during adipogenesis. In conclusion, our data suggest that SPARC is involved in obesity-induced adipose insulin resistance and may serve as a potential target in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance. PMID:23910024

Shen, Yang; Zhao, Yuyan; Yuan, Lizhi; Yi, Wei; Zhao, Rui; Yi, Qianru; Yong, Tongwu

2014-01-01

324

Extract from Edible Red Seaweed (Gelidium amansii) Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and ROS Production during Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Gelidium (G.) amansii is a red alga widely distributed in the shallow waters around East Asian countries. We investigated the effect of G. amansii on lipid accumulation and ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production in 3T3-L1 cells. G. amansii extracts dose-dependently inhibited lipid formation and ROS generation in cultured cells. Our results showed that anti-adipogenic effect of G. amansii was due to the reduction in mRNA expressions of PPAR? peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? and aP2 (adipocyte protein 2). G. amansii extracts significantly decreased mRNA levels of a ROS-generator, NOX4 (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen oxidase 4), and increased the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes including SOD1/2 (superoxide dis-mutases), Gpx (glutathione peroxidase), and GR (glutathione reductase), which can lead to the reduction of ROS in the cell. In addition, the G. amansii extract enhanced mRNA levels of adiponectin, one of the adipokines secreted from adipocytes, and GLUT4, glucose uptake protein. Taken together, our study shows that G. amansii extract inhibited lipid accumulation and ROS production by controlling adipogenic signals and ROS regulating genes. PMID:24471074

Seo, Min-Jung; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong

2012-01-01

325

Purification and characterization of aporphine alkaloids from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn and their effects on glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Aporphine alkaloids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn are substances of great interest because of their important pharmacological activities, particularly anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-oxidant, and anti-HIV's activities. In order to produce large amounts of pure alkaloid for research purposes, a novel method using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed. Without any initial cleanup steps, four main aporphine alkaloids, including 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine, pronuciferine, nuciferine and roemerine were successfully purified from the crude extract by HSCCC in one step. The separation was performed with a simple two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-acetonitrile-water (5:3:3:2.5:5, v/v/v/v/v). In each operation, 100 mg crude extracts was separated and yielded 6.3 mg of 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine (95.1% purity), 1.1 mg of pronuciferine (96.8% purity), 8.5 mg of nuciferine (98.9% purity), and 2.7 mg of roemerine (97.4%) respectively. The chemical structure of four aporphine alkaloids are identified by means of electrospray ionization MS (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Moreover, the effects of four separated aporphine alkaloids on insulin-stimulated glucose consumption were examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results showed that 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine and pronuciferine increased the glucose consumption significantly as rosiglitazone did. PMID:24577311

Ma, Chengjun; Wang, Jinjun; Chu, Hongmei; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Zhenhua; Wang, Honglun; Li, Gang

2014-01-01

326

3T3 fibroblasts induce cloned interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to resemble connective tissue mast cells in granular constituency  

SciTech Connect

As assessed by ultrastructure, histochemical staining, and T-cell dependency, in vitro-differentiated interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells are comparable to the mast cells that reside in the gastrointestinal mucosa but not in the skin or the serosal cavity of the mouse. The authors now demonstrate that when cloned interleukin 3-dependent mast cells are cocultured with mouse skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of WEHI-3 conditioned medium for 28 days, the mast cells acquire the ability to stain with safranin, increase their histamine content approx. 50-fold and their carboxypeptidase. A content approx. 100-fold, and augment approx. their biosynthesis of proteoglycans bearing /sup 35/S-labeled haparin relative to /sup 35/S-labeled chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Thus, fibroblasts induce interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to change phenotype from mucosal-like to connective tissue-like, indicating that the biochemical and functional characteristics of this mast cell type are strongly influenced by the connective tissue microenvironment.

Dayton, E.T.; Pharr, P.; Ogawa, M.; Serafin, W.E.; Austen, K.F.; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Stevens, R.L.

1988-01-01

327

Peptide modulators of Src activity in G{sub 1} regulate entry into S phase and proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells  

SciTech Connect

Cascades of kinases and phosphatases are regulated by selective protein-protein interactions that are essential for signal transduction. Peptide modulators of these interactions have been used to dissect the function of individual components of the signaling cascade, without relying on either the over- or underexpression of proteins. Previously, we identified RACK1 as an endogenous substrate, binding partner and inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinases. Here, we utilized cell-permeable peptides that selectively disrupt or enhance the interaction of RACK1 and Src to further examine the function of RACK1. Our results provide direct physiologic evidence that RACK1 regulates growth of NIH3T3 cells by suppressing the activity of Src and other cell cycle regulators in G{sub 1}, and delaying entry into S phase. They also demonstrate the potential for using peptide modulators of Src activity as a tool for regulating cell growth, and for designing new strategies for cancer therapy that target specific protein-protein interactions.

Mamidipudi, Vidya [Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5187 (United States); Miller, Laura D. [Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5187 (United States); Mochly-Rosen, Daria [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5174 (United States); Cartwright, Christine A. [Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5187 (United States)]. E-mail: chris.cartwright@stanford.edu

2007-01-12

328

Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3?~?12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9?~?2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

2010-09-01

329

In vitro and in vivo enhancement of adipogenesis by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) in 3T3-L1 cells and mice.  

PubMed

Adipogenesis is very much important in improving the quality of meat in animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo adipogenesis regulation properties of Lolium multiflorum on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mice. Chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of L. multiflorum (PET-LM) confirmed the presence of fatty acids, such as ?-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, docosatetraenoic acid, and caprylic acid, as the major compounds. PET-LM treatment increased viability, lipid accumulation, lipolysis, cell cycle progression, and DNA synthesis in the cells. PET-LM treatment also augmented peroxysome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-?2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-?, adiponectin, adipocyte binding protein, glucose transporter-4, fatty acid synthase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in differentiated adipocytes. In addition, mice administered with 200 mg/kg body weight PET-LM for 8 weeks showed greater body weight than control mice. These findings suggest that PET-LM facilitates adipogenesis by stimulating PPAR?-mediated signaling cascades in adipocytes which could be useful for quality meat development in animals. PMID:24454838

Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Kim, Da Hye; Gun Roh, Sang; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Choi, Ki Choon

2014-01-01

330

In Vitro and In Vivo Enhancement of Adipogenesis by Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) in 3T3-L1 Cells and Mice  

PubMed Central

Adipogenesis is very much important in improving the quality of meat in animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo adipogenesis regulation properties of Lolium multiflorum on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mice. Chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of L. multiflorum (PET-LM) confirmed the presence of fatty acids, such as ?-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, docosatetraenoic acid, and caprylic acid, as the major compounds. PET-LM treatment increased viability, lipid accumulation, lipolysis, cell cycle progression, and DNA synthesis in the cells. PET-LM treatment also augmented peroxysome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-?2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-?, adiponectin, adipocyte binding protein, glucose transporter-4, fatty acid synthase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in differentiated adipocytes. In addition, mice administered with 200 mg/kg body weight PET-LM for 8 weeks showed greater body weight than control mice. These findings suggest that PET-LM facilitates adipogenesis by stimulating PPAR?-mediated signaling cascades in adipocytes which could be useful for quality meat development in animals. PMID:24454838

Kim, Da Hye; Gun Roh, Sang; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Choi, Ki Choon

2014-01-01

331

(-)-Hydroxycitric acid attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated alterations in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by protecting mitochondria and downregulating inflammatory markers.  

PubMed

Abstract Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an emerging potential therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome due to its role in synthesis, secretion, and folding of proteins. It leads to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which, along with mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced antioxidant defense, causes chronic cell injury. The present investigation aims to observe the alterations in adipocytes due to ER stress and the protective effect of hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a bioactive from Garcinia species, to develop the same as a nutraceutical. ER stress was induced in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by treating them with tunicamycin (2?g/ml) for 18 h. Alterations in cell viability, innate antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase), mitochondria (membrane potential, biogenesis, and transition pore opening), and inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein, interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, and IL-1?) during ER stress, and co-treatment with HCA were analyzed. Endocrine function of adipocytes was also assessed by measuring adiponectin and leptin secretion levels. HCA protected the cells from ER stress by improving the antioxidant status and mitochondrial functions. The results validate nutraceutical properties of the edible bioactive, commonly used for culinary purpose. A more detailed study on the mechanism of action of HCA is required for developing it as a therapeutic agent for metabolic syndrome. PMID:25175938

Nisha, V M; Priyanka, A; Anusree, S S; Raghu, K G

2014-11-01

332

Regulation of glucose transport by insulin, bombesin, and bradykinin in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts: Involvement of protein kinase C-dependent and -independent mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

Glucose transport stimulation by insulin, bombesin, and bradykinin in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts was compared with the phosphoinositide hydrolysis effects of the same stimulants in a variety of experimental paradigms known to affect generation and/or functioning of intracellular second messengers: short- and long-term treatments with phorbol dibutyrate, that cause activation and down-regulation of protein kinase C, respectively; cell loading with high (quin2), that causes clamping of (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} near the resting level; poisoning with pertussis toxin, that affects the GTP binding proteins of the Go/Gi class; treatment with Ca{sup 2+} ionophores. ({sup 14}C) glucose transport stimulation by maximal (insulin) was affected by neither pertussis toxin nor protein kinase C down-regulation. This result correlates with the lack of effect of insulin on phosphoinositide hydrolysis. In contrast, part of the glucose transport responses induced by bombesin and bradykinin appeared to be mediated by protein kinase C in proportion with the stimulation induced by these peptides on the phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The protein kinase C-independent portion of the response to bradykinin was found to be inhibitable by pertussis toxin. This latter result might suggest an interaction between the bradykinin receptor and a glucose transporter, mediated by a protein of the Go/Gi class.

Dettori, C.; Meldolesi, J. (Univ. of Milano (Italy))

1989-05-01

333

Cinnamon Extract Enhances Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and C2C12 Myocytes by Inducing LKB1-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that cinnamon extract (CE) ameliorates type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats through the up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in both muscle and adipose tissues. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism(s) with which CE increases the glucose uptake in vivo and in cell culture systems using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. Specific inhibitors of key enzymes in insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways, as well as small interference RNA, were used to examine the role of these kinases in the CE-induced glucose uptake. The results showed that CE stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. An AMPK inhibitor and LKB1 siRNA blocked the CE-induced glucose uptake. We also found for the first time that insulin suppressed AMPK activation in the adipocyte. To investigate the effect of CE on type 2 diabetes in vivo, we further performed oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests in type 2 diabetes model rats administered with CE. The CE improved glucose tolerance in oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin sensitivity in insulin tolerance test. In summary, these results indicate that CE ameliorates type 2 diabetes by inducing GLUT4 translocation via the AMPK signaling pathway. We also found insulin antagonistically regulates the activation of AMPK. PMID:24551069

Shen, Yan; Honma, Natsumi; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Jia, Liu Nan; Hosono, Takashi; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

2014-01-01

334

Pentamethylquercetin improves adiponectin expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells via a mechanism that implicates PPAR? together with TNF-? and IL-6.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Up-regulation of adiponectin expression and production has been shown to benefit for metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, etc. The present study investigated whether the novel polymethoxylated flavonoid pentamethylquercetin (PMQ), a member of polymethoxylated flavonoids family which is present in seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.) would affect adiponectin production in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. It was found that PMQ increased the adiponectin mRNA and protein expressions in adipocytes in time- and concentration-dependent manners. The PPAR? pathway plays a important roles in this effect of PMQ because blockade of PPAR? by GW9662 eliminates the PMQ-induced up-regulation of adiponectin expression. Furthermore, significant decreases of mRNA expression and secretion of TNF-? and IL-6 were also observed in PMQ-treated cells. Taken together, our study demonstrated that PMQ up-regulates adiponectin expression via a mechanism that implicates PPAR? together with TNF-? and IL-6, suggesting that PMQ might be a potential candidate for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:21734632

Chen, Lei; He, Ting; Han, Yi; Sheng, Ji-Zhong; Jin, Si; Jin, Man-Wen

2011-01-01

335

Effect of Coptidis Rhizoma extracts in a water-based solution on insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate effects and molecular mechanisms of Coptidis Rhizoma extracts (CRE) on the improvement of insulin resistance induced by tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in adipocytes. We examined whether CRE administration could directly influence the insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Potential roles of CRE in glucose consumption, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferators activated receptor (PPAR-?), expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) protein, and phosphorylation of IRS-1 Ser307 were also investigated in the present study. Our data demonstrated that TNF-? significantly reduced levels of glucose consumption and IRS-1 protein expression, while TNF-? increased the phosphorylation of IRS-1 Ser307 in adipocytes 24 h after the challenge, suggesting that TNF-? induced a condition with the occurrence of insulin resistance. Those alterations induced by TNF-? were prevented and the mRNA expression of PPAR-? was up-regulated by the administration of CRE. Thus, our results indicate that CRE can be used to prevent from the TNF-?-induced insulin resistance through PPAR-? pathways. PMID:25355439

Yuan, Yi; Wang, Xuhui; Lu, Xiaojiong; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Wang, Xiangdong

2014-01-01

336

The inhibition of inflammatory molecule expression on 3T3-L1 adipocytes by berberine is not mediated by leptin signaling  

PubMed Central

In our previous study, we have shown that berberine has both anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and the anti-adipogenic effect is due to the down-regulation of adipogenic enzymes and transcription factors. Here we focused more on anti-inflammatory effect of berberine using real time RT-PCR and found it changes expressions of adipokines. We hypothesized that anti-adipogenicity of berberine mediates anti-inflammtory effect and explored leptin as a candidate mediator of this signaling. We studied this hypothesis by western blot analysis, but our results showed that berberine has no effect on the phosphorylations of STAT-3 and ERK which have important roles on leptin signaling. These results led us to conclude that the anti-inflammatory effect of berberine is not mediated by the inhibition of leptin signal transduction. Moreover, we have found that berberine down-regulates NF-?B signaling, one of the inflammation-related signaling pathway, through western blot analysis. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory effect of berberine is not mediated by leptin, and berberine induces anti-inflammatory effect independent of leptin signaling. PMID:20016706

Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Kim, Yu-Hee; Ahn, In-Sook; Ha, Jung-Heun; Byun, Jae-Min

2009-01-01

337

An active extract of Ulmus pumila inhibits adipogenesis through regulation of cell cycle progression in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders has become a major obstacle in improving the average life span. In this regard therapeutic approach using natural compounds are currently receiving much attention. Herbal compounds rich in triterpenes are well known to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we have found that Ulmus pumila (UP) contained at least four different triterpenoids and inhibited adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The cell viability was dose dependently decreased by UP showing the increase of cell accumulation in G1 phase while reducing in S and G2/M phase of cell cycle. UP treatment also significantly decreased the GPDH activity and intracellular lipid accumulation. In addition, UP inhibited the mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors and lipogenic genes such as PPAR?, C/EBP?, SREBP1c and FAS while showing no effects on C/EBP-? and C/EBP-?. Importantly enough, treatment of cells with UP suppressed the TNF-? induced activation of NF-?B signaling. Collectively, our results indicate that UP extract effectively attenuated adipogenesis by controlling cell cycle progression and down regulating adipogenic gene expression. PMID:22445738

Ghosh, Chiranjit; Chung, Ha-Yull; Nandre, Rahul M; Lee, John Hwa; Jeon, Tae-Il; Kim, In-Sook; Yang, Seung Hak; Hwang, Seong-Gu

2012-06-01

338

Inactivation of lipoprotein lipase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by angiopoietin-like protein 4 requires that both proteins have reached the cell surface.  

PubMed

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4) were studied in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Transfections of the adipocytes with Angptl4 esiRNA caused reduction of the expression of Angptl4 to about one fourth of that in cells treated with vehicle only. This resulted in higher levels of LPL activity both on cell surfaces (heparin-releasable) and in the medium, while LPL activity within the cells remained unaffected. This demonstrated that even though both proteins are made in the same cell, Angptl4 does not inactivate LPL during intracellular transport. Most of the Angptl4 protein was present as covalent dimers and tetramers on cell surfaces, while within the cells there were only monomers. LPL gradually lost activity when incubated in medium, but there was no marked difference between conditioned medium from normal cells (rich in Angptl4) and medium after knockdown of Angptl4. Hence Angptl4 did not markedly accelerate inactivation of LPL in the medium. Experiments with combinations of different cells and media indicated that inactivation of LPL occurred on the surfaces of cells producing Angptl4. PMID:24220340

Makoveichuk, Elena; Vorrsjö, Evelina; Olivecrona, Thomas; Olivecrona, Gunilla

2013-11-29

339

NIH-3T3 cells transformed with a ras oncogene exhibit a protein kinase C-mediated inhibition of agonist-stimulated Ca2+ inflow.  

PubMed Central

1. The ability of bombesin or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to stimulate Ca2+ inflow (assessed by measuring changes in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration in cells loaded with fura-2) in NIH-3T3 cells transformed with the EJ/T24-Ha-ras-1 oncogene is inhibited when compared with the action of the agonists on wild-type cells. 2. The effects of transformation with the ras oncogene are associated with complete inhibition of the ability of bombesin to release Ca2+ from intracellular stores, a substantial decrease in the number of bombesin receptors, no change in the ability of foetal calf serum or ionomycin to release Ca2+ from intracellular stores and the activation of protein kinase C. 3. The effects of transformation with the H-ras oncogene on the ability of bombesin or PDGF to stimulate Ca2+ inflow were mimicked by a 30 min exposure of wild-type cells to phorbol dibutyrate. This action of phorbol dibutyrate was completely blocked by prior treatment of wild-type cells for 24 h with the phorbol ester. 4. It is concluded that one of the actions of the H-ras oncogene in fibroblasts is to inhibit agonist-stimulated Ca2+ inflow by a mechanism which involves the activation of protein kinase C. PMID:2173557

Polverino, A J; Hughes, B P; Barritt, G J

1990-01-01

340

Vitronectin Absorbed on Nanoparticles Mediate Cell Viability/Proliferation and Uptake by 3T3 Swiss Albino Mouse Fibroblasts: In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

We study the interaction of 3T3 Swiss albino mouse fibroblasts with polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and investigate cellular behaviour in terms of viability/cytotoxicity, cell cycle, NPs uptake, MAP kinase (ERK1/2), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation. After incubation of NPs with cell culture media, western blot analysis showed that Vitronectin is retained by NPs, while Fibronectin is not detected. From cytotoxicity studies (MTT and BrdU methods) an LD50 of about 1.5?mg/mL results for NPs. However, NPs in the range 0.01–0.30?mg/mL are able to trigger a statistically significant increase in proliferation and cell cycle progression in dose and time depending manner. Also, biochemical evaluation of ERK1/2 and FAK clearly shows an increasing phosphorylation in a dose and time depending manner. Finally, we found by transmission electron microscopy that NPs are internalised by cells. Competitively blocking VN-integrin receptors with echistatin (1??g/mL) results in a decrease of viability/proliferation, cell cycle progression, cellular uptake, and FAK/ERK activation showing the involvement of Vitronectin receptors in signal transduction. In conclusion, our results show that cell surface NPs interactions are mediated by absorbed plasma proteins (i.e., Vitronectin) that represent an external stimuli, switched to the nucleus by FAK enzyme, which in turn modulate fibroblasts viability/proliferation. PMID:23710450

Rosso, F.; Marino, G.; Grimaldi, A.; Cafiero, G.; Chiellini, E.; Chiellini, F.; Barbarisi, M.; Barbarisi, A.

2013-01-01

341

Suppression of lipoprotein lipase in 3T3-L1 cells by a mediator produced by SEKI melanoma, a cachexia-inducing human melanoma cell line.  

PubMed

Production of a cachexia-inducing factor(s) by the SEKI melanoma cell line, established from a human melanoma, has been well documented. Conditioned medium from cultures of this melanoma cell line contains a factor(s) that inhibits the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The mode of inhibition of this enzyme by the factor, i.e. its dose-dependency and time course, is very similar to that of LPL-inhibition by a macrophage-derived cachexia-inducing factor, cachectin/tumor necrosis factor (cachectin/TNF). However, the conditioned medium of SEKI melanoma cells does not contain any immuno-reactive substances reactive in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with anti-cachectin/TNF antibody, or with anti-interleukin 1 alpha or beta antibodies. This LPL-suppression factor present in the conditioned medium seems to be a peptide because of its heat-lability and apparent molecular weight of more than 25,000. The conditioned media from cultures of four other different cell lines were found to show no significant suppression of LPL activity. These results imply that SEKI melanoma cells produce a cachexia-inducing factor(s) similar to cachectin/TNF but that the molecule involved is different. PMID:2016276

Kawakami, M; Kondo, Y; Imai, Y; Hashiguchi, M; Ogawa, H; Hiragun, A; Aotsuka, S; Shibata, S; Oda, T; Murase, T

1991-01-01

342

Active compounds from Lagerstroemia speciosa, insulin-like glucose uptake-stimulatory/inhibitory and adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory activities in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Seven ellagitannins, lagerstroemin (1), flosin B (2), stachyurin (3), casuarinin (4), casuariin (5), epipunicacortein A (6), and 2, 3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-alpha/beta-D-glucose (7), together with one ellagic acid sulfate, 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid 4'-sulfate (8), ellagic acid (9), and four methyl ellagic acid derivatives, 3-O-methylellagic acid (10), 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (11), 3,4,3'-tri-O-methylellagic acid (12), and 3,4,8,9,10-pentahydroxydibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one (13), were identified by the bioassay-directed isolation from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. The chemical structures of these components were established on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR and high-resolution mass spectroscopic analyses. Other known compounds, including corosolic acid, gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3-O-methylprotocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol, quercetin, and isoquercitrin, were also isolated from the same plant. The obtained ellagitannins exhibited strong activities in both stimulating insulin-like glucose uptake (1-5 and 7) and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation (1 and 4) in 3T3-L1 cells. Meanwhile, ellagic acid derivatives (10-13) showed an inhibitory effect on glucose transport assay. This study is the first to report an inhibitory effect for methyl ellagic acid derivatives. PMID:19053366

Bai, Naisheng; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Zheng, Bolin; Chen, Xiaozhuo; Shao, Zhongguang; Peng, Tangsheng; Zheng, Qunyi

2008-12-24

343

Influence of heating and cyclic tension on the induction of heat shock proteins and bone-related proteins by MC3T3-E1 cells.  

PubMed

Stress conditioning (e.g., thermal, shear, and tensile stress) of bone cells has been shown to enhance healing. However, prior studies have not investigated whether combined stress could synergistically promote bone regeneration. This study explored the impact of combined thermal and tensile stress on the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and bone-related proteins by a murine preosteoblast cell line (MC3T3-E1). Cells were exposed to thermal stress using a water bath (44°C for 4 or 8 minutes) with postheating incubation (37°C for 4 hours) followed by exposure to cyclic strain (equibiaxial 3%, 0.2?Hz, cycle of 10-second tensile stress followed by 10-second rest). Combined thermal stress and tensile stress induced mRNA expression of HSP27 (1.41 relative fold induction (RFI) compared to sham-treated control), HSP70 (5.55?RFI), and osteopontin (1.44?RFI) but suppressed matrix metalloproteinase-9 (0.6?RFI) compared to the control. Combined thermal and tensile stress increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion into the culture supernatant (1.54-fold increase compared to the control). Therefore, combined thermal and mechanical stress preconditioning can enhance HSP induction and influence protein expression important for bone tissue healing. PMID:25013774

Chung, Eunna; Sampson, Alana Cherrell; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

2014-01-01

344

Real-time monitoring of inflammation status in 3T3-L1 adipocytes possessing a secretory Gaussia luciferase gene under the control of nuclear factor-kappa B response element  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammation status in adipocytes can be monitored by the new assay system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only an aliquot of conditioned medium is required without cell lysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammation-attenuating compounds can be screened more conveniently. -- Abstract: We have established 3T3-L1 cells possessing a secretory Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) gene under the control of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) response element. The 3T3-L1 cells named 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc could differentiate into adipocyte as comparably as parental 3T3-L1 cells. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and interleukin (IL)-1{beta} induced GLuc secretion of 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc adipocytes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. GLuc secretion of 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc adipocytes was also induced when cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages and was dramatically enhanced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. An NF-{kappa}B activation inhibitor BAY-11-7085 and an antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine significantly suppressed GLuc secretion induced by macrophages. Finally, we found that rosemary-derived carnosic acid strongly suppressed GLuc secretion induced by macrophages and on the contrary up-regulated adiponectin secretion. Collectively, by using 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc adipocytes, inflammation status can be monitored in real time and inflammation-attenuating compounds can be screened more conveniently.

Nagasaki, Haruka; Yoshimura, Takeshi [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan)] [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Aoki, Naohito, E-mail: n-aoki@bio.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan)] [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan)

2012-04-13

345

Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

2012-07-01

346

Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived Under Feeder-Free Conditions Display Unique Cell Cycle and DNA Replication Gene Profiles  

PubMed Central

Use of animal feeder layers and serum containing media in the derivation and propagation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can hinder clinical translation, because of the presence of xeno-material/pathogens. A defined and standardized system would be ideal for generating a homogenous population of iPSCs, which closely resembles human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). This article presents a novel and extensive comparison between in-house produced iPSCs and hESCs under “feeder” and “feeder-free” conditions, using transcriptomic genome-wide microarray analysis. We generated a list of pluripotency-associated and bivalent domain-containing genes by meta-analysis to measure qualitatively the degree of reprogramming in feeder-free derived iPSCs, in which both profiles displayed similar levels of gene expression as in hESCs. Gene ontology analysis showed that feeder-free iPSCs have enriched terms belonging to DNA repair/replication and cell cycle, which are signature to pluripotent cells. Transcriptomic data combined with directed differentiation assays, indicated that variability among iPSC lines is minimized when using a feeder-free cultural system, which may serve as a platform for further developing regenerative medicine compliant human iPSCs. PMID:21506733

Chung, Henry C.Y.; Lin, Ruby C.Y.; Logan, Grant J.; Alexander, Ian E.; Sachdev, Perminder S.

2012-01-01

347

Effects of Varying Degrees of Intermittent Hypoxia on Proinflammatory Cytokines and Adipokines in Rats and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Objectives Intermittent hypoxia (IH), resulted from recurring episodes of upper airway obstruction, is the hallmark feature and the most important pathophysiologic pathway of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). IH is believed to be the most important factor causing systemic inflammation. Studies suggest that insulin resistance (IR) is positively associated with OSA. In this study, we hypothesized that the recurrence of IH might result in cellular and systemic inflammation, which was manifested through the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines after IH exposure, and because IR is linked with inflammation tightly, this inflammatory situation may implicate an IR status. Methods We developed an IH 3T3-L1 adipocyte and rat model respectively, recapitulating the nocturnal oxygen profile in OSA. In IH cells, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) DNA binding reactions, hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL) -6, leptin, adiponectin mRNA transcriptional activities and protein expressions were measured. In IH rats, blood glucose, insulin, TNF-?, IL-6, leptin and adiponectin levels were analyzed. Results The insulin and blood glucose levels in rats and NF-?B DNA binding activities in cells had significantly statistical results described as severe IH>moderate IH>mild IH>sustained hypoxia>control. The mRNA and protein levels of HIF-1? and Glut-1 in severe IH group were the highest. In cellular and animal models, both the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-?, IL-6 and leptin were the highest in severe IH group, when the lowest in severe IH group for adiponectin. Conclusions Oxidative stress and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/adipokines, which are the systemic inflammatory markers, are associated with IH closely and are proportional to the severity of IH. Because IR and glucose intolerance are linked with inflammation tightly, our results may implicate the clinical relationships between OSA and IR. PMID:24466027

Zhou, Qin; Zhu, Hui; Niu, Wen-yan; Feng, Jing; Wang, Yan; Cao, Jie; Chen, Bao-yuan

2014-01-01

348

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of "leptin-resistance" in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF?). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. PMID:24978599

Ferrante, Maria C; Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna; Monnolo, Anna; Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria

2014-09-15

349

Regulation of apelin and its receptor expression in adipose tissues of obesity rats with hypertension and cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

The apelin/APJ system has been implicated in obesity-related hypertension. We investigated the mechanism responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension with a special focus on the crosstalk between AngII/its type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling and apelin/APJ expression. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat (obesity-related hypertension, OH) or normal-fat diet (NF) for 15 weeks were randomly assigned to one of two groups and administered vehicle or perindopril for 4 weeks. Compared to the NF rats, the OH rats showed lower levels of plasma apelin and apelin/APJ mRNAs of perirenal adipose tissues, and these changes were restored by perindopril. Administration of the AT1R antagonist olmesartan resulted in the restoration of the reduction of apelin and APJ expressions induced by AngII for 48 h in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Among several inhibitors for extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) PD98059, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) SB203580 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) LY294002, the latter showed an additive effect on AngII-mediated inhibitory effects. In addition, the levels of p-Akt, p-ERK and p38MAPK proteins were decreased by long-term treatment with AngII (120 min), and these changes were restored by Olmesartan. Apelin/APJ appears to be impaired in obesity-related hypertension. The AngII inhibition-mediated beneficial effects are likely attributable, at least in part, to restoration of p38/ERK-dependent apelin/APJ expression in diet-induced obesity-related hypertension. PMID:24770651

Wu, Hongxian; Cheng, Xian Wu; Hao, Changning; Zhang, Zhi; Yao, Huali; Murohara, Toyoaki; Dai, Qiuyan

2014-01-01

350

The mRNa-Binding Protein Zfp36 Is Upregulated by ?-Adrenergic Stimulation and Represses IL-6 Production in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Obesity produces a chronic inflammatory state that contributes to the development of diabetes and atherosclerosis. In obese humans, fat depot adipocytes and macrophages produce inflammatory cytokines and other factors which exert unfavorable local and systemic immune responses. The expression of many cytokines is modulated at the post-transcriptional level by mRNA-binding proteins which recognize AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3?-untranslated regions (3?-UTR) of these transcripts. One such protein, zinc finger protein 36 (Zfp36), is known to destabilize target mRNAs leading to decreased cytokine expression. Few regulators of Zfp36 expression in adipocytes have been described and mRNA targets of Zfp36 in adipocytes are largely unknown. We found that macrophage-derived inflammatory stimuli enhanced endogenous Zfp36 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, the ?-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (Iso) and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) each enhanced Zfp36 expression in adipocytes, the former most likely via a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathway. By contrast, Zfp36 expression in murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) was not enhanced by exposure to Dex but was stimulated by retinoic acid (RA). Zfp36 inhibited basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in adipocytes. These data reveal important and cell type-specific modulators of Zfp36 expression in adipocytes and macrophages and identify Zfp36 as a potent repressor of adipocyte-derived IL-6. Furthermore, this work identifies new factors that stimulate adipocyte Zfp36 expression that are neither classically inflammatory nor mitogenic. Upregulating an mRNA-binding protein for therapeutic purposes may provide a novel mechanistic approach with which to treat diverse inflammatory disorders including common conditions associated with obesity. PMID:21818148

Brahma, Pavna K.; Zhang, Huanchun; Murray, Betsy S.; Shu, Feng-jue; Sidell, Neil; Seli, Emre; Kallen, Caleb B.

2014-01-01

351

Development of a BALB/c 3T3 neutral red uptake cytotoxicity test using a mainstream cigarette smoke exposure system  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoke toxicity has traditionally been assessed using the particulate fraction under submerged culture conditions which omits the vapour phase elements from any subsequent analysis. Therefore, methodologies that assess the full interactions and complexities of tobacco smoke are required. Here we describe the adaption of a modified BALB/c 3T3 neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity test methodology, which is based on the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) protocol for in vitro acute toxicity testing. The methodology described takes into account the synergies of both the particulate and vapour phase of tobacco smoke. This is of particular importance as both phases have been independently shown to induce in vitro cellular cytotoxicity. Findings The findings from this study indicate that mainstream tobacco smoke and the gas vapour phase (GVP), generated using the Vitrocell® VC 10 smoke exposure system, have distinct and significantly different toxicity profiles. Within the system tested, mainstream tobacco smoke produced a dilution IC50 (dilution (L/min) at which 50% cytotoxicity is observed) of 6.02 L/min, whereas the GVP produced a dilution IC50 of 3.20 L/min. In addition, we also demonstrated significant dose-for-dose differences between mainstream cigarette smoke and the GVP fraction (P?