#### Sample records for 3x3 latin square

1. A Simple Parameterization of 3 x 3 Magic Squares

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trenkler, Gotz; Schmidt, Karsten; Trenkler, Dietrich

2012-01-01

In this article a new parameterization of magic squares of order three is presented. This parameterization permits an easy computation of their inverses, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and adjoints. Some attention is paid to the Luoshu, one of the oldest magic squares.

2. Latin and Magic Squares

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emanouilidis, Emanuel

2005-01-01

Latin squares have existed for hundreds of years but it wasn't until rather recently that Latin squares were used in other areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory and the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. This note describes Latin and diagonal Latin squares, a method of constructing…

3. Latin and Cross Latin Squares

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emanouilidis, Emanuel

2008-01-01

Latin squares were first introduced and studied by the famous mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 1700s. Through the years, Latin squares have been used in areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory, the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. Recently, with the international popularity of…

4. Sets of Mutually Orthogonal Sudoku Latin Squares

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vis, Timothy; Petersen, Ryan M.

2009-01-01

A Latin square of order "n" is an "n" x "n" array using n symbols, such that each symbol appears exactly once in each row and column. A set of Latin squares is c ordered pairs of symbols appearing in the cells of the array are distinct. The popular puzzle Sudoku involves Latin squares with n = 9, along with the added condition that each of the 9…

5. Latin square three dimensional gage master

DOEpatents

Jones, Lynn L.

1982-01-01

A gage master for coordinate measuring machines has an nxn array of objects distributed in the Z coordinate utilizing the concept of a Latin square experimental design. Using analysis of variance techniques, the invention may be used to identify sources of error in machine geometry and quantify machine accuracy.

6. Latin-square three-dimensional gage master

DOEpatents

Jones, L.

1981-05-12

A gage master for coordinate measuring machines has an nxn array of objects distributed in the Z coordinate utilizing the concept of a Latin square experimental design. Using analysis of variance techniques, the invention may be used to identify sources of error in machine geometry and quantify machine accuracy.

7. Graeco-Latin Squares and a Mistaken Conjecture of Euler

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Klyve, Dominic; Stemkoski, Leo

2006-01-01

A Graeco-Latin square of order "n" is an "n[superscript x]n" array whose entries are the "n"[superscript 2] ordered pairs of numbers from 1 to "n", and in each row and each column the first elements of the ordered pairs are all different, as are the second elements. This article traces the history of the results that came out of work on a false…

8. Analysis of the Latin Square Task with Linear Logistic Test Models

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zeuch, Nina; Holling, Heinz; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

2011-01-01

The Latin Square Task (LST) was developed by Birney, Halford, and Andrews [Birney, D. P., Halford, G. S., & Andrews, G. (2006). Measuring the influence of cognitive complexity on relational reasoning: The development of the Latin Square Task. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66, 146-171.] and represents a non-domain specific,…

9. Reply to ''Comment on 'Mutually unbiased bases, orthogonal Latin squares, and hidden-variable models'''

SciTech Connect

Paterek, Tomasz; Dakic, Borivoje; Brukner, Caslav

2011-03-15

In this Reply to the preceding Comment by Hall and Rao [Phys. Rev. A 83, 036101 (2011)], we motivate terminology of our original paper and point out that further research is needed in order to (dis)prove the claimed link between every orthogonal Latin square of order being a power of a prime and a mutually unbiased basis.

10. The Influence of Relational Complexity and Strategy Selection on Children's Reasoning in the Latin Square Task

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perret, Patrick; Bailleux, Christine; Dauvier, Bruno

2011-01-01

The present study focused on children's deductive reasoning when performing the Latin Square Task, an experimental task designed to explore the influence of relational complexity. Building on Birney, Halford, and Andrew's (2006) research, we created a version of the task that minimized nonrelational factors and introduced new categories of items.…

11. A Novel Image Encryption Algorithm Based on the Two-Dimensional Logistic Map and the Latin Square Image Cipher

Machkour, M.; Saaidi, A.; Benmaati, M. L.

2015-12-01

In this paper, we introduce a new hybrid system consisting of a permutation-substitution network based on two different encryption techniques: chaotic systems and the Latin square. This homogeneity between the two systems allows us to provide the good properties of confusion and diffusion, robustness to the integration of noise in decryption. The security analysis shows that the system is secure enough to resist brute-force attack, differential attack, chosen-plaintext attack, known-plaintext attack and statistical attack. Therefore, this robustness is proven and justified.

12. Interferometer using a 3 x 3 coupler and Faraday mirrors.

PubMed

Breguet, J; Gisin, N

1995-06-15

A new interferometric setup using a 3 x 3 coupler and two Faraday mirrors is presented. It has the advantages of being built only with passive components, of freedom from the polarization fading problem, and of operation with a LED. It is well suited for sensing time-dependent signals and does not depend on reciprocal or nonreciprocal constant perturbations. PMID:19862044

13. Order-disorder transition of the (3 x 3) Sn/Ge(111) phase

SciTech Connect

Floreano, L.; Cvetko, D.; Bavdek, G.; Benes, M.; Morgante, A.

2001-08-15

We have measured the long-range order of the {alpha} phase of Sn on the Ge(111) surface throughout the (3 x 3){yields}(3 x 3)R30{sup o} phase transition. The transition has been found of the order-disorder type with a critical temperature T{sub c}{approx}220 K. The expected three-state Potts critical exponents are shown to be consistent with the observed power-law dependence of the (3 x 3) order parameter and its correlation length close to T{sub c}, thus excluding a charge-density wave driven phase transition.

14. Design of 3x3 focusing array for heavy ion driver. Final report on CRADA

SciTech Connect

Martovetsky, N N

2005-03-30

This memo presents a design of a 3 x 3 quadrupole array for HIF. It contains 3 D magnetic field computations of the array build with racetrack coils with and without different shields. It is shown that it is possible to have a low error magnetic field in the cells and shield the stray fields to acceptable levels. The array design seems to be a practical solution to any size array for future multi-beam heavy ion fusion drivers.

15. Oxygen Adsorption on the 6H-SiC(0001) (3x3) Surface

Cui, Y.; Li, L.

2001-03-01

Silicon carbide (SiC) is an attractive semiconductor for applications requiring a wide bandgap, high temperature/high power and chemical inertness. An investigation of the initial stages of oxidation of SiC, therefore, is important for optimizing the growth of thin, insulating oxide layers in SiC devices. In the present work, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to study the initial stages of oxygen adsorption at room temperature on the Si-rich (3x3) surface of 6H-SiC(0001). The (3x3) surface is prepared by a two-step method of etching in hydrogen atmosphere at 1500 ^oC and annealing under Si beam in UHV at 950 ^oC. Upon adsorption of oxygen on the (3x3) surface, only one reaction product has been identified in the STM topographs, which appears as bright sites in the empty-state mode. These bright sites are attributed to the oxygen atoms inserted in one of the Si adatom's back bonds. These results and their implications for oxide growth on SiC will be presented at the meeting.

16. CHF prediction of GE 3 x 3 rod bundle based on BODYFIT-2PE. [BWR

SciTech Connect

Chien, T.H.; Chen, B.C.J.; Sha, W.T.; Kim, J.H.

1983-01-01

A General Electric 3 x 3 rod bundle critical heat flux (CHF) experiment was analyzed by using BODYFIT-2PE. (Boundary-fitted coordinates-2 phase partially elliptic). BODYFIT-2PE is a three-dimensional, steady-state/transient, single-phase rod-bundle thermal-hydraulic computer program based on the technique of boudnary-fitted coordinate system. In this coordinate system, all the physical boundaries are made to be coincident with the coordinate lines so that the boundary conditions, such as constant heat fluxes and zero velocities, can be accurately represented without interpolation. However, the transformed coordinate system is not unique for a given geometric configuration. The more orthogonal the coordinates are, the faster the rates of calculational convergence. The generation of the transformed coordinates is based on the solution of a set of second-order partial differential equations, subject to a set of geometric boundary conditions. A simple Laplacian is used in the present study.

17. A comparison of two factorial designs, a complete 3 x 3 factorial and a central composite rotatable design, for use in binomial response experiments in aquatic toxicology.

PubMed

Edginton, Andrea N; Sheridan, Patrick M; Boermans, Herman J; Thompson, Dean G; Holt, John D; Stephenson, Gerald R

2004-02-01

Using an amphibian toxicity testing protocol, comparative studies were conducted to assess the predictive precision, degree of similarity of results and efficiency of a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) in relation to a conventional complete 3x3 factorial design. Data were treated with response surface analysis using generalized linear models (glm) and application of profile deviance to generate confidence intervals. Design comparisons were based on studies conducted using the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) protocol to examine the interaction of three toxicants at pH levels ranging from 4.5 to 8.5. Test substances included two commercial herbicide formulations based on glyphosate ([N-phosphonomethyl]glycine) isopropylamine salt (Vision, Rodeo) as well as a polyethoxylated tallow amine surfactant blend (MON 0818), which is a key component of the Vision formulation. The generated models from both the CCRD and the factorial designs produced toxicity estimates similar to each other and to previously published results. Trends were also similar to published results in that the surfactant, MON 0818, was comparatively more toxic than Vision, which was more toxic than Rodeo. Further, all toxicants induced higher mortality under alkaline as opposed to acidic conditions. The CCRD was between 66 and 124% more efficient in the Vision and Rodeo experiments in comparison to the complete 3x3 factorial. Thus, the factorial experiment would have required at least 66% more observations to obtain the same precision. There appeared to be no efficiency gain with the use of the CCRD for MON 0818. The CCRD had tighter confidence intervals in 9 of 12 cases across all test substances. Computer simulations using the experimental data for Vision demonstrated that the LCalpha estimates generated from the 1,000 simulated data sets were very close to the "true" value for both designs. This was based on small bias and mean squared error calculations. Coverage

18. Assessment of Biasi and Columbia University CHF correlations with GE 3x3 rod bundle experiment. [PWR; BWR

SciTech Connect

Chen, B.C.J.; Chien, T.H.; Sha, W.T.; Kim, J.H.

1984-01-01

The critical heat flux (CHF), at which a sudden degradation of heat transfer occurs without corresponding decrease in heat generation, is one of the limiting parameters for safe operation of nuclear reactors. Reactor operation beyond the CHF causes a rapid rise in fuel cladding temperature and thus should be avoided to maintain the fuel element integrity. Reactor power limits are therefore set so that a prescribed safety margin below the CHF is maintained. Two CHF correlations are evaluated for reactor core thermal hydraulic analysis: the Biasi correlation and the Columbia University correlation. The BODYFIT-2PE computer code is used for this assessment. The CHF predicted by the BODYFIT-2PE using the two correlations is compared with GE 3x3 rod bundle CHF experiment.

19. Evaluation the nonlinear response function of a 3 x 3 in NaI scintillation detector for PGNAA applications.

PubMed

Miri Hakimabad, Hashem; Panjeh, Hamed; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza

2007-08-01

Response functions of the 3 x 3 in NaI detector, which is mainly used in PGNAA applications, have been calculated by using MCNP-4C code. Calculated results are compared with measured data by using standard gamma-ray sources and prompt gamma-rays from pure element samples to check their accuracy. Prompt gamma-rays from pure element samples were used for this determination in the range from 1.942 to 10.829 MeV by use of (241)Am-Be neutron source and gamma-rays from radioisotope sources were used in the range from 0.081 to 4.438 MeV. Through the precise modeling of the detector structure, the agreement between both results has been improved. A surprising result is that in the PGNAA method the agreement between the MCNP simulation and experiment will be better by using a suitable neutron shield for NaI detector in order to prevent the activation of NaI (Tl) and a proper gamma-shield to attenuate the high-rate 4.438 MeV gamma-ray, (241)Am-Be gamma-ray component. PMID:17485218

20. Statistical and quadrant-hole analysis of the turbulence characteristics in a 3 x 3 wind turbine array boundary layer

Gibson, Max; Kang, Hyung-Suk; Meneveau, Charles; Bayoan Cal, Raul

2009-11-01

Data from a wind-tunnel experiment on the flow within a 3 x 3 array of lightly loaded wind turbine models operating inside a turbulent boundary layer over a rough surface are analyzed. The data are acquired using X hot-wire anemometry and the focus of the analysis is on the possible differences of the flow structures above and below the canopy of wind turbines. Here this question is addressed using quadrant analysis. Conditional averages of turbulent dissipation (a 1-D surrogate) at various heights at 5 diameters downstream is performed for each of the 4 quadrants as well as different ``hole-sizes.'' The results imply significantly less inter-scale correlations in the low-shear region at the bottom of the wind turbine wake than at other wake locations. Inter-scale correlations above and below the wake are also significantly greater than at that low-shear region. Spectral analysis is performed to determine which scales are mostly responsible for the various levels of Reynolds stresses as functions of position in the wind turbine wake.

1. Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

1993-01-01

This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and Portuguese…

2. Discovering the Magic of Magic Squares

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semanisinova, Ingrid; Trenkler, Marian

2007-01-01

The purpose of this article is to present a collection of problems that allow students to investigate magic squares and Latin squares, formulate their own conjectures about these mathematical objects, look for arguments supporting or disproving their conjectures, and finally establish and prove mathematical assertions. Each problem is completed…

3. Square Root +

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frederiksen, John G.

1969-01-01

A rational presentation of the so-called long division method for extracting the square root of a number. Diagrams are used to show relationship of this technique to the binomial theorem. Presentation exposes student to many facets of mathematics in addition to the mechanics of funding square root and cube root. Geometry, algebraic statements,…

4. Using Squares to Sum Squares

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DeTemple, Duane

2010-01-01

Purely combinatorial proofs are given for the sum of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2] = n(n + 1) (2n + 1) / 6, and the sum of sums of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2]) + ... + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2]) = n(n + 1)[superscript 2]…

5. Dynamic Squares.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hubbard, Guy

2003-01-01

Discusses the role of the square in art and explains that students can study modern art. Includes background information and artwork by four artists: (1) Richard Anuszkiewicz; (2) Victor Vasarely; (3) Frank Stella; and (4) Bridget Riley. (CMK)

6. Rolling Squares

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holton, Derek; Knights, Carol

2008-01-01

Here, we investigate what loci are produced when a square of side-length one is allowed to rotate around a square of side-length n, where n is a whole number. We find that if i = 1, 2, 3 or 4 (mod 4), the loci obtained for n [congruent to] i (mod 4) all have the same symmetry and we show how the perimeter of each class can be determined. We also…

7. LATIN--Latin American Regional News Agency.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nichols, John Spicer

The establishment of a regional news agency for Latin America to improve the balance of news flow and increase the transmission of news more applicable to regional problems has often been proposed. Despite wide acceptance of the concept, the birth of the Third World's first regional news agency, Agencia Latinoamericana de Informacion (LATIN), has…

8. Punnett's square.

PubMed

Edwards, A W F

2012-03-01

The origin and development of Punnett's Square for the enumeration and display of genotypes arising in a cross in Mendelian genetics is described. Due to R. C. Punnett, the idea evolved through the work of the 'Cambridge geneticists', including Punnett's colleagues William Bateson, E. R. Saunders and R. H. Lock, soon after the rediscovery of Mendel's paper in 1900. These geneticists were thoroughly familiar with Mendel's paper, which itself contained a similar square diagram. A previously-unpublished three-factor diagram by Sir Francis Galton existing in the Bateson correspondence in Cambridge University Library is then described. Finally the connection between Punnett's Square and Venn Diagrams is emphasized, and it is pointed out that Punnett, Lock and John Venn overlapped as Fellows of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Copious illustrations are given. PMID:22326091

9. Creating Magic Squares.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lyon, Betty Clayton

1990-01-01

One method of making magic squares using a prolongated square is illustrated. Discussed are third-order magic squares, fractional magic squares, fifth-order magic squares, decimal magic squares, and even magic squares. (CW)

10. The Benefits of Latin?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holliday, Lisa R.

2012-01-01

Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

11. Science in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ayala, Francisco J.

1995-01-01

A brief history of science and technology in Latin America that begins with the Mayan civilization and progresses through the colonial period to the present. Compares increased scientific productivity in the Latin American and Caribbean regions to productivity in the United States and European Union. (LZ)

12. Latin American cheeses

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

13. Latin Curriculum Guide.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Instructional Services.

North Carolina's Latin curriculum guide describes the overarching concepts for Latin study, particularly at the secondary level, and outlines what students should know and be able to do at the beginning, intermediate, and advanced levels. It is designed to provide directions to school districts as they plan and/or continue to improve their Latin…

14. Investigation on gamma-ray position sensitivity at 662 keV in a spectroscopic 3' x 3' LaBr3:Ce scintillator

Giaz, A.; Camera, F.; Birocchi, F.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Brambilla, S.; Coelli, S.; Fiorini, C.; Marone, A.; Million, B.; Riboldi, S.; Wieland, O.

2015-02-01

The position sensitivity of a thick, cylindrical and continuous 3" x 3" (7.62 cm x 7.62 cm) LaBr3:Ce crystal was studied using a 1 mm collimated beam of 662 keV gamma rays from a 400 MBq intense 137Cs source and a spectroscopic photomultiplier (PMT) (HAMAMATSU R6233-100SEL). The PMT entrance window was covered by black absorber except for a small window 1 cm x 1 cm wide. A complete scan of the detector over a 0.5 cm step grid was performed for three positions of the 1 cm x 1 cm window. For each configuration the energy spectrum was measured and the peak centroid, the FWHM, the area and peak asymmetry of the 662 keV gamma transition were analyzed. The data show that, even in a 3" thick LaBr3:Ce crystal with diffusive surfaces the position of the full energy peak centroid depends on the source position. We verified that, on average, the position of the full energy peak centroids measured in the three 1 cm x 1 cm window configurations is sufficient for the correct identification of the collimated gamma source position.

15. Asthma in Latin America.

PubMed

Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A; Celedón, Juan C

2015-09-01

Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, non-uniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow-up well-characterised Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (eg, stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions (eg, replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves). PMID:26103996

16. Latin American Archives.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Belsunce, Cesar A. Garcia

1983-01-01

Examination of the situation of archives in four Latin American countries--Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Costa Rica--highlights national systems, buildings, staff, processing of documents, accessibility and services to the public and publications and extension services. (EJS)

17. Latin American demand

SciTech Connect

1994-12-01

From Mexico to Argentina, independent power companies are finding great demand for their services in Latin America. But while legal and economic conditions are increasingly favorable, political and financial uncertainties make power development challenging.

18. Asthma in Latin America

PubMed Central

Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A.; Celedón, Juan C.

2015-01-01

Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress, and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, nonuniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow up well-characterized Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (e.g. stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacologic interventions (e.g. replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves). PMID:26103996

19. Educational Building in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baza, Jadille; Vaz, Rita de Cassia Alves; Millan, Eduardo; Almeida, Rodolfo

2002-01-01

Presents articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries (Chile, Brazil, and Venezuela) to expand public education facilities, along with a report on UNESCO's recent seminar in Latin America on architecture for an inclusive education. (EV)

20. Atlanta Public Schools Latin Guide.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Atlanta Public Schools, GA.

This teacher's guide outlines the basic objectives and the content of the Atlanta Public Schools Latin program and suggests resources and methods to achieve the stated goals. The philosophy and general objectives of the program are presented. Course outlines include: (1) Beginning Latin, (2) Intermediate Latin, (3) Vergil's "Aeneid," (4) Ovid:…

1. All Square Chiliagonal Numbers

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A?iru, Muniru A.

2016-01-01

A square chiliagonal number is a number which is simultaneously a chiliagonal number and a perfect square (just as the well-known square triangular number is both triangular and square). In this work, we determine which of the chiliagonal numbers are perfect squares and provide the indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square…

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clark, Thomas W.; Lenczewski, Leo

Instructional materials for independent learning include two sample units taken from a full-year, 12-unit, Latin 2 course. The units direct the student in the study of irregular adjectives and adverbs, the passive tenses of regular verbs, indefinite pronouns, indirect commands, and descriptive clauses. The unit description lists the forms,…

3. Latin for Secondary Schools.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Glaude, Paul M.; And Others

This updated Latin syllabus provides a framework for imparting an understanding of the Ancient World, more particularly of Roman civilization with its Grecian overtones, primarily through the development of reading skills. A chronological-historical approach has been chosen for the course of study from level 1 through level 5 courses of…

4. Latin American Research Resources.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sable, Martin H.

Over 2,000 research resources, most of which were published during the 1960's and 1970's, are listed in this annotated bibliography for students, teachers, librarians, researchers, and others interested in interdisciplinary resources on Latin America. Although there is a section listing materials for teaching children and young adults, the bulk of…

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

This publication is offered as a resource guide for teachers rather than as a prescriptive syllabus. No course of study is delineated and no course objectives are spelled out. Instead there are illustrative examples for applying discovery techniques to the study of Latin America, suggestions of various themes useful in organizing a course of study…

6. Latin Curriculum Guide.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lee, Agnes; Stevens, Patrick

This guide delineates the scope and sequence of Latin instruction in levels 1-3 in terms of behavioral objectives. Following a review of the Bloomington, Minnesota, school philosophy and a discussion of the design of foreign language behavioral objectives on which the guide is based, the manual discusses expected terminal behavior in the level 1…

7. Colloquamur Latine cum Pueris Puellesque: Latin in the Middle School.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graber, Charles F.; Norton, Harriet S.

Guidelines for the development of a Latin curriculum for the middle school, with specific suggestions as to content and methodology, are presented in this manual. The material, oriented toward new approaches in the teaching of the Latin and Graeco-Roman cultures, strives to develop proficiency in the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and…

8. The Versatile Magic Square.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Watson, Gale A.

2003-01-01

Demonstrates the transformations that are possible to construct a variety of magic squares, including modifications to challenge students from elementary grades through algebra. Presents an example of using magic squares with students who have special needs. (YDS)

9. The New Latin American Novel

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rodriguez-Monegal, Emir

1970-01-01

Describes Latin American novelists as portraying the continent as torn by revolution and inflation, by anger and mounting expectations. Instead of denying the fictional qualities of this vision, the novelists transform this linguistic reality into the narrative itself. Only through fiction can the hidden realities of Latin American emerge. (DS)

10. Fermilab and Latin America

SciTech Connect

Lederman, Leon M.

2006-09-25

As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

11. Fermilab and Latin America

Lederman, Leon M.

2006-09-01

As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

12. Learning about Justice: A Latin American Experience.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sanchez, Ana Isabel; Wray, Alberto

1994-01-01

Describes cultural attributes of Latin America and Latin American youth and how law-related education can be used effectively in Latin American cultures. Provides a definition of justice and asserts that Latin America is an area where there are generalized situations of injustice. Includes brief overviews of six Andean nations. (CFR)

13. Mechanical Circle-Squaring

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wagon, Stan; Cox, Barry

2009-01-01

A technique discovered in 1939 can be used to build a device that is driven by standard circular motion (as in a drill press) and drills exact square holes. This device is quite different from the classic design by Watts, which uses a Reuleaux triangle and drills a hole that is almost, but not exactly, square. We describe the device in detail,…

14. Irrational Square Roots

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misiurewicz, Michal

2013-01-01

If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

15. Squaring to the Rap!

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2006-01-01

This article describes an approach to teaching square dance that is advantageous for both the teacher and students. Lessons in dance become more meaningful to students when the music and vocabulary is consistent with experiences in their own lives. When students create their own squaring to the rap, lessons become more student-centered,…

16. The Internet in Latin America

This article addresses the diverse patterns of internet access, uses and appropriations by different populations in Latin America. The correlation between nequalities in access and economic disparities is not sufficient to define or explain the region's complexity. In an attempt to avoid economic and technological determinism while simultaneously visualizing the general picture of the internet in Latin America without disregarding its finer grain idiosyncrasies, the text is organized in three sections. First, a brief overall picture of the global position of Latin America with respect to the internet. Second, a discussion of three profiles of internet penetration and appropriation vis a vis similar local socioeconomic conditions. Third, qualitatively significant examples of the forms of use and appropriation of the internet in Latin America.

17. Vocational Training in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wallenborn, Manfred

2001-01-01

Explores historical development and weaknesses and change efforts in vocational training institutions in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Peru. Identifies future directions for the training enterprise in Latin America. (SK)

18. SQUARE WAVE AMPLIFIER

DOEpatents

Leavitt, M.A.; Lutz, I.C.

1958-08-01

An amplifier circuit is described for amplifying sigmals having an alternating current component superimposed upon a direct current component, without loss of any segnnent of the alternating current component. The general circuit arrangement includes a vibrator, two square wave amplifiers, and recombination means. The amplifier input is connected to the vibrating element of the vibrator and is thereby alternately applied to the input of each square wave amplifier. The detailed circuitry of the recombination means constitutes the novelty of the annplifier and consists of a separate, dual triode amplifier coupled to the output of each square wave amplifier with a recombination connection from the plate of one amplifier section to a grid of one section of the other amplifier. The recombination circuit has provisions for correcting distortion caused by overlapping of the two square wave voltages from the square wave amplifiers.

19. Square dielectric THz waveguides.

PubMed

Aflakian, N; Yang, N; LaFave, T; Henderson, R M; O, K K; MacFarlane, D L

2016-06-27

A holey cladding dielectric waveguide with square cross section is designed, simulated, fabricated and characterized. The TOPAS waveguide is designed to be single mode across the broad frequency range of 180 GHz to 360 GHz as shown by finite-difference time domain simulation and to robustly support simultaneous TE and TM mode propagation. The square fiber geometry is realized by pulling through a heat distribution made square by appropriate furnace design. The transmitted mode profile is imaged using a vector network analyzer with a pinhole at the receiver module. Good agreement between the measured mode distribution and the calculated mode distribution is demonstrated. PMID:27410645

20. Town Square for Kids.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parker, Dan

2001-01-01

Presents design features of the Dawson Elementary School (Corpus Chriti, Texas) where an atmosphere of an old town square and the feeling of community have been created. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

1. A Shared Heritage: Afro-Latin@s and Black History

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Busey, Christopher L.; Cruz, Bárbara C.

2015-01-01

As the Latin@ population continues to grow in the United States, it is imperative that social studies teachers are aware of the rich history and sociocultural complexities of Latin@ identity. In particular, there is a large population of Latin@s of African descent throughout Latin America, the Caribbean, and North America. However, Afro-Latin@s…

2. Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.

2009-01-01

This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

3. Continuing Education Needs in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capanema, Clelia de Freitas

Continuing education needs of the Latin American population are related to the need of Latin American countries for social and economic development. The source of continuing educaton needs is the area's differentiated socioeconomic development and cultural diversity. Some common features of Latin American educational systems, well known as…

4. Education in Latin America--Comparative.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paulston, Rolland G.; Tidwell, Monte

The different ways in which researchers have conceptualized Latin American education are identified. Written for an encyclopedia of educational research, this entry does not seek to describe and compare education "as it is" in some 28 Latin American republics. Rather it characterizes and compares how Latin American education has appeared to Latin…

5. Textbooks in Greek and Latin: 1975 List

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McCarty, Thomas G.

1975-01-01

List of textbooks in Greek and Latin for 1975. Subject, title, publisher and price are noted. Greek and Latin works are listed separately under the eight categories of texts, beginner's books, grammars, books about the language, readers and anthologies, composition, dictionaries, and New Testament Greek and Later Latin. (RM)

6. Word Power through Latin; A Curriculum Resource.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Masciantonio, Rudolph

This curriculum guide is intended to assist Latin teachers in the School District of Philadelphia in achieving one of the goals of Latin instruction: the development of word power in English through a structured study of Latin roots and affixes. The guide may be used in two different ways. First, it may form the basis for a separate…

7. Squares on a Checkerboard

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schulman, Steven M.

2014-01-01

In this article the author describes a problem posed to his class, "How many squares are there on a checkerboard?" The problem is deliberately vague so that the teacher can get the students to begin asking questions. The first goal is to come to an agreement about what the problem means (Identify the problem). The second goal is to get…

8. Drilling Square Holes.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Scott G.

1993-01-01

A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)

9. Language Politics in Latin America

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

2005-01-01

This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

10. Latin: Grades 10 Through 12.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Allen, Karen Sue; Bevers, Opal

Instructional objectives of a three-year Latin program are stated in this curriculum guide. An individualized approach to instruction which takes into account the nature of the school, the means of fulfilling its objectives, organizational structure of the course, provision for individual differences, and the type of pupil progress required is…

11. Women in Latin American History.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lavrin, Asuncion

1981-01-01

Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

12. Internet Accessibility in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Haymond, Ruel

1998-01-01

Addresses the problems that prohibit expanded Internet access and possible solutions to these problems, particularly with respect to the country of Chile. The three main problems that block Internet usage in Latin America are high demand and poor infrastructure; high costs for Internet access; and high preliminary costs for computers, modems, and…

13. Latin American Folk Art Prints

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Navah, Jan

2011-01-01

Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

14. Building ESD in Latin America

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2007

2007-01-01

To encourage efforts for furthering the UN DESD agenda in Latin America, a meeting titled "Building Education for Sustainable Development" was held in Costa Rica from 31 October to 2 November 2006. Plenary sessions were interspersed with working groups to look at how ESD can be integrated in formal and non-formal education systems, and to make…

15. Square Of Pegasus

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

A conspicuous asterism of four bright stars forming a square of approximately 15° a side, notable for the absence of any but very faint stars within it. It is formed by the stars β, α and γ Pegasi (apparent magnitudes 2.44, 2.49 and 2.83 respectively) and α Andromedae (magnitude 2.07), and is prominent in the evening sky in autumn....

16. Pinta: Latin America's Forgotten Disease?

PubMed

Stamm, Lola V

2015-11-01

Pinta is a neglected, chronic skin disease that was first described in the sixteenth century in Mexico. The World Health Organization lists 15 countries in Latin America where pinta was previously endemic. However, the current prevalence of pinta is unknown due to the lack of surveillance data. The etiological agent of pinta, Treponema carateum, cannot be distinguished morphologically or serologically from the not-yet-cultivable Treponema pallidum subspecies that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel. Although genomic sequencing has enabled the development of molecular techniques to differentiate the T. pallidum subspecies, comparable information is not available for T. carateum. Because of the influx of migrants and refugees from Latin America, U.S. physicians should consider pinta in the differential diagnosis of skin diseases in children and adolescents who come from areas where pinta was previously endemic and have a positive reaction in serological tests for syphilis. All stages of pinta are treatable with a single intramuscular injection of penicillin. PMID:26304920

17. Updating Malthus in Latin America.

PubMed

Bilsborrow, R E

1991-01-01

Available arable land in Latin America is actually less than figures indicate, and it is being degraded at a rapid pace. Six Latin American countries are unable to meet their demand for fuelwood, and 10 more are depleting their forests at annual rates of up to 3.8% per year. Land extensification is a national policy in several countries as an alternative to land reform, or subdivision of large land holdings. Guatemala is a case in point. 48% of Guatemala's land is classified as arable, and 80% of this land was already enclosed as farms in the last agricultural census, in 1979. 60% of this land was actually being farmed. 60% of all farms encompass 3.7% of all the farm land, small holdings called minifundia. Between 1964 and 1979 farm numbers increased 45%, total area being farmed rose 13.5%, with an annual increase of 1.2%. Most new farms were settled in the northwestern highlands called the altiplano, where numbers of farms doubled and average size of smallholdings shrank from 0.7-0.45 ha between 1964-1979. The northern lowland tropical forest region, the Peten, is being cut for farmland at one of the fastest rates in the world. Flooding and erosion, as well as urbanization, are also causing irreplaceable loss of farmland. While environmental decline is being recognized in many Latin American countries, the causative role of population growth has not been mentioned in environmental declarations and action plans. PMID:12283998

18. A randomized 3x3 crossover study to evaluate the effect of Hass avocado intake on post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin levels, and subsequent energy intake in overweight adults

PubMed Central

2013-01-01

19. View of Corto Square Road from Corto Square. Buildings No. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Corto Square Road from Corto Square. Buildings No. 27 at left, Building No. 25 at rear, and Building No. 26 at right. Parking areas on left and right, looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

20. Bayesian least squares deconvolution

Asensio Ramos, A.; Petit, P.

2015-11-01

Aims: We develop a fully Bayesian least squares deconvolution (LSD) that can be applied to the reliable detection of magnetic signals in noise-limited stellar spectropolarimetric observations using multiline techniques. Methods: We consider LSD under the Bayesian framework and we introduce a flexible Gaussian process (GP) prior for the LSD profile. This prior allows the result to automatically adapt to the presence of signal. We exploit several linear algebra identities to accelerate the calculations. The final algorithm can deal with thousands of spectral lines in a few seconds. Results: We demonstrate the reliability of the method with synthetic experiments and we apply it to real spectropolarimetric observations of magnetic stars. We are able to recover the magnetic signals using a small number of spectral lines, together with the uncertainty at each velocity bin. This allows the user to consider if the detected signal is reliable. The code to compute the Bayesian LSD profile is freely available.

SciTech Connect

Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G.

1994-12-31

In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.

2. How Do You Say "MOO" in Latin? Assessing Student Learning and Motivation in Beginning Latin.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gruber-Miller, John; Benton, Cindy

2001-01-01

Assesses the value of VRoma for Latin language learning. In particular, discusses three exercises that were developed that combine Latin language and Roman culture in order to help students reinforce their Latin skills and gain a more in-depth understanding of ancient Roman society. (Author/VWL)

3. "The South American Way": Hollywood Looks at Latins and at Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aiex, Nola Kortner

Latin elements or themes made for the North American market have been used in American films, but at the same time these films have been playing in a Latin American market, making it useful to examine how Latin America has been portrayed in these films. The taste for exotic locales and themes is an element that has been present since the…

4. Cardiac rehabilitation in Latin America.

PubMed

Anchique Santos, Claudia Victoria; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Benaim, Briseida; Burdiat, Gerard; Fernandez Coronado, Rosalia; Gonzalez, Graciela; Herdy, Arthur; Medina-Inojosa, Jose; Santibañez, Claudio; Uriona Villarroel, Juan E; Zeballos, Cecilia

2014-01-01

This article provides a description of the status of cardiovascular (CV) rehabilitation (CVR) in Latin America (LA) and the potential impact on CV disease in the region. We discuss the insufficient number of CVR programs in the region and describe the components of CVR that are more commonly available, like exercise interventions, medical assessment and patient education. Additionally, we discuss the heterogeneity in other components, like the evaluation of depression, sleep apnea, and smoking cessation programs. Lastly, we provide a brief review on the main characteristics of the health systems of each country regarding access to CVR programs and compare the average cost of CV procedures and treatments with CVR. PMID:25220257

5. Teaching physics in Latin America

Moreno, Darío

1995-08-01

A review is made of current teaching practice in Latin America. The impact of research about teaching is assessed. It is argued that the usual role of teaching laboratories as a place just to measure physical constants is a sad waste of time and resources. Also the usual format of lectures is considered inefficient and a plea is made for the return to some kind of personalized instruction. Universities are compared to hospitals. This similitude suggest that the most important changes are related to administrative decisions. The conclusion is rather pessimistic, since the main educational defects arise from factors not easily dealt with.

6. A World of Hurt: Latin America

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ramaswami, Rama

2009-01-01

Massive socioeconomic problems have left Latin American education in a dire condition, and decades behind the rest of the globe in integrating technology into teaching and learning. But a few spots in the region offer signs of hope. In this article, the author describes several efforts at tech-based educational reform in Latin America.

7. Latin Vibes Curriculum: Sixth and Seventh Grades.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lederer, Debra; And Others

A sixth- and seventh-grade program "Latin Vibes," developed in response to a rising demand within the community for more student understanding of the evolution of the English language, is outlined. The courses for each grade chronicle the influences of Latin and the romance languages on the development of English over the centuries. The program…

8. Latin America: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

This learning aid is intended to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with Latin Americans. The book consists of the following: (1) a map of Latin America, with area and population statistics for the various countries; (2) a brief description of the land, the people, the economy, diet, religion, government,…

9. Industrialization in Latin America: Successes and Failures.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baer, Werner

1984-01-01

Industrialization in Latin America and how it has influenced growth, employment, and income distribution are examined. The role played by multinational companies in industrialization is discussed. The future of Latin America's growth possibilities is evaluated in the light of the Asian export-industrialization models. (Author/RM)

10. Latin American History: Concerns and Conflicts.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grover, Mark L.

1988-01-01

Examines increased interest in Latin American studies initiated by Cuban Revolution of Fidel Castro. Identifies and compares older historiography which evolved in Latin America and newer efforts which have emanated from the United States. Suggests that a changing political and economic climate and different emphasis in methodology are affecting…

11. Challenges for Scientists in Latin America.

PubMed

Kalergis, Alexis M; Lacerda, Marcus; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Rosenstein, Yvonne

2016-09-01

Despite political turmoil and economical crisis, research in Latin America has considerably advanced over recent decades. The present 'Point of View' outlines our perspectives on the working conditions, successes, difficulties, limitations, and challenges of biomedical scientific communities in four Latin American countries: Argentina (G.A.R.), Brazil (M.L.), Chile (A.K.), and Mexico (Y.R.). PMID:27426044

12. U.S.-Latin American Relations.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kamman, William

1992-01-01

Reviews United States-Latin America diplomatic and trade relations from early days of the Republic to contemporary times. Contends that Monroe Doctrine was a way of eliminating European competition for economic and political control of Latin America. Argues that the end of the Cold War may bring a more equal relationship between the United States…

13. Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

14. Arts Education Policy in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cristina De Couve, Alicia; Dal Pino, Claudia; Calvo, Diana Fernandez; Frega, Ana Lucia; Souza, Jusamara

1998-01-01

Highlights the various educational trends and policies in relation to arts education in the Latin American countries from the 16th to the 19th centuries. Summarizes the arts education policies in Latin American throughout the 20th century focusing on teaching in the arts and the role of educational research. (CMK)

15. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

PubMed Central

Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

2011-01-01

Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent’s medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients’ needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors’ needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

16. Gastroenterology training in Latin America.

PubMed

Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

2011-05-14

Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent's medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients' needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors' needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

17. Educating cities in Latin America

Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

2013-09-01

This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

18. Square Source Type Diagram

Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

2014-12-01

Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density

19. Weighted Least Squares Fitting Using Ordinary Least Squares Algorithms.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kiers, Henk A. L.

1997-01-01

A general approach for fitting a model to a data matrix by weighted least squares (WLS) is studied. The approach consists of iteratively performing steps of existing algorithms for ordinary least squares fitting of the same model and is based on maximizing a function that majorizes WLS loss function. (Author/SLD)

20. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

PubMed Central

Shapira, Philip

2008-01-01

This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R&D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies. PMID:21170134

1. Star Trek with Latin. Teacher's Guide. Tentative Edition.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

The purpose of this guide is to assist Latin and English teachers with some background in Latin to expand the English vocabulary and reading skills of students through the study of Latin roots, prefixes, and suffixes. The introductory material in the guide provides general notes on the teaching of Latin in the Philadelphia School District,…

2. Latin America: population and internal unrest.

PubMed

Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

1985-09-01

This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the

3. Algebraic Squares: Complete and Incomplete.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gardella, Francis J.

2000-01-01

Illustrates ways of using algebra tiles to give students a visual model of competing squares that appear in algebra as well as in higher mathematics. Such visual representations give substance to the symbolic manipulation and give students who do not learn symbolically a way of understanding the underlying concepts of completing the square. (KHR)

4. From Square Dance to Mathematics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bremer, Zoe

2010-01-01

In this article, the author suggests a cross-curricular idea that can link with PE, dance, music and history. Teacher David Schmitz, a maths teacher in Illinois who was also a square dance caller, had developed a maths course that used the standard square dance syllabus to teach mathematical principles. He presents an intensive, two-week course…

5. Matched Latin Squares: A Nifty Solution to a Tricky Design Problem.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blumberg, Carol Joyce; And Others

The effects of various discourse variables on the psycholinguistic processing of sentences within paragraphs by 36 competent adult readers were investigated. Eye movement measures were used as the dependent variables reflecting psycholinguistic processing. When all of the constraints within which the study had to be performed were examined, it…

6. Fungal infection in Latin American countries.

PubMed

Rios-Fabra, A; Moreno, A R; Istúriz, R E

1994-03-01

Fungal infections remain a frequent health problem in Latin American countries. Although these diseases exhibit an extraordinary heterogeneity, they have certain features in common. Most patients belong to low socioeconomic groups and live in rural areas. This article presents a general view of the most prevalent subcutaneous mycoses, with emphasis on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment options in the developing countries of Latin America. PMID:8021441

7. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

PubMed

Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

2012-01-01

This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction. PMID:22889430

8. [Minerals in Latin American diets].

PubMed

Carrazza, F R

1988-09-01

Body minerals (macro and microminerals) are distributed in extra- and intracellular compartments as inorganic salts or organic compounds. A characteristics of mineral compounds is that when they are metabolized, the corresponding ions are liberated and reutilized by the organism, thus reducing dietary needs. This chapter includes a brief discussion of the functions, dietary sources and clinical consequences of deficiencies (or excess) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, zinc, selenium and iodine. Based on metabolic balance studies, body composition, and dietary population surveys, their daily needs are analyzed and dietary recommendations are suggested based on regional diets. Factors that must be taken into account are emphasized, such as bioavailability, intestinal absorption and interrelations with other nutrients that interfere with absorption. Many Latin American populations have a high content of dietary fiber due to the intake of vegetables, fruits, cereals and grains. Dietary fiber may have a negative influence on the intestinal absorption of minerals. However, this effect is not clearly defined. Some population groups who eat diets with a high concentration of fiber do not show clinical signs of mineral deficits. In relation to fluorine, its supplementation is discussed, placing emphasis on its beneficial effects for the prevention of dental caries. Diet fortification with the addition of iodine, iron and fluorine are discussed elsewhere. PMID:2856371

9. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

10. AKLSQF - LEAST SQUARES CURVE FITTING

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kantak, A. V.

1994-01-01

The Least Squares Curve Fitting program, AKLSQF, computes the polynomial which will least square fit uniformly spaced data easily and efficiently. The program allows the user to specify the tolerable least squares error in the fitting or allows the user to specify the polynomial degree. In both cases AKLSQF returns the polynomial and the actual least squares fit error incurred in the operation. The data may be supplied to the routine either by direct keyboard entry or via a file. AKLSQF produces the least squares polynomial in two steps. First, the data points are least squares fitted using the orthogonal factorial polynomials. The result is then reduced to a regular polynomial using Sterling numbers of the first kind. If an error tolerance is specified, the program starts with a polynomial of degree 1 and computes the least squares fit error. The degree of the polynomial used for fitting is then increased successively until the error criterion specified by the user is met. At every step the polynomial as well as the least squares fitting error is printed to the screen. In general, the program can produce a curve fitting up to a 100 degree polynomial. All computations in the program are carried out under Double Precision format for real numbers and under long integer format for integers to provide the maximum accuracy possible. AKLSQF was written for an IBM PC X/AT or compatible using Microsoft's Quick Basic compiler. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2.1 using 23K of RAM. AKLSQF was developed in 1989.

11. Latin America: A Filmic Approach. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 1.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Campbell, Leon G.; And Others

This document describes a university course designed to provide an historical understanding of Latin America through feature films. The booklet contains an introductory essay on the teaching of a film course on Latin America, a general discussion of strengths and weaknesses of student analyses of films, and nine analyses written by students during…

12. From Latin Americans to Latinos: Latin American Immigration in US: The Unwanted Children

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moraña, Ana

2007-01-01

It is my understanding that Latin American immigrants in the United States, during the contested process of becoming Latinos (US citizens or the offspring of Latin Americans born in US) are for the most part socially portrayed as unwanted, messy children who need to be educated before they can become American citizens. Whether they can be called…

13. Latin American Culture Studies: Information and Materials for Teaching About Latin America. Revised Edition.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Glab, Edward, Jr., Ed.

This resource manual provides ideas, lesson plans, course outlines, arts and crafts projects, games, and other materials for teaching K-12 students about Latin America. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate the diverse Latin American culture. There are six chapters in this volume. Chapter one discusses key ideas that can…

14. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Burlon, A. A.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Levinas, P.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Valda, A. A.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M. E.; Somacal, H. R.; Minsky, D. M.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.; Gonzalez, S. R.; Capoulat, M. E.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.

2010-08-01

The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

15. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

SciTech Connect

Kreiner, A. J.; Minsky, D. M.; Bergueiro, J.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.

2010-08-04

The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

16. A Latin American perspective of periodontology.

PubMed

Caffesse, Raúl G

2015-02-01

Periodontal diseases occur worldwide, and Latin American populations are significantly affected by different manifestations of periodontal disease. The interest in periodontics and periodontal therapy first developed in the early 1930s in the southernmost countries of Latin America, and spread, as the years went by, throughout the region. Today, periodontal research is vibrant in Latin America. The aim of this volume of Periodontology 2000 was to present an overview of the periodontal research currently being performed in different countries of Latin America. The epidemiology of periodontal diseases in adults, children and adolescents, and the pathogenesis of such diseases (including microbiological characteristics and risk factors), are discussed. The role of systemic antibiotic therapy and the effect of smoking are discussed in relation to the progression and the treatment of periodontitis. In addition, the benefit of lasers in periodontal therapy is evaluated. Latin American research groups have been active in exploring new venues of regenerative periodontal treatment, addressing the role of cementum proteins, growth factors and oral mesenchymal stem cells in tissue engineering. Finally, basic research to study cancerization is reported. PMID:25494595

17. Self-assembling RNA square

SciTech Connect

Dibrov, Sergey M.; McLean, Jaime; Parsons, Jerod; Hermann, Thomas

2011-12-22

The three-dimensional structures of noncoding RNA molecules reveal recurring architectural motifs that have been exploited for the design of artificial RNA nanomaterials. Programmed assembly of RNA nanoobjects from autonomously folding tetraloop-receptor complexes as well as junction motifs has been achieved previously through sequence-directed hybridization of complex sets of long oligonucleotides. Due to size and complexity, structural characterization of artificial RNA nanoobjects has been limited to low-resolution microscopy studies. Here we present the design, construction, and crystal structure determination at 2.2 {angstrom} of the smallest yet square-shaped nanoobject made entirely of double-stranded RNA. The RNA square is comprised of 100 residues and self-assembles from four copies each of two oligonucleotides of 10 and 15 bases length. Despite the high symmetry on the level of secondary structure, the three-dimensional architecture of the square is asymmetric, with all four corners adopting distinct folding patterns. We demonstrate the programmed self-assembly of RNA squares from complex mixtures of corner units and establish a concept to exploit the RNA square as a combinatorial nanoscale platform.

18. A Solution to Weighted Sums of Squares as a Square

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2012-01-01

For n = 1, 2, ... , we give a solution (x[subscript 1], ... , x[subscript n], N) to the Diophantine integer equation [image omitted]. Our solution has N of the form n!, in contrast to other solutions in the literature that are extensions of Euler's solution for N, a sum of squares. More generally, for given n and given integer weights m[subscript…

19. Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations of cytochrome b6f with experiment using Latin hypercube sampling.

PubMed

Schumaker, Mark F; Kramer, David M

2011-09-01

We have programmed a Monte Carlo simulation of the Q-cycle model of electron transport in cytochrome b(6)f complex, an enzyme in the photosynthetic pathway that converts sunlight into biologically useful forms of chemical energy. Results were compared with published experiments of Kramer and Crofts (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1183:72-84, 1993). Rates for the simulation were optimized by constructing large numbers of parameter sets using Latin hypercube sampling and selecting those that gave the minimum mean square deviation from experiment. Multiple copies of the simulation program were run in parallel on a Beowulf cluster. We found that Latin hypercube sampling works well as a method for approximately optimizing very noisy objective functions of 15 or 22 variables. Further, the simplified Q-cycle model can reproduce experimental results in the presence or absence of a quinone reductase (Q(i)) site inhibitor without invoking ad hoc side-reactions. PMID:21221830

20. Haematopoietic cell transplants in Latin America.

PubMed

Gale, R P; Seber, A; Bonfim, C; Pasquini, M

2016-07-01

Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done predominately in Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplant activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of >600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. These data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America. PMID:26999468

1. Geographical inequalities in mortality in Latin America.

PubMed

Curto de Casas, S I

1993-05-01

This paper is an attempt to synthesize several models of health and levels of affluence in Latin America. An analysis is accomplished wherein various countries and regions of Latin America are classified for health purposes as either products of a poverty model or a wealth model. Variables utilized include: mortality rates in preschool children and infants; elderly mortality; life expectancy; and overall causes of death. All three of the general models can be found in different parts of Latin America. More developed countries and regions tend to approximate the wealth model where chronic and degenerative diseases dominate. Still, while life expectations are shorter in countries and regions with lower levels of development, some elderly are afflicted by chronic and degenerative diseases. PMID:8511622

2. Mental health policy developments in Latin America.

PubMed Central

Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

2000-01-01

New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

3. Young Workers in Latin America: Protection or Self-Determination?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Salazar, Maria Cristina

1991-01-01

Child labor in Latin America is discussed in terms of its history and social and economic conditions. Relationships between children and adults and new social policies that effect child labor in Latin America are considered. (BC)

4. Medical ethics in Latin America: a new interest and commitment.

PubMed

Drane, James F; Fuenzalida, Hernán L

1991-12-01

Recent visits to five Latin American nations indicate that some medical professionals are eager to increase the role of bioethics in their countries. Conversations with key figures there point up similarities and differences among Latin nations, and between Latin countries and the United States, in their approaches to ethics. Opportunities exist for U.S. bioethicists to help get bioethics teaching and research off the ground in Latin America. PMID:11645713

5. C[squared] = Creative Coordinates

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McHugh, Shelley R.

2007-01-01

"C[squared] = Creative Coordinates" is an engaging group of tasks that fosters the integration of mathematics and art to create meaningful understanding. The project lets students illustrate of find an image, then plot points to map their design on a grid. The project usually takes about a week to complete. When it is finished, students who are…

6. The Bologna Process from a Latin American Perspective

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brunner, Jose Joaquin

2009-01-01

Although Latin America's geography, history, and languages might seem a suitable foundation for a Bologna-type process, the development of a common Latin American higher education and research area meets predictable difficulties.The reasons are to be found in the continent's historic and modern institutional patterns. Latin American governments…

7. Lincoln in Latin: An Experiment in Prose Composition

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Warren S., Jr.

1975-01-01

Twelve university students of Latin were assigned the task of translating Lincoln's Gettysburg Address into Latin. Some of the difficulties are touched on, and two successful examples are quoted in full. The advantages of using such exercises in intermediate and advanced Latin classes are mentioned. (RM)

8. LATIN FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A GUIDE TO MINIMUM ESSENTIALS).

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

LEAMON, M. PHILLIP; AND OTHERS

A SET OF MINIMUM ESSENTIALS FOR EACH LEVEL OF A 4-YEAR SEQUENCE OF LATIN IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IS PRESENTED IN THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE. FOLLOWING STATEMENTS OF THE OBJECTIVES OF LATIN STUDY--READING THE LATIN OF THE GREAT ROMAN AUTHORS, ATTAINING A LINGUISTIC PROFICIENCY, AND ACQUIRING A WIDER HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL AWARENESS--THE GUIDE OUTLINES FOR…

9. Apuntes sobre Latinismos en Espanol (Notes on Latinisms in Spanish)

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perez B., L. A.

1977-01-01

Several Latinisms appear in Latin American Spanish, which would logically be farther from its Latin roots than Spanish in Spain. The existence of these elements and their importance as linguistic facts is analyzed here. Four words are treated: "Cliente,""cuadrar,""cuarto" and "rabula." (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

10. Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2009-01-01

This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

11. Considerations for Integrating Technology in Developing Communities in Latin America

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ponte, Daniela Núñez; Cullen, Theresa A.

2013-01-01

This article discusses issues related to introducing new information and communication technologies (ICT) into Latin American countries. Latin American countries are gaining world focus with political changes such as the death of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and the election of the first Latin American Pope. This region will host the World Cup,…

12. HRD in Latin America. Symposium 5. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2001

This document contains three papers on human resource development (HRD) in Latin America. "Looking at the Literature on Workplace Democracy in Latin America: Factors in Favor and Against It" (Max U. Montesino) discusses selected issues related to workplace democracy in Latin America and identifies salient issues for further research, including the…

13. Latin American Immigrant Women and Intergenerational Sex Education

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcalde, Maria Cristina; Quelopana, Ana Maria

2013-01-01

People of Latin American descent make up the largest and fastest-growing minority group in the USA. Rates of pregnancy, childbirth, and sexually transmitted infections among people of Latin American descent are higher than among other ethnic groups. This paper builds on research that suggests that among families of Latin American descent, mothers…

14. An Experiment in Teaching Latin: Preliminary Considerations.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kratz, Dennis M.

A brief analysis of several theories of language acquisition and of various methods of language instruction leads to a proposal of general guidelines to be used in the development of an experimental course in Latin for seventh-grade students. The author discusses the writings of Chomsky, Sweet, and Brooks and suggests the abandonment of…

15. Evaluating Multigrade School Reform in Latin America

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McEwan, Patrick J.

2008-01-01

This paper describes three multigrade school reforms in Latin America: (1) Colombia's "Escuela Nueva", (2) Guatemala's "Nueva Escuela Unitaria", and (3) Chile's MECE-Rural. Each reform endowed primary teachers and students with special training and instructional materials, and encouraged new kinds of instruction in rural classrooms, with the goal…

16. Workshop on Latin American women and AIDS.

PubMed

1995-01-01

A 3-day workshop organized by the National Institute of Public Health (Mexico) examined the situation of women and AIDS in Latin America and developed a research agenda on this topic. AIDS incidence rates among women in the region in 1993 ranged from a low of 7.7 per million in the Southern Cone to 30.4 per million in Brazil. The workshop addressed 6 main topics: 1) cultural characteristics prevalent in Latin American countries that impede women's ability to negotiate safer sexual practices; 2) the need for integration of family planning, sexually transmitted disease (including AIDS), and maternal-child health services; 3) defense of the human rights of women with HIV/AIDS; 4) the different roles of official AIDS control programs, the mass media, organized religion, and international agencies in the struggle against AIDS; 5) the impact of deepening poverty and social polarization on HIV risk factors; and 6) the effect of drug traffic and consumption on HIV transmission in Latin American women. Proposed to address these issues was the creation of a Latin American research group that would take advantage of existing regional networks and projects. PMID:12293161

17. Vocational Training in Latin America. First Edition.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alexim, Joao Carlos; And Others

This monograph summarizes the main structural and operational components of the framework for the development of vocational training in Latin America. Part 1, "Economic Framework and Population" (Orlando Luebbert), is an overview of social and economic indicators: population, agriculture, industry and productivity, the informal sector, gainful…

18. Historical Films in the Latin Classroom.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Buller, Jeffrey L.

Guidelines and lesson plans are presented for teachers of Latin using historical films as instructional and support materials. A discussion of the use of historical films addresses these issues in classroom practice: the legality of using films in the classroom (copyrights); techniques for using historical films as sources of cultural information;…

19. Population communication: the Latin American experience.

PubMed

Taborga, A

1985-06-01

Latin America is the 5th most populous area in the world; in Central America 40% of the population is made up of indigenous groups, the remaining 60% comprise mixed European and Africa strains. The entire Latin American are faces a set of similar problems: 1) an inadequate agrarian structure, 2) unchecked urban growth, 3) high illiteracy and school drop-out rates, and 4) the undervaluation of the area's natural products by the developed countries. The increased Latin American population has had to face the additional problem of increasing unemployment rates; 10.29% in 1983 and 11.19% in 1984. The deterioration of rural living conditions, falling investment in the sector, and their lack of opportunities invariably constitute a stimulus for the endless rural exodus toward the cities. The Regional Program of Rural Communication for Latin America and the Caribbean helps national organizations (both official and private) and conducts activities related to communication and population issues by creating systems for diffusion, personnel training, and intermediate and mass communication. The basic components of the direct training program have been regional and subregional seminar courses and workshops; since 1973, 700 professional personnel have been trained directly. The Regional Program collaborates with member states in solving the zone's important population problem. PMID:12268118

20. Instructional Technology Research in Latin American.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the broad field of educational technology and research activities in the more limited area of instructional technology in Latin America are examined. Research studies, the current situation, and/or research needs are reviewed briefly for each of the following areas: distance education; microcomputers; educational radio; learning strategies…

1. Instructional Technology Research in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

1986-01-01

Description of research activities in the field of instructional technology in Latin America highlights distance education, microcomputers, educational radio, learning strategies and study habits, and instructional development models and design of textbooks. Problem areas discussed include students' role, cognitive styles, and effectiveness, and…

2. Revision Planned for the Cambridge Latin Course.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sebesta, Judith Lynn

1980-01-01

Summarizes a discussion on the revision of the Cambridge Latin Course (CLC) held during the 1980 ACL Institute at the University of New Hampshire by CLC users and Cambridge University Press representatives. Emphasizes suggestions by users on grammar instruction strategies better suited to American students' needs. (MES)

3. Where Does Latin "Sum" Come From?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nyman, Martti A.

1977-01-01

The derivation of Latin "sum,""es(s),""est" from Indo-European "esmi,""est,""esti" involves methodological problems. It is claimed here that the development of "sum" from "esmi" is related to the origin of the variation "est-st" (less than"esti"). The study is primarily concerned with this process, but chronological suggestions are also made. (CHK)

4. Education, Democracy, and Development in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gomes, Candido

1993-01-01

Examines the historical context of the current Latin American educational crisis from the colonial era to the 1980s, comparing it to the educational investment undertaken by the Republic of Korea in a similar crisis. Calls for reform in state institutions, including a commitment to education, change in the economic model, and recognition of global…

5. The Scientific Institutions of Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hilton, Ronald

This book is a comprehensive survey of the scientific institutions and science information facilities of Latin America and the Caribbean. The organization of the book is by countries and by institutions within each country. The section on each country begins with a description of the country and its scientific organizations. A series of…

6. Mexican Celebrations. Latin American Culture Studies Project.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Garza-Lubeck, Maria; Salinas, Ana Maria

Developed for elementary school children, this unit is designed to teach about Mexican American culture through the study of holidays celebrated throughout much of Latin America and the southwestern United States. The unit describes and provides background information about nine Mexican American holidays. Among the activities included are the…

7. Library Guide: Latin American Literature, 2001.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

de Sumar, Juanita Jara, Comp.

Intended for use by those conducting research in Latin American literature written in Spanish, this guide contains annotations for a wide range of selected works. The guide is divided into the seven sections: (1) General Encyclopedias (1 annotation); (2) Guides to the Literature (4 annotations); (3) Literary Encyclopedias, Dictionaries and…

8. A Course in Latin American Family History.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Balmori, Diana

1981-01-01

Presents a bibliographic review essay on Latin American families. The essay is presented in three major categories: (1) the family and enterprise; (2) the family--different regions, time periods, and socioeconomic conditions and (3) family networks. Entries include historical literature and articles in the English language, films, and novels. (DB)

9. Partnering for Sustainable Development in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Levinger, Beryl

2002-01-01

A study examined how government agencies, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and community organizations in Latin America cooperate in development activities. A model outlines each sector's functions in service delivery, human resource development and training, resource mobilization, research, and public education; the stages of…

10. Latin America: The Revolution of Hope.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Salcedo, Jose Joaquin; And Others

Latin America is a continent with a great deal of poverty, ignorance, and violence. This book describes the problems that plague the region and explains how and why they have gone unsolved. Change can come about only through real and effective participation by men and women in the political and economic activities of their nations. Organized into…

11. Educational Neuromyths among Teachers in Latin America

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Lira Luttges, Benjamin; Salvarezza, Florencia; Campos, Anna Lucia

2015-01-01

Neuroscientific knowledge has undeniably gained interest among educators worldwide. However, not all "brain facts" believed by teachers are supported by science. This study sought to evaluate the belief in these so-called "neuromyths" among 3,451 Latin American teachers. We found that, consistent with prior research among…

12. Medieval Latin for Modern Day Students.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Russo, Richard V.

1994-01-01

Discusses a curriculum design and anthology of Latin readings for high school students developed by a recipient of a National Endowment for the Humanities/Readers' Digest Teacher-Scholar Fellowship. Maintains that correspondence between authors Dorothy Sayers and C.S. Lewis provided inspiration for the anthology development project. (CFR)

13. Rethinking the University in Latin America

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ribeiro, Darcy

1974-01-01

Attempts are being made to break away from the old structural pattern of the Latin American university which has become distorted and dysfunctional from the point of view of the interest of the people. Some recent attempts at restructuring provide guidelines for future action and planning. (Author/JH)

14. Influences from Latin on Chemical Terminology

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Loyson, Peter

2010-01-01

This article describes the use of Latin-derived words and terms used in chemistry, and explores the meaning of these words, so as to lead to a better understanding of these words, so commonly used in the teaching of chemistry. As the article shows, there are many such words, and with some elementary knowledge, a greater meaning is given to these…

15. Gender, Innovation and Education in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jung, Ingrid, Ed.; King, Linda, Ed.

This document contains 19 papers on gender, innovation, and education in Latin America. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Ingrid Jung); "Reflections on the Gender Perspective in Experiences of Non-Formal Education with Women" (Lilian Celiberti); "Gender and Innovation" (Graciela Messina); "Towards a Pedagogy of Education…

16. School Facility Projects in Latin America

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Berk, Jeffrey; de Cassia Alves Vaz, Rita; Honorio, Joao; Baza, Jadille; Origel, Ricardo; Gomez, Fredys

2004-01-01

Many Latin American countries are undertaking projects, in line with practices disseminated by PEB, to share school facilities with the local community, to adapt traditional schools for students with disabilities, and to collaborate with private companies to finance educational buildings. The articles below describe current initiatives in five…

17. ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CORTRIGHT, RICHARD W.

THE AUTHOR BRIEFLY REVIEWS STUDIES AND REPORTS ON ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN LATIN AMERICA, WHERE IN MOST COUNTRIES AT LEAST 40 PERCENT OF THE ADULT POPULATION IS ILLITERATE. EDUCATION HAS BEEN RELATED TO NATIONAL ECONOMIES, HEALTH, AND SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROBLEMS. NATIONAL BUDGETS FOR LITERACY PROGRAMS ARE GROWING AND IN SOME COUNTRIES…

18. The Community College Experiment in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

1998-01-01

Discusses preconditions for exporting community colleges to developing countries, the historical development of higher education in Latin America, and the current favorable political and economic climate for housing colleges. Suggests using Argentina as a testing-ground for the community college system. (11 citations) (VWC)

19. A Stemming Algorithm for Latin Text Databases.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schinke, Robyn; And Others

1996-01-01

Describes the design of a stemming algorithm for searching Latin text databases. The algorithm uses a longest-match approach with some recoding but differs from most stemmers in its use of two separate suffix dictionaries for processing query and database words that enables users to pursue specific searches for single grammatical forms of words.…

20. Imagining Globalization through Latin American Literature

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seminet, Georgia

2009-01-01

Through a combination of practical applications and theoretical underpinnings, this article explores the question of how to approach the teaching of Latin American Literature in the current period of globalization. Many theorists argue that we need new epistemologies in which to ground our pedagogy for the 21st century. Understanding the effects…

1. Teachers and Human Rights in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kolmes, Jo-Ann

1981-01-01

Presents country-by-country information on teacher militancy and the repression and victimization of teachers by Latin American military regimes, as reported to the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession (WCOTP). Condensed from "ATA Magazine," published by the Alberta (Canada) Teacher's Association, January 1981, pp4-9.…

2. Secondary School Libraries in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rooney, Eugene M.

1997-01-01

Discusses problems (poverty, lack of national publishers, use of libraries as study halls, low professional status of librarians) affecting high school libraries in Latin America and suggests ways to improve library services, focusing on reference service (opening reference stacks, improved cataloging, library skills instruction), technical…

3. Square ice in graphene nanocapillaries

Algara-Siller, G.; Lehtinen, O.; Wang, F. C.; Nair, R. R.; Kaiser, U.; Wu, H. A.; Geim, A. K.; Grigorieva, I. V.

2015-03-01

Bulk water exists in many forms, including liquid, vapour and numerous crystalline and amorphous phases of ice, with hexagonal ice being responsible for the fascinating variety of snowflakes. Much less noticeable but equally ubiquitous is water adsorbed at interfaces and confined in microscopic pores. Such low-dimensional water determines aspects of various phenomena in materials science, geology, biology, tribology and nanotechnology. Theory suggests many possible phases for adsorbed and confined water, but it has proved challenging to assess its crystal structure experimentally. Here we report high-resolution electron microscopy imaging of water locked between two graphene sheets, an archetypal example of hydrophobic confinement. The observations show that the nanoconfined water at room temperature forms `square ice'--a phase having symmetry qualitatively different from the conventional tetrahedral geometry of hydrogen bonding between water molecules. Square ice has a high packing density with a lattice constant of 2.83 Å and can assemble in bilayer and trilayer crystallites. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that square ice should be present inside hydrophobic nanochannels independently of their exact atomic nature.

4. Square ice in graphene nanocapillaries.

PubMed

Algara-Siller, G; Lehtinen, O; Wang, F C; Nair, R R; Kaiser, U; Wu, H A; Geim, A K; Grigorieva, I V

2015-03-26

Bulk water exists in many forms, including liquid, vapour and numerous crystalline and amorphous phases of ice, with hexagonal ice being responsible for the fascinating variety of snowflakes. Much less noticeable but equally ubiquitous is water adsorbed at interfaces and confined in microscopic pores. Such low-dimensional water determines aspects of various phenomena in materials science, geology, biology, tribology and nanotechnology. Theory suggests many possible phases for adsorbed and confined water, but it has proved challenging to assess its crystal structure experimentally. Here we report high-resolution electron microscopy imaging of water locked between two graphene sheets, an archetypal example of hydrophobic confinement. The observations show that the nanoconfined water at room temperature forms 'square ice'--a phase having symmetry qualitatively different from the conventional tetrahedral geometry of hydrogen bonding between water molecules. Square ice has a high packing density with a lattice constant of 2.83 Å and can assemble in bilayer and trilayer crystallites. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that square ice should be present inside hydrophobic nanochannels independently of their exact atomic nature. PMID:25810206

5. A New Class of Pandiagonal Squares

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Loly, P. D.; Steeds, M. J.

2005-01-01

An interesting class of purely pandiagonal, i.e. non-magic, whole number (integer) squares of orders (row/column dimension) of the powers of two which are related to Gray codes and square Karnaugh maps has been identified. Treated as matrices these squares possess just two non-zero eigenvalues. The construction of these squares has been automated…

6. A solution to weighted sums of squares as a square

2012-12-01

For n = 1, 2, … , we give a solution (x 1, … , x n , N) to the Diophantine integer equation ? . Our solution has N of the form n!, in contrast to other solutions in the literature that are extensions of Euler's solution for N, a sum of squares. More generally, for given n and given integer weights m 1, m 2, … , m n we give a solution to ? . The weights may be positive or negative and are subject to some restrictions. Choosing weights ±1 gives a solution to the problem of finding integer vectors of the same length.

7. Uniqueness of Three-Mode Factor Models with Sparse Cores: The 3 x 3 x 3 Case.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kiers, Henk A. L.; Ten Berge, Jos M. F.; Rocci, Roberto

1997-01-01

Three-mode factor analysis (3MFA) and PARAFAC are methods that describe three-way data. A class of 3MFA models is introduced that falls between 3MFA and PARAFAC and contains the good properties of both approaches, including the unique axes property that has distinguished the PARAFAC model. (SLD)

8. Organ transplantation: the Latin American legislative response.

PubMed

Fuenzalida-Puelma, H L

1990-01-01

As medical barriers to human organ transplants have fallen, serious legal and ethical obstacles have emerged. This article provides an overview of those obstacles, taking into account the relevant legislation in force in 16 Latin American countries in 1989. The author proceeds by considering postmortem and inter-vivos organ donations separately and examining the principal ethical and legal issues relating to each kind. In the case of postmortem donation these deal mainly with donor consent, recipient selection, funding of transplant costs, and possible conflict of interest. In the case of inter-vivos donation they relate again to donor consent and funding as well as to certain other matters-notably donor compensation, commerce in organs, and international sharing of organs. On the whole it is concluded that the countries of Latin America, together with the nations of the world in general, urgently need to develop more comprehensive legislation on organ procurement and transplantation. PMID:2073558

9. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America

PubMed Central

Capote Negrin, Luis G

2015-01-01

The basic aspects of the descriptive epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America are presented. A decrease in the incidence and mortality rates has been observed in the period from 2000 to 2012 in all countries across the region, this has not occurred at the same proportions, and in many countries, observed figures of incidence and mortality are among the highest levels in the world. In Latin America, calculating a mean measure of the numbers from the GLOBOCAN data from 2000 to 2012, we can observe a difference of up to fivefold of the incidence (Puerto Rico 9,73 Vs Bolivia 50,73) and almost seven times for mortality (Puerto Rico 3,3 Vs Nicaragua 21,67). A report of the epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of screening procedures regarding the possible impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine I in the prevention of cervical cancer is presented. PMID:26557875

10. Inefficiency in Latin-American market indices

Zunino, L.; Tabak, B. M.; Pérez, D. G.; Garavaglia, M.; Rosso, O. A.

2007-11-01

We explore the deviations from efficiency in the returns and volatility returns of Latin-American market indices. Two different approaches are considered. The dynamics of the Hurst exponent is obtained via a wavelet rolling sample approach, quantifying the degree of long memory exhibited by the stock market indices under analysis. On the other hand, the Tsallis q entropic index is measured in order to take into account the deviations from the Gaussian hypothesis. Different dynamic rankings of inefficieny are obtained, each of them contemplates a different source of inefficiency. Comparing with the results obtained for a developed country (US), we confirm a similar degree of long-range dependence for our emerging markets. Moreover, we show that the inefficiency in the Latin-American countries comes principally from the non-Gaussian form of the probability distributions.

11. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

PubMed

Solomons, Noel W

2003-01-01

An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs. PMID:15806833

12. The Regulation of Biosimilars in Latin America.

PubMed

Garcia, Ricardo; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

2016-03-01

This article summarizes the regulatory scenario on biological medications in Latin America focusing on comparability studies, extrapolation of indications, interchangeability and pharmacovigilance issues. In the case of comparability studies, what is being discussed is the possibility of decreasing the clinical trials requirement, but that the molecule should be well characterized in the studies of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. With the worldwide-level approval of the first monoclonal antibody biosimilar, infliximab, extrapolation of indications are being discussed, since the behavior of the Latin America regulatory agencies has been different with regard to such issue. Another issue discussed by the regulatory agencies is the interchangeability between biological medications and their biosimilars, mainly due to the fact that there is a clear confusion on interchangeability and substitution concepts. Finally, the pharmacovigilance debate, according to what takes place globally, is related to the need for identifying and differentiating the reference biological medication and its biosimilars for traceability purposes. PMID:26951254

13. High magnetic field facilities in Latin America

Sato, R.; Grössinger, R.; Bertorello, H.; Broto, J. M.; Davies, H. A.; Estevez-Rams, E.; Gonzalez, J.; Matutes, J.; Sinnecker, J. P.; Sagredo, V.

2006-11-01

The EC supported a network (under the Framework 5 ALFA Programme) designated HIFIELD (Project number II0147FI) and entitled: "Measurement methods involving high magnetic fields for advanced and novel materials". As a result, high field facilities were initiated, constructed or extended at the following laboratories in Latin America: University Cordoba (Argentina), CES, Merida (Venezuela), CIMAV, Chihuahua (Mexico), University Federal de Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

14. Family planning in Latin America's barriadas.

PubMed

1993-05-01

In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems. PMID:12179848

15. EFFECTS OF REPLACING DIETARY ALFALFA SILAGE WITH FORMATE-TREATED ALFALFA SILAGE OR RED CLOVER SILAGE ON MILK PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN DAIRY COWS

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fifteen Holstein cows averaging 256 DIM were blocked by parity and DIM and randomly assigned to 5 squares in a 3x3 Latin square trial and fed TMR containing (DM basis): 40% control alfalfa silage (CAS), 20% corn silage, 33% high moisture corn, 6% soybean meal (18% CP); 40% ammonium tetraformate-trea...

16. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

2006-01-01

This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

17. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

PubMed Central

Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

2015-01-01

The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

18. The Latin American Social Medicine database

PubMed Central

Eldredge, Jonathan D; Waitzkin, Howard; Buchanan, Holly S; Teal, Janis; Iriart, Celia; Wiley, Kevin; Tregear, Jonathan

2004-01-01

Background Public health practitioners and researchers for many years have been attempting to understand more clearly the links between social conditions and the health of populations. Until recently, most public health professionals in English-speaking countries were unaware that their colleagues in Latin America had developed an entire field of inquiry and practice devoted to making these links more clearly understood. The Latin American Social Medicine (LASM) database finally bridges this previous gap. Description This public health informatics case study describes the key features of a unique information resource intended to improve access to LASM literature and to augment understanding about the social determinants of health. This case study includes both quantitative and qualitative evaluation data. Currently the LASM database at The University of New Mexico brings important information, originally known mostly within professional networks located in Latin American countries to public health professionals worldwide via the Internet. The LASM database uses Spanish, Portuguese, and English language trilingual, structured abstracts to summarize classic and contemporary works. Conclusion This database provides helpful information for public health professionals on the social determinants of health and expands access to LASM. PMID:15627401

19. Bat-borne rabies in Latin America.

PubMed

Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

2015-01-01

The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "Least Concern". According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

20. Ignoring taboos: Maria Lenk, Latin American inspirationalist.

PubMed

Votre, S; Mourão, L

2001-01-01

Maria Lenk is widely recognized as an exceptional athlete who participated in women's sport from around 1930 until 1950. In 1932, at the age of seventeen, she was the first woman to be included in a Latin American delegation to the Olympic Games. As a swimmer, she still sets world records at the age of eighty-six. This super-champion's sporting achievements and her persistent dedication to the advancement of sport still impress and surprise todays professional swimmers and researchers. Contextualised in the male-dominated society of Brazil during the first half of the twentieth century, this chapter traces the achievement, and rise to international fame, of Maria Lenk. It examines the factors that enabled her to emerge not only as an important figure in sport but also as an icon of female emancipation in Brazilian and Latin American society. The focus is on Lenk's influence on the issues which affected the development of women's sport in Latin America. It also highlights the significance of Lenk's contribution to the changing place of women in Brazilian and South American society. PMID:18604909

1. [Shrinkage In the Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient and Unbiased Estimates of Treatment Effects Using Omega Squared.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dalton, Starrett

The amount of variance accounted for by treatment can be estimated with omega squared or with the squared multiple correlation coefficient. Monte Carlo methods were employed to compare omega squared, the squared multiple correlation coefficient, and the squared multiple correlation coefficient to which a shrinkage formula had been applied, in…

2. Using Least Squares for Error Propagation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tellinghuisen, Joel

2015-01-01

The method of least-squares (LS) has a built-in procedure for estimating the standard errors (SEs) of the adjustable parameters in the fit model: They are the square roots of the diagonal elements of the covariance matrix. This means that one can use least-squares to obtain numerical values of propagated errors by defining the target quantities as…

3. 36 CFR 910.67 - Square guidelines.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Square guidelines. 910.67... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.67 Square guidelines. Square Guidelines establish the...

4. 36 CFR 910.67 - Square guidelines.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Square guidelines. 910.67... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.67 Square guidelines. Square Guidelines establish the...

5. 36 CFR 910.67 - Square guidelines.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Square guidelines. 910.67... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.67 Square guidelines. Square Guidelines establish the...

6. 36 CFR 910.67 - Square guidelines.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Square guidelines. 910.67... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.67 Square guidelines. Square Guidelines establish the...

7. [Scientific journals of medical students in Latin-America].

PubMed

Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

2010-11-01

This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving. PMID:21279260

8. Dreaming of Science: Undocumented Latin@s' Testimonios across the Borderlands of High School Science

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aguilar-Valdez, Jean Rockford

2013-01-01

This qualitative study uncovers the voices of five Latin@ students who are high-"achieving" and undocumented and have strong aspirations in science, in a Southern, Title I high school. Through critical race methodology and these students' "testimonios"/counter-stories, these students' struggles and successes reveal their…

9. Deming's General Least Square Fitting

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

1992-02-18

DEM4-26 is a generalized least square fitting program based on Deming''s method. Functions built into the program for fitting include linear, quadratic, cubic, power, Howard''s, exponential, and Gaussian; others can easily be added. The program has the following capabilities: (1) entry, editing, and saving of data; (2) fitting of any of the built-in functions or of a user-supplied function; (3) plotting the data and fitted function on the display screen, with error limits if requested,more » and with the option of copying the plot to the printer; (4) interpolation of x or y values from the fitted curve with error estimates based on error limits selected by the user; and (5) plotting the residuals between the y data values and the fitted curve, with the option of copying the plot to the printer. If the plot is to be copied to a printer, GRAPHICS should be called from the operating system disk before the BASIC interpreter is loaded.« less

10. Nonlinear least squares and regularization

SciTech Connect

Berryman, J.G.

1996-04-01

A problem frequently encountered in the earth sciences requires deducing physical parameters of the system of interest from measurements of some other (hopefully) closely related physical quantity. The obvious example in seismology (either surface reflection seismology or crosswell seismic tomography) is the use of measurements of sound wave traveltime to deduce wavespeed distribution in the earth and then subsequently to infer the values of other physical quantities of interest such as porosity, water or oil saturation, permeability, etc. The author presents and discusses some general ideas about iterative nonlinear output least-squares methods. The main result is that, if it is possible to do forward modeling on a physical problem in a way that permits the output (i.e., the predicted values of some physical parameter that could be measured) and the first derivative of the same output with respect to the model parameters (whatever they may be) to be calculated numerically, then it is possible (at least in principle) to solve the inverse problem using the method described. The main trick learned in this analysis comes from the realization that the steps in the model updates may have to be quite small in some cases for the implied guarantees of convergence to be realized.

11. Physical Activity Interventions in Latin America

PubMed Central

Hoehner, Christine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Azevedo, Mario R.; Hino, Adriano A.; Soares, Jesus; Hallal, Pedro C.; Simões, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

2013-01-01

Context Systematic reviews of public health interventions are useful for identifying effective strategies for informing policy and practice. The goals of this review were to (1) update a previous systematic review of physical activity interventions in Latin America which found that only school-based physical education had sufficient evidence to recommend widespread adoption; (2) assess the reporting of external validity elements; and (3) develop and apply an evidence typology for classifying interventions. Evidence acquisition In 2010–2011, community-level, physical activity intervention studies from Latin America were identified, categorized, and screened based on the peer-reviewed literature or Brazilian theses published between 2006 and 2010. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using U.S. Community Guide methods. External validity reporting was assessed among a subset of articles reviewed to date. An evidence rating typology was developed and applied to classify interventions along a continuum based on evidence about their effectiveness in the U.S. context, reach, adoption, implementation, institutionalization, and benefits and costs. Evidence synthesis Thirteen articles published between 2006 and 2010 met inclusion criteria and were abstracted systematically, yet when combined with evidence from articles from the previous systematic review, no additional interventions could be recommended for practice. Moreover, the reporting of external validity elements was low among a subset of 19 studies published to date (median=21% of elements reported). By applying the expanded evidence rating typology, one intervention was classified as evidence-based, seven as promising, and one as emerging. Conclusions Several physical activity interventions have been identified as promising for future research and implementation in Latin America. Enhanced reporting of external validity elements will inform the translation of research into practice. PMID:23415133

12. Implementation of HPV testing in Latin America.

PubMed

Jeronimo, Jose; Holme, Francesca; Slavkovsky, Rose; Camel, Claudia

2016-03-01

Cervical cancer is one of the leading killers among women in Latin America, a region where most countries have not been successful in implementing population-level cytology-based screening programs. This disease is caused by persistent infection with oncogenic HPV; in recent years, more HPV tests have become available and prices have dropped significantly, making it possible for countries to adopt these technologies. Pilot programs that took place in Nicaragua, Mexico, and Argentina showed a high level of efficacy in detecting precancerous cervical lesions and good feasibility and acceptance of self-sampling. El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua are beginning to institutionalize HPV testing at the population level. The experience from the different countries has created rich information about the barriers and requirements for implementing HPV screening at large scale in these resource-constrained countries. There are several challenges for implementation, including a need to update screening guidelines, strengthen treatment capacity, and develop a comprehensive quality assurance plan for the HPV testing. At the same time, there are several opportunities in Latin America that make the process more feasible and faster than in other regions of the world: most Latin American countries already have screening programs funded by their national governments, several countries in the region are already implementing HPV testing, and there is a regional pooled procurement mechanism that could facilitate the purchase of HPV tests at an accessible price. We envision that most countries in the region will include HPV testing in their national program within the next three to five years. PMID:26699418

13. The cost of Latin American science Introduction for the second issue of CBP-Latin America.

PubMed

Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Beleboni, René Oliveira; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

2007-04-01

Latin American researchers in science and engineering (S&E), including those in biology and biomedical sciences, are frequently exposed to unstable conditions of financial support, material and human resources, and a limited number of positions at public and private institutions. Such uncertainties impose continuous challenges for the scientific community which, in the best of cases, responds with careful planning and creativity, and in the worst scenario endures the migration of scientists to the USA or Europe. Still, the number of scientific publications from Latin American institutions in the last decade increased at a much faster rate than publications from the USA and Canada. A brief analysis per country of the gross domestic product (GDP) spent in research and development (R&D) and the S&E production reported by the Pascal bibliographic database suggests that the number and quality of S&E publications is directly proportional to the financial support for R&D. However, the investment in R&D in Latin America did not increase at the same rate (from 0.49 to 0.55% of GDP, from 1990 to 2003) at which S&E publications did in the same period (2.9-fold increase, from 1988 to 2001). In Latin America, the traditional financial support for scientific research continues to be from federal and state government funds, associated in some cases with institutional funds that are mostly directed towards administrative costs and infrastructure maintenance. The aim of this introduction is to briefly discuss the production cost of articles published in refereed S&E journals, including the cost of the scientific research behind them, and, at the same time, to increase the awareness of the high quality of scientific research in Latin American institutions despite the many challenges, especially financial constraints, faced by their scientists. The second issue of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology dedicated to Latin America ("The Face of Latin American Comparative Biochemistry

14. Satellite systems for Latin American telecommunication requirements

Elizondo, Eduardo L.

Aspects of satellite telecommunications systems of interest to Latin America are discussed. Presently existing systems are described, including both state-run and international services. Services planned for the region are examined, including Geostar, a service that provides satellite radio determination and message services, a system which will provide a high-capacity digital voice and data service for airlines, and direct broadcast satellites. Applications of these systems in education, rural telephony, data transmission, news services, publishing, emergency communications, and mobile communications are addressed.

15. A duct mapping method using least squares support vector machines

Douvenot, RéMi; Fabbro, Vincent; Gerstoft, Peter; Bourlier, Christophe; Saillard, Joseph

2008-12-01

This paper introduces a "refractivity from clutter" (RFC) approach with an inversion method based on a pregenerated database. The RFC method exploits the information contained in the radar sea clutter return to estimate the refractive index profile. Whereas initial efforts are based on algorithms giving a good accuracy involving high computational needs, the present method is based on a learning machine algorithm in order to obtain a real-time system. This paper shows the feasibility of a RFC technique based on the least squares support vector machine inversion method by comparing it to a genetic algorithm on simulated and noise-free data, at 1 and 5 GHz. These data are simulated in the presence of ideal trilinear surface-based ducts. The learning machine is based on a pregenerated database computed using Latin hypercube sampling to improve the efficiency of the learning. The results show that little accuracy is lost compared to a genetic algorithm approach. The computational time of a genetic algorithm is very high, whereas the learning machine approach is real time. The advantage of a real-time RFC system is that it could work on several azimuths in near real time.

16. The Fine Art of Synthesis: Latin American History for Freshmen.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An introductory course on Latin America is probably the only course most college students will take on that region. It provides the best opportunity for influencing the educated public about the area. There is an urgent need to increase understanding of Latin America because so much of the American public, including public officials, are so…

17. "Latin" and "Anglo" America Geographic Regions Do Not Exist

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bernardes DaSilva, Edmar; Kvasnak, Robert Neil

2015-01-01

The regional divisions termed as "Latin America" versus "Anglo-America" used by many geographers do not fully reflect the cultural and political trends in the world today. "Latin" is a term that was coined by the French Emperor Napoleon the III in order to justify Mexico's being ruled by Maximillian, and later picked…

18. How Effective Are Private Schools in Latin America?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Somers, Marie-Andree; McEwan, Patrick J.; Willms, J. Douglas

2004-01-01

In 1997, the Santiago office of UNESCO implemented an assessment of student achievement in Latin America, working in collaboration with 13 Latin American ministries of education. Using a common sampling methodology and survey instruments, researchers in each country collected representative samples of data on third- and fourth-grade achievement in…

19. Background Briefing for Student Teachers Going to Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A guide for student teachers planning to travel or work in Latin America contains general information about living in Latin America and profiles of Mexico and the Dominican Republic. The general information addresses these issues: travel, what to take along, culture shock, greetings, generalizations about Hispanic culture, values, given names and…

20. Teaching about Women and Underdevelopment in Latin American History

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pino, Julio Cesar

2001-01-01

Latin America, the most advanced of the underdeveloped regions of the world, is a perfect showcase for exploring the contradictions that come into play when the historical construction of gender clashes with economic practice. The history of modern Latin America shows that economic development can actually work to the detriment of women. The most…

1. Regionalism and the Musical Heritage of Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arbena, Joseph; And Others

This essay presents background information and suggests teaching stragegies to aid community and junior college classroom teachers of history and civilization as they develop and implement educational programs on Latin American music. It is based on the premise that Latin American music can best be understood as a reflection of other historical…

2. Scientific Co-operation between Europe and Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uller, Angela

1993-01-01

The university's role in scientific research differs considerably in Europe and Latin America; the latter does not have the long academic tradition of the former. However, Latin America has much to offer in international scientific cooperation, which should be consolidated and expanded to benefit both communities. Tables detail cooperative…

3. Communication in Latin America: An Analysis of Guatemalan Business Letters

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conaway, Roger N.; Wardrope, William J.

2004-01-01

The format and structure of 150 Spanish-language letters written by business administrators in Guatemalan firms were analyzed to help determine how Latin American business writers organize and present information in various types of routine letters. Findings suggest that Latin American businesspeople follow some, but not all, of the format…

4. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vaillant, Denise

2011-01-01

This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

5. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

6. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

7. Learning Library Resources by Researching Latin American Topics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finkelston, Candace

This document presents a module on learning library resources by researching Latin American topics to be used in the Use of Library Resources course at St. Louis Community College at Meramec (Missouri). The goal of the module (to give students a basic knowledge of library resources and to introduce them to Latin America by researching Latin…

8. A.I.D. Economic Data Book: Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

This data book, updating a December 1968 publication, is designed to serve the internal program and operational needs of the Agency for International Development. More than 19 Latin American republics are referred to in major sections on: (1) Latin America in the Free World: population and production, (2) summary of basic data, (3) population…

9. Epidemiology and Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia in Latin America

PubMed Central

Rego, E.M.; Jácomo, R.H.

2011-01-01

Distinct epidemiological characteristics have been described in Acute Promielocytic Leukemia (APL). Populations from Latin America have a higher incidence of APL and in some geographic areas a distinct distribution of the PML-RARA isoforms is present. Here, we review the main differences in APL epidemilogy in Latin America as well as treatment outcomes. PMID:22110899

10. Latin American Art and Music: A Handbook for Teaching.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Horton, Judith Page, Ed.

This collection of essays, curriculum units, and study guides on Latin American art and musical traditions is designed to help interested teachers take a comprehensive approach to teaching these subjects. The introduction features the essay, "Media Resources Available on Latin American Culture: A Survey of Art, Architecture, and Music Articles…

11. The Development of Marine Science in Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Palacio, Francisco J.

1980-01-01

Describes the maritime history of Latin America and its development of marine science. The need for the Latin American nations to incorporate the oceans into their development process is emphasized in order for them to continue and expand exploitation of living resources. (Author/SA)

12. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

2013-01-01

As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

13. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

2011-01-01

In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

14. Education, Policy, and Social Change: Experiences from Latin America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morales-Gomez, Daniel A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.

Using both a retrospective and a prospective view, this book examines the links joining research, policy, and change in education in Latin America. It inquires about the relationships among the economy, politics, and the state. It reviews the praxis of education in Latin American countries and in the context of the development trends of the 1980s.…

15. Latin American Youth in a Time of Change and Crisis.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

This 4-part study reaffirms the concepts of a previous study entitled "Situation and Prospects of Youth in Latin America" and approved in 1983, and on the basis of new knowledge explores more deeply national situations and their diversity. It offers new conceptual and theoretical contributions on the condition of youth in Latin America and its…

16. Community Colleges: A Viable Solution for Latin America?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Castro, Claudio de Moura; Bernasconi, Andres

This paper analyzes the United States community college as a model for adaptation in Latin America. The author argues that there is a growing frustration with the lack of responsiveness of universities to the development needs of societies in Latin America. Higher education continues to be accessible only to the privileged segments of society…

17. Educational Research in Latin America: A Twelve-Year Perspective.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Egginton, Everett

By reviewing the content of education items in the Handbook of Latin American Studies during the last 12 years, this paper traces and documents trends in research on Latin American education. Analysis of the items revealed the changing emphasis of educational topics from volume to volume. Judgments are made on type, geographical focus and topics…

18. Contemporary Research on Latin American Education: A Review and Profile.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Egginton, Everett; Koppel, Sheree

To prepare the education chapter for the forthcoming volume of the U.S. Library of Congress'"Handbook of Latin American Studies," the author reviewed over 500 publications on Latin American education issued between 1978 and 1983; the abstracts of approximately 200 of them will be published in the forthcoming volume of the Handbook. The research…

19. Educational Research in Latin America: A Twelve-Year Perspective.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Egginton, Everett

1983-01-01

Analyzes reviewers' assessments of all publications on Latin American education included in the "Handbook of Latin American Studies" since 1969. Compares publications on education in South America with those relating to Central America and the Caribbean. Concludes that although the quality of research has been uneven, progress is being made. (BRR)

20. Children in the Streets: Latin America's Lost Generation.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rizzini, Irene; Lusk, Mark W.

1995-01-01

Presents an overview of the situation of street children and youth in urban Latin America. Findings from numerous studies throughout the region are synthesized. Suggests that economic factors underlie the marginalization of vast numbers of Latin American children. The result is the exclusion of many of the region's children from meaningful…

1. Multiple sclerosis care in Latin America.

PubMed

Rivera, Victor M; Medina, Marco Tulio; Duron, Reyna M; Macias, Miguel Angel

2014-05-01

Before the advent of diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS), it was reported that the prevalence of MS in Mexico was "one of the lowest in the world" (1.6/100,000).(1) The notion that MS was a rare neurologic disease among those living in the tropics of the Americas and Southern latitudes was widely accepted. The geopolitical boundaries of the region identified as Latin America (LA) extend from the southern border of United States with Mexico (32° North latitude) to the Argentinian and Chilean Patagonia in South America (56° South latitude). The largest Spanish-speaking island countries in the Caribbean-Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico-are also traditionally considered part of LA. The continental mass includes 17 countries with a population of more than 550 million. Due to centuries of racial intermixing, it is a heterogeneous and genetically complex population. The blended cultures of native Amerindians with white Caucasian Europeans and black Africans has resulted in the predominant ethnic Latin American Mestizo. The influence of African genetics is notable in many areas of the subcontinent and the Caribbean. A common observation across LA is the absence of identification of MS in non-mixed Amerindians(2); the reason for this phenomenon is unclear. PMID:24799516

2. Human norovirus infection in Latin America.

PubMed

da Silva Poló, Tatiane; Peiró, Juliana R; Mendes, Luiz Cláudio Nogueira; Ludwig, Louisa F; de Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Bucardo, Filemon; Huynen, Pascale; Melin, Pierrette; Thiry, Etienne; Mauroy, Axel

2016-05-01

Noroviruses are important enteric pathogens involved in non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Noroviruses mainly occur from person to person via the fecal-oral route but also through contaminated food or water; indirect contamination is also possible due to the resistance of the virus in the environment. Latin American countries as a whole cover a vast North-to-South range, which is highly heterogeneous in terms of climate, ecosystem, human population distribution (urban areas with high human densities versus closed communities), economic development and genetic backgrounds resulting from each particular historical context. This review aims to present epidemiological and clinical patterns of human norovirus infections in Latin American countries. Divergent prevalences were observed depending on the country and the surveyed population. In particular, a shift in rotavirus/norovirus ratio in the etiologies of gastroenteritis was detected in some countries and could be attributed partly to rotavirus vaccine coverage in their infant population. While GII.4 noroviruses were seen to constitute the most common genotype, differences in genotype distribution were observed both in the environment (via sewage sampling proxy) and between genotypes circulating in healthy and diarrheic patients. Due to high climatic discrepancies, different patterns of seasonality were observed. Accordingly, this continent may condense the different particular epidemiological features encountered for HuNoV infections worldwide. PMID:27018574

3. Review: Malaria Chemoprophylaxis for Travelers to Latin America

PubMed Central

Steinhardt, Laura C.; Magill, Alan J.; Arguin, Paul M.

2011-01-01

Because of recent declining malaria transmission in Latin America, some authorities have recommended against chemoprophylaxis for most travelers to this region. However, the predominant parasite species in Latin America, Plasmodium vivax, can form hypnozoites sequestered in the liver, causing malaria relapses. Additionally, new evidence shows the potential severity of vivax infections, warranting continued consideration of prophylaxis for travel to Latin America. Individualized travel risk assessments are recommended and should consider travel locations, type, length, and season, as well as probability of itinerary changes. Travel recommendations might include no precautions, mosquito avoidance only, or mosquito avoidance and chemoprophylaxis. There are a range of good options for chemoprophylaxis in Latin America, including atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, and—in selected areas—chloroquine. Primaquine should be strongly considered for nonpregnant, G6PD-nondeficient patients traveling to vivax-endemic areas of Latin America, and it has the added benefit of being the only drug to protect against malaria relapses. PMID:22144437

4. Weighted conditional least-squares estimation

SciTech Connect

Booth, J.G.

1987-01-01

A two-stage estimation procedure is proposed that generalizes the concept of conditional least squares. The method is instead based upon the minimization of a weighted sum of squares, where the weights are inverses of estimated conditional variance terms. Some general conditions are given under which the estimators are consistent and jointly asymptotically normal. More specific details are given for ergodic Markov processes with stationary transition probabilities. A comparison is made with the ordinary conditional least-squares estimators for two simple branching processes with immigration. The relationship between weighted conditional least squares and other, more well-known, estimators is also investigated. In particular, it is shown that in many cases estimated generalized least-squares estimators can be obtained using the weighted conditional least-squares approach. Applications to stochastic compartmental models, and linear models with nested error structures are considered.

5. The Diophantine Equation x[squared]+ky[squared]=z[squared] and Integral Triangles with a Cosine Value of 1 over n

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zelator, Konstantine

2006-01-01

We sometimes teach our students a method of finding all integral triples that satisfy the Pythagorean Theorem x[squared]+y[squared]=z[squared]. These are called Pythagorean triples. In this paper, we show how to solve the equation x[squared]+ky[squared]=z[squared], where again, all variables are integers.

6. Teaching Latin American Studies: Presentations Made at the National Seminar on the Teaching of Latin American Studies (1st).

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williford, Miriam, Ed.; Casteel, J. Doyle, Ed.

This publication is a collection of the presentations made at the 1977 National Seminar of the Latin American Studies Association. Each article or presentation can stand alone; together they provide a sweeping view of the complexities of Latin America and suggestions for more effective secondary and college teaching about the area. There are three…

7. A Guide to Proficiency-Based Instruction in Latin for Indiana Schools. Latin Competencies, Levels I-IV.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bartz, Walter H., Ed.; Strasheim, Lorraine, Ed.

This curriculum guide for Indiana's Latin education programs is intended as a model for the integration of communicative, cultural, and linguistic learning in Latin curricula and instruction and an aid in designing proficiency-based curricula and instruction. It establishes the proficiency expected at the end of each of four instructional levels…

8. The Square Light Clock and Special Relativity

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Galli, J. Ronald; Amiri, Farhang

2012-01-01

A thought experiment that includes a square light clock is similar to the traditional vertical light beam and mirror clock, except it is made up of four mirrors placed at a 45[degree] angle at each corner of a square of length L[subscript 0], shown in Fig. 1. Here we have shown the events as measured in the rest frame of the square light clock. By…

9. Current status of carbapenemases in Latin America.

PubMed

Maya, Juan J; Ruiz, Sory J; Blanco, Victor M; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Labarca, Jaime; Salles, Mauro; Quinn, John P; Villegas, Maria V

2013-07-01

Enterobacteriaceae and non fermenting Gram-negative bacilli have become a threat to public health, in part due to their resistance to multiple antibiotic classes, which ultimately have led to an increase in morbidity and mortality. β-lactams are currently the mainstay for combating infections caused by these microorganisms, and β-lactamases are the major mechanism of resistance to this class of antibiotics. Within the β-lactamases, carbapenemases pose one of the gravest threats, as they compromise one of our most potent lines of defense, the carbapenems. Carbapenemases are being continuously identified worldwide; and in Latin America, numerous members of these enzymes have been reported. In this region, the high incidence of reports implies that carbapenemases have become a menace and that they are an issue that must be carefully studied and analyzed. PMID:23879607

10. Latin America's Decontamination and Decommissioning Needs

SciTech Connect

Bermudez, J.V.; Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.; Mayerle, M.

1998-10-20

Throughout this project, the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology's (HCET) goal was to initiate a comprehensive research program on sustainable development, environmental protection, and the market for environmental technologies in Latin America and the Caribbean. The data resulting from the work associated with this project has been entered into an information system which supplies useful and accurate data knowledge to interested parties. When relevant information has been found to be insufficient and/or not readily available, HCET has investigated, conducted research, and subsequently made this information available to the public. During FY96, HCET completed numerous tasks to contribute to this body of knowledge. This initiative will continue throughout 1997. Highlights of FY96 are described.

11. Clandestine abortion in Latin America: provider perspectives.

PubMed

Rodriguez, K; Strickler, J

1999-01-01

This paper presents the results of in-depth interviews with ten clandestine abortion providers in urban Latin America. Three related issues are addressed: how abortion providers come to this line of work; their major difficulties; and their sources of job satisfaction. A variety of paths bring health professionals to the practice of abortion; common elements are a sense of calling, a desire to help women, personal experience with abortion, and a commitment to political change. Providers describe difficulties that include a lack of medical support, the need for secrecy, and threats of violence, extortion, and prosecution. In spite of difficulties, all providers report a great deal of fulfillment in their work, based on their satisfaction in saving women's lives, maintaining supportive relationships with colleagues, and empowering women. PMID:10374808

12. Education, democracy and development in Latin America

Gomes, Candido

1993-11-01

The education first brought to America by Europeans was hardly more than ornamental culture, literacy was generally unimportant, and African slaves were not educated at all. Only in this century did industrialization cause some governments to provide economic and technological support through training and education. In the last decade, the debt crisis curtailed spending, while numbers of students and teachers continued to rise. A comparison between Latin America and South Korea illustrates the former's relative decline in investment. The advent of populist and corporatist democracies did not alleviate the situation, although there is now some evidence of concern for basic education for poorer children. With economic adjustment programmes, little else has been done for those who have suffered the heaviest burdens, and no obvious solutions to poverty and technological obsolescence are in prospect. A major reform of State institutions is called for, including a commitment to education, a change in the economic model, and a recognition of global interdependence.

13. Kriging and its relation to least squares

SciTech Connect

Oden, N.

1984-11-01

Kriging is a technique for producing contour maps that, under certain conditions, are optimal in a mean squared error sense. The relation of Kriging to Least Squares is reviewed here. New methods for analyzing residuals are suggsted, ML estimators inspected, and an expression derived for calculating cross-validation error. An example using ground water data is provided.

14. Collinearity in Least-Squares Analysis

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

de Levie, Robert

2012-01-01

How useful are the standard deviations per se, and how reliable are results derived from several least-squares coefficients and their associated standard deviations? When the output parameters obtained from a least-squares analysis are mutually independent, as is often assumed, they are reliable estimators of imprecision and so are the functions…

15. On the Magic Square and Inverse

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elzaidi, S. M.

2005-01-01

In this note, we give a method for finding the inverse of a three by three magic square matrix without using the usual methods for finding the inverse of a matrix. Also we give a method for finding the inverse of a three by three magic square matrix whose entries are also matrices. By using these ideas, we can construct large matrices whose…

16. Enhancing Students' Understanding of Square Roots

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wiesman, Jeff L.

2015-01-01

Students enrolled in a middle school prealgebra or algebra course often struggle to conceptualize and understand the meaning of radical notation when it is introduced. For example, although it is important for students to approximate the decimal value of a number such as [square root of] 30 and estimate the value of a square root in the form of…

17. Latin American food sources of carotenoids.

PubMed

Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

1999-09-01

Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids. PMID:10971848

18. Synthesis Structure Property Relations in Layered, Li-excess Oxides Electrode Materials Li[Li1/3-2x/3NixMn2/3-x/3]O2 (x=1/3, 1/4 and 1/5)

SciTech Connect

Fell, Christopher; Carroll, Kyler; Chi, Miaofang; Meng, Ying Shirley

2010-01-01

Relations between synthesis conditions, detailed crystal structures, and electrochemical properties of the Li-excess layered oxides Li[Ni{sub x}Li{sub 1/3-2x/3}Mn{sub 2/3-x/3}]O{sub 2}(0 < x < 1/2) are studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (EELS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron energy-loss spectrometry, combined with electrochemical property measurements including potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT). Optimal synthesis conditions are obtained for stoichiometric samples sintered at 1000 C in air followed by furnace cooling. The materials exhibit capacities of {approx}250, 230, and 200 mAh/g within a voltage range of 2-4.8 V on discharge for x = 1/5, 1/4 and 1/3, respectively. Diffraction data of electrochemically cycled electrode materials show an expanded c/a lattice ratio and changing Li/Ni interlayer mixing indicating peculiar cation migration in the structures. High resolution TEM images and XPS spectra show obvious differences in the surface characteristics of the samples synthesized with stoichiometric and excess amount of LiOH, suggesting that surface characteristics is one of the contributing factors to the difference in electrochemical properties. Our results suggest that the first cycle irreversible capacity is affected by both the bulk and surface characteristics of pristine materials, which is strongly influenced by precursor chemistry. The PITT results suggest that cation rearrangement during the charge/discharge has a significant impact on the lithium chemical diffusivity.

19. BIOMECHANICS. Why the seahorse tail is square.

PubMed

Porter, Michael M; Adriaens, Dominique; Hatton, Ross L; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

2015-07-01

Whereas the predominant shapes of most animal tails are cylindrical, seahorse tails are square prisms. Seahorses use their tails as flexible grasping appendages, in spite of a rigid bony armor that fully encases their bodies. We explore the mechanics of two three-dimensional-printed models that mimic either the natural (square prism) or hypothetical (cylindrical) architecture of a seahorse tail to uncover whether or not the square geometry provides any functional advantages. Our results show that the square prism is more resilient when crushed and provides a mechanism for preserving articulatory organization upon extensive bending and twisting, as compared with its cylindrical counterpart. Thus, the square architecture is better than the circular one in the context of two integrated functions: grasping ability and crushing resistance. PMID:26138983

20. Latin American Universities and the Bologna Process: From Commercialisation to the "Tuning" Competencies Project

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboites, Hugo

2010-01-01

Through the "Tuning-Latin America" competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin America. This…

1. Does Research on Education Fit the Development Needs of Latin America?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McGinn, Noel; Tatto, Maria Teresa

Fitting educational research to Latin America's developmental needs is a political issue involving differences in perspectives of Latin American and United States researchers, Latin American governments, and agencies concerned with development outside Latin America. A comparison of ERIC's "Current Index to Journals in Education" with the Latin…

2. Latin and the World of Work: Career Education and Foreign Languages.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kennedy, Dora F.; And Others

This curriculum guide for high school Latin courses emphasizes the usefulness of a knowledge of Latin for career preparation. As a supplement to standard Latin textbooks, a variety of classroom material is offered. The instructional approach revolves around the relation of English and Latin vocabulary acquisition and etymological knowledge on the…

3. The meanings of universal health care in Latin America.

PubMed

Clark, Mary A

2015-02-01

In Latin America, competing definitions of universal health care are found. Variants include traditional universalism, basic universalism, and minimal or residual universalism. These definitions are informed by European traditions, a renewed emphasis on equity among Latin American social policy experts, and World Bank strategy. This essay explores these definitions as well as areas of overlap and points of difference between and among them using examples from several Latin American countries. The most important difference concerns the preventive and curative services not covered by the benefits packages of minimal universal programs, a gap expected to grow increasingly costly for patients. PMID:25480852

4. Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations

PubMed Central

Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Sans, Mónica

2014-01-01

A general introduction to the origins and history of Latin American populations is followed by a systematic review of the data from molecular autosomal assessments of the ethnic/continental (European, African, Amerindian) ancestries for 24 Latin American countries or territories. The data surveyed are of varying quality but provide a general picture of the present constitution of these populations. A brief discussion about the applications of these results (admixture mapping) is also provided. Latin American populations can be viewed as natural experiments for the investigation of unique anthropological and epidemiological issues. PMID:24764751

5. Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations.

PubMed

Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Sans, Mónica

2014-03-01

A general introduction to the origins and history of Latin American populations is followed by a systematic review of the data from molecular autosomal assessments of the ethnic/continental (European, African, Amerindian) ancestries for 24 Latin American countries or territories. The data surveyed are of varying quality but provide a general picture of the present constitution of these populations. A brief discussion about the applications of these results (admixture mapping) is also provided. Latin American populations can be viewed as natural experiments for the investigation of unique anthropological and epidemiological issues. PMID:24764751

6. Latin hypercube sampling (program user's guide). [LHC, in FORTRAN

SciTech Connect

Iman, R.L.; Davenport, J.M.; Zeigler, D.K.

1980-01-01

This document is designed for users of the program developed at Sandia Laboratories by the authors to generate Latin hypercube samples. Latin hypercube sampling is a recently developed sampling technique for generating input vectors into computer models for purposes of sensitivity analysis studies. In addition to providing a cost-effective and reliable sampling scheme, the Latin hypercube sampling technique also provides the user with the flexibility efficiently to study effects of distributional assumptions on key input variables without rerunning the computer model. 5 figures, 2 tables.

7. Economic Inequalities in Latin America at the Base of Adverse Health Indicators.

PubMed

Ferre, Juan Cruz

2016-07-01

There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of a link between income inequalities and health outcomes. The main purpose of this article is to test whether economic inequalities are associated with poor population health in Latin American countries. Multi-country data from 1970 to 2012 were used to assess this question. The results show that the Gini coefficient has a strong correlation with health outcomes. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis using fixed effects shows that after controlling for gross national income per capita, literacy rate, and health expenditure, the Gini coefficient is independently negatively associated with health outcomes. In Latin American countries, for every percentage point increase in the Gini coefficient, the infant mortality rate grows by 0.467 deaths per 1,000 live births, holding all other variables constant. Additionally, an ordinary least squares estimation model suggests that countries that do not use International Monetary Fund loans perform better on health outcomes. These findings should alert policymakers, elected officials, and the public of the need to fight income inequalities and rethink the role of international financial institutions that dictate state policies. PMID:27287670

8. A new technique for repeated biopsies of the mammary gland in dairy cows allotted to Latin-square design studies.

PubMed

de Lima, Luciano S; Martineau, Eric; De Marchi, Francilaine E; Palin, Marie-France; Dos Santos, Geraldo T; Petit, Hélène V

2016-07-01

The objective of this study was to develop a technique for carrying out repeated biopsies of the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows that provides enough material to monitor enzyme activities and gene expression in mammary secretory tissue. A total of 16 Holstein cows were subjected to 4 mammary biopsies each at 3-week intervals for a total of 64 biopsies. A 0.75-cm incision was made through the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the mammary gland and a trocar and cannula were inserted using a circular motion. The trocar was withdrawn and a syringe was plugged into the base of the cannula to create a vacuum for sampling mammary tissue. To reduce bleeding, hand pressure was put on the surgery site after biopsy and skin closure and ice was applied for at least 2 h after the biopsy using a cow bra. The entire procedure took an average of 25 min. Two attempts were usually enough to obtain 800 mg of tissue. Visual examination of milk samples 10 d after the biopsy indicated no trace of blood, except in samples from 2 cows. All wounds healed without infection and subcutaneous hematomas resorbed within 7 d. There was no incidence of mastitis throughout the lactation. This technique provides a new tool for biopsy of the mammary gland repeated at short intervals with the main effect being a decrease in milk production. Although secondary complications leading to illness or death are always a risk with any procedure, this biopsy technique was carried out without complications to the health of animals and with no incidence of mastitis during the lactation. PMID:27408336

9. Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients

PubMed Central

Nimon, Kim F.; Zientek, Linda R.; Thompson, Bruce

2015-01-01

The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficients. Using data from a Monte Carlo simulation, this study found that squared regression structure coefficients corrected with Pratt's formula produced less biased estimates and might be more accurate and stable estimates of population squared regression structure coefficients than estimates with no such corrections. While our findings are in line with prior literature that identified multicollinearity as a predictor of bias in squared regression structure coefficients but not coefficients of determination, the findings from this study are unique in that the level of predictive power, number of predictors, and sample size were also observed to contribute bias in squared regression structure coefficients. PMID:26217273

10. Spacecraft inertia estimation via constrained least squares

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Keim, Jason A.; Acikmese, Behcet A.; Shields, Joel F.

2006-01-01

This paper presents a new formulation for spacecraft inertia estimation from test data. Specifically, the inertia estimation problem is formulated as a constrained least squares minimization problem with explicit bounds on the inertia matrix incorporated as LMIs [linear matrix inequalities). The resulting minimization problem is a semidefinite optimization that can be solved efficiently with guaranteed convergence to the global optimum by readily available algorithms. This method is applied to data collected from a robotic testbed consisting of a freely rotating body. The results show that the constrained least squares approach produces more accurate estimates of the inertia matrix than standard unconstrained least squares estimation methods.