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Sample records for 4-vinylpyridine anchored rhcod2-pic2pf6

  1. Poly(4-vinylpyridine)/Nanographite nanocomposites as organic vapor sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, Payal; Singhal, Prachi; Diwan, R. K.; Rattan, Sunita

    2016-04-01

    In the present work nanocomposites of Poly(4-vinylpyridine) / Nanographite platlets were prepared by grafting of poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) to nanographite platlets (NGPs) by in-situ free radical polymerization. The NGPs were formed from graphite flakes through intercalation by modified Hummer's method. The covalent attachment of P4VP helps to disperse NGPs into individual platelets. The structure and micromorphology of prepared nanocomposites were confirmed by FTIR and SEM techniques. The electrical properties of the P4VP/NGPs nanocomposites were investigated and found to retain the resistance of 1.52 x 102 Ω at 1wt% NGPs loading. In addition, the grafted polymer, P4VP improves the stability of NGPs and provides many active sites for chemiresistive sensing. The prepared nanocomposites exhibited excellent response towards sensing nitroaromatic vapors. The work reported may open a promising area of exploration among gas sensors.

  2. Poly(4-vinylpyridine)-coated glassy carbon flow detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Golden, T.; Tuzhi, P.

    1987-03-01

    The performance of a thin-layer flow detector with a glassy carbon electrode coated with a film of protonated poly(4-vinylpyridine) is described. Substantial improvement in the selectivity of amperometric detection for liquid chromatography and flow injection systems is observed as a result of excluding cationic species from the surface. The detector response was evaluated with respect to flow rate, solute concentration, coating scheme, film-to-film reproducibility, and other variables. Despite the increase in diffusional resistance, low detection limits of ca. 0.04 and 0.10 ng of ascorbic acid and uric acid, respectively, are maintained. Protection from organic surfactants can be coupled to the charge exclusion effect by using a bilayer coating, with a cellulose acetate film atop the poly(4-vinylpyridine) layer. Applicability to urine sample is demonstrated.

  3. Amination of aryl halides with aqueous ammonia catalyzed by green recyclable poly(4-vinylpyridine)-supported copper iodide nanoparticles catalyst.

    PubMed

    Albadi, Jalal; Shiran, Jafar Abbasi; Mansournezhad, Azam

    2014-01-01

    In this research efficient procedure for the amination of aryl halides with aqueous ammonia in the presence of poly(4-vinylpyridine)-supported copper iodide nanoparticles catalyst is reported. A wide range of aryl halides including aryl iodides and aryl bromides are converted into the corresponding aniline derivatives. The experimental procedure with poly(4-vinylpyridine)-supported copper iodide nanoparticles catalyst is quite straightforward and it is recycled up to 3 consecutive runs by simple filtration. PMID:25551733

  4. Morphological evolution of lamellar forming polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) copolymers under solvent annealing.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Tandra; Chaudhari, Atul; Cummins, Cian; Shaw, Matthew T; Holmes, Justin D; Morris, Michael A

    2016-06-28

    In this work, we are reporting a very simple and efficient method to form lamellar structures of symmetric polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) copolymer thin films with vertically (to the surface plane) orientated lamellae using a solvent annealing approach. The methodology does not require any brush chemistry to engineer a neutral surface and it is the block neutral nature of the film-solvent vapour interface that defines the orientation of the lamellae. The microphase separated structure of two different molecular weight lamellar forming PS-block-P4VP copolymers formed under solvent vapour annealing was monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) so as to understand the morphological changes of the films upon different solvent exposure. In particular, the morphology changes from micellar structures to well-defined microphase separated arrangements. The choice of solvent/s (single and dual solvent exposure) and the solvent annealing conditions (temperature, time etc.) has important effects on structural transitions of the films and it was found that a block neutral solvent was required to realize vertically aligned P4VP lamellae. The results of the structural variation of the phase separated nanostructured films through the exposure to ethanol are also described. PMID:27240904

  5. Enrichment of boron-10 by inverse-frontal chromatography using quaternized 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene anion-exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Mardan, A.

    1997-08-01

    In order to enrich {sup 10}B, 40 meter band migration of boric acid-mannitol with hydrochloric acid solution was performed by inverse frontal chromatography on a porous, 25% crosslinked, 38% quaternized 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene resin. The maximum enrichment (R{sub L}) of {sup 10}B was 94.15%. The overall process parameters, namely slope coefficient (k) and separation coefficient (e), were found to be 0.1282 cm{sup {minus}1} and 0.02967, respectively.

  6. Enzyme-free Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide from Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Immobilized on Poly(4-vinylpyridine) Self-Assembled Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Gaynor, James D.; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Inerbaev, Talgat; Sanghavi, Shail P.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Shutthanandan, V.; Seal, Sudipta; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2013-05-02

    A single layer of oxygen-deficient cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) are immobilized on microscopic glass slide using poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). A specific colorimetric property of CNPs when reacted with hydrogen peroxide allows for the direct, single-step peroxide detection which can be used in medical diagnosis and explosives detection. Multiple PVP-CNP immobilized layers improve sensitivity of detection and the sensor can be regenerated for reuse.

  7. Interplay between dewetting and layer inversion in poly(4-vinylpyridine)/polystyrene bilayers.

    PubMed

    Thickett, Stuart C; Harris, Andrew; Neto, Chiara

    2010-10-19

    We investigated the morphology and dynamics of the dewetting of metastable poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) thin films situated on top of polystyrene (PS) thin films as a function of the molecular weight and thickness of both films. We focused on the competition between the dewetting process, occurring as a result of unfavorable intermolecular interactions at the P4VP/PS interface, and layer inversion due to the lower surface energy of PS. By means of optical and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we observed how both the dynamics of the instability and the morphology of the emerging patterns depend on the ratio of the molecular weights of the polymer films. When the bottom PS layer was less viscous than the top P4VP layer (liquid-liquid dewetting), nucleated holes in the P4VP film typically stopped growing at long annealing times because of a combination of viscous dissipation in the bottom layer and partial layer inversion. Full layer inversion was achieved when the viscosity of the top P4VP layer was significantly greater (>10⁴) than the viscosity of the PS layer underneath, which is attributed to strongly different mobilities of the two layers. The density of holes produced by nucleation dewetting was observed for the first time to depend on the thickness of the top film as well as the polymer molecular weight. The final (completely dewetted) morphology of isolated droplets could be achieved only if the time frame of layer inversion was significantly slower than that of dewetting, which was characteristic of high-viscosity PS underlayers that allowed dewetting to fall into a liquid-solid regime. Assuming a simple reptation model for layer inversion occurring at the dewetting front, the observed surface morphologies could be predicted on the basis of the relative rates of dewetting and layer inversion. PMID:20857967

  8. Luminescent and redox probes of structure and dynamics in quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) films on electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Seungmo; Faulkner, L.R. )

    1989-07-19

    The properties of partially quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) films have been studied by coordinatively attaching luminescent and redox probes to free pyridine units within the polymer. Samples were examined as thin films spin coated onto glass or electrodes. The luminescent moiety was Re(CO){sub 3}(phen) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline). It showed properties that depended strongly on the identity of the anion in the supporting electrolyte adjacent to the film. The emission maximum shifted to the red, and the quantum yield decreased in the order dry film > 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} > 0.1 M potassium p-toluenesulfonate > 0.1 M KNO{sub 3}. The isotope effect caused by changing the solvent from H{sub 2}O to D{sub 2}O fell in the reverse order. The results show that the anion has a large impact on film structure. In nitrate the films are strongly hydrated, but in perchlorate they are dry and compact. The redox moiety was Ru(bpy){sub 2}Cl{sup 2+/1+}. The activation energies for electron diffusion in the network of redox centers were assessed by temperature-resolved chronocoulometry. The activation energies were independent of the concentration of redox centers in the film but were ordered according to electrolyte as given above. They were roughly linearly dependent on the degree of chemical cross-linking. The permeabilities of the films to redox-active ions in solution were larger than the electron diffusion coefficients by an order of magnitude but were strongly dependent on the anion of the supporting electrolyte, inversely in the order given above. The results suggest that electron diffusion is controlled by segmental motions within the polymer and that the anion dependence is a structural effect.

  9. Poly(4-vinylpyridine): a polymeric ligand for mixed-mode protein chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanying; Sun, Yan

    2014-12-19

    Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) was proposed for use as a polymeric ligand of mixed-mode chromatography (MMC) of proteins. P4VP has linear hydrophobic chains with ionizable pyridyl groups in its backbone. The polymer was coupled onto Sepharose FF gel at a pyridyl group density of 190 μmol/mL (FF-P4VP-190) by the substitution reaction of pyridyl amines with brominated Sepharose gel. Thereby the immobilized ligand possesses the intrinsic hydrophobic nature as well as the newly obtained electrostatic interaction properties endowed from the substituted positively charged pyridyl amines. The pore size distribution was measured by inverse size exclusion chromatography, and the results revealed that P4VP formed a three-dimensional layer on the matrix surface with a maximum layer depth of 4.2 nm. The adsorption isotherms of γ-globulin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) to FF-P4VP-190 were determined under varying pH values and salt concentrations to provide insights into the adsorption properties of the medium. It was found that the adsorption capacity of γ-globulin and BSA both presented an increase with pH increasing from 8.0 to 9.0. Moreover, FF-P4VP-190 exhibited stronger adsorption for BSA than γ-globulin. The higher affinity for BSA might be attributed to its more net negative charges. Protein adsorption capacities to FF-P4VP-190 decreased with increasing NaCl concentration, but still manifested moderate levels at high salt concentration such as 75 mg/mL for γ-globulin and 14 mg/mL for BSA at 0.5 mol/L NaCl and pH 9.0. The capacity decreases with increasing ionic strength, indicating the dominant role of electrostatic interactions, while the moderate capacity values at 0.5 mol/L NaCl confirmed the presence of salt-tolerant feature of FF-P4VP-190, making it function as an MMC material. Column chromatography was conducted to investigate protein elution behavior. Efficient protein recovery was achieved at mild elution conditions such as pH 4.0 for γ-globulin and pH 4

  10. A molecular orbital study of pyridine and the rotation about the CC bond in 4-vinylpyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Charles W.; Trachtman, Mendel; George, Philip

    1986-06-01

    The geometry and energy of pyridine and the planar conformer of 4-vinylpyridine have been calculated using the 6-31G basis set. The distortion of the pyridyl ring brought about by the vinyl substitution is compared to the distortion of the phenyl ring in styrene. Δ ET for the exchange reaction, 4-vinylpyridine + benzene → pyridine + styrene, is very small, 1.73 kJ mol -1, showing that such additional stabilization as there may be in the two vinyl derivatives relative to that in the parent molecules is almost identical. The geometry and energy of 4-vinyl-pyridine have also been calculated as a function of the C βC αC 4C 5 dihedral angle (φ = 0°, 30°, and 90°) assuming that the vinyl group and pyridyl group remain planar but otherwise with full geometry optimization. The torsional potential energy curve is almost identical to that calculated for styrene (Bock, Trachtman and George, 1985), which, in turn, was found to follow closely the experimental curve derived from single vibronic level fluorescence and other spectroscopic data. The curve has a very flat minimum at φ = 0° with a barrier height of 12.7 kJ mol -1. The changes in key geometrical parameters as the planar conformer is converted into the 90°-gauche conformer are likewise very similar to those in styrene, as are the changes in total atomic charge throughout the molecule, despite the profound differences in charge distribution in the two ring systems. Utilizing the increments between the calculated and experimental bond lengths for pyridine and trans-1,3-butadiene an experimental geometry is predicted for 4-vinylpyridine; and the "superimposition hypothesis", proposed by Domenicano and Murray-Rust (1979) for para-disubstituted benzene derivatives, is tested using the 6-31G optimized geometries for pyridine and styrene.

  11. Electroless plating of copper on polyimide films modified by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Yan, Guoping; Wu, Jiangyu; Yu, Xianghua; Guo, Qingzhong; Kang, Entang

    2008-09-01

    Surface modification of polyimide (PI) films were first carried out by chloromethylation under mild conditions, followed by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) from the chloromethylated PI surfaces. The composition and topography of the PI surfaces modified by poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The P4VP brushes with well-preserved pyridine groups on the PI surface was used not only as the chemisorption sites for the palladium complexes without prior sensitization by SnCl 2 solution during the electroless plating of copper, but also as an adhesion promotion layer to enhance the adhesion of the electrolessly deposited copper to the PI surfaces. The T-peel adhesion strength of the electrolessly deposited copper on the modified PI surface could reach about 6.6 N/cm. Effects of the polymerization time and the activation time in the PdCl 2 solution on the T-peel adhesion strength of the electrolessly deposited copper in the Sn-free process to the modified PI surface were also studied.

  12. Preparation of monodisperse poly(divinylbenzene-co-4-vinylpyridine) microspheres by distillation-precipitation polymerization and precipitation polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yong; Zhang, J. Mei; Dai, Zhao; Sun, Xiu X.; Xu, Shi C.; Wang, Long; Zheng, Guo

    2010-07-01

    Polymer microspheres with functional groups are attractive for a wide number of applications, including supporting phases for separation science, biomedical devices, casting additives and controlled release reservoirs. In this paper, Poly(divinylbenzene-co-4-vinylpyridine)(Ploy(DVB-co-4-Vpy)) microspheres with functional pyridyl was prepared by distillation-precipitation polymerization and precipitation polymerization separately when 2,2'-Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in net acetonitrile. The feature of microspheres was characterized by TEM while the loading capacity of nitrogen on microspheres' surface and the hydrophilicity were measured by back titration and contact angle measurement. Under the same crosslinking degree, the microspheres prepared by distillation-precipitation polymerization had better feature, smoother surface, more functional groups and better hydrophilicity but lower yields than the ones prepared by precipitation polymerization.

  13. Synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots from one-step pyrolysis of frontal-polymerized poly(acrylamide-co-4-vinylpyridine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiao-Ling; Tang, Wen-Qi; Wang, Cai-Feng; Chen, Su

    2014-07-01

    We report herein the synthesis of carbon dots (CDs) by a one-step pyrolysis from poly(acrylamide-co-4-vinylpyridine) [poly(AAM-co-4-VP)]. The poly(AAM-co-4-VP) was fabricated using frontal polymerization within 5 min in an easy and rapid way and then was pyrolyzed to afford CDs. The as-prepared CDs show crystalline structure and excellent dispersibility with particle sizes in the range of 2-4 nm. The optical properties were throughly investigated, and we found the CDs exhibit strong blue fluorescence with quantum yield of ~18 % and excellent photoluminescent stability, which is rarely influenced by the external conditions. This process can be exploited as an effective path for synthesis CDs with polymers by a facile and rapid way.

  14. Effects of the Reducing Agents on Morphologies of Gold Nanoparticles in POLY(STYRENE-B-4-VINYLPYRIDINE) Micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nauman; Kim, Dong-Hun; Park, Lee-Soon; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Yoon, Keun-Byoung; Kwak, Giseop; Park, Soo-Young

    The effects of the reducing agents of hydrazine (H4N2), sodium borohydride (NaBH4), and triethylsilane (C6H15Si) on the morphologies of gold nanoparticles in the poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) micelle were studied using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), UV/visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). "Cherry" morphology was found in the gold nanoparticles reduced by hydrazine while "raspberry" morphology was found in the gold nanoparticles reduced by sodium borohydride. Hydrazine was more effective in reducing gold nanoparticle in the core of the PS-b-P4VP micelle than sodium borohydride and triethylsilane. The nanoparticles reduced by hydrazine were confined in the core and more regular than those reduced by sodium borohydride and triethylsilane. The possible mechanism leading to these morphological differences was also discussed.

  15. Antagonistic activity of poly (4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide) to the inhibition of viral interferon induction by asbestos fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Hahon, N; Booth, J A; Eckert, H L

    1977-01-01

    The depressive activity of both serpentine (Canadian and Rhodesian chrysotiles) and amphibole (amosite, crocidolite, and anthophyllite) asbestos fibres on interferon induction by influenza virus was significantly diminished or abolished completely when either asbestos fibres or LLC-MK2 cell monolayers were pretreated with poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide). Maximal antagonistic activity of the polymer was time and concentration dependent. Pretreating asbestos fibres with the polymer was more rapid and effective in encouraging viral interferon synthesis than pretreating cell monolayers. Virus multiplication in the presence of asbestos fibre-treated cell monolayers attained a twofold higher level than that noted in normal cell monolayers or those containing polymer-pretreated asbestos fibres. These findings were related to the suppression of interferon production. PMID:871442

  16. Hierarchical Nanostructures of Bent-Core Molecules Blended With Poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) Block Copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Tenneti,K.; Chen, X.; Li, C.; Wan, X.; Fan, X.; Zhou, Q.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.

    2007-01-01

    We report the phase structures observed in blends of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer (BCP) and a bent-core molecule 1-[4'-(3' ',4' ',5' '-tridecyloxybenzoyloxy)phenyleneoxycarbonyl]-3-[(4'-hydroxyphenyl)oxycarbonyl]benzene (BP). Hydrogen bonding between the terminal -OH group of BP and pyridine of P4VP led to the formation of P4VP(BP)n complex, which exhibited liquid crystalline (LC) order. This LC ordering, combined with microphase separation of the BCP, led to the formation of hierarchical nanostructures. The phase structures of the blend samples were investigated as a function of the concentration of BP using small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques. By increasing the BP content, BCP phase morphology transformed from lamellae to cylinders. In the two cases investigated, the P4VP/BP complex formed a bilayer smectic A LC structure within the BCP domains, and these layered structures were oriented perpendicular to the BCP interface. A detailed structural and morphological study will be reported.

  17. Counteraction of poly(4-vinylpyridine-n-oxide) on the depression of viral interferon induction by coal dust.

    PubMed Central

    Hahon, N

    1976-01-01

    The depressive activity of coal dust on interferon induction by influenza was markedly subverted when either coal dust or LLC-MK2 cell monolayers were pretreated with poly (4-vinylpyridine-N-oside). The polymer alone neither induced interferon synthesis, inhibited viral induction of interferon, influenced viral multiplication, nor affected cellular-induced resistance by interferon. Absorption of the polymer to coal dust not only occurred at a more rapid rate than to cell monolayers, but also less polymer was required to pretreat coal dust than cell monolayers to achieve comparable amelioration of interferon production. The polymer effectively negated the adverse activity of coal dust particles, irrespective of the latter's size (is less than 2.0 to 74.0 mum). Virus multiplication in the presence of coal dust=treated cell monolayers attained a level that was twofol higher than that noted with either polymer-pretreated coal dust or polymer-pretreated cell monolayers. Interferon production was almost completely inhibited in the presence of coal dust; pretreating coal dust or cells with the polymer abrogated this inhibitory activity of coal dust. It is tentatively suggested that coal dust particles per se directly interact with cell membranes to subvert interferon induction and that the formation of an absorbed polymerlayer on these complexes prevents their interaction. PMID:178603

  18. Preparation of Au Nanoparticles Immobilized Cross-Linked Poly(4-vinylpyridine) Nanofibers and Their Catalytic Application for the Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qi-Hu; Na, Hui; Zhang, Chunyu; Yu, Qizhou; Zhang, Xue-Quan; Zhang, He-Xin

    2015-05-01

    Catalytic nanofibers are prepared by the immobilization of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto the surface of cross-linked electrospun poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) nanofibers. The crosslinking of the P4VP nanofibers by 1,4-diiodobutane via quaternization reaction greatly enhances the stability of the nanofibers against the solvent dissolution, which can then be used as promising platform for the immobilization of catalytic metal nanoparticles. The AuNPs immobilized cross-linked P4VP nanofibers have shown a good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP). PMID:26505022

  19. Electrochemical deposition of poly(trans-[RuCl2(4-vinylpyridine)4]) and its reductive desorption: cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance studies.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Merlin C E; Crayston, Joe A; Franco, César V; Glidle, Andrew

    2007-02-28

    The electropolymerization of trans-[RuCl(2)(vpy)(4)](vpy = 4-vinylpyridine) on Au or Pt electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry and the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) technique. Cyclic voltammetry of the monomer in DMSO on Au shows reductions at -2.0 and -2.2 V. Potential cycling over the first wave leads to polymer formation; however, scanning over the second wave leads to desorption of the polymer. These observations were confirmed by EQCM measurements which also revealed a high polymerization efficiency. Electrolysis, EQCM and XPS measurements showed that desorption was associated with substitution of chloride ligands by DMSO when the polymer was in a highly reduced state. The film also showed reversible mass changes due to the oxidation and accompanying ingress of charge-balancing anions and solvent into the film. Measurements on the dried films revealed that large quantities of solvent are trapped in the film during the electropolymerization process. PMID:17301891

  20. The Interaction of CORM-2 with Block Copolymers Containing Poly(4-vinylpyridine): Macromolecular Scaffolds for Carbon Monoxide Delivery in Biological Systems.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Diep; Adnan, Nik Nik M; Oliver, Susan; Boyer, Cyrille

    2016-05-01

    CORM-2, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II) dimer (Ru2 Cl4 (CO)6 ), is a common carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM) studied both in vitro and in vivo, but this compound possesses poor water solubility and a short half-life, which hinders its clinical development. Herein, for the first time the conjugation of CORM-2 is reported with a copolymer containing poly(4-vinylpyridine) to yield water-soluble CO-releasing polymeric nanoparticles. CORM-2 is rapidly conjugated to copolymers through pyridine groups as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. In comparison with free CORM-2, the copolymers functionalized with CORM-2 display better water solubility and the CO release from the polymer-based CORM is slow and sustained. This study paves the way for the potential use of a copolymer encapsulating CORM-2 as a therapeutic agent. PMID:26945898

  1. Retention of heavy metal ions on comb-type hydrogels based on acrylic acid and 4-vinylpyridine, synthesized by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gómez, Roberto; Ortega, Alejandra; Lazo, Luz M.; Burillo, Guillermina

    2014-09-01

    Two novel comb-type hydrogels based on pH-sensitive monomers (acrylic acid (AAc) and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) were synthesized by gamma radiation. The systems were as follows: a) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network followed by grafting of 4VP ((net-PAAc)-g-4VP) and b) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network grafted onto polypropylene (PP) followed by grafting of 4VP (net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP). The equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were evaluated for copper and zinc ions in aqueous solutions. The Zn(II) retention obtained was 480 mg g-1 and 1086 mg g-1 for (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP, respectively. At concentrations as low as ppm, retention efficiencies of approximately 90% were achieved for Cu(II) on (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and for Zn(II) on net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP. Desorption of the hydrogels was also studied, and the results indicated that they can be used repeatedly in aqueous solutions. For both systems, the adsorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) obeyed the Freundlich model, indicating heterogeneous sorption, and the retention process occurred by chemisorption. The sorption process follows a pseudo-second-order model.

  2. Hydrogenation of arenes and N-heteroaromatic compounds over ruthenium nanoparticles on poly(4-vinylpyridine): a versatile catalyst operating by a substrate-dependent dual site mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fang, Minfeng; Machalaba, Nataliya; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto A

    2011-10-28

    A nanostructured catalyst composed of Ru nanoparticles immobilized on poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVPy) has been synthesized by NaBH(4) reduction of RuCl(3)·3H(2)O in the presence of the polymer in methanol at room temperature. TEM measurements show well-dispersed Ru nanoparticles with an average diameter of 3.1 nm. Both powder XRD patterns and XPS data indicate that the Ru particles are predominantly in the zerovalent state. The new catalyst is efficient for the hydrogenation of a wide variety of aromatic hydrocarbons and N-heteroaromatic compounds representative of components of petroleum-derived fuels. The experimental data indicate the existence of two distinct active sites in the nanostructure that lead to two parallel hydrogenation pathways, one for simple aromatics involving conventional homolytic hydrogen splitting on Ru and a second one for N-heteroaromatics taking place via a novel heterolytic hydrogen activation on the catalyst surface, assisted by the basic pyridine groups of the support. PMID:21850360

  3. Novel pH-responsive polymeric micelles prepared through self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymer with poly-4-vinylpyridine block synthesized by mechanochemical solid-state polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shin-ichi; Asano, Yuna; Koizumi, Natsumi; Tatematsu, Kenjiro; Sawama, Yuka; Sasai, Yasushi; Yamauchi, Yukinori; Kuzuya, Masayuki; Kurosawa, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated polymeric micelles containing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or fluorescein using the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly-4-vinylpyridine-b-6-O-methacryloyl galactopyranose. Although the polymeric micelles were stable at pH 7.4, they readily decomposed at pH 5, resulting in near complete release of 5-FU. Uptake of polymeric micelles containing fluorescein by HepG2 and HCT116 cells was also investigated. With both cell types, strong fluorescence was observed after a 12-h incubation, but the fluorescence weakened after 24 h of incubation. The fluorescein incorporated into the polymeric micelles was released into acidic organelles (endosome and/or lysosome), from which it diffused throughout the cell. The cytotoxicity of polymeric micelles containing 5-FU was evaluated against HepG2 cells using a CCK-8 assay. The results suggest that polymeric micelles containing 5-FU are more cytotoxic to HepG2 cells than free 5-FU. PMID:26133065

  4. Effect of CaCO₃/HCl pretreatment on the surface modification of chitin gel beads via graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate and 4-vinylpyridine.

    PubMed

    Yalinca, Zulal; Mohammed, Dana Ali Kader; Hadi, Jihad M; Yilmaz, Elvan

    2016-01-01

    Although chitin, poly(N-acetylglucosamine), possesses considerable potential as a biomaterial, it has not been as thoroughly studied as its derivative chitosan. In this study, the potential of chitin gel beads has been evaluated for surface modification via vinyl polymer grafting. Grafting behavior of two well-established vinyl monomers, namely 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) were investigated using cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate as the redox initiator with the aim of obtaining chemically functionalized more hydrophilic chitin surfaces. The intractable nature of chitin, which is one of its primary drawbacks as a grafting substrate was overcome by applying a CaCO3 treatment during bead preparation. The maximum grafting percentage of poly(HEMA) onto chitin bead without CaCO3 treatment was found to be 65%, while the value for CaCO3 treated chitin beads was 515%. The maximum grafting yield of poly(4-VP) on to CaCO3 treated chitin powder was 380% at optimum conditions. The grafting system was extensively characterized before and after grafting by FT-IR, SEM, C-13 NMR and XRD analyses. Significant improvement on the swelling capacities of chitin based gel beads in aqueous acidic, basic and neutral media was obtained. An account of the pros and cons of the system has been presented. PMID:26500177

  5. Preparation of styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine magnetic polymer beads by microwave irradiation for analysis of trace 24-epibrassinolide in plant samples using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Wei; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2010-10-15

    In the study, a kind of novel styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine (St-co-4-VP) porous magnetic polymer beads was prepared by microwave irradiation using suspension polymerization. Microwave heating preparation greatly reduced the polymerization time to 1h. Physical characteristic tests suggested that these beads were cross-linking and possessed spherical shape, good magnetic response and porous morphologies with a narrow diameter distribution of 70-180 μm. Therefore, these beads displayed the long-term stability after undergoing 100-time extractions. Then, an analytical method for the determination of trace 24-epiBR in plant samples was developed by magnetic polymer bead extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. St-co-4-VP magnetic polymer beads demonstrated the higher extraction selectivity for 24-epiBR than other reference compounds. Linear range was 10.00-100.0 μg/L with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.7%, and the detection limit was 6.5 μg/kg. This analytical method was successfully applied to analyze the trace 24-epiBR in cole and breaking-wall rape pollen samples with recoveries of 77.2-90.0% and 72.3-83.4%, respectively, and RSDs were less than 4.1%. The amount of 24-epiBR in real breaking-wall rape pollen samples was found to be 26.2 μg/kg finally. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient analytical method for the determination of trace brassinosteroids in complicated plant samples by the use of St-co-4-VP magnetic polymer bead extraction coupled with chromatographic method. PMID:20846659

  6. pH effect of coagulation bath on the characteristics of poly(acrylic acid)-grafted and poly(4-vinylpyridine)-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Ying, Lei; Zhai, Guangqun; Winata, A Y; Kang, E T; Neoh, K G

    2003-09-15

    The poly(acrylic acid)-graft-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PAAc-g-PVDF) and poly(4-vinylpyridine)-graft-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (P4VP-g-PVDF) copolymers were obtained by thermally induced molecular graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP), respectively, with the ozone-pretreated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solution. Microfiltration (MF) membranes were prepared from the respective copolymers by phase inversion in aqueous media. The effects of pH of the coagulation bath on the physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the membranes were investigated. The surface compositions of the membranes were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface graft concentration of the AAc polymer for the PAAc-g-PVDF MF membrane increased with decreasing pH value of the coagulation bath. Completely opposite pH-dependent behavior was observed for the surface graft concentration of the 4VP polymer in the P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes. A substantial increase in mean pore size was observed for the PAAc-g-PVDF MF membranes cast in basic coagulation baths of increasing pH. In the case of the P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes, a substantial increase in mean pore size was observed for membranes cast in low pH (acidic) baths. The permeation rate of aqueous solutions through the PAAc-g-PVDF and P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes exhibited a reversible dependence on the pH of the solution, with the membranes cast near the neutral pH exhibiting the highest sensitivity to changes in permeate pH. PMID:12962674

  7. Halogen bonds on demand: I···S contacts in cocrystals of trans-bis(thiocyanato-κN)tetrakis(4-vinylpyridine-κN)nickel(II) and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,4-diiodobenzene.

    PubMed

    Şerb, Mihaela-Diana; Merkens, Carina; Kalf, Irmgard; Englert, Ulli

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen bonds are considered a powerful organizing force in designing supramolecular architectures because they are directional, selective and reversible at room temperature. trans-Dithiocyanatotetrakis(4-vinylpyridine)nickel(II) is a popular host for the inclusion of small molecules and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,4-diiodobenzene (TFDIB) represents a strong halogen-bond donor. These constituents cocrystallize in a 1:1 stoichiometry, [Ni(NCS)2(C7H7N)4]·C6F4I2, in the tetragonal space group I4₁/a. Both residues occupy special positions, i.e. the pseudo-octahedral Ni(II) complex is located on a twofold axis and the TFDIB molecule sits about a crystallographic centre of inversion. The components interact via a short S···I contact of 3.2891 (12) Å between the thiocyanate S atom of the host and the iodine substituent at the perhalogenated aromatic ring of the smaller guest molecule. This interaction meets the commonly accepted criteria for a halogen bond. Such halogen bonds to sulfur are significantly less common than to smaller electronegative atoms. PMID:26524173

  8. Preparation of magnetic indole-3-acetic acid imprinted polymer beads with 4-vinylpyridine and β-cyclodextrin as binary monomer via microwave heating initiated polymerization and their application to trace analysis of auxins in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Yuanwen; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke; Chen, Yueqin

    2010-11-19

    Auxin is a crucial phytohormone for precise control of growth and development of plants. Due to its low concentration in plant tissues which are rich in interfering substances, the accurate determination of auxins remains a challenge. In this paper, a new strategy for isolation and enrichment of auxins from plant tissues was obtained by the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mag-MIP) beads, which were prepared by microwave heating initiated suspension polymerization using indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as template. In order to obtain higher selective recognition cavities, an enhanced imprinting method based on binary functional monomers, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), was adopted for IAA imprinting. The morphological and magnetic characteristics of the mag-MIP beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. A majority of resultant beads were within the size range of 80-150μm. Porous surface morphology and good magnetic property were observed. Furthermore, the mag-MIP beads fabricated with 4-VP and β-CD as binary functional monomers exhibited improved recognition ability to IAA, as compared with the mag-MIP beads prepared with the individual monomer separately. Competitive rebinding experiment results revealed that the mag-MIP beads exhibited a higher specific recognition for the template than the non-imprinted polymer (mag-NIP) beads. An extraction method by mag-MIP beads coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for determination of IAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in plant tissues. Linear ranges for IAA and IBA were in the range of 7.00-100.0μgL(-1) and 10.0-100.0μgL(-1), and the detection limits were 3.9 and 7.4μgL(-1), respectively. The analytical performance was also estimated by seedlings or immature embryos samples from three different plant tissues, pea, rice and wheat. Recoveries were in the range of 70

  9. Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic/sonic anchor (U/S anchor) is an anchoring device that drills a hole for itself in rock, concrete, or other similar material. The U/S anchor is a recent addition to a series of related devices, the first of which were reported in "Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors"

  10. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and anticipates…

  11. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  12. Anchoring the Deficit of the Anchor Deficit: Dyslexia or Attention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willburger, Edith; Landerl, Karin

    2010-01-01

    In the anchoring deficit hypothesis of dyslexia ("Trends Cogn. Sci.", 2007; 11: 458-465), it is proposed that perceptual problems arise from the lack of forming a perceptual anchor for repeatedly presented stimuli. A study designed to explicitly test the specificity of the anchoring deficit for dyslexia is presented. Four groups, representing all…

  13. Blind-Anchor-Nut-Installation Fixture (BANIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willey, Norman F., Jr.; Linker, James F.

    1994-01-01

    Blind-anchor-nut-installation fixture, BANIF, developed for replacing or installing anchor nuts in blind holes or other inaccessible places. Attachment of anchor nut to BANIF enables placement of anchor nut on blind side of component.

  14. Bellow seal and anchor

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    An annular seal is made of a collapsible bellows. The bellows can function as an anchor or a seal and is easily set into position using relative component movement. The bellows folds can be slanted and their outer sealing edges can have different profiles to meet expected conditions. The bellows is expanded for insertion to reduce its outer dimension and sets by compaction as a result of relative movement. The bellows can be straight or tapered and is settable with a minimal axial force.

  15. Lightness, brightness, and anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton L; Whitbread, Michael; de Silva, Chamila

    2014-01-01

    The majority of work in lightness perception has evaluated the perception of lightness using flat, matte, two-dimensional surfaces. In such contexts, the amount of light reaching the eye contains a conflated mixture of the illuminant and surface lightness. A fundamental puzzle of lightness perception is understanding how it is possible to experience achromatic surfaces as specific achromatic shades in the face of this ambiguity. It has been argued that the perception of lightness in such contexts implies that the visual system imposes an "anchoring rule" whereby a specific relative luminance (the highest) serves as a fixed point in the mapping of image luminance onto the lightness scale ("white"). We conducted a series of experiments to explicitly test this assertion in contexts where this mapping seemed most unlikely-namely, low-contrast images viewed in dim illumination. Our results provide evidence that the computational ambiguity in mapping luminance onto lightness is reflected in perceptual experience. The perception of the highest luminance in a two-dimensional Mondrian display varied monotonically with its brightness, ranging from midgray to white. Similar scaling occurred for the lowest luminance and, by implication, all other luminance values. We conclude that the conflation between brightness and lightness in two-dimensional Mondrian displays is reflected in perception and find no support for the claim that any specific relative luminance value acts as a fixed anchor point in this mapping function. PMID:25104828

  16. Granular Simulation of NEO Anchoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazhar, Hammad

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a Near Earth Object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission will require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO. Such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy and upon mission completion, easily removed. The design philosophy used in the project relies on the simulation capability of a multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth it is difficult to create low gravity conditions and testing in low gravity environments, whether artificial or in space is costly and therefore not feasible. Through simulation, gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine [1], a simulation package capable of utilizing massively parallel GPU hardware, several validation experiments will be performed. Once there is sufficient confidence, modeling of the NEO regolith interaction will begin after which the anchor tests will be performed and analyzed. The outcome of this task is a study with an analysis of several different anchor designs, along with a recommendation on which anchor is better suited to the task of anchoring. With the anchors tested against a range of parameters relating to soil, environment and anchor penetration angles/velocities on a NEO.

  17. Bone cement improves suture anchor fixation.

    PubMed

    Giori, Nicholas J; Sohn, David H; Mirza, Faisal M; Lindsey, Derek P; Lee, Arthur T

    2006-10-01

    Suture anchor fixation failure can occur if the anchor pulls out of bone. We hypothesized that suture anchor fixation can be augmented with polymethylmethacrylate cement, and that polymethylmethacrylate can be used to improve fixation in a stripped anchor hole. Six matched cadaveric proximal humeri were used. On one side, suture anchors were placed and loaded to failure using a ramped cyclic loading protocol. The stripped anchor holes then were injected with approximately 1 cc polymethylmethacrylate, and anchors were replaced and tested again. In the contralateral humerus, polymethylmethacrylate was injected into anchor holes before anchor placement and testing. In unstripped anchors, polymethylmethacrylate increased the number of cycles to failure by 34% and failure load by 71% compared with anchors not augmented with polymethylmethacrylate. Polymethylmethacrylate haugmentation of stripped anchors increased the cycles to failure by 31% and failure load by 111% compared with unstripped uncemented anchors. No difference was found in cycles to failure or failure load between cemented stripped anchors and cemented unstripped anchors. Polymethylmethacrylate can be used to augment fixation, reducing the risk of anchor pull-out failure, regardless whether the suture anchor hole is stripped or unstripped. PMID:16702922

  18. Anchoring International sets new water depth record

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, H.J.

    1983-07-01

    Santa Barbara Channel has a history steeped in firsts in techniques for the production of offshore oil. Landscaped drilling and production islands, production piers, and directional drilling from land rigs to production under the channel, to name a few. The latest such project was handled by Anchoring International, Inc., a pipe line anchoring company headquartered in Houston, Texas. Contracted by Healy Tibbets Construction Company, prime contractor, Anchoring was commissioned to handle a new deep water record breaking anchoring job. The job was to anchor J-tube extensions in 820 feet of water--the deepest pipe line anchoring job ever undertaken. In most shallow water pipe line anchoring jobs, anchors and anchor installation unit placement over the pipe line is handled from a crane topside with visual assist from divers. However, due to the extreme depth of this project, the installation unit with anchors had to be modified for submersible operator-assisted placement capability. Anchoring International handled the anchor design and installation equipment, and submersible operator assistance was furnished by Oceaneering, International. WASP and JIM atmospheric diving systems were used. All ocean bottom activities were monitored topside with the JERED video-equipped remote controlled vehicle. Since the weight of the anchor sets and power installation unit are minimum, the entire operation was conducted from a small boat sufficient to carry dive equipment and the anchor installation unit power supply. A small pedestal crane was used to lower and retrieve the anchor installation unit.

  19. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these

  20. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  1. Permanent ground anchors: Nicholson design criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, P. J.; Uranowski, D. D.; Wycliffe-Jones, P. T.

    1982-09-01

    The methods used by Nicholson Construction Company in the design of permanent ground anchors specifically as related to retaining walls are discussed. Basic soil parameters, design concepts, drilling and grouting methods for ground anchors are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on anchors founded in soil rather than rock formations. Also, soil properties necessary for the proper design of anchored retaining walls are detailed. The second chapter of the report is devoted to a general discussion of retaining wall and anchor design. In addition, a design example of an anchored retaining wall is presented in a step by step manner.

  2. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  3. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  4. Anchor for Fiberglas Guy Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Solution to problem of anchoring fiberglas guy rods to install nut with threads on outer circumference, followed by aluminum sleeve. Sleeve has opening oval at upper and round at bottom end. End of rod is split so fiberglas wedge can be inserted to form V-shaped end. Spread end of rod fits into tapered hole in sleeve and threaded aluminum coupling is put over rod and sleeve.

  5. Independent control of polar and azimuthal anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J; Bramble, J P; Atherton, T J

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation, experiment, and continuum theory are used to examine the anchoring exhibited by a nematic liquid crystal at a patterned substrate comprising a periodic array of rectangles that, respectively, promote vertical and planar alignment. It is shown that the easy axis and effective anchoring energy promoted by such surfaces can be readily controlled by adjusting the design of the pattern. The calculations reveal rich behavior: for strong anchoring, as exhibited by the simulated system, for rectangle ratios ≥2 the nematic aligns in the direction of the long edge of the rectangles, the azimuthal anchoring coefficient changing with pattern shape. In weak anchoring scenarios, however, including our experimental systems, preferential anchoring is degenerate between the two rectangle diagonals. Bistability between diagonally aligned and edge-aligned arrangement is predicted for intermediate combinations of anchoring coefficient and system length scale. PMID:23944468

  6. Electrostatically anchored branched brush layers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Dedinaite, Andra; Rutland, Mark; Thormann, Esben; Visnevskij, Ceslav; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2012-11-01

    A novel type of block copolymer has been synthesized. It consists of a linear cationic block and an uncharged bottle-brush block. The nonionic bottle-brush block contains 45 units long poly(ethylene oxide) side chains. This polymer was synthesized with the intention of creating branched brush layers firmly physisorbed to negatively charged surfaces via the cationic block, mimicking the architecture (but not the chemistry) of bottle-brush molecules suggested to be present on the cartilage surface, and contributing to the efficient lubrication of synovial joints. The adsorption properties of the diblock copolymer as well as of the two blocks separately were studied on silica surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and optical reflectometry. The adsorption kinetics data highlight that the diblock copolymers initially adsorb preferentially parallel to the surface with both the cationic block and the uncharged bottle-brush block in contact with the surface. However, as the adsorption proceeds, a structural change occurs within the layer, and the PEO bottle-brush block extends toward solution, forming a surface-anchored branched brush layer. As the adsorption plateau is reached, the diblock copolymer layer is 46-48 nm thick, and the water content in the layer is above 90 wt %. The combination of strong electrostatic anchoring and highly hydrated branched brush structures provide strong steric repulsion, low friction forces, and high load bearing capacity. The strong electrostatic anchoring also provides high stability of preadsorbed layers under different ionic strength conditions. PMID:23046176

  7. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  8. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    1993-01-01

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  9. Anchored Instruction and Anchored Assessment: An Ecological Approach to Measuring Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    Anchored instruction and anchored assessment are described and illustrated through a mathematics problem from the Jasper problem solving series developed at Vanderbilt University in Nashville (Tennessee). Anchored instruction is instruction situated in a context complex enough to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful. Problems…

  10. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  11. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  12. 77 FR 65496 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... limited conditions, to issue Anchor Tenancy contracts. Anchor Tenancy means ``an arrangement in which the... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background NASA published a proposed rule in the Federal Register at 76 FR 30301... simplified; it is now discussed only in paragraph (a). The final rule identifies what is meant by an...

  13. 33 CFR 401.15 - Stern anchors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stern anchors. 401.15 Section 401.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.15 Stern anchors. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  17. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  18. Auger anchors produce major cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, B.C.

    1981-10-01

    To meet specific-gravity standards, a 42-in.-diam, 0.598-in.-wall-thickness pipeline being installed in a glacial area full of potholes, peat swamps, and low-lying sections required 425 lb/ft of anchor hold-down. In spots where the underlying soil had an acceptable shear strength, the crew installed auger anchors (costing only $8/ft of pipeline) instead of the concrete set-on weights (at $80/ft) required in areas where the auger anchors would not hold; the savings amounted to about $380,000/mile of line laid.

  19. Anchoring Revisited: The Role of the Comparative Question

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Ina; Bohner, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    When people estimate a numeric value after judging whether it is larger or smaller than a high or low anchor value (comparative question), estimates are biased in the direction of the anchor. One explanation for this anchoring effect is that people selectively access knowledge consistent with the anchor value as part of a positive test strategy. Two studies (total N = 184) supported the alternative explanation that people access knowledge consistent with their own answer to the comparative question. Specifically, anchoring effects emerged when the answer to the comparative question was unexpected (lower than the low anchor or higher than the high anchor). For expected answers (lower than the high anchor or higher than the low anchor), however, anchoring effects were attenuated or reversed. The anchor value itself was almost never reported as an absolute estimate. PMID:24454953

  20. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A preformed... the platinum group intended to be incorporated into a dental appliance, such as a denture, to...

  1. Behavior of soil anchors under dynamic loads

    SciTech Connect

    Picornell, M.; Olague, B.

    1997-07-01

    Helical anchors placed in a cohesionless soil in a laboratory setting were tested under static and dynamic loads. The dynamic tests were performed after subjecting the anchors to a seating load. The dynamic load had an intensity that changed in sinusoidal fashion and was superimposed to the static seating loads. Although, the anchors have a static pull-out capacity, when the dynamic loads are applied the anchor experiences additional deformations for each load cycle. The deformations per cycle are initially high but then decrease to a nearly constant rate. Eventually, the constant rate increases suddenly accelerating until failure. This failure can take place even at small fractions of the static pull-out capacity. The rate of deformation per load cycle is found to increase for larger seating loads and for larger dynamic pulsating loads. The results of this study shows that the designer can only adjust loads to decrease the deformation rate to suit the design life of the structure.

  2. Load transfer mechanisms in anchored geosynthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryciw, Roman D.

    1990-12-01

    Success of an anchored geosynthetic system (AGS) depends on the satisfactory transfer of load between: the surface-deployed geosynthetic and anchors (typically ribbed reinforcing rods) driven into the slope; the geosynthetic and soil; and the anchors and soil. A study was performed to evaluate the load transfer mechanisms at these interfaces in an AGS. A mathematical model was developed for predicting the pullout resistance of plane ribbed inclusions. The model considered the contribution of both frictional and passive resistance components of pullout resistance. Optical observation of sand around the ribs was made to determine the behavior of soil around the moving ribs during pullout. A theoretical study disclosed that the optimum anchor orientation for stabilization of infinite slopes depends on several factors including slope angle and in-situ stresses. It typically ranges from 20 to 30 degree from the normal to the slope with the anchor driven upslope. An experimental study confirmed that the soil-geosynthetic interface friction angle may be correctly predicted from the residual or critical state friction angle of the sand. Equations were developed for load transfer at curved soil-fabric interfaces. An experimental study verified that the increases in soil stress with distance from the anchor may be predicted by the developed equations.

  3. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  4. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  5. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  6. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  7. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  8. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  9. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants’ WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain. PMID:26439926

  10. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbany, Z.; Handayani, G.

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  11. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Robbany, Z. Handayani, G.

    2015-09-30

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  12. Synthesis of 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene copolymer adsorbents for microwave-assisted desorption of benzene.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing Bo; Yang, Go-Su; Lee, Youn-Sik

    2012-02-29

    Reports on the development of polymer adsorbents for microwave-assisted desorption of nonpolar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are rare. In this study, we synthesized macroporous polymeric adsorbents with hydrophilic methyl pyridinium units for microwave-assisted desorption of nonpolar VOCs. The benzene adsorption and desorption properties of the adsorbents were investigated under both dry and humid conditions. Under humid conditions, as the content of the hydrophilic methyl pyridinium units in the adsorbents increased from 0 to 20%, the adsorption capacity of benzene decreased from about 21 to 7 mg/g, while the desorption efficiency of benzene increased significantly from 48 to 87%. The maximum concentration of desorbate also increased significantly as the content of the hydrophilic units was increased under humid conditions. We attributed the enhanced desorption efficiency mainly to more adsorbed moisture, which indirectly allowed heating of the polymer adsorbents to higher temperatures upon irradiation with 600 W microwaves. PMID:22236950

  13. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  14. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Khang, Tsung Fei; Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams's K mult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  15. Weighing Anchor in the "Ragged Times"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tonya B.

    2012-01-01

    In today's middle school classroom, grouping is an essential learning tool that enhances students' ability to collaborate with others and deepen their own thinking. Implementing group work effectively, though, can be a challenge, especially since groups tend to end their work at "ragged" or staggered times. Creating "anchor activities"--respectful…

  16. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  17. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  18. Expectations of Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rick; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) are no better or worse than other methods when assessed on a quantitative basis but have greater potential when assessed on use and qualitative criteria. Suggestions are offered for extending BARS research to process questions and domains other than performance appraisal. (Author)

  19. Simple suture and anchor in rabbit hips

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Filho, Fernando Cal; Guarniero, Roberto; de Godoy Júnior, Rui Maciel; Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Matos, Marcos Almeida; Garcia, Lucas Cortizo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Using biomechanical studies, this research aims to compare hip capsulorrhaphy in rabbits, carried out with two different techniques: capsulorrhaphy with simple sutures and with anchors. Method Thirteen New Zealand Albino (Oryctolaguscuniculus) male rabbits, twenty-six hip joints, were used. First, a pilot project was performed with three rabbits (six hip joints). This experiment consisted of ten rabbits divided into two groups: group 1 underwent capsulorrhaphy on both right and left hips with simple suture using polyglycolic acid absorbable thread, and group 2 underwent capsulorrhaphy with titanium anchors. After a four-week postoperative period, the animals were euthanized and the hip joints were frozen. On the same day of the biomechanical studies, after the hip joints were previously unfrozen, the following parameters were evaluated: rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy. Results There was no relevant statistical difference in rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy between the simple suture and anchor groups. Conclusion Through biomechanical analyses, using parameters of rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy, it has been shown that capsulorrhaphy with simple suture and with anchors has similar results in rabbit hip joints. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study. PMID:24453618

  20. 50 CFR 622.432 - Anchoring restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchoring restriction. 622.432 Section 622.432 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef...

  1. 50 CFR 622.432 - Anchoring restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchoring restriction. 622.432 Section 622.432 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef...

  2. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  4. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  5. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  6. 63. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING LINE REELS, MAIN ANCHOR CHAIN, CHAIN STOPPERS, CAPSTAN AND CONTROLS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. 9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSSCOVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSS-COVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR LEFT OF ANCHOR BOLTS) - Nisqually Suspension Bridge, Spanning Nisqually River on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  8. 345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS WEST ANCHOR ARM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 7-1023 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  10. AnchorDock: Blind and Flexible Anchor-Driven Peptide Docking.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shimon, Avraham; Niv, Masha Y

    2015-05-01

    The huge conformational space stemming from the inherent flexibility of peptides is among the main obstacles to successful and efficient computational modeling of protein-peptide interactions. Current peptide docking methods typically overcome this challenge using prior knowledge from the structure of the complex. Here we introduce AnchorDock, a peptide docking approach, which automatically targets the docking search to the most relevant parts of the conformational space. This is done by precomputing the free peptide's structure and by computationally identifying anchoring spots on the protein surface. Next, a free peptide conformation undergoes anchor-driven simulated annealing molecular dynamics simulations around the predicted anchoring spots. In the challenging task of a completely blind docking test, AnchorDock produced exceptionally good results (backbone root-mean-square deviation ≤ 2.2Å, rank ≤15) for 10 of 13 unbound cases tested. The impressive performance of AnchorDock supports a molecular recognition pathway that is driven via pre-existing local structural elements. PMID:25914054

  11. Career Paths, Images and Anchors: A Study with Brazilian Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilimnik, Zelia Miranda; de Oliveira, Luiz Claudio Vieira; Sant'anna, Anderson De Souza; Barros, Delba Teixeira Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses career anchors changes associated to images and professionals trajectories. Its main question: Do anchors careers change through time? We conducted twelve interviews involving professionals from the Administration Area, applying Schein's Career Anchors Inventory (1993). We did the same two years later. In both of them, the…

  12. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  13. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  14. Geodesic defect anchoring on nematic shells.

    PubMed

    Mirantsev, Leonid V; Sonnet, André M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2012-08-01

    Nematic shells are colloidal particles coated with nematic liquid crystal molecules, which may freely glide and rotate on the colloid's surface while keeping their long axis on the local tangent plane. Molecular dynamics simulations on a nanoscopic spherical shell indicate that under appropriate adhesion conditions for the molecules on the equator, the equilibrium nematic texture exhibits at each pole a pair of +1/2 defects so close to one another to be treated as one +1 defect. Spirals connect the polar defects, though the continuum limit of the interaction potential would not feature any elastic anisotropy. A molecular averaging justifies an anchoring defect energy that feels the geodesics emanating from the defect. All our observations are explained by such a geodesic anchoring, which vanishes on flat manifolds. PMID:23005713

  15. Partial credit model and pivot anchoring.

    PubMed

    Bode, R K

    2001-01-01

    This article contains information on the Rasch measurement partial credit model: what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, when to use it, and how to use it. The calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items is described, starting with dichotomous items and moving on to polychotomous items using a single rating scale, and mixed polychotomous items using multiple rating scales, and instruments in which each item has its own rating scale. It also introduces a procedure for aligning rating scale categories to be used when more than one rating scale is used in a single instrument. Pivot anchoring is defined and an illustration of its use with the mental health scale of the SF-36 that contains positive and negative worded items is provided. It finally describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, the item hierarchy, and person measures. PMID:12000858

  16. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  17. Anchoring in a novel bimanual coordination pattern.

    PubMed

    Maslovat, Dana; Lam, Melanie Y; Brunke, Kirstin M; Chua, Romeo; Franks, Ian M

    2009-02-01

    Anchoring in cyclical movements has been defined as regions of reduced spatial or temporal variability [Beek, P. J. (1989). Juggling dynamics. PhD thesis. Amsterdam: Free University Press] that are typically found at movement reversal points. For in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronizing reversal points with a metronome pulse has resulted in decreased anchor point variability and increased pattern stability [Byblow, W. D., Carson, R. G., & Goodman, D. (1994). Expressions of asymmetries and anchoring in bimanual coordination. Human Movement Science, 13, 3-28; Fink, P. W., Foo, P., Jirsa, V. K., & Kelso, J. A. S. (2000). Local and global stabilization of coordination by sensory information. Experimental Brain Research, 134, 9-20]. The present experiment examined anchoring during acquisition, retention, and transfer of a 90 degrees phase-offset continuous bimanual coordination pattern (whereby the right limb lags the left limb by one quarter cycle), involving horizontal flexion about the elbow. Three metronome synchronization strategies were imposed: participants either synchronized maximal flexion of the right arm (i.e., single metronome), both flexion and extension of the right arm (i.e., double metronome within-limb), or flexion of each arm (i.e., double metronome between-limb) to an auditory metronome. In contrast to simpler in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronization of additional reversal points to the metronome did not reduce reversal point variability or increase pattern stability. Furthermore, practicing under different metronome synchronization strategies did not appear to have a significant effect on the rate of acquisition of the pattern. PMID:18842313

  18. Test Score Equating Using a Mini-Version Anchor and a Midi Anchor: A Case Study Using SAT[R] Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.; Curley, Edward; Feigenbaum, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    This study explores an anchor that is different from the traditional miniature anchor in test score equating. In contrast to a traditional "mini" anchor that has the same spread of item difficulties as the tests to be equated, the studied anchor, referred to as a "midi" anchor (Sinharay & Holland), has a smaller spread of item difficulties than…

  19. Electropermanent magnetic anchoring for surgery and endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tugwell, Josef; Brennan, Philip; O'Shea, Conor; O'Donoghue, Kilian; Power, Timothy; O'Shea, Michael; Griffiths, James; Cahill, Ronan; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig

    2015-03-01

    The use of magnets for anchoring of instrumentation in minimally invasive surgery and endoscopy has become of increased interest in recent years. Permanent magnets have significant advantages over electromagnets for these applications; larger anchoring and retraction force for comparable size and volume without the need for any external power supply. However, permanent magnets represent a potential hazard in the operating field where inadvertent attraction to surgical instrumentation is often undesirable. The current work proposes an interesting hybrid approach which marries the high forces of permanent magnets with the control of electromagnetic technology including the ability to turn the magnet OFF when necessary. This is achieved through the use of an electropermanent magnet, which is designed for surgical retraction across the abdominal and gastric walls. Our electropermanent magnet, which is hand-held and does not require continuous power, is designed with a center lumen which may be used for trocar or needle insertion. The device in this application has been demonstrated successfully in the porcine model where coupling between an intraluminal ring magnet and our electropermanent magnet facilitated guided insertion of an 18 Fr Tuohy needle for guidewire placement. Subsequent investigations have demonstrated the ability to control the coupling distance of the system alleviating shortcomings with current methods of magnetic coupling due to variation in transabdominal wall thicknesses. With further refinement, the magnet may find application in the anchoring of endoscopic and surgical instrumentation for minimally invasive interventions in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25361499

  20. Short read DNA fragment anchoring algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wendi; Zhang, Peiheng; Liu, Xinchun

    2009-01-01

    Background The emerging next-generation sequencing method based on PCR technology boosts genome sequencing speed considerably, the expense is also get decreased. It has been utilized to address a broad range of bioinformatics problems. Limited by reliable output sequence length of next-generation sequencing technologies, we are confined to study gene fragments with 30~50 bps in general and it is relatively shorter than traditional gene fragment length. Anchoring gene fragments in long reference sequence is an essential and prerequisite step for further assembly and analysis works. Due to the sheer number of fragments produced by next-generation sequencing technologies and the huge size of reference sequences, anchoring would rapidly becoming a computational bottleneck. Results and discussion We compared algorithm efficiency on BLAT, SOAP and EMBF. The efficiency is defined as the count of total output results divided by time consumed to retrieve them. The data show that our algorithm EMBF have 3~4 times efficiency advantage over SOAP, and at least 150 times over BLAT. Moreover, when the reference sequence size is increased, the efficiency of SOAP will get degraded as far as 30%, while EMBF have preferable increasing tendency. Conclusion In conclusion, we deem that EMBF is more suitable for short fragment anchoring problem where result completeness and accuracy is predominant and the reference sequences are relatively large. PMID:19208116

  1. Coracoclavicular stabilization using a suture anchor technique.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Darren J; Barron, O Alton; Catalano, Louis; Donahue, Joseph P; Zambetti, George

    2008-06-01

    Multiple fixation options exist for coracoclavicular stabilization, but many are technically demanding and require hardware removal. In the study reported here, we reviewed a specific fixation technique that includes suture anchors moored in the base of the coracoid process. We retrospectively reviewed 24 consecutive cases of patients who underwent coracoclavicular stabilization with a suture anchor for a type III or type V acromioclavicular (AC) joint separation or a group II, type II or type V distal clavicle fracture. Eighteen of the 22 patients had full strength and painless range of motion (ROM) in the affected extremity by 3 months and at final follow-up (minimum, 24 months; mean, 39 months). Two patients were lost to follow-up. Four patients had early complications likely secondary to documented noncompliance. Two of these 4 patients underwent reoperation with a similar procedure and remained asymptomatic at a minimum follow-up of 15 months. One patient underwent osteophyte and knot excision 7 months after surgery and remained asymptomatic at 30 months. Our results suggest that coracoclavicular stabilization using a suture anchor technique is a safe and reliable method of treating acromioclavicular joint separations and certain distal clavicle fractures in the compliant patient. PMID:18716693

  2. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  3. Histologic and morphologic evaluation of explanted bone anchors from bone-anchored hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Robert; Goldberg, Eva; Ebmeyer, Joerg; Scheich, Matthias; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Schwager, Konrad; Hagen, Rudolf; Shehata-Dieler, Wafaa

    2009-05-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aids are a standard option in rehabilitation of patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss, and also CROS fitting. However, the skin-penetrating bone anchor repeatedly gives reason for discussion about the risk of infection of surrounding tissues as a major cause of malfunction. In the present study, explanted bone anchors with surrounding bone and soft tissue were examined and compared with the morphology of lost implants. The anchors originated from five patients. Two needed explantation due to deafness with the need of cochlea implantation. A third patient underwent explantation due to meningeal irritation by the bone anchor. Another patient lost the implant due to mechanical stress shortly after implantation. The last implant was lost in a child without apparent reason. All implants were clinically free of infection and had been stable for a median implantation period of 12 months. During the explantation procedure, the fixtures were recovered together with the attached soft tissue and bone. The specimens were examined by light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sectioning for light microscopy was performed with a diamond-coated saw microtome. Histopathologic examination of the surrounding skin and subcutaneous soft tissue showed slight inflammation in one case only. The bone was regularly vital, presenting no signs of inflammation. The threads of the fixtures were filled with bone, with particularly strong attachment to the flank of traction. The SEM investigation exposed the ultrastructural interaction of bone with the implant surface. Filiform- and podocyte-like processes of osteocytes attach to the implant; lost implants did not reflect these features. Implant integration involves both osseointegration as well as soft tissue integration. Titanium oxide as the active implant surface promotes this integration even in unstable implants. The morphologic analysis exposed structural areas of the implant with weak bone

  4. Mass spectrometric identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored peptides.

    PubMed

    Masuishi, Yusuke; Nomura, Ayako; Okayama, Akiko; Kimura, Yayoi; Arakawa, Noriaki; Hirano, Hisashi

    2013-10-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring is a post-translational modification widely observed among eukaryotic membrane proteins. GPI anchors are attached to proteins via the carboxy-terminus in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, where GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) perform important functions as coreceptors and enzymes. Precursors of GPI-APs (Pre-GPI-APs) contain a C-terminal hydrophobic sequence that is involved in cleavage of the signal sequence from the protein and addition of the GPI anchor by the transamidase complex. In order to confirm that a given protein contains a GPI anchor, it is essential to identify the C-terminal peptide containing the GPI-anchor modification site (ω-site). Previously, efficient identification of GPI-anchored C-terminal peptides by mass spectrometry has been difficult, in part because of complex structure of the GPI-anchor moiety. We developed a method to experimentally identify GPI-APs and their ω-sites. In this method, a part of GPI-anchor moieties are removed from GPI-anchored peptides using phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and aqueous hydrogen fluoride (HF), and peptide sequence is then determined by mass spectrometry. Using this method, we successfully identified 10 GPI-APs and 12 ω-sites in the cultured ovarian adenocarcinoma cells, demonstrating that this method is useful for identifying efficiently GPI-APs. PMID:24001144

  5. Analysis of Glenoid Inter-anchor Distance with an All-Suture Anchor System

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jonathan; Robinson, Sean; Dutton, Pascual; Dickinson, Ephraim; Rodriguez, John Paul; Camisa, William; Leasure, Jeremi M.; Montgomery, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Arthroscopic shoulder stabilization using suture anchors are commonly used techniques. More recently developed all-suture systems employ smaller diameter anchors, which increase repair contact area and allow greater placement density on narrow surfaces such as the glenoid. Our goal is investigate the strength characteristics of various inter-anchor distances in a human glenoid model. Methods: Twelve fresh-frozen human cadaveric glenoids were potted after the labrum was excised. The glenoids were then implanted with 1.4 mm all-suture anchors (Juggerknot, Biomet, Warsaw, IN) at varying inter-anchor distances. Anchors were implanted adjacent to one another or at 2 mm, 3 mm, or 5 mm distances using a template with pre-drilled holes. The glenoids were then underwent single cycle pullout testing using a test frame (Instron 8521, Instron Inc., Norwood, MA). A 5 N preload was applied to the construct and the actuator was driven away from the shoulder at a rate of 12.5mm/s as seen in Figure 1. Force and displacement were collected from the test frame actuator at a rate of 500 Hz. The primary outcomes were failure strength and stiffness. Stiffness was calculated from the initial linear region of the force displacement curve. Failure strength was defined as the first local maximum inflection point in the force displacement curve. Results: During load to fail testing, all but three of the specimens had both anchors pull out of the glenoid. The other mode of failure included one or both of the sutures failing. Stiffness was 13.52 ± 3.8, 17.97 ± 5.02, 17.59 ± 4.65 and 18.95 ± 4.67 N/mm for the adjacent, 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm treatment groups as shown Table 1. The adjacent group had a significantly lower stiffness compared to the other treatment groups. Failure strength was 48.68 ± 20.64, 76.16 ± 23.78, 73.19 ± 35.83 and 87.04 ± 34.67 N for the adjacent, 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm treatment groups as shown in Table 1. The adjacent group had a significantly lower

  6. Anchoring of FRET Sensors—A Requirement for Spatiotemporal Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Elena V.; Figueroa, Ricardo A.; Gatsinzi, Tom; Hallberg, Einar; Iverfeldt, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    FRET biosensors have become a routine tool for investigating mechanisms and components of cell signaling. Strategies for improving them for particular applications are continuously sought. One important aspect to consider when designing FRET probes is the dynamic distribution and propagation of signals within living cells. We have addressed this issue by directly comparing an anchored (taFS) to a non-anchored (naFS) cleavable FRET sensor. We chose a microtubule-associated protein tau as an anchor, as microtubules are abundant throughout the cytosol of cells. We show that tau-anchored FRET sensors are concentrated at the cytoskeleton and enriched in the neurite-like processes of cells, providing high intensity of the total signal. In addition, anchoring limits the diffusion of the sensor, enabling spatiotemporally resolved monitoring of subcellular variations in enzyme activity. Thus, anchoring is an important aspect to consider when designing FRET sensors for deeper understanding of cell signaling. PMID:27196902

  7. Anchoring of FRET Sensors-A Requirement for Spatiotemporal Resolution.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena V; Figueroa, Ricardo A; Gatsinzi, Tom; Hallberg, Einar; Iverfeldt, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    FRET biosensors have become a routine tool for investigating mechanisms and components of cell signaling. Strategies for improving them for particular applications are continuously sought. One important aspect to consider when designing FRET probes is the dynamic distribution and propagation of signals within living cells. We have addressed this issue by directly comparing an anchored (taFS) to a non-anchored (naFS) cleavable FRET sensor. We chose a microtubule-associated protein tau as an anchor, as microtubules are abundant throughout the cytosol of cells. We show that tau-anchored FRET sensors are concentrated at the cytoskeleton and enriched in the neurite-like processes of cells, providing high intensity of the total signal. In addition, anchoring limits the diffusion of the sensor, enabling spatiotemporally resolved monitoring of subcellular variations in enzyme activity. Thus, anchoring is an important aspect to consider when designing FRET sensors for deeper understanding of cell signaling. PMID:27196902

  8. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    SciTech Connect

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  9. BAHA: Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Hagr, Abdulrahman

    2007-01-01

    Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) has proven performance and advantages for patients with aural atresia or chronic ear drainage who cannot wear air-conduction hearing aids. The BAHA has both cosmetic and acoustic advantages over most conventional hearing aids and hence is becoming increasingly popular. Moreover, BAHA improves the quality of life and has also significantly reduces ear discharge. This extensive review of the literature pertaining to BAHA discus the history, the indications, the advantages, the prediction of the outcome and the complications of this device as well as comparing it to the conventional hearing aids. PMID:21475438

  10. Beam and pump currents for a MARS anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.D.; Devoto, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The MARS anchor has been modeled and analyzed with a numerical bounce-average Fokker-Planck treatment. The interactions between the various ion classes (passing, spanning and trapped) are treated in detail. Consistent solutions have been obtained for the complete asymmetric anchor. For baseline MARS parameters, 5.7 MW per end must be delivered by the anchor neutral beams, and 6.5 A per end must be pumped to maintain the sloshing ion axial density profiles.

  11. Ion transport proteins anchor and regulate the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Denker, Sheryl P; Barber, Diane L

    2002-04-01

    Structurally diverse ion transport proteins anchor the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane by binding directly to linker proteins of the ankyrin and protein 4.1 families. Cytoskeletal anchoring regulates cell shape and restricts the activity of ion transport proteins to specialised membrane domains. New directions are being forged by recent findings that localised anchoring by ion transport proteins regulates the ordered assembly of actin filaments and the actin-dependent processes of cell adhesion and motility. PMID:11891121

  12. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Dean K.; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J.; Matsuda, Nicole A.; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16–41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5–6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface. PMID:27011815

  13. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Dean K; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J; Matsuda, Nicole A; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16-41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5-6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface. PMID:27011815

  14. Decoding Cytoskeleton-Anchored and Non-Anchored Receptors from Single-Cell Adhesion Force Data.

    PubMed

    Sariisik, Ediz; Popov, Cvetan; Müller, Jochen P; Docheva, Denitsa; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Benoit, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Complementary to parameters established for cell-adhesion force curve analysis, we evaluated the slope before a force step together with the distance from the surface at which the step occurs and visualized the result in a two-dimensional density plot. This new tool allows detachment steps of long membrane tethers to be distinguished from shorter jumplike force steps, which are typical for cytoskeleton-anchored bonds. A prostate cancer cell line (PC3) immobilized on an atomic-force-microscopy sensor interacted with three different substrates: collagen-I (Col-I), bovine serum albumin, and a monolayer of bone marrow-derived stem cells (SCP1). To address PC3 cells' predominant Col-I binding molecules, an antibody-blocking β1-integrin was used. Untreated PC3 cells on Col-I or SCP1 cells, which express Col-I, predominantly showed jumps in their force curves, while PC3 cells on bovine-serum-albumin- and antibody-treated PC3 cells showed long membrane tethers. The probability density plots thus revealed that β1-integrin-specific interactions are predominately anchored to the cytoskeleton, while the nonspecific interactions are mainly membrane-anchored. Experiments with latrunculin-A-treated PC3 cells corroborated these observations. The plots thus reveal details of the anchoring of bonds to the cell and provide a better understanding of receptor-ligand interactions. PMID:26445433

  15. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1998-01-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  16. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, J.E.; King, G.W.

    1998-12-08

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole. 8 figs.

  17. Transosseous Acetabular Labral Repair as an Alternative to Anchors

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Carro, Luis; Cabello, Andres Gonzalez; Rakha, Mohamed Ibrahim; Patnaik, Sarthak; Centeno, Elias; Miranda, Victor; Fernández, Ana Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Labral tears are the most common pathology in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy and the most common cause of mechanical hip symptoms. Labral repair techniques have been described in the literature using suture anchors placed as close as possible to the acetabular rim without penetrating the articular surface. Optimal surgical technique for labral repair is very important, and an inappropriate entry point and guide angulation may lead to intra-articular penetration of the anchor, chondral damage, anchor loosening, or inadequate fixation. A shallow dysplastic hip, the drilling trajectory, the narrow width of the acetabular rim, or some specific anatomic variations may generate difficulty during anchor placement. Suture anchors themselves have been associated with several significant complications, including rim fracture, osteolysis, enlargement of drill holes, and infection. The treatment of labral lesions with transosseous suture is an alternative to anchor use, eliminating the need for anchors and avoiding anchor-associated complications. This technique offers versatility to surgeons and is more cost-effective for patients and health services. We aim to describe the indications and technique for transosseous labral repair without anchors. PMID:26697295

  18. New Retrievable Coil Anchors: Preliminary In Vivo Experiences in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Konya, A. Wright, K.C.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To design and test retrievable coil anchors to improve the safety and efficacy of coil embolization. Methods. Fifty-two 0.038-inch homemade retrievable stainless steel coils were equipped with one of four different pre-shaped nitinol anchors and tested in 38 pigs. All coils with the anchor were completely retrieved and redeployed 3-18 times (median 7 times) prior to release. Types 1 and 2 anchored coils were acutely deployed in the external iliac arteries (n = 10 each), and chronically tested (1 week) in the common carotid arteries (n = 6 each). Larger type 1 (n = 4), type 3 (n = 6), and type 4 (n = 4) anchored coils were acutely deployed in the abdominal aorta. The largest type 1 anchors (n = 6) were acutely tested in the inferior vena cava. Results. All anchored coils were successfully retrieved and repositioned several times. All but two coils formed a compact plug and there was no coil migration except with two mechanically defective type 3 anchors. Conclusion. The use of retrievable anchors allowed the coils to be retrieved and repositioned, prevented coil migration, and enabled compact coil configuration.

  19. The Ponto bone-anchored hearing system.

    PubMed

    Westerkull, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Based on a foundation of a well-documented Brånemark implant experience and the most advanced sound processing technology from Oticon, Oticon Medical introduced in 2009 a new bone-anchored hearing system, the Ponto system. Although the principle of percutaneous direct bone conduction is established, new technology aiming at improving speech perception and sound comfort in noisy environments is introduced with the new Ponto system. This has been possible by using the sound-processing platform from the most advanced conventional hearing aids from Oticon. Furthermore, specific steps have been taken aiming at improving the implant as well as the skin-penetrating abutment. The Ponto sound processor coupling has been developed to withstand long-term wear and tear. With the Ponto system, a new alternative is offered to the various groups of both new and existing users of bone-anchored hearing systems. In clinical studies of the Ponto Pro sound processor, the objective testing verified the high performance of the adaptive directionality system. The subjective questionnaires on speech perception and device handling also verified that the Ponto system offers efficient hearing rehabilitation as well as other user benefits. The Ponto system also includes possibilities to fit the sound processor 2 weeks after surgery. Referred clinical studies with the Ponto system have, however, not yet been published in the literature (autumn 2010).Clinical results have this far been presented at scientific conferences. PMID:21389702

  20. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing...

  1. Memory for Dialogue: Recalling an Anchor through Talk and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Pam

    This paper reports on a project involving student recall of the dialogue in a movie and retention of the "anchor," which in this case refers to a videotape recording of "To Kill a Mockingbird." The project looked at how students retained knowledge over a few days and what kind of activities resulted from expertise with an anchor. The goal of…

  2. Anchored Instruction in Preservice Educational Technology Classes: A Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Jeffrey W.

    This study examined the effectiveness of the anchored instruction (i.e., using a theme or anchor around which various learning activities take place) approach in preparing preservice teachers to integrate technology. Participants were 48 students enrolled in the three sections of a preservice educational technology class during the summer of 1997.…

  3. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing...

  4. Using Anchored Instruction to Evaluate Mathematical Growth and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Anchored instruction is designed to present problems in a meaningful context to allow for investigations into real life environments. The Jasper Project was created to allow students to investigate mathematical dilemmas using anchored instruction techniques. This study uses case study methods to examine the perceptions that preservice teachers…

  5. Bearing area: a new indication for suture anchor pullout strength?

    PubMed

    Yakacki, Christopher Michael; Griffis, Jack; Poukalova, Mariya; Gall, Ken

    2009-08-01

    Studies performed to quantify the pullout strength of suture anchors have not adequately defined the basic device parameters that control monotonic pullout. The bearing area of a suture anchor can be used to understand and predict anchor pullout strength in a soft-bone model. First, conical-shaped test samples were varied in size and shape and tested for pullout in 5, 8, and 10 pcf sawbone models. Next, bearing area and pullout strength relationships developed from the test samples were validated against nine commercially available suture anchors, including the Mitek QuickAnchor and SpiraLok, Opus Magnum(2), ArthroCare ParaSorb, and Arthrex BioCorkscrew. The samples showed a direct correlation between bearing area and pullout strength. Increased insertion depth was a secondary condition that also increased pullout strength. The pullout strength for the suture anchors followed the predicted trends of conical devices based on their individual bearing areas. For the 5 and 8 pcf models, only two and three devices, respectively, fell outside the predicted pullout strength range by more than a standard deviation. The use of a synthetic sawbone model was validated against the pullout strength of an Arthrex Corkscrew in five fresh-frozen cadaver humeral heads. The bearing area of a suture anchor can be used to predict the pullout strength independent of design in a soft-bone model. This work helps provide a foundation to understand the principles that affect the pullout strength of suture anchors. PMID:19226593

  6. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Partial Credit Model and Pivot Anchoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Rita K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Rasch measurement partial credit model, what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, and when and how to use it. Also describes the calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items. Explains pivot anchoring and illustrates its use and describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, item hierarchy, and…

  7. 107. View showing open caisson Pier 4 with anchor bolts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. View showing open caisson Pier 4 with anchor bolts placed ready for last pour of concrete. Also pile driver driving falsework piles for south anchor arm. Located at end of the old ferry landing slip at Crockett side of straits. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  9. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi

    2014-01-29

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  10. Anchoring submersible ultrasonic receivers in river channels with stable substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.; Hubbs, D.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an anchoring system for submersible ultrasonic receivers (SURs) that we placed on the bottom of the riverine reaches of three main-stem reservoirs in the upper Tennessee River. Each anchor consisted of a steel tube (8.9 x 35.6 cm) welded vertically to a round plate of steel (5.1 x 40.6 cm). All seven SURs and their 57-kg anchors were successfully deployed and retrieved three times over 547 d by a dive team employing surface air-breathing equipment and a davit-equipped boat. All of the anchors and their SURs remained stationary over two consecutive winters on the hard-bottom, thalweg sites where they were deployed. The SUR and its anchor at the most downriver site experienced flows that exceeded 2,100 m(3)/s and mean water column velocities of about 0.9 m/s.

  11. Wave propagation in damage assessment of ground anchors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, B.; Rucka, M.

    2015-07-01

    The inspection possibilities of ground anchors are limited to destructive test such as pull-out test. Guided wave propagation gives an opportunity to develop an inspection system dedicated to determine the condition of inspected element without violation of their integrity. In this paper the experimental study on wave propagation in laboratory models of ground anchors are presented. Experiments were conducted for different bonding lengths and different frequencies of excitation. Waves were generated by a piezoelectric actuator and the laser vibrometry technique was used to register velocity signals. For all tested anchors it was possible to identify the boundary between steel and concrete based on the registered reflections in wave propagation signals.

  12. Ideals as Anchors for Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Margaret; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Research on young-adult sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa typically conceptualizes sex as an individual-level risk behavior. We introduce a new approach that connects the conditions surrounding the initiation of sex with subsequent relationship well-being, examines relationships as sequences of interdependent events, and indexes relationship experiences to individually held ideals. New card-sort data from southern Malawi capture young women’s relationship experiences and their ideals in a sequential framework. Using optimal matching, we measure the distance between ideal and experienced relationship sequences to (1) assess the associations between ideological congruence and perceived relationship well-being, (2) compare this ideal-based approach to other experience-based alternatives, and (3) identify individual- and couple-level correlates of congruence between ideals and experiences in the romantic realm. We show that congruence between ideals and experiences conveys relationship well-being along four dimensions: expressions of love and support, robust communication habits, perceived biological safety, and perceived relationship stability. We further show that congruence is patterned by socioeconomic status and supported by shared ideals within romantic dyads. We argue that conceiving of ideals as anchors for how sexual experiences are manifest advances current understandings of romantic relationships, and we suggest that this approach has applications for other domains of life. PMID:27110031

  13. Photoinduced anchoring on a chalcogenide surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, N.; Kurioz, Yu.; Klebanov, M.; Lyubin, V.; Slyusarenko, K.; Reznikov, Yu.

    2012-05-01

    We present basic characteristics and a model of photoinduced anchoring of liquid crystals (LCs) on a chalcogenide surface. It was found that characteristics of the alignment strongly depend on the LC material for the same chalcogenide glass. The photoalignment is partially reversible and can be controlled by changing the light polarization direction. We propose a model in which the existence of dichroic units on the chalcogenide surface and competition between two mechanisms of the photoalignment is suggested. The first mechanism is related to the light-induced anisotropy on the chalcogenide surface and results in an easy orientation axes of a LC parallel to the polarization of the incident light. The second mechanism is attributed to an energy transfer from the dichroic units after the light absorption to the LC molecules adsorbed on the chalcogenide surface. The transferred energy causes polarization-sensitive desorption of the LC molecules from the chalcogenide surface and the light-induced easy orientation axis of a LC perpendicular to the incident light polarization. The competition between these mechanisms leads to the observed change of the direction of the easy axis with the exposure.

  14. Anchored boundary conditions for locally isostatic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theran, Louis; Nixon, Anthony; Ross, Elissa; Sadjadi, Mahdi; Servatius, Brigitte; Thorpe, M. F.

    2015-11-01

    Finite pieces of locally isostatic networks have a large number of floppy modes because of missing constraints at the surface. Here we show that by imposing suitable boundary conditions at the surface the network can be rendered effectively isostatic. We refer to these as anchored boundary conditions. An important example is formed by a two-dimensional network of corner sharing triangles, which is the focus of this paper. Another way of rendering such networks isostatic is by adding an external wire along which all unpinned vertices can slide (sliding boundary conditions). This approach also allows for the incorporation of boundaries associated with internal holes and complex sample geometries, which are illustrated with examples. The recent synthesis of bilayers of vitreous silica has provided impetus for this work. Experimental results from the imaging of finite pieces at the atomic level need such boundary conditions, if the observed structure is to be computer refined so that the interior atoms have the perception of being in an infinite isostatic environment.

  15. Material Testing for Robotic Omnidirectional Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkoe, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    To successfully explore near-Earth Asteroids the question of mobility emerges as the key issue for any robotic mission. When small bodies have extremely low escape velocities, traditional methods, such as wheels, would send the robot hurtling off of the asteroid's surface. To solve this problem, JPL has developed an omni-directional anchoring mechanism for use in microgravity that utilizes microspine technology. These microspines are placed in circular arrays with 16 independent carriages biasing the surface of the rock. The asperities in the surface allow the gripper to hold nearly 150N in all directions. While the gripper has been proven successful on consolidated rocks, it had yet to be tested on a variety of other surfaces that are suspected to separate the large boulders on an asteroid. Since asteroid surfaces vary widely, from friable rocks to lose ponds of regolith, the gripper was tested in a large variety of materials such as, bonded pumice, sand, gravel, and loose rocks. The forces are applied tangent, at 45 degrees, and normal to the surface of the material. The immediate results from this experiment will give insight into the gripper's effectiveness across the wide spectrum of materials found on asteroids.

  16. Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: More than just an anchor?

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Clive; Nolan, William; Williams, Alun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is increasing interest in the role of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors that attach some proteins to cell membranes. Far from being biologically inert, GPIs influence the targeting, intracellular trafficking and function of the attached protein. Our recent paper demonstrated the role of sialic acid on the GPI of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). The “prion diseases” arise following the conversion of PrPC to a disease-associated isoform called PrPSc or “prion”. Our paper showed that desialylated PrPC inhibited PrPSc formation. Aggregated PrPSc creates a signaling platform in the cell membrane incorporating and activating cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), an enzyme that regulates PrPC trafficking and hence PrPSc formation. The presence of desialylated PrPC caused the dissociation of cPLA2 from PrP-containing platforms, reduced the activation of cPLA2 and inhibited PrPSc production. We concluded that sialic acid contained within the GPI attached to PrPC modifies local membrane microenvironments that are important in PrP-mediated cell signaling and PrPSc formation. PMID:27195066

  17. Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: More than just an anchor?

    PubMed

    Bate, Clive; Nolan, William; Williams, Alun

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors that attach some proteins to cell membranes. Far from being biologically inert, GPIs influence the targeting, intracellular trafficking and function of the attached protein. Our recent paper demonstrated the role of sialic acid on the GPI of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). The "prion diseases" arise following the conversion of PrP(C) to a disease-associated isoform called PrP(Sc) or "prion". Our paper showed that desialylated PrP(C) inhibited PrP(Sc) formation. Aggregated PrP(Sc) creates a signaling platform in the cell membrane incorporating and activating cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), an enzyme that regulates PrP(C) trafficking and hence PrP(Sc) formation. The presence of desialylated PrP(C) caused the dissociation of cPLA2 from PrP-containing platforms, reduced the activation of cPLA2 and inhibited PrP(Sc) production. We concluded that sialic acid contained within the GPI attached to PrP(C) modifies local membrane microenvironments that are important in PrP-mediated cell signaling and PrP(Sc) formation. PMID:27195066

  18. Knotless anchors with sutures external to the anchor body may be at risk for suture cutting through osteopenic bone

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Y.; Woodmass, J. M.; Nelson, A. A.; Boorman, R. S.; Thornton, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the mechanical performance, under low-load cyclic loading, of two different knotless suture anchor designs: sutures completely internal to the anchor body (SpeedScrew) and sutures external to the anchor body and adjacent to bone (MultiFIX P). Methods Using standard suture loops pulled in-line with the rotator cuff (approximately 60°), anchors were tested in cadaveric bone and foam blocks representing normal to osteopenic bone. Mechanical testing included preloading to 10 N and cyclic loading for 500 cycles from 10 N to 60 N at 60 mm/min. The parameters evaluated were initial displacement, cyclic displacement and number of cycles and load at 3 mm displacement relative to preload. Video recording throughout testing documented the predominant source of suture displacement and the distance of ‘suture cutting through bone’. Results In cadaveric bone and foam blocks, MultiFIX P anchors had significantly greater initial displacement, and lower number of cycles and lower load at 3 mm displacement than SpeedScrew anchors. Video analysis revealed ‘suture cutting through bone’ as the predominant source of suture displacement in cadaveric bone (qualitative) and greater ‘suture cutting through bone’ comparing MultiFIX P with SpeedScrew anchors in foam blocks (quantitative). The greater suture displacement in MultiFIX P anchors was predominantly from suture cutting through bone, which was enhanced in an osteopenic bone model. Conclusions Anchors with sutures external to the anchor body are at risk for suture cutting through bone since the suture eyelet is at the distal tip of the implant and the suture directly abrades against the bone edge during cyclic loading. Suture cutting through bone may be a significant source of fixation failure, particularly in osteopenic bone. Cite this article: Y. Ono, J. M. Woodmass, A. A. Nelson, R. S. Boorman, G. M. Thornton, I. K. Y. Lo. Knotless anchors with sutures external to the anchor body may be

  19. Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. 19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. 2 AND 3, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTH. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  1. 20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST HALF OF SUSPENDED SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  2. Visual implant elastomer and anchor tag retention in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We double-marked largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides with Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant elastomer (VIE) marks before stocking to compare retention of the two marks for age-0 (178 mm total length [TL]) and age-1 (273 mm TL) largemouth bass. In a short-term (31-d) evaluation, retention rate of anchor tags was over 94% for each age-class and retention of VIE marks was 98% in both age-classes. In a longer-term comparison of fish stocked into the Ohio River, retention was substantially higher for VIE marks (92.9%) than for anchor tags (42.9%) after 403 d (ages combined). Although anchor tags had high retention in two sizes of largemouth bass during the short-term experiment, they should not be used in situations where accurate identification of marked fish is required for periods longer than 123 d. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  3. 21. DETAIL OF WEST (AMERICAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF WEST (AMERICAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF MAIN SPAN, SHOWING PIER M. VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  4. 22. DETAIL OF EAST (CANADIAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF EAST (CANADIAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF MAIN SPAN, SHOWING PIER C. VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  5. 34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm and cantilever arm spans, as seen from shore near pier 4, looking north - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  6. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  7. 43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM AND SUSPENDED (PANEL 67). VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  8. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR TYPICAL APPROACH SPANS AND ELEVATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR TYPICAL APPROACH SPANS AND ELEVATION OF BENT CAPS FOR APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5509-M1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  9. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 AND 6, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5505 TO 8-M1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  10. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN, WITH DETAILS, FOR STEEL BENTS AT APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN, WITH DETAILS, FOR STEEL BENTS AT APPROACH SPANS FOR APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5509-M2 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  11. Theory of anchoring on a two-dimensionally grooved surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Jun-Ichi; Gwag, Jin Seog; Yoneya, Makoto; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We investigate analytically the anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal on a two-dimensionally grooved surface of arbitrary shape, induced by the elastic distortions of a liquid crystal adjacent to the surface. Our theoretical framework applied to a surface with square grooves reveals that such a surface can exhibit bistable anchoring, while a direct extension of a well-known theory of Berreman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1683 (1972)] results in no azimuthal anchoring in the so-called one-constant case ( K1=K2=K3 , with K1 , K2 , and K3 being the splay, twist, and bend elastic constants, respectively). We show under the assumption of K1=K2=K that the direction of the bistable easy axes and the anchoring strength crucially depend on the ratios K3/K and K24/K , where K24 is the saddle-splay surface elastic constant. To demonstrate the applicability of our theory to general cases and to elucidate the effect of surface shape and the elastic constants on the properties of surface anchoring, we also consider several specific cases of interest; one-dimensional grooves of arbitrary shape, rhombic grooves, and surfaces possessing 2N -fold symmetry, including hexagonal grooves, and show the following: (i) The rescaled anchoring energy f(ϕ)/f(π/2) of one-dimensional grooves, with ϕ being the angle between the director n and the groove direction, is independent of the groove shape. (ii) Whether two diagonal axes of rhombic grooves can become easy axes depends sensitively on K3/K , K24/K and the angle α between the grooves. The angle α yielding the maximum anchoring strength for given groove pitch and amplitude depends again on K3/K and K24/K ; in some cases α=0 (one-dimensional grooves), and in other cases α≠0 , gives the maximum anchoring strength. Square grooves (α=π/2) do not necessarily exhibit the largest anchoring strength. (iii) A surface possessing 2N -fold symmetry can yield N -stable azimuthal anchoring. However, when K1=K2=K3 and N≥3 , azimuthal anchoring is

  12. Genome mapping by random anchoring: A discrete theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. Q.; Marr, T. G.

    1993-11-01

    As a part of the international human genome project, large-scale genomic maps of human and other model organisms are being generated. More recently, mapping using various anchoring (as opposed to the traditional "fingerprinting") strategies have been proposed based largely on mathematical models. In all of the theoretical work dealing with anchoring, an anchor has been idealized as a point on a continuous, infinite-length genome. In general, it is not desirable to make these assumptions, since in practice they may be violated under a variety of actual biological situations. Here we analyze a discrete model that can be used to predict the expected progress made when mapping by random anchoring. By virtue of keeping all three length scales (genome length, clone length, and probe length) finite, our results for the random anchoring strategy are derived in full generality, which contain previous results as special cases and hence can have broad application for planning mapping experiments or assessing the accuracy of the continuum models. Finally, we pose a challenging nonrandom anchoring model corresponding to a more efficient mapping scheme.

  13. Filamentous structures in skeletal muscle: anchors for the subsarcolemmal space.

    PubMed

    Khairani, Astrid Feinisa; Tajika, Yuki; Takahashi, Maiko; Ueno, Hitoshi; Murakami, Tohru; Soenggono, Arifin; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    In skeletal muscle fibers, intermediate filaments and actin filaments provide structural support to the myofibrils and the sarcolemma. For many years, it was poorly understood from ultrastructural observations that how these filamentous structures were kept anchored. The present study was conducted to determine the architecture of filamentous anchoring structures in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils. The diaphragms (Dp) of adult wild type and mdx mice (mdx is a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy) were subjected to tension applied perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle fibers, with or without treatment with 1% Triton X-100 or 0.03% saponin. These experiments were conducted to confirm the presence and integrity of the filamentous anchoring structures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that these structures provide firm transverse connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. Most of the filamentous structures appeared to be inserted into subsarcolemmal densities, forming anchoring connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. In some cases, actin filaments were found to run longitudinally in the subsarcolemmal space to connect to the sarcolemma or in some cases to connect to the intermyofibrils as elongated thin filaments. These filamentous anchoring structures were less common in the mdx Dp. Our data suggest that the transverse and longitudinal filamentous structures form an anchoring system in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils. PMID:24519712

  14. Epoxy-coated rock anchors for upper Occoquan Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Bruen, M.P.; Pansic, N.; Schwartz, M.I.

    1995-12-31

    High-capacity, epoxy-coated anchors were installed at Upper Occoquan Dam to increase the stability of the 70-foot-high concrete gravity dam and powerhouse under revised Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) conditions. The post-tensioned anchorage system consisted of 56 multi-strand rock anchors with design loads of 700 to 1855 kips, averaging 1500 kips per tendon. A double corrosion protection system was specified to provide protection throughout the entire anchor length. During anchor stressing and testing, significant creep movement under constant loads equivalent to 133% of the design load was experienced and exceeded the requisite Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI) criteria. In addition to the creep phenomena, seating losses during transfer of the load to the end anchorage are at least 2 to 3 times greater than that which has been experienced with bare-wire strand tendons. On the basis of anchor test results, modifications were made to the anchor testing protocol, acceptance criteria, and the approach used for assessment of the long-term performance of the anchorage system.

  15. Free versus anchored numerical estimation: A unified approach.

    PubMed

    Opfer, John E; Thompson, Clarissa A; Kim, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Children's number-line estimation has produced a lively debate about representational change, supported by apparently incompatible data regarding descriptive adequacy of logarithmic (Opfer, Siegler, & Young, 2011) and cyclic power models (Slusser, Santiago, & Barth, 2013). To test whether methodological differences might explain discrepant findings, we created a fully crossed 2×2 design and assigned 96 children to one of four cells. In the design, we crossed anchoring (free, anchored) and sampling (over-, even-), which were candidate factors to explain discrepant findings. In three conditions (free/over-sampling, free/even-sampling, and anchored/over-sampling), the majority of children provided estimates better fit by the logarithmic than cyclic power function. In the last condition (anchored/even-sampling), the reverse was found. Results suggest that logarithmically-compressed numerical estimates do not depend on sampling, that the fit of cyclic power functions to children's estimates is likely an effect of anchors, and that a mixed log/linear model provides a useful model for both free and anchored numerical estimation. PMID:26774104

  16. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  17. The Dynamics of Scaling: A Memory-Based Anchor Model of Category Rating and Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrov, Alexander A.; Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    A memory-based scaling model--ANCHOR--is proposed and tested. The perceived magnitude of the target stimulus is compared with a set of anchors in memory. Anchor selection is probabilistic and sensitive to similarity, base-level strength, and recency. The winning anchor provides a reference point near the target and thereby converts the global…

  18. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and...— (1) One anchor of the tabular weight and one-half the tabulated length of anchor chain listed in the applicable standard; or (2) Two anchors of one-half the tabular weight with the total length of anchor...

  19. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and...— (1) One anchor of the tabular weight and one-half the tabulated length of anchor chain listed in the applicable standard; or (2) Two anchors of one-half the tabular weight with the total length of anchor...

  20. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and...— (1) One anchor of the tabular weight and one-half the tabulated length of anchor chain listed in the applicable standard; or (2) Two anchors of one-half the tabular weight with the total length of anchor...

  1. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and...— (1) One anchor of the tabular weight and one-half the tabulated length of anchor chain listed in the applicable standard; or (2) Two anchors of one-half the tabular weight with the total length of anchor...

  2. Adsorption-induced anchoring transitions at nematic-liquid-crystal-crystal interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieranski, P.; Jérôme, B.

    1989-07-01

    Discontinuous (first-order) anchoring transitions are shown to occur as a function of water adsorption at the nematic-liquid-crystal(E9)-gypsum and E9-mica interfaces. The transitions involve growth of domains with an anchoring a' making a finite angle with the direction a of the parent anchoring. The growth proceeds by motion of walls separating the domains with the new anchoring a' from the matrix with the parental anchoring a. A Landau-type expression for the interfacial energy is proposed and used to classify the anchoring transitions and to explain the behavior of the domains during the first-order anchoring transitions.

  3. Sustained load performance of adhesive anchor systems in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Todd Marshall

    Stemming from a tragic failure of an adhesive anchor system, this research project investigated the sustained load performance of adhesive anchors in concrete under different installation and in-service conditions. The literature review investigated the current state of art of adhesive anchors. Extensive discussion was devoted to the behavior of adhesive anchors in concrete as well as the many factors that can affect their short-term and sustained load strength. Existing standards and specifications for the testing, design, construction, and inspection of adhesive anchors were covered. Based on the results of the literature review and the experience of the research group, a triage was conducted on many parameters identified as possibly affecting the sustained load performance of adhesive anchors and the highest priority parameters were investigated in this project. A stress versus time-to-failure approach was used to evaluate sensitivity of three ICC-ES AC 308 approved adhesive anchor systems. Of the various parameters investigated, only elevated in-service temperature and manufacturer's cure time was shown to exhibit adverse effects on sustained loads more than that predicted by short-term tests of fully cured adhesive over a reasonable structure lifetime of 75 years. In a related study, various tests were conducted on the adhesive alone (time-temperature superposition, time-stress superposition, and dogbone tensile tests). The results of that study were used to investigate the existence of a correlation with long-term anchor pullout testing in concrete. No consistent correlations were detected for the adhesives in the study. Tests were also conducted on the effect of early-age concrete on adhesive anchor bond strength. On the basis of confined test bond-strength alone, adhesive A (vinyl ester) did not show any significant increase after 14 days (102% of 28 day strength at 14 days), and adhesive B and C (epoxies) did not show any significant increase after 7 days

  4. Behavior of Giant Vesicles with Anchored DNA Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Nikolov, Vesselin; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Dimova, Rumiana

    2007-01-01

    We study changes in curvature and elastic properties of lipid membranes induced by anchoring of long hydrophilic polymers at low polymer surface concentrations (corresponding to the mushroom regime). The effect of anchored polymers on the membrane spontaneous curvature is characterized by monitoring the changes in the fluctuation spectra and the morphology of giant unilamellar vesicles. The polymers used in our study are fluorescently labeled and biotinylated λ-phage DNA molecules which bind to biotinylated giant unilamellar vesicles via a biotin-avidin-biotin linkage. By varying the amount of biotinylated lipid in the membrane, we control the surface concentration of anchors. At low anchor concentrations, the spontaneous curvature of the membrane increases linearly with the DNA concentration. The linear increase is consistent with theoretical predictions for polymer surface concentrations in the mushroom regime. At higher anchor concentrations, which should still belong to the mushroom regime, the vesicles undergo budding transitions. In this latter regime, the bud size is used to estimate the polymer-induced membrane curvature. PMID:17384074

  5. The "loop with anchor" technique to repair mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Susumu; Osako, Motohiko; Kimura, Tamizo; Mashiko, Yuji; Yamanaka, Nozomu; Nakamura, Shingo; Maehara, Tadaaki

    2012-01-01

    The current surgical technique of using an artificial chord (composed of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene [ePTFE] sutures) to repair mitral prolapse is technically difficult to perform. Slippery knot tying and the difficulty of changing the chordae length after the hydrostatic test are frustrating problems. The loop technique solves the problem of slippery knot tying but not the problem of changing the chordae length. Our "loop with anchor" technique consists of the following elements: construction of an anchor at the papillary muscle; determining the loop length; tying the loop to the anchor; suturing the loop to the mitral valve; the hydrostatic test; and re-suturing or changing the loop, if needed. Adjustments can be made for the entire procedure or for a portion of the procedure. PMID:22156285

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring Processess for Small Body Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Mazahar, Hammad; Negrut, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent work done in modeling and simulation of anchoring processes in granular media, with applications to anchoring on a Near Earth Object (NEO), where the forces due to interactions with the regolith are much stronger than the local surface gravity field. This effort is part of a larger systems engineering capability developed at JPL to answer key questions, validate requirements, conduct key system and mission trades,and evaluate performance and risk related to NEO operations for any proposed human or robotic missions to a NEO.

  7. 17. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING EAST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING EAST ALONG THE MAIN LINE TRACK LOCATED TO THE NORTH OF THE COS COB POWER PLANT. ANCHOR BRIDGES LOCATED AT TWO MILE INTERVALS WITHSTAND CATENARY TENSION AND PROVIDE A PLATFORM FOR MOUNTING OIL FILLED CIRCUIT BREAKERS, LIGHTNING ARRESTORS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. THE ROOF OF THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER CAN BE SEEN DIRECTLY BEHIND THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  8. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    PubMed

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  9. [Dactylogyrids (Monogenea: Dactylogyridea) with an unusual number of anchors, their origin and phylogenetic significance. Reference data].

    PubMed

    Gerasev, P I

    2002-01-01

    It is considered that in Anacanthorinae, Markewitschiana and Pseudacolpenteron pavlovskii (Dactylogyridae s. s.) the anchors are absent originally. In the other dactylogyrids (s. l.) without anchors (Pseudacolpenteron ignotus; Acolpenteron; Anonchohaptor-Icelanchohaptor; Kritskyia-Telethecium-Pavanelliela) these structures are lost. In related genera Rhinoxenus and Nanotrema the dorsal pair of anchors is transformed into the "spikes"; in Heteronchocleidinae there is one anchor; in Trinigyrus and Schilbetrematoides are two anchors; and in Urogyrus three anchors are reduced. But in Rhinonaster, Cacatyocotyle, Callceostomella, Neocalseostoma elongatum and Pseudodactylogyridae the presence of one pair of ventral "peduncular" or "haptoral" anchors appear to be the original state. For Anacanthorinae and Dactylogyridae s. s. the presence of 18-16 hooks, original lacking of anchors, appearance of one pair of them, evolutionary development and subsequent reduction of these structures are characteristic. In the dactylogyrids (s. l.) having two pairs of anchors and 14 hooks, one pair of the anchors is present originally, then usually the second dorsal pair grows up, and finally, the reduction of a part of anchors or all the anchors is possible. In the 16-hooked dactylogyrids (s. l.) having two pairs of anchors (Tetraonchinea, Amphibdellainea, Neodactylodiscinea) the original lacking or reduction of the anchors is not reported. The author considers, that it is unwarranted to unite all dactylogyrids (s. l.) without anchors into the superorder Ananchorea Malmberg, 1990 or to postulate the original presence of the two pairs of ventral anchors in this group. It is also impossible to unit all dactylogyrids (s. l.) having 0-4 anchors and 18-14 hooks into Dactylogyridae sensu Boeger et Kritsky, 1993. PMID:12070963

  10. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, Judit; Melican, Gerald; Proctor, Thomas; Wiley, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Presented at the Annual Meeting of National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in 2010. The focus of the research is to investigate the effect of applying the Sinharay & Holland (2007) midi-test idea for building anchor tests to an on-going testing program with a series of versions of the test and comparing these results to the more…

  11. Detecting Anchoring-and-Adjusting in Survey Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Proper survey design is essential to obtain reliable, replicable data from research subjects. One threat to inferences drawn from surveys is anchoring-and-adjusting. Tversky and Kahnemann (1974) observed that participants' responses to questions depended systematically on irrelevant information they received prior to answering. It is important for…

  12. Culturally-Anchored Values and University Education Experience Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsis, Ann; Foley, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether business students' gender, age and culturally-anchored values affect their perceptions of their university course experience. Design/methodology/approach: Culturally diverse business students (n 1/4 548) studying at an Australian university were surveyed using previously established scales.…

  13. 20. DETAIL, ANCHOR BLOCK AND BUTTRESS AT SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL, ANCHOR BLOCK AND BUTTRESS AT SOUTH END OF DAM, SHOWING PROMINENT GROOVE WHERE THE NEXT ARCH COULD HAVE BEEN JOINED TO THE NORTH-SOUTH TRENDING DAM. - Rock Creek Dam, East end of Rock Creek Road, Auburn, Placer County, CA

  14. 48 CFR 1812.7000 - Anchor tenancy contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchor tenancy contracts. 1812.7000 Section 1812.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Commercial Space Hardware...

  15. 48 CFR 1812.7000 - Anchor tenancy contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchor tenancy contracts. 1812.7000 Section 1812.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Commercial Space Hardware...

  16. Effective Leadership for Supervisors: Behaviorally Anchored Supervision System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukic, Stevan J.; Fister, Susan

    The paper describes the Behaviorally Anchored Supervision System (BASS), an approach to supervision in special education based on the definition of effective instruction developed by the Council for Exceptional Children in 1986. A comprehensive model for excellence in special education is based upon the following four elements: values,…

  17. Early active mobilization following UCL repair With Mitek bone anchor.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Timothy P; Stevenson, Susan; Taghizadeh, Reika; Addison, Patrick; Milner, Richard H

    2013-09-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries of the thumb are common. Surgical repair is accepted as the treatment of choice for complete rupture of the ligament. Biomechanical studies have suggested that Mitek bone anchor repairs are potentially safe and strong enough to allow early controlled active mobilization. To date, there have been no studies to compare early active mobilization following Mitek bone anchor repair to standard postoperative rehabilitation involving thumb spica immobilization for the first 4 to 6 weeks. We performed a small pilot randomized control trial to assess the outcome of this new rehabilitation technique to that of standard immobilization following UCL repair with Mitek bone anchor. Our results show that on average early active mobilization leads to an earlier return to full hand function (6 vs. 8 wk) and an earlier return to work (7 vs. 11 wk). There is no difference in the final range of motion achieved. We suggest that Mitek bone anchor repairs for UCL ruptures are robust enough to allow early active mobilization and that a larger trial is warranted to assess whether early active mobilization is superior to standard rehabilitation. PMID:23970193

  18. Isolating Suture Slippage During Cadaveric Testing of Knotless Anchors.

    PubMed

    Klinge, Stephen A; Vopat, Bryan G; Paller, David; Avery, Anthony L; Koruprolu, Sarath; Fadale, Paul D

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated a testing method designed to isolate and analyze the effectiveness of different suture-retention mechanisms in knotless suture anchors used for rotator cuff repairs. Six knotless PushLock implants (Arthrex) with a suture-retention mechanism dependent on a press-fit of suture between the anchor's outer diameter and surrounding bone were compared with 6 ReelX STT devices (Stryker) reliant on an intrinsic suture-locking mechanism. Suture slippage beyond minimal clinical failure thresholds, as well as ultimate failure load, were determined with a novel testing fixture that isolated suture slippage. Suture slippage was isolated from anchor-bone disengagement. Each PushLock exhibited suture slippage of more than 3 mm, and each ReelX exhibited slippage of less than 3 mm. The PushLock implants also exhibited significantly (P < .05) more interval and maximum slippage; 5 of these 6 implants failed via complete suture slippage before dynamic testing could be completed. All ReelX devices survived dynamic testing and ultimately failed via suture breakage. This novel axial load biomechanical testing technique isolated suture slippage in 2 uniquely designed knotless anchors. The press-fit PushLock implant was prone to slippage failure, whereas the ReelX device with its internal suture-locking mechanism exhibited minimal slippage. PMID:26161766

  19. Self Mountable and Extractable Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Self drilling anchors and related methods and apparatus. In one embodiment an apparatus comprises a drill bit, a hammer mechanism for hammering the drill bit in a first direction and in a second direction, and a selection mechanism for controlling whether, at a given point in time, the drill bit is hammered in the first or second direction.

  20. When Does Scale Anchoring Work? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Providing information to test takers and test score users about the abilities of test takers at different score levels has been a persistent problem in educational and psychological measurement. Scale anchoring, a technique which describes what students at different points on a score scale know and can do, is a tool to provide such information.…

  1. 33 CFR 401.14 - Anchor marking buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchor marking buoys. 401.14 Section 401.14 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.14...

  2. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, Judit; Proctor, Thomas P.; Melican, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    In common-item equating the anchor block is generally built to represent a miniature form of the total test in terms of content and statistical specifications. The statistical properties frequently reflect equal mean and spread of item difficulty. Sinharay and Holland (2007) suggested that the requirement for equal spread of difficulty may be too…

  3. Equating without an Anchor for Nonequivalent Groups of Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2015-01-01

    An equating procedure for a testing program with evolving distribution of examinee profiles is developed. No anchor is available because the original scoring scheme was based on expert judgment of the item difficulties. Pairs of examinees from two administrations are formed by matching on coarsened propensity scores derived from a set of…

  4. Ten Anchor Points for Teaching Principles of Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkovick, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Effective marketing instructors commonly share a love for their students, an affinity for the subject matter, and a devotion to continuous quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 anchor points for teaching Principles of Marketing, which are designed to better engage students in the learning process. These anchor…

  5. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground...

  6. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground...

  7. Aerothermal Anchoring of CBAERO Using High Fidelity CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The Configuration Based Aerodynamics (CBAERO) software package is used to predict the convective and radiative heating environments for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). A limited number of high fidelity CFD solutions are used to "anchor" the engineering level estimates obtained using CBAERO.

  8. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  9. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  10. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  11. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  12. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  13. 24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON STATION IN GULF OF MEXICO WITH MOTOR BOAT TIED AT STERN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  14. 16. STRUCTURAL DETAILS: CHANNEL, BIT & CLEAT, ANCHOR BOLTS & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STRUCTURAL DETAILS: CHANNEL, BIT & CLEAT, ANCHOR BOLTS & PLATES FOR PIERS 4, 5, AND 6, DWG. NO. 97, 1-1/2" = 1', MADE BY A.F., JUNE 13, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. Finding the Optimal Guidance for Enhancing Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Bathke, Arne; Hasselbring, Ted S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different methods of guidance with anchored instruction on students' mathematical problem-solving performance. The purpose of this research was to iteratively design a learning environment to find the optimal level of guidance. Two iterations of the software were compared. The first iteration used…

  16. Poor Anchoring Limits Dyslexics' Perceptual, Memory, and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-01-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…

  17. Implementing Anchored Instruction: Guiding Principles for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Kim; And Others

    A curriculum based on "anchored instruction" was developed to enhance students' literacy development and acquisition of knowledge. The curriculum was designed to create a rich, shared environment that generates interest and enables students to identify and define problems while they explore the content from many perspectives. Based on what is…

  18. Development of Behaviorally-Anchored Rating Scales for Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grussing, Paul G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen behaviorally-anchored rating scales were developed for a comprehensive measure of performance in pharmacy practice, including pharmacist selection, performance appraisal, and promotion activities. The scales (which are included) were also used to evaluate extern performance, and to serve as a criterion measure in studies of concurrent…

  19. Corrected High-Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Amanda L.; Finch, Kenneth B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To improve lingual ultrasound imaging with the Corrected High Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment (CHAUSA; Miller, 2008) method. Method: A production study of the IsiXhosa alveolar click is presented. Articulatory-to-acoustic alignment is demonstrated using a Tri-Modal 3-ms pulse generator. Images from 2 simultaneous…

  20. Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…

  1. 46 CFR 32.15-15 - Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers-TB/ALL

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... will evaluate the suitability of the equipment. (e) Barges Equipped with Anchors to Comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1). Each barge equipped with an anchor, to comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1), must be...

  2. 46 CFR 32.15-15 - Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers-TB/ALL

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... will evaluate the suitability of the equipment. (e) Barges Equipped with Anchors to Comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1). Each barge equipped with an anchor, to comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1), must be...

  3. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome

    PubMed Central

    Czapiewski, Rafal; Robson, Michael I.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature aging progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are (1) weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and (2) disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both. PMID:27200088

  4. Corrosion of rock anchors in US coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylapudi, Gopi

    The mining industry is a major consumer of rock bolts in the United States. Due to the high humidity in the underground mining environment, the rock bolts corrode and loose their load bearing capacity which in turn reduces the life expectancy of the ground support and, thus, creates operational difficulties and number of safety concerns[1]. Research on rock anchor corrosion has not been adequately extensive in the past and the effects of several factors in the mine atmosphere and waters are not clearly understood. One of the probable reasons for this lack of research may be attributed to the time required for gathering meaningful data that makes the study of corrosion quite challenging. In this particular work underground water samples from different mines in the Illinois coal basin were collected and the major chemical content was analyzed and used for the laboratory testing. The corrosion performance of the different commercial rock anchors was investigated by techniques such as laboratory immersion tests in five different corrosion chambers, and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated ground waters based on the Illinois coal basin. The experiments were conducted with simulate underground mining conditions (corrosive). The tensile strengths were measured for the selected rock anchors taken every 3 months from the salt spray corrosion chambers maintained at different pH values and temperatures. The corrosion potential (Ecorr ), corrosion current (Icorr) and the corresponding corrosion rates (CR) of the selected commercial rock bolts: #5, #6, #6 epoxy coated and #7 forged head rebar steels, #6 and #7 threaded head rebar steels were measured at the solution pH values of 5 and 8 at room temperature. The open circuit potential (OCP) values of the different rock anchors were recorded in 3 selected underground coal mines (A, B & C) in the Illinois coal basin and the data compared with the laboratory electrochemical tests for analyzing the life of the rock

  5. Equilibrium Configuration in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Droplet with Homeotropic Anchoring of Finite Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanke, Masaki; Sasaki, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Equilibrium configuration of order parameter in a nematic liquid crystal droplet with homeotropic anchoring of finite strength at the surface is studied numerically by using the Landau--de Gennes approach. It is found that a hedgehog-like configuration with a disclination loop of a small radius is stable for strong anchoring while an axial configuration without defect is stable for weak anchoring. A first-order phase transition from one configuration to the other occurs as the strength of the anchoring is varied. The critical anchoring strength turns out to increase almost linearly with the inverse of the droplet radius.

  6. Simulation study of liquid crystal anchoring at a polymer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaneh, Mehdi

    2005-03-01

    The process of rubbing a polymer substrate to induce planar anchoring has two effects. It aligns the polymer chains and also creates grooves in the surface. We have investigated which one of these effects is more important by conducting a series of simulations of molecules of 5CB in contact with a poly(vinyl alcohol) surface. The polymer surface was constructed from a set of parallel straight chains. It was then distorted to mimic the effect of grooves in a direction perpendicular to the chain direction, thus causing two opposing anchoring effects. It was found that the 5CB molecules ordered preferentially along the chain direction when the depth of the grooves was less than 20 percent of the distance between grooves. For grooves whose walls were more steeply pitched, the nematic ordering aligned with the grooves.

  7. Arthroscopic Suture Anchor Tenodesis: Loop-Suture Technique

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Min Soo; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lim, Tae Kang; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Young Eun; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2013-01-01

    With advancements in arthroscopic surgery, arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with suture anchor recently has been reported to be a reasonable option for the treatment of biceps pathologies, especially for those that are symptomatic or accompanied by a rotator cuff tear. We introduce our technique of arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with suture anchor that we call the loop-suture technique, which is constructed with 1 loop strand and another sutured strand. This technique can help to improve biceps grip and simultaneously minimize longitudinal splitting of the tendon. In addition, it is relatively simple and can be performed with the use of conventional devices and arthroscopic portals used for rotator cuff repair, without the formation of additional portals or a separate incision for the tenodesis. PMID:23875133

  8. Accessorizing and anchoring the LINC complex for multifunctionality

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wakam; Worman, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, composed of outer and inner nuclear membrane Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology (KASH) and Sad1 and UNC-84 (SUN) proteins, respectively, connects the nucleus to cytoskeletal filaments and performs diverse functions including nuclear positioning, mechanotransduction, and meiotic chromosome movements. Recent studies have shed light on the source of this diversity by identifying factors associated with the complex that endow specific functions as well as those that differentially anchor the complex within the nucleus. Additional diversity may be provided by accessory factors that reorganize the complex into higher-ordered arrays. As core components of the LINC complex are associated with several diseases, understanding the role of accessory and anchoring proteins could provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25559183

  9. Effective anchoring energy in dipolar organic film on metals surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Zakharov, A. V.

    2007-04-01

    The influence of electron injection from the metal electrode into organic liquid crystal dipolar film on the effective anchoring energy (EAE) of the polar organic film is discussed from the energy point of view. It is shown that the accounting for the injected carrier in organic film results in a polynomial function for the EAE expanded up to the fourth order in cos θs, where θs is the polar angle of the director nˆ at the film/metal interface. It is also shown that in a certain range of the location of centroid of the injected carrier z¯ the destabilizing surface polarization mechanism may lead to destruction of the linear anchoring strength coefficient w1. The strong influence of z¯ on the quadratic term w2 also has been demonstrated.

  10. Graphene Nanoribbons Anchored to a SiC Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Lilia; Le, Nam

    Due to their exceptional fundamental characteristics graphene nanoribbons play a major role in the development of future nano-technological applications. The high chemical reactivity of the graphene nanoribbon edges can be utilized to create modified materials. Using first principles simulations we explore this possibility to construct patterned systems composed of anchored ribbons of zigzag edges covalently bonded to a SiC substrate. The hybrid edge states are found to possess interesting electronic and magnetic properties, which alter the overall behavior of the entire system as compared to the behavior of the individual components. It is found that the van der Waals interactions are important for the overall stability and structure of the anchored ribbons. Also, spin-polarization effects play a profound role in the electronic structure and associated density of states. The hybrid graphene/SiC zigzag edges are analyzed in terms of their transport characteristics as well.

  11. Anchoring transition in confined discotic columnar liquid crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Thomas; Thiebaut, Olivier; Charlet, Émilie; Bock, Harald; Kelber, Julien; Grelet, Éric

    2011-01-01

    We report the achievement of ultrathin films (down to 25 nm thick) of thermotropic columnar liquid crystals in homeotropic alignment (columns normal to the interface) confined between a glass slide and a thin metallic electrode (about 150 nm thick). The face-on orientation of the discotic compound is obtained by anchoring transition of a columnar liquid crystalline phase from a degenerate planar orientation to the homeotropic alignment without any phase transition to the isotropic liquid phase. The kinetic dependence on temperature of such anchoring transition is investigated revealing various diffusive growth regimes of the homeotropic domains. Finally, confining effects are also considered by varying the thickness of the columnar liquid crystal film to reach the typical value required in organic solar cells thus demonstrating the reliability of such alignment process in a photovoltaic context.

  12. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to SiC substrates.

    PubMed

    Le, Nam B; Woods, Lilia M

    2016-09-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are quasi-one-dimensional planar graphene allotropes with diverse properties dependent on their width and types of edges. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to substrates is a hybrid system, which offers novel opportunities for property modifications as well as experimental control. Here we present electronic structure calculations of zigzag graphene nanoribbons chemically attached via the edges to the Si or C terminated surfaces of a SiC substrate. The results show that the edge characteristics are rather robust and the properties are essentially determined by the individual nanoribbon. While the localized spin polarization of the graphene nanoribbon edge atoms is not significantly affected by the substrate, secondary energy gaps in the highest conduction and lowest valence region may emerge in the anchored structures. The van der Waals interaction together with the electrostatic interactions due to the polarity of the surface bonds are found to be important for the structure parameters and energy stability. PMID:27392014

  13. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to SiC substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Nam B.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2016-09-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are quasi-one-dimensional planar graphene allotropes with diverse properties dependent on their width and types of edges. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to substrates is a hybrid system, which offers novel opportunities for property modifications as well as experimental control. Here we present electronic structure calculations of zigzag graphene nanoribbons chemically attached via the edges to the Si or C terminated surfaces of a SiC substrate. The results show that the edge characteristics are rather robust and the properties are essentially determined by the individual nanoribbon. While the localized spin polarization of the graphene nanoribbon edge atoms is not significantly affected by the substrate, secondary energy gaps in the highest conduction and lowest valence region may emerge in the anchored structures. The van der Waals interaction together with the electrostatic interactions due to the polarity of the surface bonds are found to be important for the structure parameters and energy stability.

  14. Arthroscopic suture anchor tenodesis: loop-suture technique.

    PubMed

    Shon, Min Soo; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lim, Tae Kang; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Young Eun; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2013-05-01

    With advancements in arthroscopic surgery, arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with suture anchor recently has been reported to be a reasonable option for the treatment of biceps pathologies, especially for those that are symptomatic or accompanied by a rotator cuff tear. We introduce our technique of arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with suture anchor that we call the loop-suture technique, which is constructed with 1 loop strand and another sutured strand. This technique can help to improve biceps grip and simultaneously minimize longitudinal splitting of the tendon. In addition, it is relatively simple and can be performed with the use of conventional devices and arthroscopic portals used for rotator cuff repair, without the formation of additional portals or a separate incision for the tenodesis. PMID:23875133

  15. Recycling Suture Limbs from Knotless Suture Anchors for Arthroscopic Shoulder Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy S.; DiPompeo, Christine M.; Ismaeli, Zahra C.; Porter, Polly A.; Nicholson, Shannon L.; Johnson, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent shoulder instability often leads to labral abnormality that requires surgical intervention that may require fixation with suture anchors. The proposed surgical technique allows the surgeon to achieve 2 points of fixation around the labrum and/or capsule with a single suture secured to the glenoid with a knotless anchor. Instead of cutting and discarding the residual suture limbs after anchor insertion, this technique uses the residual suture limbs of the knotless anchor for a second suture pass. This technique (1) creates a more cost- and time-efficient surgical procedure than using multiple single-loaded anchors or double-loaded anchors, (2) decreases the known risk of glenoid fracture from the stress riser at the implant tips of multi-anchor repairs by reducing the number of anchors required for stabilization, (3) decreases the surgical time compared with the use of double-loaded anchors through simpler suture management and less knot tying, (4) allows for the secure reapproximation of the labrum to the glenoid while offering a convenient option for capsulorrhaphy without the need to insert another anchor, and (5) yields more points of soft-tissue fixation with fewer anchors drilled into the glenoid. PMID:25126504

  16. Taking the high (or low) road: a quantifier priming perspective on basic anchoring effects.

    PubMed

    Sleeth-Keppler, David

    2013-01-01

    Current explanations of basic anchoring effects, defined as the influence of an arbitrary number standard on an uncertain judgment, confound numerical values with vague quantifiers. I show that the consideration of numerical anchors may bias subsequent judgments primarily through the priming of quantifiers, rather than the numbers themselves. Study 1 varied the target of a numerical comparison judgment in a between--participants design, while holding the numerical anchor value constant. This design yielded an anchoring effect consistent with a quantifier priming hypothesis. Study 2 included a direct manipulation of vague quantifiers in the traditional anchoring paradigm. Finally, Study 3 examined the notion that specific associations between quantifiers, reflecting values on separate judgmental dimensions (i.e., the price and height of a target) can affect the direction of anchoring effects. Discussion focuses on the nature of vague quantifier priming in numerically anchored judgments. PMID:23951950

  17. Creating Order from Chaos: Cellular Regulation by Kinase Anchoring

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D.; Dessauer, Carmen W.; Tasken, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    Second messenger responses rely on where and when the enzymes that propagate these signals become active. Spatial and temporal organization of certain signaling enzymes is controlled in part by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). This family of regulatory proteins was originally classified on the basis of their ability to compartmentalize the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (also known as protein kinase A, or PKA). However, it is now recognized that AKAPs position G protein–coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, G proteins, and their effector proteins in relation to protein kinases and signal termination enzymes such as phosphodiesterases and protein phosphatases. This arrangement offers a simple and efficient means to limit the scope, duration, and directional flow of information to sites deep within the cell. This review focuses on the pros and cons of reagents that define the biological role of kinase anchoring inside cells and discusses recent advances in our understanding of anchored second messenger signaling in the cardiovascular and immune systems. PMID:23043438

  18. Genome Assembly Anchored QTL Map of Bovine Chromosome 14

    PubMed Central

    Wibowo, Tito A.; Gaskins, Charles T.; Newberry, Ruth C.; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Michal, Jennifer J.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2008-01-01

    Bovine chromosome 14 (BTA14) has been widely explored for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes related to economically important traits in both dairy and beef cattle. We reviewed more than 40 investigations and anchored 126 QTL to the current genome assembly (Btau 4_0). Using this anchored QTL map, we observed that, in dairy cattle, the region spanning 0 – 10 Mb on BTA14 has the highest density QTL map with a total of 56 QTL, mainly for milk production traits. It is very likely that both somatic cell score (SCS) and clinical mastitis share some common QTL in two regions: 61.48 Mb - 73.84 Mb and 7.86 Mb – 39.55 Mb, respectively. As well, both ovulation rate and twinning rate might share a common QTL region from 34.16 Mb to 65.38 Mb. However, there are no common QTL locations in three pregnancy related phenotypes: non-return rate, pregnancy rate and daughter pregnancy rate. In beef cattle, the majority of QTL are located in a broad region of 15 Mb – 45 Mb on the chromosome. Functional genes, such as CRH, CYP11B1, DGAT1, FABP4 and TG, as potential candidates for some of these QTL, were also reviewed. Therefore, our review provides a standardized QTL map anchored within the current genome assembly, which would enhance the process of selecting positional and physiological candidate genes for many important traits in cattle. PMID:19043607

  19. The Effects of Different Types of Anchor Tests on Observed Score Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-09-41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Curley, Edward

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the use of a different type of anchor, a "midi anchor", that has a smaller spread of item difficulties than the tests to be equated, and then contrasts its use with the use of a "mini anchor". The impact of different anchors on observed score equating were evaluated and compared with respect to systematic error (bias), random…

  20. Monitoring Lipid Anchor Organization in Cell Membranes by PIE-FCCS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the dynamic co-localization of lipid-anchored fluorescent proteins in living cells using pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS) and fluorescence lifetime analysis. Specifically, we look at the pairwise co-localization of anchors from lymphocyte cell kinase (LCK: myristoyl, palmitoyl, palmitoyl), RhoA (geranylgeranyl), and K-Ras (farnesyl) proteins in different cell types. In Jurkat cells, a density-dependent increase in cross-correlation among RhoA anchors is observed, while LCK anchors exhibit a more moderate increase and broader distribution. No correlation was detected among K-Ras anchors or between any of the different anchor types studied. Fluorescence lifetime data reveal no significant Förster resonance energy transfer in any of the data. In COS 7 cells, minimal correlation was detected among LCK or RhoA anchors. Taken together, these observations suggest that some lipid anchors take part in anchor-specific co-clustering with other existing clusters of native proteins and lipids in the membrane. Importantly, these observations do not support a simple interpretation of lipid anchor-mediated organization driven by partitioning based on binary lipid phase separation. PMID:22631607

  1. Not all nutrition claims are perceived equal: anchoring effects and moderating mechanisms in food advertising.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Hye Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on the presence or absence of a numerical "anchor" or reference point. Two (pilot and main) experimental studies explore anchoring effects on audience response to food advertising both directly and moderated by cognitive, motivational, and message factors. The pilot study finds that food product ads employing nutrition claims with an anchor rather than without an anchor generate two results: First, participants perceive the product to have lower fat/lower calorie contents (anchoring hypothesis); second, they prefer the messages with an anchor over those without an anchor. The main study reports that when anchoring is successfully evoked, it produces favorable attitudes toward the ad, favorable attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intention-but only when moderated by health orientation, claim believability, and nutrition knowledge. Practical implications are provided with respect to regulatory guidelines and effective communication strategies for promoting low-fat and low-calorie products in food advertising. PMID:21308579

  2. Study of anchoring behavior of nematic fluids at the interface of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian

    A liquid crystal (LC) at its boundary surface adopts a preferential alignment, which is referred to as anchoring. The direction of this alignment (i.e., anchoring direction) may be perpendicular, parallel or tilted with respect to the surface. Transitions from one anchoring condition to another may occur when the parameters (e.g., temperature) charactering the surface change, as referred to as anchoring transitions. In the LC-polymer composite systems under our study, the anchoring and temperature-driven anchoring transitions of nematic fluids is very sensitive to the structure of the side chain of poly (alkyl acrylate) matrixes that encapsulate the LC. We have shown that the anchoring transition temperature of these systems can be tuned far below the nematic-to-isotropic transition temperature, by varying either the length, branching structure of the side chains of homopolymers, or the composition of copolymer of two dissimilar monomers. Both sharp and broad anchoring transitions with respect to the temperature range over which a transition occurs were observed. It is postulated that microscopic interactions between the polymer side chains and LC molecules play an important role in determining the anchoring. In particular, the conformation of the polymer side chain is proposed to have important control over the anchoring. Anchoring strength and tilt angle as a function of temperature during the anchoring transitions were also experimentally investigated, which contribute to understanding of the microscopic mechanism for such transitions. Based on the LC-polymer composites with controlled anchoring, a LC display with reverse switching mode and a novel electrically switchable diffraction grating have been demonstrated. The advantages of these devices are ease of manufacturing, low operation voltage, and mechanical stability offered by polymer matrix. Moreover, a detailed study of the director configuration of wall defects found in these composite films was carried

  3. Aromatic Anchor at an Invariant Hormone-Receptor Interface

    PubMed Central

    Pandyarajan, Vijay; Smith, Brian J.; Phillips, Nelson B.; Whittaker, Linda; Cox, Gabriella P.; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda; Menting, John G.; Wan, Zhu-li; Whittaker, Jonathan; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Lawrence, Michael C.; Weiss, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Crystallographic studies of insulin bound to fragments of the insulin receptor have recently defined the topography of the primary hormone-receptor interface. Here, we have investigated the role of PheB24, an invariant aromatic anchor at this interface and site of a human mutation causing diabetes mellitus. An extensive set of B24 substitutions has been constructed and tested for effects on receptor binding. Although aromaticity has long been considered a key requirement at this position, MetB24 was found to confer essentially native affinity and bioactivity. Molecular modeling suggests that this linear side chain can serve as an alternative hydrophobic anchor at the hormone-receptor interface. These findings motivated further substitution of PheB24 by cyclohexanylalanine (Cha), which contains a nonplanar aliphatic ring. Contrary to expectations, [ChaB24]insulin likewise exhibited high activity. Furthermore, its resistance to fibrillation and the rapid rate of hexamer disassembly, properties of potential therapeutic advantage, were enhanced. The crystal structure of the ChaB24 analog, determined as an R6 zinc-stabilized hexamer at a resolution of 1.5 Å, closely resembles that of wild-type insulin. The nonplanar aliphatic ring exhibits two chair conformations with partial occupancies, each recapitulating the role of PheB24 at the dimer interface. Together, these studies have defined structural requirements of an anchor residue within the B24-binding pocket of the insulin receptor; similar molecular principles are likely to pertain to insulin-related growth factors. Our results highlight in particular the utility of nonaromatic side chains as probes of the B24 pocket and suggest that the nonstandard Cha side chain may have therapeutic utility. PMID:25305014

  4. Influence of anchoring on miscarriage risk perception associated with amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Nuccio, Regina; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mastrobattista, Joan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Refuerzo, Jerrie; Smith, Janice L; Singletary, Claire N

    2015-04-01

    One factor women consider when deciding whether to pursue amniocentesis is the risk of miscarriage. People use mechanisms like anchoring, or the prior belief regarding the magnitude of risk, as a frame of reference for new information. This study aimed to determine a woman's perception of miscarriage risk associated with amniocentesis before and after genetic counseling and to determine what factors anchor a woman's perception of miscarriage risk. One hundred thirteen women being seen for prenatal genetic counseling and possible amniocentesis at six Houston clinics participated in the two-part anonymous survey. While most women (56.7 %) perceived the risk as low or average pre-counseling and indicated the numeric risk of amniocentesis as <1 %, significantly more patients (73 %) correctly identified the numeric risk as <1 % post-counseling (p < 0.0001). However, the majority of patients' qualitative risk perception did not change after the genetic counseling session (60 %). Those who changed their feeling about the risk after counseling showed a decreased perception of the risk (p < 0.0001). Participants who elected amniocentesis had a significantly lower perception of the risk (p = 0.017) whereas those who declined amniocentesis were more likely to view the risk as high (p = 0.004). The only two anchoring factors that had an effect were having a friend or relative with a personal or family history of a genetic disorder (p = 0.001) and having a child already (p = 0.038); both were associated with a lower risk perception. The lack of significant factors may reflect the uniqueness of each patient's risk assessment framework and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling to elucidate individual concerns, particularly as non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more widely available and further complicates the prenatal testing landscape. PMID:25224777

  5. Control of anchoring of nematic fluids at polymer surfaces created by in situ photopolymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Collard, David M; Park, Jung O; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2005-05-12

    In situ photopolymerization of alkyl acrylate monomers in the presence of a nematic fluid provides a cellular matrix of liquid crystalline droplets in which the chemical structure of the encapsulating polymer exerts control over the alignment (anchoring) of the liquid crystalline molecules. Control is obtained by variation of the alkyl side chains and through copolymerization of two dissimilar monofunctional acrylates. For example, among a series of poly(methylheptyl acrylate)s, the 1-methylheptyl analogue prefers planar anchoring of a nematic (TL205) over the temperature range studied. However, the polymers of other methylheptyl side chains display a homeotropic-to-planar anchoring thermal transition temperature similar to that of the n-heptyl analogue. Copolymerization of two monofunctional acrylates with opposing tendencies of aligning liquid crystal leads to tunability of anchoring behavior over a wide temperature range. The broad anchoring transitions we observed provide a way of achieving highly tilted anchoring. PMID:16852050

  6. Doubly anchored nematic polymer brushes: Shear, field effects, and quasipiezoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halperin, A.; Williams, D. R. M.

    1994-02-01

    The shear behavior of a doubly anchored brush of liquid-crystalline polymers immersed in a nematic solvent is investigated. In such a brush the grafted polymers bridge two plates. Remarkably, the Franck nematic elasticity in this system can dominate the shear modulus. In the presence of a field the system undergoes a Fréedericksz transition modified by the bridging polymers. In particular: (i) the polymeric elasticity affects the critical field Ec; (ii) the shear modulus vanishes as the field approaches Ec; and (iii) the nematic distortion couples to a shear strain. The system exhibits quasipiezoelectricity, which is nonlinear and is not associated with any inverse effect.

  7. Molecular rectifiers: a new design based on asymmetric anchoring moieties.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Colin; Ratner, Mark A

    2015-03-11

    The quest for a molecular rectifier is among the major challenges of molecular electronics. We introduce three simple rules to design an efficient rectifying molecule and demonstrate its functioning at the theoretical level, relying on the NEGF-DFT technique. The design rules notably require both the introduction of asymmetric anchoring moieties and a decoupling bridge. They lead to a new rectification mechanism based on the compression and control of the HOMO/LUMO gap by the electrode Fermi levels, arising from a pinning effect. Significant rectification ratios up to 2 orders of magnitude are theoretically predicted as the mechanism opposes resonant to nonresonant tunneling. PMID:25706442

  8. Photolithography of Dithiocarbamate-Anchored Monolayers and Polymers on Gold

    PubMed Central

    Leonov, Alexei P.; Wei, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Dithiocarbamate (DTC)-anchored monolayers and polymers were investigated as positive resists for UV photolithography on planar and roughened Au surfaces. DTCs were formed in situ by the condensation of CS2 with monovalent or polyvalent amines such as linear polyethyleneimine (PEI) under mildly basic aqueous conditions, just prior to surface passivation. The robust adsorption of the polyvalent PEI-DTC to Au surfaces supported high levels of resistance to photoablation, providing opportunities to generate thin films with gradient functionality. Treatment of photopatterned substrates with alkanethiols produced binary coatings, enabling a direct visual comparison of DTC- and thiol-passivated surfaces against chemically induced corrosion using confocal microscopy. PMID:21894240

  9. Simulation of weak anchoring effects on nematic liquid crystal hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Sean; Somers, David A. T.; Munday, Jeremy N.

    The free energy of a nematic liquid crystal droplet depends on an interplay between elastic and surface interactions. When the two contributions are of similar magnitude, there exists a transition of the nematic structure of the droplet. Because the two contributions scale differently with length scales, this transition is visible as a function of the size of the droplet. We carry out numerical simulations to explore the use of this transition in measuring surface anchoring energies. This technique could help elucidate alignment forces on liquid crystals, such as those caused by rubbed surfaces, electric fields, or even the Casimir torque. Electrical and Computer Engineering.

  10. 18. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING WEST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING WEST ALONG THE MAIN TRACK LOCATED TO THE NORTH OF THE COS COB POWER PLANT. THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER IS SHOWN IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND. AT THIS STATION THE DISPATCHER CONTROLLED POWER OUTPUT TO VARIOUS PARTS OF THE SYSTEM. THE STRUCTURE SERVES THE SAME PURPOSE IN 1993 AND CAN BE OPERATED LOCALLY OR REMOTELY FROM METRO-NORTH'S HEADQUARTERS IN MANHATTAN. THE STEEL STRUCTURE AND STACK IN THE BACKGROUND ARE PART OF THE BOILER 902-903 INSTALLATION. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  11. Direct imaging of rotating molecules anchored on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Jeongheon; Lee, Yangjin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Gun-Do; Bao, Zhenan; Kim, Kwanpyo

    2016-07-01

    There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The calculated cross section from elastic scattering theory was used to experimentally estimate the rotational energy barriers of molecules on graphene. The observed energy barrier was within the range of 1.5-12 meV per atom, which is in good agreement with previous calculation results. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed that the edge atoms of the molecule form stably bonds to graphene defects and can serve as a pivot point for rotational dynamics. Our study demonstrates the versatility of ACTEM for the investigation of molecular dynamics and configuration-dependent energetics at a single molecular level.There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The

  12. Percutaneous retrieval of a radiolucent anchoring sleeve embolized in pulmonary artery during pacemaker implantation.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Michifumi; Yamane, Teiichi; Sadaoka, Shunichi; Tokutake, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Kenichi; Hioki, Mika; Narui, Ryohsuke; Tanigawa, Shinichi; Inada, Keiichi; Matsuo, Seiichiro; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2016-08-01

    An 85-year-old female presented to our institution with symptomatic sick sinus syndrome. During pacemaker implantation, an anchoring sleeve in the right ventricular lead was embolized in the left pulmonary artery. Although the anchoring sleeve was radiolucent, digital subtraction angiography revealed an angiographic filling defect in the lower branch of the left pulmonary artery, and a snare catheter enabled the anchoring sleeve to be grasped and extracted. PMID:26391679

  13. Effects of anchoring and adjustment in the evaluation of product pricing.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan; Sayag, Neta; Ezer, Aliya

    2010-08-01

    Anchoring and adjustment comprise a heuristic that creates expectations. Two types of anchors were applied on participants' evaluation of products: the price reference of the product (maximum, minimum, or no price reference) and the context in which the products were evaluated (the prestige of the shopping center). Results showed that both factors anchored evaluations of products' value. Context effects were explained by the different expectations of visitors in prestigious (looking for quality) and less prestigious (seeking a bargain) centers. PMID:20923048

  14. An Improved Anchor Shot Detection Method Using Fitness of Face Location and Dissimilarity of Icon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, Ji-Soo; Lee, Hyon-Soo; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this letter, we propose an improved anchor shot detection (ASD) method in order to effectively retrieve anchor shots from news video. The face location and dissimilarity of icon region are used to reduce false alarms in the proposed method. According to the results of the experiment on several types of news video, the proposed method obtained high anchor detection results compared with previous methods.

  15. Knotless single-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative biomechanical study of 2 knotless suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Efird, Chad; Traub, Shaun; Baldini, Todd; Rioux-Forker, Dana; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Davisson, Twana; Hawkins, Monica; McCarty, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gap formation during cyclic loading, maximum repair strength, and failure mode of single-row full-thickness supraspinatus repairs performed using 2 knotless suture anchors with differing internal suture-retention mechanisms in a human cadaver model. Nine matched pairs of cadaver shoulders were used. Full-thickness tears were induced by detaching the supraspinatus tendon from the greater tuberosity. Single-row repairs were performed with either type I (Opus Magnum PI; ArthroCare, Austin, Texas) or type II (ReelX STT; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) knotless suture anchors. The repaired tendon was cycled from 10 to 90 N for 500 cycles, followed by load to failure. Gap formation was measured at 5, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cycles with a video digitizing system. Anchor type or location (anterior or posterior) had no effect on gap formation during cyclic loading regardless of position (anterior, P=.385; posterior, P=.389). Maximum load to failure was significantly greater (P=.018) for repairs performed with type II anchors (288±62 N) compared with type I anchors (179±39 N). Primary failure modes were anchor pullout and tendon tearing for type II anchors and suture slippage through the anchor for type I anchors. The internal ratcheting suture-retention mechanism of type II anchors may have helped this anchor outperform the suture-cinching mechanism of type I anchors by supporting significantly higher loads before failure and minimizing suture slippage, potentially leading to stronger repairs clinically. PMID:23937749

  16. Effects of Director Angle Anchoring Conditions on the Dynamic Moduli of Heterogeneous Nematic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choate, Eric P.; Forest, M. Gregory; Cui, Zhenlu; Ju, Lili

    2008-07-01

    We examine the linear viscoelastic response of heterogeneous nematic polymers to small amplitude oscillatory shear flow, paying special attention to the macroscopic influence of strong plate anchoring conditions. To predict the dynamic moduli, we model the system with Stokes hydrodynamic equations with viscous and nematic stresses coupled with orientational dynamics driven by the flow, an excluded volume potential, and an elasticity potential. First, we show that for special cases of normal and tangential anchoring, we recover explicitly solvable Leslie-Ericksen-Frank behavior. In this case we observe significant differences between the moduli for normal and tangential anchoring, including a two-to-three order of magnitude enhancement of the storage modulus for normal over tangential anchoring. Then, we turn to a numerical study of oblique anchoring conditions, which are more complicated due to the appearance of order parameter gradients at leading order. When the anchoring angle is near 45 degrees, we observe significantly different scaling behavior in the storage modulus for high frequencies compared to the behavior for normal or tangential anchoring. Furthermore, we find that for low frequencies, normal anchoring gives the largest storage modulus and tangential the smallest; however, we see a brief window of higher frequencies where the maximum storage modulus occurs at an oblique anchoring angle.

  17. Glucosamine-Anchored Graphene Oxide Nanosheets: Fabrication, Ultraviolet Irradiation, and Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Lévaray, Nicolas; Lee, Min-Ho; Giasson, Suzanne; Zhu, X X

    2015-07-15

    A biofunctionalized graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet with improved physicochemical properties is useful for electrocatalysis and sensor development. Herein, a new class of functionalized GO with a chemically anchored biomolecule glucosamine is developed. Structural and chemical analyses confirm the glucosamine anchoring. Ultraviolet irradiation transforms the surface chemistry of GO. Glucosamine-anchored GO nanosheets exhibit improved cyclic voltammetric and amperometric sensing activity toward the model redox probe, ruthenium(II) and N-acetylneuraminic acid, respectively. The biomolecular anchoring and ultraviolet irradiation helped to tune and enhance the properties of GO, which may find multiple applications in optimizing sensor platforms. PMID:26120929

  18. SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Rebekah E; Tinker, Nicholas A; Lazo, Gerard R; Chao, Shiaoman; Jellen, Eric N; Carson, Martin L; Rines, Howard W; Obert, Donald E; Lutz, Joseph D; Shackelford, Irene; Korol, Abraham B; Wight, Charlene P; Gardner, Kyle M; Hattori, Jiro; Beattie, Aaron D; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Bonman, J Michael; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E; Brown-Guedira, Gina L; Mitchell Fetch, Jennifer W; Harrison, Stephen A; Howarth, Catherine J; Ibrahim, Amir; Kolb, Frederic L; McMullen, Michael S; Murphy, J Paul; Ohm, Herbert W; Rossnagel, Brian G; Yan, Weikai; Miclaus, Kelci J; Hiller, Jordan; Maughan, Peter J; Redman Hulse, Rachel R; Anderson, Joseph M; Islamovic, Emir; Jackson, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. PMID:23533580

  19. Anchored Clathrate Waters Bind Antifreeze Proteins to Ice

    SciTech Connect

    C Garnham; R Campbell; P Davies

    2011-12-31

    The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca{sup 2+}-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFP{vert_ellipsis}ice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the 'anchored clathrate' mechanism of AFP action.

  20. Decisions Under Distress Stress Profiles Influence Anchoring and Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Karim S.; Koslov, Katrina; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2009-01-01

    People frequently make decisions under stress. Understanding how stress affects decision making is complicated by the fact that not all stress responses are created equal. Challenge states, for example, occur when individuals appraise a stressful situation as demanding, but believe they have the personal resources to cope, and are characterized by efficient cardiovascular reactivity and approach motivation. Threat states, in contrast, occur when situational demands are perceived to outweigh resources and are characterized by less efficient cardiovascular reactivity and withdrawal motivation. We randomly assigned participants to social-feedback conditions (i.e., positive or negative feedback) designed to engender challenge or threat, or a no-stress condition. Participants then completed an anchoring-and-adjustment questionnaire. Those assigned to the challenge condition adjusted more from self-generated anchors than those assigned to the threat condition. Cardiovascular responses mediated the relationship between condition and adjustment. This study demonstrates the importance of considering profiles of cardiovascular reactivity when examining the influence of stress on decision making. PMID:19843261

  1. Lightness perception in simple images: Testing the anchoring rules

    PubMed Central

    Radonjić, Ana; Gilchrist, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    One approach toward understanding how vision computes surface lightness is to first determine what principles govern lightness in simple stimuli and then test whether these hold for more complex stimuli. Gilchrist (2006) proposed that in the simplest images that produce the experience of a surface (two surfaces differing in luminance that fill the entire visual field) lightness can be predicted based on two anchoring rules: the highest luminance rule and the area rule, plus a scale normalization. To test whether these anchoring rules hold when critical features of the stimuli are varied, we probed lightness in simple stimuli, painted onto the inside of hemispheric domes viewed under diffuse lighting. We find that although the highest luminance surface appears nearly white across a large variation in illumination (as predicted by the highest luminance rule), its lightness tends to increase as its luminance increases. This effect is small relative to the size of the overall luminance change. Further, we find that when the darker region fills more than half of the visual field, it appears to lighten with further increases in area but only if it is a single surface. Splitting the dark region into smaller sectors that cover an equal cumulative area diminishes or eliminates the area effect. PMID:25424860

  2. Reliable anchoring groups for single-molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M. Teresa; Leary, Edmund; Evangeli, Charalambos; Arroyo, Carlos; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraïit, Nicolás

    2012-02-01

    In the field of molecular electronics, thiols have been extensively used as the most common anchoring groups to bind molecules to gold electrodes. However, other anchoring groups as amines can provide interesting advantages. Recently, C-60 has been also proposed as a possible very efficient binding group. In this talk, I will present our studies on molecular junctions formed by thiol-, amine-, and C-60-terminated molecules. We use a STM (scanning tunneling microscope) break-junction technique to create and characterized single-molecule junctions both in ambient and liquid environment. We compare thiols and amines on the alkane family and an oligo(phenylene ethynylene). Our study of the molecular-junction stretching length allows us to conclude that thiols affect atomic rearrangement at the electrodes significantly more than amines. Using C-60-terminated molecules, we have recently introduced a new technique for controllably wiring one molecule at a time. We first get STM images to located isolated molecules on a gold substrate, which are then specifically targeted and contacted using a STM gold tip. This technique offers a significant improvement over other techniques, as it guaranties that one and only one molecule is contacted at a time between the electrodes.

  3. Cognitive Advantages of Blending with Material Anchors in Energy Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Hunter; Close, Eleanor; Scherr, Rachel; McKagan, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Conceptual blending theory [1] explains how the human imagination creates unreal situations that help us think about reality. In these imaginary blended situations, we establish new correspondences, interactions, and dynamics, and the outcomes of the dynamics lend insight to the nature of various real situations that were used to compose the blend. Blends are not just in the head, however; in some cases, a material system participates in the blend by lending its material structure as conceptual structure [2]. In the instructional activity Energy Theater [3], people represent units of energy and move around in order to solve puzzles of energy transfer and transformation. We use the ideas of blending and material anchors to understand how learners are able to use the representation to their cognitive advantage. [4pt] [1] Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M. (2002). The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.[0pt] [2] Hutchins, E. (2005) Material anchors for conceptual blends. Journal of Pragmatics 37, 1555-1577.[0pt] [3] Scherr, R. E., Close, H. G., McKagan, S. B., & Close, E. W. (2010) ``Energy Theater'': Using the body symbolically to understand energy. In C. Singh, M. Sabella, & S. Rebello (Eds.) 2010 PERC Proceedings. Melville, NY: AIP Press.

  4. Computations of flow in an anchored Solar Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Dahhea; Fischer, Paul F.; Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2015-11-01

    In regions with high solar insolation, there is a potential to extract mechanical energy from the gravitationally unstable ground-heated air layer, using the substantial axial and azimuthal momentum of an anchored buoyancy-induced columnar vortex to drive a vertical-axis turbine. The seasonal and diurnal availability (which extends well into the late afternoon and even past sunset, due to utilization of the thermal capacity of the ground to heat the air, rather than direct use of photons) is well-matched to air-conditioning loads in the southwestern US. Critical issues in the design of such systems are the geometry of the enclosure that serves to anchor the dust devil-like vortex and prevent it from being blown away by ambient wind, as well as the geometry of the stationary vanes used both to enhance entrainment of ground-heated air into the vortex from a collection area much larger than that of the enclosure, and to utilize any ambient wind to enhance the vortex. Here, we report computations (using the spectral-element code Nek5000) of heated and unheated flows in several geometries of interest. The results are discussed in the context of field experiments. Supported by ARPA-E award DE-AR0000296.

  5. Direct imaging of rotating molecules anchored on graphene.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jeongheon; Lee, Yangjin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Gun-Do; Bao, Zhenan; Kim, Kwanpyo

    2016-07-21

    There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The calculated cross section from elastic scattering theory was used to experimentally estimate the rotational energy barriers of molecules on graphene. The observed energy barrier was within the range of 1.5-12 meV per atom, which is in good agreement with previous calculation results. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed that the edge atoms of the molecule form stably bonds to graphene defects and can serve as a pivot point for rotational dynamics. Our study demonstrates the versatility of ACTEM for the investigation of molecular dynamics and configuration-dependent energetics at a single molecular level. PMID:27333828

  6. Dithiocarbamate anchoring in molecular wire junctions: a first principles study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenyu; Kosov, Daniel S

    2006-05-25

    Recent experimental realization [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127 (2005) 7328] of various dithiocarbamate self-assembly on gold surface opens the possibility for use of dithiocarbamate linkers to anchor molecular wires to gold electrodes. In this paper, we explore this hypothesis computationally. We computed the electron transport properties of 4,4'-bipyridine (BP), 4,4'-bipyridinium-1,1'-bis(carbodithioate) (BPBC), 4-(4'-pyridyl)-peridium-1-carbodithioate (BPC) molecule junctions based on the density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's functions. We demonstrated that the stronger molecule-electrode coupling associated with the conjugated dithiocarbamate linker broadens transmission resonances near the Fermi energy. The broadening effect along with the extension of the pi conjugation from the molecule to the gold electrodes lead to enhanced electrical conductance for BPBC molecule. The conductance enhancement factor is as large as 25 at applied voltage bias 1.0 V. Rectification behavior is predicted for BPC molecular wire junction, which has the asymmetric anchoring groups. PMID:16706444

  7. Multi-day anchor ice cycles and bedload transport in a gravel-bed stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Philippe; Leconte, Robert; Jay Lacey, R. W.; Bergeron, Normand

    2014-11-01

    River dynamics in cold regions and the physical processes involving ice formation and release remain relatively understudied topics. Current research suggests that anchor ice forms in diurnal cycles and has the potential to move sediments when released from the bed. Given the importance of river ice dynamics, studies are needed to describe the physical processes of anchor ice and its impact on sediment transport. The study presented in this paper investigated in situ anchor ice formation on the Stoke River in Quebec, Canada. In the fall of 2012, we observed multi-day anchor ice formation cycles and release, which usually ended with a small runoff event. During a cycle, there was little or no release of anchor ice, thus allowing its gradual growth as the air temperature remained cold. Surface and anchor ice layers also often merged, leading to the formation of thick ice masses. Sediment transport was monitored using bed particles individually tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT-tags). Movement of the experimental particles, measured after each multi-day cycle event, ranged from 0.5 to 4 m. Possible transport mechanisms include: (1) anchor ice rafting, (2) ice jam breakup creating a jave with high erosive capacity, (3) flow corridors through anchor ice masses with high erosive capacity, (4) mechanical pushing of particles by drifting ice blocks during ice breakup, and (5) entrainment by flow or drifting ice blocks of anchored ice with strong ice-pebble bonds. Given the coincidental occurrence of anchor ice release and runoff events, it is uncertain which specific mechanism caused the particles to move. This study is a step forward in understanding the behavior of anchor ice processes and ice-related sediment transport.

  8. A human immunoglobulin G receptor exists in both polypeptide-anchored and phosphatidylinositol-glycan-anchored forms.

    PubMed Central

    Scallon, B J; Scigliano, E; Freedman, V H; Miedel, M C; Pan, Y C; Unkeless, J C; Kochan, J P

    1989-01-01

    Several cDNA clones encoding the human immunoglobulin G receptor CD16 were isolated from human lung or peripheral blood leukocyte cDNA libraries. Nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed that the cDNAs could be divided into two groups. cDNA clones in one group encode a protein that terminates 4 amino acids after the putative transmembrane domain. Clones in the second group encode a protein with an extra 21 amino acids that could comprise a cytoplasmic domain. Direct peptide sequencing was used to determine the N terminus of the mature CD16 receptor protein and supported the existence of the two forms of the receptor. Treatment of neutrophils with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C resulted in the release of a large percentage of the CD16 molecules from the cell surface. In contrast, treatment of natural killer cells with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C did not release any CD16 from the cell surface. These data demonstrate that both polypeptide-anchored and phosphatidylinositol-glycan-anchored forms of the CD16 molecule exist and that they are differentially expressed on neutrophils and natural killer cells. Images PMID:2525780

  9. How up- or downslope anchoring affects root reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Root reinforcement is important for slope stability. In addition to the important contribution of roots to shear strength along the slip surface, root networks are also recognized to impart stabilization through lateral (parallel to slope) redistribution of forces under tension. The most common method to measure lateral root reinforcement is a pullout test where one root or a bundle of root is pulled out of the soil matrix. This condition represents the case where roots within the mass of a landslide slip out from the upper stable part of the slope. There is also, however, the situation where roots anchored in the upper stable part of the slope slip out from the sliding mass. In the latter it is difficult to quantify root reinforcement and no study has discussed this mechanism. We carried out a new series of laboratory and field experiments using Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) roots to quantify how up- or downslope anchoring affects root reinforcement. In addition, we carried out new field pullout tests on coarse roots (larger that 2 mm in diameter, up to 47 mm). Then, considering the state-of-the-art of root reinforcement modeling (the Root Bundle Model), we integrated results from our measurements into the model to verify the magnitude of this effect on overall root reinforcement at the stand scale. Results indicate that the ratio between pullout force and force transferred to the root during soil slip ranges between 0.5 and 1. This indicates that measured pullout force always overestimate the contribution of lateral slipping out roots in situations where the soil slide from anchored roots. This is general the case for root with diameter up to 3-4 mm. Root-size distribution is also a key factor influencing root reinforcement at the forest-stand scale. As most coarse roots break along tension cracks while fine roots slip out, the effect discussed in this study on root reinforcement modeling is negligible when coarse-root diameter classes are represented. Our

  10. Desmoglein 3 anchors telogen hair in the follicle.

    PubMed

    Koch, P J; Mahoney, M G; Cotsarelis, G; Rothenberger, K; Lavker, R M; Stanley, J R

    1998-09-01

    Little is known about the function of desmosomes in the normal structure and function of hair. Therefore, it was surprising that mice without desmoglein 3 (the autoantigen in pemphigus vulgaris) not only developed mucous membrane and skin lesions like pemphigus patients, but also developed hair loss. Analysis of this phenotype indicated that hair was normal through the first growth phase ('follicular neogenesis'). Around day 20, however, when the hair follicles entered the resting phase of the hair growth cycle (telogen), mice with a targeted disruption of the desmoglein 3 gene (DSG3-/-) lost hair in a wave-like pattern from the head to the tail. Hair then regrew and was lost again in the same pattern with the next synchronous hair cycle. In adults, hair was lost in patches. Gentle hair pulls with adhesive tape showed that anagen (growing) hairs were firmly anchored in DSG3-/- mice, but telogen hairs came out in clumps compared to that of DSG3+/- and +/+ littermates in which telogen hairs were firmly anchored. Histology of bald skin areas in DSG3-/- mice showed cystic telogen hair follicles without hair shafts. Histology of hair follicles in early telogen, just before clinical hair loss occurred, showed loss of cell adhesion (acantholysis) between the cells surrounding the telogen club and the basal layer of the outer root sheath epithelium. Electron microscopy revealed 'half-desmosomes' at the plasma membranes of acantholytic cells. Similar acantholytic histology and ultrastructural findings have been previously reported in skin and mucous membrane lesions of DSG3-/- mice and pemphigus vulgaris patients. Immunoperoxidase staining with an antibody raised against mouse desmoglein 3 showed intense staining on the cell surface of keratinocytes surrounding the telogen hair club in normal mice. Similar staining was seen in human telogen hair with an anti-human desmoglein 3 antibody. Finally, a scalp biopsy from a pemphigus vulgaris patient showed empty telogen hair

  11. Anchoring and Estimation of Alcohol Consumption: Implications for Social Norm Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Megan M.; Choplin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of anchors on students' estimates of personal alcohol consumption to better understand the role that this form of bias might have in social norm intervention programs. Experiments I and II found that estimates of consumption were susceptible to anchoring effects when an open-answer and a scale-response…

  12. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  13. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jimin Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo

    2014-04-15

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed.

  14. An Exploratory Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with Secondary School Students: Turkish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elcin, Melih; Sezer, Baris

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anchored instruction on the students in secondary school math studies classrooms. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. This research involved both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of anchored instruction on students' academical achievement,…

  15. Career Anchors: A New Concept in Career Development for the Professional Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLong, Thomas J.

    Created by Dr. Edgar Schein of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the career anchor model suggests that certain motivational/talent/value drives, formed through work experience, function to guide and constrain entire careers; and that such anchors are the source of stability that permits growth and change in other areas. The concept…

  16. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  17. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  18. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tons must be fitted with anchors and chains meeting the applicable standards set by the ABS for classed... feet) in length and with an equipment number from the ABS of less than 150 may be equipped with either... capable of heaving in either anchor. (c) Standards of classification societies other than the ABS may...

  19. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians’ motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian’s trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26959031

  20. The Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness Perception: A Comment on Bressan (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Piers D. L.; Sagreiya, Hersh; Curtis, Dwight L.; Zheng, Chengjie; Livingstone, Margaret S.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on an article by Bressan. Recently, a double-anchoring theory (DAT) of lightness perception was proposed (P. Bressan, 2006), which offers explanations for all the data explained by the original anchoring theory (A. Gilchrist et al., 1999), as well as a number of additional lightness phenomena. Consequently, DAT can account for an…

  1. 46 CFR 32.15-15 - Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers-TB/ALL

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... directed to Commandant (CG-ENG-3), Attn: Systems Engineering Division, U.S. Coast Guard Stop 7509, 2703... will evaluate the suitability of the equipment. (e) Barges Equipped with Anchors to Comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1). Each barge equipped with an anchor, to comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1), must be...

  2. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians' motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian's trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26959031

  3. Effects of Anchored Instruction on Enhancing Chinese Students' Problem-Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih

    This study investigates the effects of computer-aided videodisc-based anchored instruction on promoting elementary school students' problem-solving skills in Taiwan. Anchored instruction combines theories such as situated cognition, cognitive apprenticeship, cooperative learning, and constructivist theories. With the help of interactive videodisc…

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  5. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  7. Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an invited adaptation of the IEEE Education Society Distinguished Lecture Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning. Interactive video anchors have a cognitive theory base, and they help to enlarge the context of learning with information-rich real-world situations. Carefully selected movie clips and…

  8. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein repertoire of babesia bovis and its significance for erythrocyte invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycosylphosphatidyl-anchored proteins are particularly abundant on the surface of pathogenic protozoans and might play an important role for parasite survival. In the present work the relevance of GPI-anchored proteins for erythrocyte invasion of Babesia bovis, one of the tick-transmitted causative...

  9. Rapid Naming Deficits in Dyslexia: A Stumbling Block for the Perceptual Anchor Theory of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Filippo, Gloria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    According to a recent theory of dyslexia, the "perceptual anchor theory," children with dyslexia show deficits in classic auditory and phonological tasks not because they have auditory or phonological impairments but because they are unable to form a "perceptual anchor" in tasks that rely on a small set of repeated stimuli. The theory makes the…

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  11. Group II Intron-Anchored Gene Deletion in Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Kaizhi; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium plays an important role in commercial and medical use, for which targeted gene deletion is difficult. We proposed an intron-anchored gene deletion approach for Clostridium, which combines the advantage of the group II intron “ClosTron” system and homologous recombination. In this approach, an intron carrying a fragment homologous to upstream or downstream of the target site was first inserted into the genome by retrotransposition, followed by homologous recombination, resulting in gene deletion. A functional unknown operon CAC1493–1494 located in the chromosome, and an operon ctfAB located in the megaplasmid of C. acetobutylicum DSM1731 were successfully deleted by using this approach, without leaving antibiotic marker in the genome. We therefore propose this approach can be used for targeted gene deletion in Clostridium. This approach might also be applicable for gene deletion in other bacterial species if group II intron retrotransposition system is established. PMID:21304965

  12. A-kinase anchoring proteins as potential drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Tröger, Jessica; Moutty, Marie C; Skroblin, Philipp; Klussmann, Enno

    2012-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) crucially contribute to the spatial and temporal control of cellular signalling. They directly interact with a variety of protein binding partners and cellular constituents, thereby directing pools of signalling components to defined locales. In particular, AKAPs mediate compartmentalization of cAMP signalling. Alterations in AKAP expression and their interactions are associated with or cause diseases including chronic heart failure, various cancers and disorders of the immune system such as HIV. A number of cellular dysfunctions result from mutations of specific AKAPs. The link between malfunctions of single AKAP complexes and a disease makes AKAPs and their interactions interesting targets for the development of novel drugs. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Novel cAMP Signalling Paradigms. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.166.issue-2 PMID:22122509

  13. A Complication in Hypospadias Surgery Due to Anchoring Suture

    PubMed Central

    Gollu, Gulnur; Kucuk, Gonul; Karabulut, Ayse Anıl; Yagmurlu, Aydin; Cakmak, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The complication rates are still 1–90% both in proximal and distal hypospadias regardless of the surgeon’s experience and the usage of most developed techniques. The literature survey revealed few complications of glans penis including meatal stenosis, prolapsus and retraction. Despite our literature survey, we could not find any article concerning the permanent scar tissue at the dorsal part of glans following hypospadias surgeries. A new complication can be added to these, concerning glans which is the formation of postoperative scar tissue as a reaction to suture material used in traction, stent anchoring or both. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate four cases which had glanular scar due to traction suture following the surgical procedures for hypospadias repair. PMID:26180503

  14. Anchoring and ordering NGS contig assemblies by population sequencing (POPSEQ)

    PubMed Central

    Mascher, Martin; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Chapman, Jarrod; Schmutz, Jeremy; Barry, Kerrie; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Close, Timothy J; Wise, Roger P; Schulman, Alan H; Himmelbach, Axel; Mayer, Klaus FX; Scholz, Uwe; Poland, Jesse A; Stein, Nils; Waugh, Robbie

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation whole-genome shotgun assemblies of complex genomes are highly useful, but fail to link nearby sequence contigs with each other or provide a linear order of contigs along individual chromosomes. Here, we introduce a strategy based on sequencing progeny of a segregating population that allows de novo production of a genetically anchored linear assembly of the gene space of an organism. We demonstrate the power of the approach by reconstructing the chromosomal organization of the gene space of barley, a large, complex and highly repetitive 5.1 Gb genome. We evaluate the robustness of the new assembly by comparison to a recently released physical and genetic framework of the barley genome, and to various genetically ordered sequence-based genotypic datasets. The method is independent of the need for any prior sequence resources, and will enable rapid and cost-efficient establishment of powerful genomic information for many species. PMID:23998490

  15. Associative Self-Anchoring Interacts with Obtainability of Chosen Objects

    PubMed Central

    Prévost, Charlotte; Bolger, Niall; Mobbs, Dean

    2016-01-01

    While there is evidence that implicit self-esteem transfers to chosen objects (associative self-anchoring), it is still unknown whether this phenomenon extends to explicit self-esteem. Moreover, whether the knowledge that these objects might belong to the self in the future or not affects the evaluation of these objects has received little attention. Here, we demonstrate that evaluations of chosen objects are further enhanced when they are obtainable as compared to when they are not in participants with high explicit self-esteem, whereas participants with low explicit self-esteem exhibit the opposite pattern. These findings extend previous results and shed new light on the role of self-esteem in altering preferences for chosen objects depending on their obtainability. PMID:26913011

  16. Structural basis for membrane anchoring of HIV-1 envelope spike.

    PubMed

    Dev, Jyoti; Park, Donghyun; Fu, Qingshan; Chen, Jia; Ha, Heather Jiwon; Ghantous, Fadi; Herrmann, Tobias; Chang, Weiting; Liu, Zhijun; Frey, Gary; Seaman, Michael S; Chen, Bing; Chou, James J

    2016-07-01

    HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a type I membrane protein that mediates viral entry. We used nuclear magnetic resonance to determine an atomic structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of HIV-1 Env reconstituted in bicelles that mimic a lipid bilayer. The TM forms a well-ordered trimer that protects a conserved membrane-embedded arginine. An amino-terminal coiled-coil and a carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic core stabilize the trimer. Individual mutations of conserved residues did not disrupt the TM trimer and minimally affected membrane fusion and infectivity. Major changes in the hydrophilic core, however, altered the antibody sensitivity of Env. These results show how a TM domain anchors, stabilizes, and modulates a viral envelope spike and suggest that its influence on Env conformation is an important consideration for HIV-1 immunogen design. PMID:27338706

  17. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  18. Importance of anchor genomes for any plant genome project

    PubMed Central

    Messing, Joachim; Llaca, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Progress in agricultural and environmental technologies is hampered by a slower rate of gene discovery in plants than animals. The vast pool of genes in plants, however, will be an important resource for insertion of genes, via biotechnological procedures, into an array of plants, generating unique germ plasms not achievable by conventional breeding. It just became clear that genomes of grasses have evolved in a manner analogous to Lego blocks. Large chromosome segments have been reshuffled and stuffer pieces added between genes. Although some genomes have become very large, the genome with the fewest stuffer pieces, the rice genome, is the Rosetta Stone of all the bigger grass genomes. This means that sequencing the rice genome as anchor genome of the grasses will provide instantaneous access to the same genes in the same relative physical position in other grasses (e.g., corn and wheat), without the need to sequence each of these genomes independently. (i) The sequencing of the entire genome of rice as anchor genome for the grasses will accelerate plant gene discovery in many important crops (e.g., corn, wheat, and rice) by several orders of magnitudes and reduce research and development costs for government and industry at a faster pace. (ii) Costs for sequencing entire genomes have come down significantly. Because of its size, rice is only 12% of the human or the corn genome, and technology improvements by the human genome project are completely transferable, translating in another 50% reduction of the costs. (iii) The physical mapping of the rice genome by a group of Japanese researchers provides a jump start for sequencing the genome and forming an international consortium. Otherwise, other countries would do it alone and own proprietary positions. PMID:9482827

  19. Procedural debiasing of primacy/anchoring effects in clinical-like judgments.

    PubMed

    Mumma, G H; Wilson, S B

    1995-11-01

    Primacy (or anchoring) effects in clinical judgment occur when information presented at an early stage unduly influences a judgment compared to the effect of the same information presented at a later stage. Using recent theoretical models of these effects, three debiasing methods were developed and tested for their efficacy. Contrary to some recent failures to find anchoring effects, both single-cue and sequence anchoring manipulations produced medium-size effects on personality trait ratings and generalized to predictions of behavior. A consider-the-opposite procedure that involved cue sorting by diagnosticity debiased single-cue anchoring, but comparable results were obtained by subjects who simply took notes while reviewing each cue prior to judgment. Bias inoculation was marginally successful at reducing single-cue anchoring. Methodological issues as well as suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:8778134

  20. The detrimental consequences for seagrass of ineffective marine park management related to boat anchoring.

    PubMed

    La Manna, G; Donno, Y; Sarà, G; Ceccherelli, G

    2015-01-15

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows are recognized as priority habitat for conservation by the EU Habitats Directive. The La Maddalena Archipelago National Park (Mediterranean Sea) P. oceanica meadow, the dominant coastal habitat of the area, is mostly threatened by boat anchoring. 12 years after the establishment of mooring fields and anchoring restrictions, a study was conducted to measure their effectiveness on the conservation of seagrass and the mitigation of anchoring damage. We found that: (i) the condition of P. oceanica was disturbed, both in the mooring fields and in control locations; (ii) mooring fields and anchoring restrictions did not show to be an efficient system for the protection of seagrass, in fact anchor scars increased after the tourist season; (iii) the mooring systems had an impact on the surrounding area of the meadow, probably due to their misuse. On the basis of these results, management recommendations for marine parks are proposed. PMID:25467874

  1. Data for identification of GPI-anchored peptides and ω-sites in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Masuishi, Yusuke; Kimura, Yayoi; Arakawa, Noriaki; Hirano, Hisashi

    2016-06-01

    We present data obtained using a focused proteomics approach to identify the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored peptides in 19 human cancer cell lines. GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), which localize to the outer leaflet of the membrane microdomains commonly referred to as lipid rafts play important roles in diverse biological processes. Due to the complex structure of the GPI-anchor moiety, it has been difficult to identify GPI-anchored peptide sequences on the proteomic scale by database searches using tools such as MASCOT. Here we provide data from 73 ω-sites derived from 49 GPI-APs in 19 human cancer cell lines. This article contains data related to the research article entitled "Identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and ω-sites using TiO2-based affinity purification followed by hydrogen fluoride treatment" (Masuishi et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27141528

  2. Data for identification of GPI-anchored peptides and ω-sites in cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Masuishi, Yusuke; Kimura, Yayoi; Arakawa, Noriaki; Hirano, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    We present data obtained using a focused proteomics approach to identify the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored peptides in 19 human cancer cell lines. GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), which localize to the outer leaflet of the membrane microdomains commonly referred to as lipid rafts play important roles in diverse biological processes. Due to the complex structure of the GPI-anchor moiety, it has been difficult to identify GPI-anchored peptide sequences on the proteomic scale by database searches using tools such as MASCOT. Here we provide data from 73 ω-sites derived from 49 GPI-APs in 19 human cancer cell lines. This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and ω-sites using TiO2-based affinity purification followed by hydrogen fluoride treatment” (Masuishi et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27141528

  3. Headstart for speech segmentation: a neural signature for the anchor word effect.

    PubMed

    Cunillera, Toni; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    Learning a new language is an incremental process that builds upon previously acquired information. To shed light on the mechanisms of this incremental process, we studied the on-line neurophysiological correlates of the so-called anchor word effect where newly learned words facilitate segmentation of novel words from continuous speech. Higher segmentation performance was observed for speech streams embedded with newly learned anchor words. The anchor words elicited an enhanced Stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) component considered to be an index of expectation for incoming relevant information. Moreover, we confirmed a previously reported N400 amplitude increase for the to-be-segmented novel words, indicating a bottom-up learning process whereby new memory representations for the novel words emerge. We propose that the anchor word effect indexed by SPN reflects an expectation for an incoming novel word at the offset of the anchor word, thus facilitating the segmentation process. PMID:26792366

  4. Theoretical predictions and experimental observations of genomic mapping by anchoring random clones

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, A.V. )

    1993-02-01

    Genome mapping by anchoring random clones has recently been the subject of intensive theoretical study. In this paper, differences between published predictions of properties of anchored groups of clones ( contigs') are analyzed and simplifications of the mathematical formulae describing these properties are presented. The theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results from the physical mapping of the genome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Information about the number of genome sections with no anchored clone on them ( oceans') and the number of undetected overlaps between the contigs at a given stage of the experiment is required for the decision to change from the random strategy to that of a directed closure of gaps. We demonstrate that the expected number of oceans can be approximated by the number of groups of clones anchored by a single probe ( singletons'), as can the expected number of undetected overlaps between contigs by the number of contigs containing more than one anchor. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Treatment of photoaged skin with topical tretinoin increases epidermal-dermal anchoring fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, D.T.; Briggaman, R.A. ); Zelickson, A.S. ); Hamilton, T.A.; Weiss, J.S.; Ellis, C.N.; Voorhees, J.J. )

    1990-06-13

    Topical 0.1% tretinoin or vehicle control was applied daily to the forearm skin of six caucasian adults for 4 months. Two-millimeter punch biopsy specimens were obtained from treatment sites at the beginning and end of the study period for electron microscopy. Anchoring fibrils within the epidermal-dermal junction of skin treatment sites were quantitated by blinded, standardized, computer-assisted morphometry. After 4 months of continual daily treatment, skin sites that received topical tretinoin showed double the anchoring fibril density compared with vehicle control sites. The possible mechanism by which topical tretinoin increases anchoring fibrils in skin include the drug's property of inhibiting collagenase, a dermal enzyme that degrades anchoring fibril collagen. The authors speculate that increased numbers of collagenous anchoring fibrils within the papillary dermis of human skin is one of the connective-tissue correlates of the clinical improvement observed in photoaged skin after treatment with topical tretinoin.

  6. Capillary and anchoring effects in thin hybrid nematic films and connection with bulk behavior.

    PubMed

    de las Heras, D; Mederos, Luis; Velasco, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    By means of a molecular model, we examine hybrid nematic films with antagonistic anchoring angles where one of the surfaces is in the strong anchoring regime. If anchoring at the other surface is weak, and in the absence of wetting by the isotropic phase, the anchoring transition may interact with the capillary isotropic-nematic transition. For general anchoring conditions on this surface we confirm the existence of the steplike biaxial phase and the associated transition to the linear constant-tilt-rotation, configuration. The steplike phase is connected with the bulk isotropic phase for increasing film thickness so that the latter transition is to be interpreted as the capillary isotropic-nematic transition in a hybrid film. PMID:19257057

  7. Career Anchors and the Effects of Downsizing: Implications for Generations and Cultures at Work. A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Verena; Bonner, Dede

    2003-01-01

    The relationships among career anchors, age, culture, gender, employment experience, and the impact of career planning on downsizing were examined with data from 423 management students (49% had been downsized). Lifestyle was the most valued anchor across age groups, stability/security the least; compared with Schein's earlier anchors research,…

  8. The Place of White in a World of Grays: A Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressan, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The specific gray shades in a visual scene can be derived from relative luminance values only when an anchoring rule is followed. The double-anchoring theory I propose in this article, as a development of the anchoring theory of Gilchrist et al. (1999), assumes that any given region (a) belongs to one or more frameworks, created by Gestalt…

  9. Characterization of the C-terminal ER membrane anchor of PTP1B

    SciTech Connect

    Anderie, Ines Schulz, Irene; Schmid, Andreas

    2007-09-10

    The tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is an important regulator of cell function. In living cells PTP1B activity is restricted to the vicinity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by post-translational C-terminal attachment of PTP1B to the ER membrane network. In our study we investigated the membrane anchor of PTP1B by use of EGFP fusion proteins. We demonstrate that the membrane anchor of PTP1B cannot be narrowed down to a unique amino acid sequence with a defined start and stop point but rather is moveable within several amino acids. Removal of up to seven amino acids from the C-terminus, as well as exchange of single amino acids in the putative transmembrane sequence did not influence subcellular localization of PTP1B. With the method of bimolecular fluorescence complementation we could demonstrate dimerization of PTP1B in vivo. Homodimerization was, in contrast to other tail-anchored proteins, not dependent on the membrane anchor. Our data demonstrate that the C-terminal membrane anchor of PTP1B is formed by a combination of a single stretch transmembrane domain (TMD) followed by a tail. TMD and tail length are variable and there are no sequence-specific features. Our data for PTP1B are consistent with a concept that explains the ER membrane anchor of tail-anchored proteins as a physicochemical structure.

  10. Binding kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: Molecular dynamics simulations and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinglei; Xu, Guang-Kui; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R.

    2015-12-01

    The adhesion of biological membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. Central questions are how the binding kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring of the proteins. In this article, we (i) present detailed data for the binding of membrane-anchored proteins from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and (ii) provide a theory that describes how the binding kinetics depends on the average separation and thermal roughness of the adhering membranes and on the anchoring, lengths, and length variations of the proteins. An important element of our theory is the tilt of bound receptor-ligand complexes and transition-state complexes relative to the membrane normals. This tilt results from an interplay of the anchoring energy and rotational entropy of the complexes and facilitates the formation of receptor-ligand bonds at membrane separations smaller than the preferred separation for binding. In our simulations, we have considered both lipid-anchored and transmembrane receptor and ligand proteins. We find that the binding equilibrium constant and binding on-rate constant of lipid-anchored proteins are considerably smaller than the binding constant and on-rate constant of rigid transmembrane proteins with identical binding domains.

  11. Wireless and acoustic hearing with bone-anchored hearing devices

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Arjan J.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A.M.; Hol, Myrthe K.S.; Snik, Ad F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The efficacy of wireless connectivity in bone-anchored hearing was studied by comparing the wireless and acoustic performance of the Ponto Plus sound processor from Oticon Medical relative to the acoustic performance of its predecessor, the Ponto Pro. Study sample: Nineteen subjects with more than two years' experience with a bone-anchored hearing device were included. Thirteen subjects were fitted unilaterally and six bilaterally. Design: Subjects served as their own control. First, subjects were tested with the Ponto Pro processor. After a four-week acclimatization period performance the Ponto Plus processor was measured. In the laboratory wireless and acoustic input levels were made equal. In daily life equal settings of wireless and acoustic input were used when watching TV, however when using the telephone the acoustic input was reduced by 9 dB relative to the wireless input. Results: Speech scores for microphone with Ponto Pro and for both input modes of the Ponto Plus processor were essentially equal when equal input levels of wireless and microphone inputs were used. Only the TV-condition showed a statistically significant (p <5%) lower speech reception threshold for wireless relative to microphone input. In real life, evaluation of speech quality, speech intelligibility in quiet and noise, and annoyance by ambient noise, when using landline phone, mobile telephone, and watching TV showed a clear preference (p <1%) for the Ponto Plus system with streamer over the microphone input. Due to the small number of respondents with landline phone (N = 7) the result for noise annoyance was only significant at the 5% level. Conclusion: Equal input levels for acoustic and wireless inputs results in equal speech scores, showing a (near) equivalence for acoustic and wireless sound transmission with Ponto Pro and Ponto Plus. The default 9-dB difference between microphone and wireless input when using the telephone results in a substantial

  12. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    PubMed

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  13. Comparison of Video Coding Methods to Pay Attention in Anchoring Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaizumi, Keisuke; Sugiura, Akihiko

    In this study, we propose using the anchoring effect that is one of the cognitive bias as a new approach of the encoding. And we suggest technique to apply to encoding. As a result of experiments, we found that displaying High-definition image in the early part of video effects look clear than original video. In addition we noticed that the anchoring effect appear remarkably in a low rate video coding. And if changes the video rate is smoothly, the anchoring effect is shown clearness in a high average rate video.

  14. USNRC anchor bolt study data survey and dynamic testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lindquist, M R

    1982-12-01

    A survey was performed to determine the adequacy of existing concrete expansion anchor test data. Based upon the survey findings, additional dynamic testing to assess the benefits of preload was undertaken. Exploratory testing was performed on typical wedge and shell anchors. It was found that, providing the installation torque is properly applied, residual preload does not significantly affect anchor load-displacement characteristics until the preload drops to less than 50% of the full installation preload. It was concluded that this must be considered in design situations where support stiffness is an important factor.

  15. Autonomous Landing and Smart Anchoring for In-Situ Exploration of Small Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghavimi, Ali R.; Serricchio, Frederick; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Dolgin, Ben

    2000-01-01

    Future NASA missions include in-situ scientific explorations of small interplanetary objects like comets and asteroids. Sample acquisition systems are envisioned to operate directly from the landers that are anchored to the surface. Landing and anchoring proves to be challenging in the absence of an attitude control system and in the presence of nearly zero-gravity environments with uncertain surface terrain and unknown mechanical properties. This paper presents recent advancements in developing a novel landing and anchoring control system for the exploration of small bodies.

  16. Suture locking of isolated internal locking knotless suture anchors is not affected by bone quality

    PubMed Central

    Woodmass, Jarret M; Matthewson, Graeme; Ono, Yohei; Bois, Aaron J; Boorman, Richard S; Lo, Ian KY; Thornton, Gail M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical performance of different suture locking mechanisms including: i) interference fit between the anchor and the bone (eg, 4.5 mm PushLock, 5.5 mm SwiveLock), ii) internal locking mechanism within the anchor itself (eg, 5.5 mm SpeedScrew), or iii) a combination of interference fit and internal locking (eg, 4.5 mm MultiFIX P, 5.5 mm MultiFIX S). Methods Anchors were tested in foam blocks representing normal (20/8 foam) or osteopenic (8/8 foam) bone, using standard suture loops pulled in-line with the anchor to isolate suture locking. Mechanical testing included cyclic testing for 500 cycles from 10 N to 60 N at 60 mm/min, followed by failure testing at 60 mm/min. Displacement after 500 cycles at 60 N, number of cycles at 3 mm displacement, load at 3 mm displacement, and maximum load were evaluated. Results Comparing 8/8 foam to 20/8 foam, load at 3 mm displacement and maximum load were significantly decreased (P<0.05) with decreased bone quality for anchors that, even in part, relied on an interference fit suture locking mechanism (ie, 4.5 mm PushLock, 5.5 mm SwiveLock, 4.5 mm MultiFIX P, 5.5 mm MultiFIX S). Bone quality did not affect the mechanical performance of 5.5 mm SpeedScrew anchors which have an isolated internal locking mechanism. Conclusion The mechanical performance of anchors that relied, even in part, on interference fit were affected by bone quality. Isolated internal locking knotless suture anchors functioned independently of bone quality. Anchors with a combined type (interference fit and internal locking) suture locking mechanism demonstrated similar mechanical performance to isolated internal locking anchors in osteopenic foam comparing similar sized anchors. Clinical relevance In osteopenic bone, knotless suture anchors that have an internal locking mechanism (isolated or combined type) may be advantageous for secure tendon fixation to bone. PMID:26124683

  17. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires

    PubMed Central

    Reeler, Nini E. A.; Lerstrup, Knud A.; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V.; Laursen, Bo W.; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions). PMID:26471461

  18. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires.

    PubMed

    Reeler, Nini E A; Lerstrup, Knud A; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V; Laursen, Bo W; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions). PMID:26471461

  19. A knowledge-anchored integrative image search and retrieval system.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Selnur; Catalyurek, Umit V; Payne, Philip R O; Saltz, Joel; Kamal, Jyoti; Gurcan, Metin N

    2009-04-01

    Clinical data that may be used in a secondary capacity to support research activities are regularly stored in three significantly different formats: (1) structured, codified data elements; (2) semi-structured or unstructured narrative text; and (3) multi-modal images. In this manuscript, we will describe the design of a computational system that is intended to support the ontology-anchored query and integration of such data types from multiple source systems. Additional features of the described system include (1) the use of Grid services-based electronic data interchange models to enable the use of our system in multi-site settings and (2) the use of a software framework intended to address both potential security and patient confidentiality concerns that arise when transmitting or otherwise manipulating potentially privileged personal health information. We will frame our discussion within the specific experimental context of the concept-oriented query and integration of correlated structured data, narrative text, and images for cancer research. PMID:18040742

  20. Dynamics of anchor last deployment of submersible buoy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhongqiang; Xu, Jianpeng; Huang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaoguang; Chang, Zongyu

    2016-02-01

    Submersible buoy systems are widely used for oceanographic research, ocean engineering and coastal defense. Severe sea environment has obvious effects on the dynamics of submersible buoy systems. Huge tension can occur and may cause the snap of cables, especially during the deployment period. This paper studies the deployment dynamics of submersible buoy systems with numerical and experimental methods. By applying the lumped mass approach, a three-dimensional multi-body model of submersible buoy system is developed considering the hydrodynamic force, tension force and impact force between components of submersible buoy system and seabed. Numerical integration method is used to solve the differential equations. The simulation output includes tension force, trajectory, profile and dropping location and impact force of submersible buoys. In addition, the deployment experiment of a simplified submersible buoy model was carried out. The profile and different nodes' velocities of the submersible buoy are obtained. By comparing the results of the two methods, it is found that the numerical model well simulates the actual process and conditions of the experiment. The simulation results agree well with the results of the experiment such as gravity anchor's location and velocities of different nodes of the submersible buoy. The study results will help to understand the conditions of submersible buoy's deployment, operation and recovery, and can be used to guide the design and optimization of the system.

  1. Peptide Anchor for Folate-Targeted Liposomal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugénia; Mangialavori, Irene C; Loureiro, Ana; Azoia, Nuno G; Sárria, Marisa P; Nogueira, Patrícia; Freitas, Jaime; Härmark, Johan; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Rollett, Alexandra; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Guebitz, Georg; Hebert, Hans; Moreira, Alexandra; Carmo, Alexandre M; Rossi, Juan Pablo F C; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-09-14

    Specific folate receptors are abundantly overexpressed in chronically activated macrophages and in most cancer cells. Directed folate receptor targeting using liposomes is usually achieved using folate linked to a phospholipid or cholesterol anchor. This link is formed using a large spacer like polyethylene glycol. Here, we report an innovative strategy for targeted liposome delivery that uses a hydrophobic fragment of surfactant protein D linked to folate. Our proposed spacer is a small 4 amino acid residue linker. The peptide conjugate inserts deeply into the lipid bilayer without affecting liposomal integrity, with high stability and specificity. To compare the drug delivery potential of both liposomal targeting systems, we encapsulated the nuclear dye Hoechst 34580. The eventual increase in blue fluorescence would only be detectable upon liposome disruption, leading to specific binding of this dye to DNA. Our delivery system was proven to be more efficient (2-fold) in Caco-2 cells than classic systems where the folate moiety is linked to liposomes by polyethylene glycol. PMID:26241560

  2. Genetic anchoring of whole-genome shotgun assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Mascher, Martin; Stein, Nils

    2014-01-01

    The recent advances in sequencing throughput and genome assembly algorithms have established whole-genome shotgun (WGS) assemblies as the cornerstone of the genomic infrastructure for many species. WGS assemblies can be constructed with comparative ease and give a comprehensive representation of the gene space even of large and complex genomes. One major obstacle in utilizing WGS assemblies for important research applications such as gene isolation or comparative genomics has been the lack of chromosomal positioning and contextualization of short sequence contigs. Assigning chromosomal locations to sequence contigs required the construction and integration of genome-wide physical maps and dense genetic linkage maps as well as synteny to model species. Recently, methods to rapidly construct ultra-dense linkage maps encompassing millions of genetic markers from WGS sequencing data of segregating populations have made possible the direct assignment of genetic positions to short sequence contigs. Here, we review recent developments in the integration of WGS assemblies and sequence-based linkage maps, discuss challenges for further improvement of the methodology and outline possible applications building on genetically anchored WGS assemblies. PMID:25071835

  3. Gravity-base SALS (single anchor leg system) at Tazerka

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    A gravity-base single anchor leg system (SALS) delivers crude oil from subsea wells to a converted tanker for Shell Tunirex, as operator of a joint venture. The SALS features a manifold chamber and high-pressure swivels which permit varied operations to be performed remotely and in complete safety. The system is designed to accommodate up to 8 wells; inject water into a maximum of 3 wells and produce from the remaining 5; provide gas lift, if needed; shut in the system at the wellhead, at the manifold, or on the tanker; permit switching from any one of 6 high-pressure swivels to another in case of seal failure; permit quick replacement of entire swivel assembly if overhaul needed; withstand 100-yr environmental conditions; use its built-in restoration mechanics to return the riser to a vertical position if environmental forces cause tanker movement; be self-installable with only light support craft; and be recoverable, for further use elsewhere after field depletion.

  4. VASP Governs Actin Dynamics by Modulating Filament Anchoring

    PubMed Central

    Trichet, Léa; Campàs, Otger; Sykes, Cécile; Plastino, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Actin filament dynamics at the cell membrane are important for cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions and the protrusion of the leading edge. Since actin filaments must be connected to the cell membrane to exert forces but must also detach from the membrane to allow it to move and evolve, the balance between actin filament tethering and detachment at adhesion sites and the leading edge is key for cell shape changes and motility. How this fine tuning is performed in cells remains an open question, but possible candidates are the Drosophila enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (Ena/VASP) family of proteins, which localize to dynamic actin structures in the cell. Here we study VASP-mediated actin-related proteins 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex-dependent actin dynamics using a substrate that mimics the fluid properties of the cell membrane: an oil-water interface. We show evidence that polymerization activators undergo diffusion and convection on the fluid surface, due to continual attachment and detachment to the actin network. These dynamics are enhanced in the presence of VASP, and we observe cycles of catastrophic detachment of the actin network from the surface, resulting in stop-and-go motion. These results point to a role for VASP in the modulation of filament anchoring, with implications for actin dynamics at cell adhesions and at the leading edge of the cell. PMID:17098798

  5. Molecular Investigations into the Mechanics of a Muscle Anchoring Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bodmer, Nicholas K.; Theisen, Kelly E.; Dima, Ruxandra I.

    2015-01-01

    The titin-telethonin complex, essential for anchoring filaments in the Z-disk of the sarcomere, is composed of immunoglobulin domains. Surprisingly, atomic force microscopy experiments showed that it resists forces much higher than the typical immunoglobulin domain and that the force distribution is unusually broad. To investigate the origin of this behavior, we developed a multiscale simulation approach, combining minimalist and atomistic models (SOP-AT). By following the mechanical response of the complex on experimental timescales, we found that the mechanical stability of titin-telethonin is modulated primarily by the strength of contacts between telethonin and the two titin chains, and secondarily by the timescales of conformational excursions inside telethonin and the pulled titin domains. Importantly, the conformational transitions executed by telethonin in simulations support its proposed role in mechanosensing. Our SOP-AT computational approach thus provides a powerful tool for the exploration of the link between conformational diversity and the broadness of the mechanical response, which can be applied to other multidomain complexes. PMID:25954889

  6. Collagenous microstructure of the glenoid labrum and biceps anchor

    PubMed Central

    Hill, A M; Hoerning, E J; Brook, K; Smith, C D; Moss, J; Ryder, T; Wallace, A L; Bull, A M J

    2008-01-01

    The glenoid labrum is a significant passive stabilizer of the shoulder joint. However, its microstructural form remains largely unappreciated, particularly in the context of its variety of functions. The focus of labral microscopy has often been histology and, as such, there is very little appreciation of collagen composition and arrangement of the labrum, and hence the micromechanics of the structure. On transmission electron microscopy, significant differences in diameter, area and perimeter were noted in the two gross histological groups of collagen fibril visualized; this suggests a heterogeneous collagenous composition with potentially distinct mechanical function. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated three distinct zones of interest: a superficial mesh, a dense circumferential braided core potentially able to accommodate hoop stresses, and a loosely packed peri-core zone. Confocal microscopy revealed an articular surface fine fibrillar mesh potentially able to reduce surface friction, bundles of circumferential encapsulated fibres in the bulk of the tissue, and bone anchoring fibres at the osseous interface. Varying microstructure throughout the depth of the labrum suggests a role in accommodating different types of loading. An understanding of the labral microstructure can lead to development of hypotheses based upon an appreciation of this component of material property. This may aid an educated approach to surgical timing and repair. PMID:18429974

  7. Tri-layer wrinkling as a mechanism for anchoring center initiation in the developing cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Emma; Javili, Ali; Weickenmeier, Johannes; Kuhl, Ellen; Linder, Christian

    2016-07-01

    During cerebellar development, anchoring centers form at the base of each fissure and remain fixed in place while the rest of the cerebellum grows outward. Cerebellar foliation has been extensively studied; yet, the mechanisms that control anchoring center initiation and position remain insufficiently understood. Here we show that a tri-layer model can predict surface wrinkling as a potential mechanism to explain anchoring center initiation and position. Motivated by the cerebellar microstructure, we model the developing cerebellum as a tri-layer system with an external molecular layer and an internal granular layer of similar stiffness and a significantly softer intermediate Purkinje cell layer. Including a weak intermediate layer proves key to predicting surface morphogenesis, even at low stiffness contrasts between the top and bottom layers. The proposed tri-layer model provides insight into the hierarchical formation of anchoring centers and establishes an essential missing link between gene expression and evolution of shape. PMID:27252048

  8. Dynamics of electron injection from the excited state of anchored molecules into semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, L.; Ernstorfer, R.; Willig, F.

    A complete picture of different interfacial electron transfer dynamics has been obtained from transient absorption and two-photon photoemission data when inserting different anchor/bridge groups between the excited organic donor and the electrode surface.

  9. 480mm telephoto perpective, looking south toward midspan and south anchor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    480-mm telephoto perpective, looking south toward mid-span and south anchor arm. - Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, Ohio River Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, West of Beaver River, Beaver, Beaver County, PA

  10. 480mm telephoto perspective, looking south toward midspan and south anchor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    480-mm telephoto perspective, looking south toward mid-span and south anchor arm. - Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, Ohio River Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, West of Beaver River, Beaver, Beaver County, PA

  11. Activation of the motor protein upon attachment: Anchors weigh in on cytoplasmic dynein regulation.

    PubMed

    Ananthanarayanan, Vaishnavi

    2016-06-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is the major minus-end-directed motor protein in eukaryotes, and has functions ranging from organelle and vesicle transport to spindle positioning and orientation. The mode of regulation of dynein in the cell remains elusive, but a tantalising possibility is that dynein is maintained in an inhibited, non-motile state until bound to cargo. In vivo, stable attachment of dynein to the cell membrane via anchor proteins enables dynein to produce force by pulling on microtubules and serves to organise the nuclear material. Anchor proteins of dynein assume diverse structures and functions and differ in their interaction with the membrane. In yeast, the anchor protein has come to the fore as one of the key mediators of dynein activity. In other systems, much is yet to be discovered about the anchors, but future work in this area will prove invaluable in understanding dynein regulation in the cell. PMID:27143631

  12. Suture slippage in knotless suture anchors resulting in subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis.

    PubMed

    Hayeri, Mohammad Reza; Keefe, Daniel T; Chang, Eric Y

    2016-05-01

    Rotator cuff repair using a suture bridge and knotless suture anchors is a relatively new, but increasingly used technique. The suture bridge technique creates an anatomically similar and more secure rotator cuff repair compared with conventional arthroscopic techniques and the use of knotless anchors eliminates the challenges associated with knot tying during arthroscopic surgery. However, previous in vitro biomechanical tests have shown that the hold of the suture in a knotless suture anchor is far lower than the pullout strength of the anchor from bone. Up until now slippage has been a theoretical concern. We present a prospectively diagnosed case of in vivo suture loosening after rotator cuff repair using a knotless bridge technique resulting in subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis. PMID:26739301

  13. Compartment A125, view of after end of anchor windlass. Windlass ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-125, view of after end of anchor windlass. Windlass is steam powered; note cylinder at center right of photograph. (031) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Archaeometallurgical investigation of the iron anchor from the Tantura F shipwreck

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, A.; Ashkenazi, D.; Barkai, O.; Kahanov, Y.

    2013-04-15

    The Tantura F shipwreck was a coaster or a fishing vessel about 15.7 m long, discovered in the Dor/Tantura lagoon, Israel in 1995. It was dated to between the mid-7th and the end of the 8th centuries CE. Among the finds excavated were two T-shaped type iron anchors. Of the two anchors, one (anchor A) was thoroughly studied by archaeometallurgical methods in order to identify forge-welding lines, to determine the welding quality and to understand the manufacturing technology. The examinations included X-ray radiography, XRF analysis, optical microscopy, SEM/EDS observation and analysis, OES analysis and microhardness tests. The investigation included characterization of the composition, microstructure, thermal treatments, forge-welding junctions and slag analysis. The results revealed a heterogeneous microstructure, rich in glassy, fayalite and wüstite slag. Iron based phases included ferrite, pearlite, cementite and Widmanstätten plates, all typical to wrought iron. The forge-welds of Anchor A were located. Each arm was made of one piece, weighing about 2.5–3 kg and the shank was made of a few 1.5–2 kg pieces. The second anchor (anchor B) was only briefly examined visually and with a few radiographs, which support the results from anchor A. The research results revealed significant information about T-shaped anchors and their manufacturing process, including hot-working processes without any additional heat treatments, and folding techniques. The microstructure was similar to other ancient simple tools such as saws, sickles, axes and mortise chisels, and though the technology to make complicated structures and objects, such as swords, existed at that time, the anchors did not require this sophistication; thus simpler techniques were used, presumably because they were more cost-effective. - Highlights: ► Tantura F was a coaster dated to mid-7th–end-8th centuries. ► Two iron anchors were discovered at the Tantura F shipwreck-site. ► Anchor A was

  15. Dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, M.; Yong-gang Zhang; Lotze, D.

    1995-04-01

    In early 1993, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission began a research program at The University of Texas at Austin, dealing with the dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete. In this paper, the progress of that research program is reviewed. The test program is summarized, the work performed to date is reviewed, with emphasis on the dynamic and static behavior of single tensile anchors in uncracked concrete. General conclusions from that work are discussed, and future plans are presented.

  16. An exploratory study on the career anchors of educators in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, H H; Quek, B C

    2001-09-01

    In this exploratory study, the authors adopted an empirical approach to determine the various primary career anchors possessed by Singapore educators, the impact of the degree of congruency between teaching and the career anchors on intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction, and turnover intentions. A number of hypotheses were supported and provided the 1st step in understanding this group of important individuals who nuture the future generation of human capital for the workplace. PMID:11804006

  17. Vacuolar SNARE Protein Transmembrane Domains Serve as Nonspecific Membrane Anchors with Unequal Roles in Lipid Mixing*

    PubMed Central

    Pieren, Michel; Desfougères, Yann; Michaillat, Lydie; Schmidt, Andrea; Mayer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is induced by SNARE complexes that are anchored in both fusion partners. SNAREs zipper up from the N to C terminus bringing the two membranes into close apposition. Their transmembrane domains (TMDs) might be mere anchoring devices, deforming bilayers by mechanical force. Structural studies suggested that TMDs might also perturb lipid structure by undergoing conformational transitions or by zipping up into the bilayer. Here, we tested this latter hypothesis, which predicts that the activity of SNAREs should depend on the primary sequence of their TMDs. We replaced the TMDs of all vacuolar SNAREs (Nyv1, Vam3, and Vti1) by a lipid anchor, by a TMD from a protein unrelated to the membrane fusion machinery, or by artificial leucine-valine sequences. Individual exchange of the native SNARE TMDs against an unrelated transmembrane anchor or an artificial leucine-valine sequence yielded normal fusion activities. Fusion activity was also preserved upon pairwise exchange of the TMDs against unrelated peptides, which eliminates the possibility for specific TMD-TMD interactions. Thus, a specific primary sequence or zippering beyond the SNARE domains is not a prerequisite for fusion. Lipid-anchored Vti1 was fully active, and lipid-anchored Nyv1 permitted the reaction to proceed up to hemifusion, and lipid-anchored Vam3 interfered already before hemifusion. The unequal contribution of proteinaceous TMDs on Vam3 and Nyv1 suggests that Q- and R-SNAREs might make different contributions to the hemifusion intermediate and the opening of the fusion pore. Furthermore, our data support the view that SNARE TMDs serve as nonspecific membrane anchors in vacuole fusion. PMID:25817997

  18. Surface alignment and anchoring transitions in nematic lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Nazarenko, V G; Boiko, O P; Park, H-S; Brodyn, O M; Omelchenko, M M; Tortora, L; Nastishin, Yu A; Lavrentovich, O D

    2010-07-01

    The surface alignment of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals can not only be planar (tangential) but also homeotropic, with self-assembled aggregates perpendicular to the substrate, as demonstrated by mapping optical retardation and by three-dimensional imaging of the director field. With time, the homeotropic nematic undergoes a transition into a tangential state. The anchoring transition is discontinuous and can be described by a double-well anchoring potential with two minima corresponding to tangential and homeotropic orientation. PMID:20867479

  19. Tunable photochemical properties of a covalently anchored and spatially confined organic polymer in a layered compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Hiroshi; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2016-05-01

    A covalently anchored and spatially confined organic polymer was formed in a layered compound with a surface-modified layer. The resultant anchored and confined polymer showed tunable photochemical properties with the incorporation of a variety of guest molecules originating from the specific incorporation states. The layer surface of an inorganic layered compound was modified by an organic molecule with vinyl groups. The precursor layered composite accommodated N-vinylcarbazole (VCz), a vinyl monomer, in the hydrophobic interlayer space. The introduction of VCz induced the simultaneous exfoliation of the layered structures and copolymerization with vinyl groups on the layer surface. The covalently anchored and spatially confined poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVCz) with tunable photochemical properties was formed in a layered structure. The present study shows the versatile potential of polymers with anchored and confined states in surface-functionalized layered composites.A covalently anchored and spatially confined organic polymer was formed in a layered compound with a surface-modified layer. The resultant anchored and confined polymer showed tunable photochemical properties with the incorporation of a variety of guest molecules originating from the specific incorporation states. The layer surface of an inorganic layered compound was modified by an organic molecule with vinyl groups. The precursor layered composite accommodated N-vinylcarbazole (VCz), a vinyl monomer, in the hydrophobic interlayer space. The introduction of VCz induced the simultaneous exfoliation of the layered structures and copolymerization with vinyl groups on the layer surface. The covalently anchored and spatially confined poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVCz) with tunable photochemical properties was formed in a layered structure. The present study shows the versatile potential of polymers with anchored and confined states in surface-functionalized layered composites. Electronic supplementary

  20. DEX-1 and DYF-7 establish sensory dendrite length by anchoring dendritic tips during cell migration.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Maxwell G; Shaham, Shai

    2009-04-17

    Cells are devices whose structures delimit function. For example, in the nervous system, neuronal and glial shapes dictate paths of information flow. To understand how cells acquire their shapes, we examined the formation of a sense organ in C. elegans. Using time-lapse imaging, we found that sensory dendrites form by stationary anchoring of dendritic tips during cell-body migration. A genetic screen identified DEX-1 and DYF-7, extracellular proteins required for dendritic tip anchoring, which act cooperatively at the time and place of anchoring. DEX-1 and DYF-7 contain, respectively, zonadhesin and zona pellucida domains, and DYF-7 self-associates into multimers important for anchoring. Thus, unlike other dendrites, amphid dendritic tips are positioned by DEX-1 and DYF-7 without the need for long-range guidance cues. In sequence and function, DEX-1 and DYF-7 resemble tectorins, which anchor stereocilia in the inner ear, suggesting that a sensory dendrite anchor may have evolved into part of a mechanosensor. PMID:19344940

  1. Mechanical characterization of bone anchors used with a bone-attached, parallel robot for skull surgery.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Prielozny, Lenka; Lexow, G Jakob; Rau, Thomas S; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Bone-attached robots and microstereotactic frames, intended for deep brain stimulation and minimally invasive cochlear implantation, typically attach to a patient's skull via bone anchors. A rigid and reliable link between such devices and the skull is mandatory in order to fulfill the high accuracy demands of minimally invasive procedures while maintaining patient safety. In this paper, a method is presented to experimentally characterize the mechanical properties of the anchor-bone linkage. A custom-built universal testing machine is used to measure the pullout strength as well as the spring constants of bone anchors seated in four different bone substitutes as well as in human cranial bone. Furthermore, the angles at which forces act on the bone anchors are varied to simulate realistic conditions. Based on the experimental results, a substitute material that has mechanical properties similar to those of cranial bone is identified. The results further reveal that the pullout strength of the investigated anchor design is sufficient with respect to the proposed application. However, both the measured load capacity as well as the spring constants vary depending on the load angles. Based on these findings, an alternative bone anchor design is presented and experimentally validated. Furthermore, the results serve as a basis for stiffness simulation and optimization of bone-attached microstereotactic frames. PMID:25771430

  2. Understanding the Anchoring Effect of Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianfan; Wang, Yapeng; Seh, Zhi Wei; Fu, Zhongheng; Zhang, Ruifeng; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-10

    Although the rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery system has attracted significant attention due to its high theoretical specific energy, its implementation has been impeded by multiple challenges, especially the dissolution of intermediate lithium polysulfide (Li2Sn) species into the electrolyte. Introducing anchoring materials, which can induce strong binding interaction with Li2Sn species, has been demonstrated as an effective way to overcome this problem and achieve long-term cycling stability and high-rate performance. The interaction between Li2Sn species and anchoring materials should be studied at the atomic level in order to understand the mechanism behind the anchoring effect and to identify ideal anchoring materials to further improve the performance of Li-S batteries. Using first-principles approach with van der Waals interaction included, we systematically investigate the adsorption of Li2Sn species on various two-dimensional layered materials (oxides, sulfides, and chlorides) and study the detailed interaction and electronic structure, including binding strength, configuration distortion, and charge transfer. We gain insight into how van der Waals interaction and chemical binding contribute to the adsorption of Li2Sn species for anchoring materials with strong, medium, and weak interactions. We understand why the anchoring materials can avoid the detachment of Li2S as in carbon substrate, and we discover that too strong binding strength can cause decomposition of Li2Sn species. PMID:25961805

  3. Effects of GPI-anchored TNAP on the dynamic structure of model membranes.

    PubMed

    Garcia, A F; Simão, A M S; Bolean, M; Hoylaerts, M F; Millán, J L; Ciancaglini, P; Costa-Filho, A J

    2015-10-21

    Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) plays a crucial role during skeletal mineralization, and TNAP deficiency leads to the soft bone disease hypophosphatasia. TNAP is anchored to the external surface of the plasma membranes by means of a GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchor. Membrane-anchored and solubilized TNAP displays different kinetic properties against physiological substrates, indicating that membrane anchoring influences the enzyme function. Here, we used Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements along with spin labeled phospholipids to probe the possible dynamic changes prompted by the interaction of GPI-anchored TNAP with model membranes. The goal was to systematically analyze the ESR data in terms of line shape changes and of alterations in parameters such as rotational diffusion rates and order parameters obtained from non-linear least-squares simulations of the ESR spectra of probes incorporated into DPPC liposomes and proteoliposomes. Overall, the presence of TNAP increased the dynamics and decreased the ordering in the three distinct regions probed by the spin labeled lipids DOPTC (headgroup), and 5- and 16-PCSL (acyl chains). The largest change was observed for 16-PCSL, thus suggesting that GPI-anchored TNAP can give rise to long reaching modifications that could influence membrane processes halfway through the bilayer. PMID:26389140

  4. Behavior of the plasma in the anchor cell of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Md. Khairul; Nakashima, Yousuke; Higashizono, Yuta; Cho, Teruji

    2006-08-01

    Anchor cells of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror are composed of minimum-B magnetic field configuration. Behavior of the plasma in the anchor cell is studied using puffing gas flow rate (PGFR) modulation and by covering some parts of the flux tube of each anchor cell by conducting plates (APs). Ambient neutral pressure is decreased by PGFR modulation during axial/potential confinement in both cases without and with APs and it is found that both line density (nl{sub EA}) and diamagnetism (dm{sub EA}) of the anchor cell plasma increase. Lower neutral pressure in the minimum-B region is investigated during the floated APs and significant improvement of the GAMMA 10 plasma parameters is observed. Possible explanations of the experimental results are given from the viewpoint of ambient neutral pressure oriented anchor plasma behavior. Probable reasons of enhanced ambient neutral pressure in the anchor cell and adverse effects of these neutrals on GAMMA 10 plasma parameters are also pointed out.

  5. Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam.

    PubMed

    Yaroshchuk, Oleg V; Kiselev, Alexei D; Kravchuk, Ruslan M

    2008-03-01

    We have studied a sequence of anchoring transitions observed in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) sandwiched between hydrophobic polyimide substrates treated with a plasma beam. There is a pronounced continuous transition from a homeotropic to a slightly tilted (nearly planar) alignment with the easy axis parallel to the incidence plane of the plasma beam (the zenithal transition) which takes place as the exposure dose increases. In NLCs with positive dielectric anisotropy, a further increase in the exposure dose results in in-plane reorientation of the easy axis by 90 degrees (the azimuthal transition). This transition occurs through the twofold degenerate alignment characteristic of second-order anchoring transitions. In contrast to the critical behavior of anchoring, the contact angle of the NLC and water on the treated substrates declines monotonically with increasing exposure dose. It follows that the surface concentration of hydrophobic chains decreases continuously. The anchoring transitions under consideration are qualitatively interpreted by using a simple phenomenological model of competing easy axes which is studied by analyzing anchoring diagrams of generalized polar and nonpolar anchoring models. PMID:18517405

  6. Evolutionary modularity and morphological integration in the haptoral anchor structures of Ligophorus spp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, A; Míguez-Lozano, R; Sarabeev, V; Balbuena, J A

    2016-09-01

    An important question in the study of phenotypic evolution is whether characters are independent of each other or behave and evolve as integrated modules. Morphological integration and modularity provide a powerful framework for the analysis of the evolution of morphological traits. We used geometric morphometrics and phylogenetically independent contrasts (PIC) to test four different modularity hypotheses in the haptoral anchors of 14 monogenean species of Ligophorus. Integration between the modular units identified was further evaluated with two-block partial least squares analysis. Roots and points represented two modules in the dorsal and ventral anchors, but modularity was not statistically supported when parasite phylogeny was accounted for, which may indicate convergent evolution related to host characteristics and gill morphology. In contrast, PIC revealed medial and lateral modules in ventral anchors only. Moreover, we found evidence for ventral and dorsal anchor pairs forming two modules, supporting the notion that they play different functional roles. Integration between all identified modules was strong. We conclude that there is modular structure in the anchors of Ligophorus spp., accounted by adaptive and phylogenetic factors acting at different levels, and ventral and dorsal anchors evolve as integrated modules with specific roles in attachment. PMID:27177719

  7. Pash 2.0: scaleable sequence anchoring for next-generation sequencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Coarfa, Cristian; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Many applications of next-generation sequencing technologies involve anchoring of a sequence fragment or a tag onto a corresponding position on a reference genome assembly. Positional Hashing method, implemented in the Pash 2.0 program, is specifically designed for the task of high-volume anchoring. In this article we present multi-diagonal gapped kmer collation and other improvements introduced in Pash 2.0 that further improve accuracy and speed of Positional Hashing. The goal of this article is to show that gapped kmer matching with cross-diagonal collation suffices for anchoring across close evolutionary distances and for the purpose of human resequencing. We propose a benchmark for evaluating the performance of anchoring programs that captures key parameters in specific applications, including duplicative structure of genomes of humans and other species. We demonstrate speedups of up to tenfold in large-scale anchoring experiments achieved by PASH 2.0 when compared to BLAT, another similarity search program frequently used for anchoring. PMID:18229679

  8. Design and Application of a Field Sensing System for Ground Anchors in Slopes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Woon; Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1) load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), (2) wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3) master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4) a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons. PMID:23507820

  9. An accessory protein required for anchoring and assembly of amyloid fibres in B. subtilis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Romero, Diego; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Cells within Bacillus subtilis biofilms are held in place by an extracellular matrix that contains cell-anchored amyloid fibres, composed of the amyloidogenic protein TasA. As biofilms age they disassemble because the cells release the amyloid fibres. This release appears to be the consequence of incorporation of D-tyrosine, D-leucine, D-tryptophan and D-methionine into the cell wall. Here, we characterize the in vivo roles of an accessory protein TapA (TasA anchoring/assembly protein; previously YqxM) that serves both to anchor the fibres to the cell wall and to assemble TasA into fibres. TapA is found in discrete foci in the cell envelope and these foci disappear when cells are treated with a mixture of D-amino acids. Purified cell wall sacculi retain a functional form of this anchoring protein such that purified fibres can be anchored to the sacculi in vitro. In addition, we show that TapA is essential for the proper assembly of the fibres. Its absence results in a dramatic reduction in TasA levels and what little TasA is left produces only thin fibres that are not anchored to the cell. PMID:21477127

  10. Incorporating single molecules into electrical circuits. The role of the chemical anchoring group.

    PubMed

    Leary, Edmund; La Rosa, Andrea; González, M Teresa; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Martín, Nazario

    2015-02-21

    Constructing electronic circuits containing singly wired molecules is at the frontier of electrical device miniaturisation. When a molecule is wired between a pair of electrodes, the two points of contact are determined by the chemical anchoring groups, located at the ends of the molecule. At this point, when a bias is applied, electrons are channelled from a metallic environment through an extremely narrow constriction, essentially a single atom, into the molecule. The fact that this is such an abrupt change in the electron pathway makes the nature of the chemical anchoring groups critically important regarding the propagation of electrons from the electrode across the molecule. A delicate interplay of phenomena can occur when a molecule binds to the electrodes, which can produce profound differences in conductance properties depending on the anchoring group. This makes answering the question "what is the best anchoring group for single molecule studies" far from straight forward. In this review, we firstly take a look at techniques developed to 'wire-up' single molecules, as understanding their limitations is key when assessing a molecular wire's performance. We then analyse the various chemical anchoring groups, and discuss their merits and disadvantages. Finally we discuss some theoretical concepts of molecular junctions to understand how transport is affected by the nature of the chemical anchor group. PMID:25522058

  11. Design and application of a field sensing system for ground anchors in slopes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Woon; Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1) load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), (2) wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3) master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4) a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons. PMID:23507820

  12. Survivorship of Trabecular Metal Anchored Glenoid Total Shoulder Arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Styron, Joseph F; Marinello, Patrick G; Peers, Sebastian; Seitz, William H

    2016-09-01

    Trabecular metal anchored glenoids (TMAGs) were developed to counter the pervasive problem of component loosening at the bone-cement interface in total shoulder arthroplasty. Increased failure rates associated with the glenoid component have been previously reported due to increased rates of glenoid failures. Our hypothesis was that in our patients, the failure rate of TMAG implants is similar to or less than reported failure rates of traditional all polyethylene glenoid components. A medical chart review of 66 consecutive patients treated with a TMAG total shoulder replacement was conducted including clinical and radiographic follow-up. Paired t test analyses were used to compare the patients' preoperative and postoperative shoulder range of motion. Patients on average had 50.2 months of clinical follow-up available. Although the radiographs of several patients demonstrated focal areas of lucency, none of the patients demonstrated evidence of glenoid loosening. Glenoid component failure was a rare occurrence, happening only once in the 66 patients (1.5%). The patient with a glenoid fracture sustained that complication 6 years after her index total shoulder replacement. She was the only patient in the series who required revision surgery. Most patients experienced significant improvements in their shoulder range of motion, improving forward flexion from 73.7 to 144.2 degrees (P<0.0001), internal rotation from L5 to T8 (P<0.0001), and external rotation 12.8 to 48.9 degrees (P<0.0001). With improved implant design and meticulous surgical technique, recent iterations of TMAG components do not produce excessive failure rates but result in significant functional improvements. PMID:27328424

  13. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Analogues Sequester Cholesterol and Reduce Prion Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Clive; Tayebi, Mourad; Williams, Alun

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of prion diseases is the conversion of the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC where C is cellular) into an alternatively folded, disease-related isoform (PrPSc, where Sc is scrapie), the accumulation of which is associated with synapse degeneration and ultimately neuronal death. The formation of PrPSc is dependent upon the presence of PrPC in specific, cholesterol-sensitive membrane microdomains, commonly called lipid rafts. PrPC is targeted to these lipid rafts because it is attached to membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Here, we show that treatment of prion-infected neuronal cell lines (ScN2a, ScGT1, or SMB cells) with synthetic glycosylphosphatidylinositol analogues, glucosamine-phosphatidylinositol (glucosamine-PI) or glucosamine 2-O-methyl inositol octadecyl phosphate, reduced the PrPSc content of these cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ScGT1 cells treated with glucosamine-PI did not transmit infection following intracerebral injection to mice. Treatment with glucosamine-PI increased the cholesterol content of ScGT1 cell membranes and reduced activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (PLA2), consistent with the hypothesis that the composition of cell membranes affects key PLA2-dependent signaling pathways involved in PrPSc formation. The effect of glucosamine-PI on PrPSc formation was also reversed by the addition of platelet-activating factor. Glucosamine-PI caused the displacement of PrPC from lipid rafts and reduced expression of PrPC at the cell surface, putative sites for PrPSc formation. We propose that treatment with glucosamine-PI modifies local micro-environments that control PrPC expression and activation of PLA2 and subsequently inhibits PrPSc formation. PMID:20427265

  14. Application Research on Nondestructive Testing Technology for Quality of Anchor Based on Elastic Wave Reflection Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, G.; Zhou, L.

    2014-12-01

    Anchor technology has been widely used to reinforce slopes, underground caverns, deep excavations and the foundation of dams. It has attracted more and more attention of research worldwide on how to find a comfortable method to test the quality of anchoring systems. According to the characteristics of anchor systems, we set up the kinetic equations and mathematical models, then solved the models using ANSYS / LS-DYNA program. We found that the simulated mathematical models perfectly match the experimental data. By changing one of the parameters or the input conditions in the model, we were able to understand the characteristic response of excitation energy, excitation length, structural defects, rock quality, and different data acquisition methods. For short anchor systems (<10 m), we developed a method to extract the wave arrival times by obtaining the transient time domains instantaneously. It is well-known that obtaining the accurate wave arrival times from different structural interfaces within the anchor system is very difficult. But using our multi-parameter transient method, we could calculate the anchor length, the location of structural defect, and the grouting density. The obtained values were consistent with the actual experimental data. We also demonstrated that the kinetic energy of the collected waves from the bottom of the anchor had very close relationship with the grouting density and the position of the structural defects. For long anchors (> 60 m), mostly cable anchors, since little research could be followed, we started our research from designing the instrument, writing the program for data acquisition and analysis. We designed and developed novel sensors and preamplifiers. We used vertical stack technology to effectively enhance the weak signals from the deeper interfaces. In data processing, in addition to the traditional filter method, we also explored the current technology of signal processing such as true amplitude recovery and

  15. Murasaki: A Fast, Parallelizable Algorithm to Find Anchors from Multiple Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Popendorf, Kris; Tsuyoshi, Hachiya; Osana, Yasunori; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2010-01-01

    Background With the number of available genome sequences increasing rapidly, the magnitude of sequence data required for multiple-genome analyses is a challenging problem. When large-scale rearrangements break the collinearity of gene orders among genomes, genome comparison algorithms must first identify sets of short well-conserved sequences present in each genome, termed anchors. Previously, anchor identification among multiple genomes has been achieved using pairwise alignment tools like BLASTZ through progressive alignment tools like TBA, but the computational requirements for sequence comparisons of multiple genomes quickly becomes a limiting factor as the number and scale of genomes grows. Methodology/Principal Findings Our algorithm, named Murasaki, makes it possible to identify anchors within multiple large sequences on the scale of several hundred megabases in few minutes using a single CPU. Two advanced features of Murasaki are (1) adaptive hash function generation, which enables efficient use of arbitrary mismatch patterns (spaced seeds) and therefore the comparison of multiple mammalian genomes in a practical amount of computation time, and (2) parallelizable execution that decreases the required wall-clock and CPU times. Murasaki can perform a sensitive anchoring of eight mammalian genomes (human, chimp, rhesus, orangutan, mouse, rat, dog, and cow) in 21 hours CPU time (42 minutes wall time). This is the first single-pass in-core anchoring of multiple mammalian genomes. We evaluated Murasaki by comparing it with the genome alignment programs BLASTZ and TBA. We show that Murasaki can anchor multiple genomes in near linear time, compared to the quadratic time requirements of BLASTZ and TBA, while improving overall accuracy. Conclusions/Significance Murasaki provides an open source platform to take advantage of long patterns, cluster computing, and novel hash algorithms to produce accurate anchors across multiple genomes with computational efficiency

  16. Anchoring Atmospheric Density Models Using Observed Shuttle Plume Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimpfl, W. L.; Bernstien, L. S.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric number densities at a given low-earth orbit (LEO) altitude can vary by more than an order of magnitude, depending on such parameters as diurnal variations and solar activity. The MSIS atmospheric model, which includes these dependent variables as input, is reported as being accurate to ±15%. Improvement to such models requires accurate direct atmospheric measurement. Here, a means of anchoring atmospheric models is offered through measuring the size and shape of atomic line or molecular band radiance resulting from the atmospheric interaction from rocket engine plumes or gas releases in LEO. Many discrete line or band emissions, ranging from the infrared to the ultraviolet may be suitable. For this purpose we are focusing on NH(A→X), centered at 316 nm. This emission is seen in the plumes of the Shuttle Orbiter PRCS engines, is expected in the plume of any amine fueled engine, and can be observed from remote sensors in space or on the ground. The atmospheric interaction of gas releases or plumes from spacecraft in LEO are understood by comparison of observed radiance with that predicted by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) models. The recent Extended Variable Hard Sphere (EVHS) improvements in treating hyperthermal collisions has produced exceptional agreement between measured and modeled steady-state Space Shuttle OMS and PRCS 190-250 nm Cameron band plume radiance from CO(a→X), which is understood to result from a combination of two- and three-step mechanisms. Radiance from NH(A→X) in far field plumes is understood to result from a simpler single-step process of the reaction of a minor plume species with atomic oxygen, making it more suitable for use in determining atmospheric density. It is recommended that direct retrofire burns of amine fueled engines be imaged in a narrow band from remote sensors to reveal atmospheric number density. In principal the simple measurement of the distance between the engine exit and the peak in the steady

  17. Mantle plume capture, anchoring and outflow during ridge interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. A.; Richards, M. A.; Geist, D.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemical and geophysical studies have shown that >40% of the world's mantle plumes are currently interacting with the global ridge system and such interactions may continue for up to 180 Myr[1]. At sites of plume-ridge interaction up to 1400 km of the spreading centre is influenced by dispersed plume material but there are few constraints on how and where the ridge-ward transfer of deep-sourced material occurs, and also how it is sustained over long time intervals. Galápagos is an archetypal example of an off-axis plume and sheds important light on these mechanisms. The Galápagos plume stem is located ~200 km south of the spreading axis and its head influences 1000 km of the ridge. Nevertheless, the site of enriched basalts, greatest crustal thickness and elevated topography on the ridge, together with active volcanism in the archipelago, correlate with a narrow zone (~150 km) of low-velocity, high-temperature mantle that connects the plume stem and ridge at depths of ~100 km[2]. The enriched ridge basalts contain a greater amount of partially-dehydrated, recycled oceanic crust than basalts elsewhere on the spreading axis, or indeed basalts erupted in the region between the plume stem and ridge. The presence of these relatively volatile-rich ridge basalts requires flow of plume material below the peridotite solidus (i.e.>80 km). We propose a 2-stage model for the development and sustainment of a confined zone of deep ridge-ward plume flow. This involves initial on-axis capture and establishment of a sub-ridge channel of plume flow. Subsequent anchoring of the plume stem to a contact point on the ridge during axis migration results in confined ridge-ward flow of plume material via a deep network of melt channels embedded in the normal spreading and advection of the plume head[2]. Importantly, sub-ridge flow is maintained. The physical parameters and styles of mantle flow we have defined for Galápagos are less-well known at other sites of plume

  18. Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Jin, Huillian; Kim, Jung-Wook; Kim, Ki-Han; Park, Byung Wok; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Hoon; Shin, Ki-Chul; Kim, Hee Seop

    2012-09-01

    We propose methods to obtain multi-domains with different threshold voltages for vertically aligned liquid crystal displays without additional transistors or capacitors. We exposed an ultraviolet light through a photomask and spatially varied the surface anchoring energy by partially decomposing the polyimide or inducing the adsorption of reactive monomers. The threshold voltage was reduced with smaller surface anchoring, and the reduction of the threshold could be qualitatively interpreted using a model describing a weak anchoring condition.

  19. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jimin; Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo

    2014-04-01

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1-E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. PMID:24725935

  20. Simulations of a Membrane-Anchored Peptide: Structure, Dynamics, and Influence on Bilayer Properties

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Morten Ø.; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Peters, Günther H.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional structure of a model decapeptide is obtained by performing molecular dynamics simulations of the peptide in explicit water. Interactions between an N-myristoylated form of the folded peptide anchored to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine fluid phase lipid membranes are studied at different applied surface tensions by molecular dynamics simulations. The lipid membrane environment influences the conformational space explored by the peptide. The overall secondary structure of the anchored peptide is found to deviate at times from its structure in aqueous solution through reversible conformational transitions. The peptide is, despite the anchor, highly mobile at the membrane surface with the peptide motion along the bilayer normal being integrated into the collective modes of the membrane. Peptide anchoring moderately alters the lateral compressibility of the bilayer by changing the equilibrium area of the membrane. Although membrane anchoring moderately affects the elastic properties of the bilayer, the model peptide studied here exhibits conformational flexibility and our results therefore suggest that peptide acylation is a feasible way to reinforce peptide-membrane interactions whereby, e.g., the lifetime of receptor-ligand interactions can be prolonged. PMID:15189854

  1. AKAP-Anchored PKA Maintains Neuronal L-type Calcium Channel Activity and NFAT Transcriptional Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jonathan G.; Sanderson, Jennifer L.; Gorski, Jessica A.; Scott, John D.; Catterall, William A.; Sather, William A.; Dell’Acqua, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In neurons, Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (LTCC) couples electrical activity to changes in transcription. LTCC activity is elevated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and depressed by the Ca2+-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (CaN), with both enzymes localized to the channel by A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 79/150. AKAP79/150 anchoring of CaN also promotes LTCC activation of transcription through dephosphorylation of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). We report here that genetic disruption of PKA anchoring to AKAP79/150 also interferes with LTCC activation of CaN-NFAT signaling in neurons. Disruption of AKAP-PKA anchoring promoted redistribution of the kinase out of dendritic spines, profound decreases in LTCC phosphorylation and Ca2+ influx, and impaired NFAT movement to the nucleus and activation of transcription. Our findings support a model wherein basal activity of AKAP79/150-anchored PKA opposes CaN to preserve LTCC phosphorylation, thereby sustaining LTCC activation of CaN-NFAT signaling to the neuronal nucleus. PMID:24835999

  2. The structural basis of tail-anchored membrane protein recognition by Get3

    SciTech Connect

    Mateja, Agnieszka; Szlachcic, Anna; Downing, Maureen E.; Dobosz, Malgorzata; Mariappan, Malaiyalam; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Keenan, Robert J.

    2009-10-05

    Targeting of newly synthesized membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum is an essential cellular process. Most membrane proteins are recognized and targeted co-translationally by the signal recognition particle. However, nearly 5% of membrane proteins are 'tail-anchored' by a single carboxy-terminal transmembrane domain that cannot access the co-translational pathway. Instead, tail-anchored proteins are targeted post-translationally by a conserved ATPase termed Get3. The mechanistic basis for tail-anchored protein recognition or targeting by Get3 is not known. Here we present crystal structures of yeast Get3 in 'open' (nucleotide-free) and 'closed' (ADP {center_dot} AlF{sub 4}{sup -}-bound) dimer states. In the closed state, the dimer interface of Get3 contains an enormous hydrophobic groove implicated by mutational analyses in tail-anchored protein binding. In the open state, Get3 undergoes a striking rearrangement that disrupts the groove and shields its hydrophobic surfaces. These data provide a molecular mechanism for nucleotide-regulated binding and release of tail-anchored proteins during their membrane targeting by Get3.

  3. Determination of azimuthal anchoring strength in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells using heterodyne polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tsung-Chih; Lo, Yu-Lung; Huang, Rei-Rong

    2010-09-27

    Two external-field-free methods are presented for measuring the azimuthal anchoring strength in twisted nematic liquid crystal (TNLC) cells. For asymmetrical TNLC samples, the twist angle is derived from the phase of the detected signal in a phase-sensitive heterodyne polarimeter and is then used to calculate the weak anchoring strength directly. The measurement resolution which is found to be about 0.01 μJ/m(2) makes the present method sensitive enough for the LC-based bio-sensing application. Using the proposed method, the weak azimuthal anchoring strength of a composite liquid crystal mixture (40% LCT-061153 + 60% MJO-42761) in contact with a plasma-alignment layer is found to be 7.19 μJ/m(2). For symmetrical TNLC samples, the liquid crystals are injected into a wedge cell, and the two-dimensional distributions of the twist angle and cell gap are extracted from the detected phase distribution using a genetic algorithm (GA). The azimuthal anchoring strength is then obtained by applying a fitting technique to the twist angle vs. cell gap curve. Utilizing the proposed approach, it is shown that the strong anchoring strength between a rubbed polyimide (PI) alignment layer and E7 liquid crystal is around 160 μJ/m(2) while that between a rubbed PI alignment layer and MLC-7023 liquid crystal is approximately 32 μJ/m(2). PMID:20941014

  4. Interference Screw vs. Suture Anchor Fixation for Open Subpectoral Biceps Tenodesis: Does it Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Millett, Peter J; Sanders, Brett; Gobezie, Reuben; Braun, Sepp; Warner, Jon JP

    2008-01-01

    Background Bioabsorbable interference screw fixation has superior biomechanical properties compared to suture anchor fixation for biceps tenodesis. However, it is unknown whether fixation technique influences clinical results. Hypothesis We hypothesize that subpectoral interference screw fixation offers relevant clinical advantages over suture anchor fixation for biceps tenodesis. Study Design Case Series. Methods We performed a retrospective review of a consecutive series of 88 patients receiving open subpectoral biceps tenodesis with either interference screw fixation (34 patients) or suture anchor fixation (54 patients). Average follow up was 13 months. Outcomes included Visual Analogue Pain Scale (0–10), ASES score, modified Constant score, pain at the tenodesis site, failure of fixation, cosmesis, deformity (popeye) and complications. Results There were no failures of fixation in this study. All patients showed significant improvement between their preoperative and postoperative status with regard to pain, ASES score, and abbreviated modified Constant scores. When comparing IF screw versus anchor outcomes, there was no statistical significance difference for VAS (p = 0.4), ASES score (p = 0.2), and modified Constant score (P = 0.09). One patient (3%) treated with IF screw complained of persistent bicipital groove tenderness, versus four patients (7%) in the SA group (nonsignificant). Conclusion Subpectoral biceps tenodesis reliably relieves pain and improves function. There was no statistically significant difference in the outcomes studied between the two fixation techniques. Residual pain at the site of tenodesis may be an issue when suture anchors are used in the subpectoral location. PMID:18793424

  5. Ultraweak azimuthal anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal on a planar orienting photopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Nespoulous, Mathieu; Blanc, Christophe; Nobili, Maurizio

    2007-10-01

    The search of weak anchoring is an important issue for a whole class of liquid crystal displays. In this paper we present an orienting layer showing unreached weak planar azimuthal anchoring for 4-n-pentyl-4{sup '}-cyanobiphenyl nematic liquid crystal (5CB). Azimuthal extrapolation lengths as large as 80 {mu}m are easily obtained. Our layers are made with the commercial photocurable polymer Norland optical adhesive 60. The anisotropy of the film is induced by the adsorption of oriented liquid crystal molecules under a 2 T magnetic field applied parallel to the surfaces. We use the width of surface {pi}-walls and a high-field electro-optical method to measure, respectively, the azimuthal and the zenithal anchorings. The azimuthal anchoring is extremely sensitive to the ultraviolet (UV) dose and it also depends on the magnetic field application duration. On the opposite, the zenithal anchoring is only slightly sensitive to the preparation parameters. All these results are discussed in terms of the adsorption/desorption mechanisms of the liquid crystal molecules on the polymer layer and of the flexibility of the polymer network.

  6. Maleimide-functionalized lipids that anchor polypeptides to lipid bilayers and membranes.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J T; Prestwich, G D

    2000-01-01

    Two maleimide-containing diacylglycerol derivatives were synthesized to permit the anchoring of short peptides and longer polypeptides to phospholipid bilayers and membranes. The maleimide was introduced at the site normally occupied by a phospholipid headgroup. The first lipid, the dipalmitoyl ester of 1-maleimido-2,3-propanediol, was developed as a membrane anchor for extracellular domains of transmembrane proteins. The second anchoring lipid, in which the 3-position contained a 6-aminohexanoate, was designed for convenient modification with amine-reactive reporter groups. Specifically, the NBD fluorophore, 7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1, 3-diazole-aminohexanoic-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester, was attached to give an fluorescent anchoring reagent. Next, these reagents were applied to the anchoring of a C-terminally cysteamine-modified 8 kDa polypeptide that comprises the extracellular N-terminal domain of the human thrombin receptor, a transmembrane protease-activated receptor (PAR-1). Gel filtration and fluorescence analysis showed that the fluorescent lipopolypeptide spontaneously inserted into preformed phospholipid vesicles, but it did not insert into whole cell membranes. In contrast, the dipalmitoyl derivative could only be reconstituted into artificial membranes by mixing the lipopolypeptide and phospholipid before vesicle formation. These results suggest that biophysical interactions governing the lipopolypeptide insertion into artificial and cellular membranes may differ. The thiol-reactive lipidating reagents should be valuable materials for studying the structure and function of peptides and polypeptides at phospholipid bilayer surfaces. PMID:11087332

  7. A chemical approach to unraveling the biological function of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor

    PubMed Central

    Paulick, Margot G.; Forstner, Martin B.; Groves, Jay T.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2007-01-01

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a C-terminal posttranslational modification found on many eukaryotic proteins that reside in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. The complex and diverse structures of GPI anchors suggest a rich spectrum of biological functions, but few have been confirmed experimentally because of the lack of appropriate techniques that allow for structural perturbation in a cellular context. We previously synthesized a series of GPI anchor analogs with systematic deletions within the glycan core and coupled them to the GFP by a combination of expressed protein ligation and native chemical ligation [Paulick MG, Wise AR, Forstner MB, Groves JT, Bertozzi CR (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129:11543–11550]. Here we investigate the behavior of these GPI-protein analogs in living cells. These modified proteins integrated into the plasma membranes of a variety of mammalian cells and were internalized and directed to recycling endosomes similarly to GFP bearing a native GPI anchor. The GPI-protein analogs also diffused freely in cellular membranes. However, changes in the glycan structure significantly affected membrane mobility, with the loss of monosaccharide units correlating to decreased diffusion. Thus, this cellular system provides a platform for dissecting the contributions of various GPI anchor components to their biological function. PMID:18077333

  8. Influences of surface and flexoelectric polarization on the effective anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Rong-Hua; Ye, Wen-Jiang; Xing, Hong-Yu

    2015-10-01

    The physical effects on surface and flexoelectric polarization in a weak anchoring nematic liquid crystal cell are investigated systematically. We derive the analytic expressions of two effective anchoring energies for lower and upper substrates respectively as well as their effective anchoring strengths and corresponding tilt angles of effective easy direction. All of these quantities are relevant to the magnitudes of both two polarizations and the applied voltage U. Based on these expressions, the variations of effective anchoring strength and the tilt angle with the applied voltage are calculated for the fixed values of two polarizations. For an original weak anchoring hybrid aligned nematic cell, it may be equivalent to a planar cell for a small value of U and has a threshold voltage. The variation of reduced threshold voltage with reduced surface polarization strength is also calculated. The role of surface polarization is important without the adsorptive ions considered. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274088, 11374087, and11304074), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2014202123), the Research Project of Hebei Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. QN2014130), and the Key Subject Construction Project of Hebei Provincial University, China.

  9. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Proteins Are Required for Cell Wall Synthesis and Morphogenesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gillmor, C. Stewart; Lukowitz, Wolfgang; Brininstool, Ginger; Sedbrook, John C.; Hamann, Thorsten; Poindexter, Patricia; Somerville, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Mutations at five loci named PEANUT1-5 (PNT) were identified in a genetic screen for radially swollen embryo mutants. pnt1 cell walls showed decreased crystalline cellulose, increased pectins, and irregular and ectopic deposition of pectins, xyloglucans, and callose. Furthermore, pnt1 pollen is less viable than the wild type, and pnt1 embryos were delayed in morphogenesis and showed defects in shoot and root meristems. The PNT1 gene encodes the Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of mammalian PIG-M, an endoplasmic reticulum–localized mannosyltransferase that is required for synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. All five pnt mutants showed strongly reduced accumulation of GPI-anchored proteins, suggesting that they all have defects in GPI anchor synthesis. Although the mutants are seedling lethal, pnt1 cells are able to proliferate for a limited time as undifferentiated callus and do not show the massive deposition of ectopic cell wall material seen in pnt1 embryos. The different phenotype of pnt1 cells in embryos and callus suggest a differential requirement for GPI-anchored proteins in cell wall synthesis in these two tissues and points to the importance of GPI anchoring in coordinated multicellular growth. PMID:15772281

  10. Suture anchor versus screw fixation for greater tuberosity fractures of the humerus--a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Li; Hong, Chih-Kai; Jou, I-Ming; Lin, Chii-Jeng; Su, Fong-Chin; Su, Wei-Ren

    2012-03-01

    Suture anchors and screws are commonly used for fixation of humeral greater tuberosity (GT) fractures in either arthroscopic or open surgeries, but no biomechanical studies have been performed to compare the strength of fixation constructs using these two implants. This cadaveric study aimed to compare the biomechanical strength of three different fixation constructs in the management of GT fractures: Double-Row Suture Anchor Fixation (DR); Suture-Bridge Technique using suture anchors and knotless suture anchors (SB); and Two-Screw Fixation (TS). The experimental procedure was designed to assess fracture displacement after cyclic loading, failure load, and failure mode of the fixation construct. Significant differences were found among the SB (321 N), DR (263 N), and TS (187 N) groups (SB > DR > TS, p < 0.05) in the mean force of cyclic loading to create 3 mm displacement. Regarding the mean force of cyclic loading to create 5 mm displacement and ultimate failure load, no significant difference was found between the DR (370 N, 480 N) and SB (399 N, 493 N) groups, but both groups achieved superior results compared with the TS group (249 N, 340 N) (p < 0.05). The results suggested that the suture anchor constructs would be stronger than the fixation construct using screws for the humeral GT fracture. PMID:21858857

  11. Anchor and visible implant elastomer tag retention by hatchery rainbow trout stocked into an Ozark stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, M.G.; Winkelman, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a study to evaluate the stocking of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in an Oklahoma Ozark stream, we tagged 2,542 hatchery-reared rainbow trout (123-366 mm total length) with individually numbered Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant fluorescent elastomer (VIE) tags. We experimentally stocked double-marked rainbow trout into a small northeastern Oklahoma stream from November 2001 to March 2002 and resampled them monthly from December 2001 to October 2002 by electrofishing. Anchor tag retention was 91% through 6 months, and VIE tag retention was 96% through 6 months despite extensive handling of fish within 24 h of tagging. Based on the ease of application, high visibility, and high retention observed in this study, we recommend the use of VIE tags as a batch mark in similarly sized, similarly pigmented fish. The retention of VIE tags was slightly higher than that of anchor tags, and cost per fish was less for VIE than for anchor tags. However, VIE tags would have limited utility if numerous individual tags are necessary; therefore, we recommend anchor tags as individual marks in similarly sized salmonids. Retention for both tag types was relatively high and could be corrected for when estimating population parameters from tagging data.

  12. Effect of an applied electric field on a weakly anchored non-planar Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC) layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mema, Ensela; Cummings, Linda J.; Kondic, Lou

    We consider a mathematical model that consists of a NLC layer sandwiched between two parallel bounding plates, across which an external field is applied. We investigate its effect on the director orientation by considering the dielectric and flexoelectric contributions and varying parameters that represent the anchoring conditions and the electric field strength. In particular, we investigate possible director configurations that occur in weakly anchored and non-planar systems. We observe that non-planar anchoring angles destroy any hysteresis seen in a planar system by eliminating the fully vertical director configuration and the ''saturation threshold'' seen in weakly anchored planar Freedericksz cells. Supported by NSF Grant No. DMS-1211713.

  13. Pectoralis major transosseous equivalent repair with knotless anchors: Technical note and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Samitier, Gonzalo S.; Marcano, Alejandro I.; Farmer, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rupture of the pectoralis major (PM) tendon was initially described almost 2 centuries ago, but most of the reported injuries have occurred within the last 30 years. Options for repair have varied widely. The most common methods for repair depend on either transosseous sutures or suture anchors for fixation. Transosseous suture repair allows for docking the tendon into a trough at its anatomic insertion, but risks cortical breakage during suture passing. Our experience has confirmed the value and potential advantages of anchors for a secure fixation. Aims: To describe a variation of repair using knotless suture anchors and a burred trough to dock the tendon into its anatomic insertion. Conclusion: We describe a technique of a transosseous equivalent PM repair technique. To our knowledge, this is the first paper describing such a repair technique for PM rupture. PMID:25709241

  14. Mussel-Inspired Anchoring of Polymer Loops That Provide Superior Surface Lubrication and Antifouling Properties.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taegon; Banquy, Xavier; Heo, Jinhwa; Lim, Chanoong; Lynd, Nathaniel A; Lundberg, Pontus; Oh, Dongyeop X; Lee, Han-Koo; Hong, Yong-Ki; Hwang, Dong Soo; Waite, John Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Hawker, Craig J

    2016-01-26

    We describe robustly anchored triblock copolymers that adopt loop conformations on surfaces and endow them with unprecedented lubricating and antifouling properties. The triblocks have two end blocks with catechol-anchoring groups and a looping poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) midblock. The loops mediate strong steric repulsion between two mica surfaces. When sheared at constant speeds of ∼2.5 μm/s, the surfaces exhibit an extremely low friction coefficient of ∼0.002-0.004 without any signs of damage up to pressures of ∼2-3 MPa that are close to most biological bearing systems. Moreover, the polymer loops enhance inhibition of cell adhesion and proliferation compared to polymers in the random coil or brush conformations. These results demonstrate that strongly anchored polymer loops are effective for high lubrication and low cell adhesion and represent a promising candidate for the development of specialized high-performance biomedical coatings. PMID:26695175

  15. Construction of a Highly Active Xylanase Displaying Oleaginous Yeast: Comparison of Anchoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Duquesne, Sophie; Bozonnet, Sophie; Bordes, Florence; Dumon, Claire; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Marty, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Three Yarrowia lipolytica cell wall proteins (YlPir, YlCWP1 and YlCBM) were evaluated for their ability to display the xylanase TxXYN from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus on the cell surface of Y. lipolytica. The fusion proteins were produced in Y. lipolytica JMY1212, a strain engineered for mono-copy chromosomal insertion, and enabling accurate comparison of anchoring systems. The construction using YlPir enabled cell bound xylanase activity to be maximised (71.6 U/g). Although 48% of the activity was released in the supernatant, probably due to proteolysis at the fusion zone, this system is three times more efficient for the anchoring of TxXYN than the YlCWP1 system formerly developed for Y. lipolytica. As far as we know it represents the best displayed xylanase activity ever published. It could be an attractive alternative anchoring system to display enzymes in Y. lipolytica. PMID:24743311

  16. Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-based Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2010-02-01

    This paper is an invited adaptation of the IEEE Education Society Distinguished Lecture Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning. Interactive video anchors have a cognitive theory base, and they help to enlarge the context of learning with information-rich real-world situations. Carefully selected movie clips and custom-developed regular videos and virtual simulations have been successfully used as anchors in problem-based science learning. Examples discussed include a range of situations such as Indiana Jones tackling a trap, a teenager misrepresenting lead for gold, an agriculture inspection at the US border, counterintuitive events, analyzing a river ecosystem for pollution, and finding the cause of illness in a nineteenth century river city. Suggestions for teachers are provided.

  17. EXTENSIVE OSTEOLYSIS AFTER THE USE OF A BIOABSORBABLE SUTURE ANCHOR: CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Dal Molin, Fabio Farina

    2015-01-01

    Bioabsorbable implants are very frequently used to treat rotator cuff and shoulder labrum injuries. Many researchers have observed small areas of osteolysis after treating pathological conditions of the shoulder using bioabsorbable anchors. Biological and mechanical theories have been put forward to account for the osteolysis caused by these materials. The case of a patient who was simultaneously treated for a rotator cuff lesion using the double-row technique and a Bankart lesion using bioabsorbable PLLA anchors and Fiber Wire®, and developed extensive osteolysis of the anatomical neck of the humerus, is described. Given that an anchor was used in the glenoid, and this did not present osteolysis, the hypothesis that mechanical factors are important in the etiology of this complication is raised. PMID:27026956

  18. The anchoring function: parental authority and the parent-child bond.

    PubMed

    Omer, Haim; Steinmetz, Sarit G; Carthy, Tal; von Schlippe, Arist

    2013-06-01

    Descriptions of parental authority and of the formation of a secure parent-child bond have remained unconnected in conceptualizations about parenting and child development. The parental anchoring function is here presented as an integrative metaphor for the two fields. Parents who fulfill an anchoring function offer a secure relational frame for the child, while also manifesting a stabilizing and legitimate kind of authority. The anchoring function enriches the two fields by: (1) adding a dimension of authority to the acknowledged functions of the safe haven and the secure base that are seen as core to a secure parent-child bond, and (2) adding considerations about the parent-child bond to Baumrind's classical description of authoritative parenting. PMID:23763680

  19. The use of bone anchors for autologous flap fixation in perineal reconstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saad, Adam; Cece, John A; Arvanitis, Michael L; Elkwood, Andrew I

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the use of bone anchors with an autologous flap in perineal reconstruction. This technique has not been reported before. A 64-year-old female presented to our office with a chief complaint of perineal hernia 1.5 years after abdominoperineal resection. She had a history of recurrent rectal cancer for which she received chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. To repair the hernia, a standard vertical rectus abdominismyocutaneous was harvested and de-epithelialized. It was secured into place in the pelvis utilizing several bone anchors. Mesh was used to repair the donor site defect. At 18 month follow-up, there was good healing of all the wounds and no recurrence of the hernia. She was pain free and able to resume her activities of daily living. Bone anchor fixation is a viable technique for fixation of autologous flaps in perineal reconstruction. PMID:24964462

  20. The use of bone anchors for autologous flap fixation in perineal reconstruction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Adam; Cece, John A.; Arvanitis, Michael L.; Elkwood, Andrew I.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the use of bone anchors with an autologous flap in perineal reconstruction. This technique has not been reported before. A 64-year-old female presented to our office with a chief complaint of perineal hernia 1.5 years after abdominoperineal resection. She had a history of recurrent rectal cancer for which she received chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. To repair the hernia, a standard vertical rectus abdominismyocutaneous was harvested and de-epithelialized. It was secured into place in the pelvis utilizing several bone anchors. Mesh was used to repair the donor site defect. At 18 month follow-up, there was good healing of all the wounds and no recurrence of the hernia. She was pain free and able to resume her activities of daily living. Bone anchor fixation is a viable technique for fixation of autologous flaps in perineal reconstruction. PMID:24964462

  1. Inositolphosphoglycan mediators structurally related to glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors: synthesis, structure and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lomas, M; Khiar, N; García, S; Koessler, J L; Nieto, P M; Rademacher, T W

    2000-10-01

    The preparation of the pseudopentasaccharide 1a, an inositol-phosphoglycan (IPG) that contains the conserved linear structure of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors (GPI anchors), was carried out by using a highly convergent 2+3-block synthesis approach which involves imidate and sulfoxide glycosylation reactions. The preferred solution conformation of this structure was determined by using NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations prior to carrying out quantitative structure--activity relationship studies in connection with the insulin signalling process. The ability of 1a to stimulate lipogenesis in rat adipocytes as well as to inhibit cAMP dependent protein kinase and to activate pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase was investigated. Compound 1a did not show any significant activity, which may be taken as a strong indication that the GPI anchors are not the precursors of the IPG mediators. PMID:11072827

  2. Interactions of frazil and anchor ice with sedimentary particles in a flume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kempema, E.W.; Reimnitz, E.; Clayton, J.R., Jr.; Payne, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Frazil and anchor ice forming in turbulent, supercooled water have been studied extensively because of problems posed to man-made hydraulic structures. In spite of many incidental observations of interactions of these ice forms with sediment, their geologic effects remain unknown. The present flume study was designed to learn about the effects of salinity, current speed, and sediment type on sediment dynamics in supercooled water. In fresh-water, frazil ice formed flocs as large as 8 cm in diameter that tended to roll along a sandy bottom and collect material from the bed. The heavy flocs often came to rest in the shelter of ripples, forming anchor ice that subsequently was buried by migrating ripples. Burial compressed porous anchor ice into ice-bonded, sediment-rich masses. This process disrupts normal ripple cross-bedding and may produce unique sedimentary structures. Salt-water flocs were smaller, incorporated less bed load, and formed less anchor ice than their fresh-water counterparts. In four experiments, frazil carried a high sediment load only for a short period in supercooled salt water, but released it with slight warming. This suggests that salt-water frazil is either sticky or traps particles only while surrounded by supercooled water (0.05 to 0.1 ??C supercooling), a short-lived phase in simple, small tanks. Salt water anchor ice formed readily on blocks of ice-bonded sediment, which may be common in nature. The theoretical maximum sediment load in neutrally-buoyant ice/sediment mixture is 122 g/l, never reported in nature so far. The maximum sediment load measured in this laboratory study was 88 g/l. Such high theoretical and measured sediment concentrations suggest that frazil and anchor ice are important sediment transport agents in rivers and oceans. ?? 1993.

  3. Bottlebrush Polymer Synthesis by Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization: The Significance of the Anchor Group.

    PubMed

    Radzinski, Scott C; Foster, Jeffrey C; Chapleski, Robert C; Troya, Diego; Matson, John B

    2016-06-01

    Control over bottlebrush polymer synthesis by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of macromonomers (MMs) is highly dependent on the competition between the kinetics of the polymerization and the lifetime of the catalyst. We evaluated the effect of anchor group chemistry-the configuration of atoms linking the polymer to a polymerizable norbornene-on the kinetics of ROMP of polystyrene and poly(lactic acid) MMs initiated by (H2IMes)(pyr)2(Cl)2Ru═CHPh (Grubbs third generation catalyst). We observed a variance in the rate of propagation of >4-fold between similar MMs with different anchor groups. This phenomenon was conserved across all MMs tested, regardless of solvent, molecular weight (MW), or repeat unit identity. The observed >4-fold difference in propagation rate had a dramatic effect on the maximum obtainable backbone degree of polymerization, with slower propagating MMs reducing the maximum bottlebrush MW by an order of magnitude (from ∼10(6) to ∼10(5) Da). A chelation mechanism was initially proposed to explain the observed anchor group effect, but experimental and computational studies indicated that the rate differences likely resulted from a combination of varying steric demands and electronic structure among the different anchor groups. The addition of trifluoroacetic acid to the ROMP reaction substantially increased the propagation rate for all anchor groups tested, likely due to scavenging of the pyridine ligands. Based on these data, rational selection of the anchor group is critical to achieve high MM conversion and to prepare pure, high MW bottlebrush polymers by ROMP grafting-through. PMID:27219866

  4. Factors Related to Furniture Anchoring: A Method for Reducing Harm During Earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Haraoka, Tomoko; Hayasaka, Shinya; Murata, Chiyoe; Yamaoka, Taiji; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2012-12-27

    Objective:  Fatalities and injuries during an earthquake can be reduced by taking preemptive measures beforehand, and furniture anchoring is an important safety measure for all residents. This study sought to clarify the factors associated with furniture anchoring within the home. Methods:  A self-administered mail survey was completed from July to August 2010 by 3500 men and women between the ages of 20 and 69 years who were chosen at random from an official government resident registry of 2 cities in Japan. Results:  Of the 1729 valid responses, 37.1% reported furniture anchoring. An association with furniture anchoring was observed for having viewed earthquake intensity maps or damage predictions (odds ratio [OR] 1.92, 95% CI 1.54-2.39), expressing concern about a future earthquake (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.36-3.15), feelings of urgency (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.47-2.45), accuracy of the government disaster preparedness information (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.17-2.42), knowledge of the meaning of emergency earthquake warnings (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12-2.48), and participation in voluntary disaster preparedness activities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.75). Conclusions:  Furniture anchoring was found to be associated with risk awareness, risk perception, disaster preparedness information provided by government to residents, knowledge of earthquakes, participation in voluntary disaster preparedness activities, nonwooden structures, and marital status. An increase in furniture anchoring is important and can be achieved through education and training in daily life. PMID:23250842

  5. Identification of Anchor Genes during Kidney Development Defines Ontological Relationships, Molecular Subcompartments and Regulatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Chiu, Han Sheng; Taylor, Darrin; Tang, Dave T. P.; Grimmond, Sean M.; Little, Melissa H.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the mammalian kidney is well conserved from mouse to man. Despite considerable temporal and spatial data on gene expression in mammalian kidney development, primarily in rodent species, there is a paucity of genes whose expression is absolutely specific to a given anatomical compartment and/or developmental stage, defined here as ‘anchor’ genes. We previously generated an atlas of gene expression in the developing mouse kidney using microarray analysis of anatomical compartments collected via laser capture microdissection. Here, this data is further analysed to identify anchor genes via stringent bioinformatic filtering followed by high resolution section in situ hybridisation performed on 200 transcripts selected as specific to one of 11 anatomical compartments within the midgestation mouse kidney. A total of 37 anchor genes were identified across 6 compartments with the early proximal tubule being the compartment richest in anchor genes. Analysis of minimal and evolutionarily conserved promoter regions of this set of 25 anchor genes identified enrichment of transcription factor binding sites for Hnf4a and Hnf1b, RbpJ (Notch signalling), PPARγ:RxRA and COUP-TF family transcription factors. This was reinforced by GO analyses which also identified these anchor genes as targets in processes including epithelial proliferation and proximal tubular function. As well as defining anchor genes, this large scale validation of gene expression identified a further 92 compartment-enriched genes able to subcompartmentalise key processes during murine renal organogenesis spatially or ontologically. This included a cohort of 13 ureteric epithelial genes revealing previously unappreciated compartmentalisation of the collecting duct system and a series of early tubule genes suggesting that segmentation into proximal tubule, loop of Henle and distal tubule does not occur until the onset of glomerular vascularisation. Overall, this study serves to illuminate

  6. Fixation of a human rib by an intramedullary telescoping splint anchored by bone cement.

    PubMed

    Liovic, Petar; Šutalo, Ilija D; Marasco, Silvana F

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept for rib fixation is presented that involves the use of a bioresorbable polymer intramedullary telescoping splint. Bone cement is used to anchor each end of the splint inside the medullary canal on each side of the fracture site. In this manner, rib fixation is achieved without fixation device protrusion from the rib, making the splint completely intramedullary. Finite element analysis is used to demonstrate that such a splint/cement composite can preserve rib fixation subjected to cough-intensity force loadings. Computational fluid dynamics and porcine rib experiments were used to study the anchor formation process required to complete the fixation. PMID:26733094

  7. A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins: From protein complexes to physiology and disease

    PubMed Central

    Carnegie, Graeme K.; Means, Christopher K.; Scott, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Protein scaffold complexes are a key mechanism by which a common signaling pathway can serve many different functions. Sequestering a signaling enzyme to a specific subcellular environment not only ensures that the enzyme is near its relevant targets, but also segregates this activity to prevent indiscriminate phosphorylation of other substrates. One family of diverse, well-studied scaffolding proteins are the A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). These anchoring proteins form multi-protein complexes that integrate cAMP signaling with other pathways and signaling events. In this review we focus on recent advances in the elucidation of AKAP function. PMID:19319965

  8. Determining the penetration resistance of a cometary surface by using data from the Philae anchoring harpoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargl, Günter; Kömle, Norbert I.; Macher, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    On November 11 2014 ESA's Rosetta spacecraft will deliver the Lander PHILAE to the surface of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. To fix the lander safely on the surface and allow for in situ operation of instruments like the SD2 drill or the MUPUS experiment the spacecraft will be anchored to the surface by a harpoon-type device. In addition to the anchoring function the projectile shot into the surface contains two sensors, which will be used to obtain information on the thermo-physical properties of the cometary ice: a shock accelerometer and a temperature sensor. The former will record the deceleration history of the anchoring projectile during the penetration phase. From these data information on mechanical strength of the near surface cometary material and its variation with depth can be retrieved by using appropriate modelling approaches. The temperature sensor will measure temperature variations at the depth were the anchor finally has come to rest over the lifetime of the lander at the surface. Both sensors are part of the MUPUS experiment on Philae, which is devoted to the measurement of thermo-mechanical properties. In this paper we will give a short overview on the main features of the harpoon-anchoring system in general and on the mathematical methods to be used for the evaluation of the measurement data recorded by the anchor sensors, with emphasis on the accelerometer data. An example from a test shot performed during the development phase of the Philae anchoring system is shown in the figure below. PIC Figure: Typical acceleration/deceleration signal recorded during a test shot of the anchor into a foam glass analogue material (upper left panel). The different phases of the shot (acceleration phase, free flight phase, deceleration phase) are clearly separated in this shot. Integration and double integration of the data (upper right and lower left panel) gives the velocity and depth profile versus time. This procedure allows finally to derive the

  9. Photosensitizer anchored gold nanorods for targeted combinational photothermal and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Tham, Huijun Phoebe; Chen, Hongzhong; Tan, Yu Hui; Qu, Qiuyu; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Lingzhi; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-07-01

    Silylated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was anchored onto silica-coated gold nanorods (AuNR) with retained local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Independent LSPR and singlet oxygen production of anchored ZnPc enhance the photothermal and photodynamic efficacy of the obtained AuNR-Si-ZnPc under NIR light excitation. AuNR-Si-ZnPc was further grafted with hyaluronic acid (HA). Since HA has selective targeting capability to CD44 antigens, the final hybrid could target cancer cells directly for synergistic photothermal and photodynamic therapy. PMID:27346609

  10. Anchor ice, seabed freezing, and sediment dynamics in shallow arctic seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Kempema, E.W.; Barnes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Diving investigations confirm previous circumstantial evidence of seafloor freezing and anchor ice accretion during freeze-up storms in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. These related bottom types were found to be continuous from shore to 2 m depth and spotty to 4.5 m depth. The concretelike nature of frozen bottom, where present, should prohibit sediment transport by any conceivable wave or current regime during the freezing storm. But elsewhere, anchor ice lifts coarse material off the bottom and incorporates it into the ice canopy, thereby leading to significant ice rafting of shallow shelf sediment and likely sediment loss to the deep sea. -from Authors

  11. A magnetic minirobot with anchoring and drilling ability in tubular environments actuated by external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K.; Jeon, S. M.; Nam, J. K.; Jang, G. H.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a magnetic minirobot with anchoring and drilling ability (MMAD) controlled by an external magnetic field. The proposed MMAD can navigate through a tubular environment, such as human blood vessels, actuated by a magnetic gradient and uniform rotating magnetic field. It can also generate an anchoring motion, which stably holds the position of the MMAD under pulsatile flow, in order to drill and unclog obstructed blood vessels. The operating conditions of the MMAD were examined by investigating the magnetic torques, and the holding force of the MMAD was measured by a force sensing resistor. Finally, we performed various experiments in a tubular environment to verify the validity of the proposed MMAD.

  12. The Role of Anchor Stations in the Validation of Earth Observation Satellite Data and Products. The Valencia and the Alacant Anchor Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Geraldo Ferreira, A.; Saleh-Contell, Kauzar

    Space technology facilitates humanity and science with a global revolutionary view of the Earth through the acquisition of Earth Observation satellite data. Satellites capture information over different spatial and temporal scales and assist in understanding natural climate processes and in detecting and explaining climate change. Accurate Earth Observation data is needed to describe climate processes by improving the parameterisations of different climate elements. Algorithms to produce geophysical parameters from raw satellite observations should go through selection processes or participate in inter-comparison programmes to ensure performance reliability. Geophysical parameter datasets, obtained from satellite observations, should pass a quality control before they are accepted in global databases for impact, diagnostic or sensitivity studies. Calibration and Validation, or simply "Cal/Val", is the activity that endeavours to ensure that remote sensing products are highly consistent and reproducible. This is an evolving scientific activity that is becoming increasingly important as more long-term studies on global change are undertaken, and new satellite missions are launched. Calibration is the process of quantitatively defining the system responses to known, controlled signal inputs. Validation refers to the process of assessing, by independent means, the quality of the data products derived from the system outputs. These definitions are generally accepted and most often used in the remote sensing context to refer specifically and respectively to sensor radiometric calibration and geophysical parameter validation. Anchor Stations are carefully selected locations at which instruments measure quantities that are needed to run, calibrate or validate models and algorithms. These are needed to quanti-tatively evaluate satellite data and convert it into geophysical information. The instruments collect measurements of basic quantities over a long timescale

  13. 33 CFR 150.905 - Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? 150.905 Section 150.905 Navigation and Navigable...: OPERATIONS Safety Zones, No Anchoring Areas, and Areas To Be Avoided § 150.905 Why are safety zones,...

  14. 33 CFR 150.905 - Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? 150.905 Section 150.905 Navigation and Navigable...: OPERATIONS Safety Zones, No Anchoring Areas, and Areas To Be Avoided § 150.905 Why are safety zones,...

  15. Control of the anchoring behavior of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals: effect of branching in the side chains of polyacrylates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Collard, David M; Park, Jung O; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2002-08-28

    A temperature-driven anchoring transition in a polymer/nematic fluid composite that is far from the bulk nematic-isotropic transition temperature is reported. A series of poly(methylheptyl acrylates) were studied to probe the subtle effects of the side chain structure of the polymer on control of the anchoring. A polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film made from TL205 and 1-methylheptyl acrylate shows only planar anchoring over the temperature range studied, while the films made from TL205 and each of the other methylheptyl acrylates or n-heptyl acrylate show the homeotropic-to-planar anchoring transition at temperatures between 70 and 78 degrees C. An interfacial model is proposed in which the different conformation of the side chains is suggested as the cause for the dramatic difference in the observed anchoring behavior. PMID:12188649

  16. Slipping Anchor? Testing the Vignettes Approach to Identification and Correction of Reporting Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Uva, Teresa Bago; Lindeboom, Maarten; O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2011-01-01

    We propose tests of the two assumptions under which anchoring vignettes identify heterogeneity in reporting of categorical evaluations. Systematic variation in the perceived difference between any two vignette states is sufficient to reject "vignette equivalence." "Response consistency"--the respondent uses the same response scale to evaluate the…

  17. Protein-anchoring Strategy for Delivering Acetylcholinesterase to the Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Mikako; Suzuki, Yumi; Okada, Takashi; Fukudome, Takayasu; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Masuda, Akio; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Krejci, Eric; Ohno, Kinji

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is anchored to the synaptic basal lamina via a triple helical collagen Q (ColQ). Congenital defects of ColQ cause endplate AChE deficiency and myasthenic syndrome. A single intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8)-COLQ to Colq−/− mice recovered motor functions, synaptic transmission, as well as the morphology of the NMJ. ColQ-tailed AChE was specifically anchored to NMJ and its amount was restored to 89% of the wild type. We next characterized the molecular basis of this efficient recovery. We first confirmed that ColQ-tailed AChE can be specifically targeted to NMJ by an in vitro overlay assay in Colq−/− mice muscle sections. We then injected AAV1-COLQ-IRES-EGFP into the left tibialis anterior and detected AChE in noninjected limbs. Furthermore, the in vivo injection of recombinant ColQ-tailed AChE protein complex into the gluteus maximus muscle of Colq−/− mice led to accumulation of AChE in noninjected forelimbs. We demonstrated for the first time in vivo that the ColQ protein contains a tissue-targeting signal that is sufficient for anchoring itself to the NMJ. We propose that the protein-anchoring strategy is potentially applicable to a broad spectrum of diseases affecting extracellular matrix molecules. PMID:22371845

  18. The Role of Anchored Instruction in the Design of a Hypermedia Science Museum Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Benjamin; And Others

    A hypermedia simulation, Sickle Cell Counselor, has been developed to anchor instruction for museum visitors using the task of advising couples about the decision to have children when there is a substantial genetic risk of sickle cell disease. A visitor can perform simulated laboratory tests and ask questions via interactive video. The anchored…

  19. Using Anchoring Vignettes to Assess Group Differences in General Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna; Freese, Jeremy; Hauser, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses a potentially serious problem with the widely used self-rated health (SRH) survey item: that different groups have systematically different ways of using the item's response categories. Analyses based on unadjusted SRH may thus yield misleading results. The authors evaluate anchoring vignettes as a possible solution to this…

  20. Statistical Procedures to Evaluate Quality of Scale Anchoring. Research Report. ETS RR-11-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Sinharay, Sandip; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Providing information to test takers and test score users about the abilities of test takers at different score levels has been a persistent problem in educational and psychological measurement (Carroll, 1993). Scale anchoring (Beaton & Allen, 1992), a technique that describes what students at different points on a score scale know and can do, is…

  1. Facility 367/368, oblique overview from parking lot toward anchor link ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 367/368, oblique overview from parking lot toward anchor link fence and ramp on left, view facing east-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hospital Laboratory, Hospital Way, near intersection with Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Delivery of a secreted soluble protein to the vacuole via a membrane anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Barrieu, F.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1999-08-01

    To further understand how membrane proteins are sorted in the secretory system, the authors devised a strategy that involves the expression of a membrane-anchored yeast invertase in transgenic plants. The construct consisted of a signal peptide followed by the coding region of yeast invertase and the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of calnexin. The substitution of a lysine near the C terminus of calnexin with a glutamic acid residue ensured progression through the secretory system rather than retention in or return to the endoplasmic reticulum. In the transformed plants, invertase activity and a 70-kD cross-reacting protein were found in the vacuoles. This yeast invertase had plant-specific complex glycans, indicating that transport to the vacuole was mediated by the Golgi apparatus. The microsomal fraction contained a membrane-anchored 90-kD cross-reacting polypeptide, but was devoid of invertase activity. Their results indicate that this membrane-anchored protein proceeds in the secretory system beyond the point where soluble proteins are sorted for secretion, and is detached from its membrane anchor either just before or just after delivery to the vacuole.

  3. Test Equating under the NEAT Design: A Necessary Condition for Anchor Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko

    2010-01-01

    Mroch, Suh, Kane, & Ripkey (2009); Suh, Mroch, Kane, & Ripkey (2009); and Kane, Mroch, Suh, & Ripkey (2009) provided elucidating discussions on critical properties of linear equating methods under the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. In this popular equating design, two test forms are administered to different groups of…

  4. Application and analysis of anchored geosynthetic systems for stabilization of abandoned mine land slopes

    SciTech Connect

    Vitton, S.J.; Whitman, F.; Liang, R.Y.; Harris, W.W.

    1996-12-31

    An anchored geosynthetic system (AGS) was used in the remediation of a landslide associated with an abandoned coal mine located near Hindman, Kentucky. In concept, AGS is a system that provides in-situ stabilization of soil slopes by combining a surface-deployed geosynthetic with an anchoring system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system involves tensioning a geosynthetic over a slope`s surface by driving anchors through the geosynthetic at a given spacing and distance. By tensioning the geosynthetic over the slope`s surface, a compressive load is applied to the slope. Benefits of AGS are described to include the following: (1) increase soil strength due to soil compression including increased compressive loading on potential failure surfaces, (2) soil reinforcement through soil nailing, (3), halt of soil creep, (4) erosion control, and (5) long term soil consolidation. Following installation of the AGS and one year of monitoring, it was found that the anchored geosynthetic system only provided some of the reported benefits and in general did not function as an active stabilization system. This was due in part to the inability of the system to provide and maintain loading on the geosynthetic. The geosynthetic, however, did tension when slope movement occurred and prevented the slope from failing. Thus, the system functioned more as a passive restraint system and appeared to function well over the monitoring period.

  5. Boronic acid as an efficient anchor group for surface modification of solid polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Nishiyabu, Ryuhei; Shimizu, Ai

    2016-07-28

    We report the use of boronic acid as an anchor group for surface modification of solid polyvinyl alcohol (PVA); the surfaces of PVA microparticles, films, and nanofibers were chemically modified with boronic acid-appended fluorescent dyes through boronate esterification using a simple soaking technique in a short time under ambient conditions. PMID:27311634

  6. Angiotensin-converting enzyme is a GPI-anchored protein releasing factor crucial for fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Gen; Tojo, Hiromasa; Nakatani, Yuka; Komazawa, Nobuyasu; Murata, Chie; Yamagata, Kazuo; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh; Okabe, Masaru; Taguchi, Ryo; Takeda, Junji

    2005-02-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a key regulator of blood pressure. It is known to cleave small peptides, such as angiotensin I and bradykinin and changes their biological activities, leading to upregulation of blood pressure. Here we describe a new activity for ACE: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein releasing activity (GPIase activity). Unlike its peptidase activity, GPIase activity is weakly inhibited by the tightly binding ACE inhibitor and not inactivated by substitutions of core amino acid residues for the peptidase activity, suggesting that the active site elements for GPIase differ from those for peptidase activity. ACE shed various GPI-anchored proteins from the cell surface, and the process was accelerated by the lipid raft disruptor filipin. The released products carried portions of the GPI anchor, indicating cleavage within the GPI moiety. Further analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry predicted the cleavage site at the mannose-mannose linkage. GPI-anchored proteins such as TESP5 and PH-20 were released from the sperm membrane of wild-type mice but not in Ace knockout sperm in vivo. Moreover, peptidase-inactivated E414D mutant ACE and also PI-PLC rescued the egg-binding deficiency of Ace knockout sperms, implying that ACE plays a crucial role in fertilization through this activity. PMID:15665832

  7. Understanding and valuing environmental issues: the effects of availability and anchoring on judgment.

    PubMed

    van der Pligt, J; van Schie, E C; Hoevenagel, R

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of availability and anchoring-and-adjustment on people's beliefs and values concerning environmental issues. The first three studies focus on lay people's perceptions of the causes of large scale environmental risks, the second series of three studies deals with how people value environmental goods and how much they are prepared to pay to mitigate environmental risks. In studies 1-3 we investigate the effects of availability and anchoring-and-adjustment on estimating the contribution of various factors to large scale environmental risks. Highly complex risks such as acid rain and global warming tend to be associated with multiple causes, and our results show that estimating the role of these causes is clearly affected by availability and anchoring-and-adjustment. Both have sizeable effects and persist over time. Moreover, corrective procedures only seem to have a limited effect. Availability and anchoring-and-adjustment not only play a role in judging the possible causes of risks; they also play a role in research attempting to assess the public's willingness to pay (WTP) to protect our environment. The outcomes of WTP surveys are often used as a tool to help policy decision making. In the second part of this article we present three studies on this issue. Results provide further evidence of the impact of the two heuristics on the outcomes of WTP research. Implications for research and practice are briefly discussed. PMID:9857823

  8. Compartment A125, view of forward side of anchor windlass and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-125, view of forward side of anchor windlass and ditty box stowage shelves. Ditty boxes were small portable lockers used for storage of crew's personal items. (029) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Heterometal nanoparticles from Ru-based molecular clusters covalently anchored onto functionalized carbon nanotubes and nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Vidick, Deborah; Ke, Xiaoxing; Devillers, Michel; Poleunis, Claude; Delcorte, Arnaud; Moggi, Pietro; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2015-01-01

    Summary Heterometal clusters containing Ru and Au, Co and/or Pt are anchored onto carbon nanotubes and nanofibers functionalized with chelating phosphine groups. The cluster anchoring yield is related to the amount of phosphine groups available on the nanocarbon surface. The ligands of the anchored molecular species are then removed by gentle thermal treatment in order to form nanoparticles. In the case of Au-containing clusters, removal of gold atoms from the clusters and agglomeration leads to a bimodal distribution of nanoparticles at the nanocarbon surface. In the case of Ru–Pt species, anchoring occurs without reorganization through a ligand exchange mechanism. After thermal treatment, ultrasmall (1–3 nm) bimetal Ru–Pt nanoparticles are formed on the surface of the nanocarbons. Characterization by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) confirms their bimetal nature on the nanoscale. The obtained bimetal nanoparticles supported on nanocarbon were tested as catalysts in ammonia synthesis and are shown to be active at low temperature and atmospheric pressure with very low Ru loading. PMID:26199832

  10. Arrows as Anchors: An Analysis of the Material Features of Electric Field Vector Arrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gire, Elizabeth; Price, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Representations in physics possess both physical and conceptual aspects that are fundamentally intertwined and can interact to support or hinder sense making and computation. We use distributed cognition and the theory of conceptual blending with material anchors to interpret the roles of conceptual and material features of representations in…

  11. Auditory Frequency Discrimination in Adults with Dyslexia: A Test of the Anchoring Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijnen, Frank; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Vlutters, Leoni D.; Winkel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A recent hypothesis ascribes dyslexia to a perceptual anchoring deficit. Supporting results have so far been obtained only in children with dyslexia and additional learning difficulties, but the hypothesis has been argued to apply to all individuals with dyslexia. Method: The authors measured auditory frequency discrimination thresholds…

  12. Investigating Repeater Effects on Chained Equipercentile Equating with Common Anchor Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of repeat takers of a licensure test on the equating functions in the context of a nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. Examinees who had taken a new, to-be-equated form of the test were divided into three subgroups according to their previous testing experience: (a) repeaters who previously took…

  13. Improving Services for Secondary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Project ANCHOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagen, Stanley A.

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of Project Anchor, a 3-year federally funded model demonstration project that was created to address how service providers, families, employers, and the community could work together to improve educational services and results for secondary students with emotional and behavioral disorders.…

  14. The Effect of Listener Experience and Anchors on Judgments of Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Kapsner-Smith, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of auditory anchors on judgments of overall severity (OS) and vocal effort (VE) in dysphonic speech when judgments are made by experienced and inexperienced listeners, and when self-rated by individuals with dysphonia (speaker-listeners). Method: Twenty individuals with dysphonia and 4 normal controls provided…

  15. Competency-Based Behavioral Anchors as Authentication Tools To Document Distance Education Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Kim E.; Lindner, James R.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 20 graduate students learning distance education methods found that great variance in idnviudal competence at course begining moved to similar levels at course end. Open-ended verification of competence using behavioral anchors worked well as a self-assessment and benchmarking tool to document growth in learning. (Contains 19…

  16. The information-anchoring model of first offers: When moving first helps versus hurts negotiators.

    PubMed

    Loschelder, David D; Trötschel, Roman; Swaab, Roderick I; Friese, Malte; Galinsky, Adam D

    2016-07-01

    Does making the first offer increase or impair a negotiator's outcomes? Past research has found evidence supporting both claims. To reconcile these contradictory findings, we developed and tested an integrative model-the Information-Anchoring Model of First Offers. The model predicts when and why making the first offer helps versus hurts. We suggest that first offers have 2 effects. First, they serve as anchors that pull final settlements toward the initial first-offer value; this anchor function often produces a first-mover advantage. Second, first offers can convey information on the senders' priorities, which makes the sender vulnerable to exploitation and increases the risk of a first-mover disadvantage. To test this model, 3 experiments manipulated the information that senders communicated in their first offer. When senders did not reveal their priorities, the first-mover advantage was replicated. However, when first offers revealed senders' priorities explicitly, implicitly, or both, a first-mover disadvantage emerged. Negotiators' social value orientation moderated this effect: A first-mover disadvantage occurred when senders faced proself recipients who exploited priority information, but not with prosocial recipients. Moderated mediation analyses supported the model assumptions: Proself recipients used their integrative insight to feign priorities in their low-priority issues and thereby claimed more individual value than senders. The final discussion reviews theoretical and applied implications of the Information-Anchoring Model of First Offers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27065345

  17. Investigating a First-Year Seminar as an Anchor Course in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniel B.; Alexander, Julie S.

    2007-01-01

    First-year seminars have increasingly been used as anchor courses in learning communities. This study investigated the impact participation in Freshman Seminar had on the grade earned in a linked learning community course in fall 2004. Grades in the linked course for 1,294 first-year students who were enrolled in 37 different learning communities…

  18. Human carbonic anhydrase II as a host for piano-stool complexes bearing a sulfonamide anchor.

    PubMed

    Monnard, Fabien W; Heinisch, Tillmann; Nogueira, Elisa S; Schirmer, Tilman; Ward, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    d(6)-piano-stool complexes bearing an arylsulfonamide anchor display sub-micromolar affinity towards human Carbonic Anhydrase II (hCA II). The 1.3 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of [(η(6)-C(6)Me(6))Ru(bispy 3)Cl](+)⊂ hCA II highlights the nature of the host-guest interactions. PMID:21706094

  19. A C-terminal Membrane Anchor Affects the Interactions of Prion Proteins with Lipid Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Nam K.; Shabbir, Waheed; Bove-Fenderson, Erin; Araman, Can; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa; Harris, David A.; Becker, Christian F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane attachment via a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor is critical for conversion of PrPC into pathogenic PrPSc. Therefore the effects of the anchor on PrP structure and function need to be deciphered. Three PrP variants, including full-length PrP (residues 23–231, FL_PrP), N-terminally truncated PrP (residues 90–231, T_PrP), and PrP missing its central hydrophobic region (Δ105–125, ΔCR_PrP), were equipped with a C-terminal membrane anchor via a semisynthesis strategy. Analyses of the interactions of lipidated PrPs with phospholipid membranes demonstrated that C-terminal membrane attachment induces a different binding mode of PrP to membranes, distinct from that of non-lipidated PrPs, and influences the biochemical and conformational properties of PrPs. Additionally, fluorescence-based assays indicated pore formation by lipidated ΔCR_PrP, a variant that is known to be highly neurotoxic in transgenic mice. This finding was supported by using patch clamp electrophysiological measurements of cultured cells. These results provide new evidence for the role of the membrane anchor in PrP-lipid interactions, highlighting the importance of the N-terminal and the central hydrophobic domain in these interactions. PMID:25217642

  20. 78 FR 45104 - Model Manufactured Home Installation Standards: Ground Anchor Installations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Manufactured Home Installation Standards final rule, which was published on October 19, 2007 (72 FR 59338... displacement limits or the load at failure of the anchoring equipment or its attachment point to the testing... stable ground reference point for displacement measurements must be located independent of the...

  1. Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

  2. A cell-surface-anchored ratiometric i-motif sensor for extracellular pH detection.

    PubMed

    Ying, Le; Xie, Nuli; Yang, Yanjing; Yang, Xiaohai; Zhou, Qifeng; Yin, Bincheng; Huang, Jin; Wang, Kemin

    2016-06-14

    A FRET-based sensor is anchored on the cell surface through streptavidin-biotin interactions. Due to the excellent properties of the pH-sensitive i-motif structure, the sensor can detect extracellular pH with high sensitivity and excellent reversibility. PMID:27241716

  3. Peptide nanofibers modified with a protein by using designed anchor molecules bearing hydrophobic and functional moieties.

    PubMed

    Miyachi, Ayaka; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Matsumura, Sachiko; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2010-06-11

    Self-assembly of peptides and proteins is a key feature of biological functions. Short amphiphilic peptides designed with a beta-sheet structure can form sophisticated nanofiber structures, and the fibers are available as nanomaterials for arranging biomolecules. Peptide FI (H-PKFKIIEFEP-OH) self-assembles into nanofibers with a coiled fine structure, as reported in our previous work. We have constructed anchor molecules that have both a binding moiety for the fiber structure and a functional unit capable of capturing target molecules, with the purpose of arranging proteins on the designed peptide nanofibers. Designed anchors containing an alkyl chain as a binding unit and biotin as a functional moiety were found to bind to peptide fibers FI and F2i (H-ALEAKFAAFEAKLA-NH(2)). The surface-exposed biotin moiety on the fibers could capture an anti-biotin antibody. Moreover, hydrophobic dipeptide anchor units composed of iminodiacetate connected to Phe-Phe or Ile-Ile and a peptide composed of six histidine residues connected to biotin could also connect FI peptide fibers to the anti-biotin antibody through the chelation of Ni(2+) ions. This strategy of using designed anchors opens a novel approach to constructing nanoscale protein arrays on peptide nanomaterials. PMID:20419712

  4. Hearing rehabilitation in Treacher Collins Syndrome with bone anchored hearing aid

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, José Fernando; Plawiak, Anna Clara; Ribas, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of hearing rehabilitation with bone anchored hearing aid in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome. Case description: 3 years old patient, male, with Treacher Collins syndrome and severe complications due to the syndrome, mostly related to the upper airway and hearing. He had bilateral atresia of external auditory canals, and malformation of the pinna. The initial hearing rehabilitation was with bone vibration arch, but there was poor acceptance due the discomfort caused by skull compression. It was prescribed a model of bone-anchored hearing aid, in soft band format. The results were evaluated through behavioral hearing tests and questionnaires Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS) and Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS). Comments: The patient had a higher acceptance of the bone-anchored hearing aid compared to the traditional bone vibration arch. Audiological tests and the speech and auditory skills assessments also showed better communication and hearing outcomes. The bone-anchored hearing aid is a good option in hearing rehabilitation in this syndrome. PMID:26298651

  5. Making the Work of Anchor Institutions Stick: Building Coalitions and Collective Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Nancy; Englot, Peter; Higgins, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    As more colleges and universities commit to a public mission, it is critical that our work as anchor institutions have a sustainable and positive impact, and that we collaborate fully with the diverse voices and expertise beyond our campuses--the most valuable assets of our multicultural cities. Taking Syracuse, New York, as a microcosm, the…

  6. Preparation and characterization of Ag nanoparticle-embedded blank and ligand-anchored silica gels.

    PubMed

    Im, Hee-Jung; Lee, Byung Cheol; Yeon, Jei-Won

    2013-11-01

    Ag nanoparticles, used for halogen (especially iodine) adsorption and an evaluation of halogen behavior, were embedded in synthesized inorganic-organic hybrid gels. In particular, an irradiation method using an electron beam plays a part in introducing Ag nanoparticles to the organofunctionalized silica gels from AgNO3 solutions in a simple way at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. For preparation of the Ag nanoparticle-embedded inorganic-organic hybrid gels, ligands of ethylenediamine (NH2CH2CH2NH-, TMSen) and mercapto (HS-) functionalized three-dimensional porous SiO2 sol-gels were first synthesized through hydrolysis and condensation reactions, and Ag nanoparticles were then embedded into the ethylenediamine- and mercapto-anchored silica gels each, through electron-beam irradiation. The addition of ligands yielded larger average pore sizes than the absence of any ligand. Moreover, the ethylenediamine ligand led to looser structures and better access of the Ag nanoparticles to the ethylenediamine-anchored gel. As a result, more Ag nanoparticles were introduced into the ethylenediamine-anchored gel. The preparation and characterization of Ag nanoparticle-embedded blank and ligand-anchored silica gels are discussed in detail. PMID:24245307

  7. Substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive anti-inflammatory coatings for implant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Duo; Chen, Xingyu; Chen, Tianchan; Ding, Chunmei; Wu, Wei; Li, Jianshu

    2015-06-01

    Implant materials need to be highly biocompatible to avoid inflammation in clinical practice. Although biodegradable polymeric implants can eliminate the need for a second surgical intervention to remove the implant materials, they may produce acidic degradation products in vivo and cause non-bacterial inflammation. Here we show the strategy of “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coatings” for biodegradable implants. Using poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite as an implant material model, we constructed a layer-by-layer coating using pH-sensitive star polymers and dendrimers loaded with an anti-inflammatory drug, which was immobilised through a hydroxyapatite-anchored layer. The multifunctional coating can effectively suppress the local inflammation caused by the degradation of implant materials for at least 8 weeks in vivo. Moreover, the substrate-anchored coating is able to modulate the degradation of the substrate in a more homogeneous manner. The “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coating” strategy therefore exhibits potential for the design of various self-anti-inflammatory biodegradable implant materials.

  8. Sound Ways of Learning: Anchoring Music Education to the PDS P-16 Reform Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frierson-Campbell, Carol

    Anchoring, a term rooted in the seafaring world, is a useful metaphor for contemplating the role of music in schooling, and particularly for thinking about the implications of including music in the professional development school (PDS) reform movement. In 1999, the College of Education at William Paterson University (Wayne, New Jersey) joined two…

  9. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation §...

  10. Eugenic metal-free sensitizers with double anchors for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-I; Liao, You-Ya; Lee, Ting-Hui; Ting, Yu-Chien; Ni, Jen-Shyang; Kao, Wei-Siang; Lin, Jiann T; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Yen, Yung-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    A series of new phenothiazine-based dyes (HL5-HL7) with double acceptors/anchors have been synthesized and used as the sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Among them, the HL7-based cell exhibits the best efficiency of 8.32% exceeding the N719-based cell (7.35%) by ∼13%. PMID:25555237

  11. Substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive anti-inflammatory coatings for implant materials

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Duo; Chen, Xingyu; Chen, Tianchan; Ding, Chunmei; Wu, Wei; Li, Jianshu

    2015-01-01

    Implant materials need to be highly biocompatible to avoid inflammation in clinical practice. Although biodegradable polymeric implants can eliminate the need for a second surgical intervention to remove the implant materials, they may produce acidic degradation products in vivo and cause non-bacterial inflammation. Here we show the strategy of “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coatings” for biodegradable implants. Using poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite as an implant material model, we constructed a layer-by-layer coating using pH-sensitive star polymers and dendrimers loaded with an anti-inflammatory drug, which was immobilised through a hydroxyapatite-anchored layer. The multifunctional coating can effectively suppress the local inflammation caused by the degradation of implant materials for at least 8 weeks in vivo. Moreover, the substrate-anchored coating is able to modulate the degradation of the substrate in a more homogeneous manner. The “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coating” strategy therefore exhibits potential for the design of various self-anti-inflammatory biodegradable implant materials. PMID:26077243

  12. Effects of Thinking Style and Spatial Ability on Anchoring Behavior in Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dai-Yi; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    The authors propose an instructional use for Google Earth (a GIS application) as an anchoring tool for knowledge integration. Google Earth can be used to support student explorations of world geography based on Wikipedia articles on earth science and history topics. We asked 66 Taiwanese high-school freshmen to make place marks with explanatory…

  13. Simulation, design, and analysis for magnetic anchoring and guidance of instruments for minimally invasive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haifeng; Wilson, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    The exploration of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has brought considerable interest in magnetic anchoring of intracorporeal tools. Magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS) is the concept of anchoring miniature in-vivo tools and device to the parietal peritoneum by coupling with an external magnetic holder module placed on the skin surface. MAGS has been shown to be effective in anchoring passive tools such as in-vivo cameras or tissue retractors. The strength of the magnetic field and magnet configurations employed depends on the size, shape and weight of the in-vivo tools, the coupling distance between internal and external modules, and physiological concerns such as tool interaction and tissue ischemia. This paper presents our effort to develop a better understanding of the coupling dynamic between a small in-vivo robot designed for tissue manipulation, and an external MAGS handle used to position the in-vivo robot. An electromagnetic simulation software (Vizimag 3.19) was used to simulate coupling forces between a two-magnet configuration of the MAGS handle. A prototype model of the in-vivo robot and a two-magnet configuration of a MAGS handle were fabricated. Based on this study, we were able to identify an optimal design solution for a MAGS module given the mechanical constraints of the internal module design.

  14. Using Anchoring Vignettes to Calibrate Teachers' Self-Assessment of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Kun; Engberg, John; Kaufman, Julia; Hamilton, Laura; Hill, Heather; Umland, Kristin; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    High-quality measures of instructional practice are essential for research and evaluation of innovative instructional policies and programs, as well as for providing feedback to teachers and administrators. In this study, the authors examined whether using anchoring vignettes in web-based surveys improved the validity of teachers' self-assessments…

  15. An ABC Literacy Journey: Anchoring in Texts, Bridging Language, and Creating Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Amy J.; Lang, Lisa F.; Smith, Sharon V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe how alphabet books teach so much more than just the ABCs. They provide excellent resources, allowing teachers to link and integrate the reciprocal processes of reading and writing. Encapsulated within the writing workshop framework, the authors use multigenre and multicultural alphabet books as anchor texts for a literacy…

  16. Anchoring Problem-Solving and Computation Instruction in Context-Rich Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottge, Brian A.; Rueda, Enrique; Grant, Timothy S.; Stephens, Ana C.; Laroque, Perry T.

    2010-01-01

    Middle school students with learning disabilities in math (MLD) used two versions of Enhanced Anchored Instruction (EAI). In one condition, students learned how to compute with fractions on an as-needed basis while they worked to solve the EAI problems. In the other condition, teachers used a computer-based instructional module in place of one of…

  17. Anchor-Based Methods for Judgmentally Estimating Item Difficulty Parameters. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Swaminathan, H.; Xing, Dehui; Rizavi, Saba

    The purposes of this research study were to develop and field test anchor-based judgmental methods for enabling test specialists to estimate item difficulty statistics. The study consisted of three related field tests. In each, researchers worked with six Law School Admission Test (LSAT) test specialists and one or more of the LSAT subtests. The…

  18. Basing Performance Assessment on Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales in Collegiate Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    The use of behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) as the basis of an assessment system that was designed to improve academic department chairpersons in a college of arts and sciences is described. Twenty-eight faculty members, two from each department, were asked to identify evaluative dimensions for assessing chairperson performance and to…

  19. Does the tail wag the dog? How the structure of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor affects prion formation.

    PubMed

    Bate, Clive; Nolan, William; Williams, Alun

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor attached to the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). Since GPI anchors can alter protein targeting, trafficking and cell signaling, our recent study examined how the structure of the GPI anchor affected prion formation. PrP(C) containing a GPI anchor from which the sialic acid had been removed (desialylated PrP(C)) was not converted to PrP(Sc) in prion-infected neuronal cell lines and in scrapie-infected primary cortical neurons. In uninfected neurons desialylated PrP(C) was associated with greater concentrations of gangliosides and cholesterol than PrP(C). In addition, the targeting of desialylated PrP(C) to lipid rafts showed greater resistance to cholesterol depletion than PrP(C). The presence of desialylated PrP(C) caused the dissociation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) from PrP-containing lipid rafts, reduced the activation of cPLA2 and inhibited PrP(Sc) production. We conclude that the sialic acid moiety of the GPI attached to PrP(C) modifies local membrane microenvironments that are important in PrP-mediated cell signaling and PrP(Sc) formation. PMID:26901126

  20. The Study of Collective Actions in a University Anchored Community Wireless Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchibhotla, Hari N.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of wireless devices and the ease in setting up wireless devices has created opportunities for various entities, and in particular to universities, by partnering with their local communities in the form of a university anchored community wireless network. This provides opportunities for students to be part of the community-based…

  1. Exploring the Affordances of Second Life Machinima as an Anchor for Classroom-Based Apprenticeship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon, Nona; Kofoed, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is part of an ongoing investigation into the design of a technology-enhanced learning environment that draws from approaches embodied in the situated learning theory. In this learning context, Second Life machinima (animated artefact filmed in a 3D virtual environment) is used as an anchor to mediate authentic…

  2. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>600) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitoc...

  3. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>500) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitochondrial...

  4. A Deformable Generic 3D Model of Haptoral Anchor of Monogenean

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Bee Guan; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points) of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation. PMID:24204903

  5. Magnetic resonance appearance of bioabsorbable anchor screws for double row arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs

    PubMed Central

    Pawaskar, Aditya C; Kekatpure, Aashay; Cho, Nam-Su; Rhee, Yong-Girl; Jeon, In-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the bioabsorbable, anchor related postoperative changes in rotator cuff surgery, which has become more popular recently. The purpose of the present study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the degradation of bioabsorbable anchors and to determine the incidences and characteristics of early postoperative reactions around the anchors and their mechanical failures. Materials and Methods: Postoperative MRIs of 200 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were retrospectively analyzed. The tissue reactions around the bioanchors included fluid accumulations around the anchor, granulation tissue formation and changes in the condition of the surrounding osseous structure. The condition of the bioanchor itself was also examined, including whether the bioanchor failed mechanically. In the case of mechanical failure, the location of the failure was noted. Serial MRIs of 18 patients were available for analysis. Results: The total number of medial row bioanchors was 124, while that of the lateral row was 338. A low signal intensity rim suggestive of sclerosis surrounded all lateral row bioanchors. Ninety three lateral row bioanchors (27%) showed a rim with signal intensity similar to or less than that of surrounding bone, which was granulation tissue or foreign body reaction (FBR). Similar signal intensity was seen around nine medial row bioanchors (7%). Fluid accumulation was seen around 4 lateral row bioanchors (1%) and around 14 medial row bioanchors (11%). Five lateral row bioanchors showed the breakage, while there was none in the medial row bioanchors. There were nine cases with a cuff re-tear (4.5%). There was no evidence of affection of glenohumeral articular surfaces or of osteolysis around any bioanchor. In serial MRI, there was no change in appearance of the bioanchors, but the granulation tissue or FBR around four bioanchors and the fluid around one bioanchor showed a decrease in successive MRI

  6. A deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of Monogenean.

    PubMed

    Teo, Bee Guan; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points) of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation. PMID:24204903

  7. VIP21/caveolin, glycosphingolipid clusters and the sorting of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zurzolo, C; van't Hof, W; van Meer, G; Rodriguez-Boulan, E

    1994-01-01

    We studied the role of the association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins and glycosphingolipid (GSL) clusters in apical targeting using gD1-DAF, a GPI-anchored protein that is differentially sorted by three epithelial cell lines. Differently from MDCK cells, where both gD1-DAF and glucosylceramide (GlcCer) are sorted to the apical membrane, in MDCK Concanavalin A-resistant cells (MDCK-ConAr) gD1-DAF was mis-sorted to both surfaces, but GlcCer was still targeted to the apical surface. In both MDCK and MDCK-ConAr cells, gD1-DAF became associated with TX-100-insoluble GSL clusters during transport to the cell surface. In dramatic contrast with MDCK cells, the Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cell line targeted both gD1-DAF and GlcCer basolaterally. The targeting differences for GSLs in FRT and MDCK cells cannot be accounted for by a differential ability to form clusters because, in spite of major differences in the GSL composition, both cell lines assembled GSLs into TX-100-insoluble complexes with identical isopycnic densities. Surprisingly, in FRT cells, gD1-DAF did not form clusters with GSLs and, therefore, remained completely soluble. This clustering defect in FRT cells correlated with the lack of expression of VIP21/caveolin, a protein localized to both the plasma membrane caveolae and the trans Golgi network. This suggests that VIP21/caveolin may have an important role in recruiting GPI-anchored proteins into GSL complexes necessary for their apical sorting. However, since MDCK-ConAr cells expressed caveolin and clustered GPI-anchored proteins normally, yet mis-sorted them, our results also indicate that clustering and caveolin are not sufficient for apical targeting, and that additional factors are required for the accurate apical sorting of GPI-anchored proteins. Images PMID:8306971

  8. Root hairs aid soil penetration by anchoring the root surface to pore walls

    PubMed Central

    Bengough, A. Glyn; Loades, Kenneth; McKenzie, Blair M.

    2016-01-01

    The physical role of root hairs in anchoring the root tip during soil penetration was examined. Experiments using a hairless maize mutant (Zea mays: rth3–3) and its wild-type counterpart measured the anchorage force between the primary root of maize and the soil to determine whether root hairs enabled seedling roots in artificial biopores to penetrate sandy loam soil (dry bulk density 1.0–1.5g cm−3). Time-lapse imaging was used to analyse root and seedling displacements in soil adjacent to a transparent Perspex interface. Peak anchorage forces were up to five times greater (2.5N cf. 0.5N) for wild-type roots than for hairless mutants in 1.2g cm−3 soil. Root hair anchorage enabled better soil penetration for 1.0 or 1.2g cm−3 soil, but there was no significant advantage of root hairs in the densest soil (1.5g cm−3). The anchorage force was insufficient to allow root penetration of the denser soil, probably because of less root hair penetration into pore walls and, consequently, poorer adhesion between the root hairs and the pore walls. Hairless seedlings took 33h to anchor themselves compared with 16h for wild-type roots in 1.2g cm−3 soil. Caryopses were often pushed several millimetres out of the soil before the roots became anchored and hairless roots often never became anchored securely.The physical role of root hairs in anchoring the root tip may be important in loose seed beds above more compact soil layers and may also assist root tips to emerge from biopores and penetrate the bulk soil. PMID:26798027

  9. Root hairs aid soil penetration by anchoring the root surface to pore walls.

    PubMed

    Bengough, A Glyn; Loades, Kenneth; McKenzie, Blair M

    2016-02-01

    The physical role of root hairs in anchoring the root tip during soil penetration was examined. Experiments using a hairless maize mutant (Zea mays: rth3-3) and its wild-type counterpart measured the anchorage force between the primary root of maize and the soil to determine whether root hairs enabled seedling roots in artificial biopores to penetrate sandy loam soil (dry bulk density 1.0-1.5g cm(-3)). Time-lapse imaging was used to analyse root and seedling displacements in soil adjacent to a transparent Perspex interface. Peak anchorage forces were up to five times greater (2.5N cf. 0.5N) for wild-type roots than for hairless mutants in 1.2g cm(-3) soil. Root hair anchorage enabled better soil penetration for 1.0 or 1.2g cm(-3) soil, but there was no significant advantage of root hairs in the densest soil (1.5g cm(-3)). The anchorage force was insufficient to allow root penetration of the denser soil, probably because of less root hair penetration into pore walls and, consequently, poorer adhesion between the root hairs and the pore walls. Hairless seedlings took 33h to anchor themselves compared with 16h for wild-type roots in 1.2g cm(-3) soil. Caryopses were often pushed several millimetres out of the soil before the roots became anchored and hairless roots often never became anchored securely.The physical role of root hairs in anchoring the root tip may be important in loose seed beds above more compact soil layers and may also assist root tips to emerge from biopores and penetrate the bulk soil. PMID:26798027

  10. The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, K R; Rudd, C E; Finberg, R W

    1996-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are nonmembrane spanning cell surface proteins that have been demonstrated to be signal transduction molecules. Because these proteins do not extend into the cytoplasm, the mechanism by which cross-linking of these molecules leads to intracellular signal transduction events is obscure. Previous analysis has indicated that these proteins are associated with src family member tyrosine kinases; however, the role this interaction plays in the generation of intracellular signals is not clear. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins are associated with alpha subunits of heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins) in both human and murine lymphocytes. When the GPI-anchored proteins CD59, CD48, and Thy-1 were immunoprecipitated from various cell lines or freshly isolated lymphocytes, all were found to be associated with a 41-kDa phosphoprotein that we have identified, by using specific antisera, as a mixture of tyrosine phosphorylated G protein alpha subunits: a small amount of Gialpha1, and substantial amounts of Gialpha2 and Gialpha3. GTP binding assays performed with immunoprecipitations of CD59 indicated that there was GTP-binding activity associated with this molecule. Thus, we have shown by both immunochemical and functional criteria that GPI-anchored proteins are physically associated with G proteins. These experiments suggest a potential role of G proteins in the transduction of signals generated by GPI-anchored molecules expressed on lymphocytes of both mouse and human. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8650218

  11. Characterization of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor signal sequence of human Cryptic with a hydrophilic extension

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kazuhide; Nagaoka, Tadahiro; Strizzi, Luigi; Mancino, Mario; Gonzales, Monica; Bianco, Caterina; Salomon, David S.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Epidermal Growth Factor-Cripto-1/FRL-1/Cryptic (EGF-CFC) proteins, including human Cripto-1 (hCFC2/hCR-1) and human Cryptic (hCFC1), are membrane-associated Nodal co-receptors, which have critical roles in vertebrate development. Most of the EGF-CFC proteins have been experimentally proven or predicted to be glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. However, unlike other EGF-CFC proteins, hCFC1 does not exhibit a typical GPI-signal sequence, containing a 32-amino acid hydrophilic extension in its COOH-terminal end. Here we experimentally demonstrate that the COOH-terminal sequence of hCFC1 functions as a GPI-anchoring signal. Moreover, addition of a hydrophilic epitope tag of 55-amino acids (V5-His) after the GPI signal of hCR-1 interfered with generation of a GPI-anchored form of hCR-1. In contrast, addition of the same epitope tag to the end of GPI signal of hCFC1 did not affect the GPI-attachment of hCFC1. The COOH-terminal signal of hCFC1 could produce two different forms of the protein; a GPI-anchored form and an unprocessed form which was more prone to be secreted into the conditioned medium. The hydrophilic extension of hCFC1 negatively regulates the activity of hCFC1 as a Nodal co-receptor. These results demonstrate the presence of endogenous GPI-signal sequence with a hydrophilic extension, which can generate both GPI-anchored and soluble forms of the protein. PMID:18930707

  12. Does Linking Mixed-Format Tests Using a Multiple-Choice Anchor Produce Comparable Results for Male and Female Subgroups? Research Report. ETS RR-11-44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of subpopulation invariance indices to evaluate the appropriateness of using a multiple-choice (MC) item anchor in mixed-format tests, which include both MC and constructed-response (CR) items. Linking functions were derived in the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design using an MC-only anchor set for 4…

  13. Constructive and problem-based learning using blended learning anchored instruction approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Based on an anchored instruction approach, an enriched blended learning lecture course ("Introduction into GNSS positioning") was established in order to enable constructive and problem-based learning. The lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" is a compulsory part of the Bachelor study course "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" and also a supplementary module of the Bachelor study course "Geophysics". Within the lecture course, basic knowledge and basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, like GPS, are imparted. The presented higher education technique "anchored instruction" uses a real and up-to-date and therefore authentic scientific paper dealing with a recent large-scale geodetic project (Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link) in order to introduce the topic of GNSS-based positioning to the students. In the beginning of the semester, the students have to read the paper individually and carefully. This enables them to realize a lot of not-known GNSS-related facts. Therefore, questions can be formulated focusing on new, unclear or not-understood aspects of the paper. The lecture course deals with these questions, in order to answer them throughout the semester. During the lecture course this paper is referred, e.g., in the middle of the semester, the paper has to be read again in order to check which questions have been answered; in addition, new question arise. At the end of the lecture course, the author of the scientific paper gave a concluding lecture. The framing anchor technique enables the students to anchor their GNSS knowledge. The presented case study uses a teaching resp. learning setting consisting of classroom lectures (given by teachers and learners), practical trainings (e.g., field exercises, students select topics individually), and online lectures (learning management system ILIAS is used as data, result, and asynchronous communication platform). The implementation and the elements of the anchoring technique, which enables student

  14. Triple labrum tears repaired with the JuggerKnot™ soft anchor: Technique and results

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vivek; Pietrzak, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The 2-year outcomes of patients undergoing repair of triple labrum tears using an all-suture anchor device were assessed. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients (17 male, one female; mean age 36.4 years, range: 14.2-62.3 years) with triple labrum tears underwent arthroscopic repair using the 1.4 mm JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (mean number of anchors 11.5, range: 9-19 anchors). Five patients had prior surgeries performed on their operative shoulder. Patients were followed for a mean of 2.0 years (range: 1.6-3.0 years). Constant–Murley shoulder score (CS) and Flexilevel scale of shoulder function (FLEX-SF) scores were measured, with preoperative and final postoperative mean scores compared with a paired Student's t-test (P < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was also performed at final postoperative. Results: Overall total CS and FLEX-SF scores increased from 52.9 ± 20.4 to 84.3 ± 10.7 (P < 0.0001) and from 29.3 ± 4.7 to 42.0 ± 7.3 (P < 0.0001), respectively. When divided into two groups by whether or not glenohumeral arthrosis was present at the time of surgery (n = 9 each group), significant improvements in CS and FLEX-SF were obtained for both groups (P < 0.0015). There were no intraoperative complications. All patients, including contact athletes, returned to their preinjury level of sports activity and were satisfied. MRI evaluation revealed no instances of subchondral cyst formation or tunnel expansion. Anchor tracts appeared to heal with fibrous tissue, complete bony healing, or combined fibro-osseous healing. Conclusion: Our results are encouraging, demonstrating a consistent healing of the anchor tunnels through arthroscopic treatment of complex labrum lesions with a completely suture-based implant. It further demonstrates a meaningful improvement in patient outcomes, a predictable return to activity, and a high rate of patient satisfaction. Level of Evidence: Level IV case series. PMID:26288537

  15. Pyrimidine-2-carboxylic Acid as an Electron-Accepting and Anchoring Group for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhifang; Li, Xin; Ågren, Hans; Hua, Jianli; Tian, He

    2015-12-01

    We report a new dye (INPA) adopting pyrimidine-2-carboxylic acid as an electron-accepting and anchoring group to be used in dye-sensitized solar cells. IR spectral analysis indicates that the anchoring group may form two coordination bonds with TiO2 and so facilitate the interaction between the anchoring group and TiO2. The INPA-based cell exhibits an overall conversion efficiency of 5.45%, which is considerably higher than that obtained with cyanoacrylic acid commonly used as the electron acceptor. PMID:26581583

  16. NASA's International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes and Robotic Lunar Lander Project Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, Brian J.; Reed, Cheryl L. B.; Kirby, Karen W.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Harris, Danny W.; Chavers, D. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    In early 2008, NASA established the Lunar Quest Program, a new lunar science research program within NASA s Science Mission Directorate. The program included the establishment of the anchor nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar science stations envisioned to be emplaced by multiple nations. This paper describes the current status of the ILN Anchor Nodes mission development and the lander risk-reduction design and test activities implemented jointly by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The lunar lander concepts developed by this team are applicable to multiple science missions, and this paper will describe a mission combining the functionality of an ILN node with an investigation of lunar polar volatiles.

  17. Dependence of planar alignment layer upon enhancement of azimuthal anchoring energy by reactive mesogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngsik; Lee, You-Jin; Baek, Ji-Ho; Yu, Chang-Jae; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Reactive mesogens (RMs) can enhance the azimuthal anchoring energy of planar alignment layers used in liquid crystal (LC) devices; herein, we studied the interactions between the RMs and the planar alignment material that determine whether this enhancement can occur. Two alignment-layer materials were studied: polyamic acid (PA) and polyimide (PI). The addition of RMs to the PI-type alignment layer was effective in enhancing the azimuthal anchoring energy, whereas the addition of RMs to the PA-type alignment layer had little effect. Surface analysis revealed that the RMs adhered well to the PI-type alignment surface only; in the resulting cell, the presence of the RMs enhanced both the rise and decay times in fringe field switching (FFS)-mode operation.

  18. The effects of earthquake measurement concepts and magnitude anchoring on individuals' perceptions of earthquake risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celsi, R.; Wolfinbarger, M.; Wald, D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore earthquake risk perceptions in California. Specifically, we examine the risk beliefs, feelings, and experiences of lay, professional, and expert individuals to explore how risk is perceived and how risk perceptions are formed relative to earthquakes. Our results indicate that individuals tend to perceptually underestimate the degree that earthquake (EQ) events may affect them. This occurs in large part because individuals' personal felt experience of EQ events are generally overestimated relative to experienced magnitudes. An important finding is that individuals engage in a process of "cognitive anchoring" of their felt EQ experience towards the reported earthquake magnitude size. The anchoring effect is moderated by the degree that individuals comprehend EQ magnitude measurement and EQ attenuation. Overall, the results of this research provide us with a deeper understanding of EQ risk perceptions, especially as they relate to individuals' understanding of EQ measurement and attenuation concepts. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  19. The Role of Plasmalemmal-Cortical Anchoring on the Stability of Transmembrane Electropores

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, S. M.; Ji, Z.; Rockweiler, N. B.; Hahn, A. R.; Booske, J. H.; Hagness, S. C.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of eukaryotic cells is maintained by a network of filamentous actin anchored subjacently to the plasma membrane. This structure is referred to as the actin cortex. We present a locally constrained surface tension model for electroporation in order to address the influence of plasmalemmal-cortical anchoring on electropore dynamics. This model predicts that stable electropores are possible under certain conditions. The existence of stable electropores has been suggested in several experimental studies. The electropore radius at which stability is achieved is a function of the characteristic radii of locally constrained regions about the plasma membrane. This model opens the possibility of using actin-modifying compounds to physically manipulate cortical density, thereby manipulating electroporation dynamics. It also underscores the need to improve electroporation models further by incorporating the influence of trans-electropore ionic and aqueous flow, cortical flexibility, transmembrane protein mobility, and active cellular wound healing mechanisms. PMID:20490371

  20. Arthroscopic Repair of Ankle Instability With All-Soft Knotless Anchors

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Hélder; Vuurberg, Gwen; Gomes, Nuno; Oliveira, Joaquim Miguel; Ripoll, Pedro L.; Reis, Rui Luís; Espregueira-Mendes, João; Niek van Dijk, C.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, arthroscopic and arthroscopically assisted techniques have been increasingly used to reconstruct the lateral ligaments of the ankle. Besides permitting the treatment of several comorbidities, arthroscopic techniques are envisioned to lower the amount of surgical aggression and to improve the assessment of anatomic structures. We describe our surgical technique for arthroscopic, two-portal ankle ligament repair using an all-soft knotless anchor, which is made exclusively of suture material. This technique avoids the need for classic knot-tying methods. Thus it diminishes the chance of knot migration caused by pendulum movements. Moreover, it avoids some complications that have been related to the use of metallic anchors and some currently available biomaterials. It also prevents prominent knots, which have been described as a possible cause of secondary complaints. PMID:27073785

  1. Photo-stimulated phase and anchoring transitions of chiral azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sudarshan; Kang, Shin-Woong

    2013-12-16

    We report concurring phase and anchoring transitions of chiral azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystals. The transitions are induced by photo-stimulation and stable against light and thermal treatments. Photochromic trans- to cis-isomerization of azo-dye induces an augmented dipole moment and strong dipole-dipole interaction of the cis-isomers, resulting in the formation of nano-sized dye-aggregates. Consequent phase separation of the aggregates of a chiral azo-dye induces phase transition from a chiral to nonchiral nematic phase. In addition, the deposition of dye-aggregates at the surfaces brings about anchoring transition of LC molecules. The stability and irreversibility of the transition, together with no need of pretreatments for LC alignment, provide fascinating opportunity for liquid crystal device applications. PMID:24514707

  2. D-AKAP1a is a signal-anchored protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Jun, Yong-Woo; Park, Heeju; Lee, You-Kyung; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Lee, Jin-A; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Dual A-kinase anchoring protein 1a (D-AKAP1a, AKAP1) regulates cAMP signaling in mitochondria. However, it is not clear how D-AKAP1a is associated with mitochondria. In this study, we show that D-AKAP1a is a transmembrane protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). We revealed that the N-terminus of D-AKAP1a is exposed to the intermembrane space of mitochondria and that its C-terminus is located on the cytoplasmic side of the MOM. Moderate hydrophobicity and the positively charged flanking residues of the transmembrane domain of D-AKAP1a were important for targeting. Taken together, D-AKAP1a can be classified as a signal-anchored protein in the MOM. Our topological study provides valuable information about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of mitochondrial targeting of AKAP1. PMID:26950402

  3. Synthesis and characterization of ruthenium and rhenium dyes with phosphonate anchoring groups.

    PubMed

    Braumüller, Markus; Schulz, Martin; Staniszewska, Magdalena; Sorsche, Dieter; Wunderlin, Markus; Popp, Jürgen; Guthmuller, Julien; Dietzek, Benjamin; Rau, Sven

    2016-05-31

    , a series of rhenium(i) tricarbonyl chloride complexes with bpy-R2 derivatives (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, R represents the substitution at the 4- and 4'-positions), and their corresponding trishomoleptic as well as heteroleptic ruthenium(ii) complexes and have been synthesized and characterized. Their applicability as immobilizable metal-organic chromophores in solar and photosynthesis cells is enabled by R, since it includes phosphonic ester groups as precursors for potent phosphonate anchoring groups. Conjugated linkers (phenylene and triazole moieties) serve as distance control between bpy and the anchor. Photophysical and electrochemical studies reveal pronounced effects of the aryl substitution. These effects were further investigated using resonance Raman experiments and supported by theoretical calculations. After hydrolysis the triazole containing was successfully immobilized on NiO, suggesting that its application in photovoltaic cells is feasible. The solid state structures of , , and are reported in this paper, enabling the determination of the distances and intermolecular interactions. PMID:27172842

  4. Anchoring energy enhancement and pretilt angle control of liquid crystal alignment on polymerized surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Libo; Liao, Pei-Chun; Lin, Chen-Chun; Ting, Tien-Lun; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Su, Jenn-Jia; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate enhanced surface anchoring energy and control of pretilt angle in a nematic liquid crystal cell with vertical alignment and polymerized surfaces (PS-VA). The polymerized surfaces are formed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced phase separation of a minute amount of a reactive monomer in the vertical-aligned nematic liquid crystal. By introducing a bias voltage during UV curing, surface-localized polymer protrusions with a dimension of 100nm and a field-induced pretilt angle are observed. Experimental evidences and theoretical analyses validate that PS-VA has increased surface anchoring strength by two folds and pretilt angle has been changed from 89° to 86° compared to those of a VA cell. The enabling PS-VA cell technique with excel electro-optical properties such as very good dark state, high optical contrast, and fast rise and decay times may lead to development of a wide range of applications.

  5. Genome-wide mapping of promoter-anchored interactions with close to single-enhancer resolution.

    PubMed

    Sahlén, Pelin; Abdullayev, Ilgar; Ramsköld, Daniel; Matskova, Liudmila; Rilakovic, Nemanja; Lötstedt, Britta; Albert, Thomas J; Lundeberg, Joakim; Sandberg, Rickard

    2015-01-01

    Although the locations of promoters and enhancers have been identified in several cell types, we still have limited information on their connectivity. We developed HiCap, which combines a 4-cutter restriction enzyme Hi-C with sequence capture of promoter regions. Applying the method to mouse embryonic stem cells, we identified promoter-anchored interactions involving 15,905 promoters and 71,984 distal regions. The distal regions were enriched for enhancer marks and transcription, and had a mean fragment size of only 699 bp--close to single-enhancer resolution. High-resolution maps of promoter-anchored interactions with HiCap will be important for detailed characterizations of chromatin interaction landscapes. PMID:26313521

  6. Intraoperative Ultrasound-Guided Removal of Retained Mini Sling Anchor Causing Vaginal Pain: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Almassi, Nima; Goldman, Howard B

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the tension-free vaginal tape, the surgical management of female stress urinary incontinence has undergone a dramatic shift toward synthetic midurethral slings (MUSs). The evolution of the MUS has led to the development of the single incision mini sling (SIMS), a minimally invasive procedure that can be performed under local anesthesia. Complications arising after SIMS placement parallel those of the traditional MUS, including pelvic pain, dyspareunia, and mesh erosion. The patient in this case presented with persistent pelvic pain due to a retained SIMS anchor after having previously undergone SIMS placement and subsequent transvaginal exploration with mesh removal. We report the use of intraoperative ultrasound for identification and removal of the retained SIMS anchor. PMID:26571436

  7. Instability of a Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystal Formed by Homeotropic Anchoring on Surface Grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Xuan, Li

    2011-10-01

    A method used to treat the elastic distortion of a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal induced by homogeneous anchoring on the surface grooves is generalized to biaxial nematic liquid crystals under the homeotropic anchoring condition. Employing some approximations for the elastic constants, we obtain an additional term in the elastic energy per unit area which depends on the angle between the minor director at infinity and the direction of the grooves, with a period of π/2. This leads to instability on the surface grooves so that two states with crossed minor directors are energetically indistinguishable. Our theoretical study explains why the homeotropic alignment method developed for uniaxial liquid crystals loses efficacy for biaxial nematics.

  8. Discontinuous anchoring transition and photothermal switching in composites of liquid crystals and conducting polymer nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasna, M. V.; Zuhail, K. P.; Manda, R.; Paik, P.; Haase, W.; Dhara, Surajit

    2014-05-01

    We prepared nanocomposites of a nematic liquid crystal and nanofibers of a conducting polymer (polyaniline). All the nanocomposites exhibit a discontinuous surface anchoring transition from planar to homeotropic in the nematic phase on a perfluoropolymer coated surface with a thermal hysteresis (≈5.3∘C). We observe a relatively large bistable conductivity and demonstrate a light driven switching of conductivity and dielectric constant in dye doped nanocomposites in the thermal hysteresis (bistable) region. The experimental results have been explained based on the reorientation of the nanofibers driven by the anchoring transition of the nematic liquid crystal. We show a significant enhancement of the bistable temperature range (≈13∘C) by an appropriate choice of compound in the binary system.

  9. Anchoring transitions of transversely polar liquid-crystal molecules on perfluoropolymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dhara, Surajit; Kim, Jin Ki; Jeong, Soon Moon; Kogo, Reiri; Araoka, Fumito; Ishikawa, Ken; Takezoe, Hideo

    2009-06-01

    We report a strong discontinuous orientational transition (anchoring transition) of liquid-crystal molecules with a large transverse dipole moment. A perfluoropolymer was used as an alignment layer and the transition was observed from planar to homeotropic with decreasing temperature in the nematic phase. Conversely a gradual variation in tilt angle from homeotropic to conical was observed in a liquid crystal with a comparatively smaller transverse dipole moment on the same alignment layer. The experimental results clearly demonstrate the competition between a short-range dipolar force and long-range van der Waals force at the interfacial region. Using discontinuous anchoring transition in the sample, we demonstrate a possible bistable device for memory and light-driven display. PMID:19658464

  10. Focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique: rapid self-hypnosis for pain management.

    PubMed

    Donatone, Brooke

    2013-04-01

    This article details a self-hypnosis technique designed to teach patients how to manage acute or chronic pain through directed focus. The focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique has been used with various types of pain, including somatic pain (arthritis, post-injury pain from bone breaks, or muscle tears), visceral pain (related to irritable bowel disease), and neuropathic pain (related to multiple sclerosis). This technique combines cognitive restructuring and mindfulness meditation with indirect and direct suggestions during hypnosis. The case examples demonstrate how the focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique is used with both acute and chronic pain conditions when use of long-term medication has been relatively ineffective. PMID:23724568

  11. Minireview: Steroid/Nuclear Receptor-Regulated Dynamics of Occluding and Anchoring Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Bhumika J.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse set of physiological signals control intercellular interactions by regulating the structure and function of occluding junctions (tight junctions) and anchoring junctions (adherens junctions and desmosomes). These plasma membrane junctions are comprised of multiprotein complexes of transmembrane and cytoplasmic peripheral plasma membrane proteins. Evidence from many hormone-responsive tissues has shown that expression, modification, molecular interactions, stability, and localization of junctional complex-associated proteins can be targeted by nuclear hormone receptors and their ligands through transcriptional and nontranscriptional mechanisms. The focus of this minireview is to discuss molecular, cellular, and physiological studies that directly link nuclear receptor- and ligand-triggered signaling pathways to the regulation of occluding and anchoring junction dynamics. PMID:25203673

  12. Effects of molecule anchoring and dispersion on nanoscopic friction under electrochemical control.

    PubMed

    de Wijn, A S; Fasolino, A; Filippov, A E; Urbakh, M

    2016-03-16

    The application of electric fields is a promising strategy for in situ control of friction. While there have recently been many experimental studies on friction under the influence of electric fields, theoretical understanding is very limited. Recently, we introduced a simple theoretical model for friction under electrochemical conditions that focused on the interaction of a force microscope tip with adsorbed molecules whose orientation was dependent on the applied electric field. Here we focus on the effects of anchoring of the molecules on friction. We show that anchoring affects the intensity and width of the peak in the friction that occurs near a reorientation transition of adsorbed molecules, and explain this by comparing the strength of molecule-molecule and molecule-tip interactions. We derive a dispersion relation for phonons in the layer of adsorbed molecules and demonstrate that it can be used to understand important features of the frictional response. PMID:26871411

  13. Anchoring energy enhancement and pretilt angle control of liquid crystal alignment on polymerized surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Libo; Chien, Liang-Chy; Liao, Pei-Chun; Lin, Chen-Chun; Ting, Tien-Lun; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Su, Jenn-Jia

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate enhanced surface anchoring energy and control of pretilt angle in a nematic liquid crystal cell with vertical alignment and polymerized surfaces (PS-VA). The polymerized surfaces are formed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced phase separation of a minute amount of a reactive monomer in the vertical-aligned nematic liquid crystal. By introducing a bias voltage during UV curing, surface-localized polymer protrusions with a dimension of 100nm and a field-induced pretilt angle are observed. Experimental evidences and theoretical analyses validate that PS-VA has increased surface anchoring strength by two folds and pretilt angle has been changed from 89° to 86° compared to those of a VA cell. The enabling PS-VA cell technique with excel electro-optical properties such as very good dark state, high optical contrast, and fast rise and decay times may lead to development of a wide range of applications.

  14. How to perform distal anchoring technique by 6French radial approach in complex coronary procedures.

    PubMed

    Fiocca, Luigi; Bernelli, Chiara; Sirbu, Vasile; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Guagliumi, Giulio; Vassileva, Angelina; Borghesi, Marco; Valsecchi, Orazio

    2016-01-01

    Despite remarkable advances in the interventional landscape, device delivery during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can still present technical challenges especially when performed in complex anatomical settings and through radial approach. To overcome difficult coronary stent delivery, several strategies have been developed. A niche option in such complex cases is the anchoring balloon technique, which involves inflation of a balloon non-coaxially in a side branch or distally to the target lesion in a coaxial fashion, to facilitate stent delivery. However, the main limitation of this technique is the requirement of a large guide catheter (≥7French) which may preclude the use of radial approach. We describe, step-by-step, the distal anchoring ballooning technique performed by a 6Fr radial approach to overcome the stent delivery failure in complex anatomical scenarios and to safely and successfully carry out the PCI procedures. PMID:27053437

  15. Communication: Electrical rectification of C59N: The role of anchoring and doping sites.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader; Cui, X Y; Ringer, S P; Stampfl, C

    2016-01-14

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism and density-functional theory, we investigate the onset of electrical rectification in a single C59N molecule in conjunction with gold electrodes. Our calculations reveal that rectification is dependent upon the anchoring of the Au atom on C59N; when the Au electrode is singly bonded to a C atom (labeled here as A), the system does not exhibit rectification, whereas when the electrode is connected to the C-C bridge site between two hexagonal rings (labeled here as B), transmission asymmetry is observed, where the rectification ratio reaches up to 2.62 at ±1 V depending on the N doping site relative to the anchoring site. Our analysis of the transmission mechanism shows that N doping of the B configuration causes rectification because more transmission channels are available for transmission in the B configuration than in the A configuration. PMID:26772547

  16. Arthroscopic Repair of Ankle Instability With All-Soft Knotless Anchors.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Hélder; Vuurberg, Gwen; Gomes, Nuno; Oliveira, Joaquim Miguel; Ripoll, Pedro L; Reis, Rui Luís; Espregueira-Mendes, João; Niek van Dijk, C

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, arthroscopic and arthroscopically assisted techniques have been increasingly used to reconstruct the lateral ligaments of the ankle. Besides permitting the treatment of several comorbidities, arthroscopic techniques are envisioned to lower the amount of surgical aggression and to improve the assessment of anatomic structures. We describe our surgical technique for arthroscopic, two-portal ankle ligament repair using an all-soft knotless anchor, which is made exclusively of suture material. This technique avoids the need for classic knot-tying methods. Thus it diminishes the chance of knot migration caused by pendulum movements. Moreover, it avoids some complications that have been related to the use of metallic anchors and some currently available biomaterials. It also prevents prominent knots, which have been described as a possible cause of secondary complaints. PMID:27073785

  17. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes anchored with maghemite nanocrystals for high-performance lithium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ping Xie, Kongwei; Xu, Xiali; Li, Jianping; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Yiming Lu, Tianhong

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals uniformly anchored on MWCNT via facile layer-by-layer technique. • The hybrid exhibits enhanced structural stability and charge transport capability. • Superior lithium storage performance by virtue of unique structural characteristics. - Abstract: In this paper, we have anchored maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocrystals compactly and uniformly on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) via a polyelectrolyte-assisted layer-by-layer assembly approach based on electrostatic attraction. When evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the as-synthesized MWCNT-γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanohybrid displays high reversible capacities, remarkable cycling stability, and magnificent high rate capability, facilitating its application as an advanced anode for high-energy, long-life, and high-power LIBs.

  18. Can aliphatic anchoring groups be utilised with dyes for p-type dye sensitized solar cells?

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Wood, Christopher J; Clark, Charlotte A; Calladine, James A; Horvath, Raphael; Hanson-Heine, Magnus W D; Sun, Xue-Zhong; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; George, Michael W; Yang, Xichuan; Sun, Licheng; Gibson, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    A series of novel laterally anchoring tetrahydroquinoline derivatives have been synthesized and investigated for their use in NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. The kinetics of charge injection and recombination at the NiO-dye interface for these dyes have been thoroughly investigated using picosecond transient absorption and time-resolved infrared measurements. It was revealed that despite the anchoring unit being electronically decoupled from the dye structure, charge injection occurred on a sub picosecond timescale. However, rapid recombination was also observed due to the close proximity of the electron acceptor on the dyes to the NiO surface, ultimately limiting the performance of the p-DSCs. PMID:27055102

  19. Deletion of Mitochondrial Anchoring Protects Dysmyelinating Shiverer: Implications for Progressive MS

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Dinesh C.; Zhang, Chuan-Li; Lin, Tien-Min; Gusain, Anchal; Harris, Melissa G.; Tree, Esther; Yin, Yewin; Wu, Connie; Sheng, Zu-Hang; Dempsey, Robert J; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-01

    The demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) has an early inflammatory phase followed by an incurable progressive phase with subdued inflammation and poorly understood neurodegenerative mechanism. In this study, we identified various parallelisms between progressive MS and the dysmyelinating mouse model Shiverer and then genetically deleted a major neuron-specific mitochondrial anchoring protein Syntaphilin (SNPH) from the mouse. Prevailing evidence suggests that deletion of SNPH is harmful in demyelination. Surprisingly, SNPH deletion produces striking benefits in the Shiverer by prolonging survival, reducing cerebellar damage, suppressing oxidative stress, and improving mitochondrial health. In contrast, SNPH deletion does not benefit clinical symptoms in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for early-phase MS. We propose that deleting mitochondrial anchoring is a novel, specific treatment for progressive MS. PMID:25834054

  20. 'Click' preparation of CuPt nanorod-anchored graphene oxide as a catalyst in water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyunseung; Kwon, Yongwoo; Kwon, Taegyun; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2012-10-22

    In this paper, a simple and powerful method of producing nanoparticle-anchored graphene oxide (GO) composites using a 'click' reaction is demonstrated. This method affords a facile means of anchoring of nanoparticles with various shapes and sizes on the GO. CuPt nanorods with controlled size, aspect ratio (from 1 to 11), and uniformity are synthesized. Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are made to monitor the formation and characterize the properties of the CuPt nanorod-grafted GO composites. Their catalytic properties in the water phase are investigated using an o-phenylenediamine oxidation reaction. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that nonpolar CuPt nanorods immobilized on GO can function as a catalyst in an aqueous solution and that GO can be used as a catalytic nanorod support. PMID:22821640

  1. Communication: Electrical rectification of C59N: The role of anchoring and doping sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader; Cui, X. Y.; Ringer, S. P.; Stampfl, C.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism and density-functional theory, we investigate the onset of electrical rectification in a single C59N molecule in conjunction with gold electrodes. Our calculations reveal that rectification is dependent upon the anchoring of the Au atom on C59N; when the Au electrode is singly bonded to a C atom (labeled here as A), the system does not exhibit rectification, whereas when the electrode is connected to the C-C bridge site between two hexagonal rings (labeled here as B), transmission asymmetry is observed, where the rectification ratio reaches up to 2.62 at ±1 V depending on the N doping site relative to the anchoring site. Our analysis of the transmission mechanism shows that N doping of the B configuration causes rectification because more transmission channels are available for transmission in the B configuration than in the A configuration.

  2. A-kinase anchoring proteins: molecular regulators of the cardiac stress response.

    PubMed

    Diviani, Dario; Maric, Darko; Pérez López, Irene; Cavin, Sabrina; Del Vescovo, Cosmo D

    2013-04-01

    In response to stress or injury the heart undergoes a pathological remodeling process, associated with hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte death and fibrosis, that ultimately causes cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. It has become increasingly clear that signaling events associated with these pathological cardiac remodeling events are regulated by scaffolding and anchoring proteins, which allow coordination of pathological signals in space and time. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) constitute a family of functionally related proteins that organize multiprotein signaling complexes that tether the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) as well as other signaling enzymes to ensure integration and processing of multiple signaling pathways. This review will discuss the role of AKAPs in the cardiac response to stress. Particular emphasis will be given to the adaptative process associated with cardiac hypoxia as well as the remodeling events linked to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Cardiac Pathways of Differentiation, Metabolism and Contraction. PMID:22889610

  3. Durability Enhancement of Intermetallics Electrocatalysts via N-anchor Effect for Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; An, Li; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Nanlin; Xia, Dingguo; Huang, Weifeng; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient durability and catalytic activity of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst are key issues that have to be solved for the practical application of low temperature fuel cell. This paper introduces a new catalyst design strategy using N-anchor to promote the corrosion resistance of electrocatalyst. The as-synthesized N-Pt3Fe1/C shows a high electrocatalytic activity and a superior durability towards ORR. The kinetic current density of N-Pt3Fe1/C as normalized by ECSA is still as high as 0.145 mA cm−2 and only 7% loss after 20000 potential cycles from 0.6 to 1.2 V (vs. NHE) in O2-bubbling perchloric acid solution, whereas Pt3Fe1/C shows 49% loss under the same tests. The N-anchor approach offers novel opportunities for the development of ORR catalyst with excellent electrochemical properties. PMID:24240982

  4. The Solar Vortex: Electric Power Generation using Anchored, Buoyancy-Induced Columnar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glezer, Ari

    2015-04-01

    Naturally-occurring, buoyancy-driven columnar vortices (``dust devils'') that are driven by the instability of thermally stratified air layers and sustained by the entrainment of ground- heated air, occur spontaneously in the natural environment with core diameters of 1-50 m and heights up to 1 km. These vortices convert low-grade waste heat in the air layer overlying the warm surface into a solar-induced wind with significant kinetic energy. Unlike dust devil vortices that are typically free to wander laterally, the Solar Vortex (SoV) is deliberately triggered and anchored within a cylindrical domain bounded by an azimuthal array of stationary ground-mounted vertical vanes and sustained by continuous entrainment of the ground-heated air through these vanes. The mechanical energy of the anchored vortex is exploited for power generation by coupling the vortex to a vertical-axis turbine. This simple, low-cost electric power generating unit is competitive in cost, intermittency, and capacity factor with traditional solar power technologies. The considerable kinetic energy of the vortex column cannot be explained by buoyancy alone, and the fundamental mechanisms associated with the formation, evolution, and dynamics of an anchored, buoyancy-driven columnar vortex were investigated experimentally and numerically with specific emphasis on flow manipulation for increasing the available kinetic energy and therefore the generated power. These investigations have also considered the dependence of the vortex scaling and strength on the thermal resources and on the flow enclosure in the laboratory and in the natural environment. Preliminary outdoor tests of a two-meter scale prototype successfully demonstrated the ability to engender and anchor a columnar vortex using only solar radiation and couple the flow to a vertical axis wind turbine. A kilowatt-scale outer door prototype will be tested during the summer of 2015.

  5. Formation and properties of surface-anchored polymer assemblies with tunable physico-chemical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao

    We describe two new methodologies leading to the formation of novel surface-anchored polymer assemblies on solid substrates. While the main goal is to understand the fundamentals pertaining to the preparation and properties of the surface-bound polymer assemblies (including neutral and chargeable polymers), several examples also are mentioned throughout the Thesis that point out to practical applications of such structures. The first method is based on generating assemblies comprising anchored polymers with a gradual variation of grafting densities on solid substrates. These structures are prepared by first covering the substrate with a molecular gradient of the polymerization initiator, followed by polymerization from these substrate-bound initiator centers ("grafting from"). We apply this technique to prepare grafting density gradients of poly(acryl amide) (PAAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on silica-covered substrates. We show that using the grafting density gradient geometry, the characteristics of surface-anchored polymers in both the low grafting density ("mushroom") regime as well as the high grafting density ("brush") regime can be accessed conveniently on a single sample. We use a battery of experimental methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Near-edge absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), contact angle, ellipsometry, to study the characteristics of the surface-bound polymer layers. We also probe the scaling laws of neutral polymer as a function of grafting density, and for weak polyelectrolyte, in addition to the grafting density, we study the affect of solution ionic strength and pH values. In the second novel method, which we coined as "mechanically assisted polymer assembly" (MAPA), we form surface anchored polymers by "grafting from" polymerization initiators deposited on elastic surfaces that have been previously extended uniaxially by a certain length increment, Deltax. Upon releasing the strain in the

  6. Structure of a CGI-58 motif provides the molecular basis of lipid droplet anchoring.

    PubMed

    Boeszoermenyi, Andras; Nagy, Harald Manuel; Arthanari, Haribabu; Pillip, Christoph Jens; Lindermuth, Hanna; Luna, Rafael Eulogio; Wagner, Gerhard; Zechner, Rudolf; Zangger, Klaus; Oberer, Monika

    2015-10-30

    Triacylglycerols (TGs) stored in lipid droplets (LDs) are hydrolyzed in a highly regulated metabolic process called lipolysis to free fatty acids that serve as energy substrates for β-oxidation, precursors for membrane lipids and signaling molecules. Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) stimulates the enzymatic activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of TGs to diacylglycerols and free fatty acids. In adipose tissue, protein-protein interactions between CGI-58 and the LD coating protein perilipin 1 restrain the ability of CGI-58 to activate ATGL under basal conditions. Phosphorylation of perilipin 1 disrupts these interactions and mobilizes CGI-58 for the activation of ATGL. We have previously demonstrated that the removal of a peptide at the N terminus (residues 10-31) of CGI-58 abrogates CGI-58 localization to LDs and CGI-58-mediated activation of ATGL. Here, we show that this tryptophan-rich N-terminal peptide serves as an independent LD anchor, with its three tryptophans serving as focal points of the left (harboring Trp(21) and Trp(25)) and right (harboring Trp(29)) anchor arms. The solution state NMR structure of a peptide comprising the LD anchor bound to dodecylphosphocholine micelles as LD mimic reveals that the left arm forms a concise hydrophobic core comprising tryptophans Trp(21) and Trp(25) and two adjacent leucines. Trp(29) serves as the core of a functionally independent anchor arm. Consequently, simultaneous tryptophan alanine permutations in both arms abolish localization and activity of CGI-58 as opposed to tryptophan substitutions that occur in only one arm. PMID:26350461

  7. Lipid transfer proteins do their thing anchored at membrane contact sites… but what is their thing?

    PubMed

    Wong, Louise H; Levine, Tim P

    2016-04-15

    Membrane contact sites are structures where two organelles come close together to regulate flow of material and information between them. One type of inter-organelle communication is lipid exchange, which must occur for membrane maintenance and in response to environmental and cellular stimuli. Soluble lipid transfer proteins have been extensively studied, but additional families of transfer proteins have been identified that are anchored into membranes by transmembrane helices so that they cannot diffuse through the cytosol to deliver lipids. If such proteins target membrane contact sites they may be major players in lipid metabolism. The eukaryotic family of so-called Lipid transfer proteins Anchored at Membrane contact sites (LAMs) all contain both a sterol-specific lipid transfer domain in the StARkin superfamily (related to StART/Bet_v1), and one or more transmembrane helices anchoring them in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), making them interesting subjects for study in relation to sterol metabolism. They target a variety of membrane contact sites, including newly described contacts between organelles that were already known to make contact by other means. Lam1-4p target punctate ER-plasma membrane contacts. Lam5p and Lam6p target multiple contacts including a new category: vacuolar non-NVJ cytoplasmic ER (VancE) contacts. These developments confirm previous observations on tubular lipid-binding proteins (TULIPs) that established the importance of membrane anchored proteins for lipid traffic. However, the question remaining to be solved is the most difficult of all: are LAMs transporters, or alternately are they regulators that affect traffic more indirectly? PMID:27068964

  8. Structure of a CGI-58 Motif Provides the Molecular Basis of Lipid Droplet Anchoring*

    PubMed Central

    Boeszoermenyi, Andras; Nagy, Harald Manuel; Arthanari, Haribabu; Pillip, Christoph Jens; Lindermuth, Hanna; Luna, Rafael Eulogio; Wagner, Gerhard; Zechner, Rudolf; Zangger, Klaus; Oberer, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TGs) stored in lipid droplets (LDs) are hydrolyzed in a highly regulated metabolic process called lipolysis to free fatty acids that serve as energy substrates for β-oxidation, precursors for membrane lipids and signaling molecules. Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) stimulates the enzymatic activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of TGs to diacylglycerols and free fatty acids. In adipose tissue, protein-protein interactions between CGI-58 and the LD coating protein perilipin 1 restrain the ability of CGI-58 to activate ATGL under basal conditions. Phosphorylation of perilipin 1 disrupts these interactions and mobilizes CGI-58 for the activation of ATGL. We have previously demonstrated that the removal of a peptide at the N terminus (residues 10–31) of CGI-58 abrogates CGI-58 localization to LDs and CGI-58-mediated activation of ATGL. Here, we show that this tryptophan-rich N-terminal peptide serves as an independent LD anchor, with its three tryptophans serving as focal points of the left (harboring Trp21 and Trp25) and right (harboring Trp29) anchor arms. The solution state NMR structure of a peptide comprising the LD anchor bound to dodecylphosphocholine micelles as LD mimic reveals that the left arm forms a concise hydrophobic core comprising tryptophans Trp21 and Trp25 and two adjacent leucines. Trp29 serves as the core of a functionally independent anchor arm. Consequently, simultaneous tryptophan alanine permutations in both arms abolish localization and activity of CGI-58 as opposed to tryptophan substitutions that occur in only one arm. PMID:26350461

  9. Self-Anchoring Mast for Deploying a High-Speed Submersible Mixer in a Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Cato, Joseph E. Jr.; Shearer, Paul M.; Rodwell, Philip 0.

    2004-10-12

    A self-anchoring mast for deploying a high-speed submersible mixer in a tank includes operably connected first and second mast members (20, 22) and a foot member 46 operably connected to the second mast member for supporting the mast in a tank. The second mast member includes a track (36, 38) for slidably receiving a bearing of the mixer to change the orientation of the mixer in the tank.

  10. Peripunctal "anchor" suture for securing the silicone bicanalicular stent in the repair of canalicular lacerations.

    PubMed

    Benger, Ross S; Nemet, Arie Y

    2008-01-01

    We used punctal absorbable suture in 8 patients (8 eyes) for silicone stent stabilization in canalicular repair surgery to prevent the postoperative complication of "cheese-wiring." Postoperatively there was 1 case of cheese-wiring of the repaired canaliculus, and no other complication related to the bicanalicular stent. The pericanalicular "anchor" suture may reduce the incidence of cheese-wiring by silicone bicanalicular stents after repair of canalicular lacerations or resections for stenosis. PMID:18209644

  11. Mixed alkylsilane functionalized surfaces for simultaneous wetting and homeotropic anchoring of liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Patrick S; Shavit, Amit; Acharya, Bharat R; Schwartz, Daniel K

    2011-11-01

    Surfaces functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formed from a mixture of two alkylsilanes with different chain lengths have been designed to simultaneously improve the liquid crystal (LC) wettability and promote homeotropic anchoring of the LC. Most chemically functionalized surfaces (e.g., long alkyl chain SAMs) that promote homeotropic alignment of LC possess low surface energy and result in poor LC wettability, inhibiting LC infiltration into microstructured surfaces and sometimes resulting in LC dewetting from the surface. However, a surface modified with a mixed SAM of octadecyltriethoxysilane (C18) and ethyltriethoxysilane (C2) exhibited very low LC contact angle while providing homeotropic anchoring. Ellipsometry was used to correlate the bulk concentration of C18 in the deposition solution to the surface coverage of C18 in the mixed monolayer; these bulk and surface concentrations were found to be equal within experimental uncertainty. The LC contact angle was found to depend nonmonotically with the surface coverage density, with a minimum (14.4 ± 0.1°) at a C18 surface coverage of 0.26 ± 0.08. Homeotropic LC anchoring was achieved at a C18 surface coverage of ≥0.11 ± 0.04, in the regime where a minimum in the LC contact angle was observed. The practical application of this approach to surface modification was demonstrated using a micropillar array sensor substrate. When the array was functionalized with a conventional C18 SAM, the LC did not infiltrate the array and exhibited a contact angle of 47.4 ± 0.5°. However, the LC material successfully infiltrated and wetted the same microstructured substrate when functionalized with a C18/C2 mixed SAM, while still exhibiting the desired homeotropic anchoring. PMID:22003870

  12. Percutaneous Transcholecystic Biliary Interventions Using Gallbladder Anchors: Feasibility Study in the Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E. Kirsch, David; Qian Zhong; Ruiz, Bernardo; Brazzini, Augusto; Gonzales, Arturo; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach.

  13. Waterhammer Transient Simulation and Model Anchoring for the Robotic Lunar Lander Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, William B.; Trinh, Huu P.; Reynolds, Michael E.; Sharp, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Waterhammer transients have the potential to adversely impact propulsion system design if not properly addressed. Waterhammer can potentially lead to system plumbing, and component damage. Multi-thruster propulsion systems also develop constructive/destructive wave interference which becomes difficult to predict without detailed models. Therefore, it is important to sufficiently characterize propulsion system waterhammer in order to develop a robust design with minimal impact to other systems. A risk reduction activity was performed at Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a tool for estimating waterhammer through the use of anchored simulation for the Robotic Lunar Lander (RLL) propulsion system design. Testing was performed to simulate waterhammer surges due to rapid valve closure and consisted of twenty-two series of waterhammer tests, resulting in more than 300 valve actuations. These tests were performed using different valve actuation schemes and three system pressures. Data from the valve characterization tests were used to anchor the models that employed MSCSoftware.EASY5 v.2010 to model transient fluid phenomena by using transient forms of mass and energy conservation. The anchoring process was performed by comparing initial model results to experimental data and then iterating the model input to match the simulation results with the experimental data. The models provide good correlation with experimental results, supporting the use of EASY5 as a tool to model fluid transients and provide a baseline for future RLL system modeling. This paper addresses tasks performed during the waterhammer risk reduction activity for the RLL propulsion system. The problem of waterhammer simulation anchoring as applied to the RLL system is discussed with results from the corresponding experimental valve tests. Important factors for waterhammer mitigation are discussed along with potential design impacts to the RLL propulsion system.

  14. Multifunctional Roles for the Protein Translocation Machinery in RNA Anchoring to the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Sujatha; Hsu, Jack C.-C.; Reid, David W.; Chen, Qiang; Thompson, Will J.; Moseley, Arthur M.; Nicchitta, Christopher V.

    2014-01-01

    Signal sequence-encoding mRNAs undergo translation-dependent localization to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and at the ER are anchored via translation on Sec61-bound ribosomes. Recent investigations into the composition and membrane association characteristics of ER-associated mRNAs have, however, revealed both ribosome-dependent (indirect) and ribosome-independent (direct) modes of mRNA association with the ER. These findings raise important questions regarding our understanding of how mRNAs are selected, localized, and anchored to the ER. Using semi-intact tissue culture cells, we performed a polysome solubilization screen and identified conditions that distinguish polysomes engaged in the translation of distinct cohorts of mRNAs. To gain insight into the molecular basis of direct mRNA anchoring to the ER, we performed RNA-protein UV photocross-linking studies in rough microsomes and demonstrate that numerous ER integral membrane proteins display RNA binding activity. Quantitative proteomic analyses of HeLa cytosolic and ER-bound polysome fractions identified translocon components as selective polysome-interacting proteins. Notably, the Sec61 complex was highly enriched in polysomes engaged in the translation of endomembrane organelle proteins, whereas translocon accessory proteins, such as ribophorin I, were present in all subpopulations of ER-associated polysomes. Analyses of the protein composition of oligo(dT)-selected UV photocross-linked ER protein-RNA adducts identified Sec61α,β and ribophorin I as ER-poly(A) mRNA-binding proteins, suggesting unexpected roles for the protein translocation and modification machinery in mRNA anchoring to the ER. In summary, we propose that multiple mechanisms of mRNA and ribosome association with ER operate to enable an mRNA transcriptome-wide function for the ER in protein synthesis. PMID:25063809

  15. The Role of Anchor-Tipped Larval Hairs in the Organization of Ant Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Penick, Clint A.; Copple, R. Neale; Mendez, Raymond A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2012-01-01

    The spatial organization within a social insect colony is a key component of colony life. It influences individual interaction rates, resource distribution, and division of labor within the nest. Yet studies of social insect behavior are most often carried out in artificial constructions, which may change worker behavior and colony organization. We observed how workers of the ant Pheidole rhea organized brood in nests with deep chambers and textured walls that were designed to mimic their natural constructions more closely. Instead of clumping larvae into piles on the chamber floor, workers suspended fourth-instar larvae from the vertical walls and ceiling of each chamber while young larvae and pupae were clumped at the base. Fourth-instar larvae possess five rows of anchor-tipped hairs on their dorsal side, and we predicted that these hairs functioned to attach larvae to the nest walls. We gave larvae “haircuts,” where only the anchor-tipped hairs were removed, and then tested their ability to adhere to a textured surface raised to an angle of 90° and then 120° with respect to the horizontal plane. Larvae whose hairs had been clipped came unattached in almost all trials, while larvae whose hairs remained intact stayed attached. This confirmed that anchor-tipped hairs functioned to attach larvae to the walls of the nest. The presence of anchor-tipped hairs is widespread and has been documented in at least 22 genera from the ant subfamily Myrmicinae, including species that occur in a variety of environments and represent a broad range of nesting habits. Based on our results, it is likely that many species exhibit this larval hanging behavior, and this could impact colony characteristics such as spatial organization and the care of developing larvae by nurse workers. PMID:22848539

  16. Expanding the clinical and molecular characteristics of PIGT-CDG, a disorder of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors.

    PubMed

    Lam, Christina; Golas, Gretchen A; Davids, Mariska; Huizing, Marjan; Kane, Megan S; Krasnewich, Donna M; Malicdan, May Christine V; Adams, David R; Markello, Thomas C; Zein, Wadih M; Gropman, Andrea L; Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A; Maric, Irina; Rosenzweig, Sergio D; Baker, Eva H; Ferreira, Carlos R; Danylchuk, Noelle R; Kahler, Stephen; Garnica, Adolfo D; Bradley Schaefer, G; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Gahl, William A; Wolfe, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    PIGT-CDG, an autosomal recessive syndromic intellectual disability disorder of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors, was recently described in two independent kindreds [Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome 3 (OMIM, #615398)]. PIGT encodes phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis class T, a subunit of the heteropentameric transamidase complex that facilitates the transfer of GPI to proteins. GPI facilitates attachment (anchoring) of proteins to cell membranes. We describe, at ages 7 and 6 years, two children of non-consanguineous parents; they had hypotonia, severe global developmental delay, and intractable seizures along with endocrine, ophthalmologic, skeletal, hearing, and cardiac anomalies. Exome sequencing revealed that both siblings had compound heterozygous variants in PIGT (NM_015937.5), i.e., c.918dupC, a novel duplication leading to a frameshift, and c.1342C > T encoding a previously described missense variant. Flow cytometry studies showed decreased surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins on granulocytes, consistent with findings in previous cases. These siblings further delineate the clinical spectrum of PIGT-CDG, reemphasize the neuro-ophthalmologic presentation, clarify the endocrine features, and add hypermobility, low CSF albumin quotient, and hearing loss to the phenotypic spectrum. Our results emphasize that GPI anchor-related congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) should be considered in subjects with early onset severe seizure disorders and dysmorphic facial features, even in the presence of a normal carbohydrate-deficient transferrin pattern and N-glycan profiling. Currently available screening for CDGs will not reliably detect this family of disorders, and our case reaffirms that the use of flow cytometry and genetic testing is essential for diagnosis in this group of disorders. PMID:25943031

  17. A theory divided: current representations of the anchoring theory of lightness contradict the original's core claims.

    PubMed

    Maniatis, Lydia M

    2014-09-01

    The anchoring theory of lightness perception (Gilchrist et al., Psychological Review 106 (1999) 795-834) has been described as one of the most successful approaches to lightness perception. Yet, not only does the original proposal contain serious gaps and inconsistencies, later expressions of the theory, which was never formally revised, seem to contradict the original claims while leaving the gaps unresolved. These problems call into question the theory's viability. PMID:24796510

  18. Self-anchoring mast for deploying a high-speed submersible mixer in a tank

    DOEpatents

    Cato, Jr., Joseph E.; Shearer, Paul M.; Rodwell, Philip O.

    2004-10-12

    A self-anchoring mast for deploying a high-speed submersible mixer in a tank includes operably connected first and second mast members (20, 22) and a foot member 46 operably connected to the second mast member for supporting the mast in a tank. The second mast member includes a track (36, 38) for slidably receiving a bearing of the mixer to change the orientation of the mixer in the tank.

  19. Geometric Nonlinear Analysis of Self-Anchored Cable-Stayed Suspension Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Hui-Li, Wang; Yan-Bin, Tan; Si-Feng, Qin; Zhe, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Geometric nonlinearity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges is studied in this paper. The repercussion of shrinkage and creep of concrete, rise-to-span ratio, and girder camber on the system is discussed. A self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m is analyzed with linear theory, second-order theory, and nonlinear theory, respectively. In the condition of various rise-to-span ratios and girder cambers, the moments and displacements of both the girder and the pylon under live load are acquired. Based on the results it is derived that the second-order theory can be adopted to analyze a self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m, and the error is less than 6%. The shrinkage and creep of concrete impose a conspicuous impact on the structure. And it outmatches suspension bridges for system stiffness. As the rise-to-span ratio increases, the axial forces of the main cable and the girder decline. The system stiffness rises with the girder camber being employed. PMID:24282388

  20. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is required in Aspergillus fumigatus for morphogenesis and virulence.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Zhou, Hui; Luo, Yuanming; Ouyang, Haomiao; Hu, Hongyan; Jin, Cheng

    2007-05-01

    In yeast, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is essential for viability and plays an important role in biosynthesis and organization of cell wall. Initiation of the GPI anchor biosynthesis is catalysed by the GPI-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase complex (GPI-GnT). The GPI3 (SPT14) gene is thought to encode the catalytic subunit of GPI-GnT complex. In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, little is known about the GPI biosynthesis in filamentous fungi. In this study, the afpig-a gene was identified as the homologue of the GPI3/pig-A gene in Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen. By replacement of the afpig-a gene with a pyrG gene, we obtained the null mutants. Although the Deltaafpig-a mutant exhibited a significant increased cell lysis instead of temperature-sensitive or conditional lethal phenotype associated to the GPI3 mutant of yeast, they could survive at temperatures from 30 degrees C to 50 degrees C. The analysis of the mutants showed that a completely blocking of the GPI anchor synthesis in A. fumigatus led to cell wall defect, abnormal hyphal growth, rapid conidial germination and aberrant conidiation. In vivo assays revealed that the mutant exhibited a reduced virulence in immunocompromised mice. The GPI anchor was not essential for viability, but required for the cell wall integrity, morphogenesis and virulence in A. fumigatus. PMID:17501924

  1. Expressed Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Horseradish Peroxidase Identifies Co-Clustering Molecules in Individual Lipid Raft Domains

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa-Yamaguchi, Arisa; Kotani, Norihiro; Honke, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Lipid rafts that are enriched in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins serve as a platform for important biological events. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of these events, identification of co-clustering molecules in individual raft domains is required. Here we describe an approach to this issue using the recently developed method termed enzyme-mediated activation of radical source (EMARS), by which molecules in the vicinity within 300 nm from horseradish peroxidase (HRP) set on the probed molecule are labeled. GPI-anchored HRP fusion proteins (HRP-GPIs), in which the GPI attachment signals derived from human decay accelerating factor and Thy-1 were separately connected to the C-terminus of HRP, were expressed in HeLa S3 cells, and the EMARS reaction was catalyzed by these expressed HRP-GPIs under a living condition. As a result, these different HRP-GPIs had differences in glycosylation and localization and formed distinct clusters. This novel approach distinguished molecular clusters associated with individual GPI-anchored proteins, suggesting that it can identify co-clustering molecules in individual raft domains. PMID:24671047

  2. Tuning the electron transport of molecular junctions by chemically functionalizing anchoring groups: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Caciuc, Vasile; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Blügel, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    In this first-principles study, we present density-functional calculations of the electronic structures and electron transport properties of organic molecular junctions with several anchoring groups containing atoms with different electronegativities, i.e., benzenediboronate (BDB), benzenedicarboxylate (BDC), and dinitrobenzene (DNB) molecular junctions sandwiched between two Cu(110) electrodes. The electronic-structure calculations exhibit a significant difference in the density of states not only at the anchoring groups but also at the aromatic rings of the molecular junctions, suggesting that the electron transport is specific for each system. Our transport calculations show that the BDB and DNB molecular junctions have finite electron transmissions at the zero-bias limit while the BDC molecular junction has a negligible electron transmission. Moreover, for the BDB and DNB systems, the electron transmission channels around the Fermi energy reveal fingerprint features, which provide specific functionalities for the molecular junctions. Therefore, our theoretical results demonstrate the possibility to precisely tune the electron transport properties of molecular junctions by engineering the anchoring groups at the single-atom level.

  3. Electrical properties and mechanical stability of anchoring groups for single-molecule electronics

    PubMed Central

    Frisenda, Riccardo; Tarkuç, Simge; Galán, Elena; Perrin, Mickael L; Eelkema, Rienk; Grozema, Ferdinand C

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report on an experimental investigation of transport through single molecules, trapped between two gold nano-electrodes fabricated with the mechanically controlled break junction (MCBJ) technique. The four molecules studied share the same core structure, namely oligo(phenylene ethynylene) (OPE3), while having different aurophilic anchoring groups: thiol (SAc), methyl sulfide (SMe), pyridyl (Py) and amine (NH2). The focus of this paper is on the combined characterization of the electrical and mechanical properties determined by the anchoring groups. From conductance histograms we find that thiol anchored molecules provide the highest conductance; a single-level model fit to current–voltage characteristics suggests that SAc groups exhibit a higher electronic coupling to the electrodes, together with better level alignment than the other three groups. An analysis of the mechanical stability, recording the lifetime in a self-breaking method, shows that Py and SAc yield the most stable junctions while SMe form short-lived junctions. Density functional theory combined with non-equlibrium Green’s function calculations help in elucidating the experimental findings. PMID:26425407

  4. Diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins is influenced by the activity of dynamic cortical actin

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Suvrajit; Lee, Il-Hyung; Polley, Anirban; Groves, Jay T.; Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diffusion at the surface of living cells is believed to be predominantly driven by thermal kicks. However, there is growing evidence that certain cell surface molecules are driven by the fluctuating dynamics of cortical cytoskeleton. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we measure the diffusion coefficient of a variety of cell surface molecules over a temperature range of 24–37°C. Exogenously incorporated fluorescent lipids with short acyl chains exhibit the expected increase of diffusion coefficient over this temperature range. In contrast, we find that GPI-anchored proteins exhibit temperature-independent diffusion over this range and revert to temperature-dependent diffusion on cell membrane blebs, in cells depleted of cholesterol, and upon acute perturbation of actin dynamics and myosin activity. A model transmembrane protein with a cytosolic actin-binding domain also exhibits the temperature-independent behavior, directly implicating the role of cortical actin. We show that diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins also becomes temperature dependent when the filamentous dynamic actin nucleator formin is inhibited. However, changes in cortical actin mesh size or perturbation of branched actin nucleator Arp2/3 do not affect this behavior. Thus cell surface diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins and transmembrane proteins that associate with actin is driven by active fluctuations of dynamic cortical actin filaments in addition to thermal fluctuations, consistent with expectations from an “active actin-membrane composite” cell surface. PMID:26378258

  5. PAQR3 modulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP complex to the Golgi apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Daqian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yuxue; Jiang, Wei; Pan, Yi; Song, Bao-Liang; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol biosynthesis is regulated by transcription factors SREBPs and their escort protein Scap. On sterol depletion, Scap/SREBP complex is transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus where SREBP is activated. Under cholesterol sufficient condition, Insigs act as anchor proteins to retain Scap/SREBP in the ER. However, the anchor protein of Scap/SREBP in the Golgi is unknown. Here we report that a Golgi-localized membrane protein progestin and adipoQ receptors 3 (PAQR3) interacts with Scap and SREBP and tethers them to the Golgi. PAQR3 promotes Scap/SREBP complex formation, potentiates SREBP processing and enhances lipid synthesis. The mutually exclusive interaction between Scap and PAQR3 or Insig-1 is regulated by cholesterol level. PAQR3 knockdown in liver blunts SREBP pathway and decreases hepatic cholesterol content. Disrupting the interaction of PAQR3 with Scap/SREBP by a synthetic peptide inhibits SREBP processing and activation. Thus, PAQR3 regulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP to the Golgi and disruption of such function reduces cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:26311497

  6. Defective lipid remodeling of GPI anchors in peroxisomal disorders, Zellweger syndrome, and rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata

    PubMed Central

    Kanzawa, Noriyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Murakami, Yoshiko; Waterham, Hans R.; Mukai, Satoru; Fujita, Morihisa; Maeda, Yusuke; Taguchi, Ryo; Fujiki, Yukio; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2012-01-01

    Many cell surface proteins in mammalian cells are anchored to the plasma membrane via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). The predominant form of mammalian GPI contains 1-alkyl-2-acyl phosphatidylinositol (PI), which is generated by lipid remodeling from diacyl PI. The conversion of diacyl PI to 1-alkyl-2-acyl PI occurs in the ER at the third intermediate in the GPI biosynthetic pathway. This lipid remodeling requires the alkyl-phospholipid biosynthetic pathway in peroxisome. Indeed, cells defective in dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (DHAP-AT) or alkyl-DHAP synthase express only the diacyl form of GPI-anchored proteins. A defect in the alkyl-phospholipid biosynthetic pathway causes a peroxisomal disorder, rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP), and defective biogenesis of peroxisomes causes Zellweger syndrome, both of which are lethal genetic diseases with multiple clinical phenotypes such as psychomotor defects, mental retardation, and skeletal abnormalities. Here, we report that GPI lipid remodeling is defective in cells from patients with Zellweger syndrome having mutations in the peroxisomal biogenesis factors PEX5, PEX16, and PEX19 and in cells from patients with RCDP types 1, 2, and 3 caused by mutations in PEX7, DHAP-AT, and alkyl-DHAP synthase, respectively. Absence of the 1-alkyl-2-acyl form of GPI-anchored proteins might account for some of the complex phenotypes of these two major peroxisomal disorders. PMID:22253471

  7. Lipoarabinomannans: characterization of the multiacylated forms of the phosphatidyl-myo-inositol anchor by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Nigou, J; Gilleron, M; Puzo, G

    1999-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannans, which exhibit a large spectrum of immunological activities, emerge as the major antigens of mycobacterial envelopes. The lipoarabinomannan structure is based on a phosphatidyl-myo-inositol anchor whose integrity has been shown to be crucial for lipoarabinomannan biological activity and particularly for presentation to CD4/CD8 double-negative alphabetaT cells by CD1 molecules. In this report, an analytical approach was developed for high-resolution 31P-NMR analysis of native, i.e. multiacylated, lipoarabinomannans. The one-dimensional 31P spectrum of cellular lipoarabinomannans, from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, exhibited four 31P resonances typifying four types of lipoarabinomannans. Two-dimensional 1H-31P heteronuclear multiple-quantum-correlation/homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn analysis of the native molecules showed that these four types of lipoarabinomannan differed in the number and localization of fatty acids (from 1 to 4) esterifying the anchor. Besides the three acylation sites previously described, i.e. positions 1 and 2 of glycerol and 6 of the mannosyl unit linked to the C-2 of myo-inositol, we demonstrate the existence of a fourth acylation position at the C-3 of myo-inositol. We report here the first structural study of native multiacylated lipoarabinomannans, establishing the structure of the intact phosphatidyl-myo-inositol anchor. Our findings would help gain more understanding of the molecular basis of lipoarabinomannan discrimination in the binding process to CD1 molecules. PMID:9895288

  8. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and Syntaphilin collaborate to modulate axonal mitochondrial anchoring.

    PubMed

    Park, Cana; Lee, Seol-Ae; Hong, Ji-Ho; Suh, Yeongjun; Park, Sung Jin; Suh, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Youngsik; Choi, Jinhyuk; Huh, Ji-Won; Kim, You-Me; Park, Sang Ki

    2016-01-01

    In neuronal axons, the ratio of motile-to-stationary mitochondria is tightly regulated by neuronal activation, thereby meeting the need for local calcium buffering and maintaining the ATP supply. However, the molecular players and detailed regulatory mechanisms behind neuronal mitochondrial movement are not completely understood. Here, we found that neuronal activation-induced mitochondrial anchoring is regulated by Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), which is accomplished by functional association with Syntaphilin (SNPH). DISC1 deficiency resulted in reduced axonal mitochondrial movement, which was partially reversed by concomitant SNPH depletion. In addition, a SNPH deletion mutant lacking the sequence for interaction with DISC1 exhibited an enhanced mitochondrial anchoring effect than wild-type SNPH. Moreover, upon neuronal activation, mitochondrial movement was preserved by DISC1 overexpression, not showing immobilized response of mitochondria. Taken together, we propose that DISC1 in association with SNPH is a component of a modulatory complex that determines mitochondrial anchoring in response to neuronal activation. PMID:27370822

  9. Cleavage by signal peptide peptidase is required for the degradation of selected tail-anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Boname, Jessica M.; Bloor, Stuart; Wandel, Michal P.; Nathan, James A.; Antrobus, Robin; Dingwell, Kevin S.; Thurston, Teresa L.; Smith, Duncan L.; Smith, James C.; Randow, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The regulated turnover of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–resident membrane proteins requires their extraction from the membrane lipid bilayer and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Cleavage within the transmembrane domain provides an attractive mechanism to facilitate protein dislocation but has never been shown for endogenous substrates. To determine whether intramembrane proteolysis, specifically cleavage by the intramembrane-cleaving aspartyl protease signal peptide peptidase (SPP), is involved in this pathway, we generated an SPP-specific somatic cell knockout. In a stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture–based proteomics screen, we identified HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme to biliverdin, as a novel SPP substrate. Intramembrane cleavage by catalytically active SPP provided the primary proteolytic step required for the extraction and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation of HO-1, an ER-resident tail-anchored protein. SPP-mediated proteolysis was not limited to HO-1 but was required for the dislocation and degradation of additional tail-anchored ER-resident proteins. Our study identifies tail-anchored proteins as novel SPP substrates and a specific requirement for SPP-mediated intramembrane cleavage in protein turnover. PMID:24958774

  10. High-resolution structure of TBP with TAF1 reveals anchoring patterns in transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Anandapadamanaban, Madhanagopal; Andresen, Cecilia; Helander, Sara; Ohyama, Yoshifumi; Siponen, Marina I.; Lundström, Patrik; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Moche, Martin; Sunnerhagen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The general transcription factor TFIID provides a regulatory platform for transcription initiation. Here we present the crystal structure (1.97 Å) and NMR analysis of yeast TAF1 N-terminal domains TAND1 and TAND2 when bound to yeast TBP, together with mutational data. The yTAF1-TAND1, which in itself acts as a transcriptional activator, binds into the DNA-binding TBP concave surface by presenting similar anchor residues to TBP as E. coli Mot1 but from a distinct structural scaffold. Furthermore, we show how yTAF1-TAND2 employs an aromatic and acidic anchoring pattern to bind a conserved yTBP surface groove traversing the basic helix region, and we find highly similar TBP-binding motifs also presented by the structurally distinct TFIIA, Mot1 and Brf1 proteins. Our identification of these anchoring patterns, which can be easily disrupted or enhanced, provides compelling insight into the competitive multiprotein TBP interplay critical to transcriptional regulation. PMID:23851461

  11. Selective and programmed cleavage of GPI-anchored proteins from the surface membrane by phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Müller, Alexandra; Klöppel, Christine; Smith-Valentine, Megan; Van Houten, Judith; Simon, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Many surface proteins of eukaryotic cells are tethered to the membrane by a GPI-anchor which is enzymatically cleavable. Here, we investigate cleavage and release of different GPI-proteins by phospholipase C from the outer membrane of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Our data indicate that different GPI-proteins are not equally cleaved as proteins of the surface antigen family are preferentially released in vitro compared to several smaller GPI-proteins. Likewise, the analysis of culture medium indicates exclusive in vivo release of surface antigens by two phospholipase C isoforms (PLC2 and PLC6). This suggests that phospholipase C shows affinity for select groups of GPI-anchored proteins. Our data also reveal an up-regulation of PLC isoforms in GPI-anchored protein cleavage during antigenic switching. As a consequence, silencing of these PLCs leads to a drastic decrease of antigen concentration in the medium. These results suggest a higher order of GPI-regulation by phospholipase C as cleavage occurs programmed and specific for single GPI-proteins instead of an unspecific shedding of the entire surface membrane GPI-content. PMID:22024023

  12. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of liquid crystal particulate flow in a channel with finite anchoring boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Roberts, Tyler; de Pablo, Juan; dePablo Team

    2014-11-01

    Liquid crystals (LC) posses anisotropic viscoelastic properties, and, as such, LC flow can be incredibly complicated. Here we employ a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method (pioneered by Deniston, Yeomans and Cates) to systematically study the hydrodynamics of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) with and without solid particles. This method evolves the velocity field through lattice Boltzmann and the LC-order parameter via a finite-difference solver of the Beris-Edwards equation. The evolution equation of the boundary points with finite anchoring is obtained through Poisson bracket formulation. Our method has been validated by matching the Ericksen-Leslie theory. We demonstrate two applications in the flow alignment regime. We first investigate a hybrid channel flow in which the top and bottom walls have different anchoring directions. By measuring the apparent shear viscosity in terms of Couette flow, we achieve a viscosity inhomogeneous system which may be applicable to nano particle processing. In the other example, we introduce a homeotropic spherical particle to the channel, and focus on the deformations of the defect ring due to anchorings and flow. The results are then compared to the molecular dynamics simulations of a colloid particle in an LC modeled by a Gay-Berne potential.

  13. Using chemically patterns with different anchoring behavior to control the orientation of nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Armas Perez, Julio; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose Adrian; Xie, Helou; de Pablo, Juan; Nealey, Paul

    2015-03-01

    We present experimental and theoretical study of nematic liquid crystal (5CB) confined to a thin cell between homeotropic anchoring top surface and chemically patterned planar/homeotropic anchoring bottom substrates. The chemically patterned substrate with different dimensions and ~ 4 nm depth topography induce the 5CB to align as the pattern direction as non-degenerate behavior, until the width of the straight line pattern is too wide to confine the 5CB to one direction and back to degenerate behavior. By changing the width of the straight line pattern, a brightness change of the intensity is shown by their corresponding crossed polarizer images. This change is mainly due to a discontinuity of the average angle between the molecules and the surface in function of line width, which is in excellent agreement with the Landan-de Gennes theory when the balance between the elastic deformation in the bulk and orientation of molecules close to the surface is simulated for different pattern dimensions. An elastic free energy transition is also observed from the numerical analysis when the strong planar anchoring for presented experiments is changed to weak. This 3D confinement by chemically patterns and small depth topography offers a new way to generate any geometry pattern controllable non-degenerate orientation, achieving switchable optical properties.

  14. Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Zietkiewicz, E.; Labuda, D. ); Rafalski, A. )

    1994-03-15

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR), or microsatellites, are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Here the authors demonstrate the utility of microsatellite-directed DNA fingerprinting by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the interrepeat region. No sequencing is required to design the oligonucleotide primers. They tested primers anchored at 3[prime] or 5[prime] termini of the (A)[sub n] repeats, extended into the flanking sequence by 2 to 4 nucleotide residues [3[prime]-anchored primers: (CA)[sub 8]RG, (CA)[sub 8]RY, and (CA)[sub 7]RTCY; and 5[prime]-anchored primers: BDB(CA)[sub 7]C, DBDA(CA)[sub 7], VHVG(TG)[sub 7] and HVH(TG)[sub 7]T]. Radioactively labeled amplification products were analyzed by electrophoresis, revealing information on multiple genomic loci in a single gel lane. Complex, species-specific patterns were obtained from a variety of eukaryotic taxa. Intraspecies polymorphisms were also observed and shown to segregate as Mendelian markers. Inter-SSR PCR provides a novel fingerprinting approach applicable for taxonomic and phylogenetic comparisons and as a mapping tool in a wide range of organisms. This application of (CA)[sub n] repeats may be extended to different microsatellites and other common dispersed elements. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Identification of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor-modifying β1-3 galactosyltransferase in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Luis; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Mehlert, Angela; Ferguson, Michael Aj

    2015-04-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness and the cattle disease nagana.  Trypanosoma brucei is dependent on glycoproteins for its survival and infectivity throughout its life cycle. Here we report the functional characterization of TbGT3, a glycosyltransferase expressed in the bloodstream and procyclic form of the parasite. Bloodstream and procyclic form TbGT3 conditional null mutants were created and both exhibited normal growth under permissive and nonpermissive conditions. Under nonpermissive conditions, the normal glycosylation of the major glycoprotein of bloodstream form T. brucei, the variant surface glycoprotein and the absence of major alterations in lectin binding to other glycoproteins suggested that the major function of TbGT3 occurs in the procyclic form of the parasite. Consistent with this, the major surface glycoprotein of the procyclic form, procyclin, exhibited a marked reduction in molecular weight due to changes in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor side chains. Structural analysis of the mutant procyclin GPI anchors indicated that TbGT3 encodes a UDP-Gal: β-GlcNAc-GPI β1-3 Gal transferase. Despite the alterations in GPI anchor side chains, TbGT3 conditional null mutants remained infectious to tsetse flies under nonpermissive conditions. PMID:25467966

  16. Sialic Acid within the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Targets the Cellular Prion Protein to Synapses.

    PubMed

    Bate, Clive; Nolan, William; McHale-Owen, Harriet; Williams, Alun

    2016-08-12

    Although the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is concentrated at synapses, the factors that target PrP(C) to synapses are not understood. Here we demonstrate that exogenous PrP(C) was rapidly targeted to synapses in recipient neurons derived from Prnp knock-out((0/0)) mice. The targeting of PrP(C) to synapses was dependent upon both neuronal cholesterol concentrations and the lipid and glycan composition of its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Thus, the removal of either an acyl chain or sialic acid from the GPI anchor reduced the targeting of PrP(C) to synapses. Isolated GPIs (derived from PrP(C)) were also targeted to synapses, as was IgG conjugated to these GPIs. The removal of sialic acid from GPIs prevented the targeting of either the isolated GPIs or the IgG-GPI conjugate to synapses. Competition studies showed that pretreatment with sialylated GPIs prevented the targeting of PrP(C) to synapses. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the sialylated GPI anchor attached to PrP(C) acts as a synapse homing signal. PMID:27325697

  17. Novel cancer vaccines prepared by anchoring cytokines to tumor cells avoiding gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizard, Philippe; Gross, David-Alexandre; Chenal, Alexandre; Beaumelle, Bruno; Kosmatopoulos, Konstadinos; Gillet, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    Cytokines have a strong potential for triggering anticancer immunity if released in the tumor microenvironment. Successful vaccines have been engineered using tumor cells genetically modified to secrete the cytokines. Unfortunately, this approach remains difficult and hazardous to perform in the clinic. We describe a new way of combining cytokines with tumor cells to prepare anticancer vaccines. This consists in anchoring recombinant cytokines to the membrane of killed tumor cells. Attachment is mediated by a fragment of diphtheria toxin (T) genetically connected to the cytokine. It is triggered by an acid pH pulse. The method was applied to IL-2, a potent anti-tumor cytokine. IL-2 anchored to the surface of tumor cells by the T anchor retained its IL-2 activity and remained exposed several days. Interestingly, vaccination of mice with these modified tumor cells induced a protective anti-tumor immunity mediated by tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This procedure presents several advantages as compared to the conventional approaches based on the transfection of tumor cells with cytokine genes. It does not require the culture of tumor cells from the patients and eliminates the safety problems connected with viral vectors while allowing the control of the amount of cytokines delivered with the vaccine.

  18. Design of new anchored p-dopants for high power efficiency OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Koech, Phillip K; Sapochak, Linda S; Rainbolt, James E; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S; Wang, Liang; Padmaperuma, Asanga B; Gaspar, Daniel J

    2009-08-27

    Conductivity doping of charge transporting layers is increasingly becoming attractive for improving power efficiency in OLEDs. However, the number of organic molecular p-dopants is limited for instance the electron acceptor 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8,-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) is the most utilized p-dopant. F4-TCNQ can dope most hole transporting materials (HTL), but it is very volatility, and has a low sticking coefficient thus difficult to deposit. Here we present the design of anchored molecular dopants based on the TCNQ core. We first review how the reduction potential of TCNQ core is affected by substitution with alkyl groups of different electronic properties. Electron donating groups have negative effect on the reduction potential of the acceptor. However, attaching electron withdrawing groups such as halogens counteracts the effect of electron donating groups. Using gas phase theoretical calculations we determined that trifluorinated TCNQ can be anchored through a σ-coupled alkyl chain to an inert molecular anchor without sacrificing the electron affinity.

  19. Tension-compression asymmetry in the binding affinity of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Liu, Zishun; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2016-03-01

    Cell adhesion plays a crucial role in many biological processes of cells, e.g., immune responses, tissue morphogenesis, and stem cell differentiation. An essential problem in the molecular mechanism of cell adhesion is to characterize the binding affinity of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands under different physiological conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented to study the binding affinity between a large number of anchored receptors and ligands under both tensile and compressive stresses, and corroborated by demonstrating excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that the binding affinity becomes lower as the magnitude of the applied stress increases, and drops to zero at a critical tensile or compressive stress. Interestingly, the critical compressive stress is found to be substantially smaller than the critical tensile stress for relatively long and flexible receptor-ligand complexes. This counterintuitive finding is explained by using the Euler instability theory of slender columns under compression. The tension-compression asymmetry in the binding affinity of anchored receptors and ligands depends subtly on the competition between the breaking and instability of their complexes. This study helps in understanding the role of mechanical forces in cell adhesion mediated by specific binding molecules.

  20. Investigation of a MMP-2 Activity-Dependent Anchoring Probe for Nuclear Imaging of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Temma, Takashi; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Yonezawa, Aki; Kondo, Naoya; Sano, Kohei; Sakamoto, Takeharu; Seiki, Motoharu; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Since matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an important marker of tumor malignancy, we developed an original drug design strategy, MMP-2 activity dependent anchoring probes (MDAP), for use in MMP-2 activity imaging, and evaluated the usefulness of this probe in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We designed and synthesized MDAP1000, MDAP3000, and MDAP5000, which consist of 4 independent moieties: RI unit (111In hydrophilic chelate), MMP-2 substrate unit (short peptide), anchoring unit (alkyl chain), and anchoring inhibition unit (polyethylene glycol (PEGn; where n represents the approximate molecular weight, n = 1000, 3000, and 5000). Probe cleavage was evaluated by chromatography after MMP-2 treatment. Cellular uptake of the probes was then measured. Radioactivity accumulation in tumor xenografts was evaluated after intravenous injection of the probes, and probe cleavage was evaluated in tumor homogenates. Results MDAP1000, MDAP3000, and MDAP5000 were cleaved by MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. MDAP3000 pretreated with MMP-2 showed higher accumulation in tumor cells, and was completely blocked by additional treatment with an MMP inhibitor. MDAP3000 exhibited rapid blood clearance and a high tumor accumulation after intravenous injection in a rodent model. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that MDAP3000 exhibited a considerably slow washout rate from tumors to blood. A certain fraction of cleaved MDAP3000 existed in tumor xenografts in vivo. Conclusions The results indicate the possible usefulness of our MDAP strategy for tumor imaging. PMID:25010662