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Sample records for 4-year-old italian children

  1. False belief understanding and "cool" inhibitory control in 3-and 4-years-old Italian children.

    PubMed

    Bellagamba, Francesca; Addessi, Elsa; Focaroli, Valentina; Pecora, Giulia; Maggiorelli, Valentina; Pace, Beatrice; Paglieri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    During preschool years, major developments occur in both executive function and theory of mind (ToM), and several studies have demonstrated a correlation between these processes. Research on the development of inhibitory control (IC) has distinguished between more cognitive, "cool" aspects of self-control, measured by conflict tasks, that require inhibiting an habitual response to generate an arbitrary one, and "hot," affective aspects, such as affective decision making, measured by delay tasks, that require inhibition of a prepotent response. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between 3- and 4-year-olds' performance on a task measuring false belief understanding, the most widely used index of ToM in preschoolers, and three tasks measuring cognitive versus affective aspects of IC. To this end, we tested 101 Italian preschool children in four tasks: (a) the Unexpected Content False Belief task, (b) the Conflict task (a simplified version of the Day-Night Stroop task), (c) the Delay task, and (d) the Delay Choice task. Children's receptive vocabulary was assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test. Children's performance in the False Belief task was significantly related only to performance in the Conflict task, controlling for vocabulary and age. Importantly, children's performance in the Conflict task did not significantly correlate with their performance in the Delay task or in the Delay Choice task, suggesting that these tasks measure different components of IC. The dissociation between the Conflict and the Delay tasks may indicate that monitoring and regulating a cool process (as flexible categorization) may involve different abilities than monitoring and regulating a hot process (not touching an available and highly attractive stimulus or choosing between a smaller immediate option and a larger delayed one). Moreover, our findings support the view that "cool" aspects of IC and ToM are interrelated, extending to an Italian sample of

  2. False belief understanding and “cool” inhibitory control in 3-and 4-years-old Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Bellagamba, Francesca; Addessi, Elsa; Focaroli, Valentina; Pecora, Giulia; Maggiorelli, Valentina; Pace, Beatrice; Paglieri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    During preschool years, major developments occur in both executive function and theory of mind (ToM), and several studies have demonstrated a correlation between these processes. Research on the development of inhibitory control (IC) has distinguished between more cognitive, “cool” aspects of self-control, measured by conflict tasks, that require inhibiting an habitual response to generate an arbitrary one, and “hot,” affective aspects, such as affective decision making, measured by delay tasks, that require inhibition of a prepotent response. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between 3- and 4-year-olds’ performance on a task measuring false belief understanding, the most widely used index of ToM in preschoolers, and three tasks measuring cognitive versus affective aspects of IC. To this end, we tested 101 Italian preschool children in four tasks: (a) the Unexpected Content False Belief task, (b) the Conflict task (a simplified version of the Day–Night Stroop task), (c) the Delay task, and (d) the Delay Choice task. Children’s receptive vocabulary was assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test. Children’s performance in the False Belief task was significantly related only to performance in the Conflict task, controlling for vocabulary and age. Importantly, children’s performance in the Conflict task did not significantly correlate with their performance in the Delay task or in the Delay Choice task, suggesting that these tasks measure different components of IC. The dissociation between the Conflict and the Delay tasks may indicate that monitoring and regulating a cool process (as flexible categorization) may involve different abilities than monitoring and regulating a hot process (not touching an available and highly attractive stimulus or choosing between a smaller immediate option and a larger delayed one). Moreover, our findings support the view that “cool” aspects of IC and ToM are interrelated, extending to an

  3. Grammatical Morpheme Production in 4-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balason, Denise V.; Dollaghan, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Grammatical morpheme (GM) production was studied in 15-minute spontaneous language samples from 100 4-year-olds. Substantial variability was observed in both the frequency of obligatory contexts and in the percentages of correct usage of GM. For only one morpheme did all 100 participants contain the minimum number of 3 obligatory contexts.…

  4. A Gender Comparison of the Cooperation of 4-Year-Old Children in Classroom Activity Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Genan T.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Wouden-Miller, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the proportion of cooperative play in 4-year-old children across centers (housekeeping, block, manipulative, and computer) and gender in a natural classroom setting. Eighty-four white, middle-income children (41 boys and 43 girls, mean age = 55 months) were videotaped during free-play for 30 minutes per day for four weeks in…

  5. Trends in the Educational Experience of 3- to 4-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Phillip; And Others

    Using data from the Census Bureau's 1991 Current Population Survey and the National Household Education Survey, this study examined the trends in nursery school enrollment of 3- and 4-year-old children from 1975 to 1990. Factors examined included number of enrollments in nursery schools, race and ethnicity of the students, students' family income,…

  6. A measure of inspection time in 4-year-old children: the Benny Bee IT task.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah E; Turley, Christopher; Nettelbeck, Ted; Burns, Nicholas R

    2009-09-01

    Inspection time (IT) measures speed of information processing without the confounding influence of motor speed. While IT has been found to relate to cognitive abilities in adults and older children, no measure of IT has been validated for use with children younger than 6 years. This study examined the validity of a new measure of IT for preschool children. N = 71 4-year-old children completed the new IT task and standardized measures of fluid ability, visuospatial ability, and speed of processing. N = 50 adults completed the same tasks and, additionally, a standard IT task. Results showed that the new IT task is a stable, reliable measure of IT in 4-year-old children. The new task had reasonable concurrent validity with the standard IT task in adults and the relationships between cognitive abilities, particularly general cognitive ability, and IT are sufficiently similar in young children and adults to suggest that the new IT task may be a useful tool for research in populations where IT was previously not measurable. PMID:19994574

  7. National pathfinder survey on children's oral health in Italy: pattern and severity of caries disease in 4-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Campus, G; Solinas, G; Strohmenger, L; Cagetti, M G; Senna, A; Minelli, L; Majori, S; Montagna, M T; Reali, D; Castiglia, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the dental health status of Italian 4-year-olds in 2004/2005 and analyzes the association between caries in preschool children and some background characteristics in children and parents. Caries was recorded according to WHO criteria. 5,538 subjects were examined. Information on the children's and their parents' social, behavioral, ethnic and demographic status was obtained through a series of closed questions. Bivariate analysis was performed to investigate the association between caries and background characteristics. The probability of being an extra zero for the dmfs index was estimated via the zero-inflated negative binomial regression model (ZINB). 78.4% (95% CI = 77.2-79.6) of the children were caries-free. The national mean dmfs index was 1.36 (95% CI = 1.15-1.57), ranging from 1.22 (95% CI = 1.03-1.42) in the Italian North-East to 1.73 (95% CI = 0.83-2.63) in the South section. Significant bivariate associations between caries experience and risk factors were observed for parents' nationality (not Italian vs. Italian: p < 0.001), parents' educational levels (low vs. high: p < 0.001), preterm birth (yes vs. no: p = 0.011), prolonged breastfeeding (13 months: p = 0.038) and early tooth eruption (<6 months as reference: p = 0.004). Multivariable analysis (ZINB) showed that children with a low caries risk level had a higher probability of being an extra zero; in particular, children from fathers with a high educational level showed a probability of being an extra zero of 0.22. The results suggest a need to plan preventive programs to reduce oral health disparities among Italian preschool children, based on educational intervention with parents and children concerning oral health and caries prevention. PMID:19365120

  8. Experience with headwear influences the other-race effect in 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Suhrke, Janina; Freitag, Claudia; Lamm, Bettina; Teiser, Johanna; Poloczek, Sonja; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Voehringer, Isabel; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-09-01

    The other-race effect (ORE) implies the better recognition of faces of one's own race compared with faces of a different race. It demonstrates that face recognition is shaped by daily experience with human faces. Such experience mainly includes structural information of own-race faces and also information on the way faces are usually seen, as a whole or partly covered by scarves or other headwear. In two experiments, we investigated how this mode of presentation is related to the occurrence of the ORE during childhood. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old German children (N = 104), accustomed to seeing faces without headwear in daily life, were asked to recognize female Caucasian or African faces, presented either as a whole or wearing a woolen hat, in a forced choice paradigm. In Experiment 2, 4-year-olds from rural Cameroon (N = 70), accustomed to seeing faces with and without headwear in daily life, participated in the same task. In both groups, the ORE was present in the familiar mode of presentation, that is, in whole faces in German children and in whole and partly covered faces in Cameroonian children. The results are discussed in relation to the role of experience for face recognition processes. PMID:25935463

  9. [Traumatic hip dislocation in children. Case report of a 4 year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Guerrero, J I; Olguín-Hernández, F; Cabrera, A

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic hip dislocation with a history of high energy trauma is infrequent in children. The incidence rate in our country has not been determined in the literature. Everything depends on the patient's age group, the type of trauma and the ligament laxity of children. We report herein the case of a 4 year-old girl with this condition and a history of high energy trauma. She was seen at Aragón Pediatric Hospital, SSDF, 8 hours after the injury and received conservative treatment. She has done well so far and has been followed-up monthly for 18 months, without complications. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is the most frequent complication and has irreversible sequelae. After the follow-up period the patient is totally functional and independent. PMID:23320340

  10. Children's Spatial Representations: 3- and 4-Year-Olds are Affected by Irrelevant Peripheral References.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Markus; Jahn, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Children as young as 3 years can remember an object's location within an arrangement and can retrieve it from a novel viewpoint (Nardini et al., 2006). However, this ability is impaired if the arrangement is rotated to compensate for the novel viewpoint, or, if the arrangement is rotated and children stand still. There are two dominant explanations for this phenomenon: self-motion induces an automatic spatial updating process which is beneficial if children move around the arrangement, but misleading if the children's movement is matched by the arrangement and not activated if children stand still and only the arrangement is moved (see spatial updating; Simons and Wang, 1998). Another explanation concerns reference frames: spatial representations might depend on peripheral spatial relations concerning the surrounding room instead on proximal relations within the arrangement, even if these proximal relations are sufficient or more informative. To evaluate these possibilities, we rotated children (N = 120) aged between 3 and 6 years with an occluded arrangement. When the arrangement was in misalignment to the surrounding room, 3- and 4-year-olds' spatial memory was impaired and 5-year-olds' was lightly impaired suggesting that they relied on peripheral references of the surrounding room for retrieval. In contrast, 6-years-olds' spatial representation seemed robust against misalignment indicating a successful integration of spatial representations. PMID:26617537

  11. Visual access trumps gender in 3- and 4-year-old children's endorsement of testimony.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Nathalie; Bernard, Stéphane; Mercier, Hugo; Clément, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have investigated how preschoolers weigh social cues against epistemic cues when taking testimony into account. For instance, one study showed that 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of an informant who had the same gender as the children; by contrast, when the gender cue conflicted with an epistemic cue-past reliability-the latter trumped the former. None of the previous studies, however, has shown that 3-year-olds can prioritize an epistemic cue over a social cue. In Experiment 1, we offer the first demonstration that 3-year-olds favor testimony from a same-gender informant in the absence of other cues. In Experiments 2 and 3, an epistemic cue-visual access-was introduced. In those experiments, 3- and 4-year-olds endorsed the testimony of the informant with visual access regardless of whether it was a same-gender informant (Experiment 3) or a different-gender informant (Experiment 2). These results demonstrate that 3-year-olds are able to give more weight to an epistemic cue than to a social cue when evaluating testimony. PMID:26925718

  12. Somatosensory Evoked Field in Response to Visuotactile Stimulation in 3- to 4-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Remijn, Gerard B.; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Ueno, Sanae; Yoshimura, Yuko; Nagao, Kikuko; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Kojima, Haruyuki; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    A child-customized magnetoencephalography system was used to investigate somatosensory evoked field (SEF) in 3- to 4-year-old children. Three stimulus conditions were used in which the children received tactile-only stimulation to their left index finger or visuotactile stimulation. In the two visuotactile conditions, the children received tactile stimulation to their finger while they watched a video of tactile stimulation applied either to someone else’s finger (the finger-touch condition) or to someone else’s toe (the toe-touch condition). The latencies and source strengths of equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) over contralateral (right) somatosensory cortex were analyzed. In the preschoolers who provided valid ECDs, the stimulus conditions induced an early-latency ECD occurring between 60 and 68 ms mainly with an anterior direction. We further identified a middle-latency ECD between 97 and 104 ms, which predominantly had a posterior direction. Finally, initial evidence was found for a late-latency ECD at about 139–151 ms again more often with an anterior direction. Differences were found in the source strengths of the middle-latency ECDs among the stimulus conditions. For the paired comparisons that could be formed, ECD source strength was more pronounced in the finger-touch condition than in the tactile-only and the toe-touch conditions. Although more research is necessary to expand the data set, this suggests that visual information modulated preschool SEF. The finding that ECD source strength was higher when seen and felt touch occurred to the same body part, as compared to a different body part, might further indicate that connectivity between visual and tactile information is indexed in preschool somatosensory cortical activity, already in a somatotopic way. PMID:24715860

  13. Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Durão, Catarina; Andreozzi, Valeska; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort - Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4-7 times/day; dairy 3-5 times/day; meat and eggs 5-10 times/week; fish 2-4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (<6 times/week). Associations between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11-18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14-27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher

  14. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  15. [Severe bacterial infections and sudden death in children less than 4-years-old: 3 case reports].

    PubMed

    Chapelon, E; Bélien-Pallet, V; Ayachi, A; Rambaud, C; Gaudelus, J; de Pontual, L

    2012-02-01

    Infectious factors contribute to sudden infant death in about 1 case out of 3. We report 3 children less than 4-years-old who died suddenly of bacterial infection due to Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The bacteria were isolated from central and peripheral samples. A bacterial origin should be sought in all cases of sudden death in children. When a bacterial origin is confirmed, the question of immunodeficiency should be raised. PMID:22209380

  16. Three- and 4-year-old children's response tendencies to various interviewers.

    PubMed

    Okanda, Mako; Kanda, Takayuki; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Itakura, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    Unlike young preschoolers, older preschoolers may exhibit a response bias under social pressure from authoritative interviewers. To examine this, 3- and 4-year-old preschoolers were asked yes-no questions about familiar and unfamiliar objects in three conditions. In one condition an adult asked them questions in a live interaction, in a second condition an adult asked questions via video, and in a third condition a robot asked questions via video. The 3-year-olds exhibited a yes bias-a tendency to say "yes"-in nearly all conditions. The only exception was when they were asked questions about unfamiliar objects by the human interviewer via video, where they did not respond in a biased manner. The 4-year-olds exhibited a yes bias in only one condition-when they were questioned by a live human interviewer about both objects. They also exhibited a nay-saying bias when asked questions about unfamiliar objects in both video conditions, and they did not show any response bias in other conditions. The results suggest that the social pressure from an authoritative adult in a live interaction is problematic. PMID:23664558

  17. Height, infant-feeding practices and cardiovascular functioning among 3 or 4 year old children in three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, T; Bryan, G T; Harrison, J A; Rassin, D K; Greaves, K A; Baranowski, J H

    1992-05-01

    Barker recently hypothesized that factors affecting prenatal and infant growth are related to adult blood pressure and CVD mortality. Predictions from Barker's hypothesis in regard to infant feeding were tested among a sample of 3 or 4 year old children. The relationship of infant-feeding characteristics (duration of breast-feeding, times of introduction of high fat, high carbohydrate, high potassium foods and table salt) to indicators of cardiovascular functioning (resting blood pressures and heart rates, and heart rate response to graded activity) while controlling for anthropometric (height, sum of seven skinfolds, BMI) and demographic (ethnicity, gender, social status) characteristics revealed that infant-feeding practices were not related to CV functioning in the predicted directions among this sample of 3 or 4 year old children. Furthermore, the positive relationship between height and systolic blood pressure was inconsistent with the Barker hypothesis. PMID:1588357

  18. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions. PMID:23812638

  19. Zinc homeostasis in 1-4 year olds consuming diets typical of US children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few data have evaluated Zn balance in young children after the first year of life. Our objective was to study the relationships among Zn intake, absorption, endogenous faecal excretion, and retention in a group of healthy children. Thirty children, aged 15–48 months, were studied on a diet represent...

  20. A Measure of Inspection Time in 4-Year-Old Children: The Benny Bee IT Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah E.; Turley, Christopher; Nettelbeck, Ted; Burns, Nicholas R.

    2009-01-01

    Inspection time (IT) measures speed of information processing without the confounding influence of motor speed. While IT has been found to relate to cognitive abilities in adults and older children, no measure of IT has been validated for use with children younger than 6 years. This study examined the validity of a new measure of IT for preschool…

  1. Taxometric Analyses of Specific Language Impairment in 3- And 4-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollaghan, Christine A.

    2004-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI), like many diagnostic labels for complex behavioral conditions, is often assumed to define a category of children who differ not only in degree but also in kind from children developing language normally. Although this assumption has important implications for theoretical models and clinical approaches, its…

  2. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  3. Intelligibility of 4-Year-Old Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Schueler, Brynn; Schultz, Laurel; DuHadway, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined speech intelligibility in typically developing (TD) children and 3 groups of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who were classified into speech/language profile groups following Hustad, Gorton, and Lee (2010). Questions addressed differences in transcription intelligibility scores among groups, the effects of utterance…

  4. Enhancement of 4-year-old children's memory span for phonologically similar and dissimilar word lists.

    PubMed

    Cowan, N; Saults, J S; Winterowd, C; Sherk, M

    1991-02-01

    Previous research suggests that preschool children are deficient in rehearsal and that stimulus list repetitions can improve their recall, presumably by substituting for the products of rehearsal. However, the previous research included interitem or postlist retention intervals of several seconds or more. We examined the utility of list repetitions with reference to an ordinary span task in which spoken words were presented 1 s apart for immediate recall. Lists with phonologically similar versus dissimilar items were included, to determine if the overall pattern of recall could be made more similar to what is ordinarily obtained in older children. Cumulative repetition was found to cause a moderate increase in both memory span and the phonological similarity effect. Other types of list repetition provided more insight into types of stimulus redundancy that were helpful (e.g., repeated serial order information) or not helpful (e.g., forced articulatory coding) to children attempting to recall spoken lists. The underlying mnemonic processes are discussed. PMID:2010726

  5. Increased risk of severe vaso-occlusive episodes after initial acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell anemia less than 4 years old: Sleep and asthma cohort.

    PubMed

    Vance, Leah D; Rodeghier, Mark; Cohen, Robyn T; Rosen, Carol L; Kirkham, Fenella J; Strunk, Robert C; DeBaun, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that the highest incidence of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease occurs in children <4 years old, and a history of ACS at this age is a risk factor for future ACS episodes. However, the interval associated with the highest risk of subsequent ACS or severe pain is not known. Through this mixed retrospective-prospective observational study, the Sleep and Asthma Cohort, we sought to determine the interval after an initial ACS episode during which the majority of children <4 years old are rehospitalized for ACS or severe pain. The cumulative prevalence of rehospitalization for ACS or severe pain within 6 months, 1 years, and 2 years was calculated for children with an initial ACS episode <4 years old and compared to children with an initial ACS episode ≥4 years old. A total of 44.8% and 55.2% of participants had an initial ACS episode <4 years and ≥4 years old (Range: 4-17.7 years), respectively. At 1 year following the initial ACS episode, children <4 years old had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of rehospitalizations for ACS or pain as compared to children ≥4 years of age, 62.5 and 39.1%, respectively (P = 0.009). After initial ACS episodes, the majority of children <4 years old will be rehospitalized for ACS or severe pain within one year, suggesting the need for a therapeutic intervention for this high-risk group. PMID:25619382

  6. Evidence of deontic reasoning in 3- and 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Cummins, D D

    1996-11-01

    Deontic reasoning is reasoning about what one may, ought, or ought not do in a given set of circumstances. Virtually all of our social institutions and child-rearing practices presume the capacity to reason about deontic concepts, such as what is permitted, obligated, or prohibited. Despite this, very little is known about the development of deontic reasoning. Two experiments were conducted that contrasted children's reasoning performance on deontic and indicative reasoning tasks (i.e., the reduced array selection version of the Wason card selection task). Like adults, children as young as 3 years of age were found to adopt a violation-detecting strategy more often when reasoning about the deontic case than when reasoning about the indicative case. These results indicate that violation detection emerges as an effective deontic reasoning very early in human development. PMID:8961825

  7. [Evaluation of a tool for developmental disorder screening in 4-year-old children].

    PubMed

    Pouzet, P; Collignon, A; Pouthier, P F; Millereau, C; Mouton, A; Sillière, J

    1997-06-01

    With the aim of helping physicians working in a "Mother and Infant Protection Service" (PMI) in their mission of children's development difficulties screening, authors tried to assess performances of a clinical tool including parental informations and standardized tests. The whole four years old children going at school in a canton of Calvados department were independently examined by a PMI doctor using the tool to be estimated and by a specialized service working from a beforehand established protocol. For the language disorders on the one hand and the adaptation on the other hand, this evaluation shows a significant correlation between the PMI screening and the specialists one's: the sensitivity of the PMI examination is about 70% for those two types of difficulties with a positive predictive value respectively 28% and 57%. However the tool appears less reliable for the psychomotor disorders screening: only one quarter of the children who require a specialized investigation about these problems have been detected by the PMI screening. A filing and a selection of the questionnaire items should permit to improve the efficiency of this tool. PMID:9417378

  8. [MusicPlayTherapy--a parent-child psychotherapy for children 0-4 years old].

    PubMed

    Stumptner, Katrin; Thomsen, Cornelia

    2005-10-01

    The early stage of building up the parent-child relationship is especially important. It is the basis for the child's development of the ability to relate to others and his or her further emotional, social and cognitive development. In this important early phase various risk factors may alienate parents from their intuitive parental competence towards their children. Such interaction problems indicate an intervention in the form of parent-children psychotherapy. This constitutes an entry point for the concept of MusicPlayTherapy (MPT): The early relationship is characterized mainly by complex communication sequences that address the senses at all levels. Therefore, the MPT concept integrates music as medium to communicate and opens up a playing space for play that allows emotions and experiences to be expressed. The components of music such as rhythm, sound, and melody stimulate babies and toddlers to express, play, and communicate preverbally. We work with the child and a parent in the MusicPlayTherapy sessions. Parents learn again to play and thereby learn to reach their children emotionally and to communicate with them. We complement the therapy sessions by counselling sessions with both parents. PMID:16231598

  9. Gait parameters associated with balance in healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Guffey, Keegan; Regier, Michael; Mancinelli, Corrie; Pergami, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The use of validated measurements of gait and balance are crucial to establish baseline function and assess effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Gait in children changes with motor development requiring frequent observations to effectively track progress. Standardized baseline spatiotemporal measurements and a greater understanding of the relationship between gait and balance would provide important feedback to clinicians regarding the effectiveness of rehabilitation and guide treatment modifications. 84 subjects (2.0-4.9 years) walked along the GAITRite(®), a walkway that records spatiotemporal parameters. The Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) was administered to assess balance. Comparison of spatiotemporal parameter means between age groups showed trends associated with motor development similar to the ones described in the literature such as decreased cadence and increased step/stride length with increasing age. However, no significant differences in normalized spatiotemporal parameters were found between age groups. Age, leg length, cadence, step/stride length, step/stance time, and single/double support time showed significant correlation with balance scores. When the parameters were grouped into spatial, temporal, and age-related components using principal components analysis and included in a multiple regression model, they significantly predicted 51% of the balance score variance. Age-related components most strongly predicted balance outcomes. We suggest that balance can potentially be evaluated by assessment of spatial, temporal, and age-related characteristics of gait such as step length, cadence, and leg length. This suggests the possibility of developing new gait measurement technology that could provide functional assessment and track improvements during rehabilitation regimens. If the same model can be applied to monitor treatment efficacy in children with gait abnormalities remains to be addressed. PMID:26439183

  10. Portion Size Variably Affects Food Intake of 6-year-old and 4-year-old Children in Kunming, China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey; Conroy, Katharine; Wen, Hongmei; Rui, Li; Humphries, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Age and portion size have been found to influence food intake in American children but have not been examined in an international context. This study evaluated the association between age and the effects of portion size on the food intake of kindergarteners in Kunming, China. Using a within-subjects crossover design in a classroom setting, 173 children in two age groups, mean age 4.2 years and 6.1 years, were served a predefined reference, small (-30%) and large (+30%) portion of rice, vegetables, and a protein source during lunchtime over three consecutive days. Each portion was weighed before and after the meal to determine amount of food consumed. Linear mixed modeling, controlling for repeated measures and clustering by classroom, was used to compare food intake under small and large portion size conditions to the reference portion. Children ate significantly less food when served small portions. When served a large portion, 6-year-old children increased food intake while 4-year-old children decreased food intake in comparison to the reference portion. Findings indicate that portion size affects food intake in Chinese children 4- to 6-years old. Older children show larger increases in food intake with increased portion size than do younger children. PMID:23702260

  11. The influence of peers on the tendency of 3- and 4-year-old children to over-imitate.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Nicola; Robertson, Stacey

    2015-08-01

    Human children have frequently been shown to be high-fidelity imitators who faithfully reproduce the actions performed by a model. Curiously, children do not always appear to copy actions rationally and often copy in situations where doing so will lead to a reduction in task efficiency. This over-imitative tendency has been explored extensively with respect to adult models, but we know very little of the influence that peers can have on the fidelity of copying behavior. In an initial experiment, 3- and 4-year-old children watched two peers retrieve a reward from a puzzle box using a sequence of actions that were either causally relevant or causally irrelevant to reward retrieval. On completion of the task demonstrations, one model left the testing room, leaving the children to perform the task in the presence of the remaining efficient or inefficient peer. The results showed that, rather than copying the strategy of the peer who was physically present, the children displayed "blanket efficiency" and rarely reproduced the causally irrelevant actions. Intriguingly, the children switched from their previously efficient behavior when they were exposed to additional peer models who performed the causally irrelevant actions. The switch to an inefficient approach appeared to result from normative conformity because the children failed to reproduce the causally irrelevant actions when allowed to perform the task one final time in private. We suggest that the influence of the majority, although detrimental to task efficiency in this case, is a key cornerstone of human cultural evolution. PMID:25897959

  12. Evaluating the clinical utility of the Profile of Oral Narrative Ability for 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T; Boyd, Lynda

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated if the story retelling and comprehension task Ana Gets Lost, that is frequently used with school-aged children, has clinical utility with a preschool population. The study also assessed the task's concurrent and predictive validity with norm-referenced tests of language performance. A total of 92 typically-developing 4-year-old children participated. After 12 months, 57 children were available for a follow-up session. At each session, children listened twice to the story while looking at the pictures and then retold the story without the use of pictures. After the first exposure the children were asked comprehension questions to assess their oral narrative comprehension. Children's performance was analysed on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, morphosyntax, and verbal productivity to provide a Profile of Oral Narrative Ability (PONA). Results showed normal distribution of some of the measures and acceptable concurrent and predictive correlations with two norm-referenced measures of language ability. Although the results indicate the potential usefulness of this tool with preschool children, further research should investigate its potential as a screening measure of oral narrative performance. PMID:22204368

  13. Effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids on prevalence ofallergic diseases among 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Houman; Miyashita, Chihiro; Okada, Emiko; Kashino, Ikuko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Chen, Chi-Jen; Ito, Sachiko; Araki, Atsuko; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Ito, Yoichi M; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitous chemicals extremely resistant and widespread throughout the environment, frequently being detected in human blood samples. Animal studies have revealed that exposure to PFAAs results in immunotoxicity. However, the association between PFAAs, especially long-chain PFAAs, and allergies in humans is not well established. We examined whether prenatal exposure to PFAAs is associated with allergic diseases among 4-year-old children in a large-scale prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan. In total, 1558 mother-child pairs were included in this study and prenatal levels of eleven PFAAs were measured in maternal plasma samples obtained between 28 and 32weeks of pregnancy by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Participant demographic and characteristic information were obtained from self-administered pre- and postnatal questionnaires and medical birth records. Infant allergies were assessed using the Japanese version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three questionnaire, which was administered 4years post-delivery. Symptoms included eczema, wheezing and rhinoconjunctivitis with a prevalence of 19.0%, 18.7%, and 5.4%, respectively. Associations of PFAA quartiles with allergic outcomes were examined using logistic models. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in the 4th quartile vs. 1st quartile (Q4 vs. Q1) for total allergic diseases (including at least one allergic outcome) significantly decreased for perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDa) (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 0.621; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.454, 0.847) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 0.712; 95% CI: 0.524, 0.966) in all children. We obtained similar results when examining the association between PFAAs and eczema. The adjusted OR (Q4 vs. Q1) for wheezing in relation to higher maternal PFHxS levels was 0.728 (95% CI: 0.497, 1.06) in all children. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to long

  14. Increased risk of severe vaso-occlusive episodes after initial acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell anemia less than 4 years old: Sleep and Asthma Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Leah D; Rodeghier, Mark; Cohen, Robyn T.; Rosen, Carol L.; Kirham, Fenella J.; Strunk, Robert C.; DeBaun, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the highest incidence of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease (SCD) occurs in children less than 4 years old, and a history of ACS at this age is a risk factor for future ACS episodes. However, the interval associated with the highest risk of subsequent ACS or severe pain is not known. Through this mixed retrospective-prospective observational study, the Sleep and Asthma Cohort, we sought to determine the interval after an initial ACS episode during which the majority of children <4 years old are re-hospitalized for ACS or severe pain. The cumulative prevalence of re-hospitalization for ACS or severe pain within 6 months, 1 years, and 2 years was calculated for children with an initial ACS episode <4 years old and compared to children with an initial ACS episode ≥4 years old. A total of 44.8% and 55.2% of participants had an initial ACS episode <4 years and ≥4 years old (Range: 4-17.7 years), respectively. At 1 year following the initial ACS episode, children <4 years old had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of re-hospitalizations for ACS or pain as compared to children ≥4 years of age, 62.5% and 39.1%, respectively (P = 0.009). After initial ACS episodes, the majority of children <4 years old will be re-hospitalized for ACS or severe pain within one year, suggesting the need for a therapeutic intervention for this high-risk group. PMID:25619382

  15. Integrating across episodes: Investigating the long-term accessibility of self-derived knowledge in 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Varga, Nicole L; Stewart, Rebekah A; Bauer, Patricia J

    2016-05-01

    Semantic memory, defined as our store of knowledge about the world, provides representational support for all of our higher order cognitive functions. As such, it is crucial that the contents of semantic memory remain accessible over time. Although memory for knowledge learned through direct observation has been investigated previously, we know very little about the retention of knowledge derived through integration of information acquired across separate learning episodes. The current research investigated cross-episode integration in 4-year-old children. Participants were presented with novel facts via distinct story episodes and tested for knowledge extension through cross-episode integration as well as for retention of the information over a 1-week delay. In Experiment 1, children retained the self-derived knowledge over the delay, although performance was primarily evidenced in a forced-choice format. In Experiment 2, we sought to facilitate the accessibility and robustness of self-derived knowledge by providing a verbal reminder after the delay. The accessibility of self-derived knowledge increased irrespective of whether participants successfully demonstrated knowledge of the integration facts during the first visit. The results suggest that knowledge extended through integration remains accessible after delays even in a population where this learning process is less robust. The findings also demonstrate the facilitative effect of reminders on the accessibility and further extension of knowledge over extended time periods. PMID:26774259

  16. Longitudinal study of amygdala volume and joint attention in 2- to 4-year-old children with autism

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Matthew W.; Hazlett, Heather Cody; Poe, Michele D.; Gerig, Guido; Smith, Rachel Gimpel

    2011-01-01

    Context Cerebral cortical volume enlargement has been reported in 2- to 4-year-olds with autism. Little is known about the volume of sub-regions during this period of development. The amygdala is hypothesized to be abnormal in volume and related to core clinical features in autism. Objective To examine amygdala volume at 2 years with follow-up at 4 years of age in children with autism and to explore the relationship between amygdala volume and selected behavioral features of autism. Design Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study. Setting University medical setting. Participants Fifty-two autistic and 33 control (11 developmentally delayed, 22 typically developing) children between 18 and 35 months (2 years) of age followed up at 42 to 59 months (4 years) of age. Main Outcome Measures Amygdala volumes in relation to joint attention ability measured with a new observational coding system, the Social Orienting Continuum and Response scale; group comparisons including total tissue volume, sex, IQ and age as covariates. Results Amygdala enlargement was observed in subjects with autism at both 2 and 4 years of age. Significant change over time in volume was observed, though the rate of change did not differ between groups. Amygdala volume was associated with joint attention ability at age 4 years in subjects with autism. Conclusions The amygdala is enlarged in autism relative to controls by age 2 years but shows no relative increase in magnitude between 2 and 4 years of age. A significant association between amygdala volume and joint attention suggests that alterations to this structure may be linked to a core deficit of autism. PMID:19414710

  17. The Everyday Mathematical Experiences and Understandings of Three, 4-Year-Old, African-American Children from Working-Class Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigno, Grace Marie R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the everyday mathematical experiences and understandings of three, 4-year-old, African-American children from working-class backgrounds. The study drew on Street, Baker, and Tomlin's (2005) broad, ideological model of mathematics as "social" and their analytic concepts of mathematical events (units of…

  18. Looking but Not Seeing: Atypical Visual Scanning and Recognition of Faces in 2 and 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Shic, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking to examine visual scanning and recognition of faces by 2- and 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N = 44) and typically developing (TD) controls (N = 30). TD toddlers at both age levels scanned and recognized faces similarly. Toddlers with ASD looked increasingly away from faces with age,…

  19. Subtypes of Severe Speech and Language Impairments: Psychometric Evidence from 4-Year-Old Children in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Balkom, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Most, if not all, of the studies of subtypes of children with language impairments have been conducted with English-speaking children. The possibility and validity of identified subtypes for non-English clinical populations are, as yet, unknown. This study was designed to provide cross-linguistic evidence of language subtypes. A broad battery of…

  20. An Investigation of Four Hypotheses Concerning the Order by Which 4-Year-Old Children Learn the Alphabet Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Pence, Khara; Bowles, Ryan B.; Wiggins, Alice

    2006-01-01

    This study tested four complementary hypotheses to characterize intrinsic and extrinsic influences on the order with which preschool children learn the names of individual alphabet letters. The hypotheses included: (a) "own-name advantage," which states that children learn those letters earlier which occur in their own names, (b) the "letter-order…

  1. Classification of Speech and Language Profiles in 4-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Prospective Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Gorton, Kristin; Lee, Jimin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors proposed and tested a preliminary speech and language classification system for children with cerebral palsy. Method: Speech and language assessment data were collected in a laboratory setting from 34 children with cerebral palsy (CP; 18 male, 16 female) with a mean age of 54 months (SD = 1.8). Measures of…

  2. The Effect of Plausible versus Implausible Balance Scale Feedback on the Expectancies of 3- to 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrauf, Cornelia; Call, Josep; Pauen, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies (Case, 1985; Siegler, 1981) have shown that children under the age of 5 years have little understanding of balance scales when required to encode the influence of weight or distance from the fulcrum. More recently, however, Halford, Andrews, Dalton, Boag, and Zielinski (2002) noted that an understanding based on weight alone is…

  3. Gains in Fluid Intelligence after Training Non-Verbal Reasoning in 4-Year-Old Children: A Controlled, Randomized Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Soderqvist, Stina; Bryde, Sara; Thorell, Lisa B.; Humphreys, Keith; Klingberg, Torkel

    2011-01-01

    Fluid intelligence (Gf) predicts performance on a wide range of cognitive activities, and children with impaired Gf often experience academic difficulties. Previous attempts to improve Gf have been hampered by poor control conditions and single outcome measures. It is thus still an open question whether Gf can be improved by training. This study…

  4. Identification of an obese eating style in 4-year-old children born at high and low risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Robert I; Moore, Renee' H; Faith, Myles S; Stallings, Virginia A; Kral, Tanja V E; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-03-01

    This study tested whether children's eating behavior and parental feeding prompts during a laboratory test meal differ among children born at high risk (HR) or low risk (LR) for obesity and are associated with excess child weight gain. At 4 years of age, 32 HR children (mean maternal prepregnancy BMI = 30.4 kg/m(2)) and 29 LR children (maternal BMI = 19.6 kg/m(2)) consumed a test meal in which their eating behavior was assessed, including rate of caloric consumption, mouthfuls/min, and requests for food. Parental prompts for the child to eat also were measured at year 4, and child body composition was measured at ages 4 and 6 years. T-tests, and logistic and multiple regression analyses tested study aims. Results indicated that HR and LR children did not differ in eating rate or parental feeding prompts. Greater maternal BMI, child mouthfuls of food/min, and total caloric intake/min during the test meal predicted an increased risk of being overweight or obese at age 6, whereas greater active mealtime was associated with a reduced risk of being overweight or obese. Regression analyses indicated that only mouthfuls of food/min predicted changes in BMI from 4 to 6 years, and mouthfuls of food/min and gender predicted 2-year changes in sum of skinfolds and total body fat. Thus, a rapid eating style, characterized by increased mouthfuls of food/min, may be a behavioral marker for the development of childhood obesity. PMID:19779474

  5. Can items used in 4-year-old well-child visits predict children's health and school outcomes?

    PubMed

    Smithers, Lisa G; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Stocks, Nigel; Sawyer, Michael G; Lynch, John W

    2014-08-01

    To examine whether items comprising a preschool well-child check for use by family doctors in Australia with 4-5-year old children predicts health and academic outcomes at 6-7 years. The well-child check includes mandatory (anthropometry, eye/vision, ear/hearing, dental, toileting, allergy problems) and non-mandatory (processed food consumption, low physical activity, motor, behaviour/mood problems) items. The predictive validity of mandatory and non-mandatory items measured at 4-5 years was examined using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Outcomes at 6-7 years included overweight/obesity, asthma, health care/medication needs, general health, mental health problems, quality of life, teacher-reported mathematics and literacy ability (n = 2,280-2,787). Weight or height >90th centile at 4-5 years predicted overweight/obesity at 6-7 years with 60% sensitivity, 79% specificity and 40% positive predictive value (PPV). Mood/behaviour problems at 4-5 predicted mental health problems at 6-7 years with 86% sensitivity, 40% specificity and 8% PPV. Non-mandatory items improved the discrimination between children with and without mental health problems at 6-7 years (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.75 compared with 0.69 for mandatory items only), but was weak for most outcomes. Items used in a well-child health check were moderate predictors of overweight/obesity and mental health problems at 6-7 years, but poor predictors of other health and academic outcomes. PMID:24068298

  6. Compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation of French [u]: an acoustic and perceptual study of 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Perrier, Pascal; Aubin, Jero Me; Savariaux, Christophe; Thibeault, Mélanie

    2008-08-01

    The relations between production and perception in 4-year-old children were examined in a study of compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation. Acoustic and perceptual analyses of the rounded vowel [u] produced by twelve 4-year-old French speakers were conducted under two conditions: normal and with a 15-mm-diam tube inserted between the lips. Recordings of isolated vowels were made in the normal condition before any perturbation (N1), immediately upon insertion of the tube and for the next 19 trials in this perturbed condition, with (P2) or without articulatory instructions (P1), and in the normal condition after the perturbed trials (N2). The results of the acoustic analyses reveal speaker-dependent alterations of F1, F2, and/or F0 in the perturbed conditions and after the removal of the tube. For some subjects, the presence of the tube resulted in very little change; for others, an increase in F2 was observed in P1, which was generally reduced in some of the 20 repetitions, but not systematically and not continuously. The use of articulatory instructions provided in the P2 condition was detrimental to the achievement of a good acoustic target. Perceptual data are used to determine optimal combinations of F0, F1, and F2 (in bark) related to these patterns. The data are compared to a previous study conducted with adults [Savariaux et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 381-393 (1999)]. PMID:18681607

  7. Associations between grip strength of parents and their 4 year old children: findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey

    PubMed Central

    Inskip, Hazel; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Kapasi, Tasneem; Robinson, Siân; Godfrey, Keith; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2013-01-01

    Summary Relationships between birthweight and grip strength throughout the lifecourse suggest that early influences on the growth and development of muscle are important for long-term muscle function. However, little is known about parental influences on children’s grip strength. We have explored this in the Southampton Women’s Survey, a prospective general population cohort study from before conception through childhood. Grip strength was measured using a Jamar handgrip dynamometer in the mother at 19 weeks’ gestation and her partner, and in the child at age four years. Pre-pregnancy heights and weights were measured in the mothers; reported weights and measured heights were available for the fathers. Complete data on parents and children were available for 444 trios. In univariate analyses, both parents’ grip strengths were significantly associated with that of the child (r=0.17, p<0.001 for mothers, r=0.15, p=0.002 for fathers). These correlations were similar to that between the grip strength of the mothers and the father (r=0.17, P<0.001). In the multivariate model, after adjustment for child’s height and physical activity, the correlations with the child’s grip strength were attenuated, being 0.10 (P=0.02) and 0.11 (P=0.01) for mothers’ and fathers’ grip strength respectively. The findings show that grip strength of both parents is associated with that of their child, indicating that heritable influences and the shared family environment influence the development of muscle strength. This contributes to our understanding of the role of heritable and environmental factors on early muscle growth and development, which are important for muscle function across the lifecourse. PMID:22150705

  8. Does the Age and Familiarity of the Informant Group Influence the Tendency of 3- and 4-year-old Children to Conform?

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Nicola; Stevenson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to explore whether the age and the familiarity of the individuals comprising a group majority influenced the tendency of 3- and 4-year-old children to conform. Participants were presented with 2 variants of a novel task in which they were required to judge which of 3 line-drawn tigers had the greatest number of stripes. The participants made their judgments in 2 contexts, first after viewing 5 informants perform the task incorrectly, and second without viewing the responses of other individuals. The informants comprised a group of familiar children, a group of unfamiliar children, a group of familiar adults, or a group of unfamiliar adults. The results showed that the children displayed selective conformity with respect to informant age, readily adopting the incorrect response when it was indicated by an adult majority, but failing to do so when the same incorrect response was indicated by a majority of children. In contrast the familiarity of the individuals comprising the majority had little influence on the tendency of children to conform. These results suggest that children are not blanket conformists, rather they respond selectively depending on characteristics of the individuals comprising the group majority. PMID:27341477

  9. Looking but not seeing: atypical visual scanning and recognition of faces in 2 and 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Shic, Frederick

    2009-12-01

    This study used eye-tracking to examine visual scanning and recognition of faces by 2- and 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N = 44) and typically developing (TD) controls (N = 30). TD toddlers at both age levels scanned and recognized faces similarly. Toddlers with ASD looked increasingly away from faces with age, atypically attended to key features of faces, and were impaired in face recognition. Deficits in recognition were associated with imbalanced attention between key facial features. This study illustrates that face processing in ASD may be affected early and become further compromised with age. We propose that deficits in face processing likely impact the effectiveness of toddlers with ASD as social partners and thus should be targeted for intervention. PMID:19590943

  10. Looking But Not Seeing: Atypical Visual Scanning and Recognition of Faces in 2 and 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shic, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking to examine visual scanning and recognition of faces by 2- and 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N = 44) and typically developing (TD) controls (N = 30). TD toddlers at both age levels scanned and recognized faces similarly. Toddlers with ASD looked increasingly away from faces with age, atypically attended to key features of faces, and were impaired in face recognition. Deficits in recognition were associated with imbalanced attention between key facial features. This study illustrates that face processing in ASD may be affected early and become further compromised with age. We propose that deficits in face processing likely impact the effectiveness of toddlers with ASD as social partners and thus should be targeted for intervention. PMID:19590943

  11. Prevalence of Obesity was Related to HLA-DQ in 2–4 Year Old Children at Genetic Risk for Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jimin; Lernmark, Åke; Uusitalo, Ulla M.; Lynch, Kristian F.; Veijola, Riitta; Winkler, Christiane; Larsson, Helena Elding; Rewers, Marian; She, Jin-Xiong; Ziegler, Anette G.; Simell, Olli G.; Hagopian, William A.; Akolkar, Beena; Krischer, Jeffrey P.; Vehik, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Body size is postulated to modulate type 1 diabetes as either a trigger of islet autoimmunity or an accelerator to clinical onset after seroconversion. As overweight and obesity continue to rise among children, the aim of this study was to determine whether human leukocyte antigen DQ (HLA-DQ) genotypes may be related to body size among children genetically at risk for type 1 diabetes. METHODS Repeated measures of weight and height were collected from 5 969 children 2–4 years of age enrolled in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young prospective study. Overweight and obesity was determined by the International Obesity Task Force cutoff values that correspond to body mass index of 25 and 30 kg/m2 at age 18. RESULTS The average BMI was comparable across specific HLA genotypes at every age point. The proportion of overweight was not different by HLA, but percent obesity varied by age with a decreasing trend among DQ2/8 carriers (p for trend = 0.0315). A multivariable regression model suggested DQ2/2 was associated with higher obesity risk at age four (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.21–4.80) after adjusting for the development of islet autoantibody and/or type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS The HLA-DQ2/2 genotype may predispose to obesity among 2–4 year old children with genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. PMID:24694666

  12. Children's Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children's interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle 'nur' (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with 'only' in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for 'only' in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children's performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with 'only' in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which--depending on specific task demands--may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities. PMID:26930286

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of Vi conjugate vaccines for typhoid fever in adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kossaczka, Z; Lin, F Y; Ho, V A; Thuy, N T; Van Bay, P; Thanh, T C; Khiem, H B; Trach, D D; Karpas, A; Hunt, S; Bryla, D A; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B; Szu, S C

    1999-11-01

    The capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi, Vi, is an essential virulence factor and a protective vaccine for people older than 5 years. The safety and immunogenicity of two investigational Vi conjugate vaccines were evaluated in adults, 5- to 14-year-old children, and 2- to 4-year-old children in Vietnam. The conjugates were prepared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa recombinant exoprotein A (rEPA) as the carrier, using either N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate (SPDP; Vi-rEPA(1)) or adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH; Vi-rEPA(2)) as linkers. None of the recipients experienced a temperature of >38.5 degrees C or significant local reactions. One injection of Vi-rEPA(2) into adults elicited a geometric mean (GM) increase in anti-Vi immunoglobulin G (IgG) from 9.62 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units/ml (EU) to 465 EU at 6 weeks; this level fell to 119 EU after 26 weeks. In the 5- to 14-year-old children, anti-Vi IgG levels at 6 weeks elicited by Vi-rEPA(2), Vi-rEPA(1), and Vi were 169, 22.8, and 18.9 EU, respectively (P = 0.0001 for Vi-rEPA(1) and Vi with respect to Vi-rEPA(2)). At 26 weeks, the anti-Vi IgG levels for recipients of Vi-rEPA(2), Vi-rEPA(1), and Vi were 30.0, 10.8, and 13.4 EU, respectively (P < 0.001 for Vi-rEPA(1) and Vi with respect to Vi-rEPA(2)); all were higher than the preinjection levels (P = 0. 0001). Vi-rEPA(2) also elicited the highest anti-Vi IgM and IgA levels of the three vaccines. In the 2- to 4-year-old children at 6 weeks following the first injection, Vi-rEPA(2) elicited an anti-Vi IgG level of 69.9 EU compared to 28.9 EU for Vi-rEPA(1) (P = 0.0001). Reinjection increased Vi antibody levels from 69.9 to 95.4 EU for Vi-rEPA(2) and from 28.9 to 83.0 EU for Vi-rEPA(1). At 26 weeks, anti-Vi IgG levels remained higher than those at preinjection (30.6 versus 0.18 for Vi-rEPA(2) and 12.8 versus 0.33 for Vi-rEPA(1); P = 0.0001 for both). Vi vaccine is recommended for individuals of 5 years of age or older. In the present study, the GM

  14. Reading Faces: Differential Lateral Gaze Bias in Processing Canine and Human Facial Expressions in Dogs and 4-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Racca, Anaïs; Guo, Kun; Meints, Kerstin; Mills, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity to the emotions of others provides clear biological advantages. However, in the case of heterospecific relationships, such as that existing between dogs and humans, there are additional challenges since some elements of the expression of emotions are species-specific. Given that faces provide important visual cues for communicating emotional state in both humans and dogs, and that processing of emotions is subject to brain lateralisation, we investigated lateral gaze bias in adult dogs when presented with pictures of expressive human and dog faces. Our analysis revealed clear differences in laterality of eye movements in dogs towards conspecific faces according to the emotional valence of the expressions. Differences were also found towards human faces, but to a lesser extent. For comparative purpose, a similar experiment was also run with 4-year-old children and it was observed that they showed differential processing of facial expressions compared to dogs, suggesting a species-dependent engagement of the right or left hemisphere in processing emotions. PMID:22558335

  15. Sources of dietary fluoride intake in 4-year-old children residing in low, medium and high fluoride areas in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zohouri, F V; Rugg-Gunn, A J

    2000-09-01

    Accurate estimation of fluoride dietary intake is desirable for optimising caries prevention. Little is known about the dietary fluoride intake of children aged 4 years, an age when many permanent teeth are forming. This study was undertaken in Fars Province, Iran, in 1995-1996, where there are big differences in temperature between winter and summer. The aims were to determine: (a) the relative contributions of different components of the diet to fluoride intake, (b) the effect of variation in fluoride concentration in drinking water, and (c) the effect of climate temperature. Temperature varied between +40 degrees C in summer to -5 degrees C in winter. The mean fluoride concentrations in drinking water in the three areas were 0.3, 0.6 and 4.0 mgF/L. Dietary information was obtained by two 3-day diet diaries with interview, validated with reference to international standards. The fluoride content of foods was measured using the silicon-facilitated diffusion method. One hundred and three 4-year-old children completed the study. The mean (and 95% confidence interval) dietary fluoride intakes in each of the three areas, respectively, were 413 (+/- 21), 698 (+/- 89) and 3472 (+/- 557) micrograms/day. Drinks provided 72 to 87% of dietary fluoride--this proportion increased with increasing water fluoride concentration and increasing climate temperature. Tea (infusion) was an important source of dietary fluoride, providing 31 to 38% of total dietary intake. Tap water was a more important source of fluoride than soft drinks. Cooked rice and bread were the most important food source of fluoride and the amount of fluoride they contributed increased as water fluoride concentration increased. The results of this first such survey in the Middle East showed (a) that water (as a drink) and tea were by far the most important contributors to dietary fluoride intake, (b) substantial increases in fluoride intake with increasing water fluoride concentrations, and (c) substantially

  16. Parental modelling and prompting effects on acceptance of a novel fruit in 2-4-year-old children are dependent on children's food responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Blissett, Jackie; Bennett, Carmel; Fogel, Anna; Harris, Gillian; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-02-14

    Few children consume the recommended portions of fruit or vegetables. This study examined the effects of parental physical prompting and parental modelling in children's acceptance of a novel fruit (NF) and examined the role of children's food-approach and food-avoidance traits on NF engagement and consumption. A total of 120 caregiver-child dyads (fifty-four girls, sixty-six boys) participated in this study. Dyads were allocated to one of the following three conditions: physical prompting but no modelling, physical prompting and modelling or a modelling only control condition. Dyads ate a standardised meal containing a portion of a fruit new to the child. Parents completed measures of children's food approach and avoidance. Willingness to try the NF was observed, and the amount of the NF consumed was measured. Physical prompting but no modelling resulted in greater physical refusal of the NF. There were main effects of enjoyment of food and food fussiness on acceptance. Food responsiveness interacted with condition such that children who were more food responsive had greater NF acceptance in the prompting and modelling conditions in comparison with the modelling only condition. In contrast, children with low food responsiveness had greater acceptance in the modelling control condition than in the prompting but no modelling condition. Physical prompting in the absence of modelling is likely to be detrimental to NF acceptance. Parental use of physical prompting strategies, in combination with modelling of NF intake, may facilitate acceptance of NF, but only in food-responsive children. Modelling consumption best promotes acceptance in children with low food responsiveness. PMID:26603382

  17. The Passive in 3- and 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Barros Pereira Rubin, Maraci Coelho

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that analyzing the patterns of individual subject performance in tests of comprehension of passives might give insight into how little children interpret passives: 3 and 4 year-olds seem to go through a range of passive interpretation, that varies from actual comprehension to total non-comprehension. The fact that some small…

  18. Naturalistic Study of the Literate Behaviors of 4-Year-Old Children Occurring during Spontaneous Play in the Hollow Block Area of a Preschool Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgeier, Ivy Lynn

    The play activity of 20 children was videotaped and annotated. The children were questioned about their play and artifacts of the play were collected. Data revealed a qualitative organization similar to a hierarchy. This structure reflected themes, domains of literate behavior, functions, and skills. A vignette of an episode of spontaneous play is…

  19. Parental Roles in the Acquisition of Primary Level Skills: An Exploratory View on the Low-Income Hispanic-American Families with 3 and 4-Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the nature and extent of Primary Learning Skill (PLS) that the Hispanic young children acquire who do not attend any early educational institutions. Literature reviewed for this paper indicated that Hispanic children were the poorest and the fastest growing group who often did not receive formal educational exposure due to…

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol, Caffeine, Tobacco, and Aspirin: Effects on Fine and Gross Motor Preformance in 4-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Helen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses of data from 449 children indicated statistically significant relationships between moderate levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and increased errors, increased latency, and increased total time on the Wisconsin Fine Motor Steadiness Battery and poorer balance on the Gross Motor Scale. (RH)

  1. Relations among the Frequency of Shared Reading and 4-Year-Old Children's Vocabulary, Morphological and Syntax Comprehension, and Narrative Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Monique; Pagan, Stephanie; Lever, Rosemary; Ouellette, Gene P.

    2008-01-01

    Books can be a rich source of learning for children and adults alike. In the present study, the contribution of shared reading and parent literacy to a variety of child outcomes was tested. Child outcomes included measures of expressive vocabulary, morphological and syntax comprehension, and narrative ability (story grammar, cohesion, and language…

  2. Relationship between Stereoscopic Vision, Visual Perception, and Microstructure Changes of Corpus Callosum and Occipital White Matter in the 4-Year-Old Very Low Birth Weight Children

    PubMed Central

    Kwinta, Przemko; Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Leśniak, Anna; Klimek, Małgorzata; Karcz, Paulina; Durlak, Wojciech; Nitecka, Magdalena; Dutkowska, Grażyna; Kubatko-Zielińska, Anna; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena; Pietrzyk, Jacek Józef

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To assess the relationship between stereoscopic vision, visual perception, and microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC) and occipital white matter, 61 children born with a mean birth weight of 1024 g (SD 270 g) were subjected to detailed ophthalmologic evaluation, Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP-3), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at the age of 4. Results. Abnormal stereoscopic vision was detected in 16 children. Children with abnormal stereoscopic vision had smaller CC (CC length: 53 ± 6 mm versus 61 ± 4 mm; p < 0.01; estimated CC area: 314 ± 106 mm2 versus 446 ± 79 mm2; p < 0.01) and lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in CC (FA value of rostrum/genu: 0.7 ± 0.09 versus 0.79 ± 0.07; p < 0.01; FA value of CC body: 0.74 ± 0.13 versus 0.82 ± 0.09; p = 0.03). We found a significant correlation between DTVP-3 scores, CC size, and FA values in rostrum and body. This correlation was unrelated to retinopathy of prematurity. Conclusions. Visual perceptive dysfunction in ex-preterm children without major sequelae of prematurity depends on more subtle changes in the brain microstructure, including CC. Role of interhemispheric connections in visual perception might be more complex than previously anticipated. PMID:26451381

  3. Communicating about Pretend Play: A Comparison of the Utterances of 4-Year-Old Normally Hearing and Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Children in an Integrated Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, P. Margaret; Prescott, Sonia J.; Rickards, Field W.; Paterson, Marietta M.

    1997-01-01

    The pretend-play utterances of four students with hearing impairments and four normally hearing students in an integrated kindergarten were examined to investigate developmental differences between these two groups of children. Results indicate that the students with hearing impairments used significantly higher proportions of literal object…

  4. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in the Cognitive Abilities of Children 1 to 4 Years Old: The Early Problem-Solving Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith J.; Higgins, Susan K.

    2006-01-01

    Proficiency in problem solving is an important outcome in early childhood necessary for cognitive and emotional development. The development of an individual growth and development indicator of problem solving for children 1 to 4 years of age is described. Based on the general outcome measurement approach (Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for…

  5. Self-efficacy of first aid for home accidents among parents with 0- to 4-year-old children at a metropolitan community health center in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Li; Chen, Li-Li; Li, Tsai-Chung; Ma, Wei-Fen; Peng, Niang-Huei; Huang, Li-Chi

    2013-03-01

    Although accidental injury is the main factor involved in the death of young children in many countries, few studies have focused on parents' competence with regard to self-efficacy of first aid for their children following injuries occurring at home. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate parental self-sufficiency of first aid for home accidents in children aged 0-4 years. The study is a cross-sectional designed. Data from 445 parents recruited were collected by purposive sampling at eight metropolitan community health centers in central Taiwan. Measurements were taken from a self-developed questionnaire that included 37 questions. Logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the associations between factors and parents' self-efficacy of first aid at home accident. Our findings show that parents' overall rate of knowledge of first aid was 72%. The mean score for 100% certainty in parents' self-efficacy of first aid was 26.6%. The lowest scores for self-efficacy were with regard to choking and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). There was a significantly positive correlation between parents' knowledge and self-efficacy of first aid (p<0.01), and thus knowledge of first aid is a predictor of parents' self-efficacy. Knowledge of first aid is also a partly mediator between participants' attending first aid program, participants' first aid information obtained from health personnel and self-efficacy of first aid. Our findings suggest that medical services should provide first aid resources to help manage accidental injuries involving children, particularly information on how to deal with choking and CPR. With an appropriate program provided by health professionals, parents' self-efficacy of first aid for home accidents will be positively enhanced. PMID:23348100

  6. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height² (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height² (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = -0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = -0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = -0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health. PMID:27483320

  7. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H.; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height2 (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height2 (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = −0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = −0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = −0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health. PMID:27483320

  8. Phase 1 and phase 2 studies of Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A O-specific polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugates in adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Konadu, E Y; Lin, F Y; Hó, V A; Thuy, N T; Van Bay, P; Thanh, T C; Khiem, H B; Trach, D D; Karpas, A B; Li, J; Bryla, D A; Robbins, J B; Szu, S C

    2000-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) was activated with 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) and bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) with adipic acid dihydrazide as a linker (SPA-TT(1)) or directly (SPA-TT(2)). In mice, these two conjugates elicited high levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in serum with bactericidal activity (E. Konadu, J. Shiloach, D. A. Bryla, J. B. Robbins, and S. C. Szu, Infect. Immun. 64:2709-2715, 1996). The safety and immunogenicity of the two conjugates were then evaluated sequentially in Vietnamese adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children. None of the vaccinees experienced significant side effects, and all had preexisting LPS antibodies. At 4 weeks after injection, there were significant increases of the geometric mean IgG and IgM anti-LPS levels in the adults and teenagers: both conjugates elicited a greater than fourfold rise in the IgG anti-LPS level in serum in >/=80% of the volunteers. SPA-TT(2) elicited slightly higher, though not statistically significantly, levels of IgG anti-LPS than did SPA-TT(1) in these age groups. Accordingly, only SPA-TT(2) was evaluated in the 2- to 4-year-old children. On a random basis, one or two injections were administered 6 weeks apart to the children. No significant side effects were observed, and the levels of preexisting anti-LPS in serum were similar in children of all ages. A significant rise in the IgG anti-LPS titer was elicited by the first injection (P = 0.0001); a second injection did not elicit a booster response. Representative sera from all groups had bactericidal activity that could be adsorbed by S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A LPS. PMID:10678970

  9. Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Paya, K; Hayek, B F; Rebhandl, W; Pollak, A; Horcher, E

    1998-05-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but serious condition with a poor prognosis both in adults and in children. Retroperitoneal localization is mostly associated with fatal outcome. Early diagnosis, extensive and repeated surgical debridement, and use of antibiotics are necessary. Herein the authors report on a 4-year-old girl in whom retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis developed after she suffered from pyelonephritis. In this case, the outcome was favorable because of early surgical intervention, confirming the diagnosis. PMID:9607500

  10. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in a 4-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Harish; Sudarshan, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a very distressing disorder for both patient and caregiver. Usual onset of the disorder is in late second or early third decade of life. It is diagnosed in children but rarely before 5 years. A case of OCD in a 4-year-old girl is reported here. Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in such a situation are discussed. PMID:25969614

  11. Changes in Early Childhood: Public School Programs for 4-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, S. Dianne; Boals, Beverly M.

    Education programs for 4-year-olds may offer unique opportunities for the growth of services for young children. Currently, the role of state departments of education in preschool instruction is evolving; no single approach to public school programming for 4-year-olds exists. Approximately two-thirds of the 28 state and District of Columbia early…

  12. “Pre-schoolers in the playground” an outdoor physical activity intervention for children aged 18 months to 4 years old: study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pre-school years are considered critical for establishing healthy lifestyle behaviours such as physical activity. Levels of physical activity track through childhood into adulthood, thus establishing habitual physical activity early in life is vital. Time spent outdoors is associated with greater physical activity and playground interventions have been shown to increase physical activity in school aged children. There are few pre-school, playground-based interventions, and evaluations of these have found mixed results. A recent report published by the UK Chief Medical Officer (CMO) highlighted that new interventions to promote movement in the early years (0–5 years old) are needed. The aim of this study is to undertake a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an outdoor playground-based physical activity intervention for parents and their children aged 18 months to 4 years old (“Pre-schoolers in the Playground”; PiP) and to assess the feasibility of conducting a full scale cluster RCT. The PiP intervention is grounded in behavioural theory (Social Cognitive Theory), and is in accordance with the CMO guidance for physical activity in the early years. It is informed by existing literature and data collected from focus groups with parents. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty pre-school children affiliated to 10 primary schools will be recruited. Schools will be randomised to either the PiP intervention arm or the control arm (usual practice). Children in the intervention arm will be invited to attend three 30 minute outdoor play sessions per week for 30 weeks (3 school terms) at the school. Feasibility will be assessed by examining recruitment rates, attendance, attrition, acceptability of the trial and of the PiP intervention to parents, fidelity of intervention implementation, capability and capacity for schools to deliver the intervention. Health outcomes and the feasibility of outcome measurement tools will be assessed. These

  13. Markers for Persistent Specific Expressive Language Delay in 3-4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Andrea; Hannaford, Philip; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identifying 3-4-year-olds who are most at risk of persisting language difficulties, and possibly specific language impairment (SLI), is difficult due to the natural variation of language in young children. In older children, markers for SLI have been identified that differentiate between children with and without SLI. It is not known…

  14. Collaboration between 3- and 4-Year-Olds in Self-Initiated Play on Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study of collaborative music-making on instruments among 3- and 4-year-old children. An area equipped with musical instruments was provided as a free-choice play option in an early childhood setting and a fixed camera recorded the children's play continuously during a number of visits. From the total 17 h of data five…

  15. Spontaneous Analogical Transfer in 4-Year-Olds: A Microgenetic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunteler, Erika; Resing, Wilma C. M.

    2002-01-01

    This microgenetic experimental study examined children's spontaneous application of analogical problem solving from story problems to physical tasks. Results indicated that 4-year-olds did, with varying success, spontaneously apply analogical solutions to physical problems across sessions. A few children even gave an analogical strategy-related…

  16. Measuring Implicit Attitudes of 4-Year-Olds: The Preschool Implicit Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…

  17. Creppy Crawlies. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This science teaching guide on insects and animals for 4-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various…

  18. Social Context Effects in 2- and 4-Year-Olds' Selective versus Faithful Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully ("overimitate" causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a…

  19. The Executive Demands of Strategic Reasoning are Modified by the Way in which Children are Prompted to Think About the Task: Evidence from 3- to 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Daniel J.; Apperly, Ian A.; Riggs, Kevin J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated a test of strategic reasoning (the Windows task) that in different studies has yielded contrasting pictures of young children's executive abilities [Russell, J., Mauthner, N., Sharpe, S., & Tidswell, T. (1991). "The 'windows task' as a measure of strategic deception in preschoolers and autistic subjects." "British Journal of…

  20. Surgical Treatment of a 4-Year-Old Child with Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Wu, Qingyu; Xu, Zhonghua; Kong, Xiangchen

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of pediatric hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy is low. The lesions usually involve the left ventricle or ventricular septum, leading to either left or right ventricular outflow tract stenosis. However, combined left and right ventricular outflow tract stenosis is rare, and the surgical treatment is limited, especially in children. Surgery to release the obstruction was performed successfully in a 4-year-old child with right and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction together with a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The result was excellent. PMID:26913685

  1. Sensitivity of 4-Year-Olds to Featural and Second-Order Relational Changes in Face Distinctiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Boyer, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Sensitivity to adult ratings of facial distinctiveness (how much an individual stands out in a crowd) has been demonstrated previously in children age 5 years or older. Experiment 1 extended this result to 4-year-olds using a "choose the more distinctive face" task. Children's patterns of choice across item pairs also correlated well with those of…

  2. The Prevalence of ADHD, ODD, Depression, and Anxiety in a Community Sample of 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, John V.; LeBailly, Susan A.; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Binns, Helen J.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the epidemiology of preschoolers' psychopathology. This study included 796 4-year-old children recruited from schools and pediatric practices in a diverse, urban area. Psychiatric disorder was assessed by a structured interview adapted for preschool children and by questionnaire. The most common disorders were…

  3. Different Executive Functions Support Different Kinds of Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakey, Emma; Visser, Ingmar; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in cognitive flexibility during the preschool years have been linked to developments in both working memory and inhibitory control, though the precise contribution of each remains unclear. In the current study, one hundred and twenty 2-, 3-, and 4-year-olds completed two rule-switching tasks. In one version, children switched rules in…

  4. Social context effects in 2- and 4-year-olds' selective versus faithful imitation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-03-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully (overimitate causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a mimicry game, an instrumental game, or a noninteractive control game. They then participated in a puzzle-box imitation task in which the demonstrator performed 1 causally necessary and 1 unnecessary action to retrieve an object. Whereas 4-year-olds imitated faithfully across all conditions, 2-year-olds were more likely to imitate faithfully after a mimicry game and to imitate selectively after an instrumental game. Experiment 2 showed no effect of playing a mimicry game with a different experimenter prior to the imitation trials, thus ruling out 2-year-olds' faithful imitation being the result of motor priming or training effects. The results are discussed in terms of children's social affiliation and social-cognitive inferences. PMID:23978298

  5. Gravity Rules for 2- to 4-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Bruce M.

    1995-01-01

    Tested children with apparatus that dropped balls through clear or opaque interwoven tubes. Found that older children could solve configurations with greater number of tubes than younger children. Success with clear tubes did not transfer to opaque tubes. Significantly, errors were consistently directed to location directly below ball's last seen…

  6. Expanding Schooling Opportunities for 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuven, Edwin; Lindahl, Mikael; Oosterbeek, Hessel; Webbink, Dinand

    2010-01-01

    We use a novel quasi-experimental strategy to estimate the effect of expanding early schooling enrollment possibilities on early achievement. It exploits two features of the school system in The Netherlands. The first is rolling admissions; children are allowed to start school immediately after their 4th birthday instead of at the beginning of the…

  7. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    PubMed

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications. PMID:24736219

  8. A Review and Report of Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma in a 4-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Nekouei, Afsaneh; Eshghi, Alireza; Jafarnejadi, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma is a common benign and reactive gingival epulis in oral cavity. It is often difficult to make a clinical diagnosis; thereby definitive diagnosis depends on histopathologic features. We report a case of a 4-year-old Caucasian boy presenting with a five-month history a 20 × 15 × 12 mm pedunculated, lobular soft tissue mass of the left anterior maxilla gingiva which was misdiagnosed and maltreated before his referral. An excisional biopsy of the lesion followed by histopathologic examination of the biopsy specimen revealed distinctive features of peripheral giant cell granuloma. Early detection and excision of this hyperplastic nodule especially in children are important to minimize potential dentoalveolar complications. PMID:27403351

  9. Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma in a 4-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ghandehari-Motlagh, Mehdi; Khosravi, Zahra; Meighani, Ghasem; Baradaran-Nakhjavani, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is defined as a benign odontogenic tumor with slow growing behavior. Its prevalence is rare. AFO is characterized by histologic features of ameloblastic fibroma (AF) with the formation of enamel and dentine. Case Presentation This is a case report of AFO accompanied with a number of impacted deciduous teeth and its management in a 4-year old boy. Examination of oral cavity revealed an extensive swelling from midline to left deciduous maxillary first molar, covered with normal mucosa. Radiographic examination showed a well-defined mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion that extended horizontally from midline to mesial border of the left maxillary primary first molar and vertically from alveolar crest to the floor of nose. The differential diagnosis was odontoma (ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, complex odontoma). Surgical enucleation and curettage was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathologic sections show bone trabeculae in marrow spaces. There was myxoid matrix in some spaces which contained odontogenic epithelial cells. These findings led to diagnosis of AFO. No sign of recurrence has been observed during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusion Although AFO is a rare tumor, it is more prevalent in childrenʼs jaw. Conservative surgical treatment allowed the normal development of teeth. PMID:27307963

  10. Effects of explicit teacher-implemented phoneme awareness instruction in 4-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Ann A; Osterhouse, Heather; Wickham, Katherine; Mcnutt, Robert; Shao, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gains would be observed in an integrated group of 4-year-olds when phoneme awareness skills were explicitly taught by trained early childhood educators. In a quasi-experimental design with a delayed treatment approach, one classroom (N = 14) was randomly assigned to receive the instructional program in fall, while a second classroom (N = 10) served as a control and subsequently received the program in spring. Baseline assessment of speech and language skills indicated there were four participants with speech and/or language impairments. The teacher training involved an initial workshop and weekly hour-long mentoring meetings; the program was provided for 20 min a day, 4 d a week, for 10 weeks. Outcome measures of phoneme awareness and letter knowledge skills were obtained from non-standardized tasks administered pre-instruction and post-instruction, at mid-year and end-year points. When each classroom received the phoneme instruction, participants made gains in letter knowledge and phoneme level skills in comparison with group performance under regular instruction. These gains were statistically significant for phoneme blending and letter knowledge. Using an aggregate of all outcome measures, the gain for each classroom when under instruction was statistically significant as compared with when that same classroom was receiving the regular curriculum. Children with speech and/or language impairment responded more variably. Gains in the more difficult phoneme awareness skill of blending suggest the potential for marked change with an intensive, explicit classroom instruction and hold promise for SLPs collaborating with preschool teachers to provide time-efficient PA instruction. PMID:25000374

  11. Compositionality and Statistics in Adjective Acquisition: 4-Year-Olds Interpret "Tall" and "Short" Based on the Size Distributions of Novel Noun Referents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments investigated 4-year-olds' understanding of adjective-noun compositionality and their sensitivity to statistics when interpreting scalar adjectives. In Experiments 1 and 2, children selected "tall" and "short" items from 9 novel objects called "pimwits" (1-9 in. in height) or from this array plus 4 taller or shorter distractor…

  12. My Body. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on the body for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood environments.…

  13. Through Another's Eyes: Elements in the Eyes of a 4-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xuan

    2004-01-01

    My husband, who is a scientist, often brings home different scientific journals and magazines to read, and my 4-year-old son, Nicholas J. Hu, likes to flip through them. A recent issue of Chemical and Engineering News (September, 2003) caught his interest more than usual because there were stories of different elements. Nicholas has been able to…

  14. Linguistic and Cognitive Skills in Sardinian-Italian Bilingual Children.

    PubMed

    Garraffa, Maria; Beveridge, Madeleine; Sorace, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian-Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian-Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian children, in terms of both Italian language skills and general cognitive abilities. However, where there are differences, these emerge gradually over time and are mostly in favor of bilingual children. PMID:26733903

  15. Pott puffy tumor in a 4-year-old boy presenting in status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Strony, Robert J; Dula, David

    2007-11-01

    Pott puffy tumor is an osteomyelitis of the frontal bone with the development of a subperiosteal abscess manifesting as a puffy swelling of the forehead or scalp. It is believed to occur as a complication of frontal sinusitis. The modern antibiotic era has made it a rarely encountered entity. This case describes a 4-year-old boy who presented in status epilepticus secondary to Pott puffy tumor. PMID:18007214

  16. Inflammatory epidermolysis bullosa acquisita in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Lazić-Mosler, Elvira; Jukić, Ines Lakoš; Murat-Sušić, Slobodna; Husar, Karmela; Skerlev, Mihael; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi; Marinović, Branka

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a case of linear immunoglobulin A dermatosis-like epidermolysis bullosa acquisita in a 4-year-old girl showing rapid, widespread and inflammatory skin lesions. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology, direct and indirect immunofluorescence, various immunoblotting analyses and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Despite the severe clinical manifestations, the disease was successfully controlled by combination therapy of oral prednisolone and dapsone. PMID:26046385

  17. No aggression in a 4-year-old boy with an androgen-producing tumour: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    De la Marche, Wouter; Prinsen, Karin; Boot, Annemieke M; Ferdinand, Robert F

    2005-01-01

    Background The androgen testosterone plays a critical role in many aspects of sexual differentiation. Also, it is thought to induce aggressive behaviours or to play a role in social dominance. Case presentation In this case report a 4-year-old boy is described whose testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) levels were raised to pubertal levels due to a testosterone producing testis tumour. This provided the unique opportunity to examine the effects of elevated levels of androgens on levels of aggression or on social dominance before the onset of puberty. Conclusion The present case report does not support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between testosterone and aggression or between testosterone and social dominance in young children. PMID:16202122

  18. Linguistic and Cognitive Skills in Sardinian–Italian Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    Garraffa, Maria; Beveridge, Madeleine; Sorace, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian–Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian–Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian children, in terms of both Italian language skills and general cognitive abilities. However, where there are differences, these emerge gradually over time and are mostly in favor of bilingual children. PMID:26733903

  19. Increase in child behavior problems among urban Brazilian 4-year olds: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of reports on time trends in child and adolescent psychological problems but none from low- and middle-income countries, and very few covering the preschool period. The aim was to investigate changes in preschool behavioral/emotional problems in two birth cohorts from a middle-income country born 11 years apart. Methods We analyzed data from the 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohort studies from Brazil. A subsample of 4-year olds from the 1993 cohort (634) and all 4-year olds from the 2004 cohort (3750) were assessed for behavioral/emotional problems through maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Response rates in these two population-based cohorts were above 90%. Results We found a significant increase in CBCL total problems, internalizing and externalizing mean scores over the 11-year period. For 1993 and 2004 Pelotas cohorts, respectively, CBCL mean values (SE) total problems scores were 27.9 (0.8) and 34.7 (0.3); for internalizing scores, 5.7 (0.2) and 6.3 (0.1) and for externalizing scores, 12.4 (0.4) and 15.5 (0.1). After adjusting for confounding variables, the largest increase from 1993 to 2004 was identified in the aggressive behavior syndrome score (Cohen's d = .50), followed by the externalizing problem score (Cohen's d = .40) and CBCL total problem score (Cohen's d = .36), respectively. The rise in child psychological problems was more marked in children from families with fewer assets and with less educated mothers. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for a substantial increase in preschool behavioral problems among children in Brazil over an 11-year period. PMID:24735354

  20. Case Report: Traumatic anterior cerebral artery aneurysm in a 4-year old child

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Tamrakar, Karuna; Chaudhary, Pramod; Bhattarai, Binod; Cherian, Iype

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysm in the proximal part of the anterior cerebral artery in the pediatric population has not been documented so far. Here we report the case of a 4 year-old child who developed a pseudo-aneurysm after minor head trauma and was managed successfully with trapping of the aneurysm. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed as the child became dependent on extraventricular drain during the post-operative period. The patient made excellent recovery in neurological status within 1 month of post-operative clinical follow up.

  1. Colonic Necrosis in a 4-Year-Old with Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Tiffany J.; Sentongo, Timothy A.; Mak, Grace Z.; Kahn, Stacy A.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the case of a 4-year-old male with severe acute pancreatitis due to hyperlipidemia, who presented with abdominal pain, metabolic abnormalities, and colonic necrosis. This colonic complication was secondary to the extension of a large peripancreatic fluid collection causing direct serosal autodigestion by pancreatic enzymes. Two weeks following the initial presentation, the peripancreatic fluid collection developed into a mature pancreatic pseudocyst, which was percutaneously drained. To our knowledge, this is the youngest documented pediatric case of colonic necrosis due to severe pancreatitis and the first descriptive pediatric case of a colonic complication due to hyperlipidemia-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:26925282

  2. Crown fracture of the mandibular second primary molars in a 4-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anshula; Patel, Jalark; Sujan, Sunanda Gul; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Dental traumas are highly prevalent lesions in primary teeth, but crown root fractures are rare. Mostly anterior tooth segment is more commonly involved. Posterior crown root fractures are very rare. A 4-year-old girl reported to our paediatric dentistry department with a 10-day history of severe pain and discomfort in both right and left posterior teeth region. The child was suffering from severe and continuous pain and was unable to chew food. After an examination a fracture was noticed in intraoral periapical radiograph and treatment plan was decided to preserve the affected teeth. PMID:23780765

  3. Colonic Necrosis in a 4-Year-Old with Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Patton, Tiffany J; Sentongo, Timothy A; Mak, Grace Z; Kahn, Stacy A

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the case of a 4-year-old male with severe acute pancreatitis due to hyperlipidemia, who presented with abdominal pain, metabolic abnormalities, and colonic necrosis. This colonic complication was secondary to the extension of a large peripancreatic fluid collection causing direct serosal autodigestion by pancreatic enzymes. Two weeks following the initial presentation, the peripancreatic fluid collection developed into a mature pancreatic pseudocyst, which was percutaneously drained. To our knowledge, this is the youngest documented pediatric case of colonic necrosis due to severe pancreatitis and the first descriptive pediatric case of a colonic complication due to hyperlipidemia-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:26925282

  4. [Awake Nasotracheal Intubation for a 4-Year-old Boy with an Oral Penetrating Toothbrush Injury].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Ando, Kokichi; Saito, Kazutomo; Toyama, Hiroaki; Fudeta, Hiroto; Yamauchi, Masanori

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of an oral penetrating injury caused by a toothbrush in a 4-year-old 17-kg boy. The toothbrush was lodged in the right cervical region through the oral cavity, and emergency surgery for removal was planned under general anesthesia. Although mask ventilation was not possible because of the protruding toothbrush handle, awake nasotracheal intubation was successfully performed with a fiber-scope and intravenous fentanyl 25 μg. We conclude that appropriate analgesics could facilitate awake intubation in pediatric patients. PMID:26466500

  5. The effects of perceptual priming on 4-year-olds' haptic-to-visual cross-modal transfer.

    PubMed

    Kalagher, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Four-year-old children often have difficulty visually recognizing objects that were previously experienced only haptically. This experiment attempts to improve their performance in these haptic-to-visual transfer tasks. Sixty-two 4-year-old children participated in priming trials in which they explored eight unfamiliar objects visually, haptically, or visually and haptically together. Subsequently, all children participated in the same haptic-to-visual cross-modal transfer task. In this task, children haptically explored the objects that were presented in the priming phase and then visually identified a match from among three test objects, each matching the object on only one dimension (shape, texture, or color). Children in all priming conditions predominantly made shape-based matches; however, the most shape-based matches were made in the Visual and Haptic condition. All kinds of priming provided the necessary memory traces upon which subsequent haptic exploration could build a strong enough representation to enable subsequent visual recognition. Haptic exploration patterns during the cross-modal transfer task are discussed and the detailed analyses provide a unique contribution to our understanding of the development of haptic exploratory procedures. PMID:24494437

  6. Acute phenytoin intoxication in a 4-year-old mimicking viral meningoencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Amlin; Sankar, Jhuma; Verma, Ankit; Dubey, Nandkishore

    2013-01-01

    We report here the case of a 4-year-old female preschooler who presented to the emergency department with generalised tonic-clonic convulsions and history of vomiting, irritability and dysarthria of short duration. On examination she was found to be responsive only to painful stimulus, had terminal neck stiffness and bilateral extensor plantars. In view of her clinical presentation, an initial diagnosis of viral meningoencephalitis was made in the emergency room and the child treated accordingly. On subsequent transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU), the parents revealed additional history of an elder sibling taking phenytoin for seizures. Therefore, a suspicion of acute phenytoin toxicity was made and phenytoin levels sent for confirmation. Her serum phenytoin level was 80 μgm/mL (normal: 10–20). The child was managed conservatively and discharged after 5 days of hospitalisation. We chose to report this case to highlight the unusual presentation of this rare intoxication. PMID:23814089

  7. Limitations in 4-Year-Old Children's Sensitivity to the Spacing among Facial Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Thomson, Kendra

    2008-01-01

    Four-year-olds' sensitivity to differences among faces in the spacing of features was tested under 4 task conditions: judging distinctiveness when the external contour was visible and when it was occluded, simultaneous match-to-sample, and recognizing the face of a friend. In each task, the foil differed only in the spacing of features, and…

  8. Enactment of Third-Party Punishment by 4-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Kenward, Ben; Östh, Therese

    2012-01-01

    When prompted, preschoolers advocate punishment for moral transgressions against third parties, but little is known about whether and how they might act out such punishment. In this study, adult demonstrators enacted doll stories in which a perpetrator child doll made an unprovoked attack on a victim child doll, after which an adult doll punished either the perpetrator (consistent punishment) or victim (inconsistent punishment). When asked to help retell the story, given free choice of their own preferred actions for the adult doll, 4-year-olds (N = 32) were influenced by the demonstrated choice of target when selecting a target for punishment or admonishment. This influence was weak following inconsistent punishment, however, because the participants tended to change the story by punishing or admonishing the perpetrator when the demonstrator had punished the victim. Four-year-olds’ tendency to select a moral rule violator as a target for punishment is therefore stronger than their tendency to copy the specific actions of adults, which itself is known to be very strong. The evidence suggests that 4-year-olds’ enactment of punishment is at least partially based on a belief that antisocial actions deserve to be punished. PMID:23162486

  9. Pronominal Objects in English-Italian and Spanish-Italian Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Sorace, Antonella; Filiaci, Francesca; Baldo, Michela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of typological relatedness, language of the community, and age, in predicting similarities and differences between English-Italian, Spanish-Italian bilingual children and their monolingual child and adult counterparts in the acceptability of pre- and postverbal object pronouns in [[plus or minus]focus] contexts in…

  10. Five-year-olds are willing, but 4-year-olds refuse, to trust informants who offer new and unfamiliar labels for parts of the body.

    PubMed

    Luu, Betty; Rosnay, Marc de; Harris, Paul L

    2013-10-01

    This study employed the selective trust paradigm to examine how children interpret novel labels when compared with labels they already know to be accurate or inaccurate within the biological domain. The participants--3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N=144)--were allocated to one of three conditions. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, one informant labeled body parts correctly, whereas the other labeled them incorrectly (e.g., calling an eye an "arm"). In the accurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts accurately, whereas the other provided novel labels (e.g., calling an eye a "roke"). Finally, in the inaccurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts incorrectly, whereas the other offered novel labels. In subsequent test trials, the two informants provided conflicting labels for unfamiliar internal organs. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, children sought and endorsed labels from the accurate informant. In the accurate versus novel condition, only 4- and 5-year-olds preferred the accurate informant, whereas 3-year-olds did not selectively prefer either informant. In the inaccurate versus novel condition, only 5-year-olds preferred the novel informant, whereas 3- and 4-year-olds did not demonstrate a selective preference. Results are supportive of previous studies suggesting that 3-year-olds are sensitive to inaccuracy and that 4-year-olds privilege accuracy. However, 3- and 4-year-olds appear to be unsure as to how the novel informant should be construed. In contrast, 5-year-olds appreciate that speakers offering new information are more trustworthy than those offering inaccurate information, but they are cautious in judging such informants as being "better" at providing that information. PMID:23872524

  11. Fighting Obesity in 4-Year-Olds--"Move to Improve/Catch the Energy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, research indicates that today's children are not getting enough physical activity. One solution to this problem is to integrate other subjects into physical education. This article describes a successful physical education program for Pre-K children implemented at the Sheboygan Area…

  12. Word Order and Information Structure in Czech 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolík, Filip

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment that examined the comprehension of transitive sentences in Czech children and its relationship to case marking, word order and information structure. A total of 107 Czech children aged 2;9-4;5 were tested for comprehension of noun-verb-noun sentences in which word order and given-new status of individual nouns…

  13. Parents' Reports on the Child Adaptive Behavior Inventory Predict 4-Year-Olds' Playground Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, James P.; Neugebauer, Alyson

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of parental reports of their preschool children's social adaptation outside the home as an indicator of children's behavior. Parent responses on the Child Adaptive Behavior Inventory, which assesses both competencies and difficulties with adaptation, were compared to evaluations by trained observers. Parents were found…

  14. Phonological and Lexical Reading in Italian Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Cerracchio, Sara; Famiglietti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore the development of phonological and lexical reading in dyslexic children. We tested a group of 14 Italian children who have been diagnosed with dyslexia and whose reading age is end of grade 1. We compared this group with a group of 70 typically developing children who have been tested for reading at the end of grade 1.…

  15. Can 4-Year Olds Really Do Math? Using the Project Approach with Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooks, Laura; Duarte, Valerie

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the engagement of preservice teachers in the kind of authentic experiences that provided the modeling needed to make high-quality instruction in mathematics a reality for young children. Inasmuch as these preservice teachers had not yet received any formal methods classes in mathematics, the authors…

  16. An unusual case of a sore throat and otalgia in a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Siupšinskienė, Nora; Padervinskis, Evaldas; Poškienė, Lina; Endeley, Nganjo; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2012-01-01

    A sore throat, otalgia, and snoring are the common symptoms seen in children presenting to an otorhinolaryngological clinic. Sometimes, however, these symptoms may be suggestive of an aggressive malignancy. We present a rare case of Burkitt's lymphoma of the tonsil in a young child, which initially manifested as a sore throat and otalgia. PMID:22864276

  17. A 4-year-old girl with manifestations of multiple chemical sensitivities.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, A

    2000-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) syndrome, also known as idiopathic environmental intolerance, is a controversial diagnosis that encompasses a wide range of waxing and waning, subjective symptoms referable to more than one body system and provoked by exposure to low levels of chemicals, foods, or other agents in the environment. Although MCS has been studied extensively, a unifying mechanism explaining the illness remains obscure, and clinicians are divided as to whether such a medical entity exists separately from psychosomatic syndromes. MCS is an adult diagnosis; there is little reference to pediatric cases in the scientific literature. In this case from the Pediatric Environmental Health Subspecialty Unit at Boston's Children's Hospital, I present the case of a preschool child who had suffered from milk allergy and poor weight gain as an infant, and then later developed asthma, allergic symptoms, sinusitis, headaches, fatigue, and rashes precipitated by an expanding variety of chemicals, foods, and allergens. I review definitions, mechanisms, diagnostic strategies, and management, and discuss some uniquely pediatric features of MCS as illustrated by this case. PMID:11133405

  18. Compensation for a lip-tube perturbation in 4-year-olds: Articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual data analyzed in comparison with adults.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Perrier, Pascal; Aubin, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    The nature of the speech goal in children was investigated in a study of compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation. Acoustic, articulatory, and perceptual analyses of the vowels /y/ and /u/ produced by ten 4-year-old French speakers and ten adult French speakers were conducted under two conditions: normal and with a large tube inserted between the lips. Ultrasound and acoustic recordings of isolated vowels were made in the normal condition before any perturbation, for each of the trials in the perturbed condition, and in the normal condition after the perturbed trials. Data revealed that adult participants moved their tongues in the perturbed condition more than children did. The perturbation was generally at least partly compensated for during the perturbed trials in adults, but children did not show a typical learning effect. In particular, unsystematic improvements were observed during the sequence of perturbed trials, and after-effects were not clear in the articulatory domain. This suggests that children may establish associative links between multisensory phonemic representations and articulatory maneuvers, but those links may mainly rely on trial-to-trial, error-based feedback correction mechanisms rather than on the internal model of the speech production apparatus, as they are in adults. PMID:27250147

  19. Bilateral Thalamic and Right Fronto-temporo-parietal Gliomas in a 4 Years Old Child Diagnosed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Ahmed Fathy; Hamouda, Ehab Shaban Mahmoud; Teo, Jennifer Gek Choo

    2016-01-01

    We report the neuroimaging findings of a 4-year-old girl with biopsy-proven bilateral thalamic and right fronto-temporo-parietal cortical gliomas, which are uncommon tumours involving the central nervous system. Despite their benignity, the prognosis is usually poor because of involvement of the thalamic nuclei and difficulty in surgical excision. These lesions have limited differential diagnoses that include metabolic, toxic, infective, vascular and neoplastic. Imaging characteristics on conventional Magnetic Resonance (MR), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can further narrow the differential diagnosis and also provide additional information regarding the degree of involvement of adjacent brain tissue and white matter tracts around the lesions. PMID:27200150

  20. Do Italian Dyslexic Children Use the Lexical Reading Route Efficiently? An Orthographic Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Angelelli, Paola; Notarnicola, Alessandra; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The study uses an orthographic judgment task to evaluate the efficiency of the lexical reading route in Italian dyslexic children. It has been suggested that Italian dyslexic children rely prevalently on the sub-word-level routine for reading. However, it is not easy to test the lexical reading route in Italian directly because of the lack of…

  1. The Educational Expectations of Italian Children: The Role of Social Interactions with the Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minello, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate to what extent the growing presence of children with immigrant background in the Italian school system has an impact on the educational expectations of Italian students in eighth grade. Educational expectations are individuals' plans for their future educational career, adjusted to the subjectively estimated…

  2. Children’s Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children’s interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle ‘nur’ (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with ‘only’ in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for ‘only’ in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children’s performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with ‘only’ in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which–depending on specific task demands–may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities. PMID:26930286

  3. Recent (<4 year old) Leaf Litter is Not a Major Source of Microbial Carbon in a Temperate Forest Mineral Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Christiane; Trumbore, Susan E.; Froberg, Mats J.; Cisneros dozal, Luz Maria; Zhang, Dachun; Xu, Xiamei; Santos, Guaciara; Hanson, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Microbial communities in soil A horizons derive their carbon from several potential sources: organic carbon (C) transported down from overlying litter and organic horizons, root-derived C, or soil organic matter. We took advantage of a multi-year experiment that manipulated the {sup 14}C isotope signature of surface leaf litter inputs in a temperate forest at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, USA, to quantify the contribution of recent leaf litter C to microbial respiration and biomarkers in the underlying mineral soil. We observed no measurable difference (< {approx}40{per_thousand} given our current analytical methods) in the radiocarbon signatures of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) isolated from the top 10 cm of mineral soil in plots that experienced 3 years of litterfall that differed in each year by {approx}750{per_thousand} between high-{sup 14}C and low-{sup 14}C treatments. Assuming any difference in {sup 14}C between the high- and low-{sup 14}C plots would reflect C derived from these manipulated litter additions, we estimate that <6% of the microbial C after 4 years was derived from the added 1-4-year-old surface litter. Large contributions of C from litter < 1 year (or >4 years) old (which fell after (or prior to) the manipulation and therefore did not differ between plots) are not supported because the {sup 14}C signatures of the PLFA compounds (averaging 200-220{per_thousand}) is much higher that of the 2004-5 leaf litter (115{per_thousand}) or pre-2000 litter. A mesocosm experiment further demonstrated that C leached from {sup 14}C-enriched surface litter or the O horizon was not a detectable C source in underlying mineral soil microbes during the first eight months after litter addition. Instead a decline in the {sup 14}C of PLFA over the mesocosm experiment likely reflected the loss of a pre-existing substrate not associated with added leaf litter. Measured PLFA {Delta}{sup 14}C signatures were higher than those measured in bulk

  4. [Speech perception test in Italian language for profoundly deaf children].

    PubMed

    Genovese, E; Orzan, E; Turrini, M; Babighian, G; Arslan, E

    1995-10-01

    Speech perception tests are an important part of procedures for diagnosing pre-verbal hearing loss. Merely establishing a child's hearing threshold with and without a hearing aid is not sufficient to ensure an adequate evaluation with a view to selecting cases suitable for cochlear implants because it fails to indicate the real benefit obtained from using a conventional hearing aid reliably. Speech perception tests have proved useful not only for patient selection, but also for subsequent evaluation of the efficacy of new hearing aids, such as tactile devices and cochlear implants. In clinical practice, the tests most commonly adopted with small children are: The Auditory Comprehension Test (ACT), Discrimination after Training (DAT), Monosyllable, Trochee, Spondee tests (MTS), Glendonald Auditory Screening Priocedure (GASP), Early Speech Perception Test (ESP), Rather than considering specific results achieved in individual cases, reference is generally made to the four speech perception classes proposed by Moog and Geers of the CID of St. Louis. The purpose of this classification, made on the results obtained with suitably differentiated tests according to the child's age and language ability, is to detect differences in perception of a spoken message in ideal listening conditions. To date, no italian language speech perception test has been designed to establish the assessment of speech perception level in children with profound hearing impairment. We attempted, therefore, to adapt the existing English tests to the Italian language taking into consideration the differences between the two languages. Our attention focused on the ESP test since it can be applied to even very small children (2 years old). The ESP is proposed in a standard version for hearing-impaired children over the age of 6 years and in a simplified version for younger children. The rationale we used for selecting Italian words reflect the rationale established for the original version, but the

  5. Ventriculo-bipleural shunt as last resort in a 4-year-old child in whom a VP and VA shunt failed.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Miriam; Unterberg, Andreas; Bächli, Heidi

    2016-03-01

    The authors present the unusual case of a 4-year-old boy who had a complex history of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and who underwent more than 40 surgeries related to this condition. In the course of trying to treat his condition, ventriculoperitoneal, ventriculoatrial, and ventriculopleural shunts were inserted and failed. The child presented with a dysfunction of his shunt system. A ventriculopleural shunt was inserted, but within days the patient developed dyspnea as a clinical symptom of pleural effusion that required repeated thoracentesis. A bipleural drainage system was inserted, and no relevant pleural effusions developed during the follow-up period. Although the authors' experience is based on a single case, they do suggest bipleural drainage in patients with clinically relevant pleural effusions when the more common alternatives are not a good choice. Bipleural drainage might particularly be an option in children, who are prone to pleural effusion because of the smaller absorbing pleural surface. The authors reviewed the English-language literature on PubMed dating back to 1952. To their knowledge, this is the only published case in which a patient was treated with a ventriculo-bipleural shunt. PMID:26613270

  6. Subclinical hypothyroidism in atopic South Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Pedullà, Marcella; Fierro, Vincenzo; Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Del Tufo, Ester; Grandone, Anna; Perrone, Laura; Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    AIM To verify if subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) could be associated to atopy in children. METHODS Seven hundred and thirty-two Caucasian children from South Italy presenting symptoms of allergic disease were enrolled and submitted to atopy, obesity, chronic low grade inflammation, and SCH work up. RESULTS Four hundred and forty-five out of 705 (63.12%) children affected by allergic disease were diagnosed as atopic and 260 (36.88%) as not atopic. The SCH prevalence was 6.3%. Significant higher prevalence of SCH among atopic children with average (group 2) and high (group 3) low grade chronic inflammation compared to atopic children with mild (group 1) low grade chronic inflammation was present. Moreover, group 1 and group 2 presented an OR to show SCH of 2.57 (95%CI: 1.55-6.26) and 2.96 (95%CI: 1.01-8.65), respectively. Both in atopic and not atopic children we found C3 serum levels significantly higher in group 3 respect to group 2 and group 1. Noteworthy, among atopic patients, also total immunoglobulin E (IgE) serum levels, were significantly higher in group 3 compared to group 2 and group 1 children. In atopic children, C3 and total IgE serum values increased in parallel with the increase of C-reactive protein values, while in not atopic children this phenomenon was not evident. CONCLUSION The possibility exists that an increasing atopic inflammation contributes to SCH occurrence. So far this is the first report in literature showing an association between SCH and atopy but further studies are needed to confirm our data. PMID:27610347

  7. Hematogones With Lambda Light Chain Restriction in a 4-Year-Old Boy With Burkitt Lymphoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.

    PubMed

    Guillory, Tesha; Li, Shiyong; Bergsagel, Daniel J; Weinzierl, Elizabeth; Bunting, Silvia T

    2016-05-01

    Hematogones are immature normal B cell precursors with a characteristic immunophenotype profile on flow cytometry that typically do not express surface immunoglobulin light chains. In this report, we describe a case in which the hematogones exhibit light chain restriction. Our patient was a 4-year-old boy with a complicated medical history involving treatment for a presumed bilateral Wilms tumor of the kidney that on later resection was diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma. Flow cytometry analysis of his bone marrow revealed a small distinct population of cells expressing dim cluster of differentiation (CD)10, CD19, CD22, CD38, dim CD58, human leukocyte antigen-D related (HLA-DR), and dim CD45, which are characteristic of hematogones. These cells, however, demonstrated dim surface immunoglobulin lambda light-chain restriction. Molecular study results for immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light-chain gene rearrangements were negative. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential pitfalls of working up bone marrow for involvement by B cell lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:27069035

  8. Hematogones With Lambda Light Chain Restriction in a 4-Year-Old Boy With Burkitt Lymphoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Guillory, Tesha; Li, Shiyong; Bergsagel, Daniel J.; Weinzierl, Elizabeth; Bunting, Silvia T.

    2016-01-01

    Hematogones are immature normal B cell precursors with a characteristic immunophenotype profile on flow cytometry that typically do not express surface immunoglobulin light chains. In this report, we describe a case in which the hematogones exhibit light chain restriction. Our patient was a 4-year-old boy with a complicated medical history involving treatment for a presumed bilateral Wilms tumor of the kidney that on later resection was diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma. Flow cytometry analysis of his bone marrow revealed a small distinct population of cells expressing dim cluster of differentiation (CD)10, CD19, CD22, CD38, dim CD58, human leukocyte antigen–D related (HLA-DR), and dim CD45, which are characteristic of hematogones. These cells, however, demonstrated dim surface immunoglobulin lambda light-chain restriction. Molecular study results for immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light-chain gene rearrangements were negative. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential pitfalls of working up bone marrow for involvement by B cell lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:27069035

  9. L2 Spelling Errors in Italian Children with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Cismondo, Dhebora; Ferrari, Marcella; Ballagamba, Isabella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate L2 spelling skills in Italian children by administering an English word dictation task to 13 children with dyslexia (CD), 13 control children (comparable in age, gender, schooling and IQ) and a group of 10 children with an English learning difficulty, but no L1 learning disorder. Patterns of difficulties were examined for accuracy and type of errors, in spelling dictated short and long words (i.e. disyllables and three syllables). Notably, CD were poor in spelling English words. Furthermore, their errors were mainly related with phonological representation of words, as they made more 'phonologically' implausible errors than controls. In addition, CD errors were more frequent for short than long words. Conversely, the three groups did not differ in the number of plausible ('non-phonological') errors, that is, words that were incorrectly written, but whose reading could correspond to the dictated word via either Italian or English rules. Error analysis also showed syllable position differences in the spelling patterns of CD, children with and English learning difficulty and control children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26892314

  10. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Italian Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Aragón, Alfredo S.; Coriale, Giovanna; Fiorentino, Daniela; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Gossage, J. Phillip; Ceccanti, Mauro; Mitchell, Elisha R.; May, Philip A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) display many problems ranging from deficits in intelligence to behavioral difficulties. Thus, many studies have aimed to better define the neuropsychological characteristics of children with FASD. The current article describes the neuropsychological characteristics of Italian children with severe diagnosis within FASD and compares them with controls. It was expected that intellectual functioning, language comprehension, academic skills, and inattention/hyperactivity would discriminate children with FASD from randomly-selected peers without FASD. Methods This paper presents data from a second cohort of children examined in 2005 as part of an in-school epidemiological study of FASD in Italy. Eighty children, 23 diagnosed with a FASD, and 57 randomly-selected control children from the same 1st grade classes, participated. After screening for FASD via growth and dysmorphology, the children were administered a test of general intelligence (WISC-R) as well as tests of nonverbal reasoning (Raven Colored Progressive Matrices), language comprehension (Rustioni), academic achievement (IPDA), and problem behavior (Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale). Results Children diagnosed with a FASD achieved lower scores than control children on Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ. Profile analysis of the WISC-R indicates overall differences between the groups. However, some intact functioning within the FASD group was found, as the Similarities and Vocabulary subtests were similar to the controls. After an alpha adjustment to .004, the Block Design, Object Assembly, and Mazes subtests were significantly different from controls. On tests of nonverbal reasoning, language comprehension, and academic achievement, the children with a FASD scored significantly lower. Moreover, teachers rated children with a severe diagnosis within FASD as showing more inattentive symptoms than controls, while hyperactive

  11. The Effect of Verbal Reminders on Memory Reactivation in 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-01-01

    For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our…

  12. Vocabulary Development in Italian Children: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Odorico, Laura; Carubbi, Stefania; Salerni, Nicoletta; Calvo, Vicenzo

    2001-01-01

    Vocabulary development of a sample of 42 Italian children was evaluated through monthly administration of the Italian version of the CDI. Data collection started at age one for 32 children and a few moths later for the remaining subjects and continued until children's vocabulary reached 200 words. At fixed stages of vocabulary size, individual…

  13. Learning to perceive English /d/ versus /edh/: A comparison of French, English, and English-French bilingual 4-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Campisi, Lisa; Genesee, Fred; Marcoux, Caroline

    2002-05-01

    Recent findings show that discrimination of the English /d-edh/ does not differ for English and French infants (6-8-month-olds and 10-12-month-olds), although English adults clearly outperform French adults on this contrast, which is not phonemic in French. With respect to age effects, English listeners' perception of /d-edh/ improves between infancy and adulthood, whereas French listeners' perception remains unchanged [Polka et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2190-2200 (2001)]. In the present study, we tested monolingual English, monolingual French, and early English-French bilingual 4-year-olds on the same contrast using the same stimuli and procedures to clarify when facilitative effects of language experience emerge and whether they are affected by bilingualism. Four findings are reported. First, a language effect (English>French) is evident by 4 years of age. Second, among native (English) listeners facilitative effects are evident by 4-years of age (infants<4-year-olds4-year-olds=adults). Fourth, bilingual 4-year-olds' performance is virtually identical to that of their French-speaking peers, revealing a strong effect of bilingualism on the perception of this contrast. Several factors contributing to these findings will be discussed.

  14. Body Mass Index (BMI) and child temperament: ethnic and gender differences among 3 and 4 year olds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited early research suggests that children with a more difficult temperament (i.e., withdrawing, high intensity, predominate negative mood) by ages 4-5 are more likely to have excessive weight gain by ages 8-9 compared with children with opposite temperaments. We examined this relationship among ...

  15. Poverty as a Predictor of 4-Year-Olds' Executive Function: New Perspectives on Models of Differential Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, C. Cybele; Blair, Clancy; Willoughby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a predominantly low-income, population-based longitudinal sample of 1,259 children followed from birth, results suggest that chronic exposure to poverty and the strains of financial hardship were each uniquely predictive of young children's performance on measures of executive functioning. Results suggest that temperament-based vulnerability…

  16. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in 2–4 year olds in a rural HIV-prevalent setting

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, J. R.; Fielding, K. L.; Mzembe, T.; Mulawa, D.; Chiumya, R.; Fine, P. E. M.; Koole, O.; Kranzer, K.; Crampin, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children acts as a sentinel for infectious tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors associated with tuberculous infection in pre-school children. METHOD: We conducted a population-wide tuberculin skin test (TST) survey from January to December 2012 in Malawi. All children aged 2–4 years residing in a demographic surveillance area were eligible. Detailed demographic data, including adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and clinical and sociodemographic data on all diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients were available. RESULTS: The prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection was 1.1% using a TST induration cut-off of 15 mm (estimated annual risk of infection of 0.3%). The main identifiable risk factors were maternal HIV infection at birth (adjusted OR [aOR] 3.6, 95%CI 1.1–12.2), having three or more adult members in the household over a lifetime (aOR 2.4, 95%CI 1.2–4.8) and living in close proximity to a known case of infectious TB (aOR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1–2.4), modelled as a linear variable across categories (>200 m, 100–200 m, <100 m, within household). Less than 20% of the infected children lived within 200 m of a known diagnosed case. CONCLUSION: Household and community risk factors identified do not explain the majority of M. tuberculosis infections in children in our setting. PMID:27046715

  17. Children’s Spatial Representations: 3- and 4-Year-Olds are Affected by Irrelevant Peripheral References

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Markus; Jahn, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Children as young as 3 years can remember an object’s location within an arrangement and can retrieve it from a novel viewpoint (Nardini et al., 2006). However, this ability is impaired if the arrangement is rotated to compensate for the novel viewpoint, or, if the arrangement is rotated and children stand still. There are two dominant explanations for this phenomenon: self-motion induces an automatic spatial updating process which is beneficial if children move around the arrangement, but misleading if the children’s movement is matched by the arrangement and not activated if children stand still and only the arrangement is moved (see spatial updating; Simons and Wang, 1998). Another explanation concerns reference frames: spatial representations might depend on peripheral spatial relations concerning the surrounding room instead on proximal relations within the arrangement, even if these proximal relations are sufficient or more informative. To evaluate these possibilities, we rotated children (N = 120) aged between 3 and 6 years with an occluded arrangement. When the arrangement was in misalignment to the surrounding room, 3- and 4-year-olds’ spatial memory was impaired and 5-year-olds’ was lightly impaired suggesting that they relied on peripheral references of the surrounding room for retrieval. In contrast, 6-years-olds’ spatial representation seemed robust against misalignment indicating a successful integration of spatial representations. PMID:26617537

  18. Tibial turn-up procedure as an alternative to rotationplasty in a 4-year-old with osteosarcoma of the distal femur.

    PubMed

    Tate, Rebecca; Gerrand, Craig; Hale, Juliet

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of the distal femur after resection for primary bone tumour in very young patients presents a considerable challenge. The risks and benefits of the available reconstructive options need to be carefully balanced. We report a case of osteosarcoma of the distal femur in a 4-year-old boy that was, unusually, treated by amputation and a tibial turn-up procedure; we discuss the rationale for the procedure and report the results at early follow-up. PMID:25305046

  19. Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Acinetobacter Spp. Paravertebral Soft Tissue Infection in a 4-Year-Old Boy With X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Pandiarajan; Bhattad, Sagar; Shandilya, Jitendra-Kumar; Vyas, Sameer; Garg, Rashi; Rawat, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is known to occur in chronic granulomatous disease, a phagocytic disorder and the etiology is usually a fungus. Indolent spread of fungal infection from lungs to adjacent ribs and vertebra often results in persistent pneumonia and vertebral deformities. We report a 4-year-old boy with chronic cough and kyphosis, who had a fungal vertebral osteomyelitis and Acinetobacter spp. paravertebral soft tissue infection related to X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. PMID:27182896

  20. Accidental Ingestion and Uneventful Retrieval of an Endodontic File in a 4 Year Old Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bondarde, Prashant; Naik, Anishri; Patil, Sudha; Shah, Parth H

    2015-01-01

    The majority of foreign body ingestions occur in the pediatric population, with a peak incidence between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. Safety during dental treatment of children cannot be overemphasized. Uncooperative, mentally and physically handicapped children are more prone to ingestion or aspiration of dental instruments than other populations. In any event, it is recommended that dental practitioners examine their instrument before use, as a safeguard against any slippage, breakage. Treatment with any endodontic device requires the use of proper isolation such as rubber dam. PMID:26668487

  1. Adults' and Children's Language in Different Situational Contexts in Italian Nursery and Infant Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majorano, Marinella; Cigala, Ada; Corsano, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyse, through direct observations, the communicative competence of children's caregivers and children's language development in different situational contexts in Italian nursery schools (for children aged between six and 36 months, i.e. creches) and infant schools (for children aged between 38 and 72 months,…

  2. The Development of Reading in English and Italian in Bilingual Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Siegel, Linda S.; Serra, Emily

    2001-01-01

    Canadian English-Italian bilingual children were administered phonological, reading, spelling, syntactic, and working memory tasks in both languages. Results suggest English-Italian interdependence is most clearly related to phonological processing but may influence other linguistic modules. Exposure to a language with more predictable…

  3. Acute penile pain and swelling in a 4-year-old child with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

    PubMed

    Tewary, Kishor Kumar; Khodaghalian, Bernadette; Narchi, Hassib

    2015-01-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis found in children. It usually affects the small vessels of the skin, joints, gastrointestinal tract and, more rarely, kidneys, brain, lungs and genitalia. Apart from classical presentation with purpuric rashes around buttocks and lower extremities, features such as arthralgia, abdominal pain, haematuria and proteinuria as well as scrotal swelling have been described in the literature. Penile involvement is rare and is not commonly described. We describe a child with HSP who developed penile involvement. We review the literature of all the cases reported in detail, in order to highlight useful clinical presentation, management and prognosis of this rare manifestation. PMID:25858918

  4. Positive and negative peer interaction in 3- and 4-year-olds in relation to regulation and dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Geetha B; Brownell, Celia A; Campbell, Susan B

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 435; 219 girls), the authors derived several measures of regulation and dysregulation that predicted, both concurrently and longitudinally, children's positive and negative peer interactions in multiple contexts. Observers rated peer interactions in child care and during dyadic play with a friend, and mothers rated peer behavior. The authors based the derived measures on resistance to temptation (36 months) and delay of gratification (54 months) tasks, as well as observations in child care of children's compliance and defiance with adults at both ages and maternal reports. Preschoolers who had better impulse control and who were more compliant and less defiant with adults engaged more often in friendly, positive, peer play and were less negative in their peer play across contexts. Associations between regulation and dysregulation and peer interaction were broader and more consistent at 54 months than at 36 months. Longitudinally, regulation at 36 months was only modestly associated with more positive and less negative peer play at 54 months. The authors discuss findings in the context of developing self-regulation and its importance for early peer relationships. PMID:20836431

  5. Helicobacter pylori immunization and atopic dermatitis in South Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Pedullà, Marcella; Fierro, Vincenzo; Del Tufo, Ester; Triassi, Maria; Perrone, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological decrease of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection has been recently associated to the increase of several extra-intestinal allergic disorders. Objective We investigated the role of specific Hp IgG production in the development of IgE or not IgE mediated food allergy (FA) in children affected by atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods From January 2010 to July 2013, 290 South Italian children, aged between 26 and 142 months, were consecutively referred to the Pediatric Clinic of the Pediatric Department at Second University of Naples and were diagnosed as affected by AD. The patients were classified in two groups on the basis of diagnosis of food allergy (88 FA affected and 202 not FA affected) and further divided on the basis of the diagnosis of atopy (63 IgE mediated and 23 not IgE mediated). Hp serum IgG was detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Wampole® Helicobactor pylori IgG ELISA II, Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ) and Hp stool antigens using enzyme immunoassay (Premier Platinum HpSa plus, Cincinnati OH). Results We found a statistically significant higher prevalence of Hp serology positivity in not FA vs. FA AD-affected children (p = 0.032) and a significant inverse association between FA and Hp immunization (1/OR 0.32 95% CI 0.11–0.95). Further, we identified an absolute prevalence Hp serology positivity in not-IgE-mediated rather than in IgE-mediated FA AD-affected patients (p = 0.0006). Conclusion We hypothesize that specific Hp IgG production could protect against the development of both FA and atopy in AD-affected children. PMID:25083283

  6. Schooltime subjective sleepiness and performance in Italian primary school children.

    PubMed

    Cerasuolo, Mariangela; Giganti, Fiorenza; Conte, Francesca; Costanzo, Lucia Maria; Della Monica, Ciro; Arzilli, Cinzia; Marchesano, Rosa; Perrella, Arianna; Ficca, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Despite its clinical importance, the issue of the diurnal time course of sleepiness and performance in children remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study is to draw a profile of daytime subjective sleepiness and performance, at simple and complex tasks, in a cohort of Italian primary school children.To this aim, a sample of 316 children (age range: 5-11 years; mean 8.2 ± 1.5) was recruited and sub-divided into three groups, according to age: Group 1 (5-7 years; N = 127), Group 2 (8-9 years; N = 108), Group 3 (10-11 years; N = 81). Subjective sleepiness and simple performance were evaluated, respectively, through the Pictorial Sleepiness Scale and the Simple Reaction Time Task. Executive functions were addressed by means of the "Go/No-Go Task." Measurements were made in the children's class three times a day, one day a week over a 3-week period in order to reliably reflect the habitual time course of sleepiness and performance, within the following time intervals: a) 8:30 am-10:30 am; b) 11 am-1 pm; c) 2 pm-4 pm.For the global sample, a significant increase of subjective sleepiness was found at the end of school day (2-4 pm), although at relatively low levels. No significant differences were observed in reaction times across the day, whereas a significant worsening was detected in performance at complex task already since mid-morning. Significant correlations were found between subjective sleepiness and complex performance at all points.Slight age-related differences were found in the time courses of subjective sleepiness: in fact, a significant overday reduction of vigilance levels, from mid-morning onwards, was observed in children aged 5-9 years, but not in the older children (10-11 years). However, the daily time course of both simple and complex performances did not differ among children of the three age groups. Our results show changes in vigilance and cognitive functions across a typical school day in childhood, as well as age

  7. Relation of Occupational Knowledge to Career Interests and Competence Perceptions in Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlfing, Jessica E.; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea; Soresi, Salvatore; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The relations of differential occupational knowledge with interests and competence perceptions in children as well as how these relations were moderated by gender and grade were examined in this study using an Italian sample. Data were collected from samples of elementary school and middle school children (N = 539). The Inventory of Children's…

  8. Children's Collective Activities and Peer Culture in Early Literacy in American and Italian Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.; Nelson, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Examines American and Italian children's early literacy awareness and activities in preschools. Reveals that children take literacy activities and knowledge from formal lessons and then use, refine, and extend these activites with peers. Considers implications of these findings for theoretical work on children's peer cultures and development of…

  9. Voices of Children and Parents from Elsewhere: A Glance at Integration in Italian Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusi, Paola; Steinbach, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    This study involves 35 research participants: 20 immigrant parents (primarily mothers from South America, North Africa, Eastern Europe and the Middle East) and 15 primary school children, aged 10-11. These children were born outside Italy and primary school was their first encounter with the Italian educational system. We observed their processes…

  10. Assessing Measurement Invariance of the Children's Depression Inventory in Chinese and Italian Primary School Student Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wenfeng; Lu, Yongbiao; Tan, Furong; Yao, Shuqiao; Steca, Patrizia; Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the measurement invariance of Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and compared its factorial variance/covariance and latent means among Chinese and Italian children. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the original five factors identified by Kovacs revealed that full measurement invariance did not hold. Further analysis…

  11. Referential Development in Storytelling and in Storywriting of Catalan and Italian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Franca; Pontecorvo, Clotilde; Lopez-Oros, Marta; Teberosky, Ana

    2000-01-01

    Examined children's development between first and fifth grade in the use of referential expressions in oral and written narratives; analyzed a new context of use, written narrative, and compared it to the oral one; and compared the development of referential expressions in children speaking Italian and Catalan. (Author/VWL)

  12. Correspondence of Children's Anticipated Vocations, Perceived Competencies, and Interests: Results from an Italian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prime, Dominic R.; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea; Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino; Soresi, Salvatore; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Relations among anticipated vocations, self-assessments of competence, and interests in sample of 190 Italian children were examined. Children were asked what activities they liked, those they thought they were good at, and what job they expected when they grew up. The responses were coded into RIASEC Holland codes and agreement across the three…

  13. Emergency coronary artery bypass grafting for cardiogenic shock due to left main coronary artery obstruction caused by Kawasaki disease in a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Wataru; Tsuda, Etsuko; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Shiono, Junko

    2014-04-01

    We describe the case of a 4-year-old boy whose clinical course after Kawasaki disease resulted in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) causing cardiogenic shock. He had developed an ischemic cardiomyopathy due to severe localized stenosis of the left main coronary artery (LCA) and went into cardiogenic shock due to AMI on the day before a scheduled operation. He underwent successful emergency CABG within 4 h of MI. Postoperatively his neurological status was intact. This is the first report of a successful emergency CABG in a small child with cardiogenic shock due to LCA occlusion. CABG should be undertaken in small patients when appropriate indications exist, if bodyweight is >10 kg. PMID:24730632

  14. Cognitive Profiles of Italian Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits in Italian students with developmental dyslexia. The performances of 32 dyslexic students, 64 age-matched typically reading controls, and 64 reading age-matched controls were compared on tests of lexical knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming,…

  15. [Loeys-Dietz syndrome (TGFβR2 mutation) in a 4-year-old child with thoracic aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    De Potter, M-J; Edouard, T; Amadieu, R; Plaisancié, J; Julia, S; Hadeed, K; Hascoët, S; Acar, P; Dulac, Y

    2016-05-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a rare form of connective tissue disorder, whose clinical features can resemble those of Marfan syndrome, but with a more unpolished appearance. Recently brought out, this pathology remains little known; however, its consequences may be dramatic. We report on the case of a 4-year-old girl followed for a congenital hip dislocation, in which a systematic exam found increased cutaneous elasticity and a bifid uvula, suggesting a connective tissue disorder. Symptoms were unpolished, as the child's height was normal, without any positive cardiac, rheumatological, or ophthalmological family history. Cardiovascular tests found a thoracic aortic aneurysm at the Valsalva sinus (26mm, Z-score=+4.24). A genetic investigation found a TGFβR2 gene mutation, leading to the diagnosis of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 2. Skeletal damage associated with bifid uvula and/or hypertelorism and an aneurysm of the ascending aorta should guide the genetic investigation to the search for TGF-β vasculopathy such as Loeys-Dietz syndrome. PMID:27017362

  16. Chronic Candida albicans Meningitis in a 4-Year-Old Girl with a Homozygous Mutation in the CARD9 Gene (Q295X).

    PubMed

    Herbst, Martin; Gazendam, Roel; Reimnitz, Denise; Sawalle-Belohradsky, Julie; Groll, Andreas; Schlegel, Paul-Gerhardt; Belohradsky, Bernd; Renner, Ellen; Klepper, Jörg; Grimbacher, Bodo; Kuijpers, Taco; Liese, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    A 4-year-old Turkish girl of consanguineous parents was hospitalized for the evaluation of headaches and recurrent febrile episodes of unknown origin. Her medical history was unremarkable except for a few episodes of uncomplicated oral thrush. Meningitis was diagnosed, and Candida albicans was the only pathogen identified by polymerase chain reaction and culture. Despite systemic antifungal multidrug therapy, a prolonged course of 16 months of therapy was necessary to clear C. albicans from the cerebrospinal fluid. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a homozygous caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) mutation (Q295X), which was reported to predispose to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Immunologic workup excluded predisposing B-cell and T-cell defects. In addition, T cells producing interleukin-17 were repeatedly measured within the normal range. Analyses of neutrophils demonstrated normal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity in response to various stimuli including Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans. Additional neutrophilic functional testing, however, showed a decreased cytotoxicity to nonopsonized C. albicans, indicating an impaired killing mechanism against Candida spp. independent from the production of reactive oxygen species by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase system. Because this defect was only demonstrated in the absence of opsonins, it might especially predispose to chronic C. albicans infections in the central nervous system where opsonin concentrations are usually low. We, therefore, suggest that due to an additional neutrophil dependent defect CARD9 deficiency predisposes not only to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but also to invasive chronic Candida infections, especially of the central nervous system. PMID:25933095

  17. Aspects of Social Reputation and Peer Relationships in Italian Children: A Cross-Cultural Perspective."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casiglia, Amedeo C.; Lo Coco, Alida; Zappulla, Carla

    1998-01-01

    Administered Revised Class Play to Italian children to explore cross-cultural differences from North American studies on social reputation. Administered sociometric nominations to examine association between social reputation and peer acceptance-rejection. Found that original Leadership-Sociability factor was split into separate dimensions. Also…

  18. Disambiguating Information and Memory Resources in Children's Processing of Italian Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arosio, Fabrizio; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Stucchi, Natale

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of number agreement on verb and of animacy in the comprehension of subject and object relative clauses in 51 monolingual Italian-speaking children, mean age 9:33, tested through a self-paced listening experiment with a final comprehension question. A "digit span test" and a "listening span test" were also administered to…

  19. Pediatric Tuberculosis in Italian Children: Epidemiological and Clinical Data from the Italian Register of Pediatric Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Luisa; Lancella, Laura; Tersigni, Chiara; Venturini, Elisabetta; Chiappini, Elena; Bergamini, Barbara Maria; Codifava, Margherita; Venturelli, Cristina; Tosetti, Giulia; Marabotto, Caterina; Cursi, Laura; Boccuzzi, Elena; Garazzino, Silvia; Tovo, Pier Angelo; Pinon, Michele; Le Serre, Daniele; Castiglioni, Laura; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Guarino, Alfredo; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Elio; Bossi, Grazia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Grandolfo, Rita; Fiorito, Valentina; Valentini, Piero; Buonsenso, Danilo; Domenici, Raffaele; Montesanti, Marco; Salvini, Filippo Maria; Riva, Enrica; Dodi, Icilio; Maschio, Francesca; Abbagnato, Luisa; Fiumana, Elisa; Fornabaio, Chiara; Ballista, Patrizia; Portelli, Vincenzo; Bottone, Gabriella; Palladino, Nicola; Valenzise, Mariella; Vecchi, Barbara; Di Gangi, Maria; Lupi, Carla; Villani, Alberto; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, latent TB, and those recently exposed to TB or recently adopted/immigrated from a high TB incidence country were enrolled. Overall, 4234 children were included; 554 (13.1%) children had active TB, 594 (14.0%) latent TB and 3086 (72.9%) were uninfected. Among children with active TB, 481 (86.8%) patients had pulmonary TB. The treatment of active TB cases was known for 96.4% (n = 534) of the cases. Overall, 210 (39.3%) out of these 534 children were treated with three and 216 (40.4%) with four first-line drugs. Second-line drugs where used in 87 (16.3%) children with active TB. Drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were reported in 39 (7%) children. Improving the surveillance of childhood TB is important for public health care workers and pediatricians. A non-negligible proportion of children had drug-resistant TB and was treated with second-line drugs, most of which are off-label in the pediatric age. Future efforts should concentrate on improving active surveillance, diagnostic tools, and the availability of antitubercular pediatric formulations, also in low-endemic countries. PMID:27322255

  20. Pediatric Tuberculosis in Italian Children: Epidemiological and Clinical Data from the Italian Register of Pediatric Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Galli, Luisa; Lancella, Laura; Tersigni, Chiara; Venturini, Elisabetta; Chiappini, Elena; Bergamini, Barbara Maria; Codifava, Margherita; Venturelli, Cristina; Tosetti, Giulia; Marabotto, Caterina; Cursi, Laura; Boccuzzi, Elena; Garazzino, Silvia; Tovo, Pier Angelo; Pinon, Michele; Le Serre, Daniele; Castiglioni, Laura; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Guarino, Alfredo; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Elio; Bossi, Grazia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Grandolfo, Rita; Fiorito, Valentina; Valentini, Piero; Buonsenso, Danilo; Domenici, Raffaele; Montesanti, Marco; Salvini, Filippo Maria; Riva, Enrica; Dodi, Icilio; Maschio, Francesca; Abbagnato, Luisa; Fiumana, Elisa; Fornabaio, Chiara; Ballista, Patrizia; Portelli, Vincenzo; Bottone, Gabriella; Palladino, Nicola; Valenzise, Mariella; Vecchi, Barbara; Di Gangi, Maria; Lupi, Carla; Villani, Alberto; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, latent TB, and those recently exposed to TB or recently adopted/immigrated from a high TB incidence country were enrolled. Overall, 4234 children were included; 554 (13.1%) children had active TB, 594 (14.0%) latent TB and 3086 (72.9%) were uninfected. Among children with active TB, 481 (86.8%) patients had pulmonary TB. The treatment of active TB cases was known for 96.4% (n = 534) of the cases. Overall, 210 (39.3%) out of these 534 children were treated with three and 216 (40.4%) with four first-line drugs. Second-line drugs where used in 87 (16.3%) children with active TB. Drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were reported in 39 (7%) children. Improving the surveillance of childhood TB is important for public health care workers and pediatricians. A non-negligible proportion of children had drug-resistant TB and was treated with second-line drugs, most of which are off-label in the pediatric age. Future efforts should concentrate on improving active surveillance, diagnostic tools, and the availability of antitubercular pediatric formulations, also in low-endemic countries. PMID:27322255

  1. Determiners in Bilingual German-Italian Children: What They Tell Us about the Relation between Language Influence and Language Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupisch, Tanja

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether language dominance and cross-linguistic influence are related by investigating the acquisition of determiner omission in four bilingual German-Italian children. The study begins by showing that monolingual Italian learners omit determiners less extensively than monolingual German learners. If bilingual…

  2. The Italian Job?: Comparing Theory of Mind Performance in British and Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecce, Serena; Hughes, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Cross-cultural research on theory of mind is relatively recent and largely restricted to comparisons of children from Western versus non-Western samples; much less is known about variation within Western cultures. This study compared 5- to 6-year-olds from Britain and Italy (matched for age, verbal age, gender, and maternal education; N=140), on…

  3. Characteristics of Phonological Development as a Risk Factor for Language Development in Italian-Speaking Pre-Term Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Odorico, Laura; Majorano, Marinella; Fasolo, Mirco; Salerni, Nicoletta; Suttora, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the early linguistic development of Italian pre-term children. Samples of spontaneous pre-linguistic and verbal production were recorded at 12 and 18 months of age from two groups of children: 24 pre-term children and 15 full-term children. The Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Questionnaire was administered at 24 months…

  4. Explaining Variance in Long-Term Recall in 3- and 4-Year-Old Children: The Importance of Post-Encoding Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina; Doydum, Ayzit O.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term recall is influenced by what originally was encoded as well as by the efficacy of retrieval processes. The possible explanatory role of post-encoding processes by which initially labile memory traces are stabilized and integrated into long-term memory (i.e., consolidated) has received relatively less research attention. In the current…

  5. Real-Word and Nonword Repetition in Italian-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Study of Diagnostic Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispaldro, Marco; Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Using 2 different scoring methods, the authors examined the diagnostic accuracy of both real-word and nonword repetition in identifying Italian-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A total of 34 children ages 3;11-5;8 (years;months) participated--17 children with SLI and 17 typically developing…

  6. Grammatical Morphology and the Role of Weak Syllables in the Speech of Italian-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Bortolini, Umberta

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-five Italian-speaking children (ages 4 to 7) with specific language impairments were compared to younger control children in their use of auxiliary verbs, pronominal clitics, infinitives, present-tense verbal inflections, and articles. Differences favoring the control children were found for those morphemes that required the production of…

  7. Skin disease and thyroid autoimmunity in atopic South Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Pedullà, Marcella; Fierro, Vincenzo; Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Capuano, Francesco; Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele; Ruocco, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    AIM To verify the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity (TA) and the possible association between atopy and TA in children affected by skin disease. METHODS Three hundred and twenty-four children consecutively referred due to skin disease symptoms to our Pediatric Department were enrolled. One hundred and eighty-seven were diagnosed with atopic dermatitis (AD), 95 with acute urticaria, 40 with chronic urticaria (CU), and 2 with alopecia areata (AA). According to the work-up for atopy, the children were divided into two groups: Atopics and non-atopics. TA was diagnosed by serum thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies and/or thyroglobulin autoantibodies levels more than twice normal values over a period of two months by immunoassay. RESULTS In all children with skin disease, a significant prevalence of TA in atopics compared with non-atopics (13.67% vs 2.67%, P = 0.0016) and a significant association between TA and atopy (OR = 5.76, 95%CI: 1.71-19.35) were observed. These findings were confirmed as significant in children with AD: TA in atopics was 11.5%, while TA in non-atopics was 2.7% (P = 0.03, OR = 4.68, 95%CI: 1.02-21.38). In addition, atopics with CU showed a significantly higher prevalence of TA (26.9%), but none of the non-atopics showed CU (P = 0.0326). On the other hand, atopics with AA showed a 100% (2 out of 2) prevalence of TA, compared with none of the non-atopics. CONCLUSION In children with skin disease, atopy seems to be associated with an increased risk of TA. PMID:27610344

  8. Cross-sectional study on differences in pain perception and behavioral distress during venipuncture between italian and chinese children.

    PubMed

    Bisogni, Sofia; Calzolai, Marta; Olivini, Nicole; Ciofi, Daniele; Mazzoni, Nicola; Caprilli, Simona; Lopez, José Rafael Gonzalez; Festini, Filippo

    2014-08-12

    Venipuncture is perhaps the scariest aspect of hospitalization for children as it causes pain and high levels of behavioral distress. Pain is a complex experience which is also influenced by social factors such as cultural attitudes, beliefs and traditions. Studies focusing on ethnic/cultural differences in pain perception and behavioral distress show controversial results, in particular with regards to children. The aim of this paper is to evaluate differences in pain perception and behavioral manifestations between Italian and Chinese children undergoing a venipuncture, through a cross-sectional study. Behavioral distress and self-reported pain were measured in Chinese and Italian outpatient children during a standardized blood-drawing procedure, using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD) and pain scales. We observed 332 children: 93 Chinese and 239 Italian. Chinese children scored higher than Italians on pain scales - mean scores 5.3 (95%CI 4.78-5.81) vs. 3.2 (95%CI 2.86-3.53) - but lower mean OSBD scores - mean 4.1 (95%CI 3.04-5.15) vs. 8.1 (95%CI 7.06-9.14). Our data suggest that Chinese children experience higher levels of pain than their Italian peers, although they show more self-control in their behavioral reaction to pain when experiencing venipuncture. PMID:25635220

  9. Educator Abroad: Teaching ("Insegnare") and Learning ("Imparare") with Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltri, Barbara Torre

    2012-01-01

    Over her 30-year career as a certified teacher, researcher, and university teacher educator, the author has planned, facilitated and refined educational experiences for children from pre-kindergarten through adolescence, as well as for adults who teach (or were preparing to teach) in New York, Connecticut, Texas, and Arizona. During the summer of…

  10. Career Exploration and Occupational Knowledge in Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Lea; Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Santilli, Sara; Nota, Laura; Sgaramella, Teresa Maria; Soresi, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    We explored the perception and actual occupational knowledge of jobs on career exploration across Holland's categories in 60 elementary and 60 middle school students. Results showed a closer relationship between career exploration and actual knowledge than children's perception of knowledge. We found higher levels of actual knowledge and…

  11. Individual dose and exposure of Italian children to ultrafine particles.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, G; Marini, S; Morawska, L; Fuoco, F C

    2012-11-01

    Time-activity patterns and the airborne pollutant concentrations encountered by children each day are an important determinant of individual exposure to airborne particles. This is demonstrated in this work by using hand-held devices to measure the real-time individual exposure of more than 100 children aged 8-11 years to particle number concentrations and average particle diameter, as well as alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited surface area concentration. A GPS-logger and activity diaries were also used to give explanation to the measurement results. Children were divided in three sample groups: two groups comprised of urban schools (school time from 8:30 am to 1:30 pm) with lunch and dinner at home, and the third group of a rural school with only dinner at home. The mean individual exposure to particle number concentration was found to differ between the three groups, ranging from 6.2 × 10(4)part.cm(-3) for children attending one urban school to 1.6 × 10(4)part.cm(-3) for the rural school. The corresponding daily alveolar deposited surface area dose varied from about 1.7 × 10(3)mm(2) for urban schools to 6.0 × 10(2)mm(2) for the rural school. For all of the children monitored, the lowest particle number concentrations are found during sleeping time and the highest were found during eating time. With regard to alveolar deposited surface area dose, a child's home was the major contributor (about 70%), with school contributing about 17% for urban schools and 27% for the rural school. An important contribution arises from the cooking/eating time spent at home, which accounted for approximately 20% of overall exposure, corresponding to more than 200 mm(2). These activities represent the highest dose received per time unit, with very high values also encountered by children with a fireplace at home, as well as those that spend considerable time stuck in traffic jams. PMID:23000716

  12. How Do Alternative Ways of Responding Influence 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Performance on Tests of Executive Function and Theory of Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Daniel J.; Riggs, Kevin J.; Apperly, Ian A.; Graham, Kate; Geoghegan, Ceara

    2012-01-01

    A total of 69 preschool children were tested on measures of false belief understanding (the Unexpected Transfer task), inhibitory control (the Grass/Snow task), and strategic reasoning (the Windows task). For each task, children indicated their response either by pointing with their index finger or by using a nonstandard response mode (pointing…

  13. A Multicenter Retrospective Survey regarding Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management in Italian Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zucchini, Stefano; Scaramuzza, Andrea E.; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Buono, Pietro; Cardella, Francesca; Cauvin, Vittoria; Cherubini, Valentino; Chiari, Giovanni; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Frongia, Anna Paola; Iafusco, Dario; Maltoni, Giulio; Patera, Ippolita Patrizia; Toni, Sonia; Tumini, Stefano; Rabbone, Ivana; Diabetes Study Group of the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology (ISPED)

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective survey in pediatric centers belonging to the Italian Society for Pediatric Diabetology and Endocrinology. The following data were collected for all new-onset diabetes patients aged 0–18 years: DKA (pH < 7.30), severe DKA (pH < 7.1), DKA in preschool children, DKA treatment according to ISPAD protocol, type of rehydrating solution used, bicarbonates use, and amount of insulin infused. Records (n = 2453) of children with newly diagnosed diabetes were collected from 68/77 centers (87%), 39 of which are tertiary referral centers, the majority of whom (n = 1536, 89.4%) were diagnosed in the tertiary referral centers. DKA was observed in 38.5% and severe DKA in 10.3%. Considering preschool children, DKA was observed in 72%, and severe DKA in 16.7%. Cerebral edema following DKA treatment was observed in 5 (0.5%). DKA treatment according to ISPAD guidelines was adopted in 68% of the centers. In the first 2 hours, rehydration was started with normal saline in all centers, but with different amount. Bicarbonate was quite never been used. Insulin was infused starting from third hour at the rate of 0.05–0.1 U/kg/h in 72% of centers. Despite prevention campaign, DKA is still observed in Italian children at onset, with significant variability in DKA treatment, underlying the need to share guidelines among centers. PMID:26649321

  14. A Multicenter Retrospective Survey regarding Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management in Italian Children with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Stefano; Scaramuzza, Andrea E; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Buono, Pietro; Cardella, Francesca; Cauvin, Vittoria; Cherubini, Valentino; Chiari, Giovanni; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Frongia, Anna Paola; Iafusco, Dario; Maltoni, Giulio; Patera, Ippolita Patrizia; Toni, Sonia; Tumini, Stefano; Rabbone, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective survey in pediatric centers belonging to the Italian Society for Pediatric Diabetology and Endocrinology. The following data were collected for all new-onset diabetes patients aged 0-18 years: DKA (pH < 7.30), severe DKA (pH < 7.1), DKA in preschool children, DKA treatment according to ISPAD protocol, type of rehydrating solution used, bicarbonates use, and amount of insulin infused. Records (n = 2453) of children with newly diagnosed diabetes were collected from 68/77 centers (87%), 39 of which are tertiary referral centers, the majority of whom (n = 1536, 89.4%) were diagnosed in the tertiary referral centers. DKA was observed in 38.5% and severe DKA in 10.3%. Considering preschool children, DKA was observed in 72%, and severe DKA in 16.7%. Cerebral edema following DKA treatment was observed in 5 (0.5%). DKA treatment according to ISPAD guidelines was adopted in 68% of the centers. In the first 2 hours, rehydration was started with normal saline in all centers, but with different amount. Bicarbonate was quite never been used. Insulin was infused starting from third hour at the rate of 0.05-0.1 U/kg/h in 72% of centers. Despite prevention campaign, DKA is still observed in Italian children at onset, with significant variability in DKA treatment, underlying the need to share guidelines among centers. PMID:26649321

  15. Imitation as a mechanism in cognitive development: a cross-cultural investigation of 4-year-old children’s rule learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhidan; Williamson, Rebecca A.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Children learn about the social and physical world by observing other people’s acts. This experiment tests both Chinese and American children’s learning of a rule. For theoretical reasons we chose the rule of categorizing objects by the weight. Children, age 4 years, saw an adult heft four visually-identical objects and sort them into two bins based on an invisible property—the object’s weight. Children who saw this categorization behavior were more likely to sort those objects by weight than were children who saw control actions using the same objects and the same bins. Crucially, children also generalized to a novel set of objects with no further demonstration, suggesting rule learning. We also report that high-fidelity imitation of the adult’s “hefting” acts may give children crucial experience with the objects’ weights, which could then be used to infer the more abstract rule. The connection of perception, action, and cognition was found in children from both cultures, which leads to broad implications for how the imitation of adults’ acts functions as a lever in cognitive development. PMID:26029132

  16. Shyness, Child-Teacher Relationships, and Socio-Emotional Adjustment in a Sample of Italian Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; Schneider, Barry H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating role of child-teacher relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependence) in the association between children's shyness and indices of socio-emotional adjustment and maladjustment. The participants were Italian preschool children (63 boys; 66 girls) and two lead…

  17. Self-Perceptions of Competence in Brazilian, Canadian, Chinese and Italian Children: Relations with Social and School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Zappulla, Carla; Coco, Alida Lo; Schneider, Barry; Kaspar, Violet; De Oliveira, Ana Maria; He, Yunfeng; Li, Dan; Li, Boshu; Bergeron, Natasha; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang; DeSouza, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between self-perceptions of competence and social, behavioural, and school adjustment in Brazilian, Canadian, Chinese, and Italian children. Self-perception data were collected through children's self-reports. Information about social behaviours, peer acceptance, and school achievement was…

  18. Two New Rating Scales for Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Italian Preschool Children: A Comparison between Parent and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Re, Anna Maria; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Two new rating scales are presented for the assessment of ADHD symptoms in Italian preschool children, and the agreement between parents and teachers on the presence of an ADHD profile is examined. Method: The scales were administered to parents and teachers of 180 children with a mean age of 5 years and 9 months, attending final year…

  19. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  20. Clinical Markers in Italian-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment: A Study of Non-Word and Real Word Repetition as Predictors of Grammatical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispaldro, Marco; Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background: In many languages a weakness in non-word repetition serves as a useful clinical marker of specific language impairment (SLI) in children. However, recent work in Italian has shown that the repetition of real words may also have clinical utility. For young typically developing Italian children, real word repetition is more predictive of…

  1. How early L2 children perform on Italian clinical markers of SLI: A study of clitic production and nonword repetition.

    PubMed

    Vender, Maria; Garraffa, Maria; Sorace, Antonella; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Early second language (EL2) learners generally perform more poorly than monolinguals in specific language domains, presenting similarities with children affected by specific language impairment (SLI). As a consequence, it can be difficult to correctly diagnose this disorder in EL2 children. The current study investigated the performance of 120 EL2 and 40 age-matched monolingual children in object clitic production and nonword repetition, which are two sensitive clinical markers of SLI in Italian. Results show that EL2 children underperform in comparison to monolinguals in the clitic task. However, in contrast to what is reported on Italian-speaking children with SLI, EL2 children tend not to omit clitics but instead produce the incorrect form, committing agreement errors. No differences are found between EL2 and monolingual children on nonword repetition. These results suggest that, at least in Italian, EL2 children only superficially resemble children with SLI and, on closer inspection, present a qualitatively and quantitatively different linguistic profile. PMID:26810381

  2. Behavioral and neurobiological correlates of childhood apraxia of speech in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Chilosi, Anna Maria; Lorenzini, Irene; Fiori, Simona; Graziosi, Valentina; Rossi, Giuseppe; Pasquariello, Rosa; Cipriani, Paola; Cioni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a neurogenic Speech Sound Disorder whose etiology and neurobiological correlates are still unclear. In the present study, 32 Italian children with idiopathic CAS underwent a comprehensive speech and language, genetic and neuroradiological investigation aimed to gather information on the possible behavioral and neurobiological markers of the disorder. The results revealed four main aggregations of behavioral symptoms that indicate a multi-deficit disorder involving both motor-speech and language competence. Six children presented with chromosomal alterations. The familial aggregation rate for speech and language difficulties and the male to female ratio were both very high in the whole sample, supporting the hypothesis that genetic factors make substantial contribution to the risk of CAS. As expected in accordance with the diagnosis of idiopathic CAS, conventional MRI did not reveal macrostructural pathogenic neuroanatomical abnormalities, suggesting that CAS may be due to brain microstructural alterations. PMID:26552038

  3. Italian deprivation index and dental caries in 12-year-old children: a multilevel Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Matranga, Domenica; Campus, Guglielmo; Castiglia, Paolo; Strohmenger, Laura; Solinas, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from the literature has shown that people with a lower socioeconomic status enjoy less good health than people with a higher socioeconomic status. The Italian deprivation index (DI) was used with the aim to evaluate the association between the DMFT index and risk factors for dental caries, including city population and DI. The study included 4,305 12-year-old children living in 38 cities classified by demographic size as small, midsize and large. Zero-inflated negative binomial multilevel regression models were used to assess risk factors for DMFT and to address excess of zero DMFT and overdispersion through a Bayesian approach. The difference in the average level of DMFT among children living in cities with different DI quintile was not statistically significant (p = 0.578). The DI and ln(population), included as city-level fixed effects in the two-level variance components model, were not statistically significant. Consuming sweet drinks on average increased the mean DMFT of a susceptible child, while having a highly educated mother reduced it. Unobserved heterogeneity among cities was detected for the probability to be non-susceptible to caries (city-level variance = 0.26 with 95% credibility interval 0.09-0.57), while no territorial effect was found for the mean DMFT of the susceptible children. Our results suggest that the DI and city population did not play a role in explaining between-city variability. Interventions against social deprivation can be influential on the perception of oral health in Italian 12-year-old children to the extent that they can also affect individual level factors. PMID:25073937

  4. Slow intestinal transit contributes to elevate urinary p-cresol level in Italian autistic children.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Altieri, Laura; Neri, Cristina; Urbani, Andrea; Bravaccio, Carmela; Riccio, Maria Pia; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Bombace, Francesca; De Magistris, Laura; Persico, Antonio M

    2016-07-01

    The uremic toxin p-cresol (4-methylphenol) is either of environmental origin or can be synthetized from tyrosine by cresol-producing bacteria present in the gut lumen. Elevated p-cresol amounts have been previously found in the urines of Italian and French autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children up until 8 years of age, and may be associated with autism severity or with the intensity of abnormal behaviors. This study aims to investigate the mechanism producing elevated urinary p-cresol in ASD. Urinary p-cresol levels were thus measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in a sample of 53 Italian ASD children assessed for (a) presence of Clostridium spp. strains in the gut by means of an in vitro fecal stool test and of Clostridium difficile-derived toxin A/B in the feces, (b) intestinal permeability using the lactulose/mannitol (LA/MA) test, (c) frequent use of antibiotics due to recurrent infections during the first 2 years of postnatal life, and (d) stool habits with the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Chronic constipation was the only variable significantly associated with total urinary p-cresol concentration (P < 0.05). No association was found with presence of Clostridium spp. in the gut flora (P = 0.92), augmented intestinal permeability (P = 0.18), or frequent use of antibiotics in early infancy (P = 0.47). No ASD child was found to carry C. difficile in the gut or to release toxin A/B in the feces. In conclusion, urinary p-cresol levels are elevated in young ASD children with increased intestinal transit time and chronic constipation. Autism Res 2016, 9: 752-759. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26437875

  5. Predictive and Concurrent Relations between Literacy Skills in Grades 1 and 3: A Longitudinal Study of Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimoni, Marta; Scalisi, Teresa Gloria; Orsolini, Margherita

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 170 Italian children was assessed for reading accuracy, reading speed, text comprehension and spelling in Grades 1 and 3 in order to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal relationships among literacy skills. Main results from multivariate analyses (regression, discriminant and path analyses) indicated that reading speed was the…

  6. Italian Children with Dyslexia Are Also Poor in Reading English Words, but Accurate in Reading English Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Paola; Bellagamba, Isabella; Ferrari, Marcella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that children with dyslexia (DC) are poor at learning a foreign language (L2) and, in particular, reading foreign words. This assumption is so general that an Italian law (law 170, October, 2010) has established that DC may be completely exempted from foreign language learning and, in any case, should not be engaged in tuition…

  7. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised scores in adult children exposed to alienating behaviors: an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Bernet, William; Baker, Amy J L; Verrocchio, Maria C

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses a particular form of child psychological maltreatment, exposing a child to alienating behaviors in the context of a high degree of conflict between the parents. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors that occurred in an Italian sample of children and the reported associated psychosocial symptoms. Seven hundred and thirty-nine adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors and measures of current symptomatology. About 75% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; 15% of the sample endorsed the item, "tried to turn me against the other parent." The results revealed strong and statistically significant associations between reported exposure to parental alienating behaviors and reports of current symptomatology. PMID:25613416

  8. A comparison of proficiency levels in 4-year-old monolingual and trilingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and South African English across SES boundaries, using LITMUS-CLT.

    PubMed

    Perold Potgieter, Anneke; Southwood, Frenette

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how trilinguals fare on the cross-linguistic lexical tasks (CLT)-Afrikaans, -isiXhosa and -South African English (SAE) (cf. Haman et al., 2015) compared to monolingual controls, and whether the CLT-Afrikaans renders comparable results across socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The LITMUS-CLTs were administered to 41 low SES 4-year-olds (11 trilinguals; 10 monolingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and SAE) and the LITMUS-CLT-Afrikaans to 11 mid-SES 4-year-old monolinguals. Results (a) indicate that trilinguals' proficiency in their exposure-dominant language did not differ significantly from monolinguals' proficiency, but their proficiency in their additional two languages was significantly lower than monolinguals' proficiency; (b) reflect the extent, but not current amount, of exposure trilinguals had had over time to each of their languages; and (c) show that low and mid-SES monolinguals differed significantly on noun-related, but not verb-related, CLT measures. Possible reasons for and the clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26785940

  9. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis of U.S. and Italian Children's Performance on the PASS Theory of Intelligence as Measured by the Cognitive Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Taddei, Stefano; Williams, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Italian and U.S. children's performance on the English and Italian versions, respectively, of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Conway, 2009; Naglieri & Das, 1997), a test based on a neurocognitive theory of intelligence entitled PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive; Naglieri & Das, 1997;…

  10. Bullying and Victimization in Overweight and Obese Outpatient Children and Adolescents: An Italian Multicentric Study

    PubMed Central

    Garrasi, Alessandra; Corciulo, Nicola; Driul, Daniela; Tanas, Rita; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Di Pietro, Elena; Pesce, Sabino; Crinò, Antonino; Maltoni, Giulio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro; Deiana, Manuela; Lombardi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Objective Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i) the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii) the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity. Participants/Methods Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0–14.0 years) were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129), overweight (N = 126), moderately obese (N = 568), and severely obese (N = 124). The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved. Results Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females. Conclusions Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges. PMID:26606393

  11. Real-Word and Nonword Repetition in Italian-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Study of Diagnostic Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Dispaldro, Marco; Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Using two different scoring methods, we examined the diagnostic accuracy of both real-word and nonword repetition in identifying Italian-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A total of 34 children aged 3;11 to 5;8 participated – 17 children with SLI and 17 typically developing children matched for age (TD-A children). Children completed real-word and nonword repetition tasks. The capacity of real-word and nonword repetition tasks to discriminate children with SLI from TD-A was examined through binary logistic regression and response operating characteristics curves. Results: Both real-word and nonword repetition showed good (or excellent) sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing children with SLI from their typically developing peers. Conclusions: Nonword repetition appears to be a useful diagnostic indicator for Italian, as in other languages. In addition, real-word repetition also holds promise. The contributions of each type of measure are discussed. PMID:22761319

  12. The spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis in children: an Italian case series.

    PubMed

    Mignone, F; Codecasa, L R; Scolfaro, C; Raffaldi, I; Lancella, L; Ferrarese, M; Garazzino, S; Marabotto, C; Esposito, S; Gabiano, C; Lipreri, R; Tovo, P-A

    2014-10-01

    Drug-resistant paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is an overlooked global problem. In Italy, the epidemiology of TB has recently changed and data regarding drug-resistant forms in the paediatric setting is scanty. The aim of this case series was to report the cases of drug-resistant TB, diagnosed between June 2006 and July 2010 in four Italian tertiary centres for paediatric infectious diseases, in children and adolescents living in Italy. Twenty-two children were enrolled, of these 17 were resistant to one or more drugs and five had multidrug-resistant TB. All but one child were either foreign born or had at least one foreign parent. Twenty-one patients completed their treatment without clinical or radiological signs of activity at the end of treatment, and one patient was lost to follow up. The outcomes were good, with few adverse effects using second-line anti-TB drugs. Although this series is limited, it might already reflect the worrisome increase of drug-resistant TB, even in childhood. PMID:24480079

  13. Grammatical feature dissimilarities make relative clauses easier: A comprehension study with Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Adani, Flavia; van der Lely, Heather K.J.; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The Relativized Minimality approach to A′-dependencies (Friedmann et al., 2009) predicts that headed object relative clauses (RCs) and which—questions are the most difficult, due to the presence of a lexical restriction on both the subject and the object DP which creates intervention. We investigated comprehension of center-embedded headed object RCs with Italian children, where Number and Gender feature values on subject and object DPs are manipulated. We found that, Number conditions are always more accurate than Gender ones, showing that intervention is sensitive to DP-internal structure. We propose a finer definition of the lexical restriction where external and syntactically active features (such as Number) reduce intervention whereas internal and (possibly) lexicalized features (such as Gender) do so to a lesser extent. Our results are also compatible with a memory interference approach in which the human parser is sensitive to highly specific properties of the linguistic input, such as the cue-based model (Van Dyke, 2007). PMID:21151323

  14. Parenting Practices and Child Misbehavior: A Mixed Method Study of Italian Mothers and Children

    PubMed Central

    Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Norcia, Anna; Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study uses a mixed qualitative and quantitative method to examine three main research questions: What are the practices that mothers report they use when trying to correct their children’s misbehaviors? Are there common patterns of these practices? Are the patterns that emerge related to children’s well-being? Design Italian mother-child dyads (N=103) participated in the study (when children were 8 years of age). At Time 1 (T1), mothers answered open-ended questions about discipline; in addition, measures of maternal physical discipline and rejection and child aggression were assessed in mothers and children at T1, one year later (T2), and two years later (T3). Results Mothers’ answers to open-ended questions about what they would do in three disciplinary situations were classified in six categories: physical or psychological punishment, control, mix of force and reasoning, reasoning, listening, and permissiveness. Cluster analysis yielded 3 clusters: Group 1, Induction (predominant use of reasoning and listening; 74%); Group 2, Punishment (punitive practices and no reasoning; 16%); Group 3, Mixed practices (combination of reasoning and punishment, as well as high control and no listening; 10%). Multiple-group latent growth curves of maternal physical discipline, maternal rejection, and child aggression were implemented to evaluate possible differences in the developmental trends from T1 to T3, as a function of cluster. Conclusions Qualitative data deepen understanding of parenting because they shed light on what parents think about themselves; their self-descriptions, in turn, help to identify ways of parenting that may have long-lasting consequences for children’s adjustment. PMID:26877716

  15. Italian survey on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and gastrointestinal bleeding in children

    PubMed Central

    Cardile, Sabrina; Martinelli, Massimo; Barabino, Arrigo; Gandullia, Paolo; Oliva, Salvatore; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Dall'Oglio, Luigi; Rea, Francesca; de' Angelis, Gian Luigi; Bizzarri, Barbara; Guariso, Graziella; Masci, Enzo; Staiano, Annamaria; Miele, Erasmo; Romano, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gastrointestinal complications associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) use in children. METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter study was conducted between January 2005 and January 2013, with the participation of 8 Italian pediatric gastroenterology centers. We collected all the cases of patients who refer to emergency room for suspected gastrointestinal bleeding following NSAIDs consumption, and underwent endoscopic evaluation. Previous medical history, associated risk factors, symptoms and signs at presentation, diagnostic procedures, severity of bleeding and management of gastrointestinal bleeding were collected. In addition, data regarding type of drug used, indication, dose, duration of treatment and prescriber (physician or self-medication) were examined. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients, including 34 males, were enrolled (median age: 7.8 years). Ibuprofen was the most used NSAID [35/51 patients (68.6%)]. Pain was the most frequent indication for NSAIDs use [29/51 patients (56.9%)]. Seven patients had positive family history of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection or peptic ulcer, and 12 had associated comorbidities. Twenty-four (47%) out of 51 patients used medication inappropriately. Hematemesis was the most frequent symptom (33.3%). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastric lesions in 32/51 (62%) patients, duodenal lesions in 17 (33%) and esophageal lesions in 8 (15%). In 10/51 (19.6%) patients, a diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis was made. Forty-eight (94%) patients underwent medical therapy, with spontaneous bleeding resolution, while in 3/51 (6%) patients, an endoscopic hemostasis was needed. CONCLUSION: The data collected in this study confirms that adverse events with the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract secondary to NSAID use are also common in children PMID:26855547

  16. Physical activity practice, body image and visual impairment: a comparison between Brazilian and Italian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physical activity and body image of children and adolescents with visual impairment (VI) in Brazil and Italy. For this, 41 children and adolescents with VI (19 Brazilian and 22 Italian) aged 10.22 ± 2.19 years old (18 girls and 23 boys) answered the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C), the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), and an instrument with information about the disability, body weight and height. We analyzed the relationship between data from PAQ-C and OSIQ, as well as the gender, level of disability (blindness or low vision) and country using independent Mann-Whitney test. Body mass index (BMI) values were higher for Brazilian youths, with more than half of them classified as overweight and obese. Italian youths exhibited values of body image that were more positive and only 27% presented overweight or obesity. Blind children and adolescents were less active than those with low vision, but no differences were found between countries or genders. In Brazil, we detected significant correlations (p>0.05) between physical activity, body image and BMI, which more active youths presenting lower values of BMI and a better perception of body image. Physical activity seems to have a positive influence on body image and BMI for children and adolescents with VI, thus it should be encouraged especially for those with higher disability degrees. PMID:24216343

  17. Preschool Children's Performance on Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Fiona E.; Smyth, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) has not been used widely to assess prosodic abilities of preschool children. This study was therefore aimed at investigating typically developing 4-year-olds' performance on PEPS-C. PEPS-C was presented to 30 typically developing 4-year-olds recruited in southern Ireland. Children were…

  18. Effects of age and language on co-speech gesture production: an investigation of French, American, and Italian children's narratives.

    PubMed

    Colletta, Jean-Marc; Guidetti, Michèle; Capirci, Olga; Cristilli, Carla; Demir, Ozlem Ece; Kunene-Nicolas, Ramona N; Levine, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare speech and co-speech gestures observed during a narrative retelling task in five- and ten-year-old children from three different linguistic groups, French, American, and Italian, in order to better understand the role of age and language in the development of multimodal monologue discourse abilities. We asked 98 five- and ten-year-old children to narrate a short, wordless cartoon. Results showed a common developmental trend as well as linguistic and gesture differences between the three language groups. In all three languages, older children were found to give more detailed narratives, to insert more comments, and to gesture more and use different gestures--specifically gestures that contribute to the narrative structure--than their younger counterparts. Taken together, these findings allow a tentative model of multimodal narrative development in which major changes in later language acquisition occur despite language and culture differences. PMID:24529301

  19. Antibiotic Prescriptions and Prophylaxis in Italian Children. Is It Time to Change? Data from the ARPEC Project

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani, Carlotta; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Romanengo, Marta; Tagliabue, Claudia; Centenari, Chiara; D’Argenio, Patrizia; Lundin, Rebecca; Giaquinto, Carlo; Galli, Luisa; Guarino, Alfredo; Esposito, Susanna; Sharland, Mike; Versporten, Ann; Goossens, Herman; Nicolini, Giangiacomo

    2016-01-01

    Background Antimicrobials are the most commonly prescribed drugs. Many studies have evaluated antibiotic prescriptions in the paediatric outpatient but few studies describing the real antibiotic consumption in Italian children’s hospitals have been published. Point-prevalence survey (PPS) has been shown to be a simple, feasible and reliable standardized method for antimicrobials surveillance in children and neonates admitted to the hospital. In this paper, we presented data from a PPS on antimicrobial prescriptions carried out in 7 large Italian paediatric institutions. Methods A 1-day PPS on antibiotic use in hospitalized neonates and children was performed in Italy between October and December 2012 as part of the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children project (ARPEC). Seven institutions in seven Italian cities were involved. The survey included all admitted patients less than 18 years of age present in the ward at 8:00 am on the day of the survey, who had at least one on-going antibiotic prescription. For all patients data about age, weight, underlying disease, antimicrobial agent, dose and indication for treatment were collected. Results The PPS was performed in 61 wards within 7 Italian institutions. A total of 899 patients were eligible and 349 (38.9%) had an on-going prescription for one or more antibiotics, with variable rates among the hospitals (25.7% - 53.8%). We describe antibiotic prescriptions separately in neonates (<30 days old) and children (> = 30 days to <18 years old). In the neonatal cohort, 62.8% received antibiotics for prophylaxis and only 37.2% on those on antibiotics were treated for infection. Penicillins and aminoglycosides were the most prescribed antibiotic classes. In the paediatric cohort, 64.4% of patients were receiving antibiotics for treatment of infections and 35.5% for prophylaxis. Third generation cephalosporins and penicillin plus inhibitors were the top two antibiotic classes. The main reason for

  20. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of U.S. and Italian children's performance on the PASS theory of intelligence as measured by the Cognitive Assessment System.

    PubMed

    Naglieri, Jack A; Taddei, Stefano; Williams, Kevin M

    2013-03-01

    This study examined Italian and U.S. children's performance on the English and Italian versions, respectively, of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Conway, 2009; Naglieri & Das, 1997), a test based on a neurocognitive theory of intelligence entitled PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive; Naglieri & Das, 1997; Naglieri & Otero, 2011). CAS subtest, PASS scales, and Full Scale scores for Italian (N=809) and U.S. (N=1,174) samples, matched by age and gender, were examined. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis results supported the configural invariance of the CAS factor structure between Italians and Americans for the 5- to 7-year-old (root-mean-square error of approximation [RMSEA]=.038; 90% confidence interval [CI]=.033, .043; comparative fit index [CFI]=.96) and 8- to 18-year-old (RMSEA=.036; 90% CI=.028, .043; CFI=.97) age groups. The Full Scale standard scores (using the U.S. norms) for the Italian (100.9) and U.S. (100.5) samples were nearly identical. The scores between the samples for the PASS scales were very similar, except for the Attention Scale (d=0.26), where the Italian sample's mean score was slightly higher. Negligible mean differences were found for 9 of the 13 subtest scores, 3 showed small d-ratios (2 in favor of the Italian sample), and 1 was large (in favor of the U.S. sample), but some differences in subtest variances were found. These findings suggest that the PASS theory, as measured by CAS, yields similar mean scores and showed factorial invariance for these samples of Italian and American children, who differ on cultural and linguistic characteristics. PMID:22984802

  1. Stress Priming and Statistical Learning in Italian Nonword Reading: Evidence from Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Lucia; Deguchi, Chizuru; Boureux, Magali

    2014-01-01

    Italian has regular spelling-sound correspondences; however, assignment of lexical stress is unpredictable. Sensitivity to stress neighborhood information was investigated by constructing three types of three-syllabic nonwords: nonwords with word-endings characterized by a strong neighborhood of dominant stress words (dominant), nonwords with…

  2. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties in Italian Children: Are They Associated with Other Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and…

  3. Extra-Linguistic Influences on Sentence Comprehension in Italian-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pettenati, P.; Benassi, E.; Deevy, P.; Leonard, L.B.; Caselli, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have deficits in sentence comprehension. These deficits are usually attributed to limitations in the children’s understanding of syntax or the lexical items contained in the sentences. In this study, we examine the role that extra-linguistic factors can play in these children’s sentence comprehension. Aims In this study, extra-linguistic demands on sentence comprehension were manipulated directly by varying the nature of the materials used. Methods & Procedure Forty-five Italian-speaking children participated: 15 with SLI (M age = 4;5), 15 typically developing children matched for age (TD-A, M age = 4;5), and 15 younger typically developing children matched according to language comprehension test scores (TD-Y, M age = 3;9). The children responded to sentence comprehension items that varied in their length and/or in the number and type of foils that competed with the target picture. Outcome & Results The TD-A children were more accurate than the TD-Y children and the children with SLI, but, for all groups, accuracy declined when task demands increased. In particular, sentences containing superfluous adjectives (e.g., Il topo bello copre l’uccello allegro “The nice mouse covers the happy bird” where all depicted mice were nice and all birds were happy) yielded higher scores than similar sentences in which each adjective had to be associated with the proper character (e.g., Il cane giallo lava il maiale bianco “The yellow dog washes the white pig” where foils included a yellow dog washing a pink pig, and a brown dog washing a white pig). Many errors reflected recency effects, probably influenced by the fact that adjectives modifying the object appear at the end of the sentence in Italian. Conclusions & Implications Differences between conditions were observed even when lexical content, syntactic structure, and sentence length were controlled. This finding suggests the need for great care

  4. Effects of Age and Language on Co-Speech Gesture Production: An Investigation of French, American, and Italian Children's Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletta, Jean-Marc; Guidetti, Michele; Capirci, Olga; Cristilli, Carla; Demir, Ozlem Ece; Kunene-Nicolas, Ramona N.; Levine, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare speech and co-speech gestures observed during a narrative retelling task in five- and ten-year-old children from three different linguistic groups, French, American, and Italian, in order to better understand the role of age and language in the development of multimodal monologue discourse abilities. We asked 98…

  5. A Case Study of Bi-Literacy Development among Children Enrolled in an Italian-English Dual Language Program in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanari, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This study examines bi-literacy development among 60 children enrolled in an Italian-English dual language (DL) program in Southern California. Using a variety of measures including (1) oral reading fluency (ORF), (2) accuracy scores, and (3) standardized test for the assessment of reading (STAR) test's estimates of reading ability for…

  6. Children's Working Understanding of the Knowledge Gained from Seeing and Feeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, E. J.; Haigh, S. N.; Pendle, J. E. C.

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments (N = 48 3- to 4-year olds; 100 3- to 5-year olds; 54 4-year-olds), children who could see or feel a target toy, recognized when they had sufficient information to answer "Which one is it?" and when they needed additional access. They were weaker at taking the informative modality of access when the choice was between seeing…

  7. From an imbalance to a new imbalance: Italian-style gluten-free diet alters the salivary microbiota and metabolome of African celiac children.

    PubMed

    Ercolini, Danilo; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Vannini, Lucia; De Filippis, Francesca; Capriati, Teresa; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Iacono, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen Saharawi celiac children following an African-style gluten-free diet for at least two years were subjected to a change of diet to an Italian-style gluten-free diet for 60 days. Significant differences were identified in the salivary microbiota and metabolome when Saharawi celiac children switched from African- to Italian-style dietary habits. An Italian-style gluten-free diet caused increases in the abundance of Granulicatella, Porphyromonas and Neisseria and decreases in Clostridium, Prevotella and Veillonella, altering the 'salivary type' of the individuals. Furthermore, operational taxonomic unit co-occurrence/exclusion patterns indicated that the initial equilibrium of co-occurring microbial species was perturbed by a change in diet: the microbial diversity was reduced, with a few species out-competing the previously established microbiota and becoming dominant. Analysis of predicted metagenomes revealed a remarkable change in the metabolic potential of the microbiota following the diet change, with increased potential for amino acid, vitamin and co-factor metabolism. High concentrations of acetone and 2-butanone during treatment with the Italian-style gluten-free diet suggested metabolic dysfunction in the Saharawi celiac children. The findings of this study support the need for a translational medicine pipeline to examine interactions between food and microbiota when evaluating human development, nutritional needs and the impact and consequences of westernisation. PMID:26681599

  8. From an imbalance to a new imbalance: Italian-style gluten-free diet alters the salivary microbiota and metabolome of African celiac children

    PubMed Central

    Ercolini, Danilo; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Vannini, Lucia; De Filippis, Francesca; Capriati, Teresa; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Iacono, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen Saharawi celiac children following an African-style gluten-free diet for at least two years were subjected to a change of diet to an Italian-style gluten-free diet for 60 days. Significant differences were identified in the salivary microbiota and metabolome when Saharawi celiac children switched from African- to Italian-style dietary habits. An Italian-style gluten-free diet caused increases in the abundance of Granulicatella, Porphyromonas and Neisseria and decreases in Clostridium, Prevotella and Veillonella, altering the ‘salivary type’ of the individuals. Furthermore, operational taxonomic unit co-occurrence/exclusion patterns indicated that the initial equilibrium of co-occurring microbial species was perturbed by a change in diet: the microbial diversity was reduced, with a few species out-competing the previously established microbiota and becoming dominant. Analysis of predicted metagenomes revealed a remarkable change in the metabolic potential of the microbiota following the diet change, with increased potential for amino acid, vitamin and co-factor metabolism. High concentrations of acetone and 2-butanone during treatment with the Italian-style gluten-free diet suggested metabolic dysfunction in the Saharawi celiac children. The findings of this study support the need for a translational medicine pipeline to examine interactions between food and microbiota when evaluating human development, nutritional needs and the impact and consequences of westernisation. PMID:26681599

  9. Routines in the Peer Culture of American and Italian Nursery School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a comparative study of nursery school children in the United States and Italy. Identifies and discusses the importance of basic routines in the peer culture of young children for the development of communication skills and social knowledge. Explores the possibilities of universal features in young children's peer cultures and develops…

  10. Individual differences in the prevalence of words and gestures in the second year of life: developmental trends in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Spataro, Pietro

    2012-12-01

    This longitudinal study investigated individual differences in the relationship between words and representational gestures in a sample of 104 Italian children between 12 and 23 months of age, using two parent-report questionnaires. Multivariate analyses reached three main conclusions. First, a high gesture frequency did not enhance language development when word production was equated and children showing a prevalence of words over gestures outperformed those showing a prevalence of gestures over words at all ages. Second, an early predominance of gestures at 12 months did not hamper the acquisition of verbal abilities, while the persistence of a gestural advantage at 16 and 20 months was related to a slower language development at 23 months. Finally, for infants with small gestural repertoires at 12 months, a high frequency of gesture use benefitted the process of lexical learning. These findings support the hypothesis that representational gestures bridge the transition from pre-linguistic to symbolic communication. However, they also suggest that the role of representational gestures might be less critical than previously proposed, being mostly evident in the earlier phases of the second year of life. PMID:22982286

  11. Italian Preschool Education and Integration of Handicapped Children: A Response to Cecchini and McCleary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    The author responds to the discussion of early childhood special education in Italy with an analysis of similarities and differences with the U.S. as illustrated in case studies of young hearing impaired children. (CL)

  12. Risk factors affecting quality of life in a group of Italian children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Indinnimeo, L; Chiarotti, F; De Vittori, V; Baldini, L; De Castro, G; Zicari, A M; Tancredi, G; Leonardi, L; Duse, M

    2014-01-01

    The measure of Quality of Life (QoL) has become one of the most important criteria used to assess the impact of chronic illness, such as asthma, on the patient’s daily life, in adults and children alike. The objective of our open observational study was to measure the QoL and analyze several factors that potentially affect QoL, such as symptoms and functional respiratory parameters, in a cohort of children with asthma. One hundred and twenty-seven children with asthma, 6 to 14 years of age, living in the city of Rome, were enrolled as outpatients. They were subjected to Skin Prick Tests (SPT), underwent spirometry and filled out the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). One hundred and eleven children were diagnosed with intermittent asthma, 12 (10%) with mild asthma, and four with moderate persistent asthma. Ninety-six children had a positive SPT. The mean total score of QoL, obtained from the questionnaire, was 5.4 (∓1.2 SD). Two QoL groups were created. Children with total QoL score <5.5 were included in the “Lower QoL” score group while children with total QoL score ≥ 5.5 were included in the “Higher QoL” score group. Children in the Higher group and their mothers had a higher mean age, suffered from fewer asthma exacerbations during the year preceding the study, and showed a higher mean value of forced expiratory volume (FEV1) compared to the children in the Lower category. Using Logistic regression we identified the main factors that may affect QoL as FEV1, symptoms in the previous year and mother’s age. QoL is correlated with the frequency of asthma exacerbations and FEV1 values. Furthermore, our research shows that a significant impairment of QoL may also occur in patients with normal lung function, pointing out the importance of evaluating QoL in all children with asthma. PMID:25004835

  13. The Parent-Version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS-P) in Chinese and Italian Community Samples: Validation and Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Nie, Yan-Gang; Lis, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    The current study aimed to validate the parent-version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS-P) among Chinese and Italian community adolescents and to compare adolescents' anxiety symptoms in these two countries. Chinese (N = 456) and Italian (N = 452) adolescents and their parents participated in the study. Results showed that: (1) the six correlated-factor structure was demonstrated and invariant across countries. (2) The reliability of the total scale was good in both samples, whereas reliabilities of subscales were acceptable and moderate in Chinese and Italian samples, respectively. (3) The SCAS-P showed good convergent and divergent validity. (4) Adolescent-parent agreement was from low to medium while mother-father agreement ranged from medium to high. (5) There were cultural and gender differences in levels of parent-report anxiety symptoms. In conclusion, SCAS-P seems to be a promising parent-report instrument to assess Chinese and Italian adolescents' anxiety symptoms. PMID:26289082

  14. The Submerged Dyslexia Iceberg: How Many School Children Are Not Diagnosed? Results from an Italian Study

    PubMed Central

    Barbiero, Chiara; Lonciari, Isabella; Montico, Marcella; Monasta, Lorenzo; Penge, Roberta; Vio, Claudio; Tressoldi, Patrizio Emanuele; Ferluga, Valentina; Bigoni, Anna; Tullio, Alessia; Carrozzi, Marco; Ronfani, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Background Although dyslexia is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders affecting children, prevalence is uncertain and available data are scanty and dated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of dyslexia in an unselected school population using clearly defined and rigorous diagnostic criteria and methods. Methods Cross sectional study. We selected a random cluster sample of 94 fourth grade elementary school classes of Friuli Venezia Giulia, a Region of North Eastern Italy. We carried out three consecutive levels of screening: the first two at school and the last at the Neuropsychiatry Unit of a third level Mother and Child Hospital. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of dyslexia, defined as the number of children positive to the third level of screening divided by the total number of children enrolled. Results We recruited 1774 children aged 8–10 years, of which 1528 received parents’ consent to participate. After applying exclusion criteria, 1357 pupils constituted the final working sample. The prevalence of dyslexia in the enrolled population ranged from 3.1% (95% CI 2.2–4.1%) to 3.2% (95% CI 2.4–4.3%) depending on different criteria adopted. In two out of three children with dyslexia the disorder had not been previously diagnosed. Conclusions This study shows that dyslexia is largely underestimated in Italy and underlines the need for reliable information on prevalence, in order to better allocate resources both to Health Services and Schools. PMID:23118930

  15. Immune responses to tetanus vaccination in Italian healthy subjects and children with recurrent infections.

    PubMed

    Graziani, S; Romiti, M L; Capponi, C; Di Cesare, S; Corrente, S; Monteferrario, E; Di Paolo, A; De Marchis, C; Chini, L; Moschese, V

    2013-01-01

    The ability of vaccine antigen to generate protection is a challenge that cannot be restricted to the antibody response; however, the contribution of T cell-mediated mechanisms has not been extensively analyzed. Age and administration to specific categories of patients, i.e. children with recurrent infections (RI), are some of the factors that might affect the vaccine immune response. We investigated the humoral and cellular response to tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine in 104 healthy children (HC), 11 newborns and 22 healthy adults to characterize the status of immunity according to age and compared it to 118 RI children. Humoral and cellular responses varied in both groups according to age and doses of TT administered. The prevalence of antibody and cellular response was similar in both cohorts (HC 88 percent and 82 percent versus RI 86 percent and 85 percent), however, TT antibody values were significantly higher in 12-18 months old RI children compared to HC (median: 5 IU/ml vs 1.10 IU/ml) (p = 0.02). The lack of an efficient immune response was observed in 12-15 percent of children from both cohorts. Our data showed that specific antibodies were responsible for early protection, whereas cell-mediated mechanisms may contribute to the generation of long-term immunity after an appropriate vaccine recall. The occurrence of higher TT antibody values in 12-18 months old RI children deserves additional research to determine whether they are caused by different infectious agents and/or by other environmental factors. Clarification of this issue is important for categorizing patients into an optimal vaccine policy. PMID:23489690

  16. Stereotypy in Young Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Green, Gina; Mansfield, Renee; Geckeler, Amy; Gardenier, Nicole; Anderson, Jennifer; Holcomb, William; Sanchez, June

    2007-01-01

    Although stereotypy is one of the key diagnostic features of autism, few studies have compared stereotypic behavior in children with autism and typically developing children. The present study employed direct observational measurement methods to assess levels of stereotypic behavior in 2-, 3- and 4-year-old children with autism or pervasive…

  17. Intellectual Pursuits of Young Children through Picture Book Literacy, Focusing on Italian Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltchenko, Laura

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I will examine the use of picture books as a means of supporting the intellectual pursuits of young children. Theoretical frameworks will be discussed as they pertain to the integration of these books in the Municipal Infant Toddler Centers and Preschools of Reggio Emilia and Pistoia, Italy. The pedagogical framework of these…

  18. Phonology and Language Development in Italian Children: An Analysis of Production and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…

  19. Trait Emotional Intelligence and the Big Five: A Study on Italian Children and Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Paolo Maria; Mancini, Giacomo; Trombini, Elena; Baldaro, Bruno; Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Trait emotional intelligence (EI) is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. This article examines the validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form and investigates its relationships with Big Five factors and cognitive ability. A total of 690 children (317…

  20. Extension of Color Bias Research to Young French and Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Deborah L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Reports the findings of a study in which translated versions of the revised Color Meaning Test and the revised Pre-school Racial Attitude Measure were administered to five and six year old children in France and Italy. The results are seen to demonstrate that, as predicted, there was a tendency towards a white over black bias among both the French…

  1. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Universal Routine Vaccination on Pneumococcal Disease in Italian Children

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Cozza, Vanessa; Prato, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0–84.6%) in children <5 years. This study aims at corroborating the estimation of both the effectiveness (VE) of PCVs and its impact in reducing pneumococcal diseases. A 1 : 3 matched-case-control study was conducted among children <5 years old hospitalized for IPD or pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) between 2006 and 2012 in the Puglia region. Moreover, hospitalizations for pneumococcal outcomes in the pre- and postvaccination period and the hospitalization risk ratios (HRRs) with 95% CIs were computed in Italy and in the first eight regions that introduced PCVs in 2006. The overall effectiveness of PCVs was 75% (95% CI: 61%–84%); it was 69% (95% CI: 30%–88%) against IPD and 77% (95% CI: 61%–87%) against PP. PCVs showed a significant impact on IPD and acute otitis media either at a national level or in those regions with a longer vaccination history, with a nearly 40% reduction of hospitalizations for both outcomes. Our findings provide further evidence of the effectiveness of PCVs against pneumococcal diseases and its impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in children <5 years, indicating the importance of maintaining high immunization coverage. PMID:26351644

  2. Circumcision with Glubran® 2 in children: experience of Italian Center

    PubMed Central

    Cerchia, Elisa; Molinaro, Francesco; Bulotta, Anna Lavinia; Ferrara, Francesco; Bindi, Edoardo; Messina, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background Circumcision is one of the most common surgical procedures in the world. Despite it is known its wide prevalence for religious and medical reasons in children, it remains a controversial practice in paediatric age. To date, there is no described the gold standard technique to circumcise paediatric patients. We started to use glue for circumcision about 2 years ago. We designed this prospective study with the aim to compare two surgical techniques, which were used in our hospital to perform circumcision in children. The implication for practice was the understanding if there were differences between these approaches related to patient’s and parents benefits to manage this condition and benefits for surgeon and hospital in term of saving money and time. Methods This is a randomized, single-blind one-center study. It was conducted at the Department of Paediatric Surgery of Siena. Data were collected between March 2011 and December 2012. Study’s population involved all patients who required circumcision. Two randomizes groups: group one which involved patients who underwent circumcision using sutures and group two, which involved patients who underwent circumcision using surgical glue (Glubran® 2). Two exclusion criteria were used: the redo-circumcision and the allergy or hyper-sensibility to cyanoacrylate (main component of glue). Results We report 99 patients who underwent circumcision with Glubran® 2 in comparison with a group of children circumcised with sutures (vycril rapide). We measured three outcomes (operating time, postoperative pain and assessment of cosmetic), which, even if not all statistically significant, allowed us to draw any conclusions about the use of glue in circumcision. Conclusions Traditional circumcision is performed using a standard sleeve technique with sutures for the approximation of the skin edges. However, since some years a tissue adhesive as N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) (Glubran® 2) is used in many centers to

  3. Children's Conceptions about the Origin of Species: A Study of Italian Children's Conceptions with and without Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berti, Anna Emilia; Toneatti, Laura; Rosati, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of people's understanding of the evolution of species have focused mainly on secondary school and university students. Very few investigations have taken into consideration younger students, and none have related children's ideas about the origin of species to formal instruction on this topic. To help fill this gap, the present…

  4. A new procedure to measure children's reading speed and accuracy in Italian.

    PubMed

    Morlini, Isabella; Stella, Giacomo; Scorza, Maristella

    2014-02-01

    Impaired readers in primary school should be early recognized, in order to asses a targeted intervention within the school and to start a teaching that respects the difficulties in learning to read, to write and to perform calculations. Screening procedures, inside the primary schools aimed at detecting children with difficulties in reading, are of fundamental importance for guaranteeing an early identification of dyslexic children and reducing both the primary negative effects--on learning--and the secondary negative effects--on the development of the personality--of this disturbance. In this study, we propose a new screening procedure measuring reading speed and accuracy. This procedure is very fast (it is exactly 1 min long), simple, cheap and can be provided by teachers without technical knowledge. On the contrary, most of the currently used diagnostic tests are about 10 min long and must be provided by experts. These two major flaws prevent the widespread use of these tests. On the basis of the results obtained in a survey on about 1500 students attending primary school in Italy, we investigate the relationships between variables used in the screening procedure and variables measuring speed and accuracy in the currently used diagnostic tests in Italy. Then, we analyse the validity of the screening procedure from a statistical point of view, and with an explorative factor analysis, we show that reading speed and accuracy seem to be two separate symptoms of the dyslexia phenomenon. PMID:24115526

  5. Unique designs, errors and strategies in the Five-Point Test: The contribution of age, phonemic fluency and visuospatial abilities in Italian children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Stievano, Paolo; Scalisi, Teresa Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Performances on the Five-Point Test of 161 Italian children aged 6 to 11 years were investigated, along with phonemic fluency, visual-motor integration, visual perception, motor coordination, visuospatial memory, and fluid intelligence. Five-Point Test accuracy was significantly related to phonemic fluency and visual-motor integration, while phonemic fluency was linked to motor coordination. The two fluency measures increased linearly with age, but the developmental progression of Five-Point Test accuracy was less influenced by age. Different age effects were also found on the relationship between fluid intelligence and the two fluency measures. The inspection of qualitative aspects of Five-Point Test performance (errors and strategies) suggested that strategy usage enhanced both productivity and accuracy in children; age-related changes were observed in the relationship between the number of errors and the total number of designs produced. PMID:25495262

  6. Preschool Children's Concepts of Their Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Joan A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of 4-year-olds to make differentiated judgments of characteristics of their nursery school classmates. A paired-associates sociometric task, a technique that does not rely heavily on verbal skills and is reliable with young children, was used to obtain these judgments. Children were presented with all…

  7. Young Children's Trust in Overtly Misleading Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Gail D.; Sritanyaratana, Lalida; Vanderbilt, Kimberly E.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to disregard advice from an overtly misleading informant was investigated across five studies (total "n" =212). Previous studies have documented limitations in young children's ability to reject misleading advice. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that these limitations are primarily due to an…

  8. Observing Young Children's Creative Thinking: Engagement, Involvement and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…

  9. Children at Play: Learning Gender in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This captivating book illuminates our understanding of how young children develop gender identities. A two year longitudinal research project on children's own understandings of gender casts new light on how 3 and 4 year old newcomers in early years classes learn rules for gendered behaviour from older children, in their imaginative and…

  10. Autistic Children's Use of Semantic Common Sense and Theory of Mind: A Comparison with Typical and Mentally Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naito, Mika; Nagayama, Kikuo

    2004-01-01

    To compare Japanese autistic children's use of semantic knowledge and theory of mind with mentally retarded and typically developing children's, they were tested on their comprehension of active and passive sentences and false belief understanding. Autistic children were sensitive to plausibility levels of semantic bias as were 4-year-olds with…

  11. Determinants of Vitamin D Levels in Italian Children and Adolescents: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Cholecalciferol Supplementation versus the Improvement of Factors Influencing 25(OH)D Status

    PubMed Central

    Stagi, Stefano; Pelosi, Paola; Strano, Massimo; Poggi, Giovanni; Manoni, Cristina; de Martino, Maurizio; Seminara, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This paper aims to assess 25(OH)D levels in Italian children and adolescents identifying risk factors for 25(OH)D deficiency and to evaluate whether a normal 25(OH)D value can be restored in 25(OH)D-deficient patients. Methods. We evaluated 25(OH)D levels in 679 Italian children and adolescents (≤10, 11–20, 21–30, and >30 ng/mL were defined as severe deficiency, deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency, resp.). Of these, 365 25(OH)D-deficient were followed up for 1 year; 205 were treated with cholecalciferol (Arm A: 400 I.U.) and 160 by improving the environmental variables influencing 25(OH)D levels (Arm B). Results. At cross-sectional evaluation, 11.3% showed sufficiency, 30.0% insufficiency, and 58.7% 25(OH)D deficiency. Mean 25(OH)D was 19.08 ± 8.44 ng/mL. At the enrollment time (T0), no difference was found between Arms A and B with respect to distribution and 25(OH)D levels. At end time (T1) 26.0% (29.7% in Arm A versus 20.6% in Arm B) showed sufficiency, 38.4% (42.0% versus 34.4%) insufficiency, and 35.6% (28.3% versus 45.0%) 25(OH)D deficiency. Mean 25(OH)D level was 23.71 ± 6.83 ng/mL. Conclusions. Neither changes of lifestyle nor 400 I.U. cholecalciferol supplementation alone appears to be sufficient to restore adequate 25(OH)D levels. PMID:25435877

  12. Applying Theory to Practice: Using Developmentally Appropriate Strategies To Help Children Draw.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Loretta I.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how one teacher helped preschool children draw. Shows how she guided a 4-year-old to use stencils to draw fish independently, helped children use their knowledge of shapes to guide their drawing of animals, and guided children to draw what was important to them. Asserts that helping children to express their ideas independently in…

  13. Loneliness and Social Adaptation in Brazilian, Canadian, Chinese and Italian Children: A Multi-National Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; He, Yunfeng; De Oliveira, Ana Maria; Coco, Alida Lo; Zappulla, Carla; Kaspar, Violet; Schneider, Barry; Valdivia, Ibis Alvarez; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang; DeSouza, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    Background: Research on children's loneliness has been conducted mostly in Western, especially North American, cultures. The purpose of the study was to examine relations between loneliness and social adaptation among children and adolescents in four different societies. Methods: A total of 2263 children from grade 3 to grade 6, aged 9 to 12…

  14. Extra-Linguistic Influences on Sentence Comprehension in Italian-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettenati, P.; Benassi, E.; Deevy, P.; Leonard, L. B.; Caselli, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) in sentence comprehension. These deficits are usually attributed to limitations in the children's understanding of syntax or the lexical items contained in the sentences. This study examines the role that extra-linguistic factors can play in these children's sentence comprehension.…

  15. Oats in the diet of children with celiac disease: preliminary results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter Italian study.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Simona; Caporelli, Nicole; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Barbato, Maria; Roggero, Paola; Malamisura, Basilio; Iacono, Giuseppe; Budelli, Andrea; Gesuita, Rosaria; Catassi, Carlo; Lionetti, Elena

    2013-11-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet "A", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "B"), or B-A treatment (6 months of diet "B", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "A"). A and B diets included gluten-free (GF) products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts) with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score) and intestinal permeability tests (IPT), were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:24264227

  16. Cross-Linguistic Analysis of Vocabulary in Young Children: Spanish, Dutch, French, Hebrew, Italian, Korean, and American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Maital, Sharone; Painter, Kathleen; Park, Sung-Yun; Pascual, Liliana; Pecheux,Marie-Germaine; Ruel, Josette; Venuti, Paola; Vyt, Andre

    2004-01-01

    The composition of young children's vocabularies in 7 contrasting linguistic communities was investigated. Mothers of 269 twenty-month-olds in Argentina, Belgium, France, Israel, Italy, the Republic of Korea, and the United States completed comparable vocabulary checklists for their children. In each language and vocabulary size grouping (except…

  17. Spelling Impairments in Italian Dyslexic Children with and without a History of Early Language Delay. Are There Any Differences?

    PubMed Central

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara V.; Iaia, Marika; Putzolu, Anna; Gasperini, Filippo; Brizzolara, Daniela; Chilosi, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Language delay is considered a frequent antecedent of literacy problems and both may be linked to phonological impairment. However, while several studies have examined the relationship between language delay and reading impairment, relatively few have focused on spelling. In this study, spelling performance of 28 children with developmental dyslexia (DD), 14 children with a history of language delay (LD), and 14 children without (NoLD) and 28 control participants were examined. Spelling was investigated by a writing to dictation task that included orthographically regular stimuli (word and non-words), as well as words with unpredictable transcription. Results indicated that all dyslexic participants underperformed compared to controls on both regular and unpredictable transcription stimuli, but LD performance was generally the worst. Moreover, spelling impairment assumed different characteristics in LD and NoLD children. LD children were more sensitive to acoustic-to-phonological variables, showing relevant failure especially on stimuli containing geminate consonants but also on polysyllabic stimuli and those containing non-continuant consonants. Error analysis confirmed these results, with LD children producing a higher rate of phonological errors respect to NoLD children and controls. Results were coherent with the hypothesis that among dyslexic children, those with previous language delay have more severe spelling deficit, suffering from defective orthographic lexical acquisition together with long-lasting phonological difficulties. PMID:27148135

  18. Challenging the Notion of a Thematic Preference in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Namy, Laura L.

    1997-01-01

    Two- to 4-year-olds were presented with pictures of a target item (for example, carrot), a thematic alternative (rabbit), and an taxonomic alternative (tomato). The target was identified and children were asked to choose one of the alternatives. Children revealed no preference for either alternative. (BC)

  19. The Emergence of Flexible Spatial Strategies in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waismeyer, Anna S.; Jacobs, Lucia F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of spatial navigation in children depends not only on remembering which landmarks lead to a goal location but also on developing strategies to deal with changes in the environment or imperfections in memory. Using cue combination methods, the authors examined 3- and 4-year-old children's memory for different types of spatial cues…

  20. Developmental Differences in Children's Context-Dependent Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 2.5-, 3-, and 4-year-olds (N=108) participated in a novel noun generalization task in which background context was manipulated. During the learning phase of each trial, children were presented with exemplars in one or multiple background contexts. At the test, children were asked to generalize to a novel exemplar in either the same…

  1. How Fantasy Benefits Young Children's Understanding of Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Sobel and Lillard (2001 ) demonstrated that 4-year-olds' understanding of the role that the mind plays in pretending improved when children were asked questions in a fantasy context. The present study investigated whether this fantasy effect was motivated by children recognizing that fantasy contains violations of real-world causal structure. In…

  2. Child and Informant Influences on Behavioral Ratings of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beth M.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among teacher, parent, and observer behavioral ratings of 3- and 4-year-old children using intra-class correlations and analysis of variance. Comparisons within and across children from middle-income (MI; N = 166; mean age = 54.25 months, standard deviation [SD] = 8.74) and low-income (LI; N = 199; mean age =…

  3. Young Children's Spontaneous Use of Geometry in Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Anna; Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether 4-year-old children extract and use geometric information in simple maps without task instruction or feedback. Children saw maps depicting an arrangement of three containers and were asked to place an object into a container designated on the map. In Experiment 1, one of the three locations on the map and the array…

  4. Why Young Children Choke on Food: How To Prevent It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    According to the National Safety Council, the leading cause of accidental deaths for infants under 1 year old, and the fourth most frequent cause of death for children 1 to 4 years old, is choking on things they try to swallow. This paper indicates the dimensions of the problem and lists foods involved in choking deaths of children. Methods of…

  5. The Role of Animacy in Children's Understanding of "Move."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Koenig, Melissa A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines whether children make use of the conceptual link between animacy and agency when interpreting the verb "move" in English. Hypothesized that, for inanimates, children would allow "move" to have a patient subject but not so for inanimates. Subjects were 3- and 4-year-olds and adults who viewed video clips of animals or inanimate objects…

  6. Perceiving Children's Behavior and Reaching Limits in a Risk Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordovil, Rita; Santos, Carlos; Barreiros, Joao

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of parents' perception of children's reaching limits in a risk scenario. A sample of 68 parents of 1- to 4-year-olds were asked to make a prior estimate of their children's behavior and action limits in a task that involved retrieving a toy out of the water. The action modes used for…

  7. Children's Eyewitness Memory: Effects of Participation and Forensic Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobey, Ann E.; Goodman, Gail S.

    1992-01-01

    This study, with 39 4-year-olds, found that children had better free recall accuracy and lowered suggestibility when they participated with a "babysitter" rather than observed a babysitter and child. Addition of forensic context (by a policeman prior to questioning) increased error in free recall but did not affect children's accuracy in answering…

  8. Children's Causal Inferences from Conflicting Testimony and Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgers, Sophie; Buchsbaum, Daphna; Seiver, Elizabeth; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Gopnik, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Preschoolers use both direct observation of statistical data and informant testimony to learn causal relationships. Can children integrate information from these sources, especially when source reliability is uncertain? We investigate how children handle a conflict between what they hear and what they see. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds were…

  9. New Jersey Kids Count 2008: The State of Our Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traini, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    New Jersey children are in some important ways better off than five years ago. More 3- and 4-year-olds are enrolled in high-quality, publicly funded preschool, for example. On some other measures, children are worse off. The proportion with no health insurance has risen, despite increased enrollment in government-subsidized insurance programs. But…

  10. Communicatively Inhibiting Behaviors of Mothers with Language Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, W. Paul

    Four mothers and their language handicapped children (2-4 years old) were compared with four mothers and their normal language children. Mother-child interactions were tape recorded and analyzed for semantic, syntactic, and morphologic complexity. The normal language group had more sophisticated semantic, syntactic, and morphologic abilities than…