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Sample records for 4t proton magnetic

  1. Quench protection design of a 9.4 T whole-body MRI superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shunzhong; Li, Yi; Dai, Yinming; Lei, Yuanzhong; Yan, Luguang

    2014-02-01

    A 9.4 T MRI superconducting magnet with a 800 mm clear warm bore in diameter is designed and fabricated for bioscience research. The superconducting magnet consisting of five coaxial solenoid coils is fabricated with NbTi Wire-in-Channel (WIC) conductor where the ratios of copper to non-copper are from 5 to 10. The four compensation solenoid coils are with rectangular NbTi/Cu strand wires. The magnet will be operated in a relative low nominal current of 224.5 A with a high level of stored energy, about 138 MJ. A protection method with the cold diodes and resistors in series across the subdivided sections and active trigger heater to accelerate quench is adopted to avoid the damage of the magnet. In the paper, the quench simulation results of currents, voltages and hot-spot temperatures based on the protection scheme are analyzed in details.

  2. In vivo magnetic resonance microscopy of Drosophilae at 9.4 T.

    PubMed

    Même, Sandra; Joudiou, Nicolas; Szeremeta, Frédéric; Mispelter, Joël; Louat, Fanny; Decoville, Martine; Locker, Daniel; Beloeil, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    In preclinical research, genetic studies have made considerable progress as a result of the development of transgenic animal models of human diseases. Consequently, there is now a need for higher resolution MRI to provide finer details for studies of small animals (rats, mice) or very small animals (insects). One way to address this issue is to work with high-magnetic-field spectrometers (dedicated to small animal imaging) with strong magnetic field gradients. It is also necessary to develop a complete methodology (transmit/receive coil, pulse sequence, fixing system, air supply, anesthesia capabilities, etc.). In this study, we developed noninvasive protocols, both in vitro and in vivo (from coil construction to image generation), for drosophila MRI at 9.4 T. The 10 10 80-μm resolution makes it possible to visualize whole drosophila (head, thorax, abdomen) and internal organs (ovaries, longitudinal and transverse muscles, bowel, proboscis, antennae and optical lobes). We also provide some results obtained with a Drosophila model of muscle degeneration. This opens the way for new applications of structural genetic modification studies using MRI of drosophila. PMID:22898691

  3. Suppressive effects of a proton beam on tumor growth and lung metastasis through the inhibition of metastatic gene expression in 4T1 orthotopic breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yun-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Shik; Chun, So-Young; Jang, Tae Jung; Nam, Kyung-Soo

    2016-07-01

    A proton beam is a next generation tool to treat intractable cancer. Although the therapeutic effects of a proton beam are well known, the effect on tumor metastasis is not fully described. Here, we investigated the effects of a proton beam on metastasis in highly invasive 4T1 murine breast cancer cells and their orthotopic breast cancer model. Cells were irradiated with 2, 4, 8 or 16 Gy proton beam, and changes in cell proliferation, survival, and migration were observed by MTT, colony forming and wound healing assays. 4T1 breast cancer cell-implanted BALB/c mice were established and the animals were randomly divided into 4 groups when tumor size reached 200 mm3. Breast tumors were selectively irradiated with 10, 20 or 30 Gy proton beam. Breast tumor sizes were measured twice a week, and breast tumor and lung tissues were pathologically observed. Metastasis-regulating gene expression was assessed with quantitative RT-PCR. A proton beam dose-dependently decreased cell proliferation, survival and migration in 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Also, growth of breast tumors in the 4T1 orthotopic breast cancer model was significantly suppressed by proton beam irradiation without significant change of body weight. Furthermore, fewer tumor nodules metastasized from breast tumor into lung in mice irradiated with 30 Gy proton beam, but not with 10 and 20 Gy, than in control. We observed correspondingly lower expression levels of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are important factors in cancer metastasis, in breast tumor irradiated with 30 Gy proton beam. Proton beam irradiation did not affect expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2. Taken together, the data suggest that, although proton beam therapy is an effective tool for breast cancer treatment, a suitable dose is necessary to prevent metastasis-linked relapse and poor prognosis. PMID:27176787

  4. Chemical Principles Revisited. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how to interpret nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and how to use them to determine molecular structures. This discussion is limited to spectra that are a result of observation of only the protons in a molecule. This type is called proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectra. (CW)

  5. Magnets for high intensity proton synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Jean-Francois Ostiguy, Vladimir Kashikhine and Alexander Makarov

    2002-09-19

    Recently, there has been considerable interest at Fermilab for the Proton Driver, a future high intensity proton machine. Various scenarios are under consideration, including a superconducting linac. Each scenario present some special challenges. We describe here the magnets proposed in a recent study, the Proton Driver Study II, which assumes a conventional warm synchrotron, roughly of the size of the existing FNAL booster, but capable of delivering 380 kW at 8 GeV.

  6. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolinsky, J.S.; Narayana, P.A.; Fenstermacher, M.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Regional in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides quantitative data on selected chemical constituents of brain. We imaged 16 volunteers with clinically definite multiple sclerosis on a 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance scanner to define plaque-containing volumes of interest, and obtained localized water-suppressed proton spectra using a stimulated echo sequence. Twenty-five of 40 plaque-containing regions provided spectra of adequate quality. Of these, 8 spectra from 6 subjects were consistent with the presence of cholesterol or fatty acids; the remainder were similar to those obtained from white matter of normal volunteers. This early experience with regional proton spectroscopy suggests that individual plaques are distinct. These differences likely reflect dynamic stages of the evolution of the demyelinative process not previously accessible to in vivo investigation.

  7. Imaging Intelligence with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Rex E.; Gasparovic, Charles; Chavez, Robert S.; Caprihan, Arvind; Barrow, Ranee; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([to the first power]H-MRS) is a technique for the assay of brain neurochemistry "in vivo." N-acetylaspartate (NAA), the most prominent metabolite visible within the [to the first power]H-MRS spectrum, is found primarily within neurons. The current study was designed to further elucidate NAA-cognition…

  8. Soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of valence and spin states in FeT2O4 (T = V, Cr) spinel oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.-S.; Hwang, Jihoon; Kim, D. H.; Lee, Eunsook; Kim, W. C.; Kim, C. S.; Lee, Han-Koo; Kim, J.-Y.; Han, S. W.; Hong, S. C.; Kim, Bongjae; Min, B. I.

    2013-05-01

    Electronic structures of spinel oxides FeT2O4 (T = V, Cr) have been investigated by employing soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). XAS reveals that Cr and V ions are trivalent, and that Fe ions are nearly divalent in FeT2O4 (T = V, Cr). Finite XMCD signals are observed in FeV2O4 at T = 80 K, while they are very weak in FeCr2O4. XMCD shows that Fe spins are antiparallel to V and Cr spins, with the V and Cr spins being canted from Fe spins, which suggests a Yafet-Kittel type triangular spin configuration in FeT2O4 (T = V, Cr).

  9. Magnetic monopole catalysis of proton decay

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.; Salvino, D.

    1986-09-01

    Catalysis of proton decay by GUT magnetic monopoles (the Rubakov-Callan effect) is discussed. Combining a short-distance cross section calculation by Bernreuther and Craigie with the long-distance velocity dependent distortion factors of Arafune and Fukugita, catalysis rate predictions which can be compared with experiment are obtained. At present, hydrogen rich detectors such as water (H/sub 2/O) and methane (CH/sub 4/) appear to be particularly well suited for observing catalysis by very slow monopoles. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Metabolite specific proton magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, R.E.; Freeman, D.M.

    1989-06-01

    An imaging method is described that makes use of proton double quantum nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to construct images based on selected metabolites such as lactic acid. The optimization of the method is illustrated in vitro, followed by in vivo determination of lactic acid distribution in a solid tumor model. Water suppression and editing of lipid signals are such that two-dimensional spectra of lactic acid may be obtained from a radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumor in under 1 min and lactic acid images from the same tumor in under 1 hr at 2.0 T. This technique provides a fast and reproducible method at moderate magnetic field strength for mapping biologically relevant metabolites.

  11. Proton-Conducting Magnetic Coordination Polymers.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Soumava; Jena, Himanshu Sekhar; Sanda, Suresh; Konar, Sanjit

    2015-09-21

    Three isostructural lanthanide-based two- dimensional coordination polymers (CPs) {[Ln2(L)3(H2O)2]n⋅2n CH3OH)⋅2n H2O} (Ln=Gd(3+) (1), Tb(3+) (2), Dy(3+) (3); H2L=cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylic acid) were synthesized by using a low molecular weight dicarboxylate ligand and characterized. Single-crystal structure analysis showed that in complexes 1-3 lanthanide centers are connected by μ3-bridging cyclobutanedicarboxylate ligands along the c axis to form a rod-shaped infinite 1D coordination chain, which is further linked with nearby chains by μ4-connected cyclobutanedicarboxylate ligands to form 2D CPs in the bc plane. Viewing the packing of the complexes down the b axis reveals that the lattice methanol molecules are located in the interlayer space between the adjacent 2D layers and form H-bonds with lattice and coordinated water molecules to form 1D chains. Magnetic properties of complexes 1-3 were thoroughly investigated. Complex 1 exhibits dominant ferromagnetic interaction between two nearby gadolinium centers and also acts as a cryogenic magnetic refrigerant having a significant magnetic entropy change of -ΔSm=32.8 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ΔH=7 T at 4 K (calculated from isothermal magnetization data). Complex 3 shows slow relaxation of magnetization below 10 K. Impedance analysis revealed that the complexes show humidity-dependent proton conductivity (σ=1.5×10(-5) S cm(-1) for 1, σ=2.07×10(-4) S cm(-1) for 2, and σ=1.1×10(-3) S cm(-1) for 3) at elevated temperature (>75 °C). They retain the conductivity for up to 10 h at high temperature and high humidity. Furthermore, the proton conductivity results were correlated with the number of water molecules from the water-vapor adsorption measurements. Water-vapor adsorption studies showed hysteretic and two-step water vapor adsorption (182,000 μL g(-1) for 1, 184,000 μL g(-1) for 2, and 1,874,000 μL g(-1) for 3) in the experimental pressure range. Simulation of

  12. Antibody-Free Magnetic Cell Sorting of Genetically Modified Primary Human CD4+ T Cells by One-Step Streptavidin Affinity Purification

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Nicholas J.; Peden, Andrew A.; Lehner, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Existing methods for phenotypic selection of genetically modified mammalian cells suffer disadvantages of time, cost and scalability and, where antibodies are used to bind exogenous cell surface markers for magnetic selection, typically yield cells coated with antibody-antigen complexes and beads. To overcome these limitations we have developed a method termed Antibody-Free Magnetic Cell Sorting in which the 38 amino acid Streptavidin Binding Peptide (SBP) is displayed at the cell surface by the truncated Low Affinity Nerve Growth Receptor (LNGFRF) and used as an affinity tag for one-step selection with streptavidin-conjugated magnetic beads. Cells are released through competition with the naturally occurring vitamin biotin, free of either beads or antibody-antigen complexes and ready for culture or use in downstream applications. Antibody-Free Magnetic Cell Sorting is a rapid, cost-effective, scalable method of magnetic selection applicable to either viral transduction or transient transfection of cell lines or primary cells. We have optimised the system for enrichment of primary human CD4+ T cells expressing shRNAs and exogenous genes of interest to purities of >99%, and used it to isolate cells following Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing. PMID:25360777

  13. Tracking Efficiency And Charge Sharing of 3D Silicon Sensors at Different Angles in a 1.4T Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Gjersdal, H.; Bolle, E.; Borri, M.; Da Via, C.; Dorholt, O.; Fazio, S.; Grenier, P.; Grinstein, S. Hansson, P.; Hasi, J.; Hugging, F.; Jackson, P.; Kenney, C.; Kocian, M.; La Rosa, A.; Mastroberardino, A.; Nordahl, P.; Rivero, F.; Rohne, O.; Sandaker, H.; Sjobaek, K.; /Oslo U. /Prague, Tech. U. /SLAC /Bonn U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Bonn U. /SLAC

    2012-05-07

    A 3D silicon sensor fabricated at Stanford with electrodes penetrating throughout the entire silicon wafer and with active edges was tested in a 1.4 T magnetic field with a 180 GeV/c pion beam at the CERN SPS in May 2009. The device under test was bump-bonded to the ATLAS pixel FE-I3 readout electronics chip. Three readout electrodes were used to cover the 400 {micro}m long pixel side, this resulting in a p-n inter-electrode distance of {approx} 71 {micro}m. Its behavior was confronted with a planar sensor of the type presently installed in the ATLAS inner tracker. Time over threshold, charge sharing and tracking efficiency data were collected at zero and 15{sup o} angles with and without magnetic field. The latest is the angular configuration expected for the modules of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) currently under study for the LHC phase 1 upgrade expected in 2014.

  14. Helical Dipole Magnets for Polarized Protons in RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syphers, M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.; Luccio, A.; Mariam, F.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Willen, E.; Katayama, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Okamura, M.; Tominaka, T.; Wu, H.; Ptitsin, V.; Shatunov, Y.

    1997-05-01

    The Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will be able to support experiments using polarized proton beams. Siberian Snakes are used to maintain polarization in this high energy superconducting collider. To make efficient use of available space while taking advantage of high field superconducting magnets, 4 Tesla helical dipole magnets will be used. These magnets generate a central dipole field in which the field direction rotates through 360^circ about the longitudinal axis over the length of the device. An arrangement of four such magnets can produce the desired change in the spin direction while keeping the proton orbit outside of the ``Snake'' unaltered. Similar magnet arrangements will be used to produce longitudinal polarization at the two major interaction points in RHIC. The basic requirements and layout of these magnets are described, as well as tolerances on field quality and integrated field strengths. First results of tests of prototype helical magnets will be discussed.

  15. Helical dipole magnets for polarized protons in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.

    1997-07-01

    Superconducting helical dipole magnets will be used in the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to maintain polarization of proton beams and to perform localized spin rotations at the two major experimental detector regions. Requirements for the helical dipole system are discussed, and magnet prototype work is reported.

  16. Single-Plane Magnetically Focused Elongated Small Field Proton Beams.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Grant A; Slater, James M; Wroe, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    We previously performed Monte Carlo simulations of magnetically focused proton beams shaped by a single quadrapole magnet and thereby created narrow elongated beams with superior dose delivery characteristics (compared to collimated beams) suitable for targets of similar geometry. The present study seeks to experimentally validate these simulations using a focusing magnet consisting of 24 segments of samarium cobalt permanent magnetic material adhered into a hollow cylinder. Proton beams with properties relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications were delivered through the magnet to a water tank containing a diode detector or radiochromic film. Dose profiles were analyzed and compared with analogous Monte Carlo simulations. The focused beams produced elongated beam spots with high elliptical symmetry, indicative of magnet quality. Experimental data showed good agreement with simulations, affirming the utility of Monte Carlo simulations as a tool to model the inherent complexity of a magnetic focusing system. Compared to target-matched unfocused simulations, focused beams showed larger peak to entrance ratios (26% to 38%) and focused simulations showed a two-fold increase in beam delivery efficiency. These advantages can be attributed to the magnetic acceleration of protons in the transverse plane that tends to counteract the particle outscatter that leads to degradation of peak to entrance performance in small field proton beams. Our results have important clinical implications and suggest rare earth focusing magnet assemblies are feasible and could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering enhanced dose to narrow elongated targets (eg, in and around the spinal cord) in less time compared to collimated beams. PMID:25414143

  17. On the Importance of Exchangeable NH Protons in Creatine for the Magnetic Coupling of Creatine Methyl Protons in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruiskamp, M. J.; Nicolay, K.

    2001-03-01

    The methyl protons of creatine in skeletal muscle exhibit a strong off-resonance magnetization transfer effect. The mechanism of this process is unknown. We previously hypothesized that the exchangeable amide/amino protons of creatine might be involved. To test this the characteristics of the creatine magnetization transfer effect were investigated in excised rat hindleg skeletal muscle that was equilibrated in either H2O or D2O solutions containing creatine. The efficiency of off-resonance magnetization transfer to the protons of mobile creatine in excised muscle was similar to that previously reported in intact muscle in vivo. Equilibrating the isolated muscle in D2O solution had no effect on the magnetic coupling to the immobile protons. It is concluded that exchangeable protons play a negligible role in the magnetic coupling of creatine methyl protons in muscle.

  18. Proton magnetic relaxation and internal rotations in tetramethylammonium cadmium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Utton, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and relaxation studies of the proton spin-lattice relaxation time (PSLRT) and proton second moment (PSM) are reported. Tetramethylammonium cadmium chloride (TMCC) was selected as a diamagnetic member of the isomorphic series, and hence proton data relate directly to the motion of the tetramethylammonium ion in the absence of paramagnetic ions. In the model adopted, the correlation time for hindered motion of one of the methyl groups differs from that of the other three groups in the low-temperature phase below 104 K. PSLRT and PSM values agree closely with experimental data with this model. Crystallographic phase transitions in TMCC occur at 104 K and 119 K according to the PSLRT measurements. Dipolar interactions between adjacent protons account for the PSLR rates below 104 K.

  19. Mercury's Surface Magnetic Field Determined from Proton-Reflection Magnetometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Reka M.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Lillis, Robert J.; Korth, Haje; Slavin, James A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Solar wind protons observed by the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit about Mercury exhibit signatures of precipitation loss to Mercury's surface. We apply proton-reflection magnetometry to sense Mercury's surface magnetic field intensity in the planet's northern and southern hemispheres. The results are consistent with a dipole field offset to the north and show that the technique may be used to resolve regional-scale fields at the surface. The proton loss cones indicate persistent ion precipitation to the surface in the northern magnetospheric cusp region and in the southern hemisphere at low nightside latitudes. The latter observation implies that most of the surface in Mercury's southern hemisphere is continuously bombarded by plasma, in contrast with the premise that the global magnetic field largely protects the planetary surface from the solar wind.

  20. Polarization Status of Magnetic Fluctuations at Proton Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Roberto; Telloni, Daniele; D'Amicis, Raffaella; DeMarco, Rossana; Marcucci, Federica

    2016-04-01

    We study the polarization status of magnetic field fluctuations at proton scales looking for possible links between the large-scale and small-scale features of solar wind fluctuations across the frequency break separating fluid and kinetic regimes. The main goal is to correlate the occurrence of proton temperature anisotropy, low proton β∥ values and, magnetic field fluctuations polarization to the particular state of turbulence found within the inertial range. We found clear correlations between each type of polarization, either left or right, and turbulence status. Moreover, for the first time in literature, we show that left-handed and right handed polarized fluctuations occupy different areas of the temperature anisotropy-β∥ plot, as expected for Alfvén Ion Cyclotron and Kinetic Alfvén waves, respectively.

  1. Insulating behavior of magnetic spots in proton-bombarded graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, K.; García, N.; Esquinazi, P.; Ohldag, H.

    2008-07-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements on micrometer small magnetic spots produced by proton bombardment on bulk graphite reveal a charge transfer from the center of the spot to an external ring with potential variation on the order of 50 mV. The total charge in the spot is neutral. The results can be well understood in terms of practically unscreened potentials, an insulating property, although the nonbombarded, surrounding graphite region exhibits good conductance. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy measurements on magnetic spots prepared on graphitic films reveal similar charge distribution. The insulating behavior is fundamental to understand the magnetism in graphite.

  2. Experimental validation of a Monte Carlo proton therapy nozzle model incorporating magnetically steered protons.

    PubMed

    Peterson, S W; Polf, J; Bues, M; Ciangaru, G; Archambault, L; Beddar, S; Smith, A

    2009-05-21

    The purpose of this study is to validate the accuracy of a Monte Carlo calculation model of a proton magnetic beam scanning delivery nozzle developed using the Geant4 toolkit. The Monte Carlo model was used to produce depth dose and lateral profiles, which were compared to data measured in the clinical scanning treatment nozzle at several energies. Comparisons were also made between measured and simulated off-axis profiles to test the accuracy of the model's magnetic steering. Comparison of the 80% distal dose fall-off values for the measured and simulated depth dose profiles agreed to within 1 mm for the beam energies evaluated. Agreement of the full width at half maximum values for the measured and simulated lateral fluence profiles was within 1.3 mm for all energies. The position of measured and simulated spot positions for the magnetically steered beams agreed to within 0.7 mm of each other. Based on these results, we found that the Geant4 Monte Carlo model of the beam scanning nozzle has the ability to accurately predict depth dose profiles, lateral profiles perpendicular to the beam axis and magnetic steering of a proton beam during beam scanning proton therapy. PMID:19420426

  3. Experimental validation of a Monte Carlo proton therapy nozzle model incorporating magnetically steered protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, S. W.; Polf, J.; Bues, M.; Ciangaru, G.; Archambault, L.; Beddar, S.; Smith, A.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate the accuracy of a Monte Carlo calculation model of a proton magnetic beam scanning delivery nozzle developed using the Geant4 toolkit. The Monte Carlo model was used to produce depth dose and lateral profiles, which were compared to data measured in the clinical scanning treatment nozzle at several energies. Comparisons were also made between measured and simulated off-axis profiles to test the accuracy of the model's magnetic steering. Comparison of the 80% distal dose fall-off values for the measured and simulated depth dose profiles agreed to within 1 mm for the beam energies evaluated. Agreement of the full width at half maximum values for the measured and simulated lateral fluence profiles was within 1.3 mm for all energies. The position of measured and simulated spot positions for the magnetically steered beams agreed to within 0.7 mm of each other. Based on these results, we found that the Geant4 Monte Carlo model of the beam scanning nozzle has the ability to accurately predict depth dose profiles, lateral profiles perpendicular to the beam axis and magnetic steering of a proton beam during beam scanning proton therapy.

  4. Protein conformation and proton nuclear-magnetic-resonance chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Pardi, A; Wagner, G; Wüthrich, K

    1983-12-15

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the polypeptide backbone protons in basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor from bovine organs and the inhibitors E and K from the venom of Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis have been analyzed. Using the corresponding shifts in model peptides, the chemical shifts observed in the proteins were decomposed into random-coil shifts and conformation-dependent shifts. Correlations between contributions to the latter term and the polypeptide conformation were investigated by using the crystal structure of the bovine inhibitor. In addition to the well-known ring-current effects, a correlation was found between chemical shifts of amide and C alpha protons and the length of the hydrogen bonds formed by these protons with nearby oxygen atoms as acceptor groups. There remain sizeable and as yet unexplained residual conformation shifts. Overall, the present treatment provides a satisfactory qualitative explanation for the outstandingly large shifts of backbone hydrogen atoms in these diamagnetic proteins. PMID:6198174

  5. An improved proton magnetometer for Earth's magnetic field observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Chengyu; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Xin; Fu, Haoyang

    2015-09-01

    As a precision instrument to measure the earth magnetic field, proton magnetometer is widely used in different fields such as geological survey, buried objects detection and earth field variations. Due to poor signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the system, proton magnetometer suffers from low sensitivity which directly affects the performance. In order to increase the sensitivity, we present an improved proton magnetometer. First, the effect of matching resistance on Q value is discussed to enhance SNR, and high matching resistance has been chosen to improve the Q value of the resonant circuit. Second, noise induced by pre-amplifier is investigated in order to obtain low noise signal, and we adopt the JFET with noise figure less than 0.5dB as the pre-amplifier. Third, by using band-pass filter, low-noise output signal is obtained. Fourth, the method of period measurement based on CPLD is employed to measure frequency of the square wave shaped from the output sinusoidal signal. High precision temperature compensate crystal oscillator (TCXO) has been used to improve the frequency measurement accuracy. Last, experimental data is obtained through field measurements. By calculating the standard deviation, the sensitivity of the improved proton magnetometer is 0.15nT for Earth's magnetic field observation. Experimental results show that the new magnetometer is sensitive to earth field measurement.

  6. Magnetic Moment of Proton Drip-Line Nucleus (9)C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.; Tanigaki, M.; Minamisono, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Mihara, M.; Onishi, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Harada, A.; Sasaki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic moment of the proton drip-line nucleus C-9(I(sup (pi)) = 3/2, T(sub 1/2) = 126 ms) has been measured for the first time, using the beta-NMR detection technique with polarized radioactive beams. The measure value for the magnetic moment is 1mu(C-9)! = 1.3914 +/- 0.0005 (mu)N. The deduced spin expectation value of 1.44 is unusually larger than any other ones of even-odd nuclei.

  7. Magnetic properties of point defects in proton irradiated diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makgato, T. N.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Ramos, M. A.; García-Hernández, M.; Climent-Font, A.; Zucchiatti, A.; Muñoz-Martin, A.; Shrivastava, S.; Erasmus, R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of ultra-pure type-IIa diamond following irradiation with proton beams of ≈1-2 MeV energy. SQUID magnetometry indicate the formation of Curie type paramagnetism according to the Curie law. Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show that the primary structural features created by proton irradiation are the centers: GR1, ND1, TR12 and 3H. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo simulations together with SQUID observations show a strong correlation between vacancy production, proton fluence and the paramagnetic factor. At an average surface vacancy spacing of ≈1-1.6 nm and bulk (peak) vacancy spacing of ≈0.3-0.5 nm Curie paramagnetism is induced by formation of ND1 centres with an effective magnetic moment μeff~(0.1-0.2)μB. No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed in the temperature range 4.2-300 K.

  8. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in oncology: the fingerprints of cancer?

    PubMed Central

    García-Figueiras, Roberto; Baleato-González, Sandra; Padhani, Anwar R; Oleaga, Laura; Vilanova, Joan C; Luna, Antonio; Gómez, Juan Carlos Cobas

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal metabolism is a key tumor hallmark. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) allows measurement of metabolite concentration that can be utilized to characterize tumor metabolic changes. 1H-MRS measurements of specific metabolites have been implemented in the clinic. This article performs a systematic review of image acquisition and interpretation of 1H-MRS for cancer evaluation, evaluates its strengths and limitations, and correlates metabolite peaks at 1H-MRS with diagnostic and prognostic parameters of cancer in different tumor types. PMID:26712681

  9. ENERGETIC PROTONS, RADIONUCLIDES, AND MAGNETIC ACTIVITY IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, N. J.; Drake, J. F.

    2009-10-01

    We calculate the location of the magnetically inactive dead zone in the minimum-mass protosolar disk, under ionization scenarios including stellar X-rays, long- or short-lived radionuclide decay, and energetic protons arriving from the general interstellar medium, from a nearby supernova explosion, from the disk corona, or from the corona of the young star. The disk contains a dead zone in all scenarios except those with small dust grains removed and a fraction of the short-lived radionuclides remaining in the gas. All the cases without exception have an 'undead zone' where intermediate resistivities prevent magneto-rotational turbulence while allowing shear-generated large-scale magnetic fields. The mass column in the undead zone is typically greater than the column in the turbulent surface layers. The results support the idea that the dead and undead zones are robust consequences of cold, dusty gas with mass columns exceeding 1000 g cm{sup -2}.

  10. Electric and magnetic form factors of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, J. Â. C.; Distler, M. Â. O.; Friedrich, J.; Walcher, Th.; Achenbach, P.; Ayerbe Gayoso, C.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Debenjak, L.; Doria, L.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Gómez Rodríguez de la Paz, M.; Friedrich, J. Â. M.; Makek, M.; Merkel, H.; Middleton, D. Â. G.; Müller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pochodzalla, J.; Potokar, M.; Sánchez Majos, S.; Schlimme, B. Â. S.; Širca, S.; Weinriefer, M.; A1 Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a precise measurement of electron scattering off the proton at momentum transfers of 0.003≲Q2≲1 GeV2. The average point-to-point error of the cross sections in this experiment is ˜0.37%. These data are used for a coherent new analysis together with all world data of unpolarized and polarized electron scattering from the very smallest to the highest momentum transfers so far measured. The extracted electric and magnetic form factors provide new insight into their exact shape, deviating from the classical dipole form, and of structure on top of this gross shape. The data reaching very low Q2 values are used for a new determination of the electric and magnetic radii. An empirical determination of the two-photon-exchange correction is presented. The implications of this correction on the radii and the question of a directly visible signal of the pion cloud are addressed.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Detection of Individual Proton Spins Using Quantum Reporters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushkov, A. O.; Lovchinsky, I.; Chisholm, N.; Walsworth, R. L.; Park, H.; Lukin, M. D.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate a method of magnetic resonance imaging with single nuclear-spin sensitivity under ambient conditions. Our method employs isolated electronic-spin quantum bits (qubits) as magnetic resonance "reporters" on the surface of high purity diamond. These spin qubits are localized with nanometer-scale uncertainty, and their quantum state is coherently manipulated and measured optically via a proximal nitrogen-vacancy color center located a few nanometers below the diamond surface. This system is then used for sensing, coherent coupling, and imaging of individual proton spins on the diamond surface with angstrom resolution. Our approach may enable direct structural imaging of complex molecules that cannot be accessed from bulk studies. It realizes a new platform for probing novel materials, monitoring chemical reactions, and manipulation of complex systems on surfaces at a quantum level.

  12. Estimation of changes in fitness components and antioxidant defense of Drosophila subobscura (Insecta, Diptera) after exposure to 2.4 T strong static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Dajana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Mirčić, Dejan; Ristić-Djurović, Jasna; Prolić, Zlatko; Petković, Branka; Savić, Tatjana

    2015-04-01

    As an ecological factor, a magnetic field can affect insects causing a wide range of responses. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the fitness components (postembryonic development and viability of individuals) and the antioxidant defense (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and total glutathione) in laboratory strains of Drosophila subobscura, originating from oak and beech forests after exposure to the strong static magnet (2.4 T, VINCY Cyclotron magnet). The first instar larvae were placed near the north pole (N group) or the south pole (S group) of the magnet for 2 h. Oak and beech populations of D. subobscura had longer development time and lower viability in N and S groups compared to controls. These differences were significant only in S group of oak population and in N group of beech population. Total glutathione content was significantly decreased in both exposed groups of oak population, while catalase activity was significantly increased in both exposed groups of beech population. Being significantly decreased in both exposed groups of oak population and significantly increased in S group of beech population in comparison to controls, superoxide dismutase activity was observed in different values. According to the results, it can be stated that applied static magnetic field could be considered a potential stressor influencing the fitness components and antioxidant defense in Drosophila flies. PMID:25475617

  13. Capture and Transport of Laser Accelerated Protons by Pulsed Magnetic Fields: Advancements Toward Laser-Based Proton Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burris-Mog, Trevor J.

    The interaction of intense laser light (I > 10 18 W/cm2) with a thin target foil leads to the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism (TNSA). TNSA is responsible for the generation of high current, ultra-low emittance proton beams, which may allow for the development of a compact and cost effective proton therapy system for the treatment of cancer. Before this application can be realized, control is needed over the large divergence and the 100% kinetic energy spread that are characteristic of TNSA proton beams. The work presented here demonstrates control over the divergence and energy spread using strong magnetic fields generated by a pulse power solenoid. The solenoidal field results in a parallel proton beam with a kinetic energy spread DeltaE/E = 10%. Assuming that next generation lasers will be able to operate at 10 Hz, the 10% spread in the kinetic energy along with the 23% capture efficiency of the solenoid yield enough protons per laser pulse to, for the first time, consider applications in Radiation Oncology. Current lasers can generate proton beams with kinetic energies up to 67.5 MeV, but for therapy applications, the proton kinetic energy must reach 250 MeV. Since the maximum kinetic energy Emax of the proton scales with laser light intensity as Emax ∝ I0.5, next generation lasers may very well accelerate 250 MeV protons. As the kinetic energy of the protons is increased, the magnetic field strength of the solenoid will need to increase. The scaling of the magnetic field B with the kinetic energy of the protons follows B ∝ E1/2. Therefor, the field strength of the solenoid presented in this work will need to be increased by a factor of 2.4 in order to accommodate 250 MeV protons. This scaling factor seems reasonable, even with present technology. This work not only demonstrates control over beam divergence and energy spread, it also allows for us to now perform feasibility studies to further research what a laser-based proton therapy system

  14. On the outer limit for the expansion of magnetic bottles ejected by solar proton flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1973-01-01

    Pioneer 6 observations of proton flare ejected magnetic bottles are reported. The SSC geomagnetic storms, electron density distribution near the sun, and Faraday rotation induced by the flares are included. Magnetic bottle speed is discussed.

  15. High latitude proton precipitation and light-ion density profiles during the magnetic storm initial phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of precipitating protons and light ion densities by experiments on OGO-4 indicate that widespread proton precipitation occurs in predawn hours during the magnetic storm initial phase from the latitude of the high-latitude ion trough, or plasmapause , up to Lambda 75 deg. A softening of the proton spectrum is apparent as the plasmapause is approached. The separation of the low-latitude precipitation boundaries for 7.3 kev and 23.8 kev protons is approximately 1 deg, compared with a 3.6 deg separation which has been computed using the formulas of Gendrin and Eather and Carovillano. Consideration of probable proton drift morphology leads to the conclusion that protons ase injected in predawn hours, with widespread precipitation occurring in the region outside the plasmapause. Protons less energetic than approximately 7 kev drift eastward, while the more energetic protons drift westward, producing the observed dawn-dusk asymmetry for the lower-energy protons.

  16. Quantitative Proton Magnetic Resonance Techniques for Measuring Fat

    PubMed Central

    Harry, Houchun; Kan, Hermien E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate, precise, and reliable techniques for quantifying body and organ fat distributions are important tools in physiology research. They are critically needed in studies of obesity and diseases involving excess fat accumulation. Proton magnetic resonance methods address this need by providing an array of relaxometry-based (T1, T2) and chemical-shift-based approaches. These techniques can generate informative visualizations of regional and whole-body fat distributions, yield measurements of fat volumes within specific body depots, and quantify fat accumulation in abdominal organs and muscles. MR methods are commonly used to investigate the role of fat in nutrition and metabolism, to measure the efficacy of short and long-term dietary and exercise interventions, to study the implications of fat in organ steatosis and muscular dystrophies, and to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms in the context of obesity and its comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of mainstream MR strategies for fat quantification. The article will succinctly describe the principles that differentiate water and fat proton signals, summarize advantages and limitations of various techniques, and offer a few illustrative examples. The article will also highlight recent efforts in MR of brown adipose tissue and conclude by briefly discussing some future research directions. PMID:24123229

  17. Cross relaxation of the proton magnetization in ammonium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punkkinen, M.; Vuorimäki, A. H.; Ylinen, E. E.

    1990-01-01

    Expressions are derived for the time constants T1D and TSD of the NH 4 protons in tunneling ammonium compounds below the line-width transition temperature. T1D characterizes the speed of the spin-lattice relaxation of the dipolar energy and TSD the speed of the cross relaxation between the A and T symmetry species. The expressions should be valid if all the tunnel splittings between the T species levels are larger than the magnetic dipolar interaction. Predictions are compared with new experimental results on TSD in (NH 4) 2PbCl 6 and with some earlier results on TSD and T1D in (NH 4) 2 SnBr 6 and NH 4ClO 4. They support the conclusion that for T1D> TSD the T levels are nondegenerate, while the condition T1D< TSD refers to at least a partial degeneracy.

  18. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Measurements in Frog Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Edward D.; Homer, Louis D.

    1974-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements are reported for frog muscle as a function of temperature and Larmor frequency. Each T1ρ, T2, and T1 measurement covered a time domain sufficient to identify the average relaxation time for most intracellular water. Using regression analysis the data were fit with a model where intracellular water molecules are exchanging between a large compartment in which mobility is similar to ordinary water and a small compartment in which motion is restricted. The regression results suggest that: the restricted compartment exhibits a distribution of motions skewed toward that of free water; the residence time of water molecules in the restricted compartment is approximately 1 ms; and, the activation entropy for some water molecules in the restricted compartment is negative. PMID:4547668

  19. Calibration of a compact magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Guoguang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Qiu, Suizheng; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jinliang; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Yang, Shaohua

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer is considered as a powerful instrument to measure deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron spectrum, as it is currently used in inertial confinement fusion facilities and large Tokamak devices. The energy resolution (ER) and neutron detection efficiency (NDE) are the two most important parameters to characterize a neutron spectrometer. In this work, the ER calibration for the MPR spectrometer was performed by using the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), and the NDE calibration was performed by using the neutron generator at CIAE. The specific calibration techniques used in this work and the associated accuracies were discussed in details in this paper. The calibration results were presented along with Monte Carlo simulation results.

  20. Brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2014-01-01

    This chapter critically reviews brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) studies performed since 1994 in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD). We describe the neurochemicals that can be measured in vivo at the most common magnetic field strengths, summarize our knowledge about their general brain functions, and briefly explain some basic human (1)H MRS methods. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal research of individuals in treatment and of treatment-naïve individuals with AUD are discussed and interpreted on the basis of reported neuropathology. As AUDs are highly comorbid with chronic cigarette smoking and illicit substance abuse, we also summarize reports on their respective influences on regional proton metabolite levels. After reviewing research on neurobiologic correlates of relapse and genetic influences on brain metabolite levels, we finish with suggestions on future directions for (1)H MRS studies in AUDs. The review demonstrates that brain metabolic alterations associated with AUDs as well as their cognitive correlates are not simply a consequence of chronic alcohol consumption. Future MR research of AUDs in general has to be better prepared - and supported - to study clinically complex relationships between personality characteristics, comorbidities, neurogenetics, lifestyle, and living environment, as all these factors critically affect an individual's neurometabolic profile. (1)H MRS is uniquely positioned to tackle these complexities by contributing to a comprehensive biopsychosocial profile of individuals with AUD: it can provide non-invasive biochemical information on select regions of the brain at comparatively low overall cost for the ultimate purpose of informing more efficient treatments of AUDs. PMID:25307583

  1. Rabi, the proton magnetic moment, and the ¡2-wire¢ magnet, 1931-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Paul

    2001-04-01

    With the assistance of Gregory Breit, I.I. Rabi, at Columbia University, worked out in 1931 a method to determine the spin (not the magnetic moment) of atomic nuclei by deflecting an atomic beam of the isotope in question in a weak, but long, inhomogeneous magnetic field. Crucial to this method was that it required no exact knowledge of that field. When the sensational result: p = 2.5:_Bohr(m_e/m_p) from Otto Stern's deflection of a beam of hydrogen molecules in a strong magnetic field became known late in 1932, its confirmation by another laboratory, preferably by another method, seemed urgent. No one else had the refined technique to reproduce Stern's experiment. But because the hydrogen electronic wave function was known, the Breit Rabi technique was susceptible of extension in this case to the measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton but only with accurate knowledge of the magnetic field and field gradient traversed by the atomic hydrogen beam. To this end Rabi introduced the '2 wire' magnet, producing a weak field and uniform gradient that could be calculated rather than measured. This field configuration quickly came to be used in all magnetic deflection experiments in Rabi's laboratory, first as produced directly by electric currents, and subsequently as emulated in iron electromagnets in order to achieve the higher magnetic fields required by molecular beam magnetic resonance experiments from 1937 onward.

  2. Rabi, the proton magnetic moment, and the ‘2-wire' magnet, 1931-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Paul

    2001-04-01

    With the assistance of Gregory Breit, I.I. Rabi, at Columbia University, worked out in 1931 a method to determine the spin (not the magnetic moment) of atomic nuclei by deflecting an atomic beam of the isotope in question in a weak, but long, inhomogeneous magnetic field. Crucial to this method was that it required no exact knowledge of that field. When the sensational result -- µp = 2.5µ_Bohr(m_e/m_p) -- from Otto Stern's deflection of a beam of hydrogen molecules in a strong magnetic field became known late in 1932, its confirmation by another laboratory, preferably by another method, seemed urgent. No one else had the refined technique to reproduce Stern's experiment. But because the hydrogen electronic wave function was known, the Breit-Rabi technique was susceptible of extension in this case to the measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton - - but only with accurate knowledge of the magnetic field and field gradient traversed by the atomic hydrogen beam. To this end Rabi introduced the '2-wire' magnet, producing a weak field and uniform gradient that could be calculated rather than measured. This field configuration quickly came to be used in all magnetic deflection experiments in Rabi's laboratory, first as produced directly by electric currents, and subsequently as emulated in iron electromagnets in order to achieve the higher magnetic fields required by molecular beam magnetic resonance experiments from 1937 onward.

  3. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Adults with Childhood Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cecil, Kim M.; Dietrich, Kim N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Egelhoff, John C.; Lindquist, Diana M.; Brubaker, Christopher J.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood lead exposure adversely affects neurodevelopment. However, few studies have examined changes in human brain metabolism that may underlie known adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Objective We examined the association between mean childhood blood lead levels and in vivo brain metabolite concentrations as adults, determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a birth cohort with documented low-to-moderate lead exposure. Methods Adult participants from the Cincinnati Lead Study [n = 159; mean age (± SD), 20.8 ± 0.9 years] completed a quantitative, short-echo proton MRS protocol evaluating seven regions to determine brain concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr), cholines (Cho), myo-inositol, and a composite of glutamate and glutamine (GLX). Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Results Mean childhood blood lead levels were associated with regionally specific brain metabolite concentrations adjusted for age at imaging and Full-Scale intelligence quotient. Adjusted analyses estimated for a unit (micrograms per deciliter) increase in mean childhood blood lead concentrations, a decrease of NAA and Cr concentration levels in the basal ganglia, a decrease of NAA and a decrease of Cho concentration levels in the cerebellar hemisphere, a decrease of GLX concentration levels in vermis, a decrease of Cho and a decrease of GLX concentration levels in parietal white matter, and a decrease of Cho concentration levels in frontal white matter. Conclusions Gray-matter NAA reductions associated with increasing childhood blood lead levels suggest that sustained childhood lead exposure produces an irreversible pattern of neuronal dysfunction, whereas associated white-matter choline declines indicate a permanent alteration to myelin architecture. PMID:20947467

  4. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies on brain edema

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, S.; Horikawa, Y.; Tanaka, C.; Hirakawa, K.; Nishikawa, H.; Yoshizaki, K.

    1982-06-01

    The water in normal and edematous brain tissues of rats was studied by the pulse nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, measuring the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and the transverse relaxation time (T2). In the normal brain, T1 and T2 were single components, both shorter than in pure water. Prolongation and separation of T2 into two components, one fast and one slow, were the characteristic findings in brain edema induced by both cold injury and triethyl tin (TET), although some differences between the two types of edema existed in the content of the lesion and in the degree of changes in T1 and T2 values. Quantitative analysis of T1 and T2 values in their time course relating to water content demonstrated that prolongation of T1 referred to the volume of increased water in tissues examined, and that two phases of T2 reflected the distribution and the content of the edema fluid. From the analysis of the slow component of T2 versus water content during edema formation, it was demonstrated that the increase in edema fluid was steady, and its content was constant during formation of TET-induced edema. On the contrary, during the formation of cold-injury edema, water-rich edema fluid increased during the initial few hours, and protein-rich edema fluid increased thereafter. It was concluded that proton NMR relaxation time measurements may provide new understanding in the field of brain edema research.

  5. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy changes after antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Agata; Galinska-Skok, Beata; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Bibulowicz, Daniel; Konarzewska, Beata; Tarasow, Eugeniusz

    2013-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) enables the observation of brain function in vivo. Several brain metabolites can be measured by the means of (1)H MRS: N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline containing compounds (Cho), myo-inositol (mI) and glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln) and GABA (together as Glx complex or separately). (1)H MRS measures have been found to be abnormal in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Here we specifically review the influence exerted by antipsychotic drugs on brain metabolism, as detected by (1)H MRS. We systematically reviewed the available literature and uncovered 27 studies, 16 before-after treatment and 11 cross-sectional. Most of them addressed the effects of antipsychotics in schizophrenia and mainly focusing on NAA alterations. Follow up studies indicated antipsychotic drugs may act by increasing NAA levels in selected brain areas (the frontal lobe and thalamus), especially during the short-time observation. This phenomenon seems to vanish after longer observation. Other studies indicated that glutamate measures are decreasing along with the duration of the disease, suggesting both a neurodegenerative process present in schizophrenic brain as well as an influence of antipsychotics. The above results were reviewed according to the most recent theories in the field accounting for the impact of antipsychotics (1)HMRS measures. PMID:23157634

  6. Magnetic quadrupoles lens for hot spot proton imaging in inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Chen, J.; Zhu, B.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, T. K.; Tan, F.; Hong, W.; Zhang, B. H.; Wang, X. Q.

    2016-08-01

    Imaging of DD-produced protons from an implosion hot spot region by miniature permanent magnetic quadrupole (PMQ) lens is proposed. Corresponding object-image relation is deduced and an adjust method for this imaging system is discussed. Ideal point-to-point imaging demands a monoenergetic proton source; nevertheless, we proved that the blur of image induced by proton energy spread is a second order effect therefore controllable. A proton imaging system based on miniature PMQ lens is designed for 2.8 MeV DD-protons and the adjust method in case of proton energy shift is proposed. The spatial resolution of this system is better than 10 μm when proton yield is above 109 and the spectra width is within 10%.

  7. Proton flare and magnetic storm effect in the vicinity of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, J. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a model and associated computational procedure for estimating energetic proton exposures during a major solar proton event that occur in combination with a large magnetic storm. Transmission functions for solar protons are computed using geomagnetic vertical cutoff data for quiescent amd disturbed conditions. Predicted exposures in low altitude polar orbit are found to be orders of magnitude greater for severe magnetic storm conditions than are corresponding exposures in the absence of major disturbances. We examine the response scenario for the events of November 1960 as an example.

  8. Carbon-13 and proton magnetic resonance of mouse muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Fung, B M

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that roughly 4 mmol carbon atoms/g mouse muscle can give rise to a "high resolution" 13C NMR spectrum. From the 13C spectrum, it is estimated that the protons from mobile organic molecules or molecular segments amount to 6-8%of total nonrigid protons (organic plus water) in muscle. Their spin-spin relaxation times (T2) are of the order of 0.4-2 ms. At 37 degrees C, the proton spin-echo decay of mouse muscle changes rapidly with time after death, while that of mouse brain does not. PMID:890043

  9. High-latitude proton precipitation and light ion density profiles during the magnetic storm initial phase.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of precipitating protons and light ion densities by experiments on Ogo 4 indicate that widespread proton precipitation occurs in predawn hours during the magnetic storm initial phase from the latitude of the high-latitude ion trough, or plasmapause, up to latitudes greater than 75 deg. A softening of the proton spectrum is apparent as the plasmapause is approached. The separation of the low-latitude precipitation boundaries for 7.3-keV and 23.8-keV protons is less than about 1 deg, compared with a 3.6-deg separation that has been computed by using the formulas of Gendrin and Eather and Carovillano. Consideration of probable proton drift morphology leads to the conclusion that protons are injected in predawn hours, widespread precipitation occurring in the region outside the plasmapause. Protons less energetic than 7 keV drift eastward, whereas the more energetic protons drift westward, producing the observed dawn-dusk asymmetry for the lower-energy protons.

  10. Retention of configuration in nucleophilic vinylic halide substitution - Proton magnetic resonance spectra of cis- and trans- beta-styryldiphenylphosphine oxides.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguiar, A. M.; Daigle, D.

    1965-01-01

    Cis- and trans-beta-bromostyrene reaction with lithium diphenylphosphide in tetrahydrofuran producing cis- and trans-beta- styryldiphenylphosphine, discussing proton magnetic resonance and configuration retention

  11. WE-D-17A-04: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Volume Targets

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, G; Slater, J; Wroe, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the advantages of magnetic focusing for small volume proton irradiations and the potential clinical benefits for radiosurgery targets. The primary goal is to create narrow elongated proton beams of elliptical cross section with superior dose delivery characteristics compared to current delivery modalities (eg, collimated beams). In addition, more general beam shapes are also under investigation. Methods: Two prototype magnets consisting of 24 segments of samarium-cobalt (Sm2Co17) permanent magnetic material adhered into hollow cylinders were manufactured for testing. A single focusing magnet was placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table and 15 mm diameter proton beams with energies and modulation relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications (127 to 186 MeV, and 0 to 30 mm modulation) were delivered to a terminal water tank. Beam dose distributions were measured using a PTW diode detector and Gafchromic EBT2 film. Longitudinal and transverse dose profiles were analyzed and compared to data from Monte Carlo simulations analogous to the experimental setup. Results: The narrow elongated focused beam spots showed high elliptical symmetry indicating high magnet quality. In addition, when compared to unfocused beams, peak-to-entrance depth dose ratios were 11 to 14% larger (depending on presence or extent of modulation), and minor axis penumbras were 11 to 20% smaller (again depending on modulation) for focused beams. These results suggest that the use of rare earth magnet assemblies is practical and could improve dose-sparing of normal tissue and organs at risk while delivering enhanced dose to small proton radiosurgery targets. Conclusion: Quadrapole rare earth magnetic assemblies are a promising and inexpensive method to counteract particle out scatter that tends to degrade the peak to entrance performance of small field proton beams. Knowledge gained from current experiments will inform the design of a prototype treatment

  12. An analytical solution to proton Bragg peak deflection in a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Russell; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    The role of MR imaging for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is becoming more and more important thanks to the excellent soft tissue contrast offered by MRI. Hybrid therapy devices with integrated MRI scanners are under active development for x-ray therapy. The combination of proton therapy with MRI imaging has only been investigated at the theoretical or conceptual level. Of concern is the deflection of the proton beam in the homogeneous magnetic field. A previous publication has come to the conclusion that the impact of a 0.5 T magnetic field on the dose distribution for proton therapy is very small and lateral deflections stay well below 2 mm. The purpose of this study is to provide new insights into the effects of magnetic fields on a proton beam coming to rest in a patient. We performed an analytical calculation of the lateral deflection of protons with initial energies between 50 MeV and 250 MeV, perpendicular to the beam direction and the magnetic field. We used a power-law range-energy relationship and the Lorentz force in both relativistic and non-relativistic conditions. Calculations were done for protons coming to rest in water or soft tissue, and generalized to other uniform and non-uniform media. Results were verified by comparisons with numerical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. A key result of our calculations is that the maximum lateral deflection at the end of range is proportional to the third power of the initial energy. Accordingly, due to the strong dependence on the energy, even a relatively small magnetic field of 0.5 T will cause a deflection of the proton beam by 1 cm at the end of range of a 200 MeV beam. The maximum deflection at 200 MeV is more than 10 times larger than that of a 90 MeV beam. Relativistic corrections of the deflection are generally small but they can become non-negligible at higher energies around 200 MeV and above. Contrary to previous findings, the lateral deflection of a proton beam can be significant (1

  13. An analytical solution to proton Bragg peak deflection in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Russell; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    The role of MR imaging for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is becoming more and more important thanks to the excellent soft tissue contrast offered by MRI. Hybrid therapy devices with integrated MRI scanners are under active development for x-ray therapy. The combination of proton therapy with MRI imaging has only been investigated at the theoretical or conceptual level. Of concern is the deflection of the proton beam in the homogeneous magnetic field. A previous publication has come to the conclusion that the impact of a 0.5 T magnetic field on the dose distribution for proton therapy is very small and lateral deflections stay well below 2 mm. The purpose of this study is to provide new insights into the effects of magnetic fields on a proton beam coming to rest in a patient. We performed an analytical calculation of the lateral deflection of protons with initial energies between 50 MeV and 250 MeV, perpendicular to the beam direction and the magnetic field. We used a power-law range-energy relationship and the Lorentz force in both relativistic and non-relativistic conditions. Calculations were done for protons coming to rest in water or soft tissue, and generalized to other uniform and non-uniform media. Results were verified by comparisons with numerical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. A key result of our calculations is that the maximum lateral deflection at the end of range is proportional to the third power of the initial energy. Accordingly, due to the strong dependence on the energy, even a relatively small magnetic field of 0.5 T will cause a deflection of the proton beam by 1 cm at the end of range of a 200 MeV beam. The maximum deflection at 200 MeV is more than 10 times larger than that of a 90 MeV beam. Relativistic corrections of the deflection are generally small but they can become non-negligible at higher energies around 200 MeV and above. Contrary to previous findings, the lateral deflection of a proton beam can be significant (1

  14. Magnetic field measurements in laser-produced plasmas via proton deflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchetti, C. A.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.; Macchi, A.; Romagnani, L.; Wilson, P. A.; Fuchs, J.; Antici, P.; Jung, R.; Osterholtz, J.; Pipahl, C. A.; Willi, O.; Schiavi, A.; Notley, M.; Neely, D.

    2009-04-15

    Large magnetic fields generated during laser-matter interaction at irradiances of {approx}5x10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2} have been measured using a deflectometry technique employing MeV laser-accelerated protons. Azimuthal magnetic fields were identified unambiguously via a characteristic proton deflection pattern and found to have an amplitude of {approx}45 T in the outer coronal region. Comparison with magnetohydrodynamic simulations confirms that in this regime the {nabla}-vectorT{sub e}x{nabla}-vectorn{sub e} source is the main field generation mechanism, while additional terms are negligible.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Proton Loss from Carotenoid Radical Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, Lowell D; Focsan, A Ligia; Konovalova, Tatyana A; Lawrence, Jesse; Bowman, Michael K; Dixon, David A; Molnar, Peter; Deli, Jozsef

    2007-06-11

    Carotenoids, intrinsic components of reaction centers and pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic membranes, play a photoprotective role and serve as a secondary electron donor. Before optimum use of carotenoids can be made in artificial photosynthetic systems, their robust nature in living materials requires extensive characterization of their electron transfer, radical trapping ability, stability, structure in and on various hosts, and photochemical behavior. Pulsed ENDOR and 2D-HYSCORE studies combined with DFT calculations reveal that photo-oxidation of natural zeaxanthin (I) and violaxanthin (II) on silica-alumina produces not only the carotenoid radical cations (Car•+) but also neutral radicals (#Car•) by proton loss from the methyl groups at positions 5 or 5', and possibly 9 or 9' and 13 or 13'. Notably, the proton loss favored in I at the 5 position by DFT calculations, is unfavorable in II due to the epoxide at the 5, 6 position. DFT calculations predict the isotropic methyl proton couplings of 8-10 MHz for Car•+ which agree with the ENDOR for carotenoid α-conjugated radical cations. Large α-proton hyperfine coupling constants (>10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE are assigned from the DFT calculations to neutral carotenoid radicals. Proton loss upon photolysis was also examined as a function of carotenoid polarity [Lycopene (III) versus 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al (IV)]; hydrogen bonding [Lutein (V) versus III]; host [silica-alumina versus MCM-41 molecular sieve]; and substituted metal in MCM-41. Loss of H+ from the 5(5'), 9(9') or 13(13') methyl positions has importance in photoprotection. Photoprotection involves nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in which 1Ch1* decays via energy transfer to the carotenoid which returns to the ground state by thermal dissipation; or via electron transfer to form a charge transfer state (I •+…Chl•-), lower in energy than 1Chl*. Formation of I •+ results in bond lengthening, a mechanism for nonradiative energy

  16. Proton-nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times in brain edema

    SciTech Connect

    Kamman, R.L.; Go, K.G.; Berendsen, H.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Proton relaxation times of protein solutions, bovine brain, and edematous feline brain tissue were studied as a function of water concentration, protein concentration, and temperature. In accordance with the fast proton exchange model for relaxation, a linear relation could be established between R1 and the inverse of the weight fraction of tissue water. This relation also applied to R2 of gray matter and of protein solutions. No straightforward relation with water content was found for R2 of white matter. Temperature-dependent studies indicated that in this case, the slow exchange model for relaxation had to be applied. The effect of macromolecules in physiological relevant concentrations on the total relaxation behavior of edematous tissue was weak. Total water content changes predominantly affected the relaxation rates. The linear relation may have high clinical potential for assessment of the status of cerebral edema on the basis of T1 and T2 readings from MR images.

  17. Solar wind proton reflection by lunar crustal magnetic fields observed at low altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, M. N.; Fujimoto, M.; Tsunakawa, H.; Saito, Y.; Yokota, S.; Shibuya, H.; Matsushima, M.; Shimizu, H.; Takahashi, F.

    2012-12-01

    We study interaction between the solar wind flow and lunar crustal magnetic fields observed at lower altitudes by SELENE (Kaguya), predominantly focusing on proton reflection above strong crustal fields. Several studies revealed interaction between the solar wind and the Moon, while detailed observation at low altitude including ion measurements has been hardly reported yet. Previous observations at higher altitude revealed that the solar wind protons are not reflected toward the sun but deflected downstream around the solar wind flow direction. Here we report detailed observations of solar wind proton reflection/deflection observed above South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin at low altitude (typically, lower than 30 km) and at several solar zenith angles. Above wide crustal fields inside the SPA basin, a large amount of incident solar wind protons are deflected and sometimes reflected to come back sunward; in particular, the sunward proton beams are observed at lower solar zenith angle regions. The reflected/deflected protons at times consist of two (or more-than-two) separate components that have been mirror-reflected at different crustal fields. Our result shows that the mirror reflection of incident protons takes place at the altitude much lower than the spacecraft orbit, and suggests that strong compression of the crustal fields at lower solar zenith angle and at lower altitude by the solar wind dynamic pressure is essential.

  18. The proton nuclear magnetic shielding tensors in biphenyl: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Schönborn, Frank; Schmitt, Heike; Zimmermann, Herbert; Haeberlen, Ulrich; Corminboeuf, Clémence; Grossmann, Gisbert; Heine, Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Line-narrowing multiple pulse techniques are applied to a spherical sample crystal of biphenyl. The 10 different proton shielding tensors in this compound are determined. The accuracy level for the tensor components is 0.3 ppm. The assignment of the measured tensors to the corresponding proton sites is given careful attention. Intermolecular shielding contributions are calculated by the induced magnetic point dipole model with empirical atom and bond susceptibilities (distant neighbours) and by a new quantum chemical method (near neighbours). Subtracting the intermolecular contributions from the (correctly assigned) measured shielding tensors leads to isolated-molecule shielding tensors for which there are symmetry relations. Compliance to these relations is the criterion for the correct assignment. The success of this program indicates that intermolecular proton shielding contributions can be calculated to better than 0.5 ppm. The isolated-molecule shielding tensors obtained from experiment and calculated intermolecular contributions are compared with isolated-molecule quantum chemical results. Expressed in the icosahedral tensor representation, the rms differences of the respective tensor components are below 0.5 ppm for all proton sites in biphenyl. In the isolated molecule, the least shielded direction of all protons is the perpendicular to the molecular plane. For the para proton, the intermediate principal direction is along the C-H bond. It is argued that these relations also hold for the protons in the isolated benzene molecule. PMID:15949748

  19. Fundamental investigations of supported monometallic and bimetallic catalysts by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xi.

    1990-09-21

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of hydrogen, has been applied to investigate silica-supported Group VIII monometallic and Group VIII-Group IB bimetallic catalysts and alumina- and silica-supported platinum-rhenium bimetallic catalysts. Two adsorbed states of hydrogen, i.e., irreversible and reversible hydrogen, on the surfaces of monometallic Ru, Pt, and Cu particles and bimetallic Ru-Group Ib, Pt-Group Ib, and Pt-Re particles were observed directly via proton NMR. The same amounts of the irreversible hydrogen adsorbed on pure Ru catalysts were measured by both proton NMR and the volumetric technique. The electronic environments on surfaces of monometallic catalysts are sensitive to changes in metal dispersion, state of adsorbed hydrogen, and residual chlorine. Surface compositions for the Ru--Cu and Pt--Cu bimetallic catalysts were determined by NMR of adsorbed hydrogen. 297 refs., 96 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. In vivo1H NMR spectroscopy of the human brain at 9.4 T: Initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelchand, Dinesh Kumar; Moortele, Pierre-François Van de; Adriany, Gregor; Iltis, Isabelle; Andersen, Peter; Strupp, John P.; Thomas Vaughan, J.; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Henry, Pierre-Gilles

    2010-09-01

    In vivo proton NMR spectroscopy allows non-invasive detection and quantification of a wide range of biochemical compounds in the brain. Higher field strength is generally considered advantageous for spectroscopy due to increased signal-to-noise and increased spectral dispersion. So far 1H NMR spectra have been reported in the human brain up to 7 T. In this study we show that excellent quality short echo time STEAM and LASER 1H NMR spectra can be measured in the human brain at 9.4 T. The information content of the human brain spectra appears very similar to that measured in the past decade in rodent brains at the same field strength, in spite of broader linewidth in human brain. Compared to lower fields, the T1 relaxation times of metabolites were slightly longer while T2 relaxation values of metabolites were shorter (<100 ms) at 9.4 T. The linewidth of the total creatine (tCr) resonance at 3.03 ppm increased linearly with magnetic field (1.35 Hz/T from 1.5 T to 9.4 T), with a minimum achievable tCr linewidth of around 12.5 Hz at 9.4 T. At very high field, B0 microsusceptibility effects are the main contributor to the minimum achievable linewidth.

  1. Glutamatergic Effects of Divalproex in Adolescents with Mania: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Patel, Nick C.; Chu, Wen-Jang; Lee, Jing-Huei; Adler, Caleb M.; Kim, Mi Jung; Bryan, Holly S.; Alfieri, David C.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Blom, Thomas J.; Nandagopal, Jayasree J.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([superscript 1]H MRS) to evaluate the in vivo effects of extended-release divalproex sodium on the glutamatergic system in adolescents with bipolar disorder, and to identify baseline neurochemical predictors of clinical remission. Method: Adolescents with bipolar disorder who were…

  2. Evaluation of brain edema using magnetic resonance proton relaxation times

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Nishimura, S. )

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies on the evaluation of water content in cases of brain edema were performed in vivo, using MR proton relaxation times (longitudinal relaxation time, T1; transverse relaxation time, T2). Brain edema was produced in the white matter of cats by the direct infusion method. The correlations between proton relaxation times obtained from MR images and the water content of white matter were studied both in autoserum-infused cats and in saline-infused cats. The correlations between T1 as well as T2 and the water content in human vasogenic brain edema were also examined and compared with the data obtained from the serum group. T1 and T2 showed good correlations with the water content of white matter not only in the experimental animals but also in the clinical cases. The quality of the edema fluid did not influence relaxation time and T1 seemed to represent almost solely the water content of the tissue. T2, however, was affected by the nature of existence of water and was more sensitive than T1 in detecting extravasated edema fluid. It seems feasible therefore to evaluate the water content of brain edema on the basis of T1 values.

  3. The effect of magnetically induced linear aggregates on proton transverse relaxation rates of aqueous suspensions of polymer coated magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saville, Steven L.; Woodward, Robert C.; House, Michael J.; Tokarev, Alexander; Hammers, Jacob; Qi, Bin; Shaw, Jeremy; Saunders, Martin; Varsani, Rahi R.; St Pierre, Tim G.; Mefford, O. Thompson

    2013-02-01

    It has been recently reported that for some suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles the transverse proton relaxation rate, R2, is dependent on the time that the sample is exposed to an applied magnetic field. This time dependence has been linked to the formation of linear aggregates or chains in an applied magnetic field via numerical modeling. It is widely known that chain formation occurs in more concentrated ferrofluids systems and that this has an affect on the ferrofluid properties. In this work we examine the relationships between colloidal stability, the formation of these linear structures, and changes observed in the proton transverse relaxation rate of aqueous suspensions of magnetic particles. A series of iron oxide nanoparticles with varying stabilizing ligand brush lengths were synthesized. These systems were characterized with dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dark-field optical microscopy, and proton transverse relaxation rate measurements. The dark field optical microscopy and R2 measurements were made in similar magnetic fields over the same time scale so as to correlate the reduction of the transverse relaxivity with the formation of linear aggregates. Our results indicate that varying the ligand length has a direct effect on the colloidal arrangement of the system in a magnetic field, producing differences in the rate and size of chain formation, and hence systematic changes in transverse relaxation rates over time. With increasing ligand brush length, attractive inter-particle interactions are reduced, which results in slower aggregate formation and shorter linear aggregate length. These results have implications for the stabilization, characterization and potentially the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticle systems used in biomedical applications.It has been recently reported that for some suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles the transverse proton relaxation rate, R2, is dependent on the time that the sample is exposed to

  4. Ultrafast proton radiography of the magnetic fields generated by a laser-driven coil current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lan; Ji, Hantao; Fiksel, Gennady; Fox, William; Evans, Michelle; Alfonso, Noel

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fields generated by a current flowing through a U-shaped coil connecting two copper foils were measured using ultrafast proton radiography. Two ˜1.25 kJ, 1-ns laser pulses propagated through laser entrance holes in the front foil and were focused to the back foil with an intensity of ˜3 × 1016 W/cm2. The intense laser-solid interaction induced a high voltage between the copper foils and generated a large current in the connecting coil. The proton data show ˜40-50 T magnetic fields at the center of the coil ˜3-4 ns after laser irradiation. The experiments provide significant insight for future target designs that aim to develop a powerful source of external magnetic fields for various applications in high-energy-density science.

  5. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianfu Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun

    2015-12-15

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10{sup −7} at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons.

  6. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xianpeng; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun

    2015-12-01

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10(-7) at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons. PMID:26724081

  7. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xianpeng; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun

    2015-12-01

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10-7 at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons.

  8. Ultrafast proton radiography of the magnetic fields generated by a laser-driven coil current

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gao, Lan; Ji, Hantao; Fiksel, Gennady; Fox, William; Evans, Michelle; Alfonso, Noel

    2016-04-15

    Magnetic fields generated by a current flowing through a U-shaped coil connecting two copper foils were measured using ultrafast proton radiography. Two ~ 1.25 kJ, 1-ns laser pulses propagated through laser entrance holes in the front foil and were focused to the back foil with an intensity of ~ 3 x 1016 W/cm2. The intense laser-solid interaction induced a high voltage between the copper foils and generated a large current in the connecting coil. The proton data show ~ 40-50 T magnetic fields at the center of the coil ~ 3-4 ns after laser irradiation. In conclusion, the experiments providemore » significant insight for future target designs that aim to develop a powerful source of external magnetic fields for various applications in high-energy-density science.« less

  9. The effect of magnetically induced linear aggregates on proton transverse relaxation rates of aqueous suspensions of polymer coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Saville, Steven L; Woodward, Robert C; House, Michael J; Tokarev, Alexander; Hammers, Jacob; Qi, Bin; Shaw, Jeremy; Saunders, Martin; Varsani, Rahi R; St Pierre, Tim G; Mefford, O Thompson

    2013-03-01

    It has been recently reported that for some suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles the transverse proton relaxation rate, R(2), is dependent on the time that the sample is exposed to an applied magnetic field. This time dependence has been linked to the formation of linear aggregates or chains in an applied magnetic field via numerical modeling. It is widely known that chain formation occurs in more concentrated ferrofluids systems and that this has an affect on the ferrofluid properties. In this work we examine the relationships between colloidal stability, the formation of these linear structures, and changes observed in the proton transverse relaxation rate of aqueous suspensions of magnetic particles. A series of iron oxide nanoparticles with varying stabilizing ligand brush lengths were synthesized. These systems were characterized with dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dark-field optical microscopy, and proton transverse relaxation rate measurements. The dark field optical microscopy and R(2) measurements were made in similar magnetic fields over the same time scale so as to correlate the reduction of the transverse relaxivity with the formation of linear aggregates. Our results indicate that varying the ligand length has a direct effect on the colloidal arrangement of the system in a magnetic field, producing differences in the rate and size of chain formation, and hence systematic changes in transverse relaxation rates over time. With increasing ligand brush length, attractive inter-particle interactions are reduced, which results in slower aggregate formation and shorter linear aggregate length. These results have implications for the stabilization, characterization and potentially the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticle systems used in biomedical applications. PMID:23389324

  10. Controlled transport and focusing of laser-accelerated protons with miniature magnetic devices.

    PubMed

    Schollmeier, M; Becker, S; Geissel, M; Flippo, K A; Blazević, A; Gaillard, S A; Gautier, D C; Grüner, F; Harres, K; Kimmel, M; Nürnberg, F; Rambo, P; Schramm, U; Schreiber, J; Schütrumpf, J; Schwarz, J; Tahir, N A; Atherton, B; Habs, D; Hegelich, B M; Roth, M

    2008-08-01

    This Letter demonstrates the transporting and focusing of laser-accelerated 14 MeV protons by permanent magnet miniature quadrupole lenses providing field gradients of up to 500 T/m. The approach is highly reproducible and predictable, leading to a focal spot of (286 x 173) microm full width at half maximum 50 cm behind the source. It decouples the relativistic laser-proton acceleration from the beam transport, paving the way to optimize both separately. The collimation and the subsequent energy selection obtained are perfectly applicable for upcoming high-energy, high-repetition rate laser systems. PMID:18764401

  11. New method to determine proton trajectories in the equatorial plane of a dipole magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ioanoviciu, Damaschin

    2015-01-01

    A parametric description of proton trajectories in the equatorial plane of Earth's dipole magnetic field has been derived. The exact expression of the angular coordinate contains an integral to be performed numerically. The radial coordinate results from the initial conditions by basic mathematical operations and by using trigonometric functions. With the approximate angular coordinate formula, applicable for a wide variety of cases of protons trapped in Earth's radiation belts, no numerical integration is needed. The results of exact and approximate expressions were compared for a specific case and small differences were found. PMID:25815248

  12. Alternating-gradient canted cosine theta superconducting magnets for future compact proton gantries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Weishi; Brouwer, Lucas; Caspi, Shlomo; Prestemon, Soren; Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schippers, Jacobus Maarten; Robin, David

    2015-10-01

    We present a design of superconducting magnets, optimized for application in a gantry for proton therapy. We have introduced a new magnet design concept, called an alternating-gradient canted cosine theta (AG-CCT) concept, which is compatible with an achromatic layout. This layout allows a large momentum acceptance. The 15 cm radius of the bore aperture enables the application of pencil beam scanning in front of the SC-magnet. The optical and dynamic performance of a gantry based on these magnets has been analyzed using the fields derived (via Biot-Savart law) from the actual windings of the AG-CCT combined with the full equations of motion. The results show that with appropriate higher order correction, a large 3D volume can be rapidly scanned with little beam shape distortion. A very big advantage is that all this can be done while keeping the AG-CCT fields fixed. This reduces the need for fast field ramping of the superconducting magnets between the successive beam energies used for the scanning in depth and it is important for medical application since this reduces the technical risk (e.g., a quench) associated with fast field changes in superconducting magnets. For proton gantries the corresponding superconducting magnet system holds promise of dramatic reduction in weight. For heavier ion gantries there may furthermore be a significant reduction in size.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance multiwindow analysis of proton local fields and magnetization distribution in natural and deuterated mouse muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Peemoeller, H; Pintar, M M

    1979-01-01

    The proton free-induction decays, spin-spin relaxation times, local fields in the rotating frame, and spin-lattice relaxation times in the laboratory and rotating frames, in natural and fully deuterated mouse muscle, are reported. Measurements were taken above and below freezing temperature and at two time windows on the free-induction decay. A comparative analysis show that the magnetization fractions deduced from the different experiments are in good agreement. The main conclusion is that the resolution of the (heterogeneous) muscle nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) response is improved by the multiwindow analysis. PMID:262554

  14. SU-D-304-02: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Field Targets

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, GA; Slater, JM; Slater, JD; Wroe, AJ

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of magnetic focusing for small field proton irradiations. It is hypothesized that magnetic focusing will provide significant dose distribution benefits over standard collimated beams for fields less than 10 mm diameter. Methods: Magnets consisting of 24 segments of radiation hard samarium-cobalt adhered into hollow cylinders were designed and manufactured. Two focusing magnets were placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table. Proton beams with energies of 127 and 157 MeV, 15 and 30 mm modulation, and 8 mm initial diameters were delivered to a water tank using single-stage scattering. Depth dose distributions were measured using a PTW PR60020 diode detector and transverse profiles were measured with Gafchromic EBT3 film. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed - both for comparison with experimental data and to further explore the potential of magnetic focusing in silica. For example, beam spot areas (based on the 90% dose contour) were matched at Bragg depth between simulated 100 MeV collimated beams and simulated beams focused by two 400 T/m gradient magnets. Results: Preliminary experimental results show 23% higher peak to entrance dose ratios and flatter spread out Bragg peak plateaus for 8 mm focused beams compared with uncollimated beams. Monte Carlo simulations showed 21% larger peak to entrance ratios and a ∼9 fold more efficient dose to target delivery compared to spot-sized matched collimated beams. Our latest results will be presented. Conclusion: Our results suggest that rare earth focusing magnet assemblies could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering dose to nominally spherical radiosurgery targets over a much shorter time compared to unfocused beams. Immediate clinical applications include those associated with proton radiosurgery and functional radiosurgery of the brain and spine, however expanded treatment sites can be also envisaged.

  15. The haem-accessibility in leghaemoglobin of Lupinus luteus as observed by proton magnetic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Vuk-pavlović, S; Benko, B; Maricić, S; Lahajnar, G; Kuranova, I P; Vainshtein, B K

    1976-01-01

    Using the solvent-protons' longitudinal magnetic relaxation rates (p.m.r.) for Lupinus luteus leghaemoglobin derivatives the accessibility of the haem has been evaluated by our "stereo-chemical p.m.r. titration" method with nonexchangeable protons of aliphatic lower alcohols in otherwise deuterated solutions. The haem in leghaemoglobin is more accessible and its protein environment more flexible compared with vertebrate haemoglobins. The correlation time in aquometleghaemglobin aqueous solution has been determined by measuring the frequency dispersion of the p.m.r. rates between 6.1 and 93 MHZ. Taking into account the measured value of tauc = (7.7 +/- 0.5 x 10(-10) s the iron-to-proton inter-spin distances have been calculated. The significance of these distances as well as the electronic g-factor anisotrophy for elucidation of fine structural details of the haem-environment are discussed. PMID:965150

  16. Measuring N-acetyl aspartate synthesis in vivo using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Su; Yang, Jehoon; Shen, Jun

    2008-01-01

    N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) is an important marker of neuronal function and viability that can be measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In this paper, we proposed a method to measure NAA synthesis using proton MRS with infusion of uniformly 13C-labeled glucose, and demonstrated its feasibility in an in vivo study of the rat brain. The rate of 13C-label incorporation into the acetyl group of NAA was measured using a localized, long echo-time proton MRS method. Signals from the 13C satellites of the main NAA methyl protons at 2.02 ppm were continuously monitored for 10 hours. Quantification of the data based on a linear kinetic model showed that NAA synthesis rate in isoflurane-anesthetized rats was 0.19 ± 0.02 µmol/g/h (mean ± standard deviation, n = 12). PMID:18486230

  17. Magnetic properties of proton irradiated BiFeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seungkyu; Jin Kim, Sam; Sung Kim, Chul

    2013-05-07

    The crystal structure and magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} samples, proton-irradiated with 0, 10, and 20 pC/{mu}m{sup 2}, were investigated with x-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, and Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements. From the Rietveld refinement analysis of the XRD patterns, the crystal structure of BiFeO{sub 3} is determined to be rhombohedral with the space group of R3c. We have observed the decrease in the lattice constant and oxygen occupancy with proton irradiation. The magnetization hysteresis (M-H) curves show the appearance of the weak ferromagnetic behavior in the proton irradiated BiFeO{sub 3} samples. The Moessbauer spectra of proton irradiated BiFeO{sub 3} samples at 295 K were analyzed with two-sextets (B{sub 1} and B{sub 2}) and doublet. From the isomer shift ({delta}) values, ionic states were determined to be Fe{sup 3+}. Compared to non-irradiated sample, having the antiferromagnetic area ratio (two-sextets) of 45.47, 54.53% the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic area ratios (doublet) of 10 and 20 pC/{mu}m{sup 2} proton irradiated BiFeO{sub 3} samples are 41.36, 51.26, and 7.38% and 41.03, 50.90, and 8.07%, respectively. Our experimental observation suggests that the increase in the paramagnetic area ratio is due to the disappearance of superexchange interaction, resulted from the removal of the oxygen with proton irradiation. Also, the appearance of the weak ferromagnetic behavior is caused by the breaking of the antiferromagnetic coupling.

  18. High-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals metabolic effects of normal brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Janna L.; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Choi, In-Young; Lee, Phil; Brooks, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Altered brain metabolism is likely to be an important contributor to normal cognitive decline and brain pathology in elderly individuals. To characterize the metabolic changes associated with normal brain aging, we used high-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo to quantify 20 neurochemicals in the hippocampus and sensorimotor cortex of young adult and aged rats. We found significant differences in the neurochemical profile of the aged brain when compared with younger adults, including lower aspartate, ascorbate, glutamate, and macromolecules, and higher glucose, myo-inositol, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, total choline, and glutamine. These neurochemical biomarkers point to specific cellular mechanisms that are altered in brain aging, such as bioenergetics, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell membrane turnover, and endogenous neuroprotection. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be a valuable translational approach for studying mechanisms of brain aging and pathology, and for investigating treatments to preserve or enhance cognitive function in aging. PMID:24559659

  19. High-Precision Determination of the Electric and Magnetic Form Factors of the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Bernauer, J. C.; Achenbach, P.; Ayerbe Gayoso, C.; Boehm, R.; Distler, M. O.; Doria, L.; Esser, A.; Friedrich, J.; Gomez Rodriguez de la Paz, M.; Merkel, H.; Middleton, D. G.; Mueller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez Majos, S.; Schlimme, B. S.; Walcher, Th.; Weinriefer, M.; Bosnar, D.; Makek, M.

    2010-12-10

    New precise results of a measurement of the elastic electron-proton scattering cross section performed at the Mainz Microtron MAMI are presented. About 1400 cross sections were measured with negative four-momentum transfers squared up to Q{sup 2}=1 (GeV/c){sup 2} with statistical errors below 0.2%. The electric and magnetic form factors of the proton were extracted by fits of a large variety of form factor models directly to the cross sections. The form factors show some features at the scale of the pion cloud. The charge and magnetic radii are determined to be {sup 1/2}=0.879(5){sub stat}(4){sub syst}(2){sub model}(4){sub group} fm and {sup 1/2}=0.777(13){sub stat}(9){sub syst}(5){sub model}(2){sub group} fm.

  20. High-precision determination of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton.

    PubMed

    Bernauer, J C; Achenbach, P; Ayerbe Gayoso, C; Böhm, R; Bosnar, D; Debenjak, L; Distler, M O; Doria, L; Esser, A; Fonvieille, H; Friedrich, J M; Friedrich, J; Gómez Rodríguez de la Paz, M; Makek, M; Merkel, H; Middleton, D G; Müller, U; Nungesser, L; Pochodzalla, J; Potokar, M; Sánchez Majos, S; Schlimme, B S; Sirca, S; Walcher, Th; Weinriefer, M

    2010-12-10

    New precise results of a measurement of the elastic electron-proton scattering cross section performed at the Mainz Microtron MAMI are presented. About 1400 cross sections were measured with negative four-momentum transfers squared up to Q² = 1 (GeV/c)² with statistical errors below 0.2%. The electric and magnetic form factors of the proton were extracted by fits of a large variety of form factor models directly to the cross sections. The form factors show some features at the scale of the pion cloud. The charge and magnetic radii are determined to be ½ = 0.879(5)stat(4)syst(2)model(4)group fm and ½ = 0.777(13)stat(9)syst(5)model(2)group fm. PMID:21231520

  1. NuMI proton kicker extraction magnet termination resistor system

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, S.R.; Jensen, C.C.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The temperature stability of the kicker magnet termination resistor assembly directly affects the field flatness and amplitude stability. Comprehensive thermal enhancements were made to the existing Main Injector resistor assembly design to satisfy NuMI performance specifications. Additionally, a fluid-processing system utilizing Fluorinert{reg_sign} FC-77 high-voltage dielectric was built to precisely control the setpoint temperature of the resistor assembly from 70 to 120F, required to maintain constant resistance during changing operational modes. The Fluorinert{reg_sign} must be continually processed to remove hazardous breakdown products caused by radiation exposure to prevent chemical attack of system components. Design details of the termination resistor assembly and Fluorinert{reg_sign} processing system are described. Early performance results will be presented.

  2. Design summary of the magnet support structures for the proton storage ring injection line upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, J.D.; Ledford, J.E.; Smith, B.G.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the technical engineering and design issues associated with the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) Injection Line upgrade of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The main focus is on the engineering design calculations of several magnet support structures. The general procedure based upon a set number of design criteria is outlined, followed by a case-by-case summary of the engineering design analyses, reutilization or fabrication callouts and design safety factors.

  3. High-Resolution Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Metastatic Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountford, Carolyn E.; Wright, Lesley C.; Holmes, Kerry T.; MacKinnon, Wanda B.; Gregory, Patricia; Fox, Richard M.

    1984-12-01

    High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of intact cancer cells revealed differences between cells with the capacity to metastasize and those that produce locally invasive tumors. The NMR resonances that characterize the metastatic cells were associated with an increased ratio of cholesterol to phospholipid and an increased amount of plasma membrane--bound cholesterol ester. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy could therefore be used to assess the metastatic potential of primary tumors.

  4. Measurement of pulsed-power-driven magnetic fields via proton deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariscal, D.; McGuffey, C.; Valenzuela, J.; Wei, M. S.; Chittenden, J. P.; Niasse, N.; Presura, R.; Haque, S.; Wallace, M.; Arias, A.; Covington, A.; Sawada, H.; Wiewior, P.; Beg, F. N.

    2014-12-01

    Measuring magnetic field and current distribution in Z-pinch plasma systems is crucial to the validation of Z-pinch theory. In this letter, the demonstration of proton deflectometry to pulsed-power-driven loads at the mega-amp scale is presented, which is capable of making more detailed field maps in high-density regions of plasmas. In this method, a laser-driven, broad-spectrum, MeV-energy proton beam is directed through a pulsed-power-driven plasma system, and the resulting deflections are measured to examine configuration of magnetic fields and to infer the currents that support them. The technique was first demonstrated on simple short-circuit loads, and the results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations providing reliable estimates of the field and current configurations. It was then applied to a more complex—radial foil—plasma load. The measurements show unexpected proton deflections that exhibit the complexity of the plasma load and that with further analysis will reveal details about the current and magnetic field topology in this complex configuration.

  5. Ulysses observations of electron and proton components in a magnetic cloud and related wave activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to a smooth rotation of the magnetic field vector, magnetic clouds have a low proton temperature T(sub p). Their expansion in the solar wind leads to depletion and therefore the ion component cools down. It has been shown recently that the electron component in magnetic clouds behaves differently: when the cloud expands, electron temperature Te anti correlates with density and therefore Te increases in the cloud, creating favorable conditions for the rise of ion-acoustic waves. For the magnetic cloud observed by Ulysses on June 10 - 12, 1993 at 4.64 AU at S 32.5 deg, we present observations for both electron and proton components and related plasma wave activity. Our results confirm the anti correlation between T(sub e) and electron density and also exhibit a high ratio of T(sub e)/T(sub P) in the cloud. Since Landau damping is not effective for T(sub e)/T(sub p) much greater than 1, Doppler shifted ion acoustic waves are expected in the cloud. Calculation of ion acoustic wave frequencies in the cloud and comparison with observed wave activity confirm this expectation. As in our previous work, we show that the electron component in the cloud obeys a polytropic law with gamma is less than 1 (gamma approximately equals 0.3-0.4). The dynamics of the magnetic cloud are determined to a large degree by the dominating electron pressure.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance proton imaging of bone pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Atlan, H.; Sigal, R.; Hadar, H.; Chisin, R.; Cohen, I.; Lanir, A.; Soudry, M.; Machtey, Y.; Schreiber, R.; Benmair, J.

    1986-02-01

    Thirty-two patients with diversified pathology were examined with a supraconductive NMR imager using spin echo with different TR and TE to obtain T1 and T2 weighted images. They included 20 tumors (12 primary, eight metastasis), six osteomyelitis, three fractures, two osteonecrosis, and one diffuse metabolic (Gaucher) disease. In all cases except for the stress fractures, the bone pathology was clearly visualized in spite of the normal lack of signal from the compact cortical bone. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging proved to be at least as sensitive as radionuclide scintigraphy but much more accurate than all other imaging procedures including computed tomography (CT) and angiography to assess the extension of the lesions, especially in tumors extended to soft tissue. This is due both to easy acquisition of sagittal and coronal sections and to different patterns of pathologic modifications of T1 and T2 which are beginning to be defined. It is hoped that more experience in clinical use of these patterns will help to discriminate between tumor extension and soft-tissue edema. We conclude that while radionuclide scintigraphy will probably remain the most sensitive and easy to perform screening test for bone pathology, NMR imaging, among noninvasive diagnostic procedures, appears to be at least as specific as CT. In addition, where the extension of the lesions is concerned, NMR imaging is much more informative than CT. In pathology of the spine, the easy visualization of the spinal cord should decrease the need for myelography.

  7. Memory CD4 T cells in influenza.

    PubMed

    Zens, Kyra D; Farber, Donna L

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly among young children and the elderly. Current vaccines induce neutralizing antibody responses directed toward highly variable viral surface proteins, resulting in limited heterosubtypic protection to new viral serotypes. By contrast, memory CD4 T cells recognize conserved viral proteins and are cross-reactive to multiple influenza strains. In humans, virus-specific memory CD4 T cells were found to be the protective correlate in human influenza challenge studies, suggesting their key role in protective immunity. In mouse models, memory CD4 T cells can mediate protective responses to secondary influenza infection independent of B cells or CD8 T cells, and can influence innate immune responses. Importantly, a newly defined, tissue-resident CD4 memory population has been demonstrated to be retained in lung tissue and promote optimal protective responses to an influenza infection. Here, we review the current state of results regarding the generation of memory CD4 T cells following primary influenza infection, mechanisms for their enhanced efficacy in protection from secondary challenge including their phenotype, localization, and function in the context of both mouse models and human infection. We also discuss the generation of memory CD4 T cells in response to influenza vaccines and its future implications for vaccinology. PMID:25005927

  8. Measuring the strong electrostatic and magnetic fields with proton radiography for ultra-high intensity laser channeling on fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Uematsu, Y.; Iwawaki, T.; Habara, H. Tanaka, K. A.; Ivancic, S.; Theobald, W.; Lei, A. L.

    2014-11-15

    In order to investigate the intense laser propagation and channel formation in dense plasma, we conducted an experiment with proton deflectometry on the OMEGA EP Laser facility. The proton image was analyzed by tracing the trajectory of mono-energetic protons, which provides understanding the electric and magnetic fields that were generated around the channel. The estimated field strengths (E ∼ 10{sup 11} V/m and B ∼ 10{sup 8} G) agree with the predictions from 2D-Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, indicating the feasibility of the proton deflectometry technique for over-critical density plasma.

  9. Measuring the strong electrostatic and magnetic fields with proton radiography for ultra-high intensity laser channeling on fast ignitiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uematsu, Y.; Ivancic, S.; Iwawaki, T.; Habara, H.; Lei, A. L.; Theobald, W.; Tanaka, K. A.

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate the intense laser propagation and channel formation in dense plasma, we conducted an experiment with proton deflectometry on the OMEGA EP Laser facility. The proton image was analyzed by tracing the trajectory of mono-energetic protons, which provides understanding the electric and magnetic fields that were generated around the channel. The estimated field strengths (E ˜ 1011 V/m and B ˜ 108 G) agree with the predictions from 2D-Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, indicating the feasibility of the proton deflectometry technique for over-critical density plasma.

  10. Measuring the strong electrostatic and magnetic fields with proton radiography for ultra-high intensity laser channeling on fast ignition.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Y; Ivancic, S; Iwawaki, T; Habara, H; Lei, A L; Theobald, W; Tanaka, K A

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate the intense laser propagation and channel formation in dense plasma, we conducted an experiment with proton deflectometry on the OMEGA EP Laser facility. The proton image was analyzed by tracing the trajectory of mono-energetic protons, which provides understanding the electric and magnetic fields that were generated around the channel. The estimated field strengths (E ∼ 10(11) V/m and B ∼ 10(8) G) agree with the predictions from 2D-Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, indicating the feasibility of the proton deflectometry technique for over-critical density plasma. PMID:25430358

  11. Proton magnetic resonance imaging using a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugar, D.; Mamin, H. J.; Sherwood, M. H.; Kim, M.; Rettner, C. T.; Ohno, K.; Awschalom, D. D.

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, with its ability to provide three-dimensional, elementally selective imaging without radiation damage, has had a revolutionary impact in many fields, especially medicine and the neurosciences. Although challenging, its extension to the nanometre scale could provide a powerful new tool for the nanosciences, especially if it can provide a means for non-destructively visualizing the full three-dimensional morphology of complex nanostructures, including biomolecules. To achieve this potential, innovative new detection strategies are required to overcome the severe sensitivity limitations of conventional inductive detection techniques. One successful example is magnetic resonance force microscopy, which has demonstrated three-dimensional imaging of proton NMR with resolution on the order of 10 nm, but with the requirement of operating at cryogenic temperatures. Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in diamond offer an alternative detection strategy for nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging that is operable at room temperature. Here, we demonstrate two-dimensional imaging of 1H NMR from a polymer test sample using a single NV centre in diamond as the sensor. The NV centre detects the oscillating magnetic field from precessing protons as the sample is scanned past the NV centre. A spatial resolution of ˜12 nm is shown, limited primarily by the scan resolution.

  12. Proton magnetic resonance imaging using a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor.

    PubMed

    Rugar, D; Mamin, H J; Sherwood, M H; Kim, M; Rettner, C T; Ohno, K; Awschalom, D D

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, with its ability to provide three-dimensional, elementally selective imaging without radiation damage, has had a revolutionary impact in many fields, especially medicine and the neurosciences. Although challenging, its extension to the nanometre scale could provide a powerful new tool for the nanosciences, especially if it can provide a means for non-destructively visualizing the full three-dimensional morphology of complex nanostructures, including biomolecules. To achieve this potential, innovative new detection strategies are required to overcome the severe sensitivity limitations of conventional inductive detection techniques. One successful example is magnetic resonance force microscopy, which has demonstrated three-dimensional imaging of proton NMR with resolution on the order of 10 nm, but with the requirement of operating at cryogenic temperatures. Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in diamond offer an alternative detection strategy for nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging that is operable at room temperature. Here, we demonstrate two-dimensional imaging of (1)H NMR from a polymer test sample using a single NV centre in diamond as the sensor. The NV centre detects the oscillating magnetic field from precessing protons as the sample is scanned past the NV centre. A spatial resolution of ∼12 nm is shown, limited primarily by the scan resolution. PMID:25531089

  13. A nested phosphorus and proton coil array for brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan; Lakshmanan, Karthik; Madelin, Guillaume; Parasoglou, Prodromos

    2016-01-01

    A dual-nuclei radiofrequency coil array was constructed for phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the human brain at 7T. An eight-channel transceive degenerate birdcage phosphorus module was implemented to provide whole-brain coverage and significant sensitivity improvement over a standard dual-tuned loop coil. A nested eight-channel proton module provided adequate sensitivity for anatomical localization without substantially sacrificing performance on the phosphorus module. The developed array enabled phosphorus spectroscopy, a saturation transfer technique to calculate the global creatine kinase forward reaction rate, and single-metabolite whole-brain imaging with 1.4cm nominal isotropic resolution in 15min (2.3cm actual resolution), while additionally enabling 1mm isotropic proton imaging. This study demonstrates that a multi-channel array can be utilized for phosphorus and proton applications with improved coverage and/or sensitivity over traditional single-channel coils. The efficient multi-channel coil array, time-efficient pulse sequences, and the enhanced signal strength available at ultra-high fields can be combined to allow volumetric assessment of the brain and could provide new insights into the underlying energy metabolism impairment in several neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as mental disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:26375209

  14. Monitoring lactic acid production during milk fermentation by in situ quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bouteille, R; Gaudet, M; Lecanu, B; This, H

    2013-04-01

    When fermenting milk, lactic bacteria convert part of α- and β-lactoses into d- and l- lactic acids, causing a pH decrease responsible for casein coagulation. Lactic acid monitoring during fermentation is essential for the control of dairy gel textural and organoleptic properties, and is a way to evaluate strain efficiency. Currently, titrations are used to follow the quantity of acids formed during jellification of milk but they are not specific to lactic acid. An analytical method without the use of any reagent was investigated to quantify lactic acid during milk fermentation: in situ quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Two methods using in situ quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared: (1) d- and l-lactic acids content determination, using the resonance of their methyl protons, showing an increase from 2.06 ± 0.02 to 8.16 ± 0.74 g/L during 240 min of fermentation; and (2) the determination of the α- and β-lactoses content, decreasing from 42.68 ± 0.02 to 30.76 ± 1.75 g/L for the same fermentation duration. The ratio between the molar concentrations of produced lactic acids and consumed lactoses enabled cross-validation, as the value (2.02 ± 0.18) is consistent with lactic acid bacteria metabolism. PMID:23403188

  15. Fast method for brain image segmentation: application to proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Bonekamp, David; Horská, Alena; Jacobs, Michael A; Arslanoglu, Atilla; Barker, Peter B

    2005-11-01

    The interpretation of brain metabolite concentrations measured by quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is assisted by knowledge of the percentage of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within each MRSI voxel. Usually, this information is determined from T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) that have a much higher spatial resolution than the MRSI data. While this approach works well, it is time-consuming. In this article, a rapid data acquisition and analysis procedure for image segmentation is described, which is based on collection of several, thick slice, fast spin echo images (FSE) of different contrast. Tissue segmentation is performed with linear "Eigenimage" filtering and normalization. The method was compared to standard segmentation techniques using high-resolution 3D T(1)-weighted MRI in five subjects. Excellent correlation between the two techniques was obtained, with voxel-wise regression analysis giving GM: R2 = 0.893 +/- 0.098, WM: R2 = 0.892 +/- 0.089, ln(CSF): R2 = 0.831 +/- 0.082). Test-retest analysis in one individual yielded an excellent agreement of measurements with R2 higher than 0.926 in all three tissue classes. Application of FSE/EI segmentation to a sample proton MRSI dataset yielded results similar to prior publications. It is concluded that FSE imaging in conjunction with Eigenimage analysis is a rapid and reliable way of segmenting brain tissue for application to proton MRSI. PMID:16187272

  16. Low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies and their relation to transient interplanetary magnetic structures: ISEE-3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K. P.; Smith, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is known that the interplanetary medium in the period approaching solar maximum is characterized by an enhancement in the occurrence of transient solar wind streams and shocks and that such systems are often associated with looplike magnetic structures or clouds. There is observational evidence that bidirectional, field aligned flows of low energy particles could be a signature of such looplike structures, although detailed models for the magnetic field configuration and injection mechanisms do not exist at the current time. Preliminary results of a survey of low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies measured on ISEE-3 in the interplanetary medium between August 1978 and May 1982, together with magnetic field data from the same spacecraft are presented.

  17. Water confined in carbon nanotubes: Magnetic response and proton chemical shieldings

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, P; Schwegler, E; Galli, G

    2008-11-14

    We study the proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) of a model system consisting of liquid water in infinite carbon nanotubes (CNT). Chemical shieldings are evaluated from linear response theory, where the electronic structure is derived from density functional theory (DFT) with plane-wave basis sets and periodic boundary conditions. The shieldings are sampled from trajectories generated via first-principles molecular dynamics simulations at ambient conditions, for water confined in (14,0) and (19,0) CNTs with diameters d = 11 {angstrom} and 14.9 {angstrom}, respectively. We find that confinement within the CNT leads to a large ({approx} -23 ppm) upfield shift relative to bulk liquid water. This shift is a consequence of strongly anisotropic magnetic fields induced in the CNT by an applied magnetic field.

  18. A superconducting magnet mandrel with minimum symmetry laminations for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, S.; Arbelaez, D.; Brouwer, L.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Hafalia, R.; Prestemon, S.; Robin, D.; Sun, C.; Wan, W.

    2013-08-01

    The size and weight of ion-beam cancer therapy gantries are frequently determined by a large aperture, curved, ninety degree, dipole magnet. The higher fields achievable with superconducting technology promise to greatly reduce the size and weight of this magnet and therefore also the gantry as a whole. This paper reports advances in the design of winding mandrels for curved, canted cosine-theta (CCT) magnets in the context of a preliminary magnet design for a proton gantry. The winding mandrel is integral to the CCT design and significantly affects the construction cost, stress management, winding feasibility, eddy current power losses, and field quality of the magnet. A laminated mandrel design using a minimum symmetry in the winding path is introduced and its feasibility demonstrated by a rapid prototype model. Piecewise construction of the mandrel using this laminated approach allows for increased manufacturing techniques and material choices. Sectioning the mandrel also reduces eddy currents produced during field changes accommodating the scan of beam energies during treatment. This symmetry concept can also greatly reduce the computational resources needed for 3D finite element calculations. It is shown that the small region of symmetry forming the laminations combined with periodic boundary conditions can model the entire magnet geometry disregarding the ends.

  19. Initial test results of the Los Alamos proton-storage-ring bump-magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C.R.; Barlow, D.B.; Redd, D.B.

    1997-09-01

    An upgrade program for increasing the stored beam current in the LANSCE Proton Storage is presently under way. Part of the upgrade effort has been to design, specify, and add four bump-magnet/modulator systems to the ring. This paper describes the initial test results of the first bump-magnet/modulator system. The paper begins with an overview of the pulsed-power system including important specifications of the modulator, magnet, cabling, and control system. In the main portion of the paper, waveforms and test data are included showing the accuracy, repeatability, and stability of the magnet-current pulses. These magnet pulses are programmable both in rise and fall time as well as in amplitude. The amplitude can be set between 50 and 300 A, the rise-time is fixed at 1 ms, and the linear fall-time can be varied between 500 {mu}s and 1500 {mu}s. Other issues such as loading effects and power dissipation in the magnet-bore beamtube are examined and reported.

  20. Strange magnetic form factor of the proton at $Q^2 = 0.23$ GeV$^2$

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ping; Leinweber, Derek; Thomas, Anthony; Young, Ross

    2009-06-01

    We determine the $u$ and $d$ quark contributions to the proton magnetic form factor at finite momentum transfer by applying chiral corrections to quenched lattice data. Heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is applied at next to leading order in the quenched, and full QCD cases for the valence sector using finite range regularization. Under the assumption of charge symmetry these values can be combined with the experimental values of the proton and neutron magnetic form factors to deduce a relatively accurate value for the strange magnetic form factor at $Q^2=0.23$ GeV$^2$, namely $G_M^s=-0.034 \\pm 0.021$ $\\mu_N$.

  1. Analyzing power in pion-proton bremsstrahlung, and the. Delta. sup ++ (1232) magnetic moment

    SciTech Connect

    Bosshard, A.; Amsler, C.; Doebeli, M.; Doser, M.; Schaad, M.; Riedlberger, J.; Truoel, P. ); Bistirlich, J.A.; Crowe, K.M.; Ljungfelt, S.; Meyer, C.A. ); van den Brandt, B.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.; Renker, D. ); Loude, J.F.; Perroud, J.P. ); Haddock, R.P. ); Sober, D.I. )

    1991-10-01

    We report on a first measurement of the polarized-target asymmetry of the pion-proton bremsstrahlung cross section ({pi}{sup +}{ital p}{r arrow}{pi}{sup {minus}}{ital p}{gamma}). As in previous cross section measurements the pion energy (298 MeV) and the detector geometry for this experiment was chosen to optimize the sensitivity to the radiation from the magnetic dipole moment of the {Delta}{sup ++}(1232) resonance {mu}{sub {Delta}}. Comparison to a recent isobar model for pion-nucleon bremsstrahlung yields {mu}{sub {Delta}}=(1.62{plus minus}0.18){mu}{sub {ital p}}, where {mu}{sub {ital p}} is the proton magnetic moment. Since the asymmetry depends less than the cross section on the choice of the other input parameters for the model, their uncertainties affect this analysis by less than the experimental error. However the theory fails to represent both the cross section and the asymmetry data at the highest photon energies. Hence further improvements in the calculations are needed before the model dependence of the magnetic moment analysis can be fully assessed. The present result agrees with bag-model corrections to the SU(6) prediction {mu}{sub {Delta}}=2{mu}{sub {ital p}}. As a by-product, the analyzing power for elastic {pi}{sup +}{ital p} scattering at 415 MeV/{ital c} was also measured. This second result is in good agreement with phase shift calculations.

  2. Temperature dependence of proton NMR relaxation times at earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedbalski, Peter; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Parish, Christopher; Ferguson, Sarah; Cervantes, Eduardo; Oomen, Anisha; Krishnan, Anagha; Goyal, Aayush; Lumata, Lloyd

    The theoretical description of relaxation processes for protons, well established and experimentally verified at conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fields, has remained untested at low fields despite significant advances in low field NMR technology. In this study, proton spin-lattice relaxation (T1) times in pure water and water doped with varying concentrations of the paramagnetic agent copper chloride have been measured from 6 to 92oC at earth's magnetic field (1700 Hz). Results show a linear increase of T1 with temperature for each of the samples studied. Increasing the concentration of the copper chloride greatly reduced T1 and reduced dependence on temperature. The consistency of the results with theory is an important confirmation of past results, while the ability of an ultra-low field NMR system to do contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is promising for future applicability to low-cost medical imaging and chemical identification. This work is supported by US Dept of Defense Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0048 and the Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. AT-1877.

  3. Proton NMR and {mu}SR in Mn{sub 12}O{sub 12} acetate: A mesoscopic magnetic molecular cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Lascialfari, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Borsa, F. |; Shastri, A.; Jang, Z.H.; Carretta, P.

    1998-01-01

    The spin dynamics of Mn spins in the dodecanuclear manganese cluster of formula [Mn{sub 12}O{sub 12}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 16}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}2CH{sub 3}-COOH{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O(Mn{sub 12}) has been investigated by {sup 1}HNMR and muon spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T{sub 1} as a function of temperature (10{endash}400 K) and external magnetic field (0{endash}9.4 T). At room temperature, the proton 1/T{sub 1} depends on the measuring frequency. The results can be interpreted in terms of a slow decay of the Mn electronic-spin autocorrelation function, a feature characteristic of the almost zero dimensionality of the system. As the temperature is lowered, 1/T{sub 1} displays a critical enhancement that can be related to the slowing down of the local spin fluctuations as the cluster approaches the condensation into the total spin S=10 ground-state configuration. It is found that the application of an external magnetic field greatly depresses the enhancement of 1/T{sub 1} an effect that could be related to the superparamagnetic behavior of the Mn{sub 12} molecule. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Characterization of the ELIMED Permanent Magnets Quadrupole system prototype with laser-driven proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, F.; Pommarel, L.; Romano, F.; Cuttone, G.; Costa, M.; Giove, D.; Maggiore, M.; Russo, A. D.; Scuderi, V.; Malka, V.; Vauzour, B.; Flacco, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.

    2016-07-01

    Laser-based accelerators are gaining interest in recent years as an alternative to conventional machines [1]. In the actual ion acceleration scheme, energy and angular spread of the laser-driven beams are the main limiting factors for beam applications and different solutions for dedicated beam-transport lines have been proposed [2,3]. In this context a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs) has been realized [2] by INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) researchers, in collaboration with SIGMAPHI company in France, to be used as a collection and pre-selection system for laser driven proton beams. This system is meant to be a prototype to a more performing one [3] to be installed at ELI-Beamlines for the collection of ions. The final system is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u. In order to validate the design and the performances of this large bore, compact, high gradient magnetic system prototype an experimental campaign have been carried out, in collaboration with the group of the SAPHIR experimental facility at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. During this campaign a deep study of the quadrupole system optics has been performed, comparing the results with the simulation codes used to determine the setup of the PMQ system and to track protons with realistic TNSA-like divergence and spectrum. Experimental and simulation results are good agreement, demonstrating the possibility to have a good control on the magnet optics. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here.

  5. Pion-proton bremsstrahlung calculation and the ``experimental'' magnetic moment of Δ++(1232)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dahang; Liou, M. K.; Ding, Z. M.

    1991-11-01

    A bremsstrahlung amplitude in the special two-energy-two-angle (TETAS) approximation, which is relativistic, gauge invariant, and consistent with the soft-photon theorem, is derived for the pion-proton bremsstrahlung (π+pγ) process near the Δ++(1232) resonance. In order to take into account bremsstrahlung emission from an internal Δ++ line with both charge and the anomalous magnetic moment λΔ, we have applied a radiation decomposition identity to modify Low's standard prescription for constructing a soft-photon amplitude. This modified procedure is very general; it can be used to derive the TETAS amplitude for any bremsstrahlung process with resonance. The derived TETAS amplitude is applied to calculate all π+pγ cross sections which can be compared with the experimental data. Treating λΔ as a free parameter in these calculations, we extract the ``experimental'' magnetic moment of the Δ++, μΔ, from recent data. The extracted values of μΔ are (3.7-4.2)e/(2mp) from the University of California, Los Angeles data and (4.6-4.9)e/(2mp) from the Paul Scherrer Institute data. Here, mp is the proton mass. These values are smaller than the value 5.58e/(2mp), the ``bare'' magnetic moment predicted by the SU(6) model or the quark model, but they are close to the value 4.25e/(2mp) predicted by the modified SU(6) model of Beg and Pais and to the value (4.41-4.89)e/(2mp) predicted by the corrected bag-model of Brown, Rho, and Vento. Using the extracted μΔ as an input for calculating π+pγ cross sections, we show that the overall agreement between the theoretical predictions calculated with the extracted μΔ and the experimental measurements is excellent. This agreement demonstrates that the TETAS amplitude can be used to describe almost all the available π+pγ data. Finally, we also treat λΔ as a complex quantity, λΔ=λR+iλI, in order to estimate the contribution from the imaginary part λI. The best fit to the data gives λI~=0, independent of the choice

  6. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J G; Storey, B T; Hemling, M L; Grob, R L

    1990-06-01

    The high-resolution one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa is presented. The 1H-NMR data was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the partially methylated alditol acetates of the sugar unit, mild alkaline methanolysis of the glyceryl ester, mobility on normal phase and diphasic thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The structure of the molecule corresponds to 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-hexadecanoyl-3-O-beta-D-(3'-sulfo)-galactopyranosyl- sn-glycerol. PMID:2373957

  7. Isotropic proton-detected local-field nuclear magnetic resonancein solids

    SciTech Connect

    Havlin, Robert H.; Walls, Jamie D.; Pines, Alexander

    2004-08-04

    A new nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method is presented which produces linear, isotropic proton-detected local-field spectra for InS spin systems in powdered samples. The method, HETeronuclear Isotropic Evolution (HETIE), refocuses the anisotropic portion of the heteronuclear dipolar coupling frequencies by evolving the system under a series of specially designed Hamiltonians and evolution pathways. The theory behind HETIE is represented along with experimental studies conducted on a powdered sample of ferrocene, demonstrating the methodology outlined in this paper. Applications of HETIE for structural determination in solid-state NMR are discussed.

  8. 9.4T Human MRI: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Thomas; DelaBarre, Lance; Snyder, Carl; Tian, Jinfeng; Akgun, Can; Shrivastava, Devashish; Liu, Wanzahn; Olson, Chris; Adriany, Gregor; Strupp, John; Andersen, Peter; Gopinath, Anand; van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Garwood, Michael; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    This work reports the preliminary results of the first human images at the new high-field benchmark of 9.4T. A 65-cm-diameter bore magnet was used together with an asymmetric 40-cm-diameter head gradient and shim set. A multichannel transmission line (transverse electromagnetic (TEM)) head coil was driven by a programmable parallel transceiver to control the relative phase and magnitude of each channel independently. These new RF field control methods facilitated compensation for RF artifacts attributed to destructive interference patterns, in order to achieve homogeneous 9.4T head images or localize anatomic targets. Prior to FDA investigational device exemptions (IDEs) and internal review board (IRB)-approved human studies, preliminary RF safety studies were performed on porcine models. These data are reported together with exit interview results from the first 44 human volunteers. Although several points for improvement are discussed, the preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of safe and successful human imaging at 9.4T. PMID:17075852

  9. CPT Test with (anti)proton Magnetic Moments Based on Quantum Logic Cooling and Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, M.; Paschke, A.-G.; Dubielzig, T.; Ulmer, S.; Ospelkaus, C.

    2014-01-01

    Dehmelt and VanDyck's famous 1987 measurement of the electron and positron g-factor is still the most precise g-factor comparison in the lepton sector, and a sensitive test of possible CPT violation. A complementary g-factor comparison between the proton and the antiproton is highly desirable to test CPT symmetry in the baryon sector. Current experiments, based on Dehmelt's continuous Stern-Gerlach effect and the double Penning-trap technique, are making rapid progress. They are, however, extremely difficult to carry out because ground state cooling using cryogenic techniques is virtually impossible for heavy baryons, and because the continous Stern-Gerlach effect scales as μ/m, where m is the mass of the particle and μ its magnetic moment. Both difficulties will ultimately limit the accuracy. We discuss experimental prospects of realizing an alternative approach to a g-factor comparison with single (anti)protons, based on quantum logic techniques proposed by Heinzen and Wineland and by Wineland et al. The basic idea is to cool, control and measure single (anti)protons through interaction with a well-controlled atomic ion.

  10. Proton fire hose instabilities in the expanding solar wind: Role of oblique magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellinger, Petr

    2016-04-01

    The double adiabatic (CGL) approximation for the ideal (Parker) interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) predicts generation of the parallel particle temperature anisotropy (T∥ > T⊥) for a nearly radial magnetic field whereas for a strongly oblique IMF generation of the opposite temperature anisotropy is expected. The transition between the two behaviours is expected at around 45o, i.e. around 1 AU in the solar wind in the ecliptic plane. We investigate properties of a proton-electron plasma system in the solar wind using hybrid expanding box simulations starting with an oblique IMF. The simulated system becomes unstable with respect to the parallel and oblique fire hose instabilities and is forced to stay around the corresponding marginal stability. Rotation of the IMF reduces the time system stays near the marginal stability regions and for a strongly transverse IMF the system moves away from the regions unstable with respect to the fire hose instabilities.

  11. Non-destructive ripeness sensing by using proton NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance)

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Seong In; Krutz, G.W.; Stroshine, R.L. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Bellon, V. , 34 - Montpellier )

    1990-01-01

    More than 80 kinds of fruits and vegetables are available in the United States. But only about 6 of them have their quality standards (Dull, 1986). In the 1990 Fresh Trends survey (Zind, 1990), consumers were asked to rate 16 characteristics important to their decision to purchase fresh produce. The four top ranking factors were ripeness/freshness, taste/flavor, appearance/condition and nutritional value. Of these surveyed, 96% rated ripeness/freshness as extremely important or very important. Therefore, the development of reliable grading or sorting techniques for fresh commodities is essential. Determination of fruit quality often involves cutting and tasting. Non-destructive quality control in fruit and vegetables is a goal of growers and distributors, as well as the food processing industry. Many nondestructive techniques have been evaluated including soft x-ray, optical transmission, near infrared radiation, and machine vision. However, there are few reports of successful non-destructive measurement of sugar content directly in fruit. Higher quality fruit could be harvested and available to consumers if a nondestructive sensor that detects ripeness level directly by measuring sugar content were available. Using proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) principle is the possibility. A nondestructive ripeness (or sweetness) sensor for fruit quality control can be developed with the proton NMR principle (Cho, 1989). Several feasibility studies were necessary for the ripeness sensor development. Main objectives in this paper was to investigate the feasibilities (1) to detect ripeness (or sweetness level) of raw fruit tissue with an high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy (200 MHz) and (2) to measure sugar content of intact fruit with a low resolution proton NMR spectroscopy (10 MHz). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Non-destructive Ripeness Sensing by Using Proton NMR [Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cho, Seong In; Krutz, G. W.; Stroshine, R. L.; Bellon, V.

    1990-01-01

    More than 80 kinds of fruits and vegetables are available in the United States. But only about 6 of them have their quality standards (Dull, 1986). In the 1990 Fresh Trends survey (Zind, 1990), consumers were asked to rate 16 characteristics important to their decision to purchase fresh produce. The four top ranking factors were ripeness/freshness, taste/flavor, appearance/condition and nutritional value. Of these surveyed, 96% rated ripeness/freshness as extremely important or very important. Therefore, the development of reliable grading or sorting techniques for fresh commodities is essential. Determination of fruit quality often involves cutting and tasting. Non-destructive quality control in fruit and vegetables is a goal of growers and distributors, as well as the food processing industry. Many nondestructive techniques have been evaluated including soft x-ray, optical transmission, near infrared radiation, and machine vision. However, there are few reports of successful non-destructive measurement of sugar content directly in fruit. Higher quality fruit could be harvested and available to consumers if a nondestructive sensor that detects ripeness level directly by measuring sugar content were available. Using proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) principle is the possibility. A nondestructive ripeness (or sweetness) sensor for fruit quality control can be developed with the proton NMR principle (Cho, 1989). Several feasibility studies were necessary for the ripeness sensor development. Main objectives in this paper was to investigate the feasibilities (1) to detect ripeness (or sweetness level) of raw fruit tissue with an high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy (200 MHz) and (2) to measure sugar content of intact fruit with a low resolution proton NMR spectroscopy (10 MHz).

  13. Pion-proton bremsstrahlung calculation and the experimental'' magnetic moment of. Delta. sup ++ (1232)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, D.; Liou, M.K. ); Ding, Z.M. Department of Physics, Normandale Community College, Bloomington, Minnesota )

    1991-11-01

    A bremsstrahlung amplitude in the special two-energy-two-angle (TETAS) approximation, which is relativistic, gauge invariant, and consistent with the soft-photon theorem, is derived for the pion-proton bremsstrahlung ({pi}{sup +}{ital p}{gamma}) process near the {Delta}{sup ++}(1232) resonance. In order to take into account bremsstrahlung emission from an internal {Delta}{sup ++} line with both charge and the anomalous magnetic moment {lambda}{sub {Delta}}, we have applied a radiation decomposition identity to modify Low's standard prescription for constructing a soft-photon amplitude. This modified procedure is very general; it can be used to derive the TETAS amplitude for any bremsstrahlung process with resonance. The derived TETAS amplitude is applied to calculate all {pi}{sup +}{ital p}{gamma} cross sections which can be compared with the experimental data. Treating {lambda}{sub {Delta}} as a free parameter in these calculations, we extract the experimental'' magnetic moment of the {Delta}{sup ++}, {mu}{sub {Delta}}, from recent data. The extracted values of {mu}{sub {Delta}} are (3.7--4.2){ital e}/(2{ital m}{sub {ital p}}) from the University of California, Los Angeles data and (4.6--4.9){ital e}/(2{ital m}{sub {ital p}}) from the Paul Scherrer Institute data. Here, {ital m}{sub {ital p}} is the proton mass.

  14. Proton Magnetic Form Factor from Existing Elastic e-p Cross Section Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Longwu; Christy, Eric; Gilad, Shalev; Keppel, Cynthia; Schmookler, Barak; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2015-04-01

    The proton magnetic form factor GMp, in addition to being an important benchmark for all cross section measurements in hadron physics, provides critical information on proton structure. Extraction of GMp from e-p cross section data is complicated by two-photon exchange (TPE) effects, where available calculations still have large theoretical uncertainties. Studies of TPE contributions to e-p scattering have observed no nonlinear effects in Rosenbluth separations. Recent theoretical investigations show that the TPE correction goes to 0 when ɛ approaches 1, where ɛ is the virtual photon polarization parameter. In this talk, existing e-p elastic cross section data are reanalyzed by extrapolating the reduced cross section for ɛ approaching 1. Existing polarization transfer data, which is supposed to be relatively immune to TPE effects, are used to produce a ratio of electric and magnetic form factors. The extrapolated reduced cross section and polarization transfer ratio are then used to calculate GEp and GMp at different Q2 values.

  15. Double-proton beams and magnetic switchbacks in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Marcia; Goldstein, Bruce E.

    2013-06-01

    Previous work has led to suggestions that core-beam distributions of ions in the fast polar solar wind could be caused either by wave-particle interactions in interplanetary space or by ejections of faster material into pre-existing flows. It has also been suggested that the many-hour-long high-speed structures, or microstreams, in the polar wind could be the interplanetary manifestation of solar X-ray jets observed in supergranule boundaries. Proton distribution functions both in the microstreams and in the ambient fast polar wind are examined to test the conjecture that solar ejections may play an important role in creating double proton beams. Double-peaked distributions in the microstreams that have the peak containing most of the particles (the core) being faster than the less-dense beam are suggestive of ejection of material that may have come from a jet. It is concluded, however, that those "backwards" distributions were caused by magnetic reversals, or switchbacks, rather than by the inclusion of faster material. Other than in the switchbacks, there is no qualitative difference between the double-proton streaming in the microstreams peaks and in the ambient wind. Evidence is provided that essentially all departures of the magnetic field from the dominant polarity of the polar wind are due to such switchbacks rather than to solar fields with non-dominant polarities. It is also shown that, in the fast polar solar wind, there are more short-duration switchbacks than longer ones and that the incidence of reversed fields increases with solar distance.

  16. Intergalactic Magnetic Field and Arrival Direction of Ultra-High-Energy Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Das, Santabrata; Kang, Hyesung

    2010-02-01

    We studied how the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) affects the propagation of super-Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) protons that originate from extragalactic sources within the local GZK sphere. To this end, we set up hypothetical sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), virtual observers, and the magnetized cosmic web in a model universe constructed from cosmological structure formation simulations. We then arranged a set of reference objects mimicking active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local universe, with which correlations of simulated UHECR events are analyzed. With our model IGMF, the deflection angle between the arrival direction of super-GZK protons and the sky position of their actual sources is quite large with a mean value of langθrang ~ 15° and a median value of \\tilde{θ}˜ 7°-10°. On the other hand, the separation angle between the arrival direction and the sky position of nearest reference objects is substantially smaller with langSrang ~ 3fdg5-4°, which is similar to the mean angular distance in the sky to nearest neighbors among the reference objects. This is a direct consequence of our model that the sources, observers, reference objects, and the IGMF all trace the matter distribution of the universe. The result implies that extragalactic objects lying closest to the arrival direction of UHECRs are not necessarily their actual sources. With our model for the distribution of reference objects, the fraction of super-GZK proton events, whose closest AGNs are true sources, is less than 1/3. We discussed implications of our findings for correlation studies of real UHECR events.

  17. The proton temperature and the total hourly variance of the magnetic field components in different solar wind speed regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Chuan-Yi; Freeman, John W.; Lopez, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the predictions of the theory for radial variations of both Alfvenic fluctuations and solar wind proton temperatures proposed by Tu (1987, 1988) and the statistical results of hourly averaged plasma and magnetic field data observed by Helios 1 and 2 from launch through 1980 for different solar wind speed regimes. The comparison shows that for speed ranges between 500-800 km/s, the radial variation of the proton temperature between 0.3 and 1 AU can be explained by heating from the cascade energy which is determined by the radial variation of the total variance of magnetic field vector.

  18. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ˜16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ˜20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs.

  19. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV.

    PubMed

    Sjue, S K L; Mariam, F G; Merrill, F E; Morris, C L; Saunders, A

    2016-01-01

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model's accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets. PMID:26827356

  20. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjue, S. K. L.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A.

    2016-01-01

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model's accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.

  1. Absolute quantification for benzoic acid in processed foods using quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-09-15

    The absolute quantification method of benzoic acid (BA) in processed foods using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was developed and validated. BA levels were determined using proton signals (δ(H) 7.53 and 7.98) referenced to 2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonate-d(6) sodium salt (DSS-d(6)) after simple solvent extraction from processed foods. All recoveries from several kinds of processed foods, spiked at their specified maximum Japanese usage levels (0.6-2.5 g kg(-1)) and at 0.13 g kg(-1) and 0.063 g kg(-1), were greater than 80%. The limit of quantification was confirmed as 0.063 g kg(-1) in processed foods, which was sufficiently low for the purposes of monitoring BA. The accuracy of the proposed method is equivalent to the conventional method using steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method was both rapid and simple. Moreover, it provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. Therefore, the proposed method is a useful and practical tool for determining BA levels in processed foods. PMID:22967562

  2. Carbon-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Goff, H M; Morgan, L O

    1978-07-01

    Carbon-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra have been recorded for porphyrins, zinc porphyrins, and iron(III) porphyrin complexes in aqueous media. Spectra of porphyrin-c and hemin-c confirm the structure with thioether linkages at positions alpha to the porphyrin ring. The pattern of NMR isotropic shifts has implications regarding electron transfer in cytochrome-c. Free-base porphyrin-c and meso-substituted porphyrins have been examined for pyrrole nitrogen-hydrogen tautomerism and possible aggregation in aqueous solution. Zinc porphyrin 13C NMR spectra were recorded in order to provide diamagnetic references for paramagnetic iron(III) derivatives. Low-spin iron(III) porphyrin-biscyano complexes in aqueous solution exhibit NMR isotropic shift patterns similar to those previously observed for related compounds in non-aqueous media. The first 13C NMR spectra are reported for mu-oxo-bridged iron(III) porphyrin dimers. A partially resolved spectrum of a high-spin iron(III) porphyrin has also been obtained. Patterns of 13C and proton isotropic shifts are compared, and unpaired spin delocalization mechanisms for 13C resonances are discussed in a qualitative manner. PMID:687673

  3. Correction of Proton Resonance Frequency Shift Temperature Maps for Magnetic Field Disturbances Caused by Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmatukha, Andriy V.; Bakker, Chris J. G.

    2006-05-01

    Respiratory Induced Resonance Offset (RIRO) is a periodic disturbance of the magnetic field due to breathing. Such disturbances handicap the accuracy of the Proton Resonance Frequency Shift (PRFS) method of MRI temperature mapping in anatomies situated nearby the lungs and chest wall. In this work, we propose a method capable of minimizing errors caused by RIRO in PRFS temperature maps. In this method, a set of baseline images characterizing RIRO at a variety of respiratory cycle instants is acquired before the thermal treatment starts. During the treatment, the temperature evolution is found from two successive images. Then, the calculated temperature changes are corrected for the additional contribution caused by RIRO using the pre-treatment baseline images acquired at the identical instances of the respiratory cycle. Our method is shown to improve the accuracy and stability of PRFS temperature maps in the presence of RIRO and motion in phantom and volunteer experiments.

  4. Gain stabilization control system of the upgraded magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer at JET

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoestrand, Henrik; Sunden, E. Andersson; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ronchi, E.; Weiszflog, M.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Popovichev, S. [EURATOM Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2009-06-15

    Burning plasma experiments such as ITER and DEMO require diagnostics capable of withstanding the harsh environment generated by the intense neutron flux and to maintain stable operating conditions for times longer than present day systems. For these reasons, advanced control and monitoring (CM) systems will be necessary for the reliable operation of diagnostics. This paper describes the CM system of the upgraded magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer installed at the Joint European Torus focusing in particular on a technique for the stabilization of the gain of the photomultipliers coupled to the neutron detectors. The results presented here show that this technique provides good results over long time scales. The technique is of general interest for all diagnostics that employ scintillators coupled to photomultiplier tubes.

  5. Covalency of hydrogen bonds in liquid water can be probed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance experiments.

    PubMed

    Elgabarty, Hossam; Khaliullin, Rustam Z; Kühne, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of covalency is widely used to describe the nature of intermolecular bonds, to explain their spectroscopic features and to rationalize their chemical behaviour. Unfortunately, the degree of covalency of an intermolecular bond cannot be directly measured in an experiment. Here we established a simple quantitative relationship between the calculated covalency of hydrogen bonds in liquid water and the anisotropy of the proton magnetic shielding tensor that can be measured experimentally. This relationship enabled us to quantify the degree of covalency of hydrogen bonds in liquid water using the experimentally measured anisotropy. We estimated that the amount of electron density transferred between molecules is on the order of 10  m while the stabilization energy due to this charge transfer is ∼15 kJ mol(-1). The physical insight into the fundamental nature of hydrogen bonding provided in this work will facilitate new studies of intermolecular bonding in a variety of molecular systems. PMID:26370179

  6. Spectral Analysis of Magnetic Fluctuations at Proton Scales from Fast to Slow Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.

    2015-10-01

    This Letter investigates the spectral characteristics of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations at proton scales during several time intervals chosen along the speed profile of a fast stream. The character of the fluctuations within the first frequency decade, beyond the high-frequency break located between the fluid and kinetic regimes, strongly depends on the type of wind. While the fast wind shows a clear signature of both right-handed and left-handed polarized fluctuations, possibly associated with Kinetic {Alfv}\\acute{{{e}}}{{n}} Wave (KAW) and ion-cyclotron waves, respectively, the rarefaction region, where the wind speed and the Alfvénicity of low-frequency fluctuations decrease, shows a rapid disappearance of the ion-cyclotron signature followed by a more gradual disappearance of KAWs. Moreover, the power associated with perpendicular and parallel fluctuations also experiences rapid depletion, however, retaining the power anisotropy in favor of the perpendicular spectrum.

  7. Covalency of hydrogen bonds in liquid water can be probed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance experiments

    PubMed Central

    Elgabarty, Hossam; Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of covalency is widely used to describe the nature of intermolecular bonds, to explain their spectroscopic features and to rationalize their chemical behaviour. Unfortunately, the degree of covalency of an intermolecular bond cannot be directly measured in an experiment. Here we established a simple quantitative relationship between the calculated covalency of hydrogen bonds in liquid water and the anisotropy of the proton magnetic shielding tensor that can be measured experimentally. This relationship enabled us to quantify the degree of covalency of hydrogen bonds in liquid water using the experimentally measured anisotropy. We estimated that the amount of electron density transferred between molecules is on the order of 10  m while the stabilization energy due to this charge transfer is ∼15 kJ mol−1. The physical insight into the fundamental nature of hydrogen bonding provided in this work will facilitate new studies of intermolecular bonding in a variety of molecular systems. PMID:26370179

  8. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of breast cancer: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An emerging clinical modality called proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) enables the non-invasive in vivo assessment of tissue metabolism and is demonstrating applications in improving the specificity of MR breast lesion diagnosis and monitoring tumour responsiveness to neoadjuvant chemotherapies. Variations in the concentration of choline-based cellular metabolites, detectable with 1H-MRS, have shown an association with malignant transformation of tissue in in vivo and in vitro studies. 1H-MRS exists as an adjunct to the current routine clinical breast MR examination. This review serves as an introduction to the field of breast 1H-MRS, discusses modern high-field strength and quantitative approaches and technical considerations, and reviews the literature with respect to the application of 1H-MRS for breast cancer. PMID:22515594

  9. Magnetic superbasic proton sponges are readily removed and permit direct product isolation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Elia M; Raso, Renzo A; Hofer, Corinne J; Zeltner, Martin; Stettler, Robert D; Hess, Samuel C; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

    2014-11-21

    Workup in organic synthesis can be very time-consuming, particularly when using reagents with both a solubility similar to that of the desired products and a tendency not to crystallize. In this respect, reactions involving organic bases would strongly benefit from a tremendously simplified separation process. Therefore, we synthesized a derivative of the superbasic proton sponge 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN) and covalently linked it to the strongest currently available nanomagnets based on carbon-coated cobalt metal nanoparticles. The immobilized magnetic superbase reagent was tested in Knoevenagel- and Claisen-Schmidt-type condensations and showed conversions of up to 99%. High yields of up to 97% isolated product could be obtained by simple recrystallization without using column chromatography. Recycling the catalyst was simple and fast with an insignificant decrease in catalytic activity. PMID:25325822

  10. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and MRI Reveal No Evidence for Brain Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Neva M.; Shaw, Dennis. W. W.; Richards, Todd L.; Estes, Annette M.; Friedman, Seth D.; Petropoulos, Helen; Artru, Alan A.; Dager, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Brain mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed as an etiologic factor in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ([superscript 1]HMRS) and MRI were used to assess for evidence of brain mitochondrial dysfunction in longitudinal samples of children with ASD or developmental delay (DD), and cross-sectionally…

  11. Investigation of the neuroprotective effects of bee-venom acupuncture in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease by using immunohistochemistry and In-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 9.4 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Do-Wan; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chung, Jin-Yeung; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Hi-Joon; Kim, Seung-Nam; Choe, Bo-Young

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprotective therapeutics slows down the degeneration process in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). The neuronal survival in PD animal models is often measured by using immunohistochemistry. However, dynamic changes in the pathology of the brain cannot be explored with this technique. Application of in-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) can cover this shortcoming, as these techniques are non-invasive and can be repeated over time in the same animal. Thus, the sensitivity of both techniques to measure changes in the PD pathology was explored in an experiment studying the neuroprotective effects of the vigilance enhancer bee-venom (BV) in a mouse model of PD. The mice were pre-treated with 0.02-ml BV administered to the acupuncture point GB34 (Yangneungcheon) once every 3 days for 2 weeks. Three groups were classified as control, MPTP-intoxicated PD model and BV-treated mice. Outer volume suppression combined with the ultra-short echo-time STEAM (TE = 2.2 ms, TM = 20 ms, TR = 5000 ms) was used for localized in-vivo 1H MRS. Based on the 1H MRS spectral analysis, substantial changes of the neurochemical profiles were evaluated in the three investigated groups. In particular, the glutamate complex (Glx)/creatine (Cr) ratio (7.72 ± 1.25) in the PD group was significantly increased compared to that in the control group (3.93 ± 2.21, P = 0.001). Compared to the baseline values, the Glx/Cr ratio of the BV-treated group was significantly decreased 2 weeks after MPTP intoxication (one-way ANOVA, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that neurochemical alterations occurred in the three groups and that the neuroprotective effects of the BV acupuncture in a mouse model of PD could be quantified by using immunohistochemistry and 1H MRS.

  12. Temporal relationship between high-energy proton acceleration and magnetic field changes during solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurt, Victoria; Yushkov, Boris

    Understanding of the association of the magnetic field evolution in the corona and the temporal evolution of electromagnetic emissions produced by the accelerated particles during a solar flare can provide information about the nature of the energy-release process and its location. Recent high-spatial-resolution observations in HXR, UV and radio emissions allow one to study in detail a structure of two-ribbon flare site. According to these observations, the flare process can be divided into two different intervals with different temporal evolution of morphological structure: loop contraction during impulsive phase and subsequent loop expansion. Оn the other hand, the appearance of high-energy protons (with energy >300 MeV - an energy threshold of the pion production) in the solar atmosphere can be revealed from an emerging pion-decay component of high-energy gamma-ray emission. The present work is based on comparison of measurements of high-energy gamma-rays performed with the SONG detector onboard the CORONAS-F mission and reported observations of magnetic field evolution, such as HXR foot points (FP) separation and flare shear temporal behavior, or motion of UV/radio loops. We reliably identified the pion-decay component of gamma-ray emission in the course of five events attended with suitable spatial observations, namely, 2001 August 25, 2002 August 24, 2003 October 28, 2003 October 29, and 2005 January 20, and determined its onset time. We found that in these events the pion-decay emission occurred when the distance between conjugated foot-points of flare loops ceased to decrease and began to increase, i.e. changed from shrinkage to expansion. This result leads to the conclusion that the most efficient proton acceleration up to >300 MeV coincided in time with the radical reconfiguration of the magnetic field in the flare site. Earlier we found that the pion-decay emission onset in the 2003 October 28 flare was close to the time of maximum change rate of the

  13. Particle selection and beam collimation system for laser-accelerated proton beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Fourkal, Eugene; Li, Jinsheng; Ma, Chang-Ming

    2005-03-01

    In a laser-accelerated proton therapy system, the initial protons have broad energy and angular distributions, which are not suitable for direct therapeutic applications. A compact particle selection and collimation device is needed to deliver small pencil beams of protons with desired energy spectra. In this work, we characterize a superconducting magnet system that produces a desired magnetic field configuration to spread the protons with different energies and emitting angles for particle selection. Four magnets are set side by side along the beam axis; each is made of NbTi wires which carry a current density of approximately 10(5) A/cm2 at 4.2 K, and produces a magnetic field of approximately 4.4 T in the corresponding region. Collimation is applied to both the entrance and the exit of the particle selection system to generate a desired proton pencil beam. In the middle of the magnet system, where the magnetic field is close to zero, a particle selection collimator allows only the protons with desired energies to pass through for therapy. Simulations of proton transport in the presence of the magnetic field show that the selected protons have successfully refocused on the beam axis after passing through the magnetic field with the optimal magnet system. The energy spread for any given characteristic proton energy has been obtained. It is shown that the energy spread is a function of the magnetic field strength and collimator size and reaches the full width at half maximum of 25 MeV for 230 MeV protons. Dose distributions have also been calculated with the GEANT3 Monte Carlo code to study the dosimetric properties of the laser-accelerated proton beams for radiation therapy applications. PMID:15839352

  14. Electron Cloud Generation and Trapping in a Quadrupole Magnet at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, Robert J.; Browman, Andrew A.; Ledford, John E.; Borden, Michael J.; O'Hara, James F.; McCrady, Rodney C.; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J.; Spickermann, Thomas; Zaugg, Thomas J.; Pivi, Mauro T.F.; /SLAC

    2008-03-17

    Recent beam physics studies on the two-stream e-p instability at the LANL proton storage ring (PSR) have focused on the role of the electron cloud generated in quadrupole magnets where primary electrons, which seed beam-induced multipacting, are expected to be largest due to grazing angle losses from the beam halo. A new diagnostic to measure electron cloud formation and trapping in a quadrupole magnet has been developed, installed, and successfully tested at PSR. Beam studies using this diagnostic show that the 'prompt' electron flux striking the wall in a quadrupole is comparable to the prompt signal in the adjacent drift space. In addition, the 'swept' electron signal, obtained using the sweeping feature of the diagnostic after the beam was extracted from the ring, was larger than expected and decayed slowly with an exponential time constant of 50 to 100 {micro}s. Other measurements include the cumulative energy spectra of prompt electrons and the variation of both prompt and swept electron signals with beam intensity. Experimental results were also obtained which suggest that a good fraction of the electrons observed in the adjacent drift space for the typical beam conditions in the 2006 run cycle were seeded by electrons ejected from the quadrupole.

  15. Neurochemistry of Drug Action: Insights from Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging And Their Relevance to Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2011-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a non-invasive imaging technique that permits measurement of particular compounds or metabolites within the tissue of interest. In the brain, 1H MRS provides a snapshot of the neurochemical environment within a defined volume of interest. A search of the literature demonstrates the widespread utility of this technique for characterizing tumors, tracking the progress of neurodegenerative disease, and for understanding the neurobiological basis of psychiatric disorders. As of relatively recently, 1H MRS has found its way into substance abuse research, and it is beginning to become recognized as a valuable complement in the brain imaging toolbox that also contains positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Drug abuse studies employing 1H MRS have identified a number biochemical changes in the brain. The most consistent alterations across drug class were reductions in N-acetylaspartate and elevations in myo-inositol, while changes in choline, creatine, and amino acid transmitters also were abundant. Together, the studies discussed herein provide evidence that drugs of abuse may have a profound impact on neuronal health, energy metabolism and maintenance, inflammatory processes, cell membrane turnover, and neurotransmission, and these biochemical changes may underlie the neuropathology within brain tissue that subsequently gives rise to the cognitive and behavioral impairments associated with drug addiction. PMID:20201852

  16. Pion production via proton synchrotron radiation in strong magnetic fields in relativistic field theory: Scaling relations and angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

    2016-06-01

    We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are ni,f ∼104-105. We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one can infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 1015 G, where ni,f ∼1012-1013, from the results for ni,f ∼104-105. The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed.

  17. Pion production via proton synchrotron radiation in strong magnetic fields in relativistic field theory: Scaling relations and angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

    2016-06-01

    We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are ni,f ∼104-105. We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one can infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 1015 G, where ni,f ∼1012-1013, from the results for ni,f ∼104-105. The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed.

  18. On the origins of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast in tumors at 9.4T

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junzhong; Zaiss, Moritz; Zu, Zhongliang; Li, Hua; Xie, Jingping; Gochberg, Daniel F.; Bachert, Peter; Gore, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) provides an indirect means to detect exchangeable protons within tissues through their effects on the water signal. Previous studies have suggested that amide proton transfer (APT) imaging, a specific form of CEST, detects endogenous amide protons with a resonance frequency offset 3.5 ppm downfield from water, and thus may be sensitive to variations of mobile proteins/peptides in tumors. However, since CEST measurements are influenced by various confounding effects, such as spillover saturation, magnetization transfer (MT) and MT asymmetry, the mechanism or degree of increased APT signal in tumors are not certain. In addition to APT, nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) effects upfield from water may also provide distinct information about tissue composition. In the current study, APT, NOE and several other magnetic resonance parameters were measured and compared comprehensively in order to elucidate the origins of APT and NOE contrasts in tumors at 9.4T. In addition to conventional CEST methods, a new intrinsic inverse metric was applied to correct for relaxation and other effects. After corrections for spillover, MT and T1 effects, corrected APT in tumors was found not significantly different from normal tissues, but corrected NOE effects in tumors showed significant decreases compared with normal tissues. Biochemical measurements verified that there is no significant enhancement of protein contents in the tumors studied, consistent with corrected APT measurements and previous literature while qMT data showed decreases in the fractions of immobile macromolecules in tumors. Our results may assist better understanding the contrast depicted by CEST imaging in tumors, and the development of improved APT and NOE measurements for cancer imaging. PMID:24474497

  19. Removal of power-line harmonics from proton magnetic resonance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legchenko, Anatoly; Valla, Pierre

    2003-08-01

    The Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) method is based on the resonance behaviour of proton magnetic moments in the geomagnetic field. The main distinction between MRS and other geophysical methods is that it measures the magnetic resonance signal directly from groundwater molecules, making it a selective tool sensitive to groundwater. As the signal generated by the protons is very small, the method is also sensitive to electromagnetic interference (noise) and this is one of the major limitations for practical application. The frequency of the magnetic resonance signal (the Larmor frequency) is directly proportional to the magnitude of the geomagnetic field and varies between 800 and 2800 Hz around the globe. Whilst natural noise within this frequency range is generally not very large (excepting magnetic storms or other temporary disturbances), the level of cultural noise (electrical power lines, generators, etc.) may be very high. In order to improve performance, three existing filtering techniques were adapted to processing MRS measurements: block subtraction, sinusoid subtraction and notch filtering. The first two are subtraction techniques capable of suppressing stationary power-line noise without distorting or attenuating the signal of interest, both involve subtracting an estimate of the harmonic component but differ in the way the component is estimated. The block subtraction method consists of ascertaining the power-line noise (or "noise block") from a record of the noise alone, and then subtracting this block from a record containing both the noise and the signal. The sinusoid subtraction method is based on the calculation of the amplitude, frequency and phase of power-line harmonics using noise records. The notch filtering method does not require knowledge of the power-line harmonic parameters but it may cause distortion of the measured signal. During the study, it was found that, in the investigated frequency range, the electromagnetic noise produced by

  20. A TCT and annealing study on Magnetic Czochralski silicon detectors irradiated with neutrons and 24 GeV/ c protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifico, Nicola; Creanza, Donato; de Palma, Mauro; Manna, Norman; Kramberger, Gregor; Moll, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Silicon diodes (pad detectors) were irradiated with 24 GeV/ c protons at the CERN PS IRRAD1 facility and with neutrons at the TRIGA reactor in Ljubljana (Slovenia). The diodes were realized on Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) grown silicon, of both n- and p-type. After irradiation, an annealing study with CV measurements was performed on 24 GeV/ c proton irradiated detectors, looking for hints of type inversion after irradiation and during annealing. Other pad detectors were studied using the TCT (transient current technique), to gather information about the field profile in the detector bulk and thus about the effective space charge distribution within it.

  1. RECENT TEST RESULTS OF THE FAST-PULSED 4 T COS DIPOLE GSI 001.

    SciTech Connect

    MORITZ, G.; KAUGERTS, J.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; JAIN, A.; MARONE, A.; MURATORE, J.; THOMAS, R.; WANDERER, P.; ET AL.

    2005-05-26

    For the FAIR-project at GSI a model dipole was built at BNL with the nominal field of 4 T and a nominal ramp rate of 1 T/S. The magnet design was similar to the RHIC dipole, with some changes for loss reduction and better cooling. The magnet was already successfully tested in a vertical cryostat, with good training behavior. Cryogenic losses were measured and first results of field harmonics were published. However, for a better understanding of the cooling process, quench currents at several ramp rates were investigated. Detailed measurements of the field harmonics at 2 T/S between 0 and 4 T were performed.

  2. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  3. 26 CFR 1.846-4T - Effective dates (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates (temporary). 1.846-4T Section 1.846-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.846-4T Effective dates (temporary). (a) . For...

  4. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  5. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  6. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  7. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  8. Determination of apomorphine freebase in sublingual tablets by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Chin, Shook F; Miner, Virginia W; Dong, Liang; Gupta, Suneel; Fields, Steven M

    2016-09-10

    An apomorphine sublingual tablet formulation under development contains mixtures of apomorphine freebase (FB) and apomorphine hydrochloride salt. It is important to have a reliable analytical method to determine the ratio of the base and salt forms to ensure accuracy, reproducibility and robustness of the manufacturing processes as well as to meet the requirements of the quality target product profile. A Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy method based on the proton shift of the amine methyl group (N-CH3) in apomorphine has been developed to determine the mole percentage of freebase to the total mole of freebase and hydrochloride salt in the drug product. The method was evaluated in terms of specificity, linearity, and variability. The presence of excipients does not interfere with the analysis. A standard calibration curve of the chemical shift as a function of the proportion of freebase forms of apomorphine was established, covering the range of 100% apomorphine freebase to 100% apomorhine hydrochloride. The correlation coefficient (r(2)), slope, and Y-intercept of the regression line are 0.998, -0.00596, and 3.191, respectively. The day-to-day variability of the (1)H shift in two instruments in the standard is less than 1% RSD. Three lots of the sublingual tablet drug product were examined and quantified by the standard. The mole percent apomorphine freebase was determined to be 73.8%, 75.2%, and 76.2%, respectively, within 100.0%±2.0% of the target value of 75.0%. The method is a new avenue to use the (1)H NMR technique for determination of apomorphine freebase and salt ratio in a solid drug product dosage form for release testing and in-process control. PMID:27454089

  9. The low energy magnetic spectrometer on Ulysses and ACE response to near relativistic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Bruno; Filipe Maia, Dalmiro Jorge; Lanzerotti, Louis; Gonçalves, Patrícia; Patterson, J. Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We show that the Heliosphere Instrument for Spectra Composition and Anisotropy at Low Energies (HISCALE) on board the Ulysses spacecraft and the Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) on board the Advance Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft can be used to measure properties for ion populations with kinetic energies in excess of 1 GeV. This previously unexplored source of information is valuable for understanding the origin of near relativistic ions of solar origin. Methods: We model the instrumental response from the low energy magnetic spectrometers from EPAM and HISCALE using a Monte Carlo approach implemented in the Geant4 toolkit to determine the response of different energy channels to energies up to 5 GeV. We compare model results with EPAM observations for 2012 May 17 ground level solar cosmic ray event, including directional fluxes. Results: For the 2012 May event, all the ion channels in EPAM show an onset more than one hour before ions with the highest nominal energy range (1.8 to 4.8 MeV) were expected to arrive. We show from Monte Carlo simulations that the timing at different channels, the ratio between counts at the different channels, and the directional fluxes within a given channel, are consistent with and can be explained by the arrival of particles with energies from 35 MeV to more than 1 GeV. Onset times for the EPAM penetrating protons are consistent with the rise seen in neutron monitor data, implying that EPAM and ground neutron monitors are seeing overlapping energy ranges and that both are consistent with GeV ions being released from the Sun at 10:38 UT.

  10. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy 800 MeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sjue, Sky K. L.; Morris, Christopher L.; Merrill, Frank Edward; Mariam, Fesseha Gebre; Saunders, Alexander

    2016-01-14

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the protonimaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane.more » Furthermore, comparison with a series of static calibrationimages demonstrates the model’s accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.« less

  11. Status of intense permanent magnet proton source for China-accelerator driven sub-critical system Linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Ma, H. Y.; Yang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. Y.; He, Y.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    Two compact intense 2.45 GHz permanent magnet proton sources and their corresponding low energy beam transport (LEBT) system were developed successfully for China accelerator driven sub-critical system in 2014. Both the proton sources operate at 35 kV potential. The beams extracted from the ion source are transported by the LEBT, which is composed of two identical solenoids, to the 2.1 MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to ensure the safety of the superconducting cavities during commissioning, an electrostatic-chopper has been designed and installed in the LEBT line that can chop the continuous wave beam into a pulsed one. The minimum width of the pulse is less than 10 μs and the fall/rise time of the chopper is about 20 ns. The performance of the proton source and the LEBT, such as beam current, beam profile, emittance and the impact to RFQ injection will be presented.

  12. Direct measurement of kilo-tesla level magnetic field generated with laser-driven capacitor-coil target by proton deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, K. F. F.; Bailly-Grandvaux, M.; Morace, A.; Sakata, S.; Matsuo, K.; Kojima, S.; Lee, S.; Vaisseau, X.; Arikawa, Y.; Yogo, A.; Kondo, K.; Zhang, Z.; Bellei, C.; Santos, J. J.; Fujioka, S.; Azechi, H.

    2016-02-01

    A kilo-tesla level, quasi-static magnetic field (B-field), which is generated with an intense laser-driven capacitor-coil target, was measured by proton deflectometry with a proper plasma shielding. Proton deflectometry is a direct and reliable method to diagnose strong, mm3-scale laser-produced B-field; however, this was not successful in the previous experiment. A target-normal-sheath-accelerated proton beam is deflected by Lorentz force in the laser-produced magnetic field with the resulting deflection pattern recorded on a radiochromic film stack. A 610 ± 30 T of B-field amplitude was inferred by comparing the experimental proton pattern with Monte-Carlo calculations. The amplitude and temporal evolutions of the laser-generated B-field were also measured by a differential magnetic probe, independently confirming the proton deflectometry measurement results.

  13. Why baryons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles, validated by nuclear binding energies and proton and neutron masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablon, Jay R.

    2013-10-01

    Evidence is summarized from four recent papers that baryons including protons and neutrons are magnetic monopoles of non-commuting Yang-Mills gauge theories: 1) Protons and neutrons are ``resonant cavities'' with binding energies determined strictly by the masses of the quarks they contain. This is proven true at parts-per million accuracy for each of the 2H, 3H,3He, 4He binding energies and the neutron minus proton mass difference. 2) Respectively, each free proton and neutron contains 7.64 MeV and 9.81 MeV of mass/energy used to confine its quarks. When these nucleons bind, some, never all, of this energy is released and the mass deficit goes into binding. The balance continues to confine quarks. 56Fe releases 99.8429% of this energy for binding, more than any other nuclide. 3) Once we consider the Fermi vev one also finds an entirely theoretical explanation of proton and neutron masses, which also connects within experimental errors to the CKM quark mixing angles. 4) A related GUT explains fermion generation replication based on generator loss during symmetry breaking, and answers Rabi's question ``who ordered this?'' 5) Nuclear physics is governed by combining Maxwell's two classical equations into one equation using non-commuting gauge fields in view of Dirac theory and Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion. 6) Atoms themselves are core magnetic charges (nucleons) paired with orbital electric charges (electrons and elusive neutrinos), with the periodic table itself revealing an electric/magnetic symmetry of Maxwell's equations often pondered but heretofore unrecognized for a century and a half.

  14. Proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mlynárik, Vladimír; Cacquevel, Matthias; Sun-Reimer, Lili; Janssens, Sharon; Cudalbu, Cristina; Lei, Hongxia; Schneider, Bernard L; Aebischer, Patrick; Gruetter, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The development of new diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires new in vivo markers reflecting early pathological changes in the brain of patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has been shown to provide useful information about the biochemical changes occurring in AD brain in vivo. The development of numerous transgenic mouse models of AD has facilitated the evaluation of early biomarkers, allowing researchers to perform longitudinal studies starting before the onset of the pathology. In addition, the recent development of high-field animal scanners enables the measurement of brain metabolites that cannot be reliably quantified at lower magnetic fields. In this report, we studied a new transgenic mouse model of AD, the 5xFAD model, by in vivo proton and phosphorus MR spectroscopy. This model, which is characterized by an early-onset and a robust amyloid pathology, developed changes in the neurochemical profile, which are typical in the human disease, i.e., an increase in myo-inositol and a decrease in N-acetylaspartate concentrations, as early as in the 40th week of age. In addition, a significant decrease in the γ-aminobutyrate concentration was observed in transgenic mice at this age compared to controls. The pseudo-first-order rate constant of the creatine kinase reaction as well as relative concentrations of phosphorus-containing metabolites were not changed significantly in the 36 and 72-week old transgenic mice. Overall, these results suggest that mitochondrial activity in the 5 × FAD mice is not substantially affected but that the model is relevant for studying early biomarkers of AD. PMID:22451319

  15. Proton magnetic resonance studies of 2'-,3'-, and 5'-deoxyadenosine conformations in solution.

    PubMed Central

    Westhof, E; Plach, H; Cuno, I; Lüdemann, H D

    1977-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance studies of 2'-deoxyadenosine (2'-dA), 3'-deoxyadenosine (3'-dA), 5'-deoxyadenosine (5'-dA) and 8-bromo-5'-deoxyadenosine (8-Br-5'-dA) have been carried out in the temperature range between -60 degrees and +40 degrees C for ND3 solutios, +40 degrees and +100 degrees C for D2O solutions, and finally +10 degrees and +60 degrees C for pyridine solutions. The analysis is based on the two-state S in equilibrium N model of the ribose moiety proposed by Altona and Sundaralingam. In all solvents, 2'-dA favours slightly the S state of the ribose and the g+ conformer of the exocyclic CH2OH group. However, 3'-dA prefers strongly the N state of the ribose and the g+ conformation. Both the S and N states of the ribose are equally favoured by 5'-DA and 8-Br-5'-dA. Evidence for the existence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond between 0(5') and N3 in purine (beta)-nucleosides is presented. It is also concluded that cordycepin (3'-dA) exists in solution mainly in the anti conformation of the base relative to the ribose. PMID:301272

  16. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of regenerating rat liver after partial hepatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    de Certaines, J.D.; Moulinoux, J.P.; Benoist, L.; Benard, A.; Rivet, P.

    1982-08-09

    Spin-lattice (T/sub 1/) and spin-spin (T/sub 2/) proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times were measured over a 48-hours period of experimental liver regeneration in Wistar rats, T/sub 2/ showed an early significant increase reaching a plateau 30% above baseline from the 10th hrs onwards. Laparotomized control animals showed no change in T/sub 2/ values. The increase in T/sub 1/ occurred at a later stage but was no different from that in laparotomized controls. T/sub 1/ reached a peak, 20% above baseline, around the 30th hr. The changes observed were far less marked than those previously described for cancer tissue, which showed about a 60% increase in T/sub 1/ fluctuations followed a circadian pattern, with a minimum at night's end and a maximum around mid-day. No circadian rhythm was seen for T/sub 2/. The observed T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ changes are discussed with respect to mitotic and metabolic events known to occur during regeneration of the liver.

  17. A comprehensive review of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in dementia and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Firbank, M J; Harrison, R M; O'Brien, J T

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed the literature of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in dementia and Parkinson's disease (PD) and quantitatively compared the reported values of the markers N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline, and myo-Inositol between control and disease groups. We analysed a total of 27 reports in dementia. Combining the quantitative data from these showed a relative decrease of 15% in NAA level in the temporal lobe tissue in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with controls. The rest of the brain showed a seemingly uniform 10% decrease in NAA levels in AD compared with controls. myo-Inositol was raised by about 15%, again uniformly throughout the brain, but there was no evidence for changed levels of choline. We found 15 reports of MRS in PD, which show a small decrease (5%) in the NAA level in the lentiform nucleus compared with controls. In progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), there is a greater decrease in NAA levels in the frontal region and the lentiform nucleus. This may aid in the diagnosis of PSP. Further research is needed to determine spectroscopic changes in other dementias, to monitor how markers change with disease progression and to establish clinical utility. PMID:12145453

  18. Probing astrocyte metabolism in vivo: proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the injured and aging brain.

    PubMed

    Harris, Janna L; Choi, In-Young; Brooks, William M

    2015-01-01

    Following a brain injury, the mobilization of reactive astrocytes is part of a complex neuroinflammatory response that may have both harmful and beneficial effects. There is also evidence that astrocytes progressively accumulate in the normal aging brain, increasing in both number and size. These astrocyte changes in normal brain aging may, in the event of an injury, contribute to the exacerbated injury response and poorer outcomes observed in older traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. Here we present our view that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), a neuroimaging approach that probes brain metabolism within a defined region of interest, is a promising technique that may provide insight into astrocyte metabolic changes in the injured and aging brain in vivo. Although (1)H-MRS does not specifically differentiate between cell types, it quantifies certain metabolites that are highly enriched in astrocytes (e.g., Myo-inositol, mlns), or that are involved in metabolic shuttling between astrocytes and neurons (e.g., glutamate and glutamine). Here we focus on metabolites detectable by (1)H-MRS that may serve as markers of astrocyte metabolic status. We review the physiological roles of these metabolites, discuss recent (1)H-MRS findings in the injured and aging brain, and describe how an astrocyte metabolite profile approach might be useful in clinical medicine and clinical trials. PMID:26578948

  19. Absolute quantitative analysis for sorbic acid in processed foods using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-07-13

    An analytical method using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (qHNMR) spectroscopy was applied and validated for the absolute quantification of sorbic acid (SA) in processed foods. The proposed method showed good linearity. The recoveries for samples spiked at the maximum usage level specified for food in Japan and at 0.13 g kg(-1) (beverage: 0.013 g kg(-1)) were larger than 80%, whereas those for samples spiked at 0.063 g kg(-1) (beverage: 0.0063 g kg(-1)) were between 56.9 and 83.5%. The limit of quantification was 0.063 g kg(-1) for foods (and 0.0063 g kg(-1) for beverages containing Lactobacillus species). Analysis of the SA content of commercial processed foods revealed quantities equal to or greater than those measured using conventional steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification. The proposed method was rapid, simple, accurate, and precise, and provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. It could therefore be used as an alternative to the quantification of SA in processed foods using conventional method. PMID:22704472

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance and proton relaxation times in experimental heterotopic heart transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Eugene, M.; Lechat, P.; Hadjiisky, P.; Teillac, A.; Grosgogeat, Y.; Cabrol, C.

    1986-01-01

    It should be possible to detect heart transplant rejection by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging if it induces myocardial T1 and T2 proton relaxation time alterations or both. We studied 20 Lewis rats after a heterotopic heart transplantation. In vitro measurement of T1 and T2 was performed on a Minispec PC20 (Bruker) 3 to 9 days after transplantation. Histologic analysis allowed the quantification of rejection process based on cellular infiltration and myocardiolysis. Water content, a major determinant of relaxation time, was also studied. T1 and T2 were significantly prolonged in heterotopic vs orthotopic hearts (638 +/- 41 msec vs 606 +/- 22 msec for T1, p less than 0.01 and 58.2 +/- 8.4 msec vs 47.4 +/- 1.9 msec for T2, p less than 0.001). Water content was also increased in heterotopic hearts (76.4 +/- 2.3 vs 73.8 +/- 1.0, p less than 0.01). Most importantly, we found close correlations between T1 and especially T2 vs water content, cellular infiltration, and myocardiolysis. We conclude that rejection reaction should be noninvasively detected by NMR imaging, particularly with pulse sequences emphasizing T2.

  1. Quantitation of memantine hydrochloride bulk drug and its tablet formulation using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Archana; Narayanam, Mallikarjun; Kurmi, Moolchand; Ladumor, Mayurbhai Kathadbhai; Singh, Saranjit

    2016-08-01

    The use of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry for the determination of non-UV active memantine hydrochloride with relative simplicity and precision has been demonstrated in this study. The method was developed on a 500 MHz NMR instrument and was applied to determination of the drug in a tablet formulation. The analysis was performed by taking caffeine as an internal standard and D2 O as the NMR solvent. The signal of methyl protons of memantine hydrochloride appeared at 0.75 ppm (singlet) relative to the signal of caffeine (internal standard) at 3.13 ppm (singlet). The method was found to be linear (r(2)  = 0.9989) in the drug concentration range of 0.025 to 0.80 mg/ml. The maximum relative standard deviation for accuracy and precision was <2. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.04 and 0.11 mg/ml, respectively. The robustness of the method was revealed by changing nine different parameters. The deviation for each parameter was also within the acceptable limits. The study highlighted possibility of direct determination of memantine hydrochloride in pure form and in its marketed tablet formulation by the use of quantitative NMR, without the need of derivatization, as is the requirement in HPLC studies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26923624

  2. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Mahir S.; Reyngoudt, Harmen; DeDeene, Yves; Sazak, Hakan S.; Fieremans, Els; Delputte, Steven; D'Asseler, Yves; Derave, Wim; Lemahieu, Ignace; Achten, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pHi range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 ± 0.57/4.8 ± 1.59 mM (mean ± SD) for athletes and 2.58 ± 0.65/3.3 ± 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that 1H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo.

  3. Characterization of urban aerosol using aerosol mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, M. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Griffin, R. J.; Dibb, J. E.; Anderson, C. H.; Lefer, B.; Rappenglück, B.

    2012-07-01

    Particulate matter was measured during August and September of 2006 in Houston as part of the Texas Air Quality Study II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project. Aerosol size and composition were determined using an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer. Aerosol was dominated by sulfate (4.1 ± 2.6 μg m-3) and organic material (5.5 ± 4.0 μg m-3), with contributions of organic material from both primary (˜32%) and secondary (˜68%) sources. Secondary organic aerosol appears to be formed locally. In addition, 29 aerosol filter samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy to determine relative concentrations of organic functional groups. Houston aerosols are less oxidized than those observed elsewhere, with smaller relative contributions of carbon-oxygen double bonds. These particles do not fit 1H NMR source apportionment fingerprints for identification of secondary, marine, and biomass burning organic aerosol, suggesting that a new fingerprint for highly urbanized and industrially influenced locations be established.

  4. Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain differentiates the inborn metabolic encephalopathies in children.

    PubMed

    Chabrol, B; Salvan, A M; Confort-Gouny, S; Vion-Dury, J; Cozzone, P J

    1995-09-01

    Localized brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been performed using a STEAM (stimulated echo-acquisition mode) method with a short-echo time (20 ms) in 10 children suffering from different lysosomal diseases, 6 boys with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) and 5 healthy children. Metabolic data from localized spectra were processed by principal component analysis (PCA) of 7 metabolic variables recorded on the MR spectra. PCA allows to delineate different clusters corresponding to the 2 pathological groups which are separated from each other and from the control group. The position of each spectrum on the patient map correlates with the clinical data and to the evolution of the patients subjected to a follow-up. These results also confirm the metabolic features characterizing the pathologies of the lysosome (increase in inositol) and the peroxisome (increase in choline and free lipids). PCA constitutes an alternative to the classical statistical methods to analyze and compare metabolic modifications in small populations of patients and allows to identify the most critical parameters defining the organization of the pathological populations. This analysis clearly increases the discrimination among pathologies based on the metabolic profiles obtained by MRS. PMID:8521083

  5. Production polarization and magnetic moment of Ξ¯+ antihyperons produced by 800-GeV/c protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, P. M.; Longo, M. J.; Nguyen, A.; Luk, K. B.; James, C.; Rameika, R.; Duryea, J.; Guglielmo, G.; Heller, K.; Johns, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Teige, S.; Thomson, G. B.; Zou, Y.

    1990-10-01

    The polarization of Ξ¯ + hyperons produced by 800-GeV/c protons in the inclusive reaction p+Be-->Ξ¯ ++X has been measured. The average polarization of the Ξ¯ +, at a mean xF=0.39 and pt=0.76 GeV/c, is -0.097+/-0.012+/-0.009. The magnetic moment of the Ξ¯ + is 0.657+/-0.028+/-0.020 nuclear magneton.

  6. Development of an all-permanent-magnet microwave ion source equipped with multicusp magnetic fields for high current proton beam production.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Hara, S; Seki, T; Iga, T

    2008-02-01

    An all-permanent-magnet (APM) microwave hydrogen ion source was developed to reduce the size and to simplify structure of a conventional solenoid coil microwave ion source developed for reliability improvement of high current proton linac application systems. The difficulty in developing the APM source was sensitive dependence of the source performance on axial magnetic field in the microwave discharge chamber. It was difficult to produce high current proton beam stably without precise tuning of the magnetic field using solenoid coils. We lowered the sensitivity using multicusp magnetic fields for plasma confinement at the discharge chamber sidewall of the source. This enabled stable high current proton beam production with the APM microwave ion source with no tuning coil. The water cooling and the power supply for the coils are not necessary for the APM source, which leads to better reliability and system simplification. The outer diameter of the APM source was around 300 mm, which was 20% lower than the coil source. The APM source produced a maximum hydrogen ion beam current of 65 mA (high current density of 330 mA/cm(2), proton ratio of 87%, and beam energy of 30 keV) with a 5 mm diameter extraction aperture, pulse width of 400 micros, and 20 Hz repetition rate at 1.3 kW microwave power. This performance is almost the same as the best performances of the conventional coil sources. The extracted ion beams were focused with electrostatic five-grid lens to match beam to acceptance of radio-frequency quadrupole linacs. The maximum focused beam current through the orifice (5 mm radius) and the lens was 36 mA and the 90% focused beam half-width was 1-2 mm. PMID:18315183

  7. The effects of the RHIC E-lenses magnetic structure layout on the proton beam trajectory

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Pikin, A.; Luo, Y.; Okamura, M.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Raparia, D.

    2011-03-28

    We are designing two electron lenses (E-lens) to compensate for the large beam-beam tune spread from proton-proton interactions at IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). They will be installed in RHIC IR10. First, the layout of these two E-lenses is introduced. Then the effects of e-lenses on proton beam are discussed. For example, the transverse fields of the e-lens bending solenoids and the fringe field of the main solenoids will shift the proton beam. For the effects of the e-lens on proton beam trajectory, we calculate the transverse kicks that the proton beam receives in the electron lens via Opera at first. Then, after incorporating the simplified E-lens lattice in the RHIC lattice, we obtain the closed orbit effect with the Simtrack Code.

  8. -Measurement of the proton's electric to magnetic form factor ratio from 1H(over -->)(e(over -->),e'p).

    PubMed

    Crawford, C B; Sindile, A; Akdogan, T; Alarcon, R; Bertozzi, W; Booth, E; Botto, T; Calarco, J; Clasie, B; Degrush, A; Donnelly, T W; Dow, K; Dutta, D; Farkhondeh, M; Fatemi, R; Filoti, O; Franklin, W; Gao, H; Geis, E; Gilad, S; Haeberli, W; Hasell, D; Hersman, W; Holtrop, M; Karpius, P; Kohl, M; Kolster, H; Lee, T; Maschinot, A; Matthews, J; McIlhany, K; Meitanis, N; Milner, R G; Redwine, R P; Seely, J; Shinozaki, A; Sirca, S; Six, E; Smith, T; Tonguc, B; Tschalaer, C; Tsentalovich, E; Turchinetz, W; van den Brand, J F J; van der Laan, J; Wang, F; Wise, T; Xiao, Y; Xu, W; Zhang, C; Zhou, Z; Ziskin, V; Zwart, T

    2007-02-01

    We report the first precision measurement of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio from spin-dependent elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from a polarized hydrogen internal gas target. The measurement was performed at the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring over a range of four-momentum transfer squared Q2 from 0.15 to 0.65 (GeV/c)(2). Significantly improved results on the proton electric and magnetic form factors are obtained in combination with existing cross-section data on elastic electron-proton scattering in the same Q2 region. PMID:17358849

  9. Complete Proton and Carbon Assignment of Triclosan via One- and Two- Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Students from an upper-division undergraduate spectroscopy class analyzed one- and two-dimensional 400 MHz NMR spectroscopic data from triclosan in CDCl3. Guided assignment of all proton and carbon signals was completed via 1D proton and carbon, nuclear Overhauser effect (nOe), distortionless enhanc...

  10. Brain metabolomic profiles of lung cancer patients prior to treatment characterized by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Benveniste, Helene; Zhang, Shaonan; Reinsel, Ruth A; Li, Haifang; Lee, Hedok; Rebecchi, Mario; Moore, William; Johansen, Christoffer; Rothman, Douglas L; Bilfinger, Thomas V

    2012-01-01

    Cancer patients without evidence of brain metastases often exhibit constitutional symptoms, cognitive dysfunction and mood changes at the time of clinical diagnosis, i.e. prior to surgical and/or chemotherapy treatment. At present however, there is limited information on brain metabolic and functional status in patients with systemic cancers such as lung cancer prior to initiation of treatment. Therefore, a prospective, observational study was conducted on patients with a clinical diagnosis of lung cancer to assess the cerebral metabolic status before treatment using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS). Together with neurocognitive testing, 1HMRS was performed in the parietal and occipital cortices of patients diagnosed with a lung mass (N=17) and an age-matched control group (N=15). Glutamate concentrations in the occipital cortex were found to be lower in the patients compared to controls and the concentrations of creatine and phosphocreatine were significantly lower in the parietal cortex of the patients. The lung cancer patients were also characterized by greater fatigue scores (but not depression) prior to treatment when compared to controls. In addition, the serum concentration of interleukin-6 (proinflammatory cytokine) was higher in patients compared to controls; and the concentration of tumor-necrosis factor alpha ([TNF-α]) was positively correlated to the metabolic activity of the lung tumor as defined by the 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) derived maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax). Finally, multivariate statistical modeling revealed that the concentration of N-acetyl-aspartate [NAA] in the occipital cortex was negatively associated with [TNF-α]. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the cerebral metabolic status of patients with lung cancer is changed even prior to treatment. In addition, the association between inflammatory cytokines, SUVmax and [NAA] points towards interactions

  11. Cell and membrane lipid analysis by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in five breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Le Moyec, L; Tatoud, R; Eugène, M; Gauvillé, C; Primot, I; Charlemagne, D; Calvo, F

    1992-10-01

    The lipid composition of five human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, ZR-75-1, SKBR3 and MDA-MB231) was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in whole cells and membrane-enriched fractions. The proportions of the three main lipid resonances in 1D spectra were different for each cell line. These resonances included mobile methyl and methylene functions from fatty acids of triglycerides and phospholipids and N-trimethyl from choline of phospholipids. T47D and ZR-75-1 cells presented a high methylene/methyl ratio (6.02 +/- 0.35 and 6.28 +/- 0.90). This ratio was significantly lower for SKBR3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells (2.76 +/- 0.22, 2.27 +/- 0.57 and 1.39 +/- 0.39). The N-trimethyl/methyl ratio was high for MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 cells (1.38 +/- 0.54 and 0.86 +/- 0.32), but lower for MCF-7, T47D and ZR-75-1 cells (0.49 +/- 0.11, 0.16 +/- 0.07 and 0.07 +/- 0.03). 2D COSY spectra confirmed these different proportions in mobile lipids. From 1D spectra obtained on membrane preparations, T47D and ZR-75-1 were the only cell lines to retain a signal from mobile methylene functions. These differences might be related to the heterogeneity found for several parameters of these cells (tumorigenicity, growth rate, hormone receptors); an extended number of cases from fresh samples might enable clinical correlations. PMID:1329906

  12. Late Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy following Traumatic Brain Injury during Early Childhood: Relationship with Neurobehavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    WALZ, NICOLAY CHERTKOFF; CECIL, KIM M.; WADE, SHARI L.; MICHAUD, LINDA J.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to extend previous research that demonstrates reduced neurometabolite concentrations during the chronic phase of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children injured during early childhood. We hypothesized that young children with TBI in the chronic phase post-injury would have lower N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) metabolite concentrations in gray and white matter in comparison to controls. We also hypothesized that metabolite levels would be correlated with acute TBI severity and neurobehavioral skills. Ten children with a history of TBI between the ages of 3 and 6 years were compared to an age, gender, and race-matched group of 10 children with a history of an orthopedic injury (OI). Children completed neurobehavioral testing at 12 months post-injury. Proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy was completed at least 12 months post-injury when the children were 6–9 years old. Groups were compared on metabolite concentrations in the medial frontal gray matter and left frontal white matter. Metabolite levels were correlated with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and neurobehavioral functioning. There was a trend for lower NAA concentrations in the medial frontal gray matter for the TBI group. Late NAA and Cr levels in the medial frontal gray matter and NAA levels in the left frontal white matter were strongly positively correlated with initial GCS score. Metabolite levels were correlated with some neurobehavioral measures differentially for children with TBI or OI. Some neurometabolite levels differed between the TBI and OI groups more than 1 year post-injury and were related to injury severity, as well as some neurobehavioral outcomes following TBI during early childhood. PMID:18260792

  13. Dosimetric feasibility of intensity modulated proton therapy in a transverse magnetic field of 1.5 T.

    PubMed

    Hartman, J; Kontaxis, C; Bol, G H; Frank, S J; Lagendijk, J J W; van Vulpen, M; Raaymakers, B W

    2015-08-01

    Proton therapy promises higher dose conformality in comparison with regular radiotherapy techniques. Also, image guidance has an increasing role in radiotherapy and MRI is a prime candidate for this imaging. Therefore, in this paper the dosimetric feasibility of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) in a magnetic field of 1.5 T and the effect on the generated dose distributions compared to those at 0 T is evaluated, using the Monte Carlo software TOol for PArticle Simulation (TOPAS). For three different anatomic sites IMPT plans are generated. It is shown that the generation of an IMPT plan in a magnetic field is feasible, the impact of the magnetic field is small, and the resulting dose distributions are equivalent for 0 T and 1.5 T. Also, the framework of Monte Carlo simulation combined with an inverse optimization method can be used to generate IMPT plans. These plans can be used in future dosimetric comparisons with e.g. IMRT and conventional IMPT. Finally, this study shows that IMPT in a 1.5 T magnetic field is dosimetrically feasible. PMID:26182957

  14. Dosimetric feasibility of intensity modulated proton therapy in a transverse magnetic field of 1.5 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, J.; Kontaxis, C.; Bol, G. H.; Frank, S. J.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; van Vulpen, M.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2015-08-01

    Proton therapy promises higher dose conformality in comparison with regular radiotherapy techniques. Also, image guidance has an increasing role in radiotherapy and MRI is a prime candidate for this imaging. Therefore, in this paper the dosimetric feasibility of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) in a magnetic field of 1.5 T and the effect on the generated dose distributions compared to those at 0 T is evaluated, using the Monte Carlo software TOol for PArticle Simulation (TOPAS). For three different anatomic sites IMPT plans are generated. It is shown that the generation of an IMPT plan in a magnetic field is feasible, the impact of the magnetic field is small, and the resulting dose distributions are equivalent for 0 T and 1.5 T. Also, the framework of Monte Carlo simulation combined with an inverse optimization method can be used to generate IMPT plans. These plans can be used in future dosimetric comparisons with e.g. IMRT and conventional IMPT. Finally, this study shows that IMPT in a 1.5 T magnetic field is dosimetrically feasible.

  15. Predicting the outcome of grade II glioma treated with temozolomide using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Guillevin, R; Menuel, C; Taillibert, S; Capelle, L; Costalat, R; Abud, L; Habas, C; De Marco, G; Hoang-Xuan, K; Chiras, J; Vallée, J-N

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) for monitoring the WHO grade II glioma (low-grade glioma (LGG)) treated with temozolomide (TMZ). Methods: This prospective study included adult patients with progressive LGG that was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Temozolomide was administered at every 28 days. Response to TMZ was evaluated by monthly MRI examinations that included MRI with volumetric calculations and 1H-MRS for assessing Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratios. Univariate, multivariate and receiver-operating characteristic statistical analyses were performed on the results. Results: A total of 21 LGGs from 31 patients were included in the study, and followed for at least n=14 months during treatment. A total of 18 (86%) patients experienced a decrease in tumour volume with a greater decrease of metabolic ratios. Subsequently, five (28%) of these tumours resumed growth despite the continuation of TMZ administration with an earlier increase of metabolic ratios of 2 months. Three (14%) patients did not show any volume or metabolic change. The evolutions of the metabolic ratios, mean(Cho/Cr)n and mean(Cho/NAA)n, were significantly correlated over time (Spearman ρ=+0.95) and followed a logarithmic regression (P>0.001). The evolutions over time of metabolic ratios, mean(Cho/Cr)n and mean(Cho/NAA)n, were significantly correlated with the evolution of the mean relative decrease of tumour volume, mean(ΔVn/Vo), according to a linear regression (P<0.001) in the ‘response/no relapse' patient group, and with the evolution of the mean tumour volume (meanVn), according to an exponential regression (P<0.001) in the ‘response/relapse' patient group. The mean relative decrease of metabolic ratio, mean(Δ(Cho/Cr)n/(Cho/Cr)o), at n=3 months was predictive of tumour response over the 14 months of follow-up. The mean relative change between metabolic ratios, mean((Cho/NAA)n−(Cho/Cr)n)/(Cho/NAA)n, at n=4 months was

  16. MO-G-18C-07: Improving T2 Determination and Quantification of Lipid Methylene Protons in Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 3 T

    SciTech Connect

    Breitkreutz, D.; Fallone, B. G.; Yahya, A.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To improve proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) transverse relaxation (T{sub 2}) determination and quantification of lipid methylene chain (1.3 ppm) protons by rewinding their J-coupling evolution. Methods: MRS experiments were performed on four lipid phantoms, namely, almond, corn, sunflower and oleic acid, using a 3 T Philips MRI scanner with a transmit/receive birdcage head coil. Two PRESS (Point RESolved Spectroscopy) pulse sequences were used. The first PRESS sequence employed standard bandwidth (BW) (∼550 Hz) RF (radiofrequency) refocussing pulses, while the second used refocussing pulses of narrow BW (∼50 Hz) designed to rewind J-coupling evolution of the methylene protons in the voxel of interest. Signal was acquired with each sequence from a 5×5×5 mm{sup 3} voxel, with a repetition time (TR) of 3000 ms, and with echo times (TE) of 100 to 200 ms in steps of 20 ms. 2048 sample points were measured with a 2000 Hz sampling bandwidth. Additionally, 30 mm outer volume suppression slabs were used to suppress signal outside the voxel of interest. The frequency of the RF pulses was set to that of the methylene resonance. Methylene peak areas were calculated and fitted in MATLAB to a monexponentially decaying function of the form M{sub 0}exp(-TE/T{sub 2}), where M{sub 0} is the extrapolated area when TE = 0 ms and yields a measure of concentration. Results: The determined values of M{sub 0} and T{sub 2} increased for all fatty acids when using the PRESS sequence with narrow BW refocussing pulses. M{sub 0} and T{sub 2} values increased by an average amount (over all the phantoms) of 31% and 14%, respectively. Conclusion: This investigation has demonstrated that J-coupling interactions of lipid methylene protons causes non-negligible signal losses which, if not accounted for, Result in underestimations of their levels and T{sub 2} values when performing MRS measurements. Funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

  17. Allergen-Specific CD4(+) T Cells in Human Asthma.

    PubMed

    Ling, Morris F; Luster, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    In allergic asthma, aeroallergen exposure of sensitized individuals mobilizes robust innate and adaptive airway immune responses, stimulating eosinophilic airway inflammation and the activation and infiltration of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells into the airways. Allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells are thought to be central players in the asthmatic response as they specifically recognize the allergen and initiate and orchestrate the asthmatic inflammatory response. In this article, we briefly review the role of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells in the pathogenesis of human allergic airway inflammation in allergic individuals, discuss the use of allergen-major histocompatibility complex class II tetramers to characterize allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells, and highlight current gaps in knowledge and directions for future research pertaining to the role of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells in human asthma. PMID:27027948

  18. Protons and electrons in Jupiter's magnetic field - Results from the University of Chicago experiment on Pioneer 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Hamilton, D.; Lentz, G.; Mckibben, R. B.; Mogro-Campero, A.; Perkins, M.; Pyle, K. R.; Tuzzolino, A. J.; O'Gallagher, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fluxes of high energy electrons and protons are found to be highly concentrated near the magnetic equatorial plane from distances of about 30 to about 100 Jovian radii. The 10-hour period of planetary rotation is observed as an intensity variation, which indicates that the equatorial zone of high particle fluxes is inclined with respect to the rotation axis of the planet. At radial distances below 20 Jovian radii, the synchrotron-radiation-producing electrons with energies above 3 MeV rise steeply to a maximum intensity near the periapsis at 2.8 Jovian radii. The flux of protons with energies above 30 MeV reaches a maximum intensity at 3.5 Jovian radii, with the intensity decreasing inside this radial distance.

  19. A carbon-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of some experimental referee broadened-specification /ERBS/ turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalling, D. K.; Pugmire, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy study of alternative jet fuels are presented. A referee broadened-specification (ERBS) aviation turbine fuel, a mixture of 65 percent traditional kerosene with 35 percent hydrotreated catalytic gas oil (HCGO) containing 12.8 percent hydrogen, and fuels of lower hydrogen content created by blending the latter with a mixture of HCGO and xylene bottoms were studied. The various samples were examined by carbon-13 and proton NMR at high field strength, and the resulting spectra are shown. In the proton spectrum of the 12.8 percent hydrogen fuel, no prominent single species is seen while for the blending stock, many individual lines are apparent. The ERBS fuels were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography and the resulting fractions analyzed by NMR. The species found are identified.

  20. Desipramine attenuates forced swim test-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations in mice: an in vivo(1)H-MRS study at 9.4T.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Young; Lee, Yun-Jung; Kim, Hyeonjin; Lee, Do-Wan; Woo, Dong-Cheol; Choi, Chi-Bong; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Choe, Bo-Young

    2010-08-12

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral paradigm that is predicative of antidepressant activity in rodents. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of desipramine (DMI) pretreatment on behavioral and regional neurochemical responses in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and hippocampus of mice exposed to the FST using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). An ultra short echo stimulated echo acquisition (STEAM) localization sequence (TR/TM/TE=5000/20/2.2ms) was used to measure in vivo proton spectra from the left DLPFC (voxel volume: 7microl) and hippocampus (6microl) of C57BL/6 mice at 9.4T and acquired proton spectra post-processed offline with LCModel. The FST induced significant increase of glutamate (Glu) and myo-inositol (mIns) concentrations in the left DLPFC and hippocampus, respectively. In addition, creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr) concentrations in the left DLPFC were significantly decreased as compared to control. The metabolic alterations induced by the FST were reverted to level similar to control by acute DMI administration. Our results suggest that glutamatergic activity and glial cell dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression and that modulation of synaptic neurotransmitter concentrations represents a potential target for antidepressant drug development. PMID:20542016

  1. Impact of sepsis on CD4 T cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Condotta, Stephanie A.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis remains the primary cause of death from infection in hospital patients, despite improvements in antibiotics and intensive-care practices. Patients who survive severe sepsis can display suppressed immune function, often manifested as an increased susceptibility to (and mortality from) nosocomial infections. Not only is there a significant reduction in the number of various immune cell populations during sepsis, but there is also decreased function in the remaining lymphocytes. Within the immune system, CD4 T cells are important players in the proper development of numerous cellular and humoral immune responses. Despite sufficient clinical evidence of CD4 T cell loss in septic patients of all ages, the impact of sepsis on CD4 T cell responses is not well understood. Recent findings suggest that CD4 T cell impairment is a multipronged problem that results from initial sepsis-induced cell loss. However, the subsequent lymphopenia-induced numerical recovery of the CD4 T cell compartment leads to intrinsic alterations in phenotype and effector function, reduced repertoire diversity, changes in the composition of naive antigen-specific CD4 T cell pools, and changes in the representation of different CD4 T cell subpopulations (e.g., increases in Treg frequency). This review focuses on sepsis-induced alterations within the CD4 T cell compartment that influence the ability of the immune system to control secondary heterologous infections. The understanding of how sepsis affects CD4 T cells through their numerical loss and recovery, as well as function, is important in the development of future treatments designed to restore CD4 T cells to their presepsis state. PMID:24791959

  2. Model for bremsstrahlung emission accompanying interactions between protons and nuclei from low energies up to intermediate energies: Role of magnetic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.

    2012-07-01

    A model of the bremsstrahlung emission which accompanies proton decay and collisions of protons off nuclei in the low- to intermediate-energy region has been developed. This model includes spin formalism, a potential approach for describing the interaction between protons and nuclei, and an emission that includes a component of the magnetic emission (defined on the basis of the Pauli equation). For the problem of bremsstrahlung during proton decay the role of magnetic emission is studied by using such a model. For the 146Tm nucleus the following has been studied: (1) How much does the magnetic emission change the full bremsstrahlung spectrum? (2) At which angle is the magnetic emission the most intensive relative to the electric emission? (3) Is there some spatial region where the magnetic emission increases strongly relative to the electric emission? (4) How intensive is the magnetic emission in the tunneling region? (5) Which is the maximal probability? Which value does it equal to at the zero-energy limit of the emitted photons? It is demonstrated that the model is able to describe well enough experimental data of bremsstrahlung emission which accompanies collisions of protons off 9C, 64Cu, and 107Ag nuclei at an incident energy of Tlab=72 MeV (at a photon energy up to 60 MeV) and off 9Be, 12C, and 208Pb nuclei at an incident energy of Tlab=140 MeV (at a photon energy up to 120 MeV).

  3. Preparation of amyloid-like fibrils containing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Effect of protein aggregation on proton relaxivity

    SciTech Connect

    Viktor Andersson, B.; Skoglund, Caroline; Uvdal, Kajsa; Solin, Niclas

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of amyloid materials labeled with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of amyloid materials by electron tomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of protein aggregation on the magnetic nanoparticle properties. -- Abstract: A method to prepare amyloid-like fibrils functionalized with magnetic nanoparticles has been developed. The amyloid-like fibrils are prepared in a two step procedure, where insulin and magnetic nanoparticles are mixed simply by grinding in the solid state, resulting in a water soluble hybrid material. When the hybrid material is heated in aqueous acid, the insulin/nanoparticle hybrid material self assembles to form amyloid-like fibrils incorporating the magnetic nanoparticles. This results in magnetically labeled amyloid-like fibrils which has been characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography. The influence of the aggregation process on proton relaxivity is investigated. The prepared materials have potential uses in a range of bio-imaging applications.

  4. Pion production via proton synchrotron radiation in strong magnetic fields in relativistic field theory: Scaling relations and angular distributions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

    2016-03-26

    We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one canmore » infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 10(15) G, where n(i, f) similar to 10(12)-10(13), from the results for n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funded by SCOAP(3).« less

  5. Proton interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Christopher L

    2008-01-01

    Energetic proton beams may provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because: they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and proton beams can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections for delayed neutrons and gamma-rays using the 800 MeV proton beam from the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Results will be presented.

  6. Monitoring of organic contaminants in sediments using low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Rupert, Yuri

    2016-04-01

    The effective monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts. Recent geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity, complex conductivity, and ground penetrating radar have been successfully applied to characterize organic contaminants in the subsurface and to monitor remediation process both in laboratory and in field. Low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a geophysical tool sensitive to the molecular-scale physical and chemical environment of hydrogen-bearing fluids in geological materials and shows promise as a novel method for monitoring contaminant remediation. This laboratory research focuses on measurements on synthetic samples to determine the sensitivity of NMR to the presence of organic contaminants and improve understanding of relationships between NMR observables, hydrological properties of the sediments, and amount and state of contaminants in porous media. Toluene, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) has been selected as a representative organic contaminant. Three types of porous media (pure silica sands, montmorillonite clay, and various sand-clay mixtures with different sand/clay ratios) were prepared as synthetic sediments. NMR relaxation time (T2) and diffusion-relaxation (D ‑ T2) correlation measurements were performed in each sediment saturated with water and toluene mixed fluid at assorted concentrations (0% toluene and 100% water, 1% toluene and 99% water, 5% toluene and 95% water, 25% toluene and 75% water, and 100% toluene and 0% water) to 1) understand the effect of different porous media on the NMR responses in each fluid mixture, 2) investigate the role of clay content on T2 relaxation of each fluid, 3) quantify the amount hydrocarbons in the presence of water in each sediment, and 4) resolve hydrocarbons from water in D ‑ T2 map. Relationships between the compositions of porous media, hydrocarbon concentration, and

  7. Clinical significance of brain phenylalanine concentration assessed by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Leuzzi, V; Bianchi, M C; Tosetti, M; Carducci, C L; Carducci, C A; Antonozzi, I

    2000-09-01

    Recent studies using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) have suggested that plasma phenylalanine (Phe) may not be a reliable indicator of brain Phe level in subjects with phenylketonuria (PKU). Interindividual variation in cerebral Phe can contribute to the phenotypic variability of the disease. We report the results of the direct assessment of brain Phe by 1H MRS in 10 off-diet PKU patients (aged 15.5-30.5 years), 4 detected and treated early, 6 late. In a single patient, brain Phe was evaluated before and 15 days after diet discontinuation. FLAIR MRI and 1H MRS were performed in the same setting by a 1.5 T clinical MR scanner. MR images were scored according to the extent of the lobar white-matter hyperintensity. Brain 1H MRS Phe signal (resonating at 7.36 ppm) was evaluated as a ratio to the creatine+phosphocreatine signal. Brain Phe was correlated with clinical, biochemical and MRI findings. Results were as follows. (1) An abnormal concentration of brain Phe was detected in all 10 PKU subjects (ranging from 0.030 to 0.074), associated with a wide interindividual variability of concurrent plasma Phe (ranging from 724 to 2800 micromol/L). (2) In late-detected subjects, brain Phe concentration correlated with clinical phenotype better than did plasma Phe. The discrepancy between brain and plasma Phe was relevant from a clinical point of view in two cases: in one, a late-detected patient with normal mental development, a high level of plasma Phe was associated with a relatively low concentration of brain Phe; in the other, a late-detected subject with severe neurological impairment, a very high level of brain Phe was associated with plasma Phe compatible with the diagnosis of mild PKU. (3) White-matter alterations were detected in all patients. FLAIR MRI sequences disclosed an involvement of optic chiasma and tracts in 7 subjects. No correlation was found between white-matter alterations and concurrent brain Phe concentrations. (4) In the only

  8. Sub-Proton Scale Magnetic Holes: Turbulence Simulations, Theory and Cluster Observations in the Earth's Plasma Sheet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, C. T.; Burgess, D.; Camporeale, E.; Sundberg, T.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the properties of a new type of nonlinear coherent structure, called electron vortex magnetic holes (EVMHs) discovered during 2-D full particle realistic mass ratio simulations of turbulence. These structures form via the interaction of magnetic depletions and the local electron population in the plasma. They are characterised by local depressions in the magnetic field strength with circular cross-sections. We use PIC and test particle simulations to show that the magnetic structure is maintained by a current carried by an electron vortex which is due to a population of electrons with pitch angles close to 90 degrees in trapped, or quasi-trapped, non-adiabatic orbits. We then compare these results to Cluster observations of electron-scale magnetic holes (MH) in the Earth's plasma sheet. MHs in the solar wind are often explained in terms of the mirror mode instability. Here, in the plasma sheet, we show MH events in mirror stable environments, with high electron perpendicular temperature anisotropy, which cannot be explained in terms of a standard mirror mode growth. We show that EVMHs may provide a theoretical explanation for a majority of the MHs observed in the plasma sheet at scales less than the proton thermal gyroradius.

  9. Protons and Electrons in Jupiter's Magnetic Field: Results from the University of Chicago Experiment on Pioneer 10.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J A; Hamilton, D; Lentz, G; McKibben, R B; Mogro-Campero, A; Perkins, M; Pyle, K R; Tuzzolino, A J; O'gallagher, J J

    1974-01-25

    Fluxes of high energy electrons and protons are found to be highly concentrated near the magnetic equatorial plane from distances of ~ 30 to ~ 100 Jovian radii (R(J)). The 10-hour period of planetary rotation is observed as an intensity variation, which indicates that the equatorial zone of high particle fluxes is inclined with respect to the rotation axis of the planet. At radial distances [unknown] 20 R(J) the synchrotron-radiation-producing electrons with energies greater, similar 3 million electron volts rise steeply to a maximum intensity of ~ 5 x 10(8) electrons per square centimeter per second near the periapsis at 2.8 R(J). The flux of protons with energies greater, similar 30 million electron volts reaches a maximum intensity of ~ 4 x 10(6) protons per square centimeter per second at ~ 3.5 R(J) with the intensity decreasing inside this radial distance. Only for radial distances [unknown] 20 R(J) does the radiation behave in a manner which is similar to that at the earth. Burst of electrons with energies up to 30 million electron volts, each lasting about 2 days, were observed in interplanetary space beginning approximately 1 month before encounter. This radiation appears to have escaped from the Jovian bow shock or magnetosphere. PMID:17821089

  10. The protons and electrons trapped in the Jovian dipole magnetic field region and their interaction with Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Hamilton, D. C.; Mckibben, R. B.; Mogro-Campero, A.; Pyle, K. R.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Detailed analysis of electrons equal to or greater than 3 MeV and of protons 0.5 to 1.8 MeV and equal to or greater than 35 MeV for both the inbound and the outbound passes of the Pioneer 10 spacecraft. Conclusive evidence is obtained that the trapped radiation in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere is maintained and supplied by inward diffusion from the outer regions of the trapped radiation zone. It is shown that the time required for isotropization of an anisotropic flux by pitch angle scattering inside L approximately equal to 6 is long in comparison with the time required for particles to diffuse inward from L approximately equal to 6 to L approximately equal to 3, that the high-energy protons were not injected at high energies by the Crand (cosmic ray albedo neutron decay) process but were accelerated in the magnetosphere of Jupiter, and that the main conclusions of this analysis are unaffected by use of either the D sub 1 or the D sub 2 magnetic field models. Theoretical studies of the capture of trapped electrons and protons by Io have been carried out, and it is found that the probability of capture by Io depends strongly upon the particle species and kinetic energy.

  11. Resolution of Fundic Gland Polyposis following Laparoscopic Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation and Subsequent Cessation of Proton Pump Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeyer, Joel R.; Connolly, Erin E.; Wittchow, Richard J.; Kothari, Shanu N.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric polyps occur from a variety of sources and are found commonly on upper endoscopy. We present the case of a 49-year-old female who presented for evaluation for antireflux surgery with a history of fundic gland polyposis who required twice-daily proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for control of her gastric reflux. After verifying that she met criteria for surgery, she underwent an uncomplicated laparoscopic magnetic sphincter augmentation placement. With the cessation of PPIs following surgery, the fundic gland polyposis resolved. Fundic gland polyps may occur sporadically or within certain syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis. Multiple possible inciting factors exist, including the use of PPIs. This is the first reported case of the resolution of numerous fundic gland polyps following the completion of laparoscopic magnetic sphincter augmentation. PMID:26600954

  12. Quantification of N-Acetyl Aspartyl Glutamate in Human Brain using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elywa, M.

    2015-07-01

    The separation of N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate (NAAG) from N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and other metabolites, such as glutamate, by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T is described. This method is based on the stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM), with short and long echo time (TE) and allows quantitative measurements of NAAG in the parietal and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) of human brain. Two basesets for the LCModel have been established using nuclear magnetic resonance simulator software (NMR-SIM). Six healthy volunteers (age 25-35 years) have been examined at 7 T. It has been established that NAAG can be separated and quantified in the parietal location and does not get quantified in the pgACC location when using a short echo time, TE = 20 ms. On the other hand, by using a long echo time, TE = 74 ms, NAAG can be quantified in pgACC structures.

  13. Effects of magnetic non-linearities on a stored proton beam and their implications for superconducting storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Cornacchia, M.; Evans, L.

    1985-06-01

    A nonlinear lens may be used to study the effect of high-order multipolar field imperfections on a stored proton beam. Such a nonlinear lens is particulary suitable to simulate field imperfections of the types encountered in coil dominated superconducting magnets. We have studied experimentally at the SPS the effect of high order (5th and 8th) single isolated resonances driven by the nonlinear lens. The width of these resonances is of the order one expects to be caused by field errors in superconducting magnets of the SSC type. The experiment shows that, in absence of tune modulation, these resonances are harmless. Slow crossings of the resonance, on the other hand, have destructive effects on the beam, much more so than fast crossings caused by synchrotron oscillations. In the design of future storage rings, sources of low-frequency tune modulation should be avoided as a way to reduce the harmful effects of high order multipolar field imperfection.

  14. Characterization of heteronuclear decoupling through proton spin dynamics in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paëpe, Gaël; Eléna, Bénédicte; Emsley, Lyndon

    2004-08-01

    The work presented here aims at understanding the performance of phase modulated heteronuclear decoupling sequences such as Cosine Modulation or Two Pulse Phase Modulation. To that end we provide an analytical description of the intrinsic behavior of Cosine Modulation decoupling with respect to radio-frequency-inhomogeneity and the proton-proton dipolar coupling network. We discover through a Modulation Frame average Hamiltonian analysis that best decoupling is obtained under conditions where the heteronuclear interactions are removed but notably where homonuclear couplings are recoupled at a homonuclear Rotary Resonance (HORROR) condition in the Modulation Frame. These conclusions are supported by extensive experimental investigations, and notably through the introduction of proton nutation experiments to characterize spin dynamics in solids under decoupling conditions. The theoretical framework presented in this paper allows the prediction of the optimum parameters for a given set of experimental conditions.

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance observation and dynamics of specific amide protons in T4 lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Griffey, R H; Redfield, A G; Loomis, R E; Dahlquist, F W

    1985-02-12

    We have produced T4 lysozyme using a bacterial expression system which allows efficient incorporation of isotopically labeled amino acids in lysozyme. By using conditions that repress the expression of various transaminases, we have incorporated 15N-labeled amino acid into the five phenylalanine residues of the protein. The relatively large spin--spin coupling (87 +/- 3 Hz) between the 15N nucleus and the phenylalanine amide protons may then be exploited in a variety of ways to selectively observe the five phenylalanine amide proton resonances. These include a simple "echo difference" technique which displays the amide proton resonances in one dimension and a "forbidden echo" technique [Bax, A., Griffey, R. H., & Hawkins, B.L. (1983) J. Magn. Reson. 55, 301-335] which gives two-dimensional information allowing the proton and 15N chemical shifts of each amide to be determined. With these approaches, all five phenylalanine amide protons give resolved resonances. Deuterium exchange experiments demonstrate that three of the five resonances are slow to exchange (half-times of about 1 week at pH 5.5 and 4 degrees C) while the other two are rapid with complete exchange in hours or less. These observations correlate well with the secondary structure of the protein which shows three residues in alpha-helical regions and two residues in surface-exposed environments. This approach of isotopic substitution on nitrogen or carbon atoms is of general utility and should allow virtually any proton on a protein of molecular weight 20 000 or thereabout to be selectively observed. PMID:3888265

  16. Investigation of Magnetic Field Geometry in Exploding Wire Z-Pinches via Proton Deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariscal, Derek; Beg, Farhat; Wei, Mingsheng; Chittenden, Jeremy; Presura, Radu

    2012-10-01

    It is often difficult to determine the configuration of B-fields within z-pinch plasma systems. Typical laser probing diagnostics are limited by the critical density, and electrical diagnostics are prone to failure as well as perturbation of the system. The use of proton beams launched by high intensity lasers, and the subsequent tracking of their deflected trajectories, will enable access to field measurements in previously inaccessible plasma densities.The experimental testing of this method is performed at the Nevada Test Facility (NTF) using the 10J 0.3ps Leopard laser coupled to the 1.6MA ZEBRA pulsed power generator. MHD simulations of the z-pinch plasmas are performed with the 3D resistive MHD code, GORGON. Protons are then injected and tracked through the plasma using the 3D PIC Large Scale Plasma code in order to produce possible proton image plane data. The first computational demonstration of protons propagating through single wire and x-pinch plasmas, along with comparison to recent experimental data will be presented.

  17. BNL alternating gradient synchrotron with four helical magnets to minimize the losses of the polarized proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Huang, H.; MacKay, W. W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.

    2013-04-01

    The principle of using multiple partial helical magnets to preserve the polarization of the proton beam during its acceleration was applied successfully to the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS) which currently operates with two partial helical magnets. In this paper we further explore this idea by using four partial helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. This provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS, which uses two partial helical magnets. First, the symmetric placement of the four helical magnets and their relatively lower field of operation allows for better control of the AGS optics with reduced values of the beta functions especially near beam injection and allows both the vertical and horizontal tunes to be placed within the “spin tune gap,” therefore eliminating the horizontal and vertical intrinsic spin resonances of the AGS during the acceleration cycle. Second, it provides a wider spin tune gap. Third, the vertical spin direction during beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical. Although the spin tune gap, which is created with four partial helices, can also be created with a single or two partial helices, the high field strength of a single helical magnet which is required to generate such a spin tune gap makes the use of the single helical magnet impractical, and that of the two helical magnets rather difficult. In this paper we will provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and compare them with those from the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets. Although in this paper we specifically discuss the effect of the four partial helices on the AGS, this method which can eliminate simultaneously the vertical and horizontal intrinsic spin resonances is a general method and can be applied to any medium energy synchrotron which operates in similar energy range like the AGS and provides the required space to accommodate the four

  18. Functional and Phenotypic Plasticity of CD4+ T Cell Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Caza, Tiffany; Landas, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable plasticity of CD4+ T cells allows individuals to respond to environmental stimuli in a context-dependent manner. A balance of CD4+ T cell subsets is critical to mount responses against pathogen challenges to prevent inappropriate activation, to maintain tolerance, and to participate in antitumor immune responses. Specification of subsets is a process beginning in intrathymic development and continuing within the circulation. It is highly flexible to adapt to differences in nutrient availability and the tissue microenvironment. CD4+ T cell subsets have significant cross talk, with the ability to “dedifferentiate” given appropriate environmental signals. This ability is dependent on the metabolic status of the cell, with mTOR acting as the rheostat. Autoimmune and antitumor immune responses are regulated by the balance between regulatory T cells and Th17 cells. When a homeostatic balance of subsets is not maintained, immunopathology can result. CD4+ T cells carry complex roles within tumor microenvironments, with context-dependent immune responses influenced by oncogenic drivers and the presence of inflammation. Here, we examine the signals involved in CD4+ T cell specification towards each subset, interconnectedness of cytokine networks, impact of mTOR signaling, and cellular metabolism in lineage specification and provide a supplement describing techniques to study these processes. PMID:26583116

  19. Study of anisotropy in nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times of water protons in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Kasturi, S R; Chang, D C; Hazlewood, C F

    1980-01-01

    The anisotropy of the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and the spin-spin relaxation times (T2) of water protons in skeletal muscle tissue have been studied by the spin-echo technique. Both T1 and T2 have been measured for the water protons of the tibialis anterior muscle of mature male rats for theta = 0, 55, and 90 degrees, where theta is the orientation of the muscle fiber with respect to the static field. The anisotropy in T1 and T2 has been measured at temperatures of 28, -5 and -10 degrees C. No significant anisotropy was observed in the T1 of the tissue water, while an average anisotropy of approximately 5% was observed in T2 at room temperature. The average anisotropy of T2 at -5 and -10 degrees C was found to be approximately 2 and 1.3%, respectively. PMID:6266530

  20. Transcriptional Regulatory Networks for CD4 T Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cells play a central role in controlling the adaptive immune response by secreting cytokines to activate target cells. Naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into at least four subsets, Th1, Th2, Th17, and inducible regulatory T cells, each with unique functions for pathogen elimination. The differentiation of these subsets is induced in response to cytokine stimulation, which is translated into Stat activation, followed by induction of master regulator transcription factors. In addition to these factors, multiple other transcription factors, both subset specific and shared, are also involved in promoting subset differentiation. This review will focus on the network of transcription factors that control CD4+ T cell differentiation. PMID:24839135

  1. Continuous monitoring of the zinc-phosphate acid-base cement setting reaction by proton nuclear magnetic relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apih, T.; Lebar, A.; Pawlig, O.; Trettin, R.

    2001-06-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic relaxation is a well-established technique for continuous and non destructive monitoring of hydration of conventional Portland building cements. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) monitoring of the setting reaction of zinc-phosphate acid-base dental cements, which harden in minutes as compared to days, as in the case of Portland cements. We compare the setting of cement powder (mainly, zinc oxide) prepared with clinically used aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid solution with the setting of a model system where cement powder is mixed with pure orthophosphoric acid solution. In contrast to previously published NMR studies of setting Portland cements, where a decrease of spin-lattice relaxation time is attributed to enhanced relaxation at the growing internal surface, spin-lattice relaxation time T1 increases during the set of clinically used zinc-phosphate cement. Comparison of these results with a detailed study of diffusion, viscosity, and magnetic-field dispersion of T1 in pure and aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid demonstrates that the increase of T1 in the setting cement is connected with the increase of molecular mobility in the residual phosphoric acid solution. Although not taken into account so far, such effects may also significantly influence the relaxation times in setting Portland cements, particularly when admixtures with an effect on water viscosity are used.

  2. Comparative proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of amantadine complexes formed in aqueous solutions with three major cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Lis-Cieplak, Agnieszka; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Kolodziejski, Waclaw

    2014-01-01

    Host-guest complexes of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins (α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD, respectively) with amantadine (1-aminoadamantane, AMA; an antiviral agent) were characterized in aqueous solutions using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Host-guest molecular interactions were manifested by changes in the chemical shifts of AMA protons. NMR Job's plots showed that the stoichiometry of all the studied complexes was 1:1. Two-dimensional T-ROESY experiments demonstrated that the complexes were formed by different degrees of incorporation of the adamantyl group of AMA into the CD cavity. The mode of AMA binding was proposed. The AMA molecule came into the α-CD cavity (the smallest size) or β-CD cavity (the intermediate size) through its wide entrance to become shallowly or deeply accommodated, respectively. In the complex of AMA with γ-CD (the largest cavity size), the adamantyl group was also quite deeply inserted into the CD cavity, but it arrived there through the narrow cavity entrance. It was found that the adamantyl group of AMA was best accommodated by the β-CD cavity. The binding constants Kaa of the studied complexes (in M(-1) ), determined from DOSY NMR, were fairly high; their values in an ascending order were: α-CD (183) < γ-CD (306) ≪ β-CD (5150). PMID:24282085

  3. EXOTIC MAGNETS FOR ACCELERATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER, P.

    2005-09-18

    Over the last few years, several novel magnet designs have been introduced to meet the requirements of new, high performance accelerators and beam lines. For example, the FAIR project at GSI requires superconducting magnets ramped at high rates ({approx} 4 T/s) in order to achieve the design intensity. Magnets for the RIA and FAIR projects and for the next generation of LHC interaction regions will need to withstand high doses of radiation. Helical magnets are required to maintain and control the polarization of high energy protons at RHIC. In other cases, novel magnets have been designed in response to limited budgets and space. For example, it is planned to use combined function superconducting magnets for the 50 GeV proton transport line at J-PARC to satisfy both budget and performance requirements. Novel coil winding methods have been developed for short, large aperture magnets such as those used in the insertion region upgrade at BEPC. This paper will highlight the novel features of these exotic magnets.

  4. Measurement of the polarization and magnetic moment of Ξ¯+ antihyperons produced by 800-GeV/c protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, P. M.; Longo, M. J.; Nguyen, A.; Luk, K. B.; James, C.; Rameika, R.; Duryea, J.; Guglielmo, G.; Heller, K.; Johns, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Teige, S.; Thomson, G. B.; Zou, Y.

    1991-12-01

    The polarization of Ξ¯ + hyperons produced by 800-GeV/c protons in the inclusive reaction p+Be-->Ξ¯ ++X has been measured using a sample of 70 000 Ξ¯ + decays. The average polarization of the Ξ¯ +, at a mean xF=0.39 and pt=0.76 GeV/c, is -0.097+/-0.012+/-0.009, compared to -0.102+/-0.012+/-0.010 for the Ξ-. The large polarization found for the Ξ¯ + is not expected in any model for polarization of inclusively produced hyperons. The magnetic moment of the Ξ¯ + was measured to be 0.657+/-0.028+/-0.020 nuclear magnetons (μN), compared to (-0.674+/-0.021+/-0.020)μN for the Ξ-, in good agreement with CPT invariance.

  5. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the variant-3 neurotoxin from Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing: Sequential assignment of resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Nettesheim, D.G.; Klevit, R.E.; Drobny, G.; Watt, D.D.; Krishna, N.R. )

    1989-02-21

    The authors report the sequential assignment of resonances to specific residues in the proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the variant-3 neurotoxin from the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing (range southwestern U.S.A.). A combination of two-dimensional NMR experiments such as 2D-COSY, 2D-NOESY, and single- and double-RELAY coherence transfer spectroscopy has been employed on samples of the protein dissolved in D{sub 2}O and in H{sub 2}O for assignment purposes. These studies provide a basis for the determination of the solution-phase conformation of this protein and for undertaking detailed structure-function studies of these neurotoxins that modulate the flow of sodium current by binding to the sodium channels of excitable membranes.

  6. Increase in amino acids in the pons after sleep deprivation: a pilot study using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Murck, Harald; Struttmann, Tobias; Czisch, Michael; Wetter, Thomas; Steiger, Axel; Auer, Dorothee P

    2002-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation (TSD) is an efficient method to relieve depression. An involvement of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of depression and the mechanism of action of TSD has been suggested. To directly assess the content of GABA, glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) before and after TSD, we estimated their concentrations in four brain regions in six healthy subjects using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The unresolved estimate of GABA, Glu and Gln, as well as GABA and Gln were increased in the pons after 24 h of TSD, the effect being prominent in three subjects. There were no significant changes in the hypothalamus, thalamus or parietooccipital cortex. These preliminary data support earlier animal data and indirect findings in humans suggesting that GABA and Gln, especially in the pontine structures, may play a key role in the mechanism of TSD. PMID:11979059

  7. Proton radiography of dynamic electric and magnetic fields in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Manuel, M.; Casey, D.; Sinenian, N.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Delettrez, J.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F.; Sangster, T. C.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Shvarts, D.

    2009-05-15

    Time-gated, monoenergetic-proton radiography provides unique measurements of the electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields produced in laser-foil interactions and during the implosion of inertial-confinement-fusion capsules. These experiments resulted in the first observations of several new and important features: (1) observations of the generation, decay dynamics, and instabilities of megagauss B fields in laser-driven planar plastic foils, (2) the observation of radial E fields inside an imploding capsule, which are initially directed inward, reverse direction during deceleration, and are likely related to the evolution of the electron pressure gradient, and (3) the observation of many radial filaments with complex electromagnetic field striations in the expanding coronal plasmas surrounding the capsule. The physics behind and implications of such observed fields are discussed.

  8. Proton radiography of dynamic electric and magnetic fields in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Manuel, M.; Casey, D.; Sinenian, N.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Delettrez, J.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shvarts, D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Back, C. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2009-01-01

    Time-gated, monoenergetic-proton radiography provides unique measurements of the electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields produced in laser-foil interactions and during the implosion of inertial-confinement-fusion capsules. These experiments resulted in the first observations of several new and important features: (1) observations of the generation, decay dynamics, and instabilities of megagauss B fields in laser-driven planar plastic foils, (2) the observation of radial E fields inside an imploding capsule, which are initially directed inward, reverse direction during deceleration, and are likely related to the evolution of the electron pressure gradient, and (3) the observation of many radial filaments with complex electromagnetic field striations in the expanding coronal plasmas surrounding the capsule. The physics behind and implications of such observed fields are discussed.

  9. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and MRI reveal no evidence for brain mitochondrial dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Neva M; Shaw, Dennis W W; Richards, Todd L; Estes, Annette M; Friedman, Seth D; Petropoulos, Helen; Artru, Alan A; Dager, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    Brain mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed as an etiologic factor in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)HMRS) and MRI were used to assess for evidence of brain mitochondrial dysfunction in longitudinal samples of children with ASD or developmental delay (DD), and cross-sectionally in typically developing (TD) children at 3-4, 6-7 and 9-10 years-of-age. A total of 239 studies from 130 unique participants (54ASD, 22DD, 54TD) were acquired. (1)HMRS and MRI revealed no evidence for brain mitochondrial dysfunction in the children with ASD. Findings do not support a substantive role for brain mitochondrial abnormalities in the etiology or symptom expression of ASD, nor the widespread use of hyperbaric oxygen treatment that has been advocated on the basis of this proposed relationship. PMID:21404085

  10. Experimental Study of Calculated t1 Images Under Flow Conditions Using Protons and FLUORINE-19 in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jie

    A gradient refocused echo (GRE) pulse protocol has been developed and implemented to obtain calculated T1 images under flow conditions. This sequence acquires multiple images with different flip angles and uses a least -square fit to obtain calculated T1 images. A theoretical analysis of imprecision in the calculated T1 images is discussed. In accordance with Wang (49), the optimal parameters as determined by computer simulation were found to be 20 ^circ and 100^ circ for the flip angles in a two point fit for TR falling in the range 0.3 to 1.0 T1. Flow compensation was added to the pulse sequence for imaging flow phantoms containing GD-DTPA doped water and perfluorocarbon (PFC) compounds for a range of flow rates (0-55 cm/s). Flow compensation was found to effectively recover signal loss due to flow related dephasing. Experimental testing of this protocol has been performed on stationary proton and PFC compound phantoms utilizing ^1H and ^{19}F magnetic resonance imaging respectively. There is good agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions about imprecision in the calculated T1 images. Analysis of variance of the mean T1 values of the calculated T1 images of the proton and PFC flow phantoms indicated that for the flow phantom geometry used in this study, there was no statistical difference among these mean T1 values from flow phantoms with different flow rates (including stationary status). It is believed that this protocol may provide an imaging method for mapping the pO _2 distribution in the vascular space in vivo utilizing perfluorocarbon compounds and ^ {19}F magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Glutamine and Glutamate Levels in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A 4.0-T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Constance M.; Frazier, Jean A.; Glod, Carol A.; Breeze, Janis L.; Dieterich, Megan; Finn, Chelsea T.; deB. Frederick, Blaise; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, at 4.0 T, to explore the glutamine and glutamate levels in the anterior cingulate cortex of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BPD; medicated and unmedicated) and healthy comparison subjects (HCSs). We hypothesized that unmedicated children with…

  12. Proton NMR study of spin dynamics in the magnetic organic chains M (hfac)3 NITEt (M =Eu3 +,Gd3 + )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, M.; Lascialfari, A.; Caneschi, A.; Ammannato, L.; Gatteschi, D.; Rettori, A.; Pini, M. G.; Cucci, C.; Borsa, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of the spin dynamics in the rare-earth-based low-dimensional molecular magnetic chains Eu (hfac) 3NITEt and Gd (hfac) 3NITEt (in short, Eu-Et and Gd-Et). Although both samples are based on the same chemical building block, [(hfac) 3NITEt ] , their magnetic properties change dramatically when the Eu3 + ion, which is nonmagnetic at low temperatures, is substituted by the magnetic Gd3 + ion. The present proton NMR investigation shows that, down to the lowest investigated temperature (T =1.5 K for Gd-Et and T =3 K for Eu-Et), the Eu-Et chain behaves as a one-dimensional Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic exchange coupling (J =-20 K) between s =1 /2 organic radicals, and has a T -independent exchange frequency (ωe=2.6 ×1012 rad/s). In the Gd-Et chain, in contrast, a competition arises between nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic coupling and next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic coupling; moreover, two phase transitions have previously been found, in agreement with Villain's conjecture: a first transition, at T0=2.2 K, from a high temperature paramagnetic phase to a chiral spin liquid phase, and a second transition, at TN=1.9 K, to a three-dimensional helical spin solid phase. Contrary to the Eu-Et chain (whose three-dimensional ordering temperature is estimated to insurge at very low, TN≈0.3 K), critical spin dynamics effects have been measured in the Gd-Et chain on approaching TN=1.9 K: namely, a divergence of the proton nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1 /T1 , which in turn produces a sudden wipe-out of the NMR signal in a very narrow (Δ T ˜0.04 K) temperature range above TN. Below TN, an inhomogeneous broadening of the NMR line indicates a complete spin freezing. At T0=2.2 K, instead, such critical effects are not observed because NMR measurements probe the two-spin correlation function, while the chiral spin liquid phase transition is associated with a divergence of the four

  13. Detection and characterization of hyperfine-shifted resonances in the proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of Anabaena 7120 ferredoxin at high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Skjeldal, L; Westler, W M; Markley, J L

    1990-05-01

    This paper presents previously unobserved signals in the 1H NMR spectra of oxidized and reduced [2Fe-2S]-ferredoxin from Anabaena 7120 detected at 400, 500, and 600 MHz. The signals shifted to low field exhibited longitudinal relaxation (T1) values in the range of 100-400 microseconds and line widths in the range of 1-10 kHz (at 400 MHz), and the chemical shifts of all signals showed strong temperature dependence. Although the line widths were smaller at lower magnetic fields, the resolution was better at higher magnetic fields. In the oxidized state, a broad signal was detected at 37 ppm, which corresponds to at least 6 protons, and whose chemical shift exhibits positive temperature dependence. This signal also was found in oxidized ferredoxin reconstituted in 2H2O, which excludes the signal as arising from solvent-exchangeable amide protons. In the reduced state, four signals detected between 90 and 140 ppm exhibited negative temperature dependence. These consisted of two pairs of signals, each pair having one component with half the linewidth of the other. On the basis of their chemical shifts, linewidths, longitudinal relaxation properties, and temperature dependence we assigned these resonances to four of the beta hydrogens of the ligated cysteines. Two solvent-exchangeable hyperfine-shifted signals were found in the reduced state; these are located upfield of the diamagnetic region. The low-field hyperfine resonances of half-reduced ferredoxin in the presence of sodium dithionite showed a self electron transfer exchange rate that was slow on the NMR scale as observed earlier (Chan, T., and Markley, J. L. (1983) Biochemistry 22, 5982-5987), but the exchange rate was accelerated in the presence of methyl viologen. PMID:2327800

  14. Effect of magnetic field and iron content on NMR proton relaxation of liver, spleen and brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Hocq, Aline; Luhmer, Michel; Saussez, Sven; Louryan, Stéphane; Gillis, Pierre; Gossuin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Iron accumulation is observed in liver and spleen during hemochromatosis and important neurodegenerative diseases involve iron overload in brain. Storage of iron is ensured by ferritin, which contains a magnetic core. It causes a darkening on T2 -weighted MR images. This work aims at improving the understanding of the NMR relaxation of iron-loaded human tissues, which is necessary to develop protocols of iron content measurements by MRI. Relaxation times measurements on brain, liver and spleen samples were realized at different magnetic fields. Iron content was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. For all samples, the longitudinal relaxation rate (1/T1 ) of tissue protons decreases with the magnetic field up to 1 T, independently of iron content, while their transverse relaxation rate (1/T2 ) strongly increases with the field, either linearly or quadratically, or a combination thereof. The extent of the inter-echo time dependence of 1/T2 also varies according to the sample. A combination of theoretical models is necessary to describe the relaxation of iron-containing tissues. This can be due to the presence, inside tissues, of ferritin clusters of different sizes and densities. When considering all samples, a correlation (r(2)  = 0.6) between 1/T1 and iron concentration is observed at 7.0 T. In contrast the correlation between 1/T2 and iron content is poor, even at high field (r(2)  = 0.14 at 7.0 T). Our results show that MRI methods based on T1 or T2 measurements will easily detect an iron overloading at high magnetic field, but will not provide an accurate quantification of tissue iron content at low iron concentrations. PMID:24954138

  15. Seasonal and temporal characterization of dissolved organic matter in rainwater by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, Pamela J.; Kieber, Robert J.; Willey, Joan D.; Avery, G. Brooks; Dixon, Joshua L.

    2013-02-01

    Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater was concentrated by two separate techniques and characterized by 1H-NMR. The total 1H-NMR integral of lyophilized rainwater was higher in every rain sample than that of C18 solid phase extracted samples and always contained a higher percentage integral in the region of protons bound to carbon atoms singly bound to oxygen (H-C-O), such as alcohols, polyols and carbohydrate-like compounds. C18 extracted samples had higher % integral in the alkyl region, consistent with reverse phase extraction of more hydrophobic components in rainwater. Differences in both the 1H-NMR integration and spectral pattern of lyophilized rainwater samples were especially apparent between spring and winter rains, with spring samples having higher percent carbohydrate (H-C-O) signal and winter rains having higher percent alkyl protons and a spectral pattern consistent with the presence of saturated fatty acids. Spring rains are characterized by lower % Alkyl signal coupled with higher % H-C-O than all other events while marine winter events appear in regions characterized by relatively high % Alkyl and average % H-C-O, consistent with increased abundance of fatty acids or fatty acid oxidation products. The 1H-NMR data presented in this manuscript are important because they provide spectral data relating to the source and chemical characteristics of dissolved organic carbon in rainwater as a function of season and air mass back trajectory.

  16. Type-II entry of solar wind protons into the lunar wake: Effects of magnetic connection to the night-side surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Fujimoto, Masaki; Saito, Yoshifumi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kawamura, Mariko; Matsushima, Masaki; Takahashi, Futoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Goto, Yoshitaka; Hashimoto, Kozo; Omura, Yoshiharu; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Ono, Takayuki; Yokota, Shoichiro

    2014-05-01

    Our recent observations around the Moon revealed that so-called type-II (T2) entry of the solar wind protons into the near-Moon wake occurs when the IMF is dominated by the non-radial components (i.e. BY and/or BZ). Under this condition a part of the solar wind protons scattered/reflected at the lunar dayside surface subsequently enters the central region of the near-Moon wake after a large-scale cycloid motion, which accelerates electrons along the filed line into the wake. The situation handled in the previous studies is that the relevant magnetic field line is detached from the lunar surface, leaving a possibility of the T2 entry under magnetic connection left open. Here we report that the protons can access the central wake region that is magnetically connected to the lunar nightside surface, which we categorize into the T2 entry with magnetic connection to the lunar surface (T2MC). Furthermore we show that the energy of the electron beams induced by the proton entry into the wake depends on the magnetic connectivity. Strong electron acceleration (up to several hundred eV to 1 keV) along the magnetic field associated with the T2 entry is prominent when the field line has its both ends in the solar wind, that is, when the magnetic field is detached from the lunar surface (i.e. the previously-reported T2 entry that we rename to T2MD). On the other hand, no significant electron acceleration is found in the T2MC cases, although an enhancement of the electron flux associated with the T2 proton entry is evident. We also report that the T2 entry process takes place even under radial (BX-dominated) IMF condition. Our results indicate that, while the T2 entry of solar wind protons into the wake itself does not require a special IMF condition but is a rather general phenomenon, the characteristic energy of associated electrons does show a strong dependence on the magnetic connectivity to the lunar surface.

  17. SU-E-J-229: Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Small Fiducial Markers for Proton Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y; James, J; Panda, A; Vargas, C; Silva, A; Liu, W; Shen, J; Ding, X; Paden, R; Hanson, J; Wong, W; Schild, S; Bues, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For proton beam therapy, small fiducial markers are preferred for patient alignment due to less interference with the proton beam. Visualizing small fiducial markers can be challenging in MRI. This study intends to investigate MRI imaging protocols for better visualization of small fiducial markers. Methods: Two carbon and two coil-shaped gold markers were placed into a gel phantom. Both carbon markers had a diameter of 1mm and a length of 3mm. Both gold markers had a length of 5mm. One gold marker had a diameter of 0.5mm and the other had a diameter of 0.75mm. T1 VIBE, T2 SPACE, TrueFISP and susceptibility weighted (SW) images were acquired. To improve marker contrast, high spatial resolution was used to reduce partial volume effect. Slice thickness was 1.5mm for all four sequences and in-plane resolution was 0.6mm for TrueFISP, 0.7mm for T1 VIBE, and 0.8mm for T2 SPACE and SW. For comparison purpose, a 3D T1 VIBE image set at 3mm slice thickness and 1.2mm in-plane resolution was also acquired. Results: All markers were visible in all high-resolution image sets. In each image set, marker-induced signal void was the smallest (in diameter) for carbon markers, followed by the 0.5mm gold marker and the largest for the 0.75mm gold marker. The SW images had the largest marker-induced signal void. However, those might be confused by susceptibility-gradient-induced signal voids. T1 VIBE had good visualization of markers with nicely defined edges. T2 SPACE had reasonable visualization of markers but edges were slightly blurred. TrueFISP had good visualization of markers only if they were not masked by banding artifacts. As a comparison, all markers were hardly visible in the standard resolution T1 VIBE images. Conclusion: 3D high-resolution T1 VIBE and SW have great potential in providing good visualization of small fiducial markers for proton beam therapy.

  18. Effect of mica content on pore-size distribution and porosity of sandy sediment using proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, S.

    2015-12-01

    As a part of a Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI), we performed a study on effect of mica content on pore size distribution and porosity of sandy sediment. This study used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to measure the pore-size distribution and porosity of specimen to investigate mica content effect in sandy sediment. A mixture of silica sand No. 7 and mica (mica of 0 wt. %, 5 wt. % and 20 wt. %) was used in this study. The median D50 by laser diffraction method was obtained as 215.7 μm of silica sand No. 7 and 278.9 μm of mica. Pore-size distributions of specimens by the distribution of transverse magnetic relaxation time (T2) measurement by NMR were performed for the water-saturated sample under effective confining pressure of 1.0 MPa. The peaks of pore-size distribution curves decreased and showed finer shifts with increasing of mica content. The porosity of silica sand No. 7 specimen was 46.3%, and that of mica 5% and 20 % were 45.9% and 42.2%m, respectively. A change in pore-size distribution and porosity were observed with an increasing ratio of mica.

  19. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the kidney in renal stone disease.

    PubMed

    Mairiang, Eimorn; Hanpanich, Petcharakorn; Sriboonlue, Pote

    2002-12-01

    Previous studies of renal stone disease (RSD) in Thailand indicated abnormal urinary aggregator and inhibitor composition among farmers with excessive sweat loss. Our aim was to compare the proton MR spectra obtained from the kidneys of 32 proven cases of RSD (aged 38 to 65 yrs) with nine age-matched normal control subjects. We used the STEAM sequence with TE = 15 ms and TR = 2,000 ms. The spectra at 3.25, 3.6 and 3.9 ppm were analyzed. The results showed a correlation between the three peaks (p < 0.001), however, there was no significant difference between the RSD group and the normal control subjects. We therefore concluded that there was no overloading of these osmolytes among the renal stone patients. PMID:12591573

  20. High resolution NMR study of T{sub 1} magnetic relaxation dispersion. IV. Proton relaxation in amino acids and Met-enkephalin pentapeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2014-10-21

    Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion (NMRD) of protons was studied in the pentapeptide Met-enkephalin and the amino acids, which constitute it. Experiments were run by using high-resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in combination with fast field-cycling, thus enabling measuring NMRD curves for all individual protons. As in earlier works, Papers I–III, pronounced effects of intramolecular scalar spin-spin interactions, J-couplings, on spin relaxation were found. Notably, at low fields J-couplings tend to equalize the apparent relaxation rates within networks of coupled protons. In Met-enkephalin, in contrast to the free amino acids, there is a sharp increase in the proton T{sub 1}-relaxation times at high fields due to the changes in the regime of molecular motion. The experimental data are in good agreement with theory. From modelling the relaxation experiments we were able to determine motional correlation times of different residues in Met-enkephalin with atomic resolution. This allows us to draw conclusions about preferential conformation of the pentapeptide in solution, which is also in agreement with data from two-dimensional NMR experiments (rotating frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy). Altogether, our study demonstrates that high-resolution NMR studies of magnetic field-dependent relaxation allow one to probe molecular mobility in biomolecules with atomic resolution.

  1. Adolescents' perceptions toward the internet: a 4-T framework.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2004-08-01

    This study could be viewed as one of the initial attempts to probe adolescents' general perceptions toward the Internet. Through interviewing 40 adolescents in Taiwan, this study found the following 4-T categories for interpreting their perceptions toward the Internet, which included Technology, Tool, Toy, and Travel. Most adolescents perceived the Internet as a tool, implying that these adolescents, in general, held pragmatic views about the Internet. This paper further proposes a framework to elaborate the 4-T categories. The framework consists of the following two axes: one axis probably shows the ontology of the Internet, ranging from a "product" to a "process," whereas the other axis indicates the perceived feature of the Internet, varying from "functional" to "technical." It is finally suggested to carefully investigate the effects of people's Internet perceptions on their behaviors, as well as psychological and cognitive activities in Internet-related environments. PMID:15331033

  2. Heterogeneity of Human CD4(+) T Cells Against Microbes.

    PubMed

    Sallusto, Federica

    2016-05-20

    CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells play a central role in the adaptive immune response by providing help to B cells and cytotoxic T cells and by releasing different types of cytokines in tissues to mediate protection against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. These functions are performed by different types of Th cells endowed with distinct migratory capacities and effector functions. Here we discuss how studies of the human T cell response to microbes have advanced our understanding of Th cell functional heterogeneity, in particular with the discovery of a distinct Th1 subset involved in the response to Mycobacteria and the characterization of two types of Th17 cells specific for extracellular bacteria or fungi. We also review new approaches to dissect at the clonal level the human CD4(+) T cell response induced by pathogens or vaccines that have revealed an unexpected degree of intraclonal diversification and propose a progressive and selective model of CD4(+) T cell differentiation. PMID:27168241

  3. Hydrogenated Graphenes by Birch Reduction: Influence of Electron and Proton Sources on Hydrogenation Efficiency, Magnetism, and Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Sofer, Zdeněk; Huber, Štěpán; Bouša, Daniel; Maryško, Miroslav; Pumera, Martin

    2015-11-16

    Interest in chemical functionalisation of graphenes today is largely driven by associated changes to its physical and material properties. Functionalisation with hydrogen was employed to obtain hydrogenated graphenes (also termed graphane if fully hydrogenated), which exhibited properties including fluorescence, magnetism and a tuneable band gap. Although the classical Birch reduction has been employed for hydrogenation of graphite oxide, variation exists between the choice of alkali metals and alcohols/water as quenching agents. A systematic study of electron (Li, Na, K, Cs) and proton sources (tBuOH, iPrOH, MeOH, H2O) has been performed to identify optimal conditions. The proton source exerted a great influence on the resulting hydrogenation with water and out-performed alcohols, and the lowest carbon-to-hydrogen ratio was observed with sodium and water with composition of C1.4H1O0.3. Although ferromagnetism at room temperature correlates well with increasing hydrogen concentrations, small contributions from trace iron impurities cannot be completely eliminated. In contrast, hydrogenated graphenes exhibit a significant paramagnetic moment at low temperatures that has no correlation with impurities, and therefore, originates from the carbon system. This is in comparison to graphene, which is strongly diamagnetic, and concentrations of paramagnetic centres in hydrogenated graphenes are one order of magnitude larger than that in graphite. Nonetheless, hydrogenation over a particular level might also excessively disrupt intrinsic sp(2) conjugation, resulting in unintended reduction of electrochemical properties. This was observed with heterogeneous electron-transfer rates and it was postulated that hydrogenated graphenes should generally have high defect densities, but only moderately high hydrogenation, should they be employed as electrode materials. PMID:26457373

  4. Neurodegenerative evidences during early onset of depression in CMS rats as detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Hemanth Kumar, B S; Mishra, Sushanta Kumar; Rana, Poonam; Singh, Sadhana; Khushu, Subash

    2012-06-15

    Depression is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by anhedonia and feeling of sadness and chronic mild stress (CMS) seems to be a valuable animal model of depression. CMS animal model was induced and validated using behavioral studies. In the present study we investigated the neuro-metabolite changes occurring in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during the onset of depression, in CMS rat model using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at field strength of 7 T. Results showed that CMS caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by the decrease in sucrose consumption and locomotor activity. (1)H MRS was performed in both control and CMS rats (n=10, in each group) and the quantitative assessment of the neurometabolites was done using LC model. Relative concentrations of all the metabolites along with the macromolecules were calculated for analysis. The results revealed a significant decrease of glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), NAA+NAAG, Glx and GABA levels in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of CMS animals and an elevated level of myo-ionisitol (mI) and taurine (Tau) was observed only in hippocampus. These metabolite fluctuations revealed by proton MRS indicate that there might be change in the neuronal integrity of the glial cells and neurons within prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in CMS model of depression. The present study also suggests that there may be a degenerative process concerning the brain morphology in the CMS rats. The overall finding using (1)H MRS suggests that, there might be a major role of the glia and neuron in the onset of depression. PMID:22449862

  5. Multicomponent analysis of radiolytic products in human body fluids using high field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grootveld, Martin C.; Herz, Herman; Haywood, Rachel; Hawkes, Geoffrey E.; Naughton, Declan; Perera, Anusha; Knappitt, Jacky; Blake, David R.; Claxson, Andrew W. D.

    1994-05-01

    High field proton Hahn spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been employed to investigate radiolytic damage to biomolecules present in intact human body fluids. γ-Radiolysis of healthy or rheumatoid human serum (5.00 kGy) in the presence of atmospheric O 2 gave rise to reproducible elevations in the concentration of NMR-detectable acetate which are predominantly ascribable to the prior oxidation of lactate to pyruvate by hydroxyl radical (·OH) followed by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate by radiolytically-generated hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) and/or further ·OH radical. Increases in the serum levels of non-protein-bound, low-molecular-mass components such as citrate and glutamine were also observed subsequent to γ-radiolysis, an observation which may reflect their mobilisation from protein binding-sites by ·OH radical, superoxide anion and/or H 2O 2. Moreover, substantial radiolytically-mediated elevations in the concentration of serum formate were also detectable. In addition to the above modifications, γ-radiolysis of inflammatory knee-joint synovial fluid (SF) generated a low-molecular-mass oligosaccharide species derived from the radiolytic fragmentation of hyaluronate. The radiolytically-mediated production of acetate in SF samples was markedly greater than that observed in serum samples, a consequence of the much higher levels of ·OH radical-scavenging lactate present. Indeed, increases in SF acetate concentration were detectable at doses as low as 48 Gy. We conclude that high field proton NMR analysis provides much useful information regarding the relative radioprotectant abilities of endogenous components and the nature, status and levels of radiolytic products generated in intact biofluids. We also suggest that NMR-detectable radiolytic products with associated toxicological properties (e.g. formate) may play a role in contributing to the deleterious effects observed following exposure of living organisms to sources of

  6. Proton Magnetic Resonance and Human Thyroid Neoplasia III. Ex VivoChemical-Shift Microimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Allison; Künnecke, Basil; Dowd, Susan; Russell, Peter; Delbridge, Leigh; Mountford, Carolyn E.

    1996-03-01

    Magnetic-resonance chemical-shift microimaging, with a spatial resolution of 40 × 40 μm, is a modality which can detect alterations to cellular chemistry and hence markers of pathological processes in human tissueex vivo.This technique was used as a chemical microscope to assess follicular thyroid neoplasms, lesions which are unsatisfactorily investigated using standard histopathological techiques or water-based magnetic-resonance imaging. The chemical-shift images at the methyl frequency (0.9 ppm) identify chemical heterogeneity in follicular tumors which are histologically homogeneous. The observed changes to cellular chemistry, detectable in foci of approximately 100 cells or less, support the existence of a preinvasive state hitherto unidentified by current pathological techniques.

  7. Effect of Triplet Magnet Vibrations on RHIC Performance with High Energy Protons

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.

    2010-05-23

    In this report we present recent experimental data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) illustrating effects resulting from {approx}10 Hz vibrations of the triplet quadrupole magnets in the interactions regions and evaluate the impact of these vibrations on RHIC collider performance. Measurements revealed modulation of the betatron tunes of appreciable magnitude relative to the total beam-beam parameter. Comparison of the discrete frequencies in the spectra of the measured beam positions and betatron tunes confirmed a common source. The tune modulations were shown to result from feed-down in the sextupole magnets in the interaction regions. In addition we show that the distortions to the closed orbit of the two counter-rotating beams produced a modulated crossing angle at the interaction point(s).

  8. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Localized in the Cerebellum and Brainstem Associated with Idiopathic CD4(+) T Lymphocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Aotsuka, Yuya; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Nishimura, Kazutaka; Kojima, Kazuho; Yamaguchi, Mika; Makino, Takahiro; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Saijo, Masayuki; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease that favors the cerebrum and typically occurs in immunosuppressed patients. We herein report the case of a 66-year-old man with PML, idiopathic CD4(+) T lymphocytopenia (ICL), and chronic renal failure. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a crescent-shaped lesion in the left cerebellum, brainstem, and middle cerebellar peduncle. Although the patient did not present with HIV infection, collagen diseases, or tumors, JC virus DNA was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. Clinicians should consider PML and ICL in the differential diagnosis if the patient develops progressive ataxia and a crescent-shaped cerebellar lesion on MRI. PMID:27301521

  9. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  10. H-1 Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Supercritical Ethylene at 1.4 T

    SciTech Connect

    Wind, Robert A. ); Shi, Bai; Hu, Jian Zhi ); Solum, Mark S.; Ellis, Paul D. ); Grant, David M.; Pugmire, Ronald J.; Taylor, Craig M.; Yonker, Clement R. )

    2000-03-01

    H1 dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has been measured in supercritical ethylene in the pressure range 60-300 bar and in an external field of 1.4 T. A single-cell sapphire tube was used as a high pressure cell and powdered 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenyl allyl(BDPA) free radicals were added and distributed at the wall of the cell. At all pressures the dominant DNP effect was a positive Overhauser enhancement, caused by proton-electron contact interactions at the fluid/solid radical interface. The observed enhancements varied from 12 at 67 bar to 17 at 300 bar. Besides the Overhauser enhancement, also a small solid state and thermal mixing enhancement were observed, indicating that part of the ethylene is absorbed at the radical surface for a prolonged time. These data indicate that DNP-enhanced NMR has the potential of extending the impact of NMR in research areas involving supercritical fluids.

  11. Proton magnetic resonance characterization of phoratoxins and homologous proteins related to crambin.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J T; Kaplan, D; Llinás, M; Thunberg, E; Samuelsson, G

    1987-02-24

    The mistletoe protein toxins ligatoxin, phoratoxins A and B, and viscotoxins A3 and B have been investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy at 300 and 600 MHz. The five polypeptides define a set of closely related homologues, containing 46 amino acid residues each, in a structure constrained by three cystine bridges. Their methyl and aromatic spectra were analyzed and a number of signals identified and assigned via comparative criteria, two-dimensional chemical-shift correlated spectroscopy, acid-base titration, and proton Overhauser experiments in 1H2O. The spectra indicate a compact globular conformation and a common folding pattern for the toxins. In particular, use was made of well-resolved aliphatic and aromatic resonances in order to compare the mistletoe proteins with the thionins, a set of homologous toxins from gramineae, and with crambin, a closely related polypeptide from a crucifer, which we have previously studied by NMR. We observe that while all the investigated proteins have very similar secondary and tertiary structures, they differ widely in their dynamic characteristics as probed by the amide NH 1H-2H exchange kinetics in deuteriated solvents; thus, while crambin and the thionins exhibit very fast isotope exchange, the kinetics for the mistletoe toxins are slow, with some NH groups showing exchange half-lives that extend up to several days at pH* 5.8 or that are too long to be measurable at ambient temperature. The temperature dependence of the 1H NMR spectrum also indicates that the toxins are endowed with a thermally very stable native (ground-state) structure, with little evidence of large amplitude structural breathings up to approximately 370 K, although irreversible chemical degradation (denaturation) becomes evident at temperatures greater than or equal to 350 K. It is concluded that the mistletoe toxins afford valuable rigid structures for NMR conformational studies. PMID:3567163

  12. Proton-Enhanced 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lipids and Biomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Urbina, Julio; Waugh, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    A recently developed nuclear double resonance technique which permits sensitive detection, together with high resolution, of rare spins in solids or other dipolar-coupled nuclear systems [Pines, Gibby, and Waugh (1973) J. Chem. Phys. 59, 569] has been applied to the study of natural abundance 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance in lipid mesophases and of selectively labeled carbon sites in bacterial membranes. Detailed microscopic information on the molecular organization and phase transitions of the lipid phases and their interaction with ions and other molecules can be obtained from the study of the chemical shift anisotropies and dynamical aspects of the 13C NMR spectra of unsonicated lipid dispersions (liposomes). Experiments are reported which demonstrated the feasibility of quantitatively observing the 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance of specifically labeled sites in unperturbed Escherichia coli membrane vesicles for the study of the physical state of the lipids with the aim of relating it to the known lipid-dependent functional properties of the membranes. PMID:4531036

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance of external protons using continuous dynamical decoupling with shallow NV centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Las Casas, Charles; Ohno, Kenichi; Awschalom, David D.

    2015-03-01

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a paramagnetic defect with excellent spin properties that can reside within a few nanometers of the diamond surface, enabling atomic-scale magnetic resonance sensing of external nuclear spins. Here we use rotating frame longitudinal spin relaxation (T1ρ) based sensing schemes, known as Continuous Dynamical Decoupling (CDD), to detect external nuclear spins with shallow NV centers (<5 nm from the surface). Distinguishing neighboring nuclear spins from each other requires the NV center be near enough to create differences in the hyperfine shifts and coupling strengths of the nuclei. However, spin coherence time and consequently the sensitivity of dynamical decoupling techniques degrade sharply as NVs become shallower. We use strong continuous driving to overcome this fast decoherence and detect an ensemble of external nuclear spins using a single shallow NV center with a short T2 (<2 μs) at magnetic fields as high as 0.5 Tesla. The increased sensitivity of this method relative to pulsed dynamical decoupling techniques demonstrates the benefits of CDD for sensing with very shallow NV centers. This work was supported by DARPA, AFOSR, and the DIAMANT program.

  14. Elevated prefrontal cortex GABA in patients with major depressive disorder after TMS treatment measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Marc J.; Mao, Xiangling; Banerjee, Samprit; Goodman, Zachary; Lapidus, Kyle A.B.; Kang, Guoxin; Liston, Conor; Shungu, Dikoma C.

    2016-01-01

    Background GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems are central to the pathophysiology of depression and are potential targets of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We assessed the effect of 10-Hz rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of patients with major depressive disorder on the levels of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the combined resonance of glutamate and glutamine (Glx) as assessed in vivo with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). Methods Currently depressed individuals between the ages of 23 and 68 years participated in a 5-week naturalistic, open-label treatment study of rTMS, with 1H MRS measurements of MPFC GABA and Glx levels at baseline and following 5 weeks of the rTMS intervention. We applied rTMS pulses over the left DLPFC at 10 Hz and 80%–120% of motor threshold for 25 daily sessions, with each session consisting of 3000 pulses. We assessed therapeutic response using the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD24). The GABA and Glx levels are expressed as ratios of peak areas relative to the area of the synchronously acquired and similarly fitted unsuppressed voxel water signal (W). Results Twenty-three currently depressed individuals (7 men) participated in the study. GABA/W in the MPFC increased 13.8% (p = 0.013) in all depressed individuals. There were no significant effects of rTMS on Glx/W. GABA/W and Glx/W were highly correlated in severely depressed patients at baseline but not after TMS. Limitations The primary study limitations are the open-label design and the inclusion of participants currently taking stable regimens of antidepressant medications. Conclusion These results implicate GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in the mechanism of action of rTMS for major depression, warranting further investigation in larger samples. PMID:26900793

  15. T2 relaxation effects on apparent N-acetylaspartate concentration in proton magnetic resonance studies of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, Bethany K.; Rouse, Elizabeth D.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Olson, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, many magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies reported lower N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in key brain regions of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) compared to healthy subjects. A smaller number of studies report no difference in NAA. Many sources of variance may contribute to these discordant results including heterogeneity of the SZ subject populations and methodological differences such as MRS acquisition parameters, and post-acquisition analytic methods. The current study reviewed proton MRS literature reporting measurements of NAA in SZ with a focus on methodology. Studies which reported lower NAA were significantly more likely to have used longer echo times (TEs), while studies with shorter TEs reported no concentration difference. This suggests that NAA quantitation using MRS was affected by the choice of TE, and that published MRS literature reporting NAA in SZ using a long TE is confounded by apparent differential T2 relaxation effects between SZ and healthy control groups. Future MRS studies should measure T2 relaxation times. This would allow for spectral concentration measurements to be appropriately corrected for these relaxation effects. In addition, as metabolite concentration and T2 relaxation times are completely independent variables, this could offer distinct information about the metabolite of interest. PMID:23769421

  16. Three dimensional structure prediction and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of toxic pesticides in human blood plasma

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Rajeev Kumar; Gaur, Mulayam Singh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assignments of hydrolyzed products extracted from human blood plasma. The correlations between chemical, functional and structural properties of highly toxic pesticides were investigated using the PreADME analysis. We observed that toxic pesticides possessed higher molecular weight and, more hydrogen bond donors and acceptors when compared with less toxic pesticides. The occurrence of functional groups and structural properties was analyzed using 1H-NMR. The 1H-NMR spectra of the phosphomethoxy class of pesticides were characterized by methyl resonances at 3.7-3.9 ppm (δ) with the coupling constants of 11-16 Hz (JP-CH3). In phosphoethoxy pesticides, the methyl resonance was about 1.4 ppm (δ) with the coupling constant of 10 Hz (JP-CH2) and the methylene resonances was 4.2-4.4 ppm (δ) with the coupling constant of 0.8 Hz (JP-CH3), respectively. Our study shows that the values of four parameters such as chemical shift, coupling constant, integration and relaxation time correlated with the concentration of toxic pesticides, and can be used to characterise the proton groups in the molecular structures of toxic pesticides. PMID:23554747

  17. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a diagnostic biomarker in mild cognitive impairment following stroke in acute phase.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ningqin; Shi, Shengliang; Su, Ying

    2016-05-25

    To investigate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HMRS) as a diagnostic biomarker to identify mild cognitive impairment (MCI) following stroke in the acute phase. A total of 72 stroke patients were recruited in the acute phase of stroke from the Department of Neurology, including 36 stroke patients with MCI and 36 stroke patients without MCI. All patients underwent brain MRI/MRS examination on a 3.0 T scanner and a neuropsychological test in the acute phase of stroke. Single-voxel HMRS was performed to obtain hippocampal metabolism intensities and brain infarcts were assessed on MRI. Group difference in metabolite ratios was analyzed using a T-test. Spearman rank correlation was used to study the correlation between metabolite ratios and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores. The hippocampal n-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio was found to be significantly lower in stroke patients with MCI compared with stroke patients without MCI (P<0.02). However, we found no differences in the metabolite ratios between hippocampus ipsilateral to infarctions and the contralateral side (P>0.05) in stroke patients with MCI. Furthermore, a correlation was found between hippocampal NAA/Cr ratios and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores in stroke patients with MCI (P<0.01). HMRS could be a biomarker to identify MCI following stroke in the acute phase by capturing neurodegenerative changes. PMID:26981713

  18. Hydrogen Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Multidomain Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Cognitive Impairment Without Dementia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang-Qing; Cai, Qing; Shen, Yu-Ying; Xu, Chuan-Xiao; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the value of hydrogen proton magnet resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in the differential diagnosis of multiple-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (M-aMCI) and vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND); (1)H-MRS was performed in patients with M-aMCI and VCIND. The level was determined for N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), inositol (mI), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr). Compared with the normal control group, the NAA-Cr ratio in all regions studied was significantly lower in the M-aMCI and VCIND groups. The Glu-Cr ratio in the posterior cingulate gyrus of the M-aMCI group was significantly lower than in the VCIND. The mI-Cr ratio in the frontal white matter of the VCIND was significantly higher than in the M-aMCI group. In the white matter adjacent to the lateral ventricles, the Cho-Cr ratio was significantly higher in the VCIND than the M-aMCI. Our results suggested (1)H-MRS is an effective method in the differential diagnosis of M-aMCI and VCIND. PMID:26980718

  19. [In vitro evaluation of metabolic change in forebrain ischemia model of rat using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, N

    1997-05-01

    Metabolic disruption resulted from cerebral ischemia and post-ischemia reperfusion injury was studied using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). We also analyzed the effect of 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (MCI-186) which can scavenge free radicals induced in the brain tissue due to ischemic-reperfusion in this experiment. The ischemic model was produced using rat forebrain ischemic model (Pulsinelli's 4 vessels occlusion model). Post-ischemic reperfusion was also induced by the re-opening of the occluded common carotid arteries. The occluded time was 30 min and reperfusion time 0, 10, 30, 60 min. We obtained the specimens in the cortex under microwave fixation. Choline and acetate increased during ischemia and gradually decreased during reperfusion period. These two signals seen in 1H MRS are supposed to represent cell membrane components (products) and the increase of these signals after reperfusion seems to be related to the post ischemic reperfusion injury due to the explosive increase of free radicals. Lactate, which is induced by anaerobic glycolysis, increased during ischemia and promptly disappeared after reperfusion. The treatment of pre-ischemic administration of MCI-186 significantly suppressed increases of choline and acetate. As far as lactate is concerned, post-ischemic administration of this drug significantly reduced its increase at the point of reperfusion. Our results suggest that MCI-186 alternates changes induced by ischemic-reperfusion injury in membranous metabolism, probably due to its free radical scavenging action. PMID:9226472

  20. Comparisons of Simulated and Observed Stormtime Magnetic Intensities, Ion Plasma Parameters, and ENA Proton Flux in the Ring Current During Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. W.; Lemon, C.; Guild, T. B.; Schulz, M.; Roeder, J. L.; Le, G.; Lui, T.; Goldstein, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this study we compare simulated and observed stormtime magnetic intensities, proton flux spectra and/or ENA fluxes for two storm events to test how well self-consistent simulations can simultaneously reproduce these quantities. We simulate the ring current and plasma sheet using the magnetically and electrostatically self-consistent Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E) [Lemon et al., JGR, 2004] with a time-varying magnetopause driven by upstream solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Using either in-situ data (e.g., LANL/MPA and SOPA) or the empirical IMF-dependent model of Tsyganenko and Mukai [JGR, 2003], we specify the plasma sheet pressure and density at 10 Earth radii as the plasma boundary location in the RCM-E. We compare the simulated magnetic intensity with the magnetic intensity measured by magnetometers on the GOES satellites at geosynchronous altitude (6.6 Earth radii) and any other available satellite. We simulate a larger (11 August 2000; minimum Dst = -106 nT) and a smaller (6 April 2010; minimum Dst = 73 nT) storm. For the 11 August 2000 storm, we compare simulated and observed proton spectra (LANL/MPA and SOPA and Polar/CAMMICE). For the more recent 6 April 2010 storm we compare simulated and observed proton spectra (THEMIS) and energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux (TWINS). We discuss the response of the ring current magnetic field and ion flux distribution to expansions and compressions of the magnetosphere associated with the dynamic solar wind pressure for these storm events.

  1. A multi-slot surface coil for MRI of dual-rat imaging at 4T

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, S.E.; Tomasi, D.; Solis, S.E.; Wang, R.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A.O.

    2011-07-01

    A slotted surface coil inspired by the hole-and-slot cavity magnetron was developed for magnetic resonance imaging of obese rats at 4 T. Full-wave analysis of the magnetic field was carried out at 170 MHz for both the slotted and circular-shaped coils. The noise figure values of two coils were investigated via the numerical calculation of the quality factors. Fat simulated phantoms to mimic overweight rats were included in the analysis with weights ranging from 300 to 900 g. The noise figures were 1.2 dB for the slotted coil and 2.4 dB for the circular coil when loaded with 600 g of simulated phantom. A slotted surface coil with eight circular slots and a circular coil with similar dimensions were built and operated in the transceiver mode, and their performances were experimentally compared. The imaging tests in phantoms demonstrated that the slotted surface coil has a deeper RF-sensitivity and better field uniformity than the single-loop RF-coil. High quality images of two overweight Zucker rats were acquired simultaneously with the slotted surface coil using standard spin-echo pulse sequences. Experimental results showed that the slotted surface coil outperformed the circular coil for imaging considerably overweight rats. Thus, the slotted surface coil can be a good tool for MRI experiments in rats on a human whole-body 4 T scanner.

  2. A multi-slot surface coil for MRI of dual-rat imaging at 4 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, S. E.; Wang, R.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2011-06-01

    A slotted surface coil inspired by the hole-and-slot cavity magnetron was developed for magnetic resonance imaging of obese rats at 4 T. Full-wave analysis of the magnetic field was carried out at 170 MHz for both the slotted and circular-shaped coils. The noise figure values of two coils were investigated via the numerical calculation of the quality factors. Fat simulated phantoms to mimic overweight rats were included in the analysis with weights ranging from 300 to 900 g. The noise figures were 1.2 dB for the slotted coil and 2.4 dB for the circular coil when loaded with 600 g of simulated phantom. A slotted surface coil with eight circular slots and a circular coil with similar dimensions were built and operated in the transceiver mode, and their performances were experimentally compared. The imaging tests in phantoms demonstrated that the slotted surface coil has a deeper RF-sensitivity and better field uniformity than the single-loop RF-coil. High quality images of two overweight Zucker rats were acquired simultaneously with the slotted surface coil using standard spin-echo pulse sequences. Experimental results showed that the slotted surface coil outperformed the circular coil for imaging considerably overweight rats. Thus, the slotted surface coil can be a good tool for MRI experiments in rats on a human whole-body 4 T scanner.

  3. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human brain in vivo in the evaluation of multiple sclerosis: Assessment of the load of disease

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, D.L.; Matthews, P.M.; Francis, G.; Antel, J. )

    1990-04-01

    Image localized, water-suppressed proton magnetic resonance spectra were obtained from affected brain in patients with multiple sclerosis. In patients with moderate to severe chronic disease, spectra revealed a decreased ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine resonance intensities. A normal ratio was obtained from a large recently symptomatic MRI plaque that resolved without sequelae. We propose that the observed metabolite changes can be useful as an index of irreversible CNS injury.

  4. Proton-conductive magnetic metal-organic frameworks, {NR3(CH2COOH)}[M(a)(II)M(b)(III)(ox)3]: effect of carboxyl residue upon proton conduction.

    PubMed

    Ōkawa, Hisashi; Sadakiyo, Masaaki; Yamada, Teppei; Maesato, Mitsuhiko; Ohba, Masaaki; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2013-02-13

    Proton-conductive magnetic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), {NR(3)(CH(2)COOH)}[M(a)(II)M(b)(III)(ox)(3)] (abbreviated as R-M(a)M(b): R = ethyl (Et), n-butyl (Bu); M(a)M(b) = MnCr, FeCr, FeFe) have been studied. The following six MOFs were prepared: Et-MnCr·2H(2)O, Et-FeCr·2H(2)O, Et-FeFe·2H(2)O, Bu-MnCr, Bu-FeCr, and Bu-FeFe. The structure of Bu-MnCr was determined by X-ray crystallography. Crystal data: trigonal, R3c (#161), a = 9.3928(13) Å, c = 51.0080(13) Å, Z = 6. The crystal consists of oxalate-bridged bimetallic layers interleaved by {NBu(3)(CH(2)COOH)}(+) ions. Et-MnCr·2H(2)O and Bu-MnCr (R-MnCr MOFs) show a ferromagnetic ordering with T(C) of 5.5-5.9 K, and Et-FeCr·2H(2)O and Bu-FeCr (R-FeCr MOFs) also show a ferromagnetic ordering with T(C) of 11.0-11.5 K. Et-FeFe·2H(2)O and Bu-FeFe (R-FeFe MOFs) belong to the class II of mixed-valence compounds and show the magnetism characteristic of Néel N-type ferrimagnets. The Et-MOFs (Et-MnCr·2H(2)O, Et-FeCr·2H(2)O and Et-FeFe·2H(2)O) show high proton conduction, whereas the Bu-MOFs (Bu-MnCr, Bu-FeCr, and Bu-FeFe) show moderate proton conduction. Together with water adsorption isotherm studies, the significance of the carboxyl residues as proton carriers is revealed. The R-MnCr MOFs and the R-FeCr MOFs are rare examples of coexistent ferromagnetism and proton conduction, and the R-FeFe MOFs are the first examples of coexistent Néel N-type ferrimagnetism and proton conduction. PMID:23301940

  5. Non-invasive tracking of CD4+ T cells with a paramagnetic and fluorescent nanoparticle in brain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Wei-Na; Yang, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhiguo; Li, Minshu; Shi, Samuel Xiang-Yu; Wood, Kristofer; Fu, Ying; Han, Wei; Xu, Yun; Shi, Fu-Dong; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that lymphocytes play a key role in ischemic brain injury. However, there is still a lack of viable approaches to non-invasively track infiltrating lymphocytes and reveal their key spatiotemporal events in the inflamed central nervous system (CNS). Here we describe an in vivo imaging approach for sequential monitoring of brain-infiltrating CD4+ T cells in experimental ischemic stroke. We show that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or Xenogen imaging combined with labeling of SPIO-Molday ION Rhodamine-B (MIRB) can be used to monitor the dynamics of CD4+ T cells in a passive transfer model. MIRB-labeled CD4+ T cells can be longitudinally visualized in the mouse brain and peripheral organs such as the spleen and liver after cerebral ischemia. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed similar kinetics of MIRB-labeled CD4+ T cells when compared with in vivo observations. Our results demonstrated the use of MIRB coupled with in vivo imaging as a valid method to track CD4+ T cells in ischemic brain injury. This approach will facilitate future investigations to identify the dynamics and key spatiotemporal events for brain-infiltrating lymphocytes in CNS inflammatory diseases. PMID:26661207

  6. Non-invasive tracking of CD4+ T cells with a paramagnetic and fluorescent nanoparticle in brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wei-Na; Yang, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhiguo; Li, Minshu; Shi, Samuel Xiang-Yu; Wood, Kristofer; Liu, Qingwei; Fu, Ying; Han, Wei; Xu, Yun; Shi, Fu-Dong; Liu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that lymphocytes play a key role in ischemic brain injury. However, there is still a lack of viable approaches to non-invasively track infiltrating lymphocytes and reveal their key spatiotemporal events in the inflamed central nervous system (CNS). Here we describe an in vivo imaging approach for sequential monitoring of brain-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells in experimental ischemic stroke. We show that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or Xenogen imaging combined with labeling of SPIO-Molday ION Rhodamine-B (MIRB) can be used to monitor the dynamics of CD4(+) T cells in a passive transfer model. MIRB-labeled CD4(+) T cells can be longitudinally visualized in the mouse brain and peripheral organs such as the spleen and liver after cerebral ischemia. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed similar kinetics of MIRB-labeled CD4(+) T cells when compared with in vivo observations. Our results demonstrated the use of MIRB coupled with in vivo imaging as a valid method to track CD4(+) T cells in ischemic brain injury. This approach will facilitate future investigations to identify the dynamics and key spatiotemporal events for brain-infiltrating lymphocytes in CNS inflammatory diseases. PMID:26661207

  7. Functional aortic stiffness: role of CD4+ T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Beenish A.; Eberson, Lance S.; Tawinwung, Supannikar; Larmonier, Nicolas; Secomb, Timothy W.; Larson, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    The immune system is suggested to be essential in vascular remodeling and stiffening. To study the dependence upon lymphocytes in vascular stiffening, we compared an angiotensin II-model of vascular stiffening in normal C57BL/6J mice with lymphocyte-deficient RAG 1−/− mice and additionally characterized the component of vascular stiffness due to vasoconstriction vs. vascular remodeling. Chronic angiotensin II increased aortic pulse wave velocity, effective wall stiffness, and effective Young's modulus in C57BL/6J mice by three-fold but caused no change in the RAG 1−/− mice. These functional measurements were supported by aortic morphometric analysis. Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T helper lymphocytes restored the angiotensin II-mediated aortic stiffening in the RAG 1−/− mice. In order to account for the hydraulic vs. material effects of angiotensin II on pulse wave velocity, subcutaneous osmotic pumps were removed after 21 days of angiotensin II-infusion in the WT mice to achieve normotensive values. The pulse wave velocity (PWV) decreased from three- to two-fold above baseline values up to 7 days following pump removal. This study supports the pivotal role of the CD4+ T-lymphocytes in angiotensin II-mediated vascular stiffening and that angiotensin II-mediated aortic stiffening is due to the additive effect of active vascular smooth muscle vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. PMID:26379554

  8. Parametric study of a variable-magnetic-field-based energy-selection system for generating a spread-out Bragg peak with a laser-accelerated proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kang, Young Nam; Yoo, Seung Hoon; Pae, Ki-Hong; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong

    2013-01-01

    Laser-based proton beam acceleration, which produces broad energy spectra, is unsuitable for direct clinical use. Thus, employing an energy selection system is necessary. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a method whereby a variable magnetic field could be employed with an energy selection system to generate a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). For energy selection, particle transport and dosimetric property measurements, the Geant4 toolkit was implemented. The energy spectrum of the laser-accelerated proton beam was acquired using a particle-in-cell simulation. The hole size and the position of the energy selection collimator were varied in order to determine the effects of those parameters on the dosimetric properties. To generate an SOBP, we changed the magnetic field in the energy selection system for each beam weighting factor during beam irradiation. The overall results of this study suggest that the use of an energy selection system with a variable magnetic field can effectively generate an SOBP suitable for proton radiation therapy applications.

  9. Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Zueqian

    2010-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

  10. Investigating the Dissolution Performance of Amorphous Solid Dispersions Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Proton NMR.

    PubMed

    Tres, Francesco; Coombes, Steven R; Phillips, Andrew R; Hughes, Leslie P; Wren, Stephen A C; Aylott, Jonathan W; Burley, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the dissolution performance of amorphous solid dispersions of poorly water-soluble bicalutamide in a Kollidon VA64 polymeric matrix as a function of the drug loading (5% vs. 30% bicalutamide). A combined suite of state-of-the-art analytical techniques were employed to obtain a clear picture of the drug release, including an integrated magnetic resonance imaging UV-Vis flow cell system and 1H-NMR. Off-line 1H-NMR was used for the first time to simultaneously measure the dissolution profiles and rates of both the drug and the polymer from a solid dispersion. MRI and 1H-NMR data showed that the 5% drug loading compact erodes linearly, and that bicalutamide and Kollidon VA64 are released at approximately the same rate from the molecular dispersion. For the 30% extrudate, data indicated a slower water ingress into the compact which corresponds to a slower dissolution rate of both bicalutamide and Kollidon VA64. PMID:26378506