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Sample records for 42-year-old male methamphetamine

  1. Inflammatory cap polyposis in a 42-year-old male

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Meredith; Faizi, Syed Adeel; Fischer, Edgar; Rajput, Ashwani

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inflammatory cap polyposis (CP) is an uncommon, non-malignant condition whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Initial presentation of CP may mimic other gastrointestinal conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, pseudomembranous colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, and colon cancer. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 42-year-old male presented with symptoms of constipation, abdominal pain and weight loss, which were suggestive of a malignancy. DISCUSSION Since the symptoms of CP resemble closely those of other gastrointestinal diseases, particularly colon cancer, making the initial diagnosis can be challenging and it is often delayed. The mainstay of initial treatment is conservative, however symptomatic and complicated cases require prompt surgical intervention with close clinical follow-up. CONCLUSION We chose to report this case because it represents a rare and unique disease process that may masquerade as a colon cancer. It is important for surgeons to be aware of this non-malignant condition since inadequate surgery usually results in recurrence. PMID:23416507

  2. Erasmus Syndrome in a 42-Year-Old Male: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Koushik

    2015-01-01

    Erasmus syndrome is a rare entity in which systemic sclerosis develops following exposure to silica with or without silicosis. Few case reports are available in literature. We report here a case of Erasmus syndrome in a 42-year-old manual labourer. The patient presented with arthralgia, Raynoud’s phenomenon, skin tightening and microstomia along with features of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Evidence of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) with mediastinal lymphadenopathy as well as pulmonary arterial hypertension with vascular reactivity was found in appropriate investigations. Serological markers of systemic sclerosis were strongly positive. After a diagnosis of Erasmus syndrome was made, a combination of drugs including Prednisone, Cyclophosphamide and Nifedipine was instituted this led to moderate improvement in his symptoms over 6 months. PMID:26155508

  3. Relationship between discriminative stimulus effects and plasma methamphetamine and amphetamine levels of intramuscular methamphetamine in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Smith, Douglas A; Kisor, David F; Poklis, Justin L

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine is a globally abused drug that is metabolized to amphetamine, which also produces abuse-related behavioral effects. However, the contributing role of methamphetamine metabolism to amphetamine in methamphetamine's abuse-related subjective effects is unknown. This preclinical study was designed to determine 1) the relationship between plasma methamphetamine levels and methamphetamine discriminative stimulus effects and 2) the contribution of the methamphetamine metabolite amphetamine in the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys. Adult male rhesus monkeys (n=3) were trained to discriminate 0.18mg/kg intramuscular (+)-methamphetamine from saline in a two-key food-reinforced discrimination procedure. Time course of saline, (+)-methamphetamine (0.032-0.32mg/kg), and (+)-amphetamine (0.032-0.32mg/kg) discriminative stimulus effects were determined. Parallel pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in the same monkeys to determine plasma methamphetamine and amphetamine levels after methamphetamine administration and amphetamine levels after amphetamine administration for correlation with behavior in the discrimination procedure. Both methamphetamine and amphetamine produced full, ≥90%, methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects. Amphetamine displayed a slightly, but significantly, longer duration of action than methamphetamine in the discrimination procedure. Both methamphetamine and amphetamine behavioral effects were related to methamphetamine and amphetamine plasma levels by a clockwise hysteresis loop indicating acute tolerance had developed to the discriminative stimulus effects. Furthermore, amphetamine levels after methamphetamine administration were absent when methamphetamine stimulus effects were greatest and peaked when methamphetamine discriminative stimulus effects returned to saline-like levels. Overall, these results demonstrate the methamphetamine metabolite amphetamine does not contribute to

  4. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... DEA Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Methamphetamine METHAMPHETAMINE To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... Save in directory and then click Save. Ice Methamphetamine Pipe Ice Methamphetamine Bag Desoxyn Gradumet 5mg Desoxyn ...

  5. A 42-Year-Old Woman With Abnormal Chest CT Scan and Chylous Ascites.

    PubMed

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Yadav, Ruchi; Arrossi, Andrea V; Mehta, Atul C; Faress, Jihane A

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old white woman presented to the pulmonary clinic for evaluation of abnormal chest imaging. Twenty years prior to presentation, she was noted to have an abnormal chest radiograph during a routine preemployment evaluation. A subsequent bronchoscopy was nondiagnostic. She was followed up with annual imaging, which demonstrated little or no progression of her disease. She remained symptom free throughout this period. A year before her visit to the pulmonary clinic, she developed abdominal discomfort and was found to have ascites. Subsequently, she underwent three paracenteses with analysis revealing chylous fluid. She was a nonsmoker without a history of exposures or travel. PMID:26757302

  6. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ...

  7. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    Methamphetamine is used as part of a treatment program to control symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ... people who are the same age) in children. Methamphetamine is also used for a limited period of ...

  8. Agmatine attenuates the discriminative stimulus and hyperthermic effects of methamphetamine in male rats.

    PubMed

    Thorn, David A; Li, Jiuzhou; Qiu, Yanyan; Li, Jun-Xu

    2016-09-01

    Methamphetamine abuse remains an alarming public heath challenge, with no approved pharmacotherapies available. Agmatine is a naturally occurring cationic polyamine that has previously been shown to attenuate the rewarding and psychomotor-sensitizing effects of methamphetamine. This study examined the effects of agmatine on the discriminative stimulus and hyperthermic effects of methamphetamine. Adult male rats were trained to discriminate 0.32 mg/kg methamphetamine from saline. Methamphetamine dose dependently increased drug-associated lever responding. The nonselective dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine (5.9-fold rightward shift). Agmatine (10-100 mg/kg) did not substitute for methamphetamine, but significantly attenuated the stimulus effects of methamphetamine, leading to a maximum of a 3.5-fold rightward shift. Acute 10 mg/kg methamphetamine increased the rectal temperature by a maximum of 1.96±0.17°C. Agmatine (10-32 mg/kg) pretreatment significantly attenuated the hyperthermic effect of methamphetamine. Agmatine (10 mg/kg) also significantly reversed methamphetamine-induced temperature increase. Together, these results support further exploration of the value that agmatine may have for the treatment of methamphetamine abuse and overdose. PMID:27232669

  9. Prenatal methamphetamine differentially alters myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in male and female adult hearts.

    PubMed

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Seeley, Sarah L; Bui, Albert D; Sprague, Lisanne; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-02-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most common illicit drugs abused during pregnancy. The neurological effects of prenatal methamphetamine are well known. However, few studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal methamphetamine on adult cardiovascular function. Previous work demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure increases sensitivity of the adult heart to ischemic injury. Methamphetamine and cocaine have different mechanisms of action, but both drugs exert their effects by increasing dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus the goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal methamphetamine also worsens ischemic injury in the adult heart. Pregnant rats were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline throughout pregnancy. When pups reached 8 wk of age, their hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by means of a Langendorff isolated heart system. Prenatal methamphetamine had no significant effect on infarct size, preischemic contractile function, or postischemic recovery of contractile function in male hearts. However, methamphetamine-treated female hearts exhibited significantly larger infarcts and significantly elevated end-diastolic pressure during recovery from ischemia. Methamphetamine significantly reduced protein kinase Cε expression and Akt phosphorylation in female hearts but had no effect on these cardioprotective proteins in male hearts. These data indicate that prenatal methamphetamine differentially affects male and female sensitivity to myocardial ischemic injury and alters cardioprotective signaling proteins in the adult heart. PMID:26683901

  10. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... effects as those of other stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines. These include increased wakefulness, increased physical ...

  11. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    Methamphetamine - meth for short - is a very addictive stimulant drug. It is a powder that can be made into ... injected into your body with a needle. Crystal meth is smoked in a small glass pipe. Meth ...

  12. Altered social cognition in male BDNF heterozygous mice and following chronic methamphetamine exposure.

    PubMed

    Manning, Elizabeth E; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2016-05-15

    Growing clinical evidence suggests that persistent psychosis which occurs in methamphetamine users is closely related to schizophrenia. However, preclinical studies in animal models have focussed on psychosis-related behaviours following methamphetamine, and less work has been done to assess endophenotypes relevant to other deficits observed in schizophrenia. Altered social behaviour is a feature of both the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, and significantly impacts patient functioning. We recently found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) heterozygous mice show disrupted sensitization to methamphetamine, supporting other work suggesting an important role of this neurotrophin in the pathophysiology of psychosis and the neuronal response to stimulant drugs. In the current study, we assessed social and cognitive behaviours in methamphetamine-treated BDNF heterozygous mice and wildtype littermate controls. Following chronic methamphetamine exposure male wildtype mice showed a 50% reduction in social novelty preference. Vehicle-treated male BDNF heterozygous mice showed a similar impairment in social novelty preference, with a trend for no further disruption by methamphetamine exposure. Female mice were unaffected in this task, and no groups showed any changes in sociability or short-term spatial memory. These findings suggest that chronic methamphetamine alters behaviour relevant to disruption of social cognition in schizophrenia, supporting other studies which demonstrate a close resemblance between persistent methamphetamine psychosis and schizophrenia. Together these findings suggest that dynamic regulation of BDNF signalling is necessary to mediate the effects of methamphetamine on behaviours relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:26965573

  13. Amphetamine-related myocardial infarction in a 42-year old man.

    PubMed

    Smędra, A; Szustowski, S; Berent, J

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is an infrequent condition in young adults. In most cases, it occurs due to causes other than atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, including blood hypercoagulability, congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries, their inflammation or spasm induced by amphetamine or cocaine use. Amphetamine and its derivatives, via increasing the levels of epinephrine, serotonin and dopamine in the central nervous system, exert their effect also on the cardiovascular system, causing coronary spasm, enhancing platelet aggregation and inducing tachyarrhythmias. The paper presents a case of a 42-year-old man admitted to the emergency department because of emaciation and dehydration. The man was conscious, without contact, with a significant elevation of body temperature and tachycardia. On the basis of examinations, a fresh infarction of the anterolateral wall of the heart was diagnosed and the patient was transferred to a cardiac intensive care unit. There, laboratory tests revealed significantly elevated markers of myocardial necrosis and the presence of amphetamine in blood and urine. In spite of the institution of treatment the patient developed cardiorespiratory arrest. Advanced resuscitation procedures were undertaken, however, they proved unsuccessful. The presence of an infarction focus was confirmed in autopsy. Toxicological analysis of the blood for the presence of alcohol-like substances detected amphetamine at a concentration of 269.5 ng/ml. After examining the complete body of evidence it was established that the patient had died of acute cardiorespiratory failure secondary to an extensive fresh myocardial infarction. As indicated by the accumulated data, the most probable cause of myocardial infarction was amphetamine poisoning. PMID:27003867

  14. Isolated infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm in a 42-year-old patient with Marfan’s syndrome: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Hajji, Rita; Zrihni, Youssef; Zaghloul, Rachid; Zizi, Othman; Bouarhroum, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    Marfan’s syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue characterized by a large number of possible mutations and by heterogeneity of clinical presentation primarily in skeletal, ocular and cardiovascular organ systems. Cardiovascular complications of the disease are responsible for high mortality. The case of a 42-year-old patient with a progressive advanced abdominal aorta dilatation visualized on computed tomography images is presented. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of patients with Marfan’s syndrome are also discussed. PMID:27489631

  15. Pavlovian Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Methamphetamine in Male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, B. Levi; Singleton, Destiny L.; Akins, Chana K.

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian drug discrimination (DD) procedures demonstrate that interoceptive drug stimuli may come to control behavior by informing the status of conditional relationships between stimuli and outcomes. This technique may provide insight into processes that contribute to drug-seeking, relapse, and other maladaptive behaviors associated with drug abuse. The purpose of the current research was to establish a model of Pavlovian DD in male Japanese quail. A Pavlovian conditioning procedure was used such that 3.0 mg/kg methamphetamine served as a feature positive stimulus for brief periods of visual access to a female quail and approach behavior was measured. After acquisition training, generalization tests were conducted with cocaine, nicotine, and haloperidol under extinction conditions. SCH 23390 was used to investigate the involvement of the dopamine D1 receptor subtype in the methamphetamine discriminative stimulus. Results showed that cocaine fully substituted for methamphetamine but nicotine only partially substituted for methamphetamine in quail. Haloperidol dose-dependently decreased approach behavior. Pretreatment with SCH 23390 modestly attenuated the methamphetamine discrimination suggesting that the D1 receptor subtype may be involved in the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. The findings are discussed in relation to drug abuse and associated negative health consequences. PMID:24965811

  16. Regional Brain Activity in Abstinent Methamphetamine Dependent Males Following Cue Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Robert; Myrick, Hugh; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T; George, Mark S; See, Ronald E

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging of drug-associated cue presentations has aided in understanding the neurobiological substrates of craving and relapse for cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. However, imaging of cue-reactivity in methamphetamine addiction has been much less studied. Method Nine caucasian male methamphetamine-dependent subjects and nine healthy controls were scanned in a Phillips 3.0T MRI scan when they viewed a randomized presentation of visual cues of methamphetamine, neutral objects, and rest conditions. Functional Imaging data were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping software 5 (SPM 5) Results Methamphetamine subjects had significant brain activation in the ventral striatum and medial frontal cortex in comparison to meth pictures and neutral pictures in healthy controls (p<0.005, threshold 15 voxels). Interestingly the ventral striatum activation significantly correlated with the days since the last use of meth (r=−0.76, p=0.017). No significant activity was found in healthy control group. Conclusion The preliminary data suggest that methamphetamine dependent subjects, when exposed to methamphetamine-associated visual cues, have increased brain activity in ventral striatum, caudate nucleus and medial frontal cortex which subserve craving, drug-seeking, and drug use. PMID:27314105

  17. Correlates of Risky Alcohol and Methamphetamine Use among Currently Homeless Male Parolees

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Benissa E.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Keenan, Colleen; Zhang, Sheldon; Marlow, Elizabeth; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Yadav, Kartik; Faucette, Mark; Leake, Barbara; Marfisee, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Homeless men on parole are a hard-to-reach population with significant community reintegration challenges. This cross-sectional study describes socio-demographic, cognitive, psychosocial and drug-related correlates of alcohol and methamphetamine use in 157 homeless male parolees (age range 18–60) enrolled in a substance abuse treatment center in Los Angeles. Logistic regression results revealed that being African American and older were negatively related to methamphetamine use, while being older and more hostile were related to riskier alcohol abuse. Findings from this study provide a greater understanding of correlates of methamphetamine and alcohol- two of the most detrimental forms of substances abused among currently homeless parolees. PMID:24325770

  18. Correlates of risky alcohol and methamphetamine use among currently homeless male parolees.

    PubMed

    Salem, Benissa E; Nyamathi, Adeline; Keenan, Colleen; Zhang, Sheldon; Marlow, Elizabeth; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Yadav, Kartik; Faucette, Mark; Leake, Barbara; Marfisee, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Homeless men on parole are a hard-to-reach population with significant community reintegration challenges. This cross-sectional study describes sociodemographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and drug-related correlates of alcohol and methamphetamine use in 157 homeless male parolees (age range 18-60) enrolled in a substance abuse treatment center in Los Angeles, California. Logistic regression results revealed that being African American and older were negatively related to methamphetamine use, whereas being older and more hostile were related to riskier alcohol abuse. Findings from this study provide a greater understanding of correlates of methamphetamine and alcohol--two of the most detrimental forms of substances abused among currently homeless parolees. PMID:24325770

  19. Differential modulation of the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine and cocaine by alprazolam and oxazepam in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Spence, A L; Guerin, G F; Goeders, N E

    2016-03-01

    Drug users often combine benzodiazepines with psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine. However, very little research has been conducted on this type of polydrug use, particularly in female subjects. The present study was therefore designed to examine the effects of two benzodiazepines, alprazolam and oxazepam, on the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine and cocaine in both male and female rats. Rats were trained to discriminate methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg, ip) or cocaine (10 mg/kg, ip) from saline using a two-lever operant, food-reinforced, drug discrimination design. Pretreatment with oxazepam (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, ip) significantly attenuated methamphetamine discrimination in both male and female rats. In contrast, however, the high dose of alprazolam (4 mg/kg, ip) actually augmented the subjective effects of lower doses of methamphetamine (0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg, ip). Oxazepam produced similar effects on the subjective effects of cocaine as with methamphetamine, significantly reducing cocaine discrimination in both male and female rats. However, neither the high nor low dose of alprazolam (2 and 4 mg/kg, ip) produced any apparent effect on cocaine discrimination. Finally, while similar results were observed in both male and female rats across these experiments, methamphetamine and cocaine discrimination were more sensitive to oxazepam in female subjects. The results of these experiments suggest that alprazolam and oxazepam can differentially affect the subjective effects of methamphetamine and cocaine. These results also demonstrate that alprazolam can differentially affect the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine and cocaine. PMID:26541330

  20. Male methamphetamine-user inmates in prison treatment: during-treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Joe, George W; Rowan-Szal, Grace A; Greener, Jack M; Simpson, D Dwayne; Vance, Jerry

    2010-03-01

    Psychosocial functioning and criminal thinking of methamphetamine-using inmates were examined before and after their completion of primary treatment in three in-prison drug treatment programs (one "outpatient" and two different modified therapeutic communities [TCs]). The sample consisted of 2,026 adult male inmates in 30 programs in Indiana. Data included background, psychosocial functioning, criminal thinking, and therapeutic engagement indicators. Multilevel repeated measures analysis was used to evaluate changes during treatment, and multilevel covariate analysis adjusted for sample differences in tests of between-treatment differences. Significant improvements were found for all three treatments, but the two modified TCs showed significantly better progress than did outpatient treatment housed among the general prison population. Significant predictors of treatment progress included baseline psychosocial functioning and background, wherein higher psychosocial functioning and lower criminal thinking orientation predicted stronger therapeutic engagement. However, treatment engagement level was found to mediate during-treatment improvement and initial criminal thinking. PMID:19801177

  1. Hippocampal volume reduction in female but not male recent abstinent methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiang; Quan, Meina; Zhuang, Wenxu; Zhong, Na; Jiang, Haifeng; Kennedy, David N; Harrington, Amy; Ziedonis, Douglas; Fan, Xiaoduo; Zhao, Min

    2015-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests abnormalities in brain morphology including hippocampal structure in patients with methamphetamine (MA) dependence. This study was performed to examine hippocampal volume in abstinent MA users, and to further explore its relationship with cognitive function. 30 abstinent MA users (20 males and 10 females) with average 5.52 months of duration of abstinence and 29 healthy controls (19 males and 10 females) age 18-45 years old were recruited for clinical assessment and imaging scan. FreeSurfer was used to segment the hippocampus bilaterally, and hippocampal volumes were extracted for group and gender comparisons. Cognitive function was measured using the CogState Battery Chinese language version (CSB-C). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for education showed a significant group by gender interaction for the right hippocampal relative volume adjusted for total brain size (p = 0.020); there was a significant difference between male controls and female controls (p < 0.001), but such a difference did not exist between male patients and female patients (p = 0.203). No significant correlations were found between hippocampal volume and cognitive measures. There seems to be a gender difference in how MA affects hippocampal volume in abstinent MA users. Hippocampus might be an important treatment target for cognitive improvement and functional recovery in this patient population, especially in females. PMID:25920682

  2. Does prenatal methamphetamine exposure affect the drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats?

    PubMed

    Slamberová, Romana; Schutová, Barbora; Hrubá, Lenka; Pometlová, Marie

    2011-10-10

    Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most frequently used illicit drugs worldwide and also one of the most common drugs abused by pregnant women. Repeated administration of psychostimulants induces behavioral sensitization in response to treatment of the same or related drugs in rodents. The effect of prenatal MA exposure on sensitivity to drugs in adulthood is not yet fully determined. Because our most recent studies demonstrated that prenatal MA (5mg/kg) exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same drug, we were interested whether the increased sensitivity corresponds with the increased drug-seeking behavior. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the conditioned place preference (CPP). The following psychostimulant drugs were used as a challenge in adulthood: MA (5mg/kg), amphetamine (5mg/kg) and cocaine (10mg/kg). All psychostimulant drugs induced increased drug-seeking behavior in adult male rats. However, while MA and amphetamine-induced increase in drug-seeking behavior did not differ based on the prenatal drug exposure, prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed tolerance effect to cocaine in adulthood. In addition, prenatally MA-exposed rats had decreased weight gain after administration of MA or amphetamine, while the weight of prenatally MA-exposed rats stayed unchanged after cocaine administration. Defecation was increased by all the drugs (MA, amphetamine and cocaine), while only amphetamine increased the tail temperature. In conclusion, our results did not confirm our hypothesis that prenatal MA exposure increases drug-seeking behavior in adulthood in the CPP test. PMID:21645557

  3. Correlates of Heroin and Methamphetamine Use among Homeless Male Ex-Jail and Prison Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Farabee, David; Hall, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheldon; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Musto, Stefanie; Leake, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Homeless men exiting California State jails and prisons are a heterogeneous community with varied childhood, incarceration and drug use histories. This cross-sectional study assessed whether homeless men who were discharged from either jail or prison into a residential substance abuse treatment program, differed in terms of methamphetamine and heroin use. This study utilized baseline data collected on 540 recently paroled men randomized to one of three programs that assessed the impact of a peer coaching intervention on subsequent drug use and re-incarceration. We found that younger ex-offenders exiting prisons and jails were more likely to have used methamphetamine alone, whereas African American ex-offenders were less likely to have used methamphetamine alone when compared to other ethnic groups. Further, ex-offenders exiting jails and self-reporting use of heroin only at baseline were significantly more likely than their counterparts to have been removed from home before age 18. For men exiting jails, there was an association between lower self-esteem and having used methamphetamine but not heroin. However, having used both heroin and methamphetamine was associated with both violent crime and cognitive problems in both jail and prison samples. Our findings showcase the need to understand unique correlates of both heroin and methamphetamine as they relate to jail and prison populations. PMID:25489295

  4. Does prenatal methamphetamine exposure induce cross-sensitization to cocaine and morphine in adult male rats?

    PubMed

    Slamberová, R; Yamamotová, A; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Nohejlová-Deykun, K; Nová, E; Macúchová, E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure to challenge dose of cocaine or morphine. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed) were divided to groups with challenge doses of saline (1 ml/kg), cocaine (5 mg/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg). Behavior in unknown environment was examined in Laboras, nociception in Plantar test, and active drug-seeking behavior in conditioned place preference (CPP). Our data demonstrate that cocaine increased the exploratory activity in Laboras test in prenatally saline-exposed, but decreased it in prenatally MA-exposed rats. An analgesic effect of cocaine was demonstrated only by the tail withdrawal and it was independent of the prenatal drug exposure. CPP test showed that prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance than sensitization to cocaine. In contrast to cocaine effects, morphine decreased rearing activity in both, prenatally MA-exposed and saline-exposed rats, and locomotion only in prenatally MA-exposed rats in the Laboras. In the Plantar test, the results demonstrated that morphine had an analgesic effect in prenatally saline-exposed rats but this effect was suppressed in prenatally MA-exposed rats. In the CPP test morphine induced drug-seeking behavior, which however was not affected by prenatal drug exposure. Thus, our data demonstrate that there is a cross-effect between prenatal MA exposure and the challenge dose of other drug in adulthood, however drug-seeking behavior is not increased by prenatal MA exposure as we expected. PMID:22980560

  5. Methamphetamine overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... methamphetamine overdose may be acute (sudden) or chronic (long-term). An acute methamphetamine overdose occurs when someone takes ... kidney failure Paranoia Seizures Severe stomach pain Stroke Long-term use of methamphetamine can lead to significant psychological ...

  6. Androgen-primed castrate males are sufficient for methamphetamine-facilitated increases in proceptive behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Rudzinskas, Sarah A; Mong, Jessica A

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a psychomotor stimulant associated with increases in sex drive in both men and women. Women, however, are far more likely to face social disadvantages as a consequence of MA use, and their increased sexual motivation poses additional health concerns such as unplanned pregnancies. To better understand the mechanisms underlying MA-facilitated sexual motivation in females, we previously established a rodent model where a "binge"-type administration paradigm of MA to sexually receptive female rats significantly increases proceptive behavior in the presence of a sexually active, gonadally-intact male. Our previous work with this model has led us to consider whether the increases in proceptive behavior are truly indicative of increased sexual motivation, or instead a consequence of heightened motor responsivity. Here, we test whether MA-induced increases in proceptive behaviors are specific to a sexually relevant stimulus. Females' sexual, social, exploratory behaviors, and interaction times were scored during the exposure to stimulus males, including castrates, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated castrates. MA-treated females demonstrated significant increases in proceptive behaviors toward DHT-treated castrate males but not toward castrate males. While the non-MA-treated females did display proceptive behavior, there was no significant difference between behaviors elicited by DHT-CX males compared to CX males. Our results support the hypothesis that MA facilitates proceptive behavior only in response to specific, androgen mediated sexually-relevant cues. PMID:26497407

  7. Predictors of relapse in Filipino male methamphetamine users: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Tuliao, Antover P; Liwag, Maria Emma Concepcion D

    2011-01-01

    Using a simultaneous mixed methods design, this article studies the relapse predictors of Filipino methamphetamine abusers. Results of the quantitative study, with 32 relapsed and 19 abstaining individuals, indicate that self-efficacy, negative affect, motivation, coping, and craving were found to predict relapse and functional social support did not. In-depth interviews with 11 relapse and 10 abstaining individuals supported the quantitative study. Although the results mirror existing literature, the issue of social support was given emphasis in the discussion. Implications for treatment, limitations, and recommendations for future study are also discussed. PMID:21678148

  8. Orexin-A level elevation in recently abstinent male methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Yin; Kao, Chung-Feng; Chen, Po-Yu; Lin, Shih-Ku; Huang, Ming-Chyi

    2016-05-30

    Research has suggested that methamphetamine (METH) use influences orexin regulation. We examined the difference in orexin-A levels between METH abusers and healthy controls. Fasting serum orexin-A levels were measured in 35 participants who used METH in the preceding 3 weeks and 36 healthy controls. We found METH abusers had significantly higher orexin-A levels. No association was observed between orexin-A levels and METH use variables. Our results, consistent with prior preclinical evidence, showed that recent METH exposure is associated with increased orexin-A expression. Further investigation is required to determine whether orexin-A levels normalize after a longer term of abstinence. PMID:27137956

  9. Methamphetamine: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... e.g., methylphenidate and amphetamines), as well as cocaine and methamphetamine. Tolerance: A condition in which higher ...

  10. Methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects of bupropion and its two hydroxy metabolites in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Smith, Douglas A; Blough, Bruce E

    2016-04-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor and nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor antagonist bupropion is being investigated as a candidate 'agonist' medication for methamphetamine addiction. In addition to its complex pharmacology, bupropion also has two distinct pharmacologically active metabolites. However, the mechanism by which bupropion produces methamphetamine-like 'agonist' effects remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of DAT inhibition, nACh receptor antagonism, and the hydroxybupropion metabolites in the methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects of bupropion in rhesus monkeys. In addition, varenicline, a partial agonist at the nACh receptor, and risperidone, a dopamine antagonist, were tested as controls. Monkeys (n=4) were trained to discriminate 0.18 mg/kg intramuscular methamphetamine from saline in a two-key food-reinforced discrimination procedure. The potency and time course of methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects were determined for all compounds. Bupropion, methylphenidate, and 2S,3S-hydroxybupropion produced full, at least 90%, methamphetamine-like effects. 2R,3R-Hydroxybupropion, mecamylamine, and nicotine also produced full methamphetamine-like effects, but drug potency was more variable between monkeys. Varenicline produced partial methamphetamine-like effects, whereas risperidone did not. Overall, these results suggest DAT inhibition as the major mechanism of the methamphetamine-like 'agonist' effects of bupropion, although nACh receptor antagonism appeared, at least partially, to contribute. Furthermore, the contribution of the 2S,3S-hydroxybupropion metabolite could not be completely ruled out. PMID:26886209

  11. Do prenatally methamphetamine-exposed adult male rats display general predisposition to drug abuse in the conditioned place preference test?

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Macúchová, E; Nová, E; Rokyta, R

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse of pregnant women is a growing problem. The effect of prenatal drug exposure may have devastating effect on development of the offsprings that may be long-term or even permanent. One of the most common drug abused by pregnant women is methamphetamine (MA), which is also the most frequently abused illicit drug in the Czech Republic. Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure alters behavior, cognition, pain and seizures in adult rats in sex-specific manner. Our most recent studies demonstrate that prenatal MA exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same or related drugs than their controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the Conditioned place preference (CPP). Adult male rats were divided to: prenatally MA-exposed (5 mg/kg daily for the entire prenatal period), prenatally saline-exposed (1 ml/kg of physiological saline) and controls (without maternal injections). The following drugs were used in the CPP test in adulthood: MA (5 mg/kg), amphetamine (5 mg/kg), cocaine (5 and 10 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg), MDMA (5 mg/kg) and THC (2 mg/kg). Our data demonstrated that prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed higher amphetamine-seeking behavior than both controls. MA as well as morphine induced drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats, however this effect did not differ based on the prenatal MA exposure. In contrast, prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance to cocaine than sensitization after the conditioning in the CPP. MDMA and THC did not induce significant effects. Even though the present data did not fully confirmed our hypotheses, future studies are planned to test the drug-seeking behavior also in self-administration test. PMID:23130898

  12. Persistent Microstructural Deficits of Internal Capsule in One-Year Abstinent Male Methamphetamine Users: a Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wenxu; Tang, Yingying; Zhong, Na; Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Wang, Jijun; Zhao, Min

    2016-09-01

    White matter (WM) alterations have been reported in methamphetamine (MA) users. However, knowledge about longitudinal changes in WM during abstinence from MA remains unknown. The present study aimed to examine how WM changes in long-term MA abstinent, in particular, whether the WM deficits would recover as the duration of abstinence extended. Twenty male MA dependent individuals and 19 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited and participated in both clinical assessments and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans. The MA group underwent two DTI scans, a baseline scan with a duration of abstinence of 6.4 months and and a follow-up scan with a duration of abstinence of 13.0 months. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was utilized to conduct baseline DTI analysis of MA group compared with HCs. The clusters with significant group differences of factional anisotropy (FA) were extracted as region of interests (ROIs). Mean values of DTI measurements (FA, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity) were calculated within the ROIs in each subject's native space at baseline and follow-up. The MA group showed significant lower FA in the right internal capsule and superior corona radiate than HCs. The deficits did not recover when the duration of abstinence from MA reached 13 months. No significant correlations were found between FA and clinical measurements. Our results suggested persistent microstructure deficits of WM tracts surrounding the basal ganglia in MA dependent individuals. PMID:27115910

  13. How various drugs affect anxiety-related behavior in male and female rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Macúchová, E; Ševčíková, M; Hrebíčková, I; Nohejlová, K; Šlamberová, R

    2016-06-01

    Different forms of anxiety-related behavior have been reported after a single drug use of many abused substances, however, less is known about how males and females are affected differently from exposure to various drugs. Furthermore, chronic prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure was shown to predispose the animal to an increased sensitivity to drugs administrated in adulthood. Using the Elevated plus-maze test (EPM), the first aim of the present study was to examine how male and female rats are affected by acute drug treatment with subcutaneously (s.c.) administrated (a) MA (1mg/kg); (b) drugs with a similar mechanism of action to MA: amphetamine (AMP, 1mg/kg), cocaine (COC, 5mg/kg), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 5mg/kg); and (c) drugs with different mechanisms of action: morphine (MOR, 5mg/kg), and Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 2mg/kg). The second aim was to determine if prenatally MA-exposed (5mg/kg) animals show an increased sensitivity to adult drug treatment. The parameters analyzed were divided into two categories: anxiety-related behavior and anxiety-unrelated/exploratory behavior. Our results showed in female rats a decreased percentage of the time spent in the closed arms (CA) after MA, and an increased percentage of the time spent in the open arms (OA) after MA, AMP, and COC treatment, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect. In females, MDMA and THC treatment increased the percentage of the time spent in the CA. An increased percentage of the time spent in the CA was also seen after MOR treatment in females as well as in males, indicating an anxiogenic-like effect. As far as the interaction between prenatal MA exposure and adult drug treatment is concerned, there was no effect found. In conclusion, it seems that: (a) in some cases female rats are more vulnerable to acute drug treatment, in terms of either anxiogenic- or anxiolytic-like effects; (b) prenatal MA exposure does not sensitize animals to the anxiety-related effects of any of the

  14. Methamphetamine overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... regular basis. Injuries during illegal methamphetamine production or police raids include exposure to dangerous chemicals, as well ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  15. Methamphetamine (Meth)

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects, similar to those of other stimulants like cocaine. These include: Feeling very awake and active Fast ... Methamphetamine is a stimulant, with effects similar to cocaine, but longer-lasting. It does not cause illness ...

  16. Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Methamphetamine Print Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (Meth) Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 739.54 KB Methamphetamine comes in ...

  17. Chronic methamphetamine exposure prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion increases infarct volume and worsens cognitive injury in Male mice.

    PubMed

    Zuloaga, Damian G; Wang, Jianming; Weber, Sydney; Mark, Gregory P; Murphy, Stephanie J; Raber, Jacob

    2016-08-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that methamphetamine (MA) abuse can impact cardiovascular disease. In humans, MA abuse is associated with an increased risk of stroke as well as an earlier age at which the stroke occurs. However, little is known about how chronic daily MA exposure can impact ischemic outcome in either humans or animal models. In the present study, mice were injected with MA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline once daily for 10 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the final injection, mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for one hour followed by reperfusion. Mice were tested for novel object memory at 96 h post-reperfusion, just prior to removal of brains for quantification of infarct volume using 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium Chloride (TTC) staining. Mice treated with MA prior to tMCAO showed decreased object memory recognition and increased infarct volume compared to saline-treated mice. These findings indicate that chronic MA exposure can worsen both cognitive and morphological outcomes following cerebral ischemia. PMID:27021292

  18. Research Reports: Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » Research Reports » Methamphetamine » Letter from the Director Methamphetamine Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director The abuse of methamphetamine—a potent and highly addictive stimulant—remains an ...

  19. Acute Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Intranasal Methamphetamine in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Carl L; Gunderson, Erik W; Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Thurmond, Andrew; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased dramatically in the past decade, yet only one published study has investigated its acute effects under controlled laboratory conditions. Thus, the current study examined the effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Eleven nontreatment-seeking methamphetamine abusers (two females, nine males) completed this four-session, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. During each session, one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg) was administered and methamphetamine plasma concentrations, cardiovascular, subjective, and psychomotor/cognitive performance effects were assessed before drug administration and repeatedly thereafter. Following drug administration, methamphetamine plasma concentrations systematically increased for 4 h postdrug administration then declined. Methamphetamine dose dependently increased cardiovascular measures and ‘positive’ subjective effects, with peaks occurring approximately 5–15 min after drug administration, when plasma levels were still ascending. In addition, cognitive performance on less complicated tasks was improved by all active methamphetamine doses, whereas performance on more complicated tasks was improved only by the intermediate doses (12 and 25 mg). These results show that intranasal methamphetamine produced predictable effects on multiple behavioral and physiological measures before peak plasma levels were observed. Of interest is the dissociation between methamphetamine plasma concentrations with cardiovascular measures and positive subjective effects, which might have important implications for potential toxicity after repeated doses. PMID:17851535

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphism near CREB1, rs7591784, is associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency and outcome of outpatient treatment for methamphetamine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Heinzerling, Keith G; Demirdjian, Levon; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Although stimulant dependence is highly heritable, few studies have examined genetic influences on methamphetamine dependence. We performed a candidate gene study of 52 SNPs and pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency among 263 methamphetamine dependent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White participants of several methamphetamine outpatient clinical trials in Los Angeles. One SNP, rs7591784 was significantly associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency following Bonferroni correction (p < 0.001) in males but not females. We then examined rs7591784 and methamphetamine urine drug screen results during 12 weeks of outpatient treatment among males with treatment outcome data available (N = 94) and found rs7591784 was significantly associated with methamphetamine use during treatment controlling for pretreatment methamphetamine use. rs7591784 is near CREB1 and in a linkage disequilibrium block with rs2952768, previously shown to influence CREB1 expression. The CREB signaling pathway is involved in gene expression changes related to chronic use of multiple drugs of abuse including methamphetamine and these results suggest that variability in CREB signaling may influence pretreatment frequency of methamphetamine use as well as outcomes of outpatient treatment. Medications targeting the CREB pathway, including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, warrant investigation as pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine use disorders. PMID:26736037

  1. Crystal methamphetamine initiation among street-involved youth

    PubMed Central

    Uhlmann, Sasha; DeBeck, Kora; Simo, Annick; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Wood, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Background Although many settings have recently documented a substantial increase in the use of methamphetamine-type stimulants, recent reviews have underscored the dearth of prospective studies that have examined risk factors associated with the initiation of crystal methamphetamine use. Objectives Our objectives were to examine rates and risk factors for the initiation of crystal methamphetamine use in a cohort of street-involved youth. Methods Street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada, were enrolled in a prospective cohort known as the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS). A total of 205 crystal methamphetamine-naïve participants were assessed semi-annually and Cox regression analyses were used to identify factors independently associated with the initiation of crystal methamphetamine use. Results Among 205 youth prospectively followed from 2005 to 2012, the incidence density of crystal methamphetamine initiation was 12.2 per 100 person years. In Cox regression analyses, initiation of crystal methamphetamine use was independently associated with previous crack cocaine use (adjusted relative hazard [ARH] = 2.24 [95% CI: 1.20–4.20]) and recent drug dealing (ARH = 1.98 [95% CI: 1.05–3.71]). Those initiating methamphetamine were also more likely to report a recent nonfatal overdose (ARH = 3.63 [95% CI: 1.65–7.98]) and to be male (ARH = 2.12 [95% CI: 1.06–4.25]). Conclusions We identified high rates of crystal methamphetamine initiation among this population. Males those involved in the drug trade, and those who used crack cocaine were more likely to initiate crystal methamphetamine use. Evidence-based strategies to prevent and treat crystal methamphetamine use are urgently needed. PMID:24191637

  2. Expression of HIV gp120 protein increases sensitivity to the rewarding properties of methamphetamine in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kesby, James P.; Hubbard, David T.; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection induce neuropathological changes in corticolimbic brain areas involved in reward and cognitive function. Little is known about the combined effects of methamphetamine and HIV infection on cognitive and reward processes. The HIV/gp120 protein induces neurodegeneration in mice, similar to HIV-induced pathology in humans. We investigated the effects of gp120 expression on associative learning, preference for methamphetamine and non-drug reinforcers, and sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding properties of methamphetamine in transgenic (tg) mice expressing HIV/gp120 protein (gp120-tg). gp120-tg mice learned the operant response for food at the same rate as non-tg mice. In the two-bottle choice procedure with restricted access to drugs, gp120-tg mice exhibited greater preference for methamphetamine and saccharin than non-tg mice, whereas preference for quinine was similar between genotypes. Under conditions of unrestricted access to methamphetamine, the mice exhibited a decreased preference for increasing methamphetamine concentrations. However, male gp120-tg mice showed a decreased preference for methamphetamine at lower concentrations than non-tg male mice. gp120-tg mice developed methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference at lower methamphetamine doses compared with non-tg mice. No differences in methamphetamine pharmacokinetics were found between genotypes. These results indicate that gp120-tg mice exhibit no deficits in associative learning or reward/motivational function for a natural reinforcer. Interestingly, gp120 expression resulted in increased preference for methamphetamine and a highly palatable non-drug reinforcer (saccharin) and increased sensitivity to methamphetamine-induced conditioned reward. These data suggest that HIV-positive individuals may have increased sensitivity to methamphetamine, leading to high methamphetamine abuse potential in this population. PMID

  3. Expression of HIV gp120 protein increases sensitivity to the rewarding properties of methamphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Hubbard, David T; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2014-07-01

    Methamphetamine abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection induce neuropathological changes in corticolimbic brain areas involved in reward and cognitive function. Little is known about the combined effects of methamphetamine and HIV infection on cognitive and reward processes. The HIV/gp120 protein induces neurodegeneration in mice, similar to HIV-induced pathology in humans. We investigated the effects of gp120 expression on associative learning, preference for methamphetamine and non-drug reinforcers, and sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding properties of methamphetamine in transgenic (tg) mice expressing HIV/gp120 protein (gp120-tg). gp120-tg mice learned the operant response for food at the same rate as non-tg mice. In the two-bottle choice procedure with restricted access to drugs, gp120-tg mice exhibited greater preference for methamphetamine and saccharin than non-tg mice, whereas preference for quinine was similar between genotypes. Under conditions of unrestricted access to methamphetamine, the mice exhibited a decreased preference for increasing methamphetamine concentrations. However, male gp120-tg mice showed a decreased preference for methamphetamine at lower concentrations than non-tg male mice. gp120-tg mice developed methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference at lower methamphetamine doses compared with non-tg mice. No differences in methamphetamine pharmacokinetics were found between genotypes. These results indicate that gp120-tg mice exhibit no deficits in associative learning or reward/motivational function for a natural reinforcer. Interestingly, gp120 expression resulted in increased preference for methamphetamine and a highly palatable non-drug reinforcer (saccharin) and increased sensitivity to methamphetamine-induced conditioned reward. These data suggest that HIV-positive individuals may have increased sensitivity to methamphetamine, leading to high methamphetamine abuse potential in this population. PMID

  4. Nicotine Administration Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Novel Object Recognition Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; McFadden, Lisa M.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Smith, Misty D.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine abuse leads to memory deficits and these are associated with relapse. Furthermore, extensive evidence indicates that nicotine prevents and/or improves memory deficits in different models of cognitive dysfunction and these nicotinic effects might be mediated by hippocampal or cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The present study investigated whether nicotine attenuates methamphetamine-induced novel object recognition deficits in rats and explored potential underlying mechanisms. Methods: Adolescent or adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received either nicotine water (10–75 μg/mL) or tap water for several weeks. Methamphetamine (4×7.5mg/kg/injection) or saline was administered either before or after chronic nicotine exposure. Novel object recognition was evaluated 6 days after methamphetamine or saline. Serotonin transporter function and density and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density were assessed on the following day. Results: Chronic nicotine intake via drinking water beginning during either adolescence or adulthood attenuated the novel object recognition deficits caused by a high-dose methamphetamine administration. Similarly, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in novel object recognition when administered after methamphetamine treatment. However, nicotine did not attenuate the serotonergic deficits caused by methamphetamine in adults. Conversely, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, nicotine increased α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA3, dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex in both saline- and methamphetamine-treated rats. Conclusions: Overall, these findings suggest that nicotine-induced increases in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex might be one mechanism by which

  5. The methamphetamine problem

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Niall

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the reader to the characteristics of methamphetamine. Explored within are the drug's effects on those who consume it as well as the history and prevalence of its use. The highly addictive nature of methamphetamine is compounded by its affordability and the ease with which it is produced, with North America and East Asia having become established as heartlands for both consumption and manufacture. The paper discusses recent cultural depictions of the drug and also the role that mental health professionals may take in designing and delivering interventions to treat methamphetamine addiction. PMID:26755964

  6. Methamphetamine Use in Club Subcultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, methamphetamine developed a peculiar geographic distribution in the United States, with limited diffusion in the Northeast. While use within gay clubs received attention, methamphetamine in club subcultures more broadly remains less clear. Using quantitative and qualitative data, we provide a descriptive assessment of methamphetamine use in club subcultures. Methamphetamine use in club subcultures often has instrumental purposes. The context of initiation into methamphetamine use and its close connection to cocaine shape later patterns of use. Viewing meth solely as a gay party drug misses a significant part of the population and may misguide public health strategies to reduce methamphetamine use in the Northeast. PMID:23848380

  7. Methamphetamine/Dextroamphetamine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Methamphetamine/Dextroamphetamine and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to methamphetamine or dextroamphetamine may increase the risk for birth ...

  8. The Cardiac Complications of Methamphetamines.

    PubMed

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Cunningham, Neil J; MacIsaac, Andrew I

    2016-04-01

    Methamphetamines are increasingly popular drugs of abuse in Australia, and are rising in purity. The rising popularity and purity of methamphetamines has notably increased demands upon Australian medical services. Methamphetamines are sympathomimetic amines with a range of adverse effects upon multiple organ systems. Cardiovascular complications are the second leading cause of death in methamphetamine abusers, and there appears to be a high prevalence of cardiac pathology. Cardiovascular pathology frequently seen in methamphetamine abusers includes hypertension, aortic dissection, acute coronary syndromes, pulmonary arterial hypertension and methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy. The rising prevalence of methamphetamine abuse is likely to increase the burden of cardiovascular pathology in Australians. A National Parliamentary Enquiry was opened in March 2015 to address concerns regarding the medical and social impacts of methamphetamine abuse. From April 2015, a National 'Ice Taskforce' was also created in parallel. Reversal of cardiac pathology appears to be achievable with abstinence from methamphetamines and initiation of appropriate treatment. It is key to appreciate that the pathogenesis of methamphetamine-induced cardiac complications arises as a result of the specific toxic effects of methamphetamines. Clinical management is hence individualised; suggested management approaches for methamphetamine-induced cardiac complications are detailed within this article. PMID:26706652

  9. Initiation into Methamphetamine Use For Young Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Kelly, Brian C.; Weiser, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    Research over the past ten years has suggested that methamphetamine use has become a significant problem and is associated with risky sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. In order to better understand initiation into methamphetamine use among gay and bisexual men, qualitative analyses were performed on a sample of young gay and bisexual men (ages 18-29) in New York City. Participants were recruited as part of a larger study which used time-space sampling to enroll club-going young adults who indicated recent club-drug (ecstasy, ketamine, GHB, methamphetamine, cocaine, and/or LSD) use. The data for this paper are derived from the qualitative interviews of 54 gay and bisexual male methamphetamine users. At initiation (1) Methamphetamine was used in a social, non-sexual setting for a majority of the participants; (2) participants expressed limited knowledge of methamphetamine; and (3) many participants used cocaine as a basis for comparison when describing various effects of the drug. The understanding that at initiation methamphetamine was not solely used as a sexual enhancement for members of this community may enable health workers to more accurately target potential users when putting forth intervention efforts. Future research should aim to gain a better understanding into the role that methamphetamine plays in non-sexual contexts, particularly among gay and bisexual men who may not be part of the club “scene.” The relationship between attitudes towards methamphetamine and other drugs, particularly cocaine, among gay and bisexual men should be explored. PMID:17398040

  10. Methamphetamine and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Granado, Noelia; Ares-Santos, Sara; Moratalla, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the elderly. The aetiology of the disease is not known, but age and environmental factors play an important role. Although more than a dozen gene mutations associated with familial forms of Parkinson's disease have been described, fewer than 10% of all cases can be explained by genetic abnormalities. The molecular basis of Parkinson's disease is the loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia (caudate/putamen) due to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which leads to the motor impairment characteristic of the disease. Methamphetamine is the second most widely used illicit drug in the world. In rodents, methamphetamine exposure damages dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, resulting in a significant loss of dopamine in the striatum. Biochemical and neuroimaging studies in human methamphetamine users have shown decreased levels of dopamine and dopamine transporter as well as prominent microglial activation in the striatum and other areas of the brain, changes similar to those observed in PD patients. Consistent with these similarities, recent epidemiological studies have shown that methamphetamine users are almost twice as likely as non-users to develop PD, despite the fact that methamphetamine abuse and PD have distinct symptomatic profiles. PMID:23476887

  11. Gender Differences in the Effect of Tobacco Use on Brain Phosphocreatine Levels in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hoon; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Kondo, Douglas G.; Shi, Xian-Feng; Lundberg, Kelly J.; Hellem, Tracy L.; Huber, Rebekah S.; McGlade, Erin C.; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background A high prevalence of tobacco smoking has been observed in methamphetamine users, but there have been no in vivo brain neurochemistry studies addressing gender effects of tobacco smoking in methamphetamine users. Methamphetamine addiction is associated with increased risk of depression and anxiety in females. There is increasing evidence that selective analogues of nicotine, a principal active component of tobacco smoking, may improve depression and cognitive performance in animals and humans. Objectives To investigate the effects of tobacco smoking and gender on brain phosphocreatine (PCr) levels, a marker of brain energy metabolism reported to be reduced in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Methods Thirty female and twenty-seven male methamphetamine-dependent subjects were evaluated with phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) to measure PCr levels within the pregenual anterior cingulate, which has been implicated in methamphetamine neurotoxicity. Results Analysis of covariance revealed that there were statistically significant slope (PCr versus lifetime amount of tobacco smoking) differences between female and male methamphetamine-dependent subjects (p=0.03). In females, there was also a statistically significant interaction between lifetime amounts of tobacco smoking and methamphetamine in regard to PCr levels (p=0.01), which suggests that tobacco smoking may have a more significant positive impact on brain PCr levels in heavy, as opposed to light to moderate, methamphetamine-dependent females. Conclusion These results indicate that tobacco smoking has gender-specific effects in terms of increased anterior cingulate high energy PCr levels in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Cigarette smoking in methamphetamine-dependent women, particularly those with heavy methamphetamine use, may have a potentially protective effect upon neuronal metabolism. PMID:25871447

  12. Long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure on cognitive function and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jessica A.; Craytor, Michael J.; Raber, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to methamphetamine during brain development impairs cognition in humans and rodents. In mice, these impairments are greater in females than males. Genetic factors, such as apolipoprotein E genotype, may modulate the cognitive effects of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine-induced alterations in the brain acetylcholine system may contribute to the cognitive effects of methamphetamine and may also be modulated by apolipoprotein E isoform. We assessed the long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure during brain development on cognitive function and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in mice, and whether apolipoprotein E isoform modulates these effects. Mice expressing human apolipoprotein E3 or E4 were exposed to methamphetamine (5 mg/kg) or saline once a day from postnatal day 11-20 and behaviorally tested in adulthood. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding was measured in the hippocampus and cortex. Methamphetamine exposure impaired novel location recognition in female, but not male, mice. Methamphetamine-exposed male and female mice showed impaired novel object recognition and increased number of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus. The cognitive and cholinergic effects of methamphetamine were similar in apolipoprotein E3 and E4 mice. Thus, the cholinergic system, but not apolipoprotein E isoform, might play an important role in the long-term methamphetamine-induced cognitive deficits in adulthood. PMID:20729719

  13. Enhanced Upregulation of CRH mRNA Expression in the Nucleus Accumbens of Male Rats after a Second Injection of Methamphetamine Given Thirty Days Later

    PubMed Central

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Brannock, Christie; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T.; Krasnova, Irina N.; Lehrmann, Elin; Becker, Kevin G.; Jayanthi, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused amphetamine analog. Few studies have investigated the molecular effects of METH exposure in adult animals. Herein, we determined the consequences of an injection of METH (10 mg/kg) on transcriptional effects of a second METH (2.5 mg/kg) injection given one month later. We thus measured gene expression by microarray analyses in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of 4 groups of rats euthanized 2 hours after the second injection: saline-pretreated followed by saline-challenged (SS) or METH-challenged (SM); and METH-pretreated followed by saline-challenged (MS) or METH-challenged (MM). Microarray analyses revealed that METH (2.5 mg/kg) produced acute changes (1.8-fold; P<0.01) in the expression of 412 (352 upregulated, 60 down-regulated) transcripts including cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh), oxytocin (Oxt), and vasopressin (Avp) that were upregulated. Injection of METH (10 mg/kg) altered the expression of 503 (338 upregulated, 165 down-regulated) transcripts measured one month later (MS group). These genes also included Cart and Crh. The MM group showed altered expression of 766 (565 upregulated, 201 down-regulated) transcripts including Avp, Cart, and Crh. The METH-induced increased Crh expression was enhanced in the MM group in comparison to SM and MS groups. Quantitative PCR confirmed the METH-induced changes in mRNA levels. Therefore, a single injection of METH produced long-lasting changes in gene expression in the rodent NAc. The long-term increases in Crh, Cart, and Avp mRNA expression suggest that METH exposure produced prolonged activation of the endogenous stress system. The METH-induced changes in oxytocin expression also suggest the possibility that this neuropeptide might play a significant role in the neuroplastic and affiliative effects of this drug. PMID:24475032

  14. Acute Iodine Toxicity From a Suspected Oral Methamphetamine Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Bulloch, Marilyn N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Iodine is a naturally occurring element commercially available alone or in a multitude of products. Iodine crystals and iodine tincture are used in the production of methamphetamine. Although rarely fatal, iodine toxicity from oral ingestion can produce distressing gastrointestinal symptoms and systemic symptoms, such as hypotension and tachycardia, from subsequent hypovolemia. OBJECTIVE The objective of this case report is to describe a case of iodine toxicity from suspected oral methamphetamine ingestion. CASE REPORT A male in his early 20’s presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, chills, fever, tachycardia, and tachypnea after orally ingesting a substance suspected to be methamphetamine. The patient had elevated levels of serum creatinine, liver function tests, and bands on arrival, which returned to within normal limits by day 4 of admission. Based on the patient’s narrow anion gap, halogen levels were ordered on day 3 and indicated iodine toxicity. This is thought to be the first documented case of iodine toxicity secondary to suspected oral methamphetamine abuse. CONCLUSION Considering that the incidence of methamphetamine abuse is expected to continue to rise, clinicians should be aware of potential iodine toxicity in a patient with a history of methamphetamine abuse. PMID:25452705

  15. A review of treatment options for co-occurring methamphetamine use disorders and depression.

    PubMed

    Hellem, Tracy L; Lundberg, Kelly J; Renshaw, Perry F

    2015-01-01

    Co-occurring methamphetamine use and depression interferes with treatment outcomes. Female methamphetamine users are known to have higher rates of depression than male methamphetamine users, although this is also true for the general population. There are limited treatment options for the management of depression among methamphetamine users. In this integrative review, we summarize data on treatment strategies for co-occurring depression and methamphetamine use disorders. English-language articles were identified from PsychINFO, CINAHL, PubMed, and Medline as well as from reference lists of key articles. Search terms included "methamphetamine," "depression," and "treatment." Research articles describing psychological (n = 3), pharmacological (n = 6), nutritional supplement (n = 1), and psychological combined with pharmacological (n = 3) approaches for the treatment of methamphetamine use or withdrawal and/or depression are included in this review. Psychological and combination of psychological with pharmacological approaches have not been shown to be effective in treating these co-occurring conditions. Antidepressants have been determined to be ineffective and/or to introduce side effects. Gender differences with response to treatment were examined in only one of the published studies. There is a large gap in knowledge regarding treatment of co-occurring methamphetamine use disorders and depression. Considering that female methamphetamine users experience higher rates of depression than men, a focus on gender-specific treatment approaches is warranted. PMID:25761159

  16. Perceived Risk of Methamphetamine among Chinese Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C; Liu, Tieqiao; Yang, Xiaozhao Yosef; Zhang, Guanbai; Hao, Wei; Wang, Jichuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine use has grown considerably in China in recent years. Information about perceptions of risk on methamphetamine is important to facilitate health promotion efforts. Methods Using both survey data and qualitative interview data, the authors evaluate the perceived risk of methamphetamine use among Chinese users using a mixed-methods approach. Through Respondent Driven Sampling, the authors recruited a sample of 303 methamphetamine users in Changsha, China. Results A majority (59.1%) perceive that infrequent methamphetamine use poses no risk to the user, while 11.2% perceive at least moderate risk for light use. A majority (56.7%) perceived at least moderate risk associated with regular methamphetamine use. Most (82.2%) also perceive methamphetamine to be easily obtainable. A path model indicates that perceived risk shapes intentions to use and expectations of future use, as does perceived availability. Qualitatively, while addiction was the most common risk discussed by users, they differed on whether they perceived the drug addictive. Other concerns raised by interviewees included impaired cognition, mental health problems, physical harm, and social dysfunction. Discussion While some users identify significant risks with methamphetamine, others do not perceive its use to be problematic. Collectively, these findings indicate that intervening upon perceptions of risk among Chinese methamphetamine users may be a means to influence intentions to use. PMID:24925820

  17. Correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    While many studies have examined correlates of trading sex for money, few have examined factors associated with exclusive trading of sex for drugs. We identified sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual men and women who were enrolled in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, California. Of 342 participants, 26% overall (21% of males and 31% of females) reported trading sex for methamphetamine in the past two months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that recently trading sex for methamphetamine was independently associated with being female, homeless, binging on methamphetamine, sexual victimization in the past two months, engaging in anal sex 24 or more times in the past two months, and higher sexual compulsivity scores. Effective interventions for this high-risk population should consider gender-focused counseling for sexual abuse, motivational enhancement therapy, social-cognitive skills training, as well as enhanced access and utilization of social services, including drug treatment. PMID:21858954

  18. EFFECTS OF TOPIRAMATE ON METHAMPHETAMINE-INDUCED CHANGES IN ATTENTIONAL AND PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR SKILLS OF COGNITION IN RECENTLY ABSTINENT METHAMPHETAMINE-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bankole A.; Roache, John D.; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Wells, Lynda T.; Wallace, Christopher L.; Dawes, Michael A.; Liu, Lei; Wang, Xin-Qun

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine-dependent individuals often cite the need to maintain enhanced cognitive performance and attention as a reason for continuing or relapsing to drug-taking. Further, methamphetamine addicts might not comply with taking a potentially therapeutic medication if it had a profound effect on these cognitive processes. Topiramate, a sulfamate-substituted fructopyranose derivative, has been suggested as a putative therapeutic medication for treating methamphetamine dependence. Examination of topiramate’s effects on cognitive performance and attention is a clinically and scientifically important component of understanding its potential therapeutic profile. In 10 male and female individuals who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence, we examined the effects of low (50 mg b.i.d.)- and high (100 mg b.i.d.)-dose topiramate — in both the presence and absence of low (15 mg)- and high (30 mg)-dose intravenous methamphetamine — on cognitive performance, attention, and concentration on the rapid visual information processing task and the digit symbol substitution test. Intravenous methamphetamine enhanced cognitive performance, attention, and concentration among recently withdrawn methamphetamine addicts — an effect that hitherto had not been well characterized. Topiramate’s cognitive effects were mixed and rather paradoxical, with a tendency to improve attention and concentration both alone and in the presence of methamphetamine while worsening psychomotor retardation. No deleterious interaction occurred between topiramate and methamphetamine on any of these cognitive processes. While clinical studies with topiramate should prepare participants for possible psychomotor retardation, the cognitive-effects profile observed would not likely present an important obstacle to compliance in motivated patients. Topiramate’s complicated cognitive effects among methamphetamine addicts need more comprehensive examination. PMID:16978753

  19. The effect of early environmental manipulation on locomotor sensitivity and methamphetamine conditioned place preference reward.

    PubMed

    Hensleigh, E; Pritchard, L M

    2014-07-15

    Early life stress leads to several effects on neurological development, affecting health and well-being later in life. Instances of child abuse and neglect are associated with higher rates of depression, risk taking behavior, and an increased risk of drug abuse later in life. This study used repeated neonatal separation of rat pups as a model of early life stress. Rat pups were either handled and weighed as controls or separated for 180 min per day during postnatal days 2-8. In adulthood, male and female rats were tested for methamphetamine conditioned place preference reward and methamphetamine induced locomotor activity. Tissue samples were collected and mRNA was quantified for the norepinephrine transporter in the prefrontal cortex and the dopamine transporter in the nucleus accumbens. Results indicated rats given methamphetamine formed a conditioned place preference, but there was no effect of early separation or sex. Separated males showed heightened methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity, but there was no effect of early separation for females. Overall females were more active than males in response to both saline and methamphetamine. No differences in mRNA levels were observed across any conditions. These results suggest early neonatal separation affects methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity in a sex-dependent manner but has no effects on methamphetamine conditioned place preference. PMID:24713150

  20. THE EFFECT OF EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL MANIPULATION ON LOCOMOTOR SENSITIVITY AND METHAMPHETAMINE CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE REWARD

    PubMed Central

    Hensleigh, E.; Pritchard, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress leads to several effects on neurological development, affecting health and well-being later in life. Instances of child abuse and neglect are associated with higher rates of depression, risk taking behavior, and an increased risk of drug abuse later in life. This study used repeated neonatal separation of rat pups as a model of early life stress. Rat pups were either handled and weighed as controls or separated for 180 minutes per day during postnatal days 2-8. In adulthood, male and female rats were tested for methamphetamine conditioned place preference reward and methamphetamine induced locomotor activity. Tissue samples were collected and mRNA was quantified for the norepinephrine transporter in the prefrontal cortex and the dopamine transporter in the nucleus accumbens. Results indicated rats given methamphetamine formed a conditioned place preference, but there was no effect of early separation or sex. Separated males showed heightened methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity, but there was no effect of early separation for females. Overall females were more active than males in response to both saline and methamphetamine. No differences in mRNA levels were observed across any conditions. These results suggest early neonatal separation affects methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity in a sex-dependent manner but has no effects on methamphetamine conditioned place preference. PMID:24713150

  1. The effects of adolescent methamphetamine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Jordan M.; Siegel, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine use among adolescents is a significant social and public health concern. Despite increased awareness of methamphetamine use among younger people, relatively little research has examined the effects of adolescent methamphetamine use compared to adult use. Thus, much remains to be learned about how methamphetamine alters adolescent brain function and behavior. In this article we review recent trends in adolescent methamphetamine use and data examining the effects of adolescent methamphetamine use on the dopaminergic system and behavior in humans and animal models. Future research is warranted to expand our understanding of the effects of adolescent methamphetamine exposure and how those effects differ from those seen in adults. PMID:25972781

  2. Methamphetamine decreases CD4 T cell frequency and alters pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a model of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Mata, Mariana M; Napier, T Celeste; Graves, Steven M; Mahmood, Fareeha; Raeisi, Shohreh; Baum, Linda L

    2015-04-01

    The reason co-morbid methamphetamine use and HIV infection lead to more rapid progression to AIDS is unclear. We used a model of methamphetamine self-administration to measure the effect of methamphetamine on the systemic immune system to better understand the co-morbidity of methamphetamine and HIV. Catheters were implanted into the jugular veins of male, Sprague Dawley rats so they could self-administer methamphetamine (n=18) or be given saline (control; n=16) for 14 days. One day after the last operant session, blood and spleens were collected. We measured serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, intracellular IFN-γ and TNF-α, and frequencies of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD200(+) and CD11b/c(+) lymphocytes in the spleen. Rats that self-administered methamphetamine had a lower frequency of CD4(+) T cells, but more of these cells produced IFN-γ. Methamphetamine did not alter the frequency of TNF-α-producing CD4(+) T cells. Methamphetamine using rats had a higher frequency of CD8(+) T cells, but fewer of them produced TNF-α. CD11b/c and CD200 expression were unchanged. Serum cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 in methamphetamine rats were unchanged. Methamphetamine lifetime dose inversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. Our data suggest that methamphetamine abuse may exacerbate HIV disease progression by activating CD4 T cells, making them more susceptible to HIV infection, and contributing to their premature demise. Methamphetamine may also increase susceptibility to HIV infection, explaining why men who have sex with men (MSM) and frequently use methamphetamine are at the highest risk of HIV infection. PMID:25678251

  3. Chlorogenic and Caftaric Acids in Liver Toxicity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Koriem, Khaled M. M.; Soliman, Rowan E.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine intoxication can cause acute hepatic failure. Chlorogenic and caftaric acids are the major dietary polyphenols present in various foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of chlorogenic and caftaric acids in liver toxicity and oxidative stress induced by methamphetamine in rats. Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups. Group 1, which was control group, was injected (i.p) with saline (1 mL/kg) twice a day over seven-day period. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were injected (i.p) with methamphetamine (10 mg/kg) twice a day over seven-day period, where groups 3 and 4 were injected (i.p) with 60 mg/kg chlorogenic acid and 40 mg/kg caftaric acid, respectively, one day before methamphetamine injections. Methamphetamine increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. Also, malondialdehyde in serum, liver, and brain and plasma and liver nitric oxide levels were increased while methamphetamine induced a significant decrease in serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, brain serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, blood and liver superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase levels. Chlorogenic and caftaric acids prior to methamphetamine injections restored all the above parameters to normal values. In conclusion, chlorogenic and caftaric acids before methamphetamine injections prevented liver toxicity and oxidative stress where chlorogenic acid was more effective. PMID:25136360

  4. Methamphetamine Use by High School Students: Recent Trends, Gender and Ethnicity Differences, and Use of Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetting, Eugene R.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Luther, Nathan; Beauvais, Fred; Edwards, Ruth W.

    2000-01-01

    Recent data on 9th-12th grade methamphetamine use (both lifetime and last month prevalence) are summarized. Since 1992 methamphetamine use has increased. There were no significant differences in use noted across school year. Males are more likely to use than females, although female use has also increased. Implications for research, prevention,…

  5. Methamphetamine Cured my Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Colin N.; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is an enduring problem and years of research and drug development has yet to produce an efficacious pharmacotherapy. Recent clinical research suggests that chronic treatment with amphetamine-like medications produces tolerance to cocaine’s reinforcing effects and may offer a viable pharmacotherapy. Three methamphetamine-dependent participants that had been in our clinical laboratory experiments and previously addicted to cocaine are reviewed. Data obtained from initial screen and informal conversation suggested that all participants considered methamphetamine to have helped them stop using cocaine and eliminate cocaine craving. Methamphetamine also significantly decreased their alcohol consumption but did not alter cannabis or nicotine use. PMID:23066512

  6. Methamphetamine Cured my Cocaine Addiction.

    PubMed

    Haile, Colin N; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F

    2010-10-14

    Cocaine dependence is an enduring problem and years of research and drug development has yet to produce an efficacious pharmacotherapy. Recent clinical research suggests that chronic treatment with amphetamine-like medications produces tolerance to cocaine's reinforcing effects and may offer a viable pharmacotherapy. Three methamphetamine-dependent participants that had been in our clinical laboratory experiments and previously addicted to cocaine are reviewed. Data obtained from initial screen and informal conversation suggested that all participants considered methamphetamine to have helped them stop using cocaine and eliminate cocaine craving. Methamphetamine also significantly decreased their alcohol consumption but did not alter cannabis or nicotine use. PMID:23066512

  7. Remission of Methamphetamine-Induced Withdrawal Delirium and Craving After Electroconvulsive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Jamshid; Ekramzadeh, Sara; Pridmore, Saxby

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to describe the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the treatment of methamphetamine-induced withdrawal delirium and craving in a single case. Case Presentation: A 44-year-old male presented to the hospital in Fars province, Iran, with Methamphetamine-Induced Withdrawal Delirium who responded to ECT. Conclusions: The electroconvulsive therapy can be a suitable option for the treatment of methamphetamine withdrawal delirium and craving. Also, it can be usefully employed in these very serious conditions which may represent a risk to life. PMID:26834801

  8. Impulsivity and methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Zians, Jim; Grant, Igor; Patterson, Thomas L

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between methamphetamine (meth) use and impulsivity in a sample of 385 HIV-negative heterosexually identified meth users. Participants who scored highest on a self-report measure of impulsivity were compared with those who scored lower in terms of background characteristics, meth use patterns, use of alcohol and other illicit drugs, sexual risk behavior, and psychiatric health variables. Methamphetamine users in the high impulsivity group were younger, less educated, used larger quantities of meth, were more likely to be binge users, had a larger number of sexual partners, engaged in more unprotected vaginal and oral sex, and scored higher on the Beck Depression Inventory as compared with those in the low impulsivity group. In a logistic regression analysis, Beck depression was the factor that best distinguished between meth users who scored high and those who scored low on impulsivity. Neurophysiological pathways that may underlie the relationship between impulsivity and meth use are discussed. PMID:16135337

  9. At the Borders, on the Edge: Use of Injected Methamphetamine in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rebeca; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Fraga, Miguel A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Injection drug use is of increasing concern along the US–Mexico border where Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez are located. Methamphetamine has long been manufactured and trafficked through Mexico, with low rates of use within Mexico. With methamphetamine use now considered epidemic in the United States, and with associated individual and community harms such as HIV, STDs, domestic violence and crime, there is concern that rates of methamphetamine in the Northwestern border regions of Mexico may be rising. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the context of injection drug use in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez and included questions about methamphetamine. Guided in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 male and 10 female injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana and 15 male and 8 female IDUs in Cd. Juarez (total N = 43). Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles and environmental influences. Interviews were taped, transcribed verbatim and translated. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. The median age of injectors in both cities was 30. Methamphetamine was injected, either alone or in combination with other drugs by injectors in both Tijuana (85%) and Cd. Juarez (17%) in the 6 months previous to interview. Several important themes emerged with respect to methamphetamine use in both cities. IDUs in both cities considered methamphetamine to be widely used in Tijuana and infrequently used in Cd. Juarez, while the converse was true for cocaine. In both cities, stimulant (either cocaine or methamphetamine) use was widespread, with 85% in Tijuana and 83% in Cd. Juarez reporting current use of a stimulant, most often used in combination with heroin. Some injectors reported knowledge of local manufacturing and one had direct experience in making methamphetamine; some cross-border use and trafficking was reported. Injectors reported concerns or experience with serious health effects of methamphetamine such as abscesses or

  10. Sigma (σ) Receptor Ligand, AC927 (N-Phenethylpiperidine Oxalate), Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Hyperthermia and Serotonin Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seminerio, Michael J.; Kaushal, Nidhi; Shaikh, Jamaluddin; Huber, Jason D.; Coop, Andrew; Matsumoto, Rae R.

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine interacts with sigma (σ) receptors and AC927, a selective σ receptor ligand, protects against methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. In the present study, the effects of AC927 on methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia and striatal serotonergic neurotoxicity were evaluated. Male, Swiss Webster mice were injected (i.p.) every two hours, for a total of four times, with one of the following treatments: Saline + Saline; Saline + Methamphetamine (5 mg/kg); AC927 (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) + Methamphetamine (5 mg/kg); or AC927 (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) + Saline. Pretreatment with AC927 (10 mg/kg) significantly attenuated methamphetamine-induced striatal serotonin depletions, striatal serotonin transporter reductions, and hyperthermia. At the doses tested, AC927 itself had no significant effects on serotonin levels, serotonin transporter expression, or body temperature. To evaluate the effects of higher ambient temperature on methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity, groups of mice were treated at 37°C. Overall, there was an inverse correlation between the body temperature of the animals and striatal serotonin levels. Together, the data suggest that AC927 (10 mg/kg) protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. The reduction of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia by AC927 may contribute to the observed neuroprotection in vivo. PMID:21130800

  11. Correlates of transient versus persistent psychotic symptoms among dependent methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    McKetin, Rebecca; Gardner, Jonathon; Baker, Amanda L; Dawe, Sharon; Ali, Robert; Voce, Alexandra; Leach, Liana S; Lubman, Dan I

    2016-04-30

    This study examined correlates of transient versus persistent psychotic symptoms among people dependent on methamphetamine. A longitudinal prospective cohort study of dependent methamphetamine users who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for lifetime schizophrenia or mania. Four non-contiguous one-month observation periods were used to identify participants who had a) no psychotic symptoms, (n=110); (b) psychotic symptoms only when using methamphetamine (transient psychotic symptoms, n=85); and, (c) psychotic symptoms both when using methamphetamine and when abstaining from methamphetamine (persistent psychotic symptoms, n=37). Psychotic symptoms were defined as a score of 4 or greater on any of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale items of suspiciousness, hallucinations or unusual thought content. Relative no psychotic symptoms, both transient and persistent psychotic symptoms were associated with childhood conduct disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders. Earlier onset methamphetamine use and being male were more specifically related to transient psychotic symptoms, while a family history of a primary psychotic disorder and comorbid major depression were specifically related to persistent psychotic symptoms. We conclude that there are overlapping but also distinct clinical correlates of transient versus persistent psychotic symptoms, suggesting potentially heterogeneous etiological pathways underpinning the psychotic phenomena seen amongst people who use methamphetamine. PMID:27086229

  12. Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure Linked with Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... a sequence of effects following prenatal exposure to cocaine, a stimulant similar to methamphetamine. Identifying such problems ...

  13. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Email Facebook Twitter March ... methamphetamine use, such as tobacco smoking. Can the Brain Recover? The UCLA study’s findings underscore the importance ...

  14. Methamphetamine Trends in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... and PSE are precursor chemicals used in the production of methamphetamine. In the CMEA, law enforcement officials ... 10 pounds or more of methamphetamine in a production cycle). Meth lab incidents in Kentucky have increased ...

  15. Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liderazgo de la DEA Resource Center » Statistics & Facts » Methamphetamine Lab Incidents Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014 NOTE: These maps include all meth incidents, including labs, "dumpsites" or "chemical and glassware" ...

  16. Polydrug use among IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico: correlates of methamphetamine use and route of administration by gender.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Melanie L; Lozada, Remedios; Pollini, Robin A; Vera, Alicia; Patterson, Thomas L; Case, Patricia; Strathdee, Stefanie A

    2009-09-01

    Tijuana is situated on the Mexico-USA border adjacent to San Diego, CA, on a major drug trafficking route. Increased methamphetamine trafficking in recent years has created a local consumption market. We examined factors associated with methamphetamine use and routes of administration by gender among injection drug users (IDUs). From 2006-2007, IDUs > or =18 years old in Tijuana were recruited using respondent-driven sampling, interviewed, and tested for HIV, syphilis, and TB. Logistic regression was used to assess associations with methamphetamine use (past 6 months), stratified by gender. Among 1,056 participants, methamphetamine use was more commonly reported among females compared to males (80% vs. 68%, p < 0.01), particularly, methamphetamine smoking (57% vs. 34%; p < 0.01). Among females (N = 158), being aged >35 years (AOR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6) was associated with methamphetamine use. Among males (N = 898), being aged >35 years (AOR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.6), homeless (AOR, 1.4 (0.9-2.2)), and ever reporting sex with another male (MSM; AOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7) were associated with methamphetamine use. Among males, a history of MSM was associated with injection, while sex trade and >2 casual sex partners were associated with multiple routes of administration. HIV was higher among both males and females reporting injection as the only route of methamphetamine administration. Methamphetamine use is highly prevalent among IDUs in Tijuana, especially among females. Routes of administration differed by gender and subgroup which has important implications for tailoring harm reduction interventions and drug abuse treatment. PMID:19521780

  17. Methamphetamine: Putting the Brakes on Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettig, Jacob P.; Grady, Sarah E.; Nowosadzka, Izabella

    2006-01-01

    In only recent history, illicit use of methamphetamine, once isolated to urban areas on the West Coast, has spread into rural areas of the Midwest and southern United States. Although past and current methamphetamine legislation has increased penalties for methamphetamine manufacturers and tightened restrictions on sales of known precursors, the…

  18. Methamphetamine induces the release of endothelin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Woo; Jones, Susan M; Hostetter, Trisha A; Iliff, Jeffrey J; West, G Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine is a potent psychostimulant drug of abuse that increases release and blocks reuptake of dopamine, producing intense euphoria, factors that may contribute to its widespread abuse. It also produces severe neurotoxicity resulting from oxidative stress, DNA damage, blood-brain barrier disruption, microgliosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Intracerebral hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke have been reported after intravenous and oral abuse of methamphetamine. Several studies have shown that methamphetamine causes vasoconstriction of vessels. This study investigates the effect of methamphetamine on endothelin-1 (ET-1) release in mouse brain endothelial cells by ELISA. ET-1 transcription as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and transcription were measured following methamphetamine treatment. We also examine the effect of methamphetamine on isolated cerebral arteriolar vessels from C57BL/6 mice. Penetrating middle cerebral arterioles were cannulated at both ends with a micropipette system. Methamphetamine was applied extraluminally, and the vascular response was investigated. Methamphetamine treatment of mouse brain endothelial cells resulted in ET-1 release and a transient increase in ET-1 message. The activity and transcription of eNOS were only slightly enhanced after 24 hr of treatment with methamphetamine. In addition, methamphetamine caused significant vasoconstriction of isolated mouse intracerebral arterioles. The vasoconstrictive effect of methamphetamine was attenuated by coapplication of the endothelin receptor antagonist PD145065. These findings suggest that vasoconstriction induced by methamphetamine is mediated through the endothelin receptor and may involve an endothelin-dependent pathway. PMID:26568405

  19. Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Mice Decreases GIRK Channel-Mediated Currents in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Amanda L.; Varela, Erika; Bettinger, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine is a psychomotor stimulant with abuse liability and a substrate for catecholamine uptake transporters. Acute methamphetamine elevates extracellular dopamine, which in the midbrain can activate D2 autoreceptors to increase a G-protein gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) conductance that inhibits dopamine neuron firing. These studies examined the neurophysiological consequences of methamphetamine self-administration on GIRK channel-mediated currents in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Methods: Male DBA/2J mice were trained to self-administer intravenous methamphetamine. A dose response was conducted as well as extinction and cue-induced reinstatement. In a second study, after at least 2 weeks of stable self-administration of methamphetamine, electrophysiological brain slice recordings were conducted on dopamine neurons from self-administering and control mice. Results: In the first experiment, ad libitum-fed, nonfood-trained mice exhibited a significant increase in intake and locomotion following self-administration as the concentration of methamphetamine per infusion was increased (0.0015–0.15mg/kg/infusion). Mice exhibited extinction in responding and cue-induced reinstatement. In the second experiment, dopamine cells in both the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area from adult mice with a history of methamphetamine self-administration exhibited significantly smaller D2 and GABAB receptor-mediated currents compared with control mice, regardless of whether their daily self-administration sessions had been 1 or 4 hours. Interestingly, the effects of methamphetamine self-administration were not present when intracellular calcium was chelated by including BAPTA in the recording pipette. Conclusions: Our results suggest that methamphetamine self-administration decreases GIRK channel-mediated currents in dopaminergic neurons and that this effect may be calcium dependent. PMID:25522412

  20. Maxillary sinus manifestations of methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Erynne A; Marsh, Katherine M; Farshad, Kayven; Erman, Audrey B; Chiu, Alexander G

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamines are the second most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and cost the United States health-care system ∼$23.4 billion annually. Use of this drug affects multiple organ systems and causes a variety of clinical manifestations. Although there are commonly known sequelae of methamphetamine abuse such as "meth mouth," there is limited evidence regarding maxillary sinus manifestations. The following cases highlight the initial evaluation and management of two methamphetamine abusers with loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus as a result of methamphetamine abuse. Our aim was to delineate the otolaryngologic symptoms associated with the patients' methamphetamine abuse. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus of probable odontogenic origin in both patients. Methamphetamine abuse leading to rampant caries and poor oral hygiene may predispose individuals for craniofacial infections and fluid collections. These cases illustrate the development of maxillary sinusitis and maxilla mucoceles that have been associated with methamphetamine use. PMID:25675268

  1. Methamphetamine use and correlates in two villages of the highland ethnic Karen minority in northern Thailand: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of methamphetamine use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence are high in lowland Thai society. Despite increasing social and cultural mixing among residents of highland and lowland Thai societies, however, little is known about methamphetamine use among ethnic minority villagers in the highlands. Methods A cross-sectional survey examined Karen villagers from a developed and a less-developed village on February 24 and March 26, 2003 to evaluate the prevalence and social correlates of methamphetamine use in northern Thailand. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Results The response rate was 79.3% (n = 548). In all, 9.9% (males 17.6%, females 1.7%) of villagers reported methamphetamine use in the previous year. Methamphetamine was used mostly by males and was significantly related to primary or lower education; to ever having worked in town; to having used opium, marijuana, or heroin in the past year; and to ever having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Conclusion Since labor migration to towns is increasingly common among ethnic minorities, the prevention of methamphetamine use and of HIV/STI infection among methamphetamine users should be prioritized to prevent HIV in this minority population in Thailand. PMID:19445678

  2. Discriminative-Stimulus Effects of Second Generation Synthetic Cathinones in Methamphetamine-Trained Rats

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Jennifer E.; Freeman, Kevin B.; Blough, Bruce E.; Woolverton, William L.; Huskinson, Sally L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Synthetic cathinones are beta-ketophenethylamine analogs manufactured to avoid legal restrictions placed on illicit stimulants like methamphetamine. Regulating these “emerging” designer drugs requires scientific evidence of abuse potential. Methods The present study evaluated the discriminative-stimulus effects of three synthetic cathinones, recently identified in commercial and confiscated products, in male Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) from saline under a fixed-ratio (FR) 20 schedule of food delivery. Three synthetic cathinones, 4-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (4-MEC; 1.0-8.0 mg/kg), 4-methyl-alpha -pyrrolidinopropiophenone (4-MePPP; 4.0-16.0 mg/kg), and alpha-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (alpha-PVP; 0.25-2.0 mg/kg) were tested for their ability to substitute for methamphetamine. Results Full substitution for the training dose of methamphetamine occurred at the highest doses for both 4-MePPP and alpha-PVP, and 4-MEC did not substitute at any dose tested. Conclusions The present findings show that two synthetic cathinones, 4-MePPP and alpha-PVP, produced subjective effects similar to those of methamphetamine. The synthetic cathinone, 4-MEC, did not produce subjective effects similar to those of methamphetamine with the parameters used in the current experiment. Based on findings here and by others, these three compounds warrant further tests of abuse liability. PMID:25707704

  3. Discriminative stimulus effects of NMDA, AMPA and mGluR5 glutamate receptor ligands in methamphetamine-trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Wooters, Thomas E.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate contributes to the reinforcing and stimulant effects of methamphetamine, yet its potential role in the interoceptive stimulus properties of methamphetamine is unknown. In the current study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) from saline in a standard operant discrimination task. The effects of methamphetamine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel blockers MK-801 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) and ketamine (1.0-10.0 mg/kg, i.p.), the low-affinity NMDA antagonist memantine (1.0-10 mg/kg, i.p.), the polyamine site NMDA receptor antagonist ifenprodil (1-10 mg/kg), the α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; 1-10 mg/kg, i.p.), and the metabotropic 5 (mGluR5) receptor antagonist 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP; 1-10 mg/kg) given alone were determined in substitution tests. The effects of MK-801 (0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg), ketamine (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg), ifenprodil (5.6 mg/kg), CNQX (5.6 mg/kg) and MPEP (5.6 mg/kg) were also tested in combination with methamphetamine to assess for alterations in the methamphetamine cue. In substitution tests, none of the test drugs generalized to the methamphetamine cue. However, ketamine and ifenprodil produced significant leftward shifts in the methamphetamine dose-response curve; pretreatment with 3 mg/kg of ketamine, for example, decreased the ED50 value for methamphetamine by half. These results suggest that blockade of the NMDA receptor augments the interoceptive stimulus properties of methamphetamine. PMID:21836462

  4. Chronic Methamphetamine Increases Alpha-Synuclein Protein Levels in the Striatum and Hippocampus but not in the Cortex of Juvenile Mice

    PubMed Central

    Butler, B.; Gamble-George, J.; Prins, P.; North, A.; Clarke, J.T; Khoshbouei, H.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine is the second most widely used illicit drug worldwide. More than 290 tons of methamphetamine was synthesized in the year 2005 alone, corresponding to approximately ~3 billion 100 mg doses of methamphetamine. Drug addicts abuse high concentrations of methamphetamine for months and even years. Current reports in the literature are consistent with the interpretation that methamphetamine-induced neuronal injury may render methamphetamine users more susceptible to neurodegenerative pathologies. Specifically, chronic exposure to psychostimulants is associated with increases in striatal alpha-synuclein expression, a synaptic protein implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. This raises the question whether methamphetamine exposure affects alpha-synuclein levels in the brain. In this short report, we examined alpha-synuclein protein and mRNA levels in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex of adolescent male mice following a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine (24mg/kg/daily/14days). We found that methamphetamine exposure resulted in a decrease in the monomeric form of alpha-synuclein (molecular species <19 kDa), while increasing higher molecular weight alpha-synuclein species (>19 kDa) in the striatum and hippocampus, but not in the cortex. Despite the elevation of high molecular weight alpha-synuclein species (>19 kDa), there was no change in the alpha-synuclein mRNA levels in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex of mice exposed to methamphetamine. The methamphetamine-induced increase in high molecular weight alpha-synuclein protein levels might be one of the causal mechanisms or one of the compensatory consequences of methamphetamine-mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:25621291

  5. Physical Victimization of Rural Methamphetamine and Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Borders, Tyrone F.; Tripathi, Shanti; Lynch, Christian; Leukefeld, Carl; Falck, Russel S.; Carlson, Robert G.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use and physical violence often co-occur, but little has been published on the correlates associated with receipt of partner versus non-partner physical violence for rural users of methamphetamine and/or cocaine. In this study, participants’ substance use, depression and past-year physical victimization were assessed. In separate logistic regression models, received partner violence in females was associated with age; alcohol, cocaine and methamphetamine abuse/dependence; and number of drugs used in the past six months. In males, received non-partner violence was associated with age, cocaine abuse/dependence and being Caucasian. Findings suggest a relationship between stimulant use and received violence among rural substance users and a need for victimization screenings in settings where such individuals seek health care. PMID:22455188

  6. Methamphetamines and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Tricia E.; Schuetter, Renee; Tellei, Jacqueline; Sauvage, Lynnae

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs in pregnancy, yet studies on MA-exposed pregnancy outcomes have been limited because of retrospective measures of drug use, lack of control for confounding factors: other drug use, including tobacco; poverty; poor diet; and lack of prenatal care. This study presents prospective collected data on MA use and birth outcomes, controlling for most confounders. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of women obtaining prenatal care from a clinic treating women with substance use disorders, on whom there are prospectively obtained data on MA and other drug use, including tobacco. MA-exposed pregnancies were compared with non-MA exposed pregnancies as well as non-drug exposed pregnancies, using univariate and multivariate analysis to control for confounders. Results One hundred forty-four infants were exposed to MA during pregnancy, 50 had first trimester exposure only, 45 had continuous use until the second trimester, 29 had continuous use until the third trimester, but were negative at delivery and 20 had positive toxicology at delivery. There were 107 non MA-exposed infants and 59 infants with no drug exposure. Mean birth weights were the same for MA-exposed and non-exposed infants (3159 g vs. 3168 g p=0.9), though smaller than those without any drug exposure (3159 vs. 3321 p=0.04), Infants with positive toxicology at birth (meconium or urine) were smaller than infants with first trimester exposure only (2932 g vs. 3300 g p=0.01). Gestation was significantly shorter among the MA-exposed infants compared to non-exposed infants (38.5 vs. 39.1 weeks p=0.045) and those with no drug exposure (38.5 vs. 39.5 p=0.0011), The infants with positive toxicology at birth had a clinically relevant shortening of gestation (37.3 weeks vs. 39.1 p=0.0002). Conclusions MA use during pregnancy is associated with shorter gestational ages and lower birth weight, especially if used continuously

  7. “High On My Own Supply”: Correlates of Drug Dealing among Heterosexually-identified Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Volkmann, Tyson; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Although rates of methamphetamine use continue to increase throughout the United States, little is known about the individuals who sell methamphetamine at the street level. This exploratory study examined the prevalence and correlates of drug-dealing behavior in a sample of 404 heterosexually-identified methamphetamine users who were participants in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, CA. Twenty-nine percent of participants (N = 116) reported “dealing” methamphetamine in the past two months. In a multivariate logistic regression, methamphetamine dealing was associated with being male (OR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.16 – 3.39), younger age (OR = 1.87 per year; 95% CI 1.10 – 3.17), more frequent use of methamphetamine (OR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.59 – 4.57), injecting methamphetamine (OR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.79 – 5.37), and higher hostility scores (OR = 1.07 per unit increase; 95% CI 1.01 – 1.13). These characteristics, particularly intensity of drug use and hostility, may be associated with greater resistance to drug treatment and lower success in treatment programs. PMID:21999496

  8. Methamphetamine Use and Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... Methamphetamine use and oral health M ethamphetamine is an inexpensive, easy-to-make illicit drug. It is known by several street names: “meth,” “speed,” “ice,” “chalk,” “crank,” “fire,” “glass,” “crystal” and “tina.” It is ...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3610 - Methamphetamine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....3610 Methamphetamine test system. (a) Identification. A methamphetamine test system is a device intended to measure methamphetamine, a central nervous system stimulating drug, in serum, plasma, and urine... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methamphetamine test system. 862.3610 Section...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3610 - Methamphetamine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....3610 Methamphetamine test system. (a) Identification. A methamphetamine test system is a device intended to measure methamphetamine, a central nervous system stimulating drug, in serum, plasma, and urine... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methamphetamine test system. 862.3610 Section...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3610 - Methamphetamine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....3610 Methamphetamine test system. (a) Identification. A methamphetamine test system is a device intended to measure methamphetamine, a central nervous system stimulating drug, in serum, plasma, and urine... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methamphetamine test system. 862.3610 Section...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3610 - Methamphetamine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....3610 Methamphetamine test system. (a) Identification. A methamphetamine test system is a device intended to measure methamphetamine, a central nervous system stimulating drug, in serum, plasma, and urine... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methamphetamine test system. 862.3610 Section...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3610 - Methamphetamine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....3610 Methamphetamine test system. (a) Identification. A methamphetamine test system is a device intended to measure methamphetamine, a central nervous system stimulating drug, in serum, plasma, and urine... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methamphetamine test system. 862.3610 Section...

  14. Methamphetamine Use and Sexual Risk Behavior among High School Students in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…

  15. Methamphetamine Use: Hazards and Social Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermuth, Laurie

    2000-01-01

    Presents data on methamphetamine use in the United States and the economic and social pressures that may partially explain expanded methamphetamine use. Recommends a policy response that utilizes a public health approach, including prevention campaigns, harm-reduction outreach and treatment approaches, and pharmacologic and abstinence-based drug…

  16. Need for Methamphetamine Programming in Extension Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudreault, Amy R.; Miller, Larry E.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported sought to identify the prevention education needs involving methamphetamine through survey methodology. The study focused on a random sample of U.S. states and the Extension Directors within each state, resulting in a 70% response rate (n = 134). Findings revealed that 11% reported they had received methamphetamine user…

  17. Behavioral and growth effects induced by low dose methamphetamine administration during the neonatal period in rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael T; Moran, Mary S; Vorhees, Charles V

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of methamphetamine exposure during neonatal development in rats has demonstrated that long-term spatial learning deficits are induced. A previous dose-response study showed that administration of 5 mg/kg methamphetamine, four times daily from postnatal days 11 to 20 produced these deficits, although the effects were not as severe as at higher doses of 10 or 15 mg/kg. This study examined concentrations of methamphetamine at or below 5mg/kg given over the same period of time. Five different concentrations of methamphetamine (i.e., 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, or 0) were administered every 2 h four times daily from postnatal days 11 to 20. Body weights, zero maze performance, and Morris water maze learning were examined. A dose-dependent decrease in body weight was observed during the period of methamphetamine administration and these lower weights continued throughout adulthood for the 5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/kg concentrations, although the adult decreases were negligible. No differences were noted in the zero maze. In the Morris water maze during the acquisition period, dose-dependent differences in spatial orientation were seen, however non-dose related deficits were observed for other parameters. During the shifted platform phase ("reversal"), a similar dose-dependent difference in spatial orientation was observed, although no other effects were noted during this phase. Females performed worse than males regardless of treatment or the phase of learning in the Morris water maze. These data suggest that even lower doses of methamphetamine can alter learning and memory in adulthood, although with less consistent results than with doses higher than 5 mg/kg/dose. These data would caution against even casual use of methamphetamine by women during pregnancy since even low doses could alter the ability of the child to learn. PMID:15380827

  18. Methamphetamine Use and Violent Behavior: User Perceptions and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the extent to which methamphetamine users perceive that their methamphetamine use has resulted in violent behavior, and describes the level of self-reported prevalence of specific violent criminal behaviors irrespective of methamphetamine use. Predictors of these two violence-related indicators, in terms of potential correlates from substance use history, criminal history, and health risk domains are examined. Data are from extensive interviews of 350 methamphetamine users who received substance use treatment in a large California county. A majority (56%) perceived that their methamphetamine use resulted in violent behavior; 59% reported specific violent criminal behaviors. For more than half of those reporting violent criminal behavior, this behavior pattern began before methamphetamine initiation. Thus, for a subsample of methamphetamine users, violence may be related to factors other than methamphetamine use. Users' perceptions that their methamphetamine use resulted in violence appears strongest for those with the most severe methamphetamine-related problems, particularly paranoia. PMID:26594058

  19. Neural Correlates of Craving in Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shahmohammadi, Fanak; Golesorkhi, Mehrshad; Riahi Kashani, Mohammad Mansour; Sangi, Mehrdad; Yoonessi, Ahmad; Yoonessi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant that causes significant neurological impairments with long-lasting effects and has provoked serious international concerns about public health. Denial of drug abuse and drug craving are two important factors that make the diagnosis and treatment extremely challenging. Here, we present a novel and rapid noninvasive method with potential application for differentiation and monitoring methamphetamine abuse. Methods: Visual stimuli comprised a series of images with neutral and methamphetamine-related content. A total of 10 methamphetamine abusers and 10 age-gender matched controls participated in the experiments. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded and compared using a time window analysis method. The ERPs were divided into 19 time windows of 100 ms with 50 ms overlaps. The area of positive sections below each window was calculated to measure the differences between the two groups. Results: Significant differences between two groups were observed from 250 to 500 ms (P300) in response to methamphetamine-related visual stimuli and 600 to 800 ms in response to neutral stimuli. Conclusion: This study presented a novel and noninvasive method based on neural correlates to discriminate healthy individuals from methamphetamine drug abusers. This method can be employed in treatment and monitoring of the methamphetamine abuse. PMID:27563415

  20. Methamphetamine. Stimulant of the 1990s?

    PubMed Central

    Derlet, R. W.; Heischober, B.

    1990-01-01

    During the past several years, the use of a smokable form of methamphetamine hydrochloride called "ice" has increased rapidly. The heaviest use has occurred on the West Coast and in Hawaii. Many regional emergency departments treat more methamphetamine users than cocaine-intoxicated patients. The ease of synthesis from inexpensive and readily available chemicals makes possible the rampant abuse of a dangerous drug that can produce a euphoria similar to that induced by cocaine. Clinicians should be familiar with the medical effects and treatment of acute methamphetamine toxicity. PMID:2293467

  1. The glial cell modulator and phosphodiesterase inhibitor, AV411 (ibudilast), attenuates prime- and stress-induced methamphetamine relapse

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Patrick M.; Shelton, Keith L.; Hendrick, Elizabeth; Johnson, Kirk W.

    2010-01-01

    Stress and renewed contact with drug (a “slip”) have been linked to persisting relapse of methamphetamine abuse. Human brain microglial activation has been linked with methamphetamine abuse, and inhibitors of glial cell activation, certain phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) have been reported to modulate drug abuse effects. Our objective was to determine whether the glial cell attenuator, 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo-[1,5-a]pyridine (AV411, ibudilast), a non-selective PDE inhibitor and promoter of GDNF, could reduce stress- and methamphetamine prime-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior. Male Long-Evans hooded rats were trained to lever press reinforced with 0.1 mg/kg i.v. methamphetamine infusion according to fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedules during daily, 2-h experimental sessions. After performance had stabilized, lever pressing was extinguished for 12 consecutive sessions and doses of 0 (vehicle), 2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg AV411 were then administered intraperitoneally b.i.d. on the last two days of extinction and then once on the testday to separate groups of 12 rats. During testing, the rats were given 15 min of intermittent footshock or a 1 mg/kg i.p. methamphetamine prime followed by a 2-h reinstatement test session. AV411 significantly reduced response levels of footshock-induced (2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg) and prime-induced (7.5 mg/kg) reinstatement of extinguished methamphetamine-maintained responding. AV411 has properties consistent with the ability to attenuate relapse precipitated by stress and methamphetamine “slips” during abstinence. These results thus reinforce interest in atypical neurobiological mechanisms which could be exploited for developing novel medications for treating drug abuse disorders. PMID:20399770

  2. Stress-Induced Enzyme Compounds Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... to methamphetamine damages dopamine and serotonin terminals on neurons in the striatum, reducing levels of these neurotransmitters and impairing communication between neurons in this brain area. Past studies have shown ...

  3. Surgical Intervention for Penile Methamphetamine Injections

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Thomas W.; Osterberg, E. Charles; Awad, Mohannad A.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant and is the second most commonly used illicit drug after cannabis. Methamphetamine use for sexual pleasure is well documented. In this case report, we describe two cases presenting to our urban county hospital associated with complications related to penile injection of methamphetamine. Both patients developed penile abscesses and required urgent surgical incision and drainage. Penile abscesses represent a rare complication associated with IV drug administration into the penile corpora. Resultant penile abscesses require broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgical drainage. Further understanding of methamphetamine abuse along with the role it plays in sexual enhancement would be an invaluable addition to understanding of the rationale behind this self-administered stimulant. Drainage of penile abscesses associated with IV drug users may be hazardous to healthcare providers who are at risk from a needle stick injury. PMID:26451272

  4. Palmoplantar pustules and osteoarticular pain in a 42-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Rena C; Schwartz, Daniella M; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Anadkat, Milan J; Cowen, Edward W; Naik, Haley B

    2015-03-01

    Key teaching points • Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is characterized by distinctive osteoarticular manifestations and a spectrum of neutrophilic dermatoses. • The most common dermatologic manifestations include palmoplantar pustulosis, acne conglobata, and acne fulminans. • SAPHO syndrome should be considered in patients presenting osteoarticular pain, particularly involving the anterior chest wall and/or spine, and neutrophilic skin lesions. PMID:25127881

  5. Methamphetamine Vaccines: Improvement through Hapten Design.

    PubMed

    Collins, Karen C; Schlosburg, Joel E; Bremer, Paul T; Janda, Kim D

    2016-04-28

    Methamphetamine (MA) addiction is a serious public health problem, and current methods to abate addiction and relapse are currently ineffective for mitigating this growing global epidemic. Development of a vaccine targeting MA would provide a complementary strategy to existing behavioral therapies, but this has proven challenging. Herein, we describe optimization of both hapten design and formulation, identifying a vaccine that elicited a robust anti-MA immune response in mice, decreasing methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity. PMID:27054372

  6. The neurobiology of methamphetamine induced psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Jennifer H.; Stein, Dan J.; Howells, Fleur M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic methamphetamine abuse commonly leads to psychosis, with positive and cognitive symptoms that are similar to those of schizophrenia. Methamphetamine induced psychosis (MAP) can persist and diagnoses of MAP often change to a diagnosis of schizophrenia over time. Studies in schizophrenia have found much evidence of cortical GABAergic dysfunction. Methamphetamine psychosis is a well studied model for schizophrenia, however there is little research on the effects of methamphetamine on cortical GABAergic function in the model, and the neurobiology of MAP is unknown. This paper reviews the effects of methamphetamine on dopaminergic pathways, with focus on its ability to increase glutamate release in the cortex. Excess cortical glutamate would likely damage GABAergic interneurons, and evidence of this disturbance as a result of methamphetamine treatment will be discussed. We propose that cortical GABAergic interneurons are particularly vulnerable to glutamate overflow as a result of subcellular location of NMDA receptors on interneurons in the cortex. Damage to cortical GABAergic function would lead to dysregulation of cortical signals, resulting in psychosis, and further support MAP as a model for schizophrenia. PMID:25100979

  7. METHAMPHETAMINE: HERE WE GO AGAIN?

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Following more than two decades of generally increasing trends in the use and abuse of methamphetamine in certain parts of the country, prevalence indicators for the drug began to decrease in the mid-2000’s—but was this decrease signaling the end of the “meth problem”? This paper has compiled historical and recent data from supply and demand indicators to provide a broader context within which to consider the changes in trends over the past half decade. Data suggest supply-side accommodation to changes in precursor chemical restrictions, with prevalence indicators beginning to attenuate in the mid-2000’s and then increasing again by 2009–2010. Results support the need for continuing attention to control and interdiction efforts appropriate to the changing supply context and to continuing prevention efforts and increased number of treatment programs. PMID:21875772

  8. What You Need to Know about Drugs: Methamphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What You Need to Know About Drugs: Methamphetamines KidsHealth > For Kids > What You Need to Know About Drugs: Methamphetamines Print A A A Text Size en español ...

  9. The Methamphetamine Home: Psychological Impact on Preschoolers in Rural Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanbe, Comfort B.; Hall, Charlene; Bolden, Charles D.

    2008-01-01

    Context: A growing number of children reside with methamphetamine-abusing parents in homes where the illicit drug is produced. Yet, the effects of a methamphetamine environment on psychological child outcome are still unknown. Purpose: To examine whether preschoolers who lived in methamphetamine-producing homes are at increased risk for developing…

  10. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... OPERATIONS Diversion Control Programs Most Wanted Fugitives Training Intelligence Submit a Tip DRUG INFO Drug Fact Sheets ... Operations Diversion Control Programs Most Wanted Fugitives Training Intelligence Submit a Tip Drug Info Drug Fact Sheets ...

  11. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... use can quickly lead to addiction. It causes medical problems including Making your body temperature so high that you pass out Severe itching "Meth mouth" - broken teeth and dry mouth Thinking and emotional problems NIH: ...

  12. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... for ADHD, which may include counseling and special education. Make sure to follow all of your doctor's ... excessive tiredness slow or difficult speech seizures motor tics or verbal tics believing things that are not ...

  13. A Pilot Study of Creatine as a Novel Treatment for Depression in Methamphetamine Using Females

    PubMed Central

    Hellem, Tracy L.; Sung, Young-Hoon; Shi, Xian-Feng; Pett, Marjorie A.; Latendresse, Gwen; Morgan, Jubel; Huber, Rebekah S.; Kuykendall, Danielle; Lundberg, Kelly J.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Depression among methamphetamine users is more prevalent in females than males, but gender specific treatment options for this comorbidity have not been described. Reduced brain phosphocreatine levels have been shown to be lower in female methamphetamine users compared to males, and, of relevance, studies have demonstrated an association between treatment resistant depression and reduced brain phosphocreatine concentrations. The nutritional supplement creatine monohydrate has been reported to reduce symptoms of depression in female adolescents and adults taking antidepressants, as well as to increase brain phosphocreatine in healthy volunteers. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to investigate creatine monohydrate as a treatment for depression in female methamphetamine users. Methods Fourteen females with depression and comorbid methamphetamine dependence were enrolled in an 8 week open label trial of 5 grams of daily creatine monohydrate and of these 14, eleven females completed the study. Depression was measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and brain phosphocreatine levels were measured using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy pre- and post-creatine treatment. Secondary outcome measures included anxiety symptoms, measured with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), as well as methamphetamine use, monitored by twice weekly urine drug screens and self-reported use. Results The results of a linear mixed effects repeated measures model showed significantly reduced HAMD and BAI scores as early as week 2 when compared to baseline scores. This improvement was maintained through study completion. Brain phosphocreatine concentrations were higher at the second phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy scan compared to the baseline scan; Mbaseline = 0.223 (SD = 0.013) vs. Mpost-treatment = 0.233 (SD = 0.009), t(9) = 2.905, p < .01, suggesting that creatine increased phosphocreatine levels. Also, a reduction in methamphetamine

  14. Pharmacotherapy of methamphetamine addiction: an update.

    PubMed

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Hanson, Glen; White, Jason; Wickes, Wendy; Tiihonen, Jari

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine dependence is a serious public health problem worldwide for which there are no approved pharmacological treatments. Psychotherapy is still the mainstay of treatment; however, relapse rates are high. The search for effective pharmacological treatment has intensified in the last decade. This review will highlight progress in pharmacological interventions to treat methamphetamine dependence as well as explore new pharmacological targets. Published data from clinical trials for stimulant addiction were searched using PubMed and summarized, as well as highlights from a recent symposium on methamphetamine pharmacotherapy presented at the ISAM 2006 meeting, including interim analysis data from an ongoing D-amphetamine study in Australia. Early pilot data are encouraging for administering D-amphetamine and methylphenidate as treatment for heavy amphetamine users. Abilify at 15 mg/day dose increased amphetamine use in an outpatient pilot study. Sertraline, ondansetron, baclofen, tyrosine, and imipramine were ineffective in proof-of-concept studies. Development of pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine dependence is still in an early stage. Data suggesting D-amphetamine and methylphenidate as effective pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine addiction will need to be confirmed by larger trials. Preclinical data suggest that use of GVG, CB1 antagonist, and lobeline are also promising therapeutic strategies. PMID:19042205

  15. Pharmacotherapy of Methamphetamine Addiction: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Hanson, Glen; White, Jason; Wickes, Wendy; Tiihonen, Jari

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine dependence is a serious public health problem worldwide for which there are no approved pharmacological treatments. Psychotherapy is still the mainstay of treatment; however, relapse rates are high. The search for effective pharmacological treatment has intensified in the last decade. This review will highlight progress in pharmacological interventions to treat methamphetamine dependence as well as explore new pharmacological targets. Published data from clinical trials for stimulant addiction were searched using PubMed and summarized, as well as highlights from a recent symposium on methamphetamine pharmacotherapy presented at the ISAM 2006 meeting, including interim analysis data from an ongoing D-amphetamine study in Australia. Early pilot data are encouraging for administering D-amphetamine and methylphenidate as treatment for heavy amphetamine users. Abilify at 15 mg/day dose increased amphetamine use in an outpatient pilot study. Sertraline, ondansetron, baclofen, tyrosine, and imipramine were ineffective in proof-of-concept studies. Development of pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine dependence is still in an early stage. Data suggesting D-amphetamine and methylphenidate as effective pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine addiction will need to be confirmed by larger trials. Preclinical data suggest that use of GVG, CB1 antagonist, and lobeline are also promising therapeutic strategies. PMID:19042205

  16. The War on Drugs: Methamphetamine, Public Health, and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Carlos; Nicosia, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In mid-1995, a government effort to reduce the supply of methamphetamine precursors successfully disrupted the methamphetamine market and interrupted a trajectory of increasing usage. The price of methamphetamine tripled and purity declined from 90 percent to 20 percent. Simultaneously, amphetaminerelated hospital and treatment admissions dropped 50 percent and 35 percent, respectively. Methamphetamine use among arrestees declined 55 percent. Although felony methamphetamine arrests fell 50 percent, there is no evidence of substantial reductions in property or violent crime. The impact was largely temporary. The price returned to its original level within four months; purity, hospital admissions, treatment admissions, and arrests approached preintervention levels within eighteen months. (JEL I12, K42) PMID:20543969

  17. Functional and Structural Brain Changes Associated with Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Reem K.; Kydd, Rob R.; Russell, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent psychostimulant drug whose abuse has become a global epidemic in recent years. Firstly, this review article briefly discusses the epidemiology and clinical pharmacology of methamphetamine dependence. Secondly, the article reviews relevant animal literature modeling methamphetamine dependence and discusses possible mechanisms of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Thirdly, it provides a critical review of functional and structural neuroimaging studies in human MA abusers; including positron emission tomography (PET) and functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The effect of abstinence from methamphetamine, both short- and long-term within the context of these studies is also reviewed. PMID:24961256

  18. Swimming exercise attenuates psychological dependence and voluntary methamphetamine consumption in methamphetamine withdrawn rats

    PubMed Central

    Damghani, Fatemeh; Bigdeli, Imanollah; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Fadaei, Atefeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): This study evaluated the effect of swimming exercise during spontaneous methamphetamine (METH) withdrawal on the anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and voluntary METH consumption in METH-dependent rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were repeatedly administered with bi-daily doses of METH (2 mg/kg, subcutaneous) over a period of 14 days. Exercised rats were submitted to swimming sessions (45 min/day, five days per week, for 14 days) during spontaneous METH-withdrawal. Then, all animals were tested for the assessment of anxiety by using the elevated plus-maze (EPM), the grooming behaviors (OCD), and depression using forced swimming test (FST) and voluntary METH consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm for the assessment of craving. Results: The results showed that the swimmer METH-withdrawn rats exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time and entries and a reduction of immobility and grooming behaviors compared with the sedentary METH groups. Also, voluntary METH consumption was less in the swimmer METH-withdrawn rats than the sedentary METH groups throughout 5–8 days. Conclusion: This study showed that regular swimming exercise reduced voluntary METH consumption in animal models of craving by reducing anxiety, OCD, and depression in the METH-withdrawn rats. Thus, physical training may be ameliorating some of the withdrawal behavioral consequences of METH. PMID:27482339

  19. [Genetic vulnerability of methamphetamine dependence].

    PubMed

    Moriya, Yuki; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Sora, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) dependence show strong familial and genetic influences in family and twin studies. METH exerts its reinforcing effects by modulating monoaminergic transmission, of which dopamine is supposed to be important. Previously, experimental animals were being used to identify mechanisms of action of METH that are related to its abuse and toxicity, and genetic mouse models have also been used to define genes that may predict risk for the development of drug addiction. We found that genetic variances of dopamine transporter, dopamine receptor, micro-opioid receptor, serotonin 1A receptor, serotonin 6 receptor, and adenosine 2A adenosine receptor could be vulnerability factors for METH dependence or psychosis in the Japanese population. Genetic analysis with a genome-wide association study (GWAS)-based approach has been successful for investigating the genetic influences of METH dependence and other complex features. Collaborative studies with JGIDA and NIDA/NIH have obtained the results that the genetic vulnerability to METH dependence contributes to other major drug addiction. The genetic studies for METH dependence might help to identify the risk of individuals and to develop treatments that take advantage of individual genetic information in the future. PMID:25069251

  20. Modafinil for the Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ann L.; Li, Shou-Hua; Biswas, Kousick; McSherry, Frances; Holmes, Tyson; Iturriaga, Erin; Kahn, Roberta; Chiang, Nora; Beresford, Thomas; Campbell, Jan; Haning, William; Mawhinney, Joseph; McCann, Michael; Rawson, Richard; Stock, Christopher; Weis, Dennis; Yu, Elmer; Elkashef, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Modafinil was tested for efficacy in decreasing use in methamphetamine-dependent participants, compared to placebo. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, with 12 weeks of treatment and a 4-week follow-up. Eight outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics participated in the study. There were 210 treatment-seekers randomized, who all had a DSM-IV diagnosis of methamphetamine dependence; 68 participants to placebo, 72 to modafinil 200mg, and 70 to modafinil 400mg, taken once daily on awakening. Participants came to the clinic three times per week for assessments, urine drug screens, and group psychotherapy. The primary outcome measure was a methamphetamine non-use week, which required all the week's qualitative urine drug screens to be negative for methamphetamine. Results Regression analysis showed no significant difference between either modafinil group (200 or 400mg) and placebo in change in weekly percentage having a methamphetamine non-use week over the 12-week treatment period (p=0.53). Similarly, a number of secondary outcomes did not show significant effects of modafinil. However, an ad-hoc analysis of medication compliance, by urinalysis for modafinil and its metabolite, did find a significant difference in maximum duration of abstinence (23 days vs. 10 days, p=0.003), between those having the top quartile of compliance (>85% urines modafinil +, N=36), and the lower three quartiles of modafinil 200 and 400mg groups (N=106). Conclusions Although these data suggest that modafinil, plus group behavioral therapy, was not effective for decreasing methamphetamine use, the study is probably inconclusive because of inadequate compliance with taking medication. PMID:21840138

  1. Neurobehavioral Effects from Developmental Methamphetamine Exposure.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Sarah A; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine methamphetamine exposure adversely affects the neurofunctional profile of exposed children, leading to a variety of higher order cognitive deficits, such as decreased attention, reduced working-memory capability, behavioral dysregulation, and spatial memory impairments (Kiblawi et al. in J Dev Behav Pediatr 34:31-37, 2013; Piper et al. in Pharmacol Biochem Behav 98:432-439 2011; Roussotte et al. in Neuroimage 54:3067-3075, 2011; Twomey et al. in Am J Orthopsychiatry 83:64-72, 2013). In animal models of developmental methamphetamine, both neuroanatomical and behavioral outcomes critically depend on the timing of methamphetamine administration. Methamphetamine exposure during the third trimester human equivalent period of brain development results in well-defined and persistent wayfinding and spatial navigation deficits in rodents (Vorhees et al. in Neurotoxicol Teratol 27:117-134, 2005, Vorhees et al. in Int J Dev Neurosci 26:599-610, 2008; Vorhees et al. in Int J Dev Neurosci 27:289-298, 2009; Williams et al. in Psychopharmacology (Berl) 168:329-338, 2003b), whereas drug delivery during the first and second trimester equivalents produces no such effect (Acuff-Smith et al. in Neurotoxicol Teratol 18:199-215, 1996; Schutova et al. in Physiol Res 58:741-750, 2009a; Slamberova et al. in Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 380:109-114, 2009, Slamberova et al. in Physiol Res 63:S547-S558, 2014b). In this review, we examine the impact of developmental methamphetamine on emerging neural circuitry, neurotransmission, receptor changes, and behavioral outcomes in animal models. The review is organized by type of effects and timing of drug exposure (prenatal only, pre- and neonatal, and neonatal only). The findings elucidate functional patterns of interconnected brain structures (e.g., frontal cortex and striatum) and neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine and serotonin) involved in methamphetamine-induced developmental neurotoxicity. PMID:26520437

  2. Identifying methamphetamine exposure in children

    PubMed Central

    Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642

  3. Methamphetamine causes acute hyperthermia-dependent liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, Laura E; Gunning, William T; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity has been correlated with damage to the liver but this damage has not been extensively characterized. Moreover, the mechanism by which the drug contributes to liver damage is unknown. This study characterizes the hepatocellular toxicity of methamphetamine and examines if hyperthermia contributes to this liver damage. Livers from methamphetamine-treated rats were examined using electron microscopy and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Methamphetamine increased glycogen stores, mitochondrial aggregation, microvesicular lipid, and hydropic change. These changes were diffuse throughout the hepatic lobule, as evidenced by a lack of hematoxylin and eosin staining. To confirm if these changes were indicative of damage, serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase were measured. The functional significance of methamphetamine-induced liver damage was also examined by measuring plasma ammonia. To examine the contribution of hyperthermia to this damage, methamphetamine-treated rats were cooled during and after drug treatment by cooling their external environment. Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, as well as plasma ammonia were increased concurrently with these morphologic changes and were prevented when methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was blocked. These findings support that methamphetamine produces changes in hepatocellular morphology and damage persisting for at least 24 h after drug exposure. At this same time point, methamphetamine treatment significantly increases plasma ammonia concentrations, consistent with impaired ammonia metabolism and functional liver damage. Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia contributes significantly to the persistent liver damage and increases in peripheral ammonia produced by the drug. PMID:25505562

  4. Methamphetamine causes acute hyperthermia-dependent liver damage.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Laura E; Gunning, William T; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2013-10-01

    Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity has been correlated with damage to the liver but this damage has not been extensively characterized. Moreover, the mechanism by which the drug contributes to liver damage is unknown. This study characterizes the hepatocellular toxicity of methamphetamine and examines if hyperthermia contributes to this liver damage. Livers from methamphetamine-treated rats were examined using electron microscopy and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Methamphetamine increased glycogen stores, mitochondrial aggregation, microvesicular lipid, and hydropic change. These changes were diffuse throughout the hepatic lobule, as evidenced by a lack of hematoxylin and eosin staining. To confirm if these changes were indicative of damage, serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase were measured. The functional significance of methamphetamine-induced liver damage was also examined by measuring plasma ammonia. To examine the contribution of hyperthermia to this damage, methamphetamine-treated rats were cooled during and after drug treatment by cooling their external environment. Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, as well as plasma ammonia were increased concurrently with these morphologic changes and were prevented when methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was blocked. These findings support that methamphetamine produces changes in hepatocellular morphology and damage persisting for at least 24 h after drug exposure. At this same time point, methamphetamine treatment significantly increases plasma ammonia concentrations, consistent with impaired ammonia metabolism and functional liver damage. Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia contributes significantly to the persistent liver damage and increases in peripheral ammonia produced by the drug. PMID:25505562

  5. Methamphetamine Exposure: A Rural Early Intervention Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Barry M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Derauf, Christian; Grant, Penny; LaGasse, Linda; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan Z.; Stewart, Sara; Wouldes, Trecia

    2006-01-01

    In the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study of methamphetamine (MA) effects on children, the authors screened approximately 27,000 newborn infants for MA exposure, and from that pool derived a sample of in utero MA-exposed children as well as a comparison group matched for other drug use and other factors. IDEAL measures…

  6. Differentiating Characteristics of Juvenile Methamphetamine Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Daniel; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Glaser, Brian A.; Yanosky, Daniel J., II

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in characteristics and risk behaviors endorsed by detained adolescent methamphetamine users and compared them with other drug users. Subjects completed the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory and a questionnaire in which sociodemographics and behavioral information were explored and compared. Multivariate…

  7. Association between VNTR Polymorphism in Promoter Region of Prodynorphin (PDYN) Gene and Methamphetamine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Saify, Khyber; Saadat, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Prodynorphin (PDYN; OMIM: 131340) is the precursor of the dynorphin related peptides which plays an important role in drug abuse. Previous studies have been shown that the expression of PDYN is regulated by a genetic polymorphism of VNTR in the promoter region of the gene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present case-control study was performed on 52 (41 males, 11 females) methamphetamine dependence patients and 635 (525 males, 110 females) healthy blood donors frequency matched with the patients according to age and gender, as a control group was participated in the study. RESULTS: The genotypes of VNTR PDYN polymorphism were determined using PCR method. The HL (OR = 1.22, 95%CI: 0.67-2.20, P = 0.500) and LL (OR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.28-2.57, P = 0.792) genotypes does not alter the risk of methamphetamine dependence, in comparison with the HH genotypes. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed no association between the VNTR polymorphism in the promoter region of the PDYN gene and methamphetamine dependence risk.

  8. Against professional advice: treatment attrition among pregnant methamphetamine users

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Brianna; Albrecht, Jennifer; Terplan, Mishka

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant methamphetamine users who leave substance use treatment against professional advice may be at risk of poorer health outcomes. To examine the hypothesis that methamphetamine use during pregnancy may be associated with leaving substance use treatment against professional advice, the 2006 Treatment Episode Data Set was analyzed. A logistic regression adjusting for age, race, service setting, prior substance abuse treatment, criminal justice referral, and education was conducted. Inclusion criteria were met by 18,688 pregnant admissions; 26.4% identified methamphetamines as their primary substance of use. Frequency of use was identified as an effect modifier, therefore results were stratified by less than weekly use and weekly or more use. Methamphetamine use was significantly associated with leaving treatment against professional advice regardless of usage level. However, the odds of leaving treatment were greater among women using methamphetamine less than weekly. Further investigation into this association may be warranted due to the complications that may result from methamphetamine use during pregnancy. PMID:24474856

  9. HIV Prevalence and Risk among Heterosexual Methamphetamine Injectors in California

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Alex H.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Martinez, Alexis; Lewis, Megan A.; Orr, Alexander; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

    2013-01-01

    This CDC-funded study compares HIV prevalence and risk behavior among heterosexual methamphetamine (n=428) and non-methamphetamine (n=878) injectors in California, USA during 2001–2003. While HIV was not highly prevalent among methamphetamine injectors (3%), sexual and injection risk behaviors were highly prevalent (ranging from 21% to 72%). In multivariate analyses, methamphetamine injectors had higher odds than non-methamphetamine injectors of unprotected vaginal intercourse and sex with five or more sexual partners in the past six months, and of distributive and receptive syringe sharing in the past thirty days. There was no significant difference in HIV sero-status by methamphetamine use. Suggestions are made for designing HIV prevention programs. PMID:21391786

  10. Prior nicotine self-administration attenuates subsequent dopaminergic deficits of methamphetamine in rats: role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Baladi, Michelle G; Nielsen, Shannon M; McIntosh, J Michael; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that oral nicotine exposure attenuates long-term dopaminergic damage induced by toxins, including repeated, high doses of methamphetamine. It is suggested that alterations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression, including α4β2* and α6β2* subtypes, likely contribute to this protection. The current study extended these findings by investigating whether nicotine self-administration in male, Sprague-Dawley rats (a) attenuates short-term dopaminergic damage induced by methamphetamine and (b) causes alterations in levels of α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR subtypes. The findings indicate that nicotine self-administration (0.032 mg/kg/infusion for 14 days) per se did not alter α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR expression or dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and function. Interestingly, prior nicotine self-administration attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in DAT function when assessed 24 h, but not 1 h, after methamphetamine treatment (4×7.5 mg/kg/injection). The ability of nicotine to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT function corresponded with increases in α4β2*, but not α6β2*, nAChR binding density. Understanding the role of nAChRs in methamphetamine-induced damage has the potential to elucidate mechanisms underlying the etiology of disorders involving dopaminergic dysfunction, as well as to highlight potential new therapeutic strategies for prevention or reduction of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. PMID:26871405

  11. A cluster of trace-concentration methamphetamine identifications in racehorses associated with a methamphetamine-contaminated horse trailer: A report and analysis.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Kimberly; Shults, Theodore F; Machin, Jacob; Kudrimoti, Sucheta; Eisenberg, Rodney L; Hartman, Petra; Wang, Caroline; Fenger, Clara; Beaumier, Pierre; Tobin, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Three low concentration methamphetamine "positive" tests were linked to use of a methamphetamine-contaminated trailer to transport the affected horses. This incident establishes methamphetamine as a human-use substance that can inadvertently enter the environment of racing horses, resulting in urinary methamphetamine "positives;" an interim regulatory cut-off of 15 ng/mL for methamphetamine in post-race urine is proposed. PMID:27493286

  12. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic deficits and refractoriness to subsequent treatment.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jarom E; Birdsall, Elisabeth; Seferian, Kristi S; Crosby, Marcus A; Keefe, Kristen A; Gibb, James W; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2009-04-01

    Repeated high-dose methamphetamine administrations can cause persistent dopaminergic deficits. As individuals abusing methamphetamine are often exposed to recurrent high-dose administration, the impact of its repeated exposure merits investigation. Accordingly, rats were pretreated with repeated high-dose injections of methamphetamine, and subsequently "challenged" with the same neurotoxic regimen 7 or 30 days later. Results revealed that the initial methamphetamine treatment caused persistent deficits in striatal dopamine levels, dopamine transporter function, and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function. The subsequent methamphetamine challenge treatment was without further persistent effects on these parameters, as assessed 7 days after the challenge, regardless of the interval (7 or 30 days) between the initial and challenge drug exposures. Similarly, a methamphetamine challenge treatment administered 7 days after the initial drug treatment was without further acute effect on dopamine transporter or VMAT-2 function, as assessed 1 h later. Thus, this study describes a model of resistance, possibly explained by: 1) the existence of dopaminergic neurons that are a priori refractory to deficits caused by methamphetamine; 2) the existence of dopaminergic neurons made persistently resistant consequent to a neurotoxic methamphetamine exposure; and/or 3) altered activation of post-synaptic basal ganglia systems necessary for the elaboration of methamphetamine-induced dopamine neurotoxicity. PMID:19326567

  13. Leave methamphetamine to be alive--Part II.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed Nasimul; Khan, Jesmine; Jaafar, Hasnan

    2009-04-01

    Series of experiments have been completed with Methamphetamine (MA). Some were with the higher, medium or lower duration of MA administration and some were with acute or chronic doses. Whatever may be the dose or duration the ultimate result came out with the further establishment of cardio-toxic effect of this drug. Cardiovascular symptoms related to MA toxicity include chest pain, palpitations, dyspnoea, hypertension, tachycardia, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and myocardial ischemia. MA abusers often go through a repeated pattern of frequent drug administrations followed by a period of abstinence. Previous studies have focused largely upon the chronic effect of MA intake to major organs, such as the brains and the heart, by using animal experiments. However, there is a lack of research into the effects of acute dose of MA, especially pertaining to the heart. To clarify the effect of MA on myocardium, 22 male Wister rats aged six weeks were divided into MA, Placebo (P) and Control (C) group were examined following single intraperitoneal administration of MA at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Normal saline was similarly injected in P group. Light microscopic changes was seen in the myocardium of MA treated group including cellular infiltration, with clusters of macrophage-like cells having large nuclei and little cytoplasm evident in the sub-endocardium region. There were presence of few macrophages, leucocytes, and spindle-like fibroblasts. Bringing in to account of cardiac changes by a single dose of MA, slogan should be voiced out to leave methamphetamine. PMID:19345604

  14. Comparative Study of the Activity of Brain Behavioral Systems in Methamphetamine and Opiate Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Alemikhah, Marjan; Faridhosseini, Farhad; Kordi, Hassan; Rasouli-Azad, Morad; Shahini, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Substance dependency is a major problem for the general health of a society. Different approaches have investigated the substance dependency in order to explain it. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) is an advanced and important neuropsychological theory in this area. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare three systems of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory the behavioral activation system (r-BAS), the revised behavioral inhibition system (r-BIS), and the revised fight/flight/freezing system (r-FFFS) between patients dependent on methamphetamine and opiates, and a group of controls. Patients and Methods: This research was a causal-comparative study that was conducted in the first six months of 2012. The population of the study was males of Mashhad city, who were dependent on methamphetamine or opiates, and ruling out psychotic disorders and prominent Axis II. Twenty-five people were selected by the convenient sampling method. Also, 25 non-dependent people from the patients’ relatives were selected and matched for the variables of age, gender, and education to participate in this study. Participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview (SCID) for DSM-IV, demographic questionnaire information, and a Jackson-5 questionnaire (2009). Data were analyzed by Chi-square, K-S, and independent t-test. Results: The methamphetamine dependent group had a higher sensitivity in the r-BAS, r-BIS, and the r-Fight and r-Freezing systems compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in r-Flight between the two groups (P > 0.05). “The scores of r-BIS were also significantly higher in the methamphetamine-dependent group than the opioid-dependent and control groups. For the r-Fight variable, the methamphetamine-dependent group was higher than the opioid-dependent group”. Conclusions: The personality patterns of patients dependent on methamphetamines were different from the controls

  15. Evaluation of a peer network intervention trial among young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Susan G; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Srirojn, Bangorn; Latkin, Carl A; Aramratanna, Apinun; Celentano, David D

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1990s, there has been a proliferation of methamphetamine use in Thailand, particularly among young people. Simultaneously, risky sexual behaviors among this population have increased. This study examined the effects of a peer network intervention and a life-skills intervention on methamphetamine and HIV risk behaviors among 18-25 year olds in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Between April 2005 and June 2007, we conducted a randomized behavioral trial to compare the efficacy of a peer educator, network-oriented intervention with a best practice, life-skills curriculum on methamphetamine use, sexual behaviors, and incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Follow-up occurred at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12 months. Both conditions consisted of seven, 2h, small group sessions. Longitudinal analyses of the three outcomes were conducted by fitting repeated measures logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations. Participants (N=983) attended a median of six sessions, with no differences between arms. At each follow-up visit, retention was greater than 85%. Participants were 75% male and were a median of 19 years old. Over time, participants in both conditions showed a significant and dramatic decline in self-reported methamphetamine use (99% at baseline vs. 53% at 12 months, p<0.0001) and significant increase in consistent condom use (32% baseline vs. 44% at 12 months, p<0.0001). Incident STIs were common, with no differences between arms. Chlamydia had the highest incidence rate, 9.85/100 person years and HIV had a low incidence rate of 0.71/100 person years. Among young Thais, we found that a peer educator, network-oriented intervention was associated with reductions in methamphetamine use, increases in condom use, and reductions in incident STIs over 12 months. We also found parallel reductions with the life-skills condition. To our knowledge, this is the first such trial targeting this population. Small group interventions are an effective means of

  16. Neurologic manifestations of chronic methamphetamine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rusyniak, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Chronic methamphetamine abuse has devastating effects on the central nervous system. The degree to which addicts will tolerate the dysfunction in the way they think, feel, move, and even look, is a powerful testimony to the addictive properties of this drug. While the mechanisms behind these disorders are complex, at their heart they involve the recurring increase in the concentrations of central monoamines with subsequent dysfunction in dopaminergic neurotransmission. The mainstay of treatment for the problems associated with chronic methamphetamine abuse is abstinence. However, by recognizing the manifestations of chronic abuse, clinicians will be better able to help their patients get treatment for their addiction and to deal with the neurologic complications related to chronic abuse. PMID:21803215

  17. METHAMPHETAMINE: WHERE WILL THE STAMPEDE TAKE US?

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Danny; McDonough Michael

    2015-09-01

    Methamphetamine, particularly "ice", currently preoccupies the media and there are a range of government initiatives which seem to follow media interest. We summarise the progress of government attention, briefly review health concerns associated with methamphetamine use, and summarise the evidence for treatments, including psychosocial interventions and medications. Amid concerns that governments will seek to fund any promising initiative in order to be perceived as responding to an epidemic, we caution that existing treatments should not be abandoned in favour of untested but potentially attractive treatments. Harm reduction and outpatient psychological treatments remain the mainstay of drug treatment programs and may be more cost-effective and broader-reaching than inpatient, medication-based detoxifications. PMID:26554196

  18. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus

    2015-01-01

    Administration of amphetamine and methamphetamine can elicit psychiatric adverse effects at acute administration, binge use, withdrawal, and chronic use. Most troublesome of these are psychotic states and aggressive behavior, but a large variety of undesirable changes in cognition and affect can be induced. Adverse effects occur more frequently with higher dosages and long-term use. They can subside over time but some persist long-term. Multiple alterations in the gray and white matter of the brain assessed as changes in tissue volume or metabolism, or at molecular level, have been associated with amphetamine and methamphetamine use and the psychiatric adverse effects, but further studies are required to clarify their causal role, specificity, and relationship with preceding states and traits and comorbidities. The latter include other substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-related psychosis is similar to schizophrenia in terms of symptomatology and pathogenesis, and these two disorders share predisposing genetic factors. PMID:26070758

  19. Dual epidemics of syphilis and methamphetamine use among drug users in Shandong Province of China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Meizhen; Kang, Dianmin; Tao, Xiaorun; Li, Jie; Qian, Yuesheng; Wang, Guoyong; Jiang, Baofa; Bi, Zhenqiang; Jia, Yujiang

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the types of drugs, the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and its correlates among Shandong's drug users in China. Two consecutive cross-sectional surveys in 2009 and 2010 provided demographics, types of drugs, sexual and drug-use behaviors, and HIV-related services. Of the 1320 unique, eligible participants, 81.1% were male, two-thirds <35 years of age, 13.0% non-Shandong residents; in the past year, majority (96.4%) reported ever using methamphetamine, 3.4% using heroin, 8.6% using ≥2 types of these drugs and 8.0% injecting drugs, 63.8% having commercial sex. HIV and syphilis prevalence were 0.2% and 8.3%, respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, syphilis was independently associated with female, non-Shandong residents, higher levels of education, and 2010. Synthetic drugs, especially methamphetamine, have become the predominant sources of drug addiction. The emerging epidemic of syphilis potentially driven by methamphetamine use underscored the urgency to implement an effective sex and substance use-related intervention. PMID:23394142

  20. Gender difference in hippocampal volume reduction among abstinent methamphetamine users

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiang; Quan, Meina; Zhuang, Wenxu; Zong, Na; Jiang, Haifeng; Kennedy, David N.; Harrington, Amy; Ziedonis, Douglas; Fan, Xiaoduo; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Growing evidence suggests abnormalities in brain morphology including hippocampal structure in patients with methamphetamine (MA) dependence. Yet little is known about the possible gender difference. This study was performed to examine hippocampal volume in abstinent male and female MA users, and to further explore its relationship with cognitive function. Methods 27 abstinent MA users (19 males and 8 females) with average 5.75 months of duration and 29 healthy controls (19 males and 10 females) age 18 to 45 years old were recruited for clinical assessment and imaging scan. FreeSurfer was used to segment the hippocampus bilaterally, and hippocampal volumes were extracted for group and gender comparisons. Cognitive function was measured using the CogState Battery Chinese language version (CSB-C). Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for education showed a significant group by gender interaction for right hippocampal relative volume adjusted for total brain size (p=0.002). Female patients showed significantly less volume compared with female healthy controls; there was no significant difference in volume between male patients and male healthy controls. Within female patients, there were significant negative relationships between right hippocampal volume and average dose of MA use (p=0.001), as well as the total error scores on the Continuous Paired Association Learning Task (CPAL) in CSB-C (p=0.013). Conclusions There seems to be a gender difference in how MA affects hippocampal volume and cognitive function in abstinent MA users. Hippocampus might be an important treatment target for cognitive improvement and functional recovery in this patient population, especially in females. PMID:25920682

  1. Olfactory bulbectomy increases reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking after a forced abstinence in rats.

    PubMed

    Babinska, Zuzana; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Amchova, Petra; Merhautova, Jana; Dusek, Ladislav; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2016-01-15

    Drug addiction is commonly associated with depression and comorbid patients also suffer from higher cravings and increased relapse rate. To address this issue preclinically we combined the olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) model of depression and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration procedure in rats to assess differences in relapse-like behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two groups; in one group the bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) was performed while the other group was sham operated. After recovery, intracardiac catheter was implanted. Intravenous self-administration procedure was conducted in operant boxes using nose-poke operandi (Coulbourn Instruments, Inc., USA) under fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Methamphetamine was available at dose 0.08 mg/kg/infusion. After stable methamphetamine intake was maintained, a period of forced abstinence was initiated and rats were kept in their home-cages for 14 days. Finally, one reinstatement session was conducted in operant boxes with no drug delivery. In the reinstatement session the mean of 138.4 active nose-pokes was performed by the OBX group, while the sham group displayed 41 responses, i.e. 140 % and 48 % of basal nose-poking during maintenance phase in OBX and sham operated group respectively. OBX group also showed significantly more passive nose-pokes indicating hyperactive behavioral traits in bulbectomized rats. However, the % of active operandum preference was equal in both groups. Olfactory bulbectomy model significantly increased reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking behavior. This paradigm can be used to evaluate potential drugs that are able to suppress the drug-seeking behavior. PMID:26431766

  2. Correlates of nonmedical use of stimulants and methamphetamine use in a national sample

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lian-Yu; Strain, Eric C.; Alexandre, Pierre Kébreau; Alexander, G. Caleb; Mojtabai, Ramin; Martins, Silvia S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite chemical similarities, ADHD stimulants and methamphetamine have distinct use patterns in the community. This study compared the characteristics of nonmedical ADHD stimulants users and methamphetamine users in a household sample. Methods In data from the 2009–2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, adult and adolescent stimulant users were categorized into three mutually exclusive subgroups: nonmedical ADHD stimulant users only (STM users), methamphetamine users (METH users), and both nonmedical ADHD stimulant and methamphetamine users (STM/METH users). Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified the substance comorbidity, mental health, and deviant behavior characteristics associated with these three groups. Results Compared to adolescent STM users, STM/METH users were more likely to be female, younger and uninsured while METH users were more likely to be younger, in a minority group and from a higher-income family. Compared to adult STM users, METH and STM/METH users were more likely to be male, older, uninsured, no longer married, and to be from rural areas. Adolescent METH users were more likely than STM users to report illegal drug use while adult METH users were less likely to report prescription drug use than their STM user counterparts. Overall, adult and adolescent STM/METH users were more likely to report substance use, mental health problems and deviant behaviors compared to STM users. Conclusion The characteristics of STM users differ from METH and STM/METH users, and their associations with substance use and psychiatric comorbidities differ by age. Findings have implications for understanding the risks for stimulant use in different age subgroups. PMID:24583271

  3. Why Is Parkinsonism Not a Feature of Human Methamphetamine Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moszczynska, Anna; Fitzmaurice, Paul; Ang, Lee; Kalasinsky, Kathryn S.; Schmunk, Gregory A.; Peretti, Frank J.; Aiken, Sally S.; Wickham, Dennis J.; Kish, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    For more than 50 years, methamphetamine has been a widely used stimulant drug taken to maintain wakefulness and performance and, in high doses, to cause intense euphoria. Animal studies show that methamphetamine can cause short-term and even persistent depletion of brain levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. However, the clinical features of…

  4. A Qualitative Exploration of Trajectories among Suburban Users of Methamphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Harbry, Liam; Gibson, David

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to gain a better understanding of methamphetamine use among suburban users. We know very little about the mechanisms of initiation and trajectory patterns of methamphetamine use among this under-researched and hidden population. This study employed qualitative methods to examine the drug career of suburban…

  5. Residual effects of intranasal methamphetamine on sleep, mood, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Gunderson, Erik W.; Marrone, Gina; Silver, Rae; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.

    2008-01-01

    Although intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased, there are no published data investigating the residual effects of the drug under controlled conditions. Thus, the current study examined the residual effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Non-treatment seeking methamphetamine abusers (n = 11) completed this two-week, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. The study consisted of 4 two-day blocks of sessions; each block was separated by at least 24 hrs. At approximately 1000 hrs, on the first day of each block, participants received one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, 50 mg/70 kg). Lights were turned out at 2300 hrs that evening and sleep measures were assessed. On the morning of the second day of each block, methamphetamine plasma levels, cardiovascular measures, mood, subjective reports of the previous evening's sleep, and psychomotor performance were assessed to determine residual drug effects. The larger methamphetamine doses (25 and 50 mg) markedly disrupted subjective measures of that night's sleep and some indices of next-day mood, but only the largest dose (50 mg) dose decreased objective measures of that night's sleep and increased next-day physiological measures. Methamphetamine did not produce any negative residual effects on early next-day performance. Future studies should assess methamphetamine-related residual effects following repeated doses administered over consecutive days. PMID:18078723

  6. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  7. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

  8. Methamphetamine Abuse and Manufacture: The Child Welfare Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, Melinda; Oliver, Rhonda; Wright, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is on the rise, particularly by women of child-bearing age. This article describes the history and effects of methamphetamine use. The authors examine the ways exposure to the manufacture of this drug affects clients and social workers in the course of their work. Because children are frequently found at the scene of a…

  9. The Patients in Recovery (PIR) Perspective: Teaching Physicians about Methamphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walley, Alexander Y.; Phillips, Karran A.; Gordon, Adam J.

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine dependence is an emerging epidemic confronting physicians. In an effort to improve understanding of its impact, the authors presented an educational workshop at a national meeting for general internists featuring small group discussions with patients in recovery (PIR) from methamphetamine dependence. Participants rated the workshop…

  10. Psychiatric comorbidity of methamphetamine dependence in a forensic sample.

    PubMed

    Kalechstein, A D; Newton, T F; Longshore, D; Anglin, M D; van Gorp, W G; Gawin, F H

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between psychiatric symptoms and methamphetamine dependence. A four-hour survey was administered to 1,580 arrestees sampled from the 14 most populous counties in California. The survey included items assessing demographic profile, history of substance dependence, and psychiatric symptomatology. In the 12 months prior to the assessment, methamphetamine-dependent individuals were more likely to report depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation than individuals denying methamphetamine dependence, even after controlling for demographic profile and dependence on other drugs. Methamphetamine-dependent individuals also were more likely to report a need for psychiatric assistance at the time of the interview. These findings suggest that methamphetamine-dependent individuals are at greater risk to experience particular psychiatric symptoms. Further study to determine the etiology of these symptoms is warranted. PMID:11083165

  11. Study on the THz spectrum of methamphetamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Li; Shen, Jingling; Jinhai, Sun; Laishun, Liang; Xu, Xiaoyu; Lu, Meihong; Yan, Jia

    2005-09-01

    The spectral absorption features of methamphetamine (MA), one of the most widely consumed illicit drugs in the world, are studied experimentally by Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), and the characteristic absorption spectra are obtained in the range of 0.2 to 2.6 THz. The vibrational frequencies are calculated using the density functional theory (DFT). Theoretical results show significant agreement with experimental results, and identification of vibrational modes are given. The calculated results further confirm that the characteristic frequencies come from the collective vibrational modes. The results suggest that use of the THz-TDS technique can be an effective way to inspect for illicit drugs.

  12. ML314: A Biased Neurotensin Receptor Ligand for Methamphetamine Abuse.

    PubMed

    Barak, Larry S; Bai, Yushi; Peterson, Sean; Evron, Tama; Urs, Nikhil M; Peddibhotla, Satyamaheshwar; Hedrick, Michael P; Hershberger, Paul; Maloney, Patrick R; Chung, Thomas D Y; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; Thomas, James B; Hanson, Glen R; Pinkerton, Anthony B; Caron, Marc G

    2016-07-15

    Pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine addiction will provide important societal benefits. Neurotensin receptor NTR1 and dopamine receptor distributions coincide in brain areas regulating methamphetamine-associated reward, and neurotensin peptides produce behaviors opposing psychostimulants. Therefore, undesirable methamphetamine-associated activities should be treatable with druggable NTR1 agonists, but no such FDA-approved therapeutics exist. We address this limitation with proof-of-concept data for ML314, a small-molecule, brain penetrant, β-arrestin biased, NTR1 agonist. ML314 attenuates amphetamine-like hyperlocomotion in dopamine transporter knockout mice, and in C57BL/6J mice it attenuates methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, potentiates the psychostimulant inhibitory effects of a ghrelin antagonist, and reduces methamphetamine-associated conditioned place preference. In rats, ML314 blocks methamphetamine self-administration. ML314 acts as an allosteric enhancer of endogenous neurotensin, unmasking stoichiometric numbers of hidden NTR1 binding sites in transfected-cell membranes or mouse striatal membranes, while additionally supporting NTR1 endocytosis in cells in the absence of NT peptide. These results indicate ML314 is a viable, preclinical lead for methamphetamine abuse treatment and support an allosteric model of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. PMID:27119457

  13. Methamphetamine Dependence and Neuropsychological Functioning: Evaluating Change During Early Abstinence*

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sara L.; Dean, Andy C.; Cordova, Xochitl; Monterosso, John R.; London, Edythe D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this work was to assess neuropsychological functioning of individuals in early abstinence from methamphetamine dependence and to test for cognitive change over the first month of abstinence. Method: Methamphetamine-dependent subjects in very early abstinence from methamphetamine (4–9 days; n = 27) were compared with healthy comparison subjects (n = 28) on a test battery that evaluated five cognitive domains (attention/processing speed, learning/memory, working memory, timed executive functioning, and untimed executive functioning). A subsample of the methamphetamine-dependent subjects (n = 18), who maintained abstinence for 1 month, as well as a subsample of the comparison subjects (n = 21), were retested. Results: At the first assessment, the methamphetamine-dependent subjects showed significantly worse performance than the comparison group on a test of processing speed; they also performed 0.31 SDs worse than the control group on a global battery composite score (p < .05). After a month of abstinence, methamphetamine-dependent subjects demonstrated slightly more cognitive improvement than healthy control subjects on the entire cognitive battery, but this difference did not approach statistical significance (p = .33). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that methamphetamine-dependent subjects do not show considerable cognitive gains in the first month of abstinence. A greater length of abstinence may be needed for cognitive improvement. PMID:20409426

  14. Differential regional effects of methamphetamine on dopamine transport.

    PubMed

    Chu, Pei-Wen; Seferian, Kristi S; Birdsall, Elisabeth; Truong, Jannine G; Riordan, James A; Metcalf, Cameron S; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2008-08-20

    Multiple high-dose methamphetamine administrations cause long-lasting (>1 week) deficits in striatal dopaminergic neuronal function. This stimulant likewise causes rapid (within 1 h) and persistent (at least 48 h) decreases in activities of striatal: 1) dopamine transporters, as assessed in synaptosomes; and 2) vesicular monoamine transporter -2 (VMAT-2), as assessed in a non-membrane-associated (referred to herein as cytoplasmic) vesicular subcellular fraction. Importantly, not all brain areas are vulnerable to methamphetamine-induced long-lasting deficits. Similarly, the present study indicates that methamphetamine exerts differential acute effects on monoaminergic transporters according to brain region. In particular, results revealed that in the nucleus accumbens, methamphetamine rapidly, but reversibly (within 24 h), decreased plasmalemmal dopamine transporter function, without effect on plasmalemmal dopamine transporter immunoreactivity. Methamphetamine also rapidly and reversibly (within 48 h) decreased cytoplasmic VMAT-2 function in this region, with relatively little effect on cytoplasmic VMAT-2 immunoreactivity. In contrast, methamphetamine did not alter either dopamine transporter or VMAT-2 activity in the hypothalamus. Noteworthy, the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus did not display the persistent long-lasting striatal dopamine depletions caused by the stimulant. Taken together, these data suggest that deficits in plasmalemmal and vesicular monoamine transporter activity lasting greater than 24-48 h may be linked to the long-lasting dopaminergic deficits caused by methamphetamine and appear to be region specific. PMID:18599036

  15. Glutamatergic Neurometabolites during Early Abstinence from Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Marc C.; Hudkins, Matthew; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The acute phase of abstinence from methamphetamine abuse is critical for rehabilitation success. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has detected below-normal levels of glutamate+glutamine in anterior middle cingulate of chronic methamphetamine abusers during early abstinence, attributed to abstinence-induced downregulation of the glutamatergic systems in the brain. This study further explored this phenomenon. Methods: We measured glutamate+glutamine in additional cortical regions (midline posterior cingulate, midline precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal cortex) putatively affected by methamphetamine. We examined the relationship between glutamate+glutamine in each region with duration of methamphetamine abuse as well as the depressive symptoms of early abstinence. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was acquired at 1.5 T from a methamphetamine group of 44 adults who had chronically abused methamphetamine and a control group of 23 age-, sex-, and tobacco smoking-matched healthy volunteers. Participants in the methamphetamine group were studied as inpatients during the first week of abstinence from the drug and were not receiving treatment. Results: In the methamphetamine group, small but significant (5–15%, P<.05) decrements (vs control) in glutamate+glutamine were observed in posterior cingulate, precuneus, and right inferior frontal cortex; glutamate+glutamine in posterior cingulate was negatively correlated (P<.05) with years of methamphetamine abuse. The Beck Depression Inventory score was negatively correlated (P<.005) with glutamate+glutamine in right inferior frontal cortex. Conclusions: Our findings support the idea that glutamatergic metabolism is downregulated in early abstinence in multiple cortical regions. The extent of downregulation may vary with length of abuse and may be associated with severity of depressive symptoms emergent in early recovery. PMID:25522400

  16. Desorption of a methamphetamine surrogate from wallboard under remediation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppendieck, Dustin; Morrison, Glenn; Corsi, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Thousands of homes in the United States are found to be contaminated with methamphetamine each year. Buildings used to produce illicit methamphetamine are typically remediated by removing soft furnishings and stained materials, cleaning and sometimes encapsulating surfaces using paint. Methamphetamine that has penetrated into paint films, wood and other permanent materials can be slowly released back into the building air over time, exposing future occupants and re-contaminating furnishings. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of two wallboard remediation techniques for homes contaminated with methamphetamine: 1) enhancing desorption by elevating temperature and relative humidity while ventilating the interior space, and 2) painting over affected wallboard to seal the methamphetamine in place. The emission of a methamphetamine surrogate, N-isopropylbenzylamine (NIBA), from pre-dosed wallboard chambers over 20 days at 32 °C and two values of relative humidity were studied. Emission rates from wallboard after 15 days at 32 °C ranged from 35 to 1400 μg h-1 m-2. Less than 22% of the NIBA was removed from the chambers over three weeks. Results indicate that elevating temperatures during remediation and latex painting of impacted wallboard will not significantly reduce freebase methamphetamine emissions from wallboard. Raising the relative humidity from 27% to 49% increased the emission rates by a factor of 1.4. A steady-state model of a typical home using the emission rates from this study and typical residential building parameters and conditions shows that adult inhalation reference doses for methamphetamine will be reached when approximately 1 g of methamphetamine is present in the wallboard of a house.

  17. Decreased frontal lobe phosphocreatine levels in methamphetamine users

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hoon; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Shi, Xian-Feng; Kondo, Douglas G.; Lundberg, Kelly J.; McGlade, Erin C.; Hellem, Tracy L.; Huber, Rebekah S.; Fiedler, Kristen K.; Harrell, Renee E.; Nickerson, Bethany R.; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mitochondria-related mechanisms have been suggested to mediate methamphetamine (METH) toxicity. However, changes in brain energetics associated with highenergy phosphate metabolism have not been investigated in METH users. Phosphorus-31 (31P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to evaluate changes in mitochondrial high energy phosphates, including phosphocreatine (PCr) and β-nucleoside triphosphate (β-NTP, primarily ATP in brain) levels. We hypothesized that METH users would have decreased high-energy PCr levels in the frontal gray matter. METHODS Study participants consisted of 51 METH (age=32.8±6.7) and 23 healthy comparison (age=31.1±7.5) subjects. High-energy phosphate metabolite levels were compared between the groups and potential gender differences were explored. RESULTS METH users had lower ratios of PCr to total pool of exchangeable phosphate (PCr/TPP) in the frontal lobe as compared to the healthy subjects (p=0.001). The lower PCr levels in METH subjects were significantly associated with lifetime amount of METH use (p=0.003). A sub-analysis for gender differences revealed that female METH users, who had lower daily amounts (1.1±1.0 gram) of METH use than males (1.4±1.7 gram), had significantly lower PCr/TPP ratios than male METH users, controlling for the amount of METH use (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS The present findings suggest that METH compromises frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism in a dose-responsive manner. Our findings also suggest that the abnormality in frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism might be more prominent in female than in male METH users. This is significant as decreased PCr levels have been associated with depressive symptoms, and poor responses to antidepressant treatment have been reported in those with decreased PCr levels. PMID:23084413

  18. Induction of testicular damage by daily methamphetamine administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji-Fan; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Chia; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Chen, Hung-En; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2014-02-28

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced brain damage and apoptosis within the central nervous system are well documented. This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of daily METH administration on the testes in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks old, ~100 g, n = 64) were divided into two groups and treated with vehicle (saline, control) or METH (10 mg/kg) for 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. The results showed that daily administration of METH decreased the body, testicular and epididymis weights as well as the serum levels of total testosterone. The increased apoptotic index (Bad/Bcl2 expression ratio) and levels of cleaved caspase-3 indicated that apoptosis had occurred in the testes of the METH-treated rats. The oxidative stress levels increased as the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio decreased. The overall sperm counts decreased at 15 and 90 days, where- as morphologically abnormal sperm counts increased at 30, 60 and 90 days in the METH-treated rats. This study demonstrates that daily exposure to METH significantly reduced the number and quality of sperm in rats. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms likely include the reduction of serum testosterone levels and the increase of oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat testes. PMID:24621335

  19. Neurologic Manifestations of Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rusyniak, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    COMMENTARY ON METHAMPHETAMINE ABUSE FOR PSYCHIATRIC PRACTICE Every decade seems to have its own unique drug problem. The 1970s had hallucinogens, the 1980s had crack cocaine, the 1990s had designer drugs, the 2000s had methamphetamine (Meth), and in the 2010s we are dealing with the scourge of prescription drug abuse. While each of these drug epidemics has distinctive problems and history, the one with perhaps the greatest impact on the practice of Psychiatry is Meth. By increasing the extracellular concentrations of dopamine while slowly damaging the dopaminergic neurotransmission, Meth is a powerfully addictive drug whose chronic use preferentially causes psychiatric complications. Chronic Meth users have deficits in memory and executive functioning as well as higher rates of anxiety, depression, and most notably psychosis. It is because of addiction and chronic psychosis from Meth abuse that the Meth user is most likely to come to the attention of the practicing Psychiatrist/Psychologist. Understanding the chronic neurologic manifestations of Meth abuse will better arm practitioners with the diagnostic and therapeutic tools needed to make the Meth epidemic one of historical interest only. PMID:23688691

  20. Injury associated with methamphetamine use: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Janie; Bennett, Sara; Coggan, Carolyn; Wheeler, Amanda; McMillan, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature exploring issues around methamphetamine and injury. There was a paucity of peer reviewed quantitative research and a lack of large scale epidemiological studies. Further sources described cases and others described injury risk as part of an overall review of methamphetamine misuse. Thus, a number of limitations and potential biases exist within the literature. The main areas where associations were noted or extrapolated with methamphetamine use and injury were around driving and violence. Other associations with injury related to methamphetamine manufacture. There was also circumstantial evidence for third party injury (that is injury to those not specifically involved in drug use or drug manufacture); however, the available data are inadequate to confirm these associations/risks. PMID:16571134

  1. Impact of methamphetamine on infection and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Salamanca, Sergio A.; Sorrentino, Edra E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Martinez, Luis R.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of methamphetamine (METH) use is estimated at ~35 million people worldwide, with over 10 million users in the United States. METH use elicits a myriad of social consequences and the behavioral impact of the drug is well understood. However, new information has recently emerged detailing the devastating effects of METH on host immunity, increasing the acquisition of diverse pathogens and exacerbating the severity of disease. These outcomes manifest as modifications in protective physical and chemical defenses, pro-inflammatory responses, and the induction of oxidative stress pathways. Through these processes, significant neurotoxicities arise, and, as such, chronic abusers with these conditions are at a higher risk for heightened consequences. METH use also influences the adaptive immune response, permitting the unrestrained development of opportunistic diseases. In this review, we discuss recent literature addressing the impact of METH on infection and immunity, and identify areas ripe for future investigation. PMID:25628526

  2. Melatonin Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wongprayoon, Pawaris; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH), an illegal psycho-stimulant, is widely known as a recreational drug. In addition to its addictive effect, METH induces neurotoxicity via multiple mechanisms. The major contributors to METH-induced neurotoxicity are reactive oxygen species, which lead to cell death through apoptotic pathway and disturbances in mitochondria, the generation of neuroinflammation, and autophagy. Melatonin, a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland, is a potent antioxidant compound that plays a beneficial role by protecting against the oxidative stress caused by METH. Melatonin also plays a role in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Nanomolar concentrations of melatonin have been shown to protect against the inflammation caused by METH and to prevent the decrease in neurogenesis caused by METH in progenitor cells obtained from adult rat hippocampal tissue. The intent of this review is to describe the underlying mechanisms involving melatonin that protect against the neurodegeneration caused by METH. PMID:25248807

  3. METHAMPHETAMINE TOXICITY AND MESSENGERS OF DEATH

    PubMed Central

    Krasnova, Irina N.; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit psychostimulant that is widely abused in the world. Several lines of evidence suggest that chronic METH abuse leads to neurodegenerative changes in the human brain. These include damage to dopamine and serotonin axons, loss of gray matter accompanied by hypertrophy of the white matter and microgliosis in different brain areas. In the present review, we summarize data on the animal models of METH neurotoxicity which include degeneration of monoaminergic terminals and neuronal apoptosis. In addition, we discuss molecular and cellular bases of METH-induced neuropathologies. The accumulated evidence indicates that multiple events, including oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, hyperthermia, neuroinflammatory responses, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress converge to mediate METH-induced terminal degeneration and neuronal apoptosis. When taken together, these findings suggest that pharmacological strategies geared towards the prevention and treatment of the deleterious effects of this drug will need to attack the various pathways that form the substrates of METH toxicity. PMID:19328213

  4. “Evaluation of a peer network intervention trial among young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai, Thailand”

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Catherine; Srirojn, Bangorn; Latkin, Carl A; Aramratanna, Ajpinun; Sherman, Susan G

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1990s, there has been a proliferation of methamphetamine use in Thailand, particularly among young people. Simultaneously, risky sexual behaviors among this population have increased. This study examined the effects of a peer network intervention and a life skills intervention on methamphetamine and HIV risk behaviors among 18–25 year olds in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Between April 2005 and June 2007, we conducted a randomized behavioral trial to compare the efficacy of a peer educator, network-oriented intervention with a best practice, life-skills curriculum on methamphetamine use, sexual behaviors, and incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Follow-up occurred at three, six, nine, and twelve months. Both conditions consisted of seven, two hour, small group sessions. Longitudinal analyses of the three outcomes were conducted by fitting repeated measures logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations. Participants (N=983) attended a median of six sessions, with no differences between arms. At each follow-up visit, retention was greater than 85%. Participants were 75% male and were a median of 19 years old. Over time, participants in both conditions showed a significant and dramatic decline in self-reported methamphetamine use (99% at baseline versus 53% at 12-months, p<0.0001) and significant increase in consistent condom use (32% baseline versus 44% at 12 months, p<0.0001). Incident STIs were common, with no differences between arms. Chlamydia had the highest incidence rate, 9.85/100 person-years and HIV had a low incidence rate of 0.71/100 person-years. Among young Thais, we found that a peer educator, network-oriented intervention was associated with reductions in methamphetamine use, increases in condom use, and reductions in incident STIs over 12 months. We also found parallel reductions with the life skills condition. To our knowledge, this is the first such trial targeting this population. Small group interventions are an

  5. Methamphetamine and the Changing Face of Child Welfare: Practice Principles for Child Welfare Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell-Carrick, Kelli

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine use and production is changing child welfare practice. Methamphetamine is a significant public health threat (National Institute of Justice, 1999) reaching epidemic proportions (Anglin, Burke, Perrochet, Stamper, & Dawud-Nouris, 2000). The manufacturing of methamphetamine is a serious problem for the child welfare system, yet child…

  6. The Rise in Methamphetamine Use among American Indians in Los Angeles County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Suzanne; Crevecoeur, Desiree A.; Rawson, Richard A.; Clark, Rose

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary review of substance abuse treatment admission data from 2001-2005 was conducted to explore the use of methamphetamine among American Indians in treatment programs funded by Los Angeles County. Comparisons were made between primary methamphetamine users and users whose primary drug was a substance other than methamphetamine. In that…

  7. An Exploration of the Relationship between the Use of Methamphetamine and Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamonica, Aukje K.; Boeri, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    This study examines patterns of use of prescription drugs and methamphetamine. We drew our sample from a study about 130 active and inactive methamphetamine users and focused on 16 participants with a recent history of methamphetamine and prescription drug use. We collected in-depth interviews to explore relationships in use trajectory patterns.…

  8. Characterization of the guinea pig animal model and subsequent comparison of the behavioral effects of selective dopaminergic drugs and methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kiera-Nicole; Pellom, Samuel T.; Oliver, Ericka; Chirwa, Sanika

    2014-01-01

    Though not commonly used in behavior tests guinea pigs may offer subtle behavior repertoires that better mimic human activity and warrant study. To test this, 31 Hartley guinea pigs (male, 200–250 g) were evaluated in PhenoTyper cages using the video-tracking EthoVision XT 7.0 software. Results showed that guinea pigs spent more time in the hidden zone (small box in corner of cage) than the food/water zone, or arena zone. Guinea pigs exhibited thigmotaxis (a wall following strategy) and were active throughout the light and dark phases. Eating and drinking occurred throughout the light and dark phases. An injection of 0.25 mg/kg SCH23390, the dopamine D1 receptors (D1R) antagonist, produced significant decreases in time spent in the hidden zone. There were insignificant changes in time spent in the hidden zone for guinea pigs treated with 7.5 mg SKF38393 (D1R agonist), 1.0 mg/kg sulpiride (D2R antagonist), and 1.0 or 10.0 mg/kg methamphetamine. Locomotor activity profiles were unchanged after injections of saline, SKF38393, SCH23390 and sulpiride. By contrast, a single injection or repeated administration for 7 days of low-dose methamphetamine induced transient hyperactivity but this declined to baseline levels over the 22-hour observation period. Guinea pigs treated with high-dose methamphetamine displayed sustained hyperactivity and travelled significantly greater distances over the circadian cycle. Subsequent 7-day treatment with high-dose methamphetamine induced motor sensitization and significant increases in total distances moved relative to single drug injections or saline controls. These results highlight the versatility and unique features of the guinea pig for studying brain-behavior interactions. PMID:24436154

  9. Failure of surgical treatment in methamphetamine body-stuffers.

    PubMed

    Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Behnam, Behdad; Arab-Ahmadi, Mehran

    2015-05-01

    Body stuffing is defined as ingestion of unpackaged or packaged illicit drugs in a quick process. The drugs have usually been wrapped loosely in cellophane, plastic bags, paper, or aluminum foil. Methamphetamine toxicity is a dangerous state that occurs during methamphetamine leakage from the ingested packages in the gastrointestinal tract. This is usually occurring with cocaine and heroin, but methamphetamine body stuffing may less commonly happen, as well. Accordingly, management of methamphetamine body-stuffers is an important subject that has remained a controversy in clinical and legal aspects. We have reported two body-stuffer cases who underwent exploratory laparotomy. Although surgery was done, it was not useful to exit packs and even led to severe methamphetamine toxicity. These cases show that surgical treatment may be ineffective and even harmful in body-stuffers. On the other hand, this report suggests that pre and post-operation abdominal CT-scan is necessary for evaluating surgical treatment in patients who are still symptomatic. PMID:25882154

  10. The blood-brain barrier and methamphetamine: open sesame?

    PubMed Central

    Turowski, Patric; Kenny, Bridget-Ann

    2015-01-01

    The chemical and electrical microenvironment of neurons within the central nervous system is protected and segregated from the circulation by the vascular blood–brain barrier. This barrier operates on the level of endothelial cells and includes regulatory crosstalk with neighboring pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons. Within this neurovascular unit, the endothelial cells form a formidable, highly regulated barrier through the presence of inter-endothelial tight junctions, the absence of fenestrations, and the almost complete absence of fluid-phase transcytosis. The potent psychostimulant drug methamphetamine transiently opens the vascular blood–brain barrier through either or both the modulation of inter-endothelial junctions and the induction of fluid-phase transcytosis. Direct action of methamphetamine on the vascular endothelium induces acute opening of the blood-brain barrier. In addition, striatal effects of methamphetamine and resultant neuroinflammatory signaling can indirectly lead to chronic dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier. Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier may exacerbate the neuronal damage that occurs during methamphetamine abuse. However, this process also constitutes a rare example of agonist-induced breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and the adjunctive use of methamphetamine may present an opportunity to enhance delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the underlying neural tissue. PMID:25999807

  11. The Clinical Pharmacology of Intranasal l-Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, John E; McGlothlin, Dana; Harris, Debra S; Foster, Elyse; Everhart, Tom; Jacob, Peyton; Jones, Reese T

    2008-01-01

    Background We studied the pharmacology of l-methamphetamine, the less abused isomer, when used as a nasal decongestant. Methods 12 subjects self-administered l-methamphetamine from a nonprescription inhaler at the recommended dose (16 inhalations over 6 hours) then at 2 and 4 (32 and 64 inhalations) times this dose. In a separate session intravenous phenylephrine (200 μg) and l-methamphetamine (5 mg) were given to define alpha agonist pharmacology and bioavailability. Physiological, cardiovascular, pharmacokinetic, and subjective effects were measured. Results Plasma l-methamphetamine levels were often below the level of quantification so bioavailability was estimated by comparing urinary excretion of the intravenous and inhaled doses, yielding delivered dose estimates of 74.0 ± 56.1, 124.7 ± 106.6, and 268.1 ± 220.5 μg for ascending exposures (mean 4.2 ± 3.3 μg/inhalation). Physiological changes were minimal and not dose-dependent. Small decreases in stroke volume and cardiac output suggesting mild cardiodepression were seen. Conclusion Inhaled l-methamphetamine delivered from a non-prescription product produced minimal effects but may be a cardiodepressant. PMID:18644153

  12. Stereoselective biodegradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine in river microcosms.

    PubMed

    Bagnall, John; Malia, Louis; Lubben, Anneke; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Here presented for the first time is the enantioselective biodegradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine in river microcosm bioreactors. The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that mechanisms governing the fate of amphetamine and methamphetamine in the environment are mostly stereoselective and biological in nature. Several bioreactors were studied over the duration of 15 days (i) in both biotic and abiotic conditions, (ii) in the dark or exposed to light and (iii) in the presence or absence of suspended particulate matter. Bioreactor samples were analysed using SPE-chiral-LC-(QTOF)MS methodology. This investigation has elucidated the fundamental mechanism for degradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine as being predominantly biological in origin. Furthermore, stereoselectivity and changes in enantiomeric fraction (EF) were only observed under biotic conditions. Neither amphetamine nor methamphetamine appeared to demonstrate adsorption to suspended particulate matter. Our experiments also demonstrated that amphetamine and methamphetamine were photo-stable. Illicit drugs are present in the environment at low concentrations but due to their pseudo-persistence and non-racemic behaviour, with two enantiomers revealing significantly different potency (and potentially different toxicity towards aquatic organisms) the risk posed by illicit drugs in the environment should not be under- or over-estimated. The above results demonstrate the need for re-evaluation of the procedures utilised in environmental risk assessment, which currently do not recognise the importance of the phenomenon of chirality in pharmacologically active compounds. PMID:23886544

  13. Methamphetamine abuse and “meth mouth” in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Geraldine-A.; Mancinelli, Luca; Pagano, Stefano; Eramo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    With easy chemical synthesis from its precursor, methamphetamine (MA) is now widespread in many countries. The abuse of methamphetamine is associated with several negative effects on health, because MA is a neurotoxin and a dangerous central nervous system stimulant. It changes levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, releasing dopamine and inhibiting nor epinephrine uptake which increases sympathetic nervous system activity and can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, hypertension and tachypnea. The consequences of MA abuse are clearly manifested in oral diseases (like “meth mouth”) which is characterised by extensive caries, teeth grinding with ensuing dental wear and trismus. The present review was designed to fill the gap in knowledge about methamphetamine abuse in the European Union (EU) and to illustrate the main clinical effects of prolonged use. After describing the pharmacology and systemic effects of methamphetamine and concentrating on its effects on the mouth, the present review compares the epidemiology and incidence of abuse in the world, particularly the USA and the EU. Key words:Methamphetamine, “Meth mouth”, drug abuse, oral health. PMID:25662544

  14. Duration Effects in Contingency Management Treatment of Methamphetamine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Roll, John M.; Chudzynski, Joy; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Howell, Donelle N.; McPherson, Sterling

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether different durations of contingency management (CM) in conjunction with psychosocial treatment produced different rates of abstinence among methamphetamine dependent individuals. Participants were randomized to one of four 16-week treatment conditions: standard psychosocial treatment or psychosocial treatment plus one of three durations of CM (one-month, two-month, or four-month). A total of 118 participants were randomized to the four treatment conditions. There were significant differences across treatment conditions for number of consecutive days of methamphetamine abstinence (p < 0.05). These differences were in the hypothesized direction, as participants were more likely to remain abstinent through the 16-week trial as CM duration increased. A significant effect of treatment condition (p < 0.05) and time (p < 0.05) on abstinence over time was also found. Longer durations of CM were more effective for maintaining methamphetamine abstinence. PMID:23708468

  15. Illegal or legitimate use? Precursor compounds to amphetamine and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, F

    2000-02-01

    The interpretation of methamphetamine and amphetamine positive test results in biological samples is a challenge to clinical and forensic toxicology for several reasons. The effects of pH and dilution of urine samples and the knowledge about legitimate and illicit sources have to be taken into account. Besides a potentially legal prescription of amphetamines, many substances metabolize to methamphetamine or amphetamine in the body: amphetaminil, benzphetamine, clobenzorex, deprenyl, dimethylamphetamine, ethylamphetamine, famprofazone, fencamine, fenethylline, fenproporex, furfenorex, mefenorex, mesocarb, and prenylamine. Especially the knowledge of potential origins of methamphetamine and amphetamine turns out to be very important to prevent a misinterpretation of the surrounding circumstances and to prove illegal drug abuse. In this review, potential precursor compounds are described, including their medical use and major clinical effects and their metabolic profiles, as well as some clues which help to identify the sources. PMID:10711406

  16. The Effects of Locus Coeruleus and Norepinephrine in Methamphetamine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Michela; Giorgi, Filippo S; Bartalucci, Alessia; Busceti, Carla L; Fornai, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The activity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons has been extensively investigated in a variety of behavioural states. In fact this norepinephrine (NE)-containing nucleus modulates many physiological and pathological conditions including the sleep-waking cycle, movement disorders, mood alterations, convulsive seizures, and the effects of drugs such as psychostimulants and opioids. This review focuses on the modulation exerted by central NE pathways on the behavioural and neurotoxic effects produced by the psychostimulant methamphetamine, essentially the modulation of the activity of mesencephalic dopamine (DA) neurons. In fact, although NE in itself mediates some behavioural effects induced by methamphetamine, NE modulation of DA release is pivotal for methamphetamine-induced behavioural states and neurotoxicity. These interactions are discussed on the basis of the state of the art of the functional neuroanatomy of central NE- and DA systems. Emphasis is given to those brain sites possessing a remarkable overlapping of both neurotransmitters. PMID:23814540

  17. The Methamphetamine Problem in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Rachel; Mooney, Larissa; Rawson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Significant public health problems associated with methamphetamine (MA) production and use in the United States have emerged over the past 25 years. Although the popular press (Newsweek, Aug 8, 2008), has called MA “America’s Most Dangerous Drug” there has been considerable controversy about the size of the problem. Epidemiological indicators have given a mixed picture. National surveys of the adult U.S. population and school-based populations have consistently been used to support the position that MA use is a relatively minor concern (NSDUH, 2006; Johnston & O’Malley, 2007). However, many other data sources, including law-enforcement groups, welfare agencies, substance abuse treatment program admission data, data on criminal justice populations, and state/county executives indicate that MA is a very significant public health problem for many communities throughout much of the country (NDIC, 2007b; NACO, 2005, 2006; NIDA CEWG, 2007). In this article, we describe (1) the historical underpinnings of the MA problem, (2) trends in the epidemiological nature of the MA problem, (3) key subgroups at risk for MA problems, (4) the health and social factors associated with MA use, (5) interventions available for addressing the MA problem, and (5) lessons learned related to the MA problem. PMID:20070191

  18. Violence perpetrated by women who use methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    HAMILTON, ALISON B.; GOEDERS, NICHOLAS E.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is widely recognized as being associated with violence and aggression. This association is found among women and men, with rates of meth-related violence among women possibly being equal to or even exceeding rates among men. This study examined female-perpetrated violence from the phenomenological point of view of 30 women (aged 18–45 years; mean age of 28.5 years) in residential treatment for meth dependence. Of the 30 participants, 80% (n = 24) reported experiencing violence in their lifetimes: 67% (n = 20) had violence perpetrated against them, and 57% (n = 17) had perpetrated violence. Most participants described perpetrating violence when they were ‘coming down’ off of meth (i.e. withdrawing). Five women (29%) attributed their violent behaviors to meth and said they would not have been violent had they not been using meth. In contrast, 10 women (59%) described pre-existing ‘anger issues’ that were ‘enhanced’ by meth. This article describes the timing of meth-related violence, bi-directional violence, men’s responses to female-perpetrated violence, aggression in the context of sexual activities, and violence perpetrated against non-partners. A biopsychosocial theoretical framework is useful to interpret the complex explanations that women provide for their perpetration of violence under the influence of chronic meth use. PMID:26045288

  19. Association Study of Serine Racemase Gene with Methamphetamine Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Yokobayashi, E; Ujike, H; Kotaka, T; Okahisa, Y; Takaki, M; Kodama, M; Inada, T; Uchimura, N; Yamada, M; Iwata, N; Iyo, M; Sora, I; Ozaki, N; Kuroda, S

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that not only dopaminergic signaling but also glutamatergic/NMDA receptor signaling play indispensable roles in the development of methamphetamine psychosis. Our recent genetic studies provided evidence that genetic variants of glutamate-related genes such as DTNBP1, GLYT1, and G72, which are involved in glutamate release and regulation of co-agonists for NMDA receptors, conferred susceptibility to methamphetamine psychosis. Serine racemase converts l-serine to d-serine, which is an endogenous co-agonist for NMDA receptors. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of the serine racemase gene (SRR), rs224770, rs3760229, and rs408067, were proven to affect the transcription activity of SRR. Therefore, we examined these SNPs in 225 patients with methamphetamine psychosis and 291 age- and sex-matched controls. There was no significant association between methamphetamine psychosis and any SNP examined or between the disorder and haplotypes comprising the three SNPs. However, rs408067 was significantly associated with the prognosis for methamphetamine psychosis and multi-substance abuse status. The patients with C-positive genotypes (CC or CG) of rs408067 showed better prognosis of psychosis after therapy and less abuse of multiple substances than the patients with GG genotypes. Because the C allele of rs408067 reduces the expression of SRR, a lower d-serine level or reduced NMDA receptor activation may affect the prognosis of methamphetamine psychosis and multiple substance abuse. Our sample size is, however, not large enough to eliminate the possibility of a type I error, our findings must be confirmed by replicate studies with larger samples. PMID:21886585

  20. Role for Rab10 in Methamphetamine-Induced Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vanderwerf, Scott M.; Buck, David C.; Wilmarth, Phillip A.; Sears, Leila M.; David, Larry L.; Morton, David B.; Neve, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid rafts are specialized, cholesterol-rich membrane compartments that help to organize transmembrane signaling by restricting or promoting interactions with subsets of the cellular proteome. The hypothesis driving this study was that identifying proteins whose relative abundance in rafts is altered by the abused psychostimulant methamphetamine would contribute to fully describing the pathways involved in acute and chronic effects of the drug. Using a detergent-free method for preparing rafts from rat brain striatal membranes, we identified density gradient fractions enriched in the raft protein flotillin but deficient in calnexin and the transferrin receptor, markers of non-raft membranes. Dopamine D1- and D2-like receptor binding activity was highly enriched in the raft fractions, but pretreating rats with methamphetamine (2 mg/kg) once or repeatedly for 11 days did not alter the distribution of the receptors. LC-MS analysis of the protein composition of raft fractions from rats treated once with methamphetamine or saline identified methamphetamine-induced changes in the relative abundance of 23 raft proteins, including the monomeric GTP-binding protein Rab10, whose abundance in rafts was decreased 2.1-fold by acute methamphetamine treatment. Decreased raft localization was associated with a selective decrease in the abundance of Rab10 in a membrane fraction that includes synaptic vesicles and endosomes. Inhibiting Rab10 activity by pan-neuronal expression of a dominant-negative Rab10 mutant in Drosophila melanogaster decreased methamphetamine-induced activity and mortality and decreased caffeine-stimulated activity but not mortality, whereas inhibiting Rab10 activity selectively in cholinergic neurons had no effect. These results suggest that activation and redistribution of Rab10 is critical for some of the behavioral effects of psychostimulants. PMID:26291453

  1. Neural Correlates of Affect Processing and Aggression in Methamphetamine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Payer, Doris E.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; London, Edythe D.

    2012-01-01

    Context Methamphetamine abuse is associated with high rates of aggression, but few studies have addressed the contributing neurobiological factors. Objective To quantify aggression, investigate function of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, and assess relationships between brain function and behavior in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Design In a case-control study, aggression and brain activation were compared between methamphetamine-dependent and control participants. Setting Participants were recruited from the general community to an academic research center. Participants Thirty-nine methamphetamine-dependent volunteers (16 women) who were abstinent for 7 to 10 days and 37 drug-free control volunteers (18 women) participated in the study; subsets completed self-report and behavioral measures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 25 methamphetamine-dependent and 23 control participants. Main outcome measures We measured self-reported and perpetrated aggression, and self-reported alexithymia. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI during visual processing of facial affect (affect matching), and symbolic processing (affect labeling), the latter representing an incidental form of emotion regulation. Results Methamphetamine-dependent participants self-reported more aggression and alexithymia than control participants and escalated perpetrated aggression more following provocation. Alexithymia scores correlated with measures of aggression. During affect matching, fMRI showed no differences between groups in amygdala activation, but found lower activation in methamphetamine-dependent than control participants in bilateral ventral inferior frontal gyrus. During affect labeling, participants recruited dorsal inferior frontal gyrus and exhibited decreased amygdala activity, consistent with successful emotion regulation; there was no group difference in this effect. The magnitude of decrease in amygdala activity during affect labeling

  2. Association of the Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule (NrCAM) Gene Variants with Personality Traits and Addictive Symptoms in Methamphetamine Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byung Kuk; Shim, Joo Cheol; Kim, Choongrak; Chung, Young In; Park, Je Min; Kim, Sung Gon; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Young Min; Moon, Eun Soo; Kwon, Do Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Objective 1) To investigate the relationship between NrCAM polymorphisms and methamphetamine abuse in an ethnically homogenous Korean population. 2) To further support our findings by investigating the association among NrCAM gene variants, certain personality traits, and addictive symptoms of methamphetamine abusers. Methods Thirty-seven male methamphetamine abusers (age=43.3±7.8) and30 non-users (16 men, 14 women; age=59.8±10.4) were recruited. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NrCAM gene were assayed to compare genotype distributions between the 2 groups. Personality characteristics were measured using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the NEO Personality Inventory, Revised (NEO PI-R). Addictive symptoms were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) and reviews of the subject's medical records. Results Among the 10 SNPs in the NrCAM gene, the frequency of the TA genotype at rs1990162 was significantly lower in methamphetamine abusers compared to non-users (p=0.042). In the 3 NrCAM gene SNPs (rs381318, rs2072546, and rs6954366), the distribution of genotypes and alleles were significantly associated with some traits in the TCI and NEO PI-R. Genotypes and alleles at 5 gene SNPs (rs2142325, rs381318, rs1269621, rs1269634, and rs1990162) were associated with certain addictive symptom dimensions in the patients. Conclusion These findings support the idea that NrCAM is associated with genetic susceptibility of methamphetamine abuse and is also associated with certain personality characteristics that may increase disturbed addictive behavior. PMID:23251206

  3. Estimating the intake of abused methamphetamines using experimenter-administered deuterium labeled R-methamphetamine: selection of the R-methamphetamine dose.

    PubMed

    Li, Linghui; Lopez, Juan Carlos; Galloway, Gantt P; Baggott, Matthew J; Everhart, Tom; Mendelson, John

    2010-08-01

    All addictive drugs produce tolerance and addicts compensate by increasing drug exposure. Thus, the quantity of illicit drug ingested is related to the severity of addiction. Unfortunately, there are no objective methods to estimate intake for most addictive drugs. Using experimenter-administered doses of deuterium-labeled R-methamphetamine (R-[-]-MA-d3), we have developed a method to estimate the amount of abused methamphetamine intake in addicts enrolled in clinical trials. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of single oral doses of R-MA in healthy adults to select a dose of R-MA-d3 to be used as a biomarker for estimation the amount of methamphetamine abuse. This was a five-session randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study in eight subjects. Oral R-(-)-MA was dosed at 0 mg, 1 mg, 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg; bioavailability was estimated by slow intravenous dosing (30 minutes) of 2.5 mg R-(-)-MA-d3 given with the 2.5 mg R-(-)-MA oral dose condition. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic measures were obtained. No serious adverse events occurred during the study and all doses of R-MA were well tolerated. Linear pharmacokinetics was observed within our oral dose range of 1 to 10 mg. Complete bioavailability and pharmacologic inactivity were found for all oral doses. These characteristics indicate the advantage of using a small oral R-(-)-MA-d3 dose as a biomarker to estimate exposure to abused methamphetamine. Based on these results, 5 mg R-(-)-MA-d3 has been selected as the biomarker dose in future studies. Preliminary findings from our study indicate that experimenter-administered oral R-(-)-MA-d3 may allow estimation of abused methamphetamine intake and exposure. Knowledge of the quantity of methamphetamine intake may allow better estimation of disease severity and treatment efficacy. Experience gained from this study also can be applied to the management of other drug dependence problems such as

  4. Nucleus Accumbens Invulnerability to Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Donald M.; Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Thomas, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is a neurotoxic drug of abuse that damages neurons and nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. Emerging studies of human Meth addicts using both postmortem analyses of brain tissue and noninvasive imaging studies of intact brains have confirmed that Meth causes persistent structural abnormalities. Animal and human studies have also defined a number of significant functional problems and comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with long-term Meth abuse. This review summarizes the salient features of Meth-induced neurotoxicity with a focus on the dopamine (DA) neuronal system. DA nerve endings in the caudate-putamen (CPu) are damaged by Meth in a highly delimited manner. Even within the CPu, damage is remarkably heterogeneous, with ventral and lateral aspects showing the greatest deficits. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is largely spared the damage that accompanies binge Meth intoxication, but relatively subtle changes in the disposition of DA in its nerve endings can lead to dramatic increases in Meth-induced toxicity in the CPu and overcome the normal resistance of the NAc to damage. In contrast to the CPu, where DA neuronal deficiencies are persistent, alterations in the NAc show a partial recovery. Animal models have been indispensable in studies of the causes and consequences of Meth neurotoxicity and in the development of new therapies. This research has shown that increases in cytoplasmic DA dramatically broaden the neurotoxic profile of Meth to include brain structures not normally targeted for damage. The resistance of the NAc to Meth-induced neurotoxicity and its ability to recover reveal a fundamentally different neuroplasticity by comparison to the CPu. Recruitment of the NAc as a target of Meth neurotoxicity by alterations in DA homeostasis is significant in light of the numerous important roles played by this brain structure. PMID:23382149

  5. Brain site- and transmitter-dependent actions of methamphetamine, morphine and antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tomohisa; Iwase, Yoshiyuki; Murata, Asami; Iwata, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2016-06-01

    While several methamphetamine- and morphine-induced psychotic states are ordinarily treated by antipsychotics, the therapeutic mechanisms of antipsychotic drugs have yet been elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms how antipsychotic drugs suppress the behavioral changes induced by psychoactive drugs in mice. Low to medium doses of methamphetamine produced hyperlocomotion, whereas high dose of methamphetamine induced hypolocomotion. Hyperlocomotion induced by methamphetamine was potently suppressed by clozapine and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, but not by the intra-accumbens injection of haloperidol. On the other hand, microinjection of haloperidol into the ventrolateral striatum increased locomotor activity with high dose of methamphetamine. In contrast, morphine-induced hyperlocomotion was suppressed by systemic as well as intra-accumbens injection of haloperidol, whereas relatively resistant to clozapine, compared to its effects in the case of methamphetamine. It has been widely believed that methamphetamine-induced psychosis is an animal model of schizophrenia, which is mediated by activation of accumbal dopamine receptors. Our findings suggest that methamphetamine differentially regulate monoaminergic systems (e.g., dopaminergic vs. 5-HTnergic), and accumbal dopamine receptors are not involved in methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice. Thus, our findings may lead to a better understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms that underlie the effects of antipsychotic drugs and behavioral effects of methamphetamine and morphine. PMID:26992824

  6. The advent of a new pseudoephedrine product to combat methamphetamine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Leech, Ronald; Stark, Jeffrey G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The personal and societal effects of methamphetamine abuse are well documented. The ease of accessibility to methamphetamine and the quality of the “high” it produces makes the drug highly desired by its abusers. Over time, many methamphetamine users will also become methamphetamine cooks, where pseudoephedrine in over-the-counter cold products is converted to methamphetamine through a simple, albeit extremely dangerous, process. New laws limiting access to these products have had limited success. No existing commercial pseudoephedrine products offer significant impediments to slow or limit the extraction and conversion of pseudoephedrine in clandestine methamphetamine laboratories. Objective and Methods: A new pseudoephedrine 30 mg tablet product using Impede technology (Nexafed®) to deter methamphetamine production has recently been introduced into the marketplace. Using methods designed to mimic clandestine laboratory processes, the ability of this product to disrupt extraction and conversion of pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine yet provide therapeutic effectiveness was evaluated. Results: Impede™ technology tablets limited the extraction and/or conversion of pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine when compared to a commercially marketed pseudoephedrine product (Sudafed®). Nexafed® tablets were also shown to be bioequivalent to the same control product, thus ensuring therapeutic equivalence. Conclusions: With the advent of new pseudoephedrine products in the marketplace with features to limit the extraction and conversion of pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine, new tools are now available to minimize the clandestine manufacture of the drug and potentially limit its social impact. PMID:23968171

  7. Identification of Treatment Targets in a Genetic Mouse Model of Voluntary Methamphetamine Drinking.

    PubMed

    Phillips, T J; Mootz, J R K; Reed, C

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine has powerful stimulant and euphoric effects that are experienced as rewarding and encourage use. Methamphetamine addiction is associated with debilitating illnesses, destroyed relationships, child neglect, violence, and crime; but after many years of research, broadly effective medications have not been identified. Individual differences that may impact not only risk for developing a methamphetamine use disorder but also affect treatment response have not been fully considered. Human studies have identified candidate genes that may be relevant, but lack of control over drug history, the common use or coabuse of multiple addictive drugs, and restrictions on the types of data that can be collected in humans are barriers to progress. To overcome some of these issues, a genetic animal model comprised of lines of mice selectively bred for high and low voluntary methamphetamine intake was developed to identify risk and protective alleles for methamphetamine consumption, and identify therapeutic targets. The mu opioid receptor gene was supported as a target for genes within a top-ranked transcription factor network associated with level of methamphetamine intake. In addition, mice that consume high levels of methamphetamine were found to possess a nonfunctional form of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). The Taar1 gene is within a mouse chromosome 10 quantitative trait locus for methamphetamine consumption, and TAAR1 function determines sensitivity to aversive effects of methamphetamine that may curb intake. The genes, gene interaction partners, and protein products identified in this genetic mouse model represent treatment target candidates for methamphetamine addiction. PMID:27055611

  8. Acute Modafinil Effects on Attention and Inhibitory Control in Methamphetamine-Dependent Humans*

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Andy C.; Sevak, Rajkumar J.; Monterosso, John R.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine A.; London, Edythe D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individuals who are methamphetamine dependent exhibit higher rates of cognitive dysfunction than healthy people who do not use methamphetamine, and this dysfunction may have a negative effect on the success of behavioral treatments for the disorder. Therefore, a medication that improves cognition, such as modafinil (Provigil), may serve as a useful adjunct to behavioral treatments for methamphetamine dependence. Although cognitive-enhancing effects of modafinil have been reported in several populations, little is known about the effects of modafinil in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. We thus sought to evaluate the effects of modafinil on the cognitive performance of methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals. Method: Seventeen healthy subjects and 24 methamphetamine-dependent subjects participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Effects of modafinil (200 mg, single oral dose) were assessed on participants’ performance on tests of inhibitory control, working memory, and processing speed/attention. Results: Across subjects, modafinil improved performance on a test of sustained attention, with no significant improvement on any other cognitive tests. However, within the methamphetamine-dependent group only, participants with a high baseline frequency of methamphetamine use demonstrated a greater effect of modafinil on tests of inhibitory control and processing speed than those participants with low baseline use of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Although modafinil produced limited effects across all participants, methamphetamine-dependent participants with a high baseline use of methamphetamine demonstrated significant cognitive improvement on modafinil relative to those with low baseline methamphetamine use. These results add to the findings from a clinical trial that suggested that modafinil may be particularly useful in methamphetamine-dependent subjects who use the drug frequently. PMID:22051208

  9. The Central Amygdala Nucleus is Critical for Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Zeric, Tamara; Kambhampati, Sarita; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-01-01

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this ‘incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. We also assessed the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine (10 days; 9 h/day, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and tested them for cue-induced methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions during early (2 days) or late (4–5 weeks) withdrawal. We first confirmed that ‘incubation of methamphetamine craving' occurs under our experimental conditions. Next, we assessed the effect of reversible inactivation of CeA or BLA by GABAA+GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen, 0.03+0.3 nmol) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during early and late withdrawal. We also assessed the effect of muscimol+baclofen reversible inactivation of vmPFC, dmPFC, and OFC on ‘incubated' cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late withdrawal. Lever presses in the cue-induced methamphetamine extinction tests were higher during late withdrawal than during early withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Muscimol+baclofen injections into CeA but not BLA decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late but not early withdrawal. Muscimol+baclofen injections into dmPFC, vmPFC, or OFC during late withdrawal had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving. PMID:25475163

  10. Triangular congenital cataract morphology associated with prenatal methamphetamine exposure.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Michael E; Schloff, Susan; Bothun, Erick D

    2009-08-01

    Bilateral congenital cataracts are often characterized by morphology, etiology, and related conditions. We report a case of unique congenital cataracts with triangular morphology and associated prenatal methamphetamine exposure. Although this association is likely coincidental, the cataract's morphology in light of the specific timing of prenatal drug use deserves reporting. PMID:19464935

  11. An Emerging Problem: Methamphetamine Abuse among Treatment Seeking Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Rachel; Ang, Alfonso; McCann, Michael J.; Rawson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined correlates of methamphetamine (MA) and marijuana (MJ) use and treatment response among treatment-involved youth (N = 4,430) in Los Angeles County, California treated between 2000 and 2005. Of the sample, 912 (21%) were primary MA and 3,518 (79%) were primary MJ users. Correlates of increased MA use included being female, White,…

  12. Open-label pilot study of modafinil for methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    McGaugh, Janette; Mancino, Michael J; Feldman, Zachary; Chopra, Mohit P; Gentry, W Brooks; Cargile, Christopher; Oliveto, Alison

    2009-10-01

    Methamphetamine has become a major public health issue globally, particularly in the United States. Despite this, no effective pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine abuse has been developed to date. This 6-week, open-label pilot clinical trial examined the safety and tolerability of modafinil up to 400 mg/d in 8 methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Subjects were inducted onto modafinil at 400 mg/d for more than 3 days and remained on 400 mg/d for 4.5 weeks. Participants received weekly blister packs and underwent weekly individual cognitive behavioral therapy. Adjunctive contingency management procedures were used to enhance retention. Vital signs and supervised urine samples were obtained thrice weekly, and self-reported drug use and Hamilton anxiety and depression ratings were completed once weekly. Eight subjects (50% female, 100% white, aged 35-52 years) were enrolled. Four completed the 6-week study, 3 completed a portion, and 1 withdrew consent before completing intake. Results showed that systolic blood pressure (t = 1.09, P = 0.28), diastolic blood pressure, (t = 1.18, P = 0.24), and heart rate (t = 1.55, P = 0.13) did not change over time. Scores on the modafinil side effects checklist (t = -2.63, P = 0.01), Hamilton anxiety scale (t = -2.50, P = 0.018), and Hamilton depression scale (t = -3.25, P = 0.003) all decreased over time. The proportion of urine positive for amphetamines did not change over time (t = -0.52, P = 0.61), whereas self-reported methamphetamine use did (t = -2.86, P < 0.005). These results suggest that modafinil at 400 mg/d is safe and tolerable for methamphetamine-dependent individuals. PMID:19745650

  13. Genetic factors involved in risk for methamphetamine intake and sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Belknap, John K.; McWeeney, Shannon; Reed, Cheryl; Burkhart-Kasch, Sue; McKinnon, Carrie S.; Li, Na; Baba, Harue; Scibelli, Angela C.; Hitzemann, Robert; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2013-01-01

    Lines of mice were created by selective breeding for the purpose of identifying genetic mechanisms that influence magnitude of the selected trait and to explore genetic correlations for additional traits thought to be influenced by shared mechanisms. DNA samples from high and low methamphetamine drinking (MADR) and high and low methamphetamine sensitization lines were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Significant additive genetic correlations between the two traits indicated common genetic influence, and a QTL on chromosome X was detected for both traits, suggesting one source of this commonality. For MADR mice, a QTL on chromosome 10 accounted for more than 50% of the genetic variance in that trait. Microarray gene expression analyses were performed for 3 brain regions for methamphetamine-naïve MADR line mice: nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex and ventral midbrain. Many of the genes that were differentially expressed between the high and low MADR lines were shared in common across the 3 brain regions. A gene network highly enriched in transcription factor genes was identified as being relevant to genetically-determined differences in methamphetamine intake. When the mu opioid receptor gene (Oprm1), located on chromosome 10 in the QTL region, was added to this top ranked transcription factor network, it became a hub in the network. These data are consistent with previously published findings of opioid response and intake differences between the MADR lines and suggest that Oprm1 or a gene that impacts activity of the opioid system, plays a role in genetically–determined differences in methamphetamine intake. PMID:24217691

  14. Decontamination of clothing and building materials associated with the clandestine production of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Kate A; Martyny, John W; Kofford, Shalece; Contreras, John R; Van Dyke, Mike V

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine how easily methamphetamine can be removed from clothing and building materials, utilizing different cleaning materials and methods. The study also addressed the penetration of methamphetamine into drywall and the ability of paints to encapsulate the methamphetamine on drywall. Clothing and building materials were contaminated in a stainless steel chamber by aerosolizing methamphetamine in a beaker heater. The amount of methamphetamine surface contamination was determined by sampling a grid pattern on the material prior to attempting to clean the materials. After cleaning, the materials were again sampled, and the degree of decontamination noted. We found that household clothing and response gear worn by first responders was easily decontaminated using a household detergent in a household washing machine. A single wash removed over 95% of the methamphetamine from these materials. The study also indicated that methamphetamine-contaminated, smooth non-porous surfaces can be easily cleaned to below detectable levels using only mild cleaners. More porous surfaces such as plywood and drywall were unlikely to be decontaminated to below regulatory levels even with three washes using a mild cleaner. This may be due to methamphetamine penetration into the paint on these surfaces. Evaluation of methamphetamine contamination on drywall indicated that approximately 40% of the methamphetamine was removed using a wipe, while another 60% remained in the paint layer. Stronger cleaners such as those with active ingredients including sodium hypochlorite or quaternary ammonia and commercial decontamination agents were more effective than mild detergent-based cleaners and may reduce methamphetamine contamination to below regulatory levels. Results from the encapsulation studies indicate that sprayed on oil-based paint will encapsulate methamphetamine on drywall and plywood surfaces up to 4.5 months, while latex paints were less effective. PMID

  15. Mutual enhancement of central neurotoxicity induced by ketamine followed by methamphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, J.-J.; Chen, H.-I.; Jen, C.J.; Kuo, Y.-M.; Cherng, C.G.; Tsai, Y.-P.N.; Ho, M.-C.; Tsai, C.-W.; Lung Yu

    2008-03-01

    We hereby report that repeated administration of ketamine (350 mg/kg in total) and methamphetamine (30 mg/kg in total) causes specific glutamatergic and dopaminergic neuron deficits, respectively, in adult mouse brain. Acute ketamine did not affect basal body temperature or the later methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. However, pretreatment with repeated doses of ketamine aggravated methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic terminal loss as evidenced by a drastic decrease in the levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and dopamine transporter density as well as poor gait balance performance. In contrast, methamphetamine-induced serotonergic depletion was not altered by ketamine pretreatment. Likewise, the subsequent treatment with methamphetamine exacerbated the ketamine-induced glutamatergic damage as indicated by reduced levels of the vesicular glutamate transporter in hippocampus and striatum and poor memory performance in the Morris water maze. Finally, since activation of the D1 and AMPA/kainate receptors has been known to be involved in the release of glutamate and dopamine, we examined the effects of co-administration of SCH23390, a D1 antagonist, and CNQX, an AMPA/kainate antagonist. Intraventricular CNQX infusion abolished ketamine's potentiation of methamphetamine-induced dopamine neurotoxicity, while systemic SCH23390 mitigated methamphetamine's potentiation of ketamine-induced glutamatergic toxicity. We conclude that repeated doses of ketamine potentiate methamphetamine-induced dopamine neurotoxicity via AMPA/kainate activation and that conjunctive use of methamphetamine aggravates ketamine-induced glutamatergic neurotoxicity possibly via D1 receptor activation.

  16. Methamphetamine-induced toxicity: an updated review on issues related to hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Rae R.; Seminerio, Michael J.; Turner, Ryan C.; Robson, Matthew J.; Nguyen, Linda; Miller, Diane B.; O’Callaghan, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Reports of methamphetamine-related emergency room visits suggest that elevated body temperature is a universal presenting symptom, with lethal overdoses generally associated with extreme hyperthermia. This review summarizes the available information on methamphetamine toxicity as it pertains to elevations in body temperature. First, a brief overview of thermoregulatory mechanisms is presented. Next, central and peripheral targets that have been considered for potential involvement in methamphetamine hyperthermia are discussed. Finally, future areas of investigation are proposed, as further studies are needed to provide greater insight into the mechanisms that mediate the alterations in body temperature elicited by methamphetamine. PMID:24836729

  17. Modafinil Abrogates Methamphetamine-Induced Neuroinflammation and Apoptotic Effects in the Mouse Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Goitia, Belen; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Krasnova, Irina N.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Urbano, Francisco J.; Bisagno, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a drug of abuse that can cause neurotoxic damage in humans and animals. Modafinil, a wake-promoting compound approved for the treatment of sleeping disorders, is being prescribed off label for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. The aim of the present study was to investigate if modafinil could counteract methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammatory processes, which occur in conjunction with degeneration of dopaminergic terminals in the mouse striatum. We evaluated the effect of a toxic methamphetamine binge in female C57BL/6 mice (4×5 mg/kg, i.p., 2 h apart) and modafinil co-administration (2×90 mg/kg, i.p., 1 h before the first and fourth methamphetamine injections) on glial cells (microglia and astroglia). We also evaluated the striatal expression of the pro-apoptotic BAX and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, which are known to mediate methamphetamine-induced apoptotic effects. Modafinil by itself did not cause reactive gliosis and counteracted methamphetamine-induced microglial and astroglial activation. Modafinil also counteracted the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter levels and prevented methamphetamine-induced increases in the pro-apoptotic BAX and decreases in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. Our results indicate that modafinil can interfere with methamphetamine actions and provide protection against dopamine toxicity, cell death, and neuroinflammation in the mouse striatum. PMID:23056363

  18. HIV testing behaviors and attitudes among community recruited methamphetamine users in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Towe, Sheri L.; Watt, Melissa H.; Hobkirk, Andrea; Skinner, Donald; Myers, Bronwyn; Kimani, Stephen M.; Pieterse, Desiree

    2015-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine users in South Africa are at high risk for HIV infection and transmission, but little is known about HIV testing in this population. Methods We examined HIV testing behaviors and attitudes in 362 methamphetamine users recruited using chain referral sampling from one peri-urban community. Results Many (44%) had not been HIV tested in the past year. HIV testing was associated with positive testing attitudes, less AIDS stigma, and greater methamphetamine stigma. Among participants who reported HIV infection (8%), less than half were linked to care. Conclusions Findings highlight the need to identify barriers to HIV service uptake for methamphetamine users. PMID:24858393

  19. Sex Differences in Activation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis by Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Zuloaga, Damian G; Johnson, Lance A; Agam, Maayan; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation is associated with changes in addiction-related behaviors. In this study we tested whether sex differences in the acute effects of methamphetamine (MA) exposure involve differential activation of the HPA axis. Male and female mice were injected with MA (1mg/kg) or saline for comparison of plasma corticosterone and analysis of the immediate early gene c-Fos in brain. There was a prolonged elevation in corticosterone levels in female compared to male mice. C-Fos was elevated in both sexes following MA in HPA axis-associated regions, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central amygdala, cingulate, and CA3 hippocampal region. MA increased the number of c-Fos and c-Fos/glucocorticoid receptor (GR) dual-labeled cells to a greater extent in males than females in the cingulate and CA3 regions. MA also increased the number of c-fos/vasopressin dual-labeled cells in the PVN as well as the number and percentage of c-Fos/GR dual-labeled cells in the PVN and central amygdala, although no sex differences in dual-labeling were found in these regions. Thus, sex differences in MA-induced plasma corticosterone levels and activation of distinct brain regions and proteins involved in HPA axis regulation may contribute to sex differences in acute effects of MA on the brain. PMID:24400874

  20. Reinstatement of Methamphetamine Conditioned Place Preference in Nicotine-Sensitized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Jennifer N.; Neugebauer, Nichole M.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    The current experiments examined the effects of repeated nicotine prior to acquisition, extinction, and reinstatement of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Methamphetamine-induced (METH; 0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg, s.c.) CPP was established using separate groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with an unbiased conditioning procedure. Following extinction of METH CPP, drug-primed reinstatement (0, 0.25, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg, s.c.) of METH CPP was assessed in order to determine whether METH-induced reinstatement depends on the METH dose used to induce CPP. In a second experiment, separate groups of rats received nicotine (NIC; 0 or 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) for 7 days prior to undergoing METH (0 or 0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) conditioning, extinction, and drug-primed reinstatement. Results indicate that METH-primed reinstatement varied as a function of dose such that priming with the conditioning dose did not reinstate CPP, but reinstatement was observed following priming doses of METH that were either lower or higher than the conditioning dose. Prior NIC exposure had no effect on METH CPP, extinction, or reinstatement. Interestingly, at a METH dose (0.5 mg/kg) that did not induce reinstatement alone, acute NIC (0.2 mg/kg) in combination with METH induced reinstatement, suggesting that NIC produced a leftward shift in the dose-response effect of METH to reinstate CPP. These studies indicate that prior NIC exposure may not be necessary for enhancement of the rewarding effects of METH, in contrast to previous self-administration reports. PMID:22884606

  1. Metabolism of [14C]methamphetamine in man, the guinea pig and the rat

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, J.; Dring, L. G.; Williams, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    1. The metabolites of (±)-2-methylamino-1-phenyl[1-14C]propane ([14C]methamphetamine) in urine were examined in man, rat and guinea pig. 2. In two male human subjects receiving the drug orally (20mg per person) about 90% of the 14C was excreted in the urine in 4 days. The urine of the first day was examined for metabolites, and the main metabolites were the unchanged drug (22% of the dose) and 4-hydroxymethamphetamine (15%). Minor metabolites were hippuric acid, norephedrine, 4-hydroxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxynorephedrine and an acid-labile precursor of benzyl methyl ketone. 3. In the rat some 82% of the dose of 14C (45mg/kg) was excreted in the urine and 2–3% in the faeces in 3–4 days. In 2 days the main metabolites in the urine were 4-hydroxymethamphetamine (31% of dose), 4-hydroxynorephedrine (16%) and unchanged drug (11%). Minor metabolites were amphetamine, 4-hydroxyamphetamine and benzoic acid. 4. The guinea pig was injected intraperitoneally with the drug at two doses, 10 and 45mg/kg. In both cases nearly 90% of the 14C was excreted, mainly in the urine after the lower dose, but in the urine (69%) and faeces (18%) after the higher dose. The main metabolites in the guinea pig were benzoic acid and its conjugates. Minor metabolites were unchanged drug, amphetamine, norephedrine, an acid-labile precursor of benzyl methyl ketone and an unknown weakly acidic metabolite. The output of norephedrine was dose-dependent, being about 19% on the higher dose and about 1% on the lower dose. 5. Marked species differences in the metabolism of methamphetamine were observed. The main reaction in the rat was aromatic hydroxylation, in the guinea pig demethylation and deamination, whereas in man much of the drug, possibly one-half, was excreted unchanged. PMID:4646771

  2. Adaptation of a Couple-Based HIV Intervention for Methamphetamine-Involved African American Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Donald McVinney, L.; Fontaine, Yves-Michel; Hess, Leona

    2010-01-01

    In the U.S., incidence of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) has steadily increased since the 1990s. This points to a need for innovation to address both emerging trends as well as longer-standing disparities in HIV risk and transmission among MSM, such as the elevated rates of HIV/STIs among African American MSM and methamphetamine users. While couple-based sexual risk reduction interventions are a promising avenue to reduce HIV/STI transmission, prior research has been almost exclusively with heterosexual couples. We sought to adapt an existing, evidence-based intervention—originally developed and tested with heterosexual couples—for a new target population consisting of African American MSM in a longer-term same-sex relationship where at least one partner uses methamphetamine. The adaptation process primarily drew from data obtained from a series of focus groups with 8 couples from the target population. Attention is given to the methods used to overcome challenges faced in this adaptation process: limited time, a lead investigator who is phenotypically different from the target population, a dearth of descriptive information on the experiences and worldviews among the target population, and a concomitant lack of topical experts. We also describe a visualization tool used to ensure that the adaptation process promotes and maintains adherence to the theory that guides the intervention and behavior change. The process culminated with an intervention adapted for the new target population as well as preliminary indications that a couple-based sexual-risk reduction intervention for African American, methamphetamine-involved male couples is feasible and attractive. PMID:20657720

  3. Effects of Environmental Manipulations and Treatment with Bupropion and Risperidone on Choice between Methamphetamine and Food in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical and human laboratory choice procedures have been invaluable in improving our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms of drug reinforcement and in the drug development process for candidate medications to treat drug addiction. However, little is known about the neuropharmacological mechanisms of methamphetamine vs food choice. The aims of this study were to develop a methamphetamine vs food choice procedure and determine treatment effects with two clinically relevant compounds: the monoamine uptake inhibitor bupropion and the dopamine antagonist risperidone. Rhesus monkeys (n=6) responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, FR10 schedule) during 7-day bupropion (0.32-1.8 mg/kg/h) and risperidone (0.001-0.0056 mg/kg/h) treatment periods. For comparison, effects of removing food pellets or methamphetamine injections and FR response requirement manipulations were also examined. Under saline treatment conditions, food was preferred over no methamphetamine or small unit methamphetamine doses (0.01-0.032 mg/kg/injection). Larger methamphetamine doses resulted in greater methamphetamine preference and 0.32 mg/kg/injection methamphetamine maintained near exclusive preference. Removing food availability increased methamphetamine choice, whereas removing methamphetamine availability decreased methamphetamine choice. Methamphetamine choice was not significantly altered when the FR response requirements for food and drug were the same (FR100:FR100 or FR10:FR10). Risperidone treatment increased methamphetamine choice, whereas bupropion treatment did not alter methamphetamine choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant behavior. Overall, these negative results with bupropion and risperidone are concordant with previous human laboratory and clinical trials and support the potential validity of this preclinical methamphetamine vs food

  4. Effects of methamphetamine and scopolamine on variability of response location.

    PubMed Central

    Moerschbaecher, J M; Thompson, D M; Thomas, J R

    1979-01-01

    Methamphetamine and scopolamine were studied in monkeys responding under a multiple fixed-ratio fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement. A response on any one of six levers could satisfy the schedule requirements. Variability of response location was evaluated in terms of switches, where a switch was defined as a response on one lever followed by a response on a different lever. Under baseline conditions the fixed-ratio schedule generated a high rate of responding and a low level of variability, while the fixed-interval schedule generated a low rate of responding and a high level of variability. Both methamphetamine (0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg) and scopolamine (2.4 to 240 microgram/kg) decreased overall response rate and increased variability of response location in each component of the multiple schedule with increasing doses of drug. At lower doses both drugs were found to decrease rate without affecting response variability. PMID:115956

  5. Neurotoxicity of Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, Laura E.; Collins, Stuart A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    Amphetamines are a class of psychostimulant drugs that are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, methamphetamine and 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produce persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals. This review summarizes the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage. Emerging non-neuronal mechanisms by which the drugs may contribute to monoaminergic terminal damage, as well as the neuropsychiatric consequences of this terminal damage are also presented. Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) have similar chemical structures and pharmacologic properties compared to other abused substances including cathinone (khat), as well as a relatively new class of novel synthetic amphetamines known as ‘bath salts’ that have gained popularity amongst drug abusers. PMID:23892199

  6. Neurotoxicity of methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Laura E; Collins, Stuart A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2014-02-27

    Amphetamines are a class of psychostimulant drugs that are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, methamphetamine and 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produce persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals. This review summarizes the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage. Emerging non-neuronal mechanisms by which the drugs may contribute to monoaminergic terminal damage, as well as the neuropsychiatric consequences of this terminal damage are also presented. Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) have similar chemical structures and pharmacologic properties compared to other abused substances including cathinone (khat), as well as a relatively new class of novel synthetic amphetamines known as 'bath salts' that have gained popularity among drug abusers. PMID:23892199

  7. Methamphetamine treatment during development attenuates the dopaminergic deficits caused by subsequent high-dose methamphetamine administration

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Lisa M; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Stout, Kristen A; Sawada, Nicole M; Ellis, Jonathan D; Allen, Scott C; Walters, Elliot T; Nielsen, Shannon M; Gibb, James W; Alburges, Mario E; Wilkins, Diana G; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2013-01-01

    Administration of high doses of methamphetamine (METH) causes persistent dopaminergic deficits in both nonhuman preclinical models and METH-dependent persons. Noteworthy, adolescent (i.e., postnatal day (PND) 40) rats are less susceptible to this damage than young adult (PND90) rats. In addition, biweekly treatment with METH, beginning at PND40 and continuing throughout development, prevents the persistent dopaminergic deficits caused by a “challenge” high-dose METH regimen when administered at PND90. Mechanisms underlying this “resistance” were thus investigated. Results revealed that biweekly METH treatment throughout development attenuated both the acute and persistent deficits in VMAT2 function, as well as the acute hyperthermia, caused by a challenge METH treatment. Pharmacokinetic alterations did not appear to contribute to the protection afforded by the biweekly treatment. Maintenance of METH-induced hyperthermia abolished the protection against both the acute and persistent VMAT2-associated deficits suggesting that alterations in thermoregulation were caused by exposure of rats to METH during development. These findings suggest METH during development prevents METH-induced hyperthermia and the consequent METH-related neurotoxicity. PMID:21190217

  8. Hnrnph1 Is A Quantitative Trait Gene for Methamphetamine Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Neema; Parker, Clarissa C.; Shen, Ying; Reed, Eric R.; Guido, Michael A.; Kole, Loren A.; Kirkpatrick, Stacey L.; Lim, Jackie E.; Sokoloff, Greta; Cheng, Riyan; Johnson, W. Evan; Palmer, Abraham A.; Bryant, Camron D.

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulant addiction is a heritable substance use disorder; however its genetic basis is almost entirely unknown. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in mice offers a complementary approach to human genome-wide association studies and can facilitate environment control, statistical power, novel gene discovery, and neurobiological mechanisms. We used interval-specific congenic mouse lines carrying various segments of chromosome 11 from the DBA/2J strain on an isogenic C57BL/6J background to positionally clone a 206 kb QTL (50,185,512–50,391,845 bp) that was causally associated with a reduction in the locomotor stimulant response to methamphetamine (2 mg/kg, i.p.; DBA/2J < C57BL/6J)—a non-contingent, drug-induced behavior that is associated with stimulation of the dopaminergic reward circuitry. This chromosomal region contained only two protein coding genes—heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, H1 (Hnrnph1) and RUN and FYVE domain-containing 1 (Rufy1). Transcriptome analysis via mRNA sequencing in the striatum implicated a neurobiological mechanism involving a reduction in mesolimbic innervation and striatal neurotransmission. For instance, Nr4a2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2), a transcription factor crucial for midbrain dopaminergic neuron development, exhibited a 2.1-fold decrease in expression (DBA/2J < C57BL/6J; p 4.2 x 10−15). Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)-mediated introduction of frameshift deletions in the first coding exon of Hnrnph1, but not Rufy1, recapitulated the reduced methamphetamine behavioral response, thus identifying Hnrnph1 as a quantitative trait gene for methamphetamine sensitivity. These results define a novel contribution of Hnrnph1 to neurobehavioral dysfunction associated with dopaminergic neurotransmission. These findings could have implications for understanding the genetic basis of methamphetamine addiction in humans and the development of novel therapeutics for prevention

  9. Impurity profiling of methamphetamine hydrochloride drugs seized in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Dayrit, Fabian M; Dumlao, Morphy C

    2004-08-11

    Methamphetamine hydrochloride is one of the most widely used illicit drugs in the Philippines. In this study, we describe the application of cluster analysis of trace impurities in the profiling of the seized methamphetamine drug samples. Thirty milligrams of a homogenized drug sample were dissolved in 1 mL of pH 10.5 buffer solution and extracted with ethyl acetate containing three internal standards. The trace impurities were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Following previously reported methodologies, 30 impurity peaks were selected from the GC-FID chromatograms. The peak areas and retention times were referenced to the internal standards. The peak areas of the selected peaks were then grouped for cluster analysis. In order to check for consistency of clustering, two further cluster analyses were performed using 40 and 50 impurity peaks. Changes in clustering were observed in going from 30 to 40 impurity peaks, while analyses using 40 and 50 impurity peaks gave similar results. Thus, for the seized drug samples used in this study, cluster analysis using at least 40 impurity peaks showed better consistency of clustering as compared to analysis using 30 peaks only. Ten of the impurity peaks were identified, of which four were identified for the first time in methamphetamine drug samples. These are p-bromotoluene, N-benzyl amphetamine, N-ethyl amphetamine, and N-ethyl methamphetamine. The presence of phenyl-2-propanone (P2P), N,N-dimethyl amphetamine, and N-formyl amphetamine is indicative that these casework samples were synthesized using the Leuckart method. PMID:15240018

  10. Hnrnph1 Is A Quantitative Trait Gene for Methamphetamine Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Neema; Parker, Clarissa C; Shen, Ying; Reed, Eric R; Guido, Michael A; Kole, Loren A; Kirkpatrick, Stacey L; Lim, Jackie E; Sokoloff, Greta; Cheng, Riyan; Johnson, W Evan; Palmer, Abraham A; Bryant, Camron D

    2015-12-01

    Psychostimulant addiction is a heritable substance use disorder; however its genetic basis is almost entirely unknown. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in mice offers a complementary approach to human genome-wide association studies and can facilitate environment control, statistical power, novel gene discovery, and neurobiological mechanisms. We used interval-specific congenic mouse lines carrying various segments of chromosome 11 from the DBA/2J strain on an isogenic C57BL/6J background to positionally clone a 206 kb QTL (50,185,512-50,391,845 bp) that was causally associated with a reduction in the locomotor stimulant response to methamphetamine (2 mg/kg, i.p.; DBA/2J < C57BL/6J)-a non-contingent, drug-induced behavior that is associated with stimulation of the dopaminergic reward circuitry. This chromosomal region contained only two protein coding genes-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, H1 (Hnrnph1) and RUN and FYVE domain-containing 1 (Rufy1). Transcriptome analysis via mRNA sequencing in the striatum implicated a neurobiological mechanism involving a reduction in mesolimbic innervation and striatal neurotransmission. For instance, Nr4a2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2), a transcription factor crucial for midbrain dopaminergic neuron development, exhibited a 2.1-fold decrease in expression (DBA/2J < C57BL/6J; p 4.2 x 10-15). Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)-mediated introduction of frameshift deletions in the first coding exon of Hnrnph1, but not Rufy1, recapitulated the reduced methamphetamine behavioral response, thus identifying Hnrnph1 as a quantitative trait gene for methamphetamine sensitivity. These results define a novel contribution of Hnrnph1 to neurobehavioral dysfunction associated with dopaminergic neurotransmission. These findings could have implications for understanding the genetic basis of methamphetamine addiction in humans and the development of novel therapeutics for prevention and

  11. Partial MHC/Neuroantigen Peptide Constructs: A Potential Neuroimmune-Based Treatment for Methamphetamine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Loftis, Jennifer M.; Wilhelm, Clare J.; Vandenbark, Arthur A.; Huckans, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Relapse rates following current methamphetamine abuse treatments are very high (∼40–60%), and the neuropsychiatric impairments (e.g., cognitive deficits, mood disorders) that arise and persist during remission from methamphetamine addiction likely contribute to these high relapse rates. Pharmacotherapeutic development of medications to treat addiction has focused on neurotransmitter systems with only limited success, and there are no Food and Drug Administration approved pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine addiction. A growing literature shows that methamphetamine alters peripheral and central immune functions and that immune factors such as cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules play a role in the development and persistence of methamphetamine induced neuronal injury and neuropsychiatric impairments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new immunotherapy, partial MHC/neuroantigen peptide construct (RTL551; pI-Ab/mMOG-35-55), in treating learning and memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to two different methamphetamine treatment regimens (using repeated doses of 4 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, s.c.). Cognitive performance was assessed using the Morris water maze and CNS cytokine levels were measured by multiplex assay. Immunotherapy with RTL551 improved the memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure in both mouse models of chronic methamphetamine addiction. Treatment with RTL551 also attenuated the methamphetamine induced increases in hypothalamic interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels. Collectively, these initial results indicate that neuroimmune targeted therapies, and specifically RTL551, may have potential as treatments for methamphetamine-induced neuropsychiatric impairments. PMID:23460798

  12. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in the human body: clinical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wang, G.-J.; Shumay, E.; Telang, F.; Thanos, P.; Alexoff, D.

    2010-12-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the most toxic of the drugs of abuse, which may reflect its distribution and accumulation in the body. However no studies have measured methamphetamine's organ distribution in the human body. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was used in conjunction with [{sup 11}C]d-methamphetamine to measure its whole-body distribution and bioavailability as assessed by peak uptake (% Dose/cc), rate of clearance (time to reach 50% peak-clearance) and accumulation (area under the curve) in healthy participants (9 Caucasians and 10 African Americans). Methamphetamine distributed through most organs. Highest uptake (whole organ) occurred in lungs (22% Dose; weight {approx}1246 g), liver (23%; weight {approx}1677 g) and intermediate in brain (10%; weight {approx}1600 g). Kidneys also showed high uptake (per/cc basis) (7%; weight 305 g). Methamphetamine's clearance was fastest in heart and lungs (7-16 minutes), slowest in brain, liver and stomach (>75 minutes), and intermediate in kidneys, spleen and pancreas (22-50 minutes). Lung accumulation of [{sup 11}C]d-methamphetamine was 30% higher for African Americans than Caucasians (p < 0.05) but did not differ in other organs. The high accumulation of methamphetamine, a potent stimulant drug, in most body organs is likely to contribute to the medical complications associated with methamphetamine abuse. In particular, we speculate that methamphetamine's high pulmonary uptake could render this organ vulnerable to infections (tuberculosis) and pathology (pulmonary hypertension). Our preliminary findings of a higher lung accumulation of methamphetamine in African Americans than Caucasians merits further investigation and questions whether it could contribute to the infrequent use of methamphetamine among African Americans.

  13. The Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle Study: Effects of Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure, Polydrug Exposure, and Poverty on Intrauterine Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Methamphetamine use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. Effects of methamphetamine use during pregnancy on fetal growth have not been reported in large, prospective studies. We examined the neonatal growth effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure in the multicenter, longitudinal Infant Development,…

  14. Impurities in Illicit Drug Preparations: Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Verweij, A M

    1989-06-01

    In this review, attention is paid to chromatographic and mass spectral properties of already identified impurities found to be present in frequently abused drug preparations of illegal origin of amphetamine and methamphetamine. The most commonly employed methods of synthesis of drugs of this type are briefly described. Special emphasis is given to the Leuckart route, found to be the preferred method, in the illicit production of amphetamine. Furthermore, some isolation and preconcentration methods for the contaminants are discussed. The importance of identifying impurities present in amphetamine or methamphetamine cannot be overestimated. These impurities originate mostly from the improper purification in the end stage of the different syntheses used in the clandestine manufacture of the substances; it is possible to differentiate between the several kinds of illegal drug preparations, synthesized by various methods, by means of so-called "route specific" impurities. Finally, a survey is given of the impurities already known to be present in amphetamine and methamphetamine, together with their mass spectral and some chromatographic properties. PMID:26266521

  15. Methamphetamine exposure and chronic illness in police officers

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Gerald H; Sternquist, Marie C

    2012-01-01

    Background: The medical literature reports health hazards for law enforcement personnel from repeated exposure to methamphetamine and related chemical compounds. Most effects appear transitory, but some Utah police officers with employment-related methamphetamine exposures developed chronic symptoms, some leading to disability. This report is of an uncontrolled retrospective medical chart evaluation of symptomatic officers treated with a sauna detoxification protocol designed to reduce the chronic symptoms and improve the quality of life. Methods: Sixty-nine officers consecutively entering the Utah Meth Cops Project were assessed before and after a treatment program involving gradual exercise, comprehensive nutritional support and physical sauna therapy. Evaluations included pre- and post-treatment scores of the Research and Development Corporation (RAND) 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) in comparison with RAND population norms, pre- and post-treatment symptom score intensities, neurotoxicity scores, Mini-Mental Status Examination, presenting symptom frequencies and a structured evaluation of treatment program safety. Results: Statistically significant health improvements were seen in the SF-36 evaluations, symptom scores and neurotoxicity scores. The detoxification protocol was well tolerated, with a 92.8% completion rate. Conclusions: This investigation strongly suggests that utilizing sauna and nutritional therapy may alleviate chronic symptoms appearing after chemical exposures associated with methamphetamine-related law enforcement activities. This report also has relevance to addressing the apparent ill effects of other complex chemical exposures. In view of the positive clinical outcomes in this group, broader investigation of this sauna-based treatment regimen appears warranted. PMID:22089658

  16. Symptoms experienced by law enforcement personnel during methamphetamine lab investigations.

    PubMed

    Witter, Roxana Z; Martyny, John W; Mueller, Kathryn; Gottschall, Bibi; Newman, Lee S

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine if law enforcement personnel experience symptoms associated with methamphetamine lab investigation and to assess those factors that may result in more symptoms. A total of 258 standardized, self-administered surveys were distributed to law enforcement personnel attending national/regional training classes, between June 2004-February 2005. Ninety-three percent of the surveys were returned and used to determine symptoms experienced while investigating clandestine methamphetamine labs, as well as the job duties of the respondent and the personal protective equipment used. More than 70% of respondents reported headaches, central nervous system symptoms, respiratory symptoms, sore throat, and other symptoms. Unadjusted and adjusted risk of symptoms was higher for those who investigated more than 30 labs. Other significant risk factors included time spent in the lab, phase of investigation, presence of active chemical processes, and coexistent disease. Respirator use was not independently associated with the likelihood of reporting symptoms. It was concluded that methamphetamine lab investigation is positively associated with symptom reporting in a high percentage of law enforcement personnel involved in these tasks. For most individuals, the reported symptoms were transitory and diminished in a short time, but some individuals reported needing to seek medical attention with symptoms that persisted. PMID:17943587

  17. Methamphetamine use and malnutrition among street-involved youth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We sought to explore the effect of crystal methamphetamine use on the risk of experiencing malnutrition among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Risk of malnutrition was defined as being hungry but not having enough money to buy food. Socio-demographic and drug use factors associated with risk of malnutrition were investigated using univariate and multivariate analysis among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth known as the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS). Between September 2005 and December 2006, 509 street-involved youth were enrolled in ARYS, among whom 21% reported being at risk of malnutrition as defined above in the previous six months. In multivariate analysis, only non-injection crystal methamphetamine was significantly associated with being at risk of malnutrition among this cohort (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.60, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03 - 2.48, p = 0.036). Interventions seeking to address food insecurity among street youth may benefit from considering drug use patterns since methamphetamine use predicted higher risk in this setting. PMID:20210992

  18. National Case-Control Study of Homicide Offending and Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretesky, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use and homicide. To carry out this study, data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities were combined to create a case-control design. The main exposure measure is methamphetamine use and the…

  19. Combating Methamphetamine Use in the Community: The Efficacy of the Drug Court Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Listwan, Shelley Johnson; Shaffer, Deborah Koetzle; Hartman, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine use was historically a problem facing Western states; however, in recent years it has methodically spread throughout the nation. Methamphetamine use impacts communities, families, and the criminal justice system in a variety of ways. As such, many jurisdictions are developing policies to reduce the sale and consumption of this drug…

  20. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... methamphetamine salts (d-desoxyephedrine, or dl-desoxyephedrine, or their salts), as well as amphetamine inhalers... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and...

  1. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methamphetamine salts (d-desoxyephedrine, or dl-desoxyephedrine, or their salts), as well as amphetamine inhalers... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and...

  2. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... methamphetamine salts (d-desoxyephedrine, or dl-desoxyephedrine, or their salts), as well as amphetamine inhalers... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and...

  3. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methamphetamine salts (d-desoxyephedrine, or dl-desoxyephedrine, or their salts), as well as amphetamine inhalers... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and...

  4. Assessing Environmental Prevention Strategies for Reducing the Prevalence and Associated Harms of Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S.

    2007-01-01

    Developed primarily in clandestine laboratories, methamphetamine is a highly addictive synthetic drug whose physical effects include hyperactivity, euphoria, tremors, and a sense of increased energy. While the accuracy of recent accounts suggesting a methamphetamine epidemic in the United States is unclear, these reports have nevertheless…

  5. Illegal Methamphetamine Drug Laboratories: A New Challenge for Environmental Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeers, Vicki M.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on clandestine drug laboratories for manufacturing methamphetamine; the formation of an interagency steering committee to address the problem; and the role Environmental Health professionals need to play as the problem becomes more prevalent across the United States. Provides background information on methamphetamine characteristics and…

  6. A Multivariate Analysis of the Sociodemographic Predictors of Methamphetamine Production and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Todd A.; Armstrong, Gaylene S.

    2013-01-01

    To date, research testing the community characteristics associated with methamphetamine production and use has found that the community-level sociodemographic predictors of methamphetamine production and use vary from those of drug use in general. In this study, the authors furthered the research in this area using data from all 102 counties in…

  7. Methamphetamine Use Is Independently Associated with Recent Risky Sexual Behaviors and Adolescent Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was to…

  8. The Impact of the Media in Influencing Extension's Perceptions of Methamphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudreault, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here explored media dependency and moral panic involving methamphetamine perceptions among a national sample of Extension Directors through survey methodology. With a 70.0% response rate, the questionnaire concentrated on demographics; methamphetamine knowledge, information sources, and dependency; and perceptions of the media.…

  9. Demand for Substance Abuse Treatment Related to Use of Crystal Methamphetamine in Ontario: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brands, Bruna; Corea, Larry; Strike, Carol; Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Behrooz, Renee C.; Rush, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about methamphetamine/crystal methamphetamine (MA) have featured prominently in the Canadian media and on addiction treatment agency agendas. We examined MA admissions at addiction treatment agencies to determine if a service gap existed. In 2006, all addiction treatment agencies (n = 124) in Ontario, Canada were invited to complete an…

  10. During-Treatment Outcomes among Female Methamphetamine-Using Offenders in Prison-Based Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Greener, Jack M.; Vance, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly important treatment group is the expanding population of methamphetamine-using female offenders. This study focused on women methamphetamine-using offenders (n = 359) who were treated either in a modified therapeutic community (TC) program ("Clean Lifestyle is Freedom Forever" [CLIFF]-TC: n = 234) designed for non-violent offenders…

  11. 75 FR 13702 - Implementation of the Methamphetamine Production Prevention Act of 2008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Chemical Products'' (71 FR 56008; corrected at 71 FR 60609, October 13, 2006). That rule incorporated the... Enforcement Administration 21 CFR Part 1314 RIN 1117-AB25 Implementation of the Methamphetamine Production... Rulemaking. SUMMARY: In October 2008, the President signed the Methamphetamine Production Prevention Act...

  12. Case Series: Mental Health Needs and Perspectives of Rural Children Reared by Parents Who Abuse Methamphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa; Haight, Wendy; Black, James; Choi, Ga-Young; Kingery, Linda; Sheridan, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This case-based, mixed-methods study was undertaken to understand the perspectives and mental health needs of rural children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse. Method: Participants were 23 children involved with a state child protective agency because of parental methamphetamine abuse. A semistructured interview provided…

  13. Methamphetamine Use among Rural White and Native American Adolescents: An Application of the Stress Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitle, David J.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has been identified as having significant adverse health consequences, yet we know little about the correlates of its use. Additionally, research has found that Native Americans are at the highest risk for methamphetamine use. Our exploratory study, informed by the stress process model, examines stress and stress buffering…

  14. Methamphetamine Use, Self-Reported Violent Crime, and Recidivism Among Offenders in California Who Abuse Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Jerome; Farabee, David; Prendergast, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses data from 641 state prison parolees in California to examine the associations between methamphetamine use and three measures of criminal behavior: (a) self-reported violent criminal behavior, (b) return to prison for a violent offense, and (c) return to prison for any reason during the first 12 months of parole. Methamphetamine use…

  15. Pilot safety evaluation of varenicline for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Zorick, Todd; Sevak, Rajkumar J; Miotto, Karen; Shoptaw, Steven; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Clement, Clayton; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F; London, Edythe D

    2010-01-01

    Despite the worldwide extent of methamphetamine dependence, no medication has been shown to effectively treat afflicted individuals. One relatively unexplored approach is modulation of cholinergic system function. Animal research suggests that enhancement of central cholinergic activity, possibly at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), can reduce methamphetamine-related behaviors. Further, preliminary findings indicate that rivastigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, may reduce craving for methamphetamine after administration of the drug in human subjects. We therefore performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study of the safety and tolerability of varenicline in eight methamphetamine-dependent research subjects. Varenicline is used clinically to aid smoking cessation, and acts as a partial agonist at α4b2 nAChRs with full agonist properties at α7 nAChRs. Oral varenicline dose was titrated over one week to reach 1 mg twice daily, and then was co-administered with 30 mg methamphetamine, delivered in 10 intravenous (iv) infusions of 3 mg each. Varenicline was found to be safe in combination with iv methamphetamine, producing no cardiac rhythm disturbances or alterations in vital sign parameters. No adverse neuropsychiatric sequelae were detected either during varenicline titration or following administration of methamphetamine. The results suggest that varenicline warrants further investigation as a potential treatment for methamphetamine dependence.

  16. Differences between patients with schizophrenia with and without co-occurring methamphetamine use disorders in a Taiwanese public psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Huang, Yu-Hui; Wu, Hung-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the factors related to and the outcomes of schizophrenic patients with co-occurring methamphetamine use disorders (MUDs). All schizophrenic patients discharged from a psychiatric hospital between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2006, were monitored. This study compared the important demographic and clinical variables between patients with co-occurring MUDs and those without, and postdischarge measured time to rehospitalization during a 1-year period. Seven hundred fifty-six patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 88 (11.6%) reported the use of methamphetamine. Univariate analyses indicated that male sex, low educational level, discharge against medical advice, missed first appointment after discharge, co-occurring other illicit substance use disorder, age (younger), diazepam equivalents prescribed at discharge (higher), number of previous admissions within the past 5 years (higher), and length of hospital stay (longer) were predictive of patients with co-occurring MUDs. There were also significant differences in time to rehospitalization between these two groups during the follow-up periods. Many factors can be identified in schizophrenic patients with co-occurring MUDs. Furthermore, schizophrenic patients with co-occurring MUDs were more likely to be rehospitalized. Future studies in many different mental health systems are needed before these findings can be generalized. PMID:25268153

  17. Evaluation of Attention Bias in Morphine and Methamphetamine Abusers towards Emotional Scenes during Early Abstinence: An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Soleimannejad, Maryam; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Khorrami, Anahita; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Pishyareh, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We hypothesized that inappropriate attention during the period of abstinence in individuals with substance use disorder can result in an inadequate perception of emotion and unsuitable reaction to emotional scenes. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the attentional bias towards emotional images in former substance abusers and compare it to healthy adults. Methods: Paired images of general scenes consisting of pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images were presented to subjects for 3 s while their attentional bias and eye movements were measured by eye tracking. The participants were 72 male adults consisting of 23 healthy control, 24 morphine former abusers, and 25 methamphetamine former abusers. The former abusers were recruited from a private addiction quitting center and addiction rehabilitation campus. The healthy individuals were selected from general population. Number and duration of first fixation, duration of first gaze, and sustained attention towards emotional scenes were measured as the main variables and the data were analyzed using the repeated measures ANOVA. Results: A significant difference was observed between former morphine abusers and healthy control in terms of number and duration of first fixations and first gaze duration towards pleasant images. Discussion: Individuals with morphine use disorder have more problems with attending to emotional images compared to methamphetamine abusers and healthy people. PMID:26649160

  18. Relapse and Risk-taking among Iranian Methamphetamine Abusers Undergoing Matrix Treatment Model

    PubMed Central

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Pashaei, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the correlation between risk-taking and relapse among methamphetamine (MA) abusers undergoing the Matrix Model of treatment. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on male patients who were stimulant drug abusers undergoing the matrix treatment in the National Center for Addiction Research. A sampling was done using the availability method including 92 male patients. Demographic questionnaires and drug abuse related questionnaire were completed for each patient. Then, Bart’s balloon risk-taking test was administered to the patients. Findings Participants had a mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of 27.59 ± 6.60 years with an age range of 17-29 years. Unemployment, unmarried status, criminal offense, and also addiction family history increased the probability of relapse. In addition, a greater adjusted score of the risk-taking test increased the odds of relapse by more than 97%. The simultaneous abuse of opium and stimulants compared to the abuse of stimulants only, revealed no statistically significant differences for relapse. Patients with higher risk-taking behavior had a more probability of relapse. Conclusion This finding indirectly implies the usefulness of Bart’s risk-taking test in assessing risk-taking behavior in stimulant drug abusers. PMID:27274793

  19. Methamphetamine and the changing face of child welfare: practice principles for child welfare workers.

    PubMed

    Connell-Carrick, Kelli

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine use and production is changing child welfare practice. Methamphetamine is a significant public health threat (National Institute of Justice, 1999) reaching epidemic proportions (Anglin, Burke, Perrochet, Stamper, & Dawud-Nouris, 2000). The manufacturing of methamphetamine is a serious problem for the child welfare system, yet child welfare has not addressed the needs of children living in homes where methamphetamine is manufactured (U.S. Department of Justice, 2002; DOJ, 2003; Altshuler, 2005). This article presents key issues for child welfare workers related to the use, production, and effects of methamphetamine on children and families, and identifies practice principles for child welfare workers in order to ensure safety for victims, parents, and workers themselves. PMID:17722684

  20. Double-blind placebo-controlled evaluation of the PROMETA™ protocol for methamphetamine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Walter; Shoptaw, Steven; Hillhouse, Maureen; Bholat, Michelle A.; Charuvastra, Charles; Heinzerling, Keith; Chim, David; Annon, Jeffrey; Dowling, Patrick T.; Doraimani, Geetha

    2014-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the PROMETA™ Protocol for treating methamphetamine dependence. Design A double-blind, placebo-controlled 108-day study with random assignment to one of two study conditions: active medication with flumazenil (2 mg infusions on days 1, 2, 3, 22, 23), gabapentin (1200 mg to day 40) and hydroxazine (50 mg to day 10) versus placebo medication (with active hydroxazine only). Setting Three substance abuse treatment clinics: two in-patient, one out-patient. Participants Treatment-seeking, methamphetamine-dependent adults (n = 120). Measurements Primary outcome was percentage of urine samples testing negative for methamphetamine during the trial. Findings No statistically significant between-group differences were detected in urine drug test results, craving, treatment retention or adverse events. Conclusions The PROMETA protocol, consisting of flumazenil, gabapentin and hydroxyzine, appears to be no more effective than placebo in reducing methamphetamine use, retaining patients in treatment or reducing methamphetamine craving. PMID:22082089

  1. Hair analysis and self-report of methamphetamine use by methamphetamine dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Paulus, Martin P; Wittmann, Marc; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2011-03-01

    The questions of whether the dose of drug that is consumed corresponds to drug concentration levels in hair and how results of hair analyses can be interpreted are still debated. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) whether there is a correlation between doses of Methamphetamine (MA) use and MA concentration levels in hair and (2) whether results of hair analyses can be used to estimate dose, frequency, and patterns of MA use. In this study, segmental hair analysis was performed through consecutive 1cm as well as 1-4 cm (=3 cm) segmental hair lengths. MA dependent individuals (n=9) provided information on doses (0.25-4 g/day) of MA use as well as the frequency of MA use. The concentrations of MA and its metabolite amphetamine (AP) in hair were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was performed to evaluate whether MA and AP concentrations in consecutive 1cm length segmental hair were consistent with the history of MA use. The cumulative doses of MA use calculated from the daily dose and the frequency during 1-4 months were well correlated to the concentrations of MA and AP in 1-4 cm segmental hair length (correlation coefficient, r=0.87 for MA and r=0.77 for AP). The results from this study show the patterns and histories of MA use from MA dependent individuals and could assist in the interpretation of hair results in forensic toxicology as well as in rehabilitation and treatment programs. PMID:21296038

  2. Physiological and subjective effects of acute intranasal methamphetamine during extended-release alprazolam maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Lile, Joshua A.; Stoops, William W.; Glaser, Paul E.A.; Hays, Lon R.; Rush, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Medications development for methamphetamine dependence is ongoing, but no widely accepted, effective pharmacotherapy has been identified. Previous studies have demonstrated neurobiological perturbations to central GABAA activity following chronic stimulant use, and that positive modulation of GABAA receptors attenuates the neurochemical and behavioral response to stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine. Therefore, GABAA modulators could be useful as pharmacotherapies for stimulant-use disorders. Methods This study tested the hypothesis that intranasal methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated during maintenance on extended-release alprazolam (XR), and that the effects of methamphetamine would be attenuated. Eight non-treatment-seeking, stimulant-dependent individuals completed an inpatient experiment in which ascending doses of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg) were administered after four days of alprazolam XR maintenance (0 and 1 mg/day). Results Intranasal methamphetamine produced prototypical effects (e.g., increased positive subjective ratings and elevated cardiovascular signs). The combination of intranasal methamphetamine and alprazolam XR was safe and well tolerated. Alprazolam XR produced small, but orderly, reductions in some of the subjective effects of methamphetamine, and performance impairment. Conclusions The present results demonstrate that methamphetamine use during alprazolam XR treatment would not pose a significant safety risk. Given the potential of GABAA positive modulators to manage certain aspects of stimulant abuse and dependence (i.e., drug-induced seizures, anxiety and stress), but the relatively small impact on the acute abuse-related effects of methamphetamine observed here, additional research with GABAA positive modulators is warranted, but should consider their use as an adjunct component of combination behavioral and/or drug treatment. PMID:21737214

  3. Fragment C Domain of Tetanus Toxin Mitigates Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity and Its Motor Consequences in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mendieta, Liliana; Granado, Noelia; Aguilera, José; Tizabi, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Background: The C-terminal domain of the heavy chain of tetanus toxin (Hc-TeTx) is a nontoxic peptide with demonstrated in vitro and in vivo neuroprotective effects against striatal dopaminergic damage induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and 6-hydoxydopamine, suggesting its possible therapeutic potential in Parkinson’s disease. Methamphetamine, a widely abused psychostimulant, has selective dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rodents, monkeys, and humans. This study was undertaken to determine whether Hc-TeTx might also protect against methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity and the consequent motor impairment. Methods: For this purpose, we treated mice with a toxic regimen of methamphetamine (4mg/kg, 3 consecutive i.p. injections, 3 hours apart) followed by 3 injections of 40 ug/kg of Hc-TeTx into grastrocnemius muscle at 1, 24, and 48 hours post methamphetamine treatment. Results: We found that Hc-TeTx significantly reduced the loss of dopaminergic markers tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter and the increases in silver staining (a well stablished degeneration marker) induced by methamphetamine in the striatum. Moreover, Hc-TeTx prevented the increase of neuronal nitric oxide synthase but did not affect microglia activation induced by methamphetamine. Stereological neuronal count in the substantia nigra indicated loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons after methamphetamine that was partially prevented by Hc-TeTx. Importantly, impairment in motor behaviors post methamphetamine treatment were significantly reduced by Hc-TeTx. Conclusions: Here we demonstrate that Hc-TeTx can provide significant protection against acute methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity and motor impairment, suggesting its therapeutic potential in methamphetamine abusers. PMID:26945022

  4. Methamphetamine differentially affects BDNF and cell death factors in anatomically defined regions of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Galinato, Melissa H.; Orio, Laura; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine exposure reduces hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and neurogenesis and these alterations partially contribute to hippocampal maladaptive plasticity. The potential mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-induced maladaptive plasticity were identified in the present study. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; a regulator of LTP and neurogenesis), and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) were studied in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal tissue lysates in rats that intravenously self-administered methamphetamine in a limited access (1 h/day) or extended access (6 h/day) paradigm for 17 days post baseline sessions. Extended access methamphetamine enhanced expression of BDNF with significant effects observed in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Methamphetamine-induced enhancements in BDNF expression were not associated with TrkB receptor activation as indicated by phospho (p)-TrkB-706 levels. Conversely, methamphetamine produced hypophosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B) at Tyr-1472 in the ventral hippocampus, indicating reduced receptor activation. In addition, methamphetamine enhanced expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and reduced pro-apoptotic protein Bax levels in the ventral hippocampus, suggesting a mechanism for reducing cell death. Analysis of Akt, a pro-survival kinase that suppresses apoptotic pathways and pAkt at Ser-473 demonstrated that extended access methamphetamine reduces Akt expression in the ventral hippocampus. These data reveal that alterations in Bcl-2 and Bax levels by methamphetamine were not associated with enhanced Akt expression. Given that hippocampal function and neurogenesis vary in a subregion-specific fashion, where dorsal hippocampus regulates spatial processing and has higher levels of neurogenesis, whereas ventral hippocampus regulates anxiety-related behaviors, these data suggest that methamphetamine self-administration initiates distinct allostatic changes in

  5. Association of methamphetamine use during sex with risky sexual behaviors and HIV infection among non-injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, F; Truax, S R; Ruiz, J D; Sun, R K

    1998-01-01

    Morbidity, mortality, and drug treatment data suggest that methamphetamine use is on the rise. Based on research findings of the sexual behaviors of methamphetamine-using injection drug users, we chose to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use during sex and risky sexual behaviors and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity among clients of publicly funded HIV testing sites in California who reported never injecting drugs. We found that among gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men and heterosexual women, users of methamphetamines reported more sexual partners than non-methamphetamine users. Among heterosexuals, a greater percentage of methamphetamine users than nonusers participated in anal intercourse. Methamphetamine use was independently related to decreased condom use during vaginal and anal intercourse, prostitution, and sex with known injection drug users. In addition, methamphetamine users were more likely to have had a sexually transmitted disease. When controlling for race or ethnicity; age; exposure to possibly infected blood or blood products; and the use of cocaine, alcohol, or marijuana during sex, methamphetamine-using bisexual men were more likely to test positive for HIV than those reporting no history of methamphetamine use. Our data suggest that noninjection methamphetamine use is related to increased, unprotected sexual activity and the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. PMID:9499742

  6. Aggregate versus day level association between methamphetamine use and HIV medication non-adherence among gay and bisexual men

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Kowalczyk, William; Botsko, Michael; Tomassilli, Julia; Golub, Sarit A.

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine use is associated with HIV infection, especially among gay and bisexual men. Methamphetamine use contributes to disease progression both directly, by increasing viral load and damaging the immune system, and indirectly, by decreasing medication adherence. Research examining the association of methamphetamine use and non-adherence has traditionally compared groups of users and nonusers on adherence, compared methamphetamine use between participants above or below some threshold level of adherence (e.g. >90% dose adherence), or examined aggregate relationships. Using Timeline Follow-back procedures, the present study examined aggregate, threshold, and day-level associations of methamphetamine use with non-adherence in 210 HIV-positive gay and bisexual methamphetamine-using men. Methamphetamine use was not associated with adherence behavior at the aggregate-level, but methamphetamine use on a given day was associated with 2.3 times the odds of non-adherence on that day. Threshold results were equivocal. These data suggest that the methamphetamine and non-adherence relationship is complicated: non-adherence is more likely to occur on days in which methamphetamine is used, but participants reported more non-adherence days in which methamphetamine was not used. This seeming paradox generates questions about the selection of analytical techniques and has important implications for behavioral interventions targeting substance use and adherence among HIV-positive individuals. PMID:23553345

  7. Nanoparticle based galectin-1 gene silencing, implications in methamphetamine regulation of HIV-1 infection in monocyte derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jessica L; Law, Wing Cheung; Mahajan, Supriya D; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Nair, Bindukumar; Sykes, Donald E; Yong, Ken-Tye; Hui, Rui; Prasad, Paras N; Schwartz, Stanley A

    2012-09-01

    Galectin-1, an adhesion molecule, is expressed in macrophages and implicated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) viral adsorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of methamphetamine on galectin-1 production in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) and the role of galectin-1 in methamphetamine potentiation of HIV-1 infection. Herein we show that levels of galectin-1 gene and protein expression are significantly increased by methamphetamine. Furthermore, concomitant incubation of MDM with galectin-1 and methamphetamine facilitates HIV-1 infection compared to galectin-1 alone or methamphetamine alone. We utilized a nanotechnology approach that uses gold nanorod (GNR)-galectin-1 siRNA complexes (nanoplexes) to inhibit gene expression for galectin-1. Nanoplexes significantly silenced gene expression for galectin-1 and reversed the effects of methamphetamine on galectin-1 gene expression. Moreover, the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 infection were attenuated in the presence of the nanoplex in MDM. PMID:22689223

  8. Diagnosis of prolactinoma in two male-to-female transsexual subjects following high-dose cross-sex hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Cunha, F S; Domenice, S; Câmara, V L; Sircili, M H P; Gooren, L J G; Mendonça, B B; Costa, E M F

    2015-08-01

    Male-to-female transsexual persons use oestrogens + antiandrogens to adapt their physical bodies to the female sex. Doses are usually somewhat higher than those used by hypogonadal women receiving oestrogen replacement. Particularly in cases of self-administration of cross-sex hormones, doses may be very high. Oestrogens are powerful stimulators of synthesis and release of prolactin and serum prolactin levels are usually somewhat increased following oestrogen treatment. Prolactinomas have been reported in male-to-female transsexual persons, both after use of high and conventional doses of oestrogens but remain rare events. We report two new cases of prolactinomas in male-to-female transsexual persons, one in a 41-year-old subject who had used nonsupervised high-dose oestrogen treatment since the age of 23 years and another one in a 42 year old who had initiated oestrogen treatment at the age of 17 years. Their serum prolactin levels were strongly increased, and the diagnosis of a pituitary tumour was confirmed by imaging techniques. Both cases responded well to treatment with cabergoline treatment whereupon serum prolactin normalised. Our two cases are added to the three cases of prolactinomas in the literature in persons who had used supraphysiological doses of oestrogens. PMID:25059808

  9. Incorporation of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair following controlled oral methamphetamine administration

    PubMed Central

    Polettini, Aldo; Cone, Edward J.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although hair testing is well established for the assessment of past drug exposure, uncertainties persist about mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair and interpretation of results. The aim of this study was to administer methamphetamine (MAMP) under controlled conditions as a model drug to investigate drug incorporation into human hair. Material and Methods Seven volunteers with a history of stimulant use received 4×10 mg (low) doses of sustained release S-(+)-MAMP HCl within one week, with weekly head hair samples collected by shaving. 3 weeks later, 4 of them received 4×20 mg (high) doses. After extensive isopropanol/phosphate buffer washing of the hair, MAMP and its metabolite amphetamine (AMP) concentrations were determined in all weekly hair samples by LC-MS-MS in selected reaction monitoring mode with the undeca- and deca-deuterated drugs, respectively, as internal standards (LLOQ, 0.005 ng/mg). Results MAMP Tmax occurred from 1 to 2 weeks after both doses, with Cmax ranging from 0.6–3.5 ng/mg after the low and 1.2–5.3 ng/mg after the high MAMP doses. AMP Cmax in hair was 0.1–0.3 ng/mg and 0.2–0.5 ng/mg, respectively, for low and high doses. Highly dose–related concentrations within subjects, but large variability between subjects were observed. MAMP concentrations were above the 0.2 ng/mg cutoff for at least two weeks following administration of both low and high doses. The overall AMP/MAMP ratio ranged from 0.07 to 0.37 with a mean value of 0.15±0.07, and a median of 0.13. The percentage of MAMP and AMP removed with the washing procedure decreased with time after administration. A strong correlation was found between area under the curve of MAMP (r2=0.90, p=0.00) and AMP (r2=0.94, p=0.00) concentrations calculated for the 3-week period following administration and the total melanin concentration in hair. Significant correlations were observed also between Cmax and melanin. Conclusions This study demonstrated that despite large

  10. Acute lead poisoning in two users of illicit methamphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Allcott, J.V. III; Barnhart, R.A.; Mooney, L.A.

    1987-07-31

    Acute lead poisoning can present a difficult diagnostic dilemma, with symptoms that mimic those of hepatitis, nephritis, and encephalopathy. The authors report two cases in intravenous methamphetamine users who presented with abnormal liver function values, low hematocrit values, basophilic stippling of red blood cells, and elevated blood lead levels. Both patients excreted large amounts of lead in their urine after treatment with edetic acid, followed by resolution of their symptoms. Lead contamination was proved in one drug sample. Basophilic stippling of the red blood cells was the one key laboratory result that led to the definitive diagnosis in both cases.