LaRusso, Maria; Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Kim, James; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine
This paper presents an exploratory analysis of treatment-control differences in the quality of classroom interactions in 4th through 7th grade urban classrooms. Word Generation (WG) is a research-based academic language program for middle school students designed to teach novel vocabulary and literacy through language arts, math, science, and…
Sher, Stephen Korb
This study looked at 4th grade classrooms to see "how" teachers implement NCTM standards-based or reform-based mathematics instruction and then analyzed it for the capacity to improve students' "algebra readiness." The qualitative study was based on classroom observations, teacher and administrator interviews, and teacher surveys. The study took…
Jimenez Aleixandre, Maria Pilar; Lopez Rodriguez, Ramon
This paper reports on a case study that was part of a 3-year longitudinal study about classroom discourse during a learning sequence related to environmental values and concepts. The lesson was planned and enacted by students in a fourth grade classroom during a field study. Whole class and small group classroom conversations and a field trip to a…
We report on Project ASTRO, an NSF and NASA funded program that now links professional and amateur astronomers with local 4th through 9th grade teachers in 10 sites around the country. Each site matches and trains about 20-25 astronomer-teacher partnerships per year, focusing on hands-on, age-appropriate activities, demonstrations of the scientific method, as well as family and community outreach. Over 10,000 copies of the project's 813-page UNIVERSE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS resource and activity notebook (published by the A.S.P) are now in use in educational institututions around the world. The project's HOW-TO-MANUAL is being used as a practical guide to establishing astronomer-teacher partnerships where no formal ASTRO site exists, and a 12-minute video explaining and demonstrating the project is also available. In each of the ten sites, a coalition of educational and scientific institutions is assisting the project with in-kind donations, publicity, personnel, training, materials, etc. We are conducting an experiment (at the behest of NSF) to see to what degree the sites can become self-supporting over time. (One site, in Salt Lake City, has already received full funding from a local foundation.) We will discuss the progress of the project and will have a variety of sample materials available, including our annotated catalog of national astronomy and space science education projects (see associated URL).
This study explores a fourth grade classroom, hypothesizing about the possibilities for using drama to teach elementary school science. The case study provides one with the author's first glimpse into a fourth grade science classroom, as well as a preliminary examination of whether or not room exists for drama in the elementary science classroom.…
Chaiyapechara, S.; Dong, F. M.
A science content course in food chemistry was offered as a 4-day summer workshop from 1999 to 2001 to 4th grade school teachers in the Seattle School District. The objectives of the workshop were to increase the teachers' knowledge of food science, to perform simple experiments that could be used in the 4th grade classroom, and to help the…
Wieland, Anne; And Others
Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 4. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Four units are…
Putman, S. Michael
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the number of Accelerated Reader points accumulated by students and their level of self-efficacy and value of reading. The fourteen week study examined 68 fourth grade students who attended an elementary school in a suburban location near a large Midwestern city.…
White, Jacquelyn M.
The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate relationships between grade levels, personal factors of teachers, and instructional variety used by 4th-12th grade teachers in Kern County, California. The population under investigation included 2,844 teachers. 235 elementary, middle school/junior high, and secondary teachers…
Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…
We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...
Toledo Public Schools, OH.
The activities guide is intended primarily to assist teachers in grades 4-7 in teaching career awareness concepts. Instructional activities correlate basic skill and career education objectives. The 29 units cover topics related to social studies (self-awareness, the community, the school, transportation, the environment, family roles, economic…
Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.
This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade four prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…
Dell, Elizabeth M.; Christman, Jeanne; Garrick, Robert D.
This paper describes a workshop led by female Engineering Technology students, with support from female faculty, to provide an introduction to Engineering Technology to 4th-7th grade girls through a series of interactive laboratory experiments. This outreach program was developed to improve attitudes towards science and engineering in middle…
Dunleavy, Shannon; Karwowski, Sandra; Shudes-Eitel, Jennifer
This action research project implemented a program for improving social skills in order to establish positive interaction among 4th grade students at a northern Chicago suburban school. Social skills deficiency was documented through behavior checklists and referrals, teacher observations and student reflection. Teachers reported that low incomes,…
Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan
Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…
Brown, H Shelton; Pérez, Adriana; Mirchandani, Gita G; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H
Introduction Although per capita crime has generally fallen over the period which coincides with the obesity epidemic, it has not fallen uniformly across communities. It also has not fallen enough to allay fears on the part of parents. Over the past 30 years, technological changes have made the indoor alternatives to playing outside, where children are more vulnerable to criminal activity, more enjoyable (cable TV, video games, and the internet) and comfortable (the spread of air conditioning to low income neighborhoods). We determined whether indoor sedentary behavior patterns are associated with community crime statistics. 4th graders in the U.S. are typically 9 or 10 years old. Methods We used data from the 2004–2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey linked with U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics data for the years 2000 through 2005 and Texas State data on sexual offenders. The probability-based sample included a total of 7,907 children in grade four. Multistage probability sampling weights were used. The dependent variables included were hours of TV watching, video game playing, computer use and total indoor sedentary behavior after school. Incremental Relative Rates were computed for community crime rates including robberies, all violent crimes, murders, assaults, property crimes, rapes, burglaries, larcenies and motor vehicle thefts as well as for sexual offenders living in the neighborhood. The neighborhood refers to the areas where the students at each school live. In the case of sexual offenders, sexual offenders per capita are estimated using the per capita rate in the zip code of the school attended; all other crime statistics are estimated by the crimes per capita in the police department jurisdiction covering the school attended. After controlling for sex, age, and African-American and Hispanic, cross-sectional associations were determined using multivariate Poisson regression
Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa
When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…
Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua
Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.
Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea
The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population--adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to…
Yager, Robert E.; Choi, AeRan; Yager, Stuart O.; Akcay, Hakan
Fifteen 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade teachers from five school districts each taught two sections of science--one with a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach and the other with a more traditional textbook approach in which basic science concepts were the major organizers. Local, current, and personally relevant issues provided the context and…
Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics--neighborhood density and word frequency--interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods: Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation…
Fuller, Heidi A.; Damico, Amy M.; Rodgers, Shannon
Recent research indicates that young girls are preoccupied with their body size and that the media may be a contributing factor. This study aimed to discover the impact of an interdisciplinary media literacy intervention curriculum on 4th-grade girls in an urban elementary school. The authors developed and implemented a series of lessons that…
Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian
Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…
Otto, D A; Skalik, I; House, D E; Hudnell, H K
The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System was designed for field studies of workers, but many NES tests can be performed satisfactorily by children as young as 7 or 8 years old and a few tests, such as simple reaction time, can be performed by preschool children. However, little comparative data from children of different ages or grade levels are available. Studies of school children in the Czech Republic indicate that 2nd-grade children could perform the following NES tests satisfactorily: Finger Tapping, Visual Digit Span. Continuous Performance, Symbol-Digit Substitution, Pattern Comparison, and simpler conditions of Switching Attention. Comparative scores of boys and girls from the 2nd, 4th, and 8th grades and power analyses to estimate appropriate sample size were presented. Performance varied systematically with grade level and gender. Larger samples were needed with younger children to achieve comparable levels of statistical power. Gender comparisons indicated that boys responded faster, but made more errors than girls. PMID:8866533
Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics – neighborhood density and word frequency – interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation between words' neighborhood density, word frequency, and phoneme awareness performance was examined across grades while covarying type and place of deletion. Results A predicted interaction was revealed: words from dense neighborhoods or those with high frequency were more likely to yield correct phoneme awareness responses across grades. Conclusions Findings support an expansion to the lexical restructuring model to include interactions between neighborhood density and word frequency to account for phoneme awareness. PMID:20691979
Bassis, Michael; And Others
This study addresses two questions: (1) Why do fourth grade students in Rhode Island perform better on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) than eighth grade students?, and (2) Why do Rhode Island parochial students perform better on the ITBS than public school students? The examination of both questions focused on three areas: school setting…
Nederland Independent School District, TX.
GRADES OR AGES: Grade 4. SUBJECT MATTER: Social Studies; including units entitled "Getting Ready for Our World Journey,""Africa,""Australia," and "The Netherlands." ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four separately bound units. Each unit is further subdivided into lessons. The units are mimeographed and staple-bound.…
Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.
Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…
Laman, Tasha Tropp
Over the past 30 years, writing workshops have been implemented in classrooms around the world. Students are being asked to write across multiple contexts and genres and to use digital technologies. At the same time, high-stakes writing tests are increasing even though the time teachers spend teaching writing is decreasing. This study examines…
California Energy Extension Service, Sacramento.
This activity guide links energy awareness with resource management and traditional California Indian cultures for the 3rd-6th grade span. The materials combine cooperative, hands-on activities with background information and learning extensions. The interdisciplinary lessons are built upon themes, concepts, and learning processes outlined in…
Reeves, Tiffany H.
Some schools have adopted homogenous grouping of students for academic instruction in response to the No Child Left Behind Act, which requires school districts to ensure academic achievement for all students. The early intervention program (EIP) in mathematics is provided for below-grade level students, yet many of them continue to perform poorly…
Sammut-Tovar, Dorothy; Sturla, Kim
Activities in this unit are designed to sensitize students in grades 4-6 to the needs of animals and to the injustices many species suffer. The lessons focus on inhumane acts such as the use of steel-jaw traps, dogfighting, hunting, keeping exotic pets in captivity, using animals in entertainment, habitat destruction, factory farming, and animal…
Sungur, Gülcan; Bal, Pervin Nedim
The aim of this study is to examine if the level of primary school students in solving problems differs according to some demographic variables. The research is descriptive type in the general survey method, it was carried out with quantitative research techniques. The sample of the study consisted of 587 primary school students in Grade 4. The…
This teacher's guide for grades 3 and 4 contains simulated work experiences for students using the isolated skill concept - creativity. Teacher instructions include objectives, evaluation, and sequence of activities. The guide contains pre-tests and post-tests with instructions and answer keys. Two pre-skill activities are suggested, such as…
This teacher's guide for grades 3 and 4 contains simulated work experiences for students using the isolated skill concept - assembling in sequence. Teacher instructions include objectives, evaluation, and sequence of activities. The guide contains pre-tests and post-tests with instructions and answer keys. Three pre-skill activities are suggested,…
Dickes, Amanda Catherine; Sengupta, Pratim
In this paper, we investigate how elementary school students develop multi-level explanations of population dynamics in a simple predator-prey ecosystem, through scaffolded interactions with a multi-agent-based computational model (MABM). The term "agent" in an MABM indicates individual computational objects or actors (e.g., cars), and these agents obey simple rules assigned or manipulated by the user (e.g., speeding up, slowing down, etc.). It is the interactions between these agents, based on the rules assigned by the user, that give rise to emergent, aggregate-level behavior (e.g., formation and movement of the traffic jam). Natural selection is such an emergent phenomenon, which has been shown to be challenging for novices (K16 students) to understand. Whereas prior research on learning evolutionary phenomena with MABMs has typically focused on high school students and beyond, we investigate how elementary students (4th graders) develop multi-level explanations of some introductory aspects of natural selection—species differentiation and population change—through scaffolded interactions with an MABM that simulates predator-prey dynamics in a simple birds-butterflies ecosystem. We conducted a semi-clinical interview based study with ten participants, in which we focused on the following: a) identifying the nature of learners' initial interpretations of salient events or elements of the represented phenomena, b) identifying the roles these interpretations play in the development of their multi-level explanations, and c) how attending to different levels of the relevant phenomena can make explicit different mechanisms to the learners. In addition, our analysis also shows that although there were differences between high- and low-performing students (in terms of being able to explain population-level behaviors) in the pre-test, these differences disappeared in the post-test.
Frndak, Seth E.
Background This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Design and methods Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4th grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Core of Data), and food desert data (USDA Food Desert Atlas). Multiple regression models assessed the percentage of variation in achievement scores explained by food desert variables, after controlling for additional predictors. Results The proportion of individuals living in food deserts significantly explained 4th grade achievement scores, after accounting for additional predictors. School districts with higher proportions of individuals living in food desert regions demonstrated lower 4th grade achievement across science, English and math. Conclusions Food deserts appear to be related to academic achievement at the school district level among urban and suburban regions. Further research is needed to better understand how food access is associated with academic achievement at the individual level. Significance for public health The prevalence of food deserts in the United States is of national concern. As poor nutrition in United States children continues to spark debate, food deserts are being evaluated as potential sources of low fruit and vegetable intake and high obesity rates. Cognitive development and IQ have been linked to nutrition patterns, suggesting that children in food desert regions may have a disadvantage academically. This research evaluates if an ecological relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level can be demonstrated. Results suggest that food desert prevalence may relate to poor academic performance at
Cullen, Karen W; Watson, Kathy B; Zakeri, Issa; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice H
Background Including children in food preparation activities has long been recommended as a method to encourage children's consumption, but has not been evaluated. Goal setting is also a common component of behavior change programs. This study assessed the impact of attaining goals to prepare fruit-juice or vegetable recipes on student fruit and vegetable consumption as part of a 10-week fruit and vegetable intervention for fourth grade students. Methods At six of the 10 sessions, students (n = 671) selected a fruit-juice or vegetable recipe to prepare at home before the next session. Students returned parent-signed notes reporting their child's goal attainment. Baseline and post consumption were assessed with up to four days of dietary recalls. Analyses included regression models predicting post consumption from the number of fruit-juice or vegetable recipe preparation goals attained, controlling for baseline consumption. Results In general, girls and Hispanic students achieved the most recipe preparation goals. For students with highest baseline fruit-juice consumption, post fruit-juice consumption was higher by about 1.0 serving for those achieving 2 or 3 fruit-juice recipe preparation goals. Post vegetable consumption was highest for students reporting the highest baseline vegetable consumption and who achieved two or three vegetable recipe preparation goals. In general, recipe goal setting was a useful procedure primarily for those with high baseline consumption. Conclusion This is one of the first reports demonstrating that home recipe preparation was correlated with dietary change among children. PMID:17603875
Al-Makahleh, Ahmad Abdulhameed Aufan
This study seeks to verify the effect of direct instruction strategy on Math achievment of students with learning difficulties in the fourth and fifth grade levels and measure the improvement in their attitudes to Mathematics. Sample consisted of sixty (60) students with Math learning difficulties attending 4th and 5th grade level resource rooms…
Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…
Wershow, H. N.; Green, M.; Stocker, A.; Staires, D.
Current efforts towards Earth Science literacy in New Mexico are guided by the New Mexico Science Benchmarks . We are geoscience professionals in Los Alamos, NM who believe there is an important role for non-traditional educators utilizing innovative teaching methods. We propose to further Earth Science literacy for local 3rd and 4th grade students using a kinesthetic learning approach, with the goal of fostering an interactive relationship between the students and their geologic environment. We will be working in partnership with the Pajarito Environmental Education Center (PEEC), which teaches the natural heritage of the Pajarito Plateau to 3rd and 4th grade students from the surrounding area, as well as the Family YMCA’s Adventure Programs Director. The Pajarito Plateau provides a remarkable geologic classroom because minimal structural features complicate the stratigraphy and dramatic volcanic and erosional processes are plainly on display and easily accessible. Our methodology consists of two approaches. First, we will build an interpretive display of the local geology at PEEC that will highlight prominent rock formations and geologic processes seen on a daily basis. It will include a simplified stratigraphic section with field specimens and a map linked to each specimen’s location to encourage further exploration. Second, we will develop and implement a kinesthetic curriculum for an exploratory field class. Active engagement with geologic phenomena will take place in many forms, such as a scavenger hunt for precipitated crystals in the vesicles of basalt flows and a search for progressively smaller rhyodacite clasts scattered along an actively eroding canyon. We believe students will be more receptive to origin explanations when they possess a piece of the story. Students will be provided with field books to make drawings of geologic features. This will encourage independent assessment of phenomena and introduce the skill of scientific observation. We
Milman, Natalie B.; Carlson-Bancroft, Angela; Vanden Boogart, Amy
This mixed methods case study examined the implementation of a 1:1 iPad initiative in a suburban, co-educational, independent, preK-4th grade elementary school in the United States. This article focuses on how teachers used iPads to differentiate instruction and across multiple content areas. Findings show the processes by which teachers employed…
Brody, Michael J.; Koch, Helmut
In an effort to contribute information for science teachers and curriculum developers in Maine, this study generated base line data on 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students' knowledge of marine science and natural resources principles in relation to the Gulf of Maine. Five concept maps representing 15 major content principles were developed. Two…
In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…
Little research is available specifically about grading practices in mathematics classrooms. However, there is research about grading practices in high schools, across content areas. Since their first use students, parents and others have assumed that grades are reliable measures of student achievement. "In short, most Americans have a basic trust…
Craig, Cheryl; McLellan, Jim
Although the single-grade classroom has emerged as the most prevalent administrative arrangement, the existence of the split grade phenomenon continues to be a part of educational tradition in both rural and urban schools, predominantly at the elementary levels. Teachers are then forced to compromise curriculum to teach all levels simultaneously.…
Imagine, for a second, a school where teachers see themselves as leaders and work together to ensure that all children have access to engaging, high quality instruction every day. How might these teachers define teacher leadership and articulate its purpose? What suggestions would they offer about how teacher leadership can be grown and supported?…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.
This student text is designed for grades 2-4 and explores various earth science topics. A cartoon character named Tommy Tsumi explains earth facts and concepts throughout the text. Activities, materials, and learning objectives for each unit in the textbook are provided in the teacher's guide. Units in both include: (1) "What Does Our Earth Look…
Johanson, George A.
Most educational measurement texts distinguish between norm-referenced (NR), or relative, methods of assigning letter grades to objective test scores, and criterion-referenced (CR), or absolute, methods. Both NR and CR approaches have serious limitations in typical classroom situations, and neither approach, in its pure form, may be entirely…
Background Increasing school breakfast participation has been advocated as a method to prevent childhood obesity. However, little is known about children’s breakfast patterns outside of school (e.g., home, corner store). Policies that increase school breakfast participation without an understanding of children’s breakfast habits outside of school may result in children consuming multiple breakfasts and may undermine efforts to prevent obesity. The aim of the current study was to describe morning food and drink consumption patterns among low-income, urban children and their associations with relative weight. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 651 4th-6th graders (51.7% female, 61.2% African American, 10.7 years) in 2012. Students completed surveys at school that included all foods eaten and their locations that morning. Height and weight were measured by trained research staff. Results On the day surveyed, 12.4% of youth reported not eating breakfast, 49.8% reported eating one breakfast, 25.5% reported eating two breakfasts, and 12.3% reported eating three or more breakfasts. The number of breakfasts consumed and BMI percentile showed a significant curvilinear relationship, with higher mean BMI percentiles observed among children who did not consume any breakfast and those who consumed ≥ 3 breakfasts. Sixth graders were significantly less likely to have consumed breakfast compared to younger children. A greater proportion of obese youth had no breakfast (18.0%) compared to healthy weight (10.1%) and overweight youth (10.7%, p = .01). Conclusions When promoting school breakfast, policies will need to be mindful of both over- and under-consumption to effectively address childhood obesity and food insecurity. Clinical trial registration NCT01924130 from http://clinicaltrials.gov/. PMID:24928474
Anderson, Nancy; Chapin, Suzanne; O'Connor, Cathy
"Classroom Discussions: Seeing Math Discourse in Action, Grades K-6" provides preservice and inservice instructors, coaches and facilitators with real, classroom-based video examples that illustrate the principles and practices covered in the authors' best-selling book, "Classroom Discussions: Using Math Talk to Help Students Learn, Grade K-6,…
Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H; Pérez, Adriana; Day, R Sue; Benoit, Julia S; Frankowski, Ralph F; Walker, Joey L; Lee, Eun S
Although national and state estimates of child obesity are available, data at these levels are insufficient to monitor effects of local obesity prevention initiatives. The purpose of this study was to examine regional changes in the prevalence of obesity due to statewide policies and programs among children in grades 4, 8, and 11 in Texas Health Services Regions (HSRs) between 2000-2002 and 2004-2005, and nine selected counties in 2004-2005. A cross-sectional, probability-based sample of 23,190 Texas students in grades 4, 8, and 11 were weighed and measured to obtain BMI. Obesity was >95th percentile for BMI by age/sex using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Child obesity prevalence significantly decreased between 2000-2002 and 2004-2005 for 4th grade students in the El Paso HSR (-7.0%, P = 0.005). A leveling off in the prevalence of obesity was noted for all other regions for grades 4, 8, and 11. County-level data supported the statistically significant decreases noted in the El Paso region. The reduction of child obesity levels observed in the El Paso area is one of the few examples of effective programs and policies based on a population-wide survey: in this region, a local foundation funded extensive regional implementation of community programs for obesity prevention, including an evidence-based elementary school-based health promotion program, adult nutrition and physical activity programs, and a radio and television advertising campaign. Results emphasize the need for sustained school, community, and policy efforts, and that these efforts can result in decreases in child obesity at the population level. PMID:19798066
Smith, Darcie D.
Eighty-seven 4th, 5th and 6th grade students were administered the "Derivational Relatedness Interview" (DRI) (Templeton, Smith, Moloney, Van Pelt, & Ives, 2009). The purpose of this instrument is to explore students' understanding of derivational morphology. During the same week, the subjects were also administered an Upper…
WETA - TV, Washington, DC.
This field-tested guide is intended to help 4th, 5th, and 6th grade teachers introduce students to different musical concepts through a series of ten 30 minute television programs. Produced by WETA-TV, Washington D.C., the fast paced, humorous programs expose students to many musical styles including vocal and instrumental jazz, bluegrass and pop,…
Davison, Reeny De Vos
This study arose out of the need to measure the validity of the hands-on, inquiry-based approach to science learning, as articulated in the National Science Education Standards. It addressed the question of whether the use of hands-on, inquiry-based curriculum promotes improved student understanding of science content and problem-solving and scientific reasoning skills. It measured 4th and 6th grade student learning in five skills (comparing, graphing, investigating, measuring, predicting) and five concepts (objects in the sky, properties, variables, units of measure, life cycle). Data were collected in 1997 and 1999 from two elementary schools in one suburban Pittsburgh school district, where hands-on curriculum units were implemented starting in 1997. A performance-based assessment instrument was devised. Findings were compared by school and by year and showed significant improvement in student learning over the two years. Students improved significantly in the skills of comparing and measuring and in the concepts of objects in the sky, variables, and the life cycle. Additionally, in the repeated measures group, significant improvement was also indicated in the skill of graphing and the concepts of properties and units of measure. No significant differences were found in the skills of investigating and predicting. Student scores in the school with somewhat lower socio-economic status increased more significantly. The study supports the key principles that guided the development of the National Science Education Standards and comprehensive science education programs aligned with them. The results support including the elements of systemic reform, i.e., hands-on curriculum materials, ongoing professional development, centralized materials support, assessment, and community involvement, in all schools.
La Paro, Karen M.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Pianta, Robert C.
This study examines the classroom experiences of 192 children followed longitudinally from kindergarten to 1st grade. Time-sampled observations of children were conducted to compare learning formats, teaching activities, and children's engagement in activities between kindergarten and 1st grade. Classroom observations also were conducted to…
Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie
Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…
A total of 20 first- and second-grade classrooms were observed to determine the nature of their behavior settings, and to ascertain teacher goals and values implicit in the classroom organization. Observation revealed strong differences among subject areas in both time allotment and variety of resources and activities. Language arts occupied the…
Owens, Douglas T., Ed.
Research Ideas for the Classroom is a three-volume series of research interpretations for early childhood, middle grades, and high school mathematics classrooms. Each volume looks at research from the perspective of the learner, the content, and the teacher, and chapters are co-authored by a researcher and a teacher. Chapter titles in the middle…
Young adolescents are immersed in 21st century literacies in their daily lives, and they bring into schools a level of appreciation and expertise that often goes untapped. This article presents an eighth-grade English classroom's experience with digital video composing and informal classroom drama as multimodal literacy practices. Students in this…
Allington, Richard L.; Johnston, Peter H.
Fourth graders around the country face new, high-stakes standardized tests, drawing increased attention to the need for effective literacy instruction in the upper elementary grades. This book goes beyond "political catch phrases" to examine what actually works in the fourth-grade classroom. The book offers a view of the techniques and strategies…
Hayden, Harvey; And Others
To some educators, infusing environmental education into different subject areas at different levels may seem like an insurmountable task. This handbook was developed to take the guesswork out of this process and alleviate the fear and confusion that may result. It was designed to assist with infusing knowledge and attitude activities into the…
Hochweber, Jan; Hosenfeld, Ingmar; Klieme, Eckhard
The present study examined the extent to which the relationships between student self-reported math grades and different types of student variables (standardized math test scores, interest and effort in math, parental education) are predicted by classroom composition and teachers' classroom management. Based on a representative sample of 31,038…
Mercurio, Harry J.
This qualitative study examined the amount of time that fourth and fifth grade teachers devoted to literacy instruction within the time allotted to them within the daily literacy block. Prior research of the literacy block focused largely on primary grades (Allington, McGill-Franzen et a1.,2010; Cunningham & Allington, 2003; Morrow, 1992);…
Marzano, Robert J.
If you've ever questioned the logic of reducing a student's entire academic performance to a single test score or a vague letter grade, then here's a book that will revolutionize the way you think about assessment and grading. Drawing from years of in-depth research, Robert J. Marzano provides you with guidelines and steps for designing a…
Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis
This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure…
Foley, Leslie M.
As digital media practices become readily available in today's classrooms, literacy and literacy instruction are changing in profound ways (Alvermann, 2010). Professional organizations emphasize the importance of integrating new literacies (New London Group, 1996) practices into language-arts instruction (IRA, 2009; NCTE, 2005). As a result,…
Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi
To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students…
Ford, Michael P.
In light of concerns that previous staff development projects did not truly capture life in the classroom, and that there may be a gap between one's previous elementary and current university teaching experiences, a teacher educator used a semester sabbatical to shadow six first-grade teachers in order to inform thinking and practice in teaching…
The purpose of this study was to synthesize a category system for observation of communicative functions in children's speech and to test that category system by recording observations of interactions within a first-grade classroom. The observation system which was designed attempts to account for all factors of a communication situation and to…
A first-grade teacher in Hawaii's Kamehameha Schools describes her experiences introducing educational technology into the classroom, examining her fears and successes as she and her students learned to use optical scanners, telecommunications, CD-ROM, and electronic mail to enhance their reading and writing skills. (SM)
Eakle, A. Jonathan; Dalesio, Brooke L.
Concepts of museum literacies are introduced in this report. Information is presented for how museum literacies were initiated, designed, and produced in a second-grade classroom. Findings show how participants took up museum literacies differently, including their uses of printed texts and other communicative forms. Two short case studies are…
Cress, Susan W.; Holm, Daniel T.
With an emphasis on high-stakes testing and a focused curriculum, it would seem at times, the joy of creativity is missing from the classroom. This article describes a curricular approach the children named "Creative Endeavors", as implemented by a first grade teacher. The approach is described in three phases. In the exploratory stage…
Peterson, Shelly Stagg; McClay, Jill Kedersha; Main, Kristin
This article reports the results of interview research examining writing instruction and assessment practices in 216 Grades 4-8 classrooms across the 10 Canadian provinces and 2 (of 3) territories. Researchers found that participating teachers scheduled daily time for writing, either in language arts classes or through integrating writing…
Witty, Emily Amie
Gender differences in mathematics have been of particular interest over the past decades. Research has shown a disparity in mathematical proficiency between boys and girls depending on the area of mathematics tested, the age and grade of the student, and the structure of the test question (i.e., how the question is posed). Although, much of the…
Grippin, Pauline C.
Ninety children in third and fourth grade were assessed on a hierarchical class inclusion task. Scores were trichotomized, and children from each level were randomly assigned to one of three cueing conditions (no cues, two superordinate cues, six subordinate cues). Subjects were administered a recall task of categorized words and "new" words…
Brody, Michael J.
Assesses the understanding that a sample of Oregon public school students (n=159) had of geology, physical and chemical characteristics, ecology, and natural resources as related to a marine environment. Results indicate that student understanding in some areas does not progress beyond the early grades and that the interdisciplinary approach of…
Paul, Richard; And Others
This handbook, designed to help teachers of fourth through sixth grades remodel their own lesson plans, has one basic objective: to demonstrate that it is possible and practical to integrate instruction for critical thinking into the teaching of all subjects. The handbook thoroughly discusses the concept of critical thinking and the principles…
Franks, Betty Barclay; Taylor, Nancy
This booklet contains 12 lessons about the history of Ohio correlated to the proficiency outcomes of the "Grade 4 Proficiency Test Outcomes in Ohio." Lessons include: (1) "Emigrating to Ohio"; (2) "The Era of Expansion"; (3) "Finding Out about Ohio"; (4) "Emigrating to Ohio"; (5) "Settling in Ohio"; (6) "Settlements Along the Ohio River"; (7) "The…
For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…
Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi
To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students prepared by receiving only live classroom instruction. All students in the four cohorts were given a survey to evaluate the training sessions, and results were analyzed using the analysis of variance statistical test (ANOVA). Preceptors at the sites who interacted with students in all four cohorts were surveyed to evaluate which students appeared more prepared; these data were compared using paired t tests. Final assessment data for students in all four cohorts were analyzed using ANOVA. There were statistical differences between the two live training groups, with the second group finding the training to be more beneficial for preparing them, feeling the training length was appropriate and preferring the live modality for delivery. The two internet training cohorts were similar except for perceptions regarding the length of the online training. Comparing responses from those students who received live training with those receiving internet instruction demonstrated a statistical difference with the live groups rating the trainings as more helpful in preparing them for the clinics, rating the training as necessary, and rating their confidence higher in seeing patients. Preceptors rated the live training statistically higher than online training in preparing students. There was no difference between groups on their final site assessments. Live classroom training appears to be superior to the recorded internet training in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings.
Cadima, Joana; Peixoto, Carla; Leal, Teresa
The observation and assessment of quality of teacher--child interactions in elementary school settings are increasingly recognized as important; however, research is still very limited in European countries. In this study, we examined the quality of the interactions between teacher and children in first-grade classrooms in Portugal and the extent…
This is a study of language use in the context of an inquiry-based science curriculum in which conceptual understanding ratings are used split texts into groups of "successful" and "unsuccessful" texts. "Successful" texts could include known features of science language. 420 texts generated by students in 14 classrooms from three school districts, culled from a prior study on the effectiveness of science notebooks to assess understanding, in addition to the aforementioned ratings are the data sources. In science notebooks, students write in the process of learning (here, a unit on electricity). The analytical framework is systemic functional linguistics (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004; Eggins, 2004), specifically the concepts of genre, register and nominalization. Genre classification involves an analysis of the purpose and register features in the text (Schleppegrell, 2004). The use of features of the scientific academic register, namely the use relational processes and nominalization (Halliday and Martin, 1993), requires transitivity analysis and noun analysis. Transitivity analysis, consisting of the identification of the process type, is conducted on 4737 ranking clauses. A manual count of each noun used in the corpus allows for a typology of nouns. Four school science genres, procedures, procedural recounts reports and explanations, are found. Most texts (85.4%) are factual, and 14.1% are classified as explanations, the analytical genre. Logistic regression analysis indicates that there is no significant probability that the texts classified as explanation are placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, material process clauses predominate in the corpus, followed by relational process clauses. Results of a logistic regression analysis indicate that there is a significant probability (Chi square = 15.23, p < .0001) that texts with a high rate of relational processes are placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, 59.5% of 6511 nouns are
Maloch, Beth; Horsey, Michelle
This article tells the story of one second grade teacher and the ways she integrated informational texts into her classroom. Reported by the classroom teacher and a researcher who studied her practice for a year, the manuscripts detail the ways Michelle (the classroom teacher) embedded informational texts in her classroom primarily within the…
Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.
Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…
Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.
This handbook presents materials designed to assist teachers in meeting the needs of primary school children in multi-graded classrooms. The handbook is divided into two parts. The first part consists of the following sections: (1) the multi-graded school; (2) strategies for multi-graded classrooms; (3) oracy--listening and speaking; (4) language…
Elementary School Journal, 2005
Observations of 780 third-grade classrooms described classroom activities, child-teacher interactions, and dimensions of the global classroom environment, which were examined in relation to structural aspects of the classroom and child behavior. 1 child per classroom was targeted for observation in relation to classroom quality and teacher and…
Peterson, Shelley Stagg; McClay, Jill
This article reports comprehensive findings from a national study of the teaching and assessment of writing in classrooms across ten Canadian provinces and two of three territories. Through interviews with 216 grade 4-8 teachers and observations and interviews in 22 classrooms (1 to 3 classrooms in each province), we gathered information about…
Moskowitz, Joel M.; And Others
Effective Classroom Management II-Elementary (ECM), an in-service teacher training course, was evaluated. Grade 5 teachers were taught techniques in communication, classroom management, and self-esteem enhancement. The goals were to make classroom environments more responsive to students' affective and cognitive needs, thereby fostering positive…
Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.
We examined gender differences in the first-grade transition, exploring child and classroom contributions to self-control and achievement in a rural sample. Teachers (n = 36) reported on children's (n = 172) initial adjustment difficulty and end-of-year self-control. Observed classroom organization and teacher-reported classroom chaos measured…
Obenchain, Kathryn M.
This paper presents the ethical principles of the social studies profession in light of the daily routine of an elementary classroom. This pilot study was begun in the spring of 1996 when the researcher spent time in an elementary classroom in the midwest observing the life and culture of a fifth grade classroom. Data collected appeared to…
Ozdemir, I. Elif Yetkin; Pape, Stephen J.
Mathematics education research has documented several classroom practices that might influence student self-regulation. We know little, however, about the ways these classroom practices could be structured in real classroom settings. In this exploratory case study, we purposefully selected a sixth-grade mathematics teacher who had participated in…
Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield. Div. of Adult Vocational and Technical Education.
Prepared by classroom teachers for the infusion of career education into existing curriculum, these teacher materials are designed to accompany the "Career Capers" for grades 4-6 (CE 023 598). Monthly distribution to the classroom teacher by an administrator is suggested for these supplemental materials. Factivities for grades K-3 emphasize career…
Proehl, Rebecca A.; Douglas, Shelese; Elias, Dean; Johnson, Anthony H.; Westsmith, Wendy
Catholic schools in the United States are faced with the looming challenge of declining enrollments. One possible strategy for dealing with this problem is to institute multi-grade classrooms where students from two or more grades are combined in one classroom with one instructor. In this article, the authors examined one urban Catholic school's…
Bailey, Catherine Goffreda; DiPerna, James Clyde
The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of classroom-based exercise breaks (Energizers; Mahar, Kenny, Shields, Scales, & Collins, 2006) on students' physical activity levels during the school day. A multiple baseline design across first grade (N = 3) and second grade (N = 3) classrooms was used to examine the effects of the…
Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco
It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.
This study, part of a narrative classroom inquiry into the teaching and learning of mathematics in a Canadian elementary classroom, emerges from the three years I was a participant-observer in Janine O'Neil's 3rd/4th-grade classroom at Bay Street Community School. Drawing on the curriculum commonplaces of teacher, social milieu, subject matter,…
Moeller, Aleidine J.; Reschke, Claus
Eighty-four students enrolled in German classes completed graded communication activities and oral proficiency interviews to examine whether grades motivate classroom performance. Data show that grading does not affect foreign language performance as measured by the OPI, the American Association of Teachers of German Achievement Test, and the…
Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.
This study investigates the extent to which teacher-student interactions in fifth grade classrooms are associated with peer behavior in fifth grade, accounting for prior peer functioning. Participants included 894 fifth grade students from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. The quality of teacher-student interactions…
Hamm, Jill V.; Perry, Michelle
The present investigation focused on classroom discourse processes and participatory structures that grant sources of mathematical authority. In general, teachers firmly and with few exceptions positioned themselves as the sole mathematical authority in classrooms. There was, however, one significant exception in one classroom that provided a…
An ethnographic study examined the nature of social and cultural contexts as they shaped literary practices in a combined fifth/sixth-grade classroom. Research questions focused on the meanings given to the reading and discussion of literature within the embedded contexts of classroom and community. The five focal students for the study differed…
Trotman, Alicia M.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyze and interpret the stories told by one teacher, Ms. M, in a fifth grade science classroom. In this study, stories are defined as teacher utterances that are used in first person or third person narrative view, and are related to an experience that occurred outside the classroom. This research…
Guth, Gloria J. A.; Austin, Susan; DeLong, Bo; Pasta, David J.; Block, Clifford
The GALAXY Classroom is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches, supported by the first U.S. interactive satellite communications network designed to facilitate the introduction of innovative curricula to improve student learning in elementary schools. GALAXY Classroom Science for grades 3-5 features the organization of…
Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Logan Herrera, Becky
A multi-cohort cluster randomized trial was conducted to estimate effects of rich vocabulary classroom instruction on vocabulary and reading comprehension. A total of 1,232 fourth- and fifth-grade students from 61 classrooms in 24 schools completed the study. Students received instruction in 140 Tier Two vocabulary words featured in two…
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; White, Jamie M.
The purpose of this study is to examine the interplay of children's temperamental attention and activity (assessed when children were 4-and-a-half years old) and classroom emotional support as they relate to children's academic achievement in third grade. Particular focus is placed on the moderating role of classroom emotional support on the…
Fottland, Helg; Matre, Synnove
This study focuses on observations of classroom conversation as an approach to assessment of relationships between a teacher's teaching and pupils' learning and identity-development processes. Detailed observation notes from two conventional conversation situations from a first grade classroom are written down as narratives and analysed within a…
Dudu, Washington T.; Vhurumuku, Elaosi
This paper discusses the adoption and validation of a research instrument, on determining learners' levels of perception of classroom inquiry based on data collected from South African Grade 11 learners. The Learners' Perception of Classroom Inquiry (LPCI) instrument consists only of Likert-type items which rank activities according to how often…
Aitken, Claudia Jean
This practicum set up a classroom-based model for peer mediation in grades 3 and 4. During the project's implementation, the school psychologist delivered, individually to each of 6 different third and fourth-grade classrooms, 8 weeks of classroom instruction on conflict resolution. When all 6 classes were familiar with conflict resolution…
Kariuki, Patrick N.; Kent, Holly D.
The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between students' scores in comprehension (English Language Arts) tests when they are led in Brain Gym® activities before class instruction and when they are taught using traditional teaching strategies. The sample for this study consisted of 11 males and 9 females. Data were collected…
Drake, Kay N.; Long, Deborah
Seeking improved student performance in elementary schools has led educators to advocate inquiry-based teaching approaches, including problem-based learning (PBL). In PBL, students simultaneously develop problem-solving strategies, disciplinary knowledge bases, collaborative skills, and dispositions. Research into the efficacy of PBL in elementary…
Documented differences in frequency and type of mathematical explanations during lessons in U.S., Taiwanese, and Japanese first- and fifth-grade classrooms. Found that explanations occurred more frequently in Japanese and Taiwanese classrooms than in U.S. classrooms. Typical explanations in Asian classrooms were more substantive than in U.S.…
Maroni, Barbara; Gnisci, Augusto; Pontecorvo, Clotilde
This paper examines the rhythm and the management of classroom interaction as an important constituent of a teaching-learning process. Twenty-three lessons in 12 classes (four 2nd grades, four 3rd grades and four 4th grades) of state primary schools spread all over Italy were observed and videotaped for a total of 15 hours. The descriptive…
The main purpose of this qualitative research was to discover the effects of problem-based learning on a fifth grade language arts classroom. The secondary purpose was to examine how receptive fifth grade students were to a new way of learning. In this descriptive study, a group of nine students created an alternate reality game as part of a…
Gormley, Kathleen A.; McDermott, Peter C.
This 3-year study examined how primary grade teachers and their teacher assistants taught reading and the language arts to a boy with multiple disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Qualitative research strategies are used to describe and explain the boy's participation in literacy activities from kindergarten through second grade. Findings are…
Maxwell, Kelly L.; McWilliam, R. A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ault, Melinda Jones; Schuster, John W.
Tested psychometric properties of a new measure of developmentally appropriate practices in kindergarten through third grade and the predictive value of classroom and teacher characteristics. Found that grade, class size, number of children with disabilities, teacher educational level, teacher experience, and teacher beliefs accounted for 42…
Phalen, Loretta Jean
How are first grade classrooms using technology? How are children using technology at home? Does the use of technology really improve academic achievement? An experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of using technology to teach a unit in Social Studies to first grade students. The study occurred in a Christian school in Lancaster,…
Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
Background: Despite much discussion on the role of education policy on school and student performance, we know little about the effects of school spending at the margin on student cognitive achievement beyond the effects of class size. Purpose: The paper examines the effects of annual ninth grade classroom hours in literacy and maths on ninth…
Terry, Sheila G.; Kerry, Kimberly
In Fall 1998, the Maryland State Department of Education and six local school systems started a pilot program to evaluate the impact of serving breakfast to students in the classroom as part of the school day. Students in participating schools have an opportunity to eat breakfast in their classroom each day at no charge, regardless of family…
Research on young children's reasoning show the complex relationships of knowledge, theories, and evidence in their decision-making and problem solving. Most of the research on children's reasoning skills has been done in individualized and formal research settings, not collective classroom environments where children often engage in learning and reasoning together to solve classroom problems. This study posits children's reasoning as a collective social activity that can occur in science classrooms. The study examined how children process their reasoning within the context of Grade 2/3 science classrooms and how the process of collectivity emerges from classroom interactions and dialogue between children as they attempt to solve their classroom problems. The study findings suggest that children's reasoning involves active evaluation of theories and evidence through collective problem solving, with consensus being developed through dialogical reasoning.
Sandilos, Lia E.
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the structural validity and stability of scores on a measure of global classroom quality, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, Kindergarten-Third Grade (CLASS K-3; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008). Using data from a sample of 417 kindergarten classrooms in the rural Southern and Mid-Atlantic…
Wang, Ze; Bergin, Christi; Bergin, David A.
Research on factors that may promote engagement is hampered by the absence of a measure of classroom-level engagement. Literature has suggested that engagement may have 3 dimensions--affective, behavioral, and cognitive. No existing engagement scales measure all 3 dimensions at the classroom level. The Classroom Engagement Inventory (CEI) was…
Duncanson, Edward Francis
While qualitative studies of teacher perceptions of classroom organization have been performed, quantitative studies linked to standards-based assessments are noticeably absent. Two questions guided the research: What is the impact of classroom layout in grade 4 on student achievement in science? How does space use change in a classroom when the furniture is reorganized? The study was conducted in five classrooms in two rural, elementary schools. In two classrooms, teachers placed a large science materials table in the center of the room to make science activities a focal point for students. Two classrooms, that were used as controls, continued to operate using their established organization. The organization of the fifth classroom had included a large table in the center of the room for a number of years. This room was also used as a control. Data were collected in three ways. Quantitative data were collected from the New York State Grade-4 Science Program Evaluation Test. Qualitative data were collected using the Classroom Spatial Utilization and Migration Form and by creating a classroom map. The data were presented in quantitative, narrative, and graphic forms. Data from the New York State Grade-4 Science Program Evaluation Test were analyzed using a matrix published by the New York State Education Department and by using SPSS software. Classroom spatial utilization and migration patterns were visually evaluated. The guiding hypothesis that placing a large table in the center of the room would result in improved student performance was not totally supported by the data. Student density was correlated to student achievement. Specifically, classroom space per student was positively correlated to the inquiry science skills of classifying, manipulating materials, measuring, recording data, using non-standard measurement, and making predictions. Classroom arrangement was not as important as open space per student. This research is important because classrooms that
The purpose of this study was to determine if the marking period grades of middle school science students are correlated with their perception of the classroom learning environment, and if so could such an indicator be used in feedback loops for ongoing classroom learning environment evaluation and evolution. The study examined 24 classrooms in three districts representing several different types of districts and a diverse student population. The independent variable was the students' perceptions of their classroom learning environment (CLE). This variable was represented by their responses on the WIHIC (What Is Happening In This Class) questionnaire. The dependent variable was the students' marking period grades. Background data about the students was included, and for further elaboration and clarification, qualitative data was collected through student and teacher interviews. Middle school science students in this study perceived as most positive those domains over which they have more locus of control. Perceptions showed some variance by gender, ethnicity, teacher/district, and socio-economic status when viewing the absolute values of the domain variables. The patterns of the results show consistency between groups. Direct correlation between questionnaire responses and student grades was not found to be significant except for a small significance with "Task Orientation". This unexpected lack of correlation may be explained by inconsistencies between grading schemes, inadequacies of the indicator instrument, and/or by the one-time administration of the variables. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data led to the conclusion that this instrument is picking up information, but that revisions in both the variables and in the process are needed. Grading schemes need to be decomposed, the instrument needs to be revised, and the process needs to be implemented as a series of regular feed-back loops.
Hovland, Jana A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W
Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4(th) graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009-2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4(th) grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students' multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539
Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.
Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4th graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009–2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4th grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students’ multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539
Gaskins, Clare S.; Herres, Joanna; Kobak, Roger
This study examines the association between classroom order in 4th and 5th grades and student achievement growth over a school year. A three level transactional model tested the effects of classroom order on students' rates of growth in math and reading during the school year controlling for starting achievement levels, student risk factors, and…
Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Garandeau, Claire F.; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study investigated the independent and interacting effects of classroom-level embeddedness (i.e., hierarchical vs. egalitarian) and classroom density on the perceived popularity and social preference of aggressive and victimized 3rd-4th grade students (N = 881). A cohesive blocking procedure was used to compute embeddedness. Multilevel…
Hazen, Samuel; Freed, Rusty; Dudley, Dan
This study addresses the determination of course grades. Somewhat traditionally, course grades have been based on a single rubric for an entire class. Under this model, the inherent, unstated assumption is "one size fits all." Some students learn best through visual stimuli, while other students learn best through use of one or more of…
Ohio State Dept. of Agriculture, Columbus.
Adapted from Idaho's fourth grade agricultural education curriculum guide, this manual was created because there were insufficient resources available to Ohio students about the systems that provide human beings with food and fiber. Economically Ohio's largest industry, agriculture, serves as a basis for providing fourth-grade teachers with…
17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor setback to left and atrium structure to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY
Faust, Russell Weidner
An exploratory field study was conducted in 42 self-contained, elementary grade classrooms in 18 school buildings. Subjects were 1,030 fifth-grade students. The purpose of the study was to determine the range of physical environmental conditions in the classrooms; and how students' perceptions of the physical environment (1) describe the…
Farmer, Thomas W.; Petrin, Robert A.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Fraser, Mark W.; Hall, Cristin M.; Day, Steven H.; Dadisman, Kimberly
This study examined the social relations of bullies, victims, and bully-victims in second-grade classrooms. Bully-victims are identified as both bullies and victims. The sample consisted of 537 ethnically diverse second-grade students (247 boys, 290 girls) from 37 classrooms across 11 participating schools. Bullies, bully-victims, and victims…
These classroom exercises have been designed to maximize teacher time, while creating an awareness of our food and fiber system among New York sixth graders. The materials are color-coded, falling into four categories: language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Each exercise includes background information, concepts, and objectives…
These classroom exercises have been designed to maximize teacher time, while creating an awareness of our food and fiber system among New York fourth graders. The materials are color-coded, falling into four categories: language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Each exercise includes background information, concepts, and objectives…
This collection of classroom exercises was designed to maximize teacher time, while creating an awareness of our food and fiber system among New York third graders. The materials are color-coded, falling into four categories: language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Each exercise includes background information, concepts, and…
Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.
Middle level educators around the country aim to create a classroom environment and a way of teaching that is developmentally responsive, challenging, empowering, and equitable for every student. One way to ensure this is to include instruction that promotes creativity. This article offers guiding principles and shares instructional lessons that…
Stodolsky, Susan S.
An ecological approach was used to gather data about properties of purpose, human behavior, and setting as they unfolded in classrooms. Participating were 11 elementary school districts in the Chicago Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area; districts were stratified by median family income (low, middle, high) and per pupil expenditure (low, high).…
These classroom exercises have been designed to maximize teacher time, while creating an awareness of our food and fiber system among New York fifth graders. The materials are color-coded, falling into four categories: language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Each exercise includes background information, concepts, and objectives…
Day, Stephanie L; Connor, Carol McDonald; McClelland, Megan M
Classroom learning environments are an important source of influence on children's development, particularly with regard to literacy achievement and behavioral regulation, both of which require the coordination of task inhibition, attention, and working memory. Classroom observations were conducted in 18 schools and 51 first grade classrooms for 500 children. The non-instructional activities were recorded for each student in the classroom. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that children with weaker fall behavioral regulation were more likely to attend classrooms where more time was spent in disruptions and wasted instructional time over the course of the school year, such as waiting for the teacher to gather materials before beginning instruction. For literacy outcomes, children who were in classrooms where more time in disruptions, transitions, and waiting was observed showed weaker literacy skill gains in the spring compared to children in classrooms with lesser amounts of such unproductive non-instructional time and this effect was generally greater for students with initial weaker skills. These results also reveal that the classroom environment and the incoming characteristics of the students themselves influence students' development of behavioral regulation and literacy. PMID:26407837
Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar Petter
Objective The intensive nature of a 5- or 6-week teaching block poses unique problems for adequate delivery of content. This study was designed to compare the delivery of a unit of undergraduate neuroanatomy in a short summer school period, as a traditionally taught unit, with a rendition given in the form of the “Flipped Classroom.” The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the flipped classroom in the intensive mode classroom. Methods The flipped classroom encompassed the same learning outcomes, but students were responsible for covering the content at home in preparation for tutorials that applied their acquired knowledge to higher levels of thinking. The main outcome measures were the final course grades and the level of satisfaction with the course. Results There were no significant differences between the 2 cohorts in final grades (p = .259), self-rated knowledge (p = .182), or overall satisfaction with the course (p = .892). Conclusion This particular design of the flipped classroom did not add value to the intensive mode experience. It may be that this mode of delivery is ill suited to intensive classes for subjects that carry a lot of content. The use of the flipped classroom requires further research to fully evaluate its value. PMID:25902472
Energy and Man's Environment, Inc., Portland, OR.
The instructional materials and classroom activities described in the document are intended to aid teachers in grades seven through nine develop and implement educational programs dealing with energy-related issues. The document is presented in four sections. Section I explains the organization of the document and summarizes how teachers should…
Williams, Jasmine D.; Wallace, Tanner LeBaron; Sung, Hannah C.
Employing descriptive and interpretive analyses of classroom videos and focus group data, this study details how the provision of choice was enacted in instruction, and the subsequent messages students perceived. Participants included six teachers (fourth to eighth grade) and 114 students (age X-bar = 11.28 years, 60% African American). Survey…
Moss, Barbara, Ed.; Lapp, Diane, Ed.
Upper-elementary students encounter a sometimes dizzying array of traditional and nontraditional texts both in and outside of the classroom. This practical handbook helps teachers in grades 4-6 harness the instructional potential of fiction, poetry, and plays; informational texts; graphic novels; digital storytelling; Web-based and multimodal…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.
This curriculum guide integrates the concepts of chick embryology into mathematics, science, and language arts lesson plans for Grades 4 and 5. The four lessons comprising the unit can be utilized in sequence or as independent lessons within the classroom curriculum. Lesson 1 enables students to identify the parts of an egg. Lesson 2 examines the…
Diseth, Åge; Samdal, Oddrun
The present study was aimed at investigating the relationships between students' perceived classroom achievement goals, school engagement and substance use in terms of smoking and drinking, and at investigating gender differences regarding these issues in a sample of 1,239 Norwegian 10th grade students. A multivariate analysis showed that…
Leguizamon, Daniel F.
The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to investigate the relationship between Kodaly-based music instruction and reading fluency in first-grade classrooms. Reading fluency and overall reading achievement were measured for 109 participants at mid-point in the academic year pre- and post treatment. Tests were carried out to…
Kontovourki, Stavroula; Campis, Carolyn
Preparation for high-stakes testing, while unavoidable, may become meaningful, these authors argue. The article illustrates the case of a third-grade classroom in a metropolitan public school, where test preparation was approached as genre study. In addition to examining the specific unit of study, the authors describe the efforts of the classroom…
Ladd, Judith A.; Linderholm, Tracy
This study investigated whether preservice teachers' attitudes surrounding school grade labels influenced interpretations and recall of children's classroom behavior using the automatic attitude activation model (Fazio, In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), "Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior," 1986) as a…
Auger, Jessie L.
In this essay, Jessie L. Auger reflects on the practice of Buddy Editing in her first-grade classroom as an opportunity for student and teacher learning. By explicitly revealing her pedagogical approach and sharing transcripts of students' engagement with her Buddy Editing protocol, Auger presents the dynamics of a learning partnership that…
Räisänen, Sari; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa
This study investigated the first author's process of implementing new literacy practices as a teacher in a Finnish first-grade classroom from a poststructuralist perspective by using nexus analysis (NA). We concentrated on two essential concepts in NA, Bourdieu's habitus and Goffman's interaction order, which we linked to Grundy's curriculum…
Teaching physical science in the elementary and middle grades can be challenging for busy teachers faced with growing science demands and limited classroom resources. Robert Prigo provides fun and engaging activities using safe, available materials that educators can easily incorporate into lesson plans. Extensive examples, sample inquiry…
Cribbs, Jennifer D.; Linder, Sandra M.
Providing students with a classroom environment that allows for meaningful learning experiences is important for students to develop deep and long lasting understanding about mathematics. This article adds to the literature on learning environments in mathematics by presenting a case study of one fifth-grade mathematics teacher and her classroom…
Energy and Man's Environment, Inc., Portland, OR.
The instructional materials and classroom activities described in the document are intended to aid teachers in grades 10 through 12 develop and implement educational programs dealing with energy-related issues. The document is presented in four sections. Section I explains the organization of the document and summarizes how teachers should…
Discusses student participation in many short-term projects related to regular study units in a second grade classroom. Describes projects of writing a class constitution, constructing a model colonial town, creating a mural of local colonial life, making corn shuck and apple-head dolls, and learning apple types grown locally. (DHP)
Sutton, Antwon M.
A mathematics achievement gap exists between males and females. The measurement of achievement was compared between single-gender and traditional classroom students in the 7th grade to assess whether or not a single-gender environment affected their scores. The Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) state assessment served as the data collection…
Kiang, Peter N.; And Others
Describes a harassment documentation project conducted with 26 Vietnamese bilingual students, primarily immigrants, in an urban fourth-grade classroom. Results suggest the importance of documenting student experience as a reality and validity check and as a support a model for designing ways to gather meaningful data. (SLD)
The primary goal of this research is to better understand my students' reading orientations--what they believe it means to be a successful reader. I also seek to identify the relationship between those beliefs and my teaching. The data come primarily from six focal students in my second-grade classroom in an urban public charter elementary school…
Describes the use of experiential learning activities in a first grade classroom composed of learners at several levels, including some with learning disabilities and some with special speech and language needs. Presents learning activities to integrate mathematics with developmentally appropriate process writing, including a birthday graph, dice…
Drawing on the literature and a survey of first-grade teachers, this paper provides a summary of the ways children grieve, children's ideas on death, ways to help children contend with the difficulties surrounding death, and teachers' feelings about discussing death in the classroom. Twelve teachers completed a questionnaire about how to…
Kingsley, Tara L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Tancock, Susan M.
This quantitative study was developed to explore the ability to impact elementary student 21st Century online research skills with a planned classroom intervention curriculum. The repeated measures quasi-experimental study randomly assigned all 5th grade classes in a Midwestern, suburban school (n = 418) to a 12-week intervention or control…
Staples, Megan E.; Bartlo, Joanna; Thanheiser, Eva
Justification is a core mathematics practice. Although the purposes of justification in the mathematician community have been studied extensively, we know relatively little about its role in K-12 classrooms. This paper documents the range of purposes identified by 12 middle grades teachers who were working actively to incorporate justification…
Illinois Farm Bureau, Bloomington.
This resource guide provides teachers of grades K-3 with ideas and materials to integrate agricultural concepts into classroom activities. The guide is organized into six categories: math, science, language arts, social studies, fine arts, and health/nutrition/safety. Each of the categories contains 10 lessons organized in the following topic…
Illinois Farm Bureau, Bloomington.
This resource guide provides teachers of grades 4-6 with ideas and materials to integrate agricultural concepts into classroom activities. The guide is organized into six categories: math, science, language arts, social studies, fine arts, and health/nutrition/safety. Each category contains 10 lessons organized in the following topic order:…
McLean, Leigh; Connor, Carol McDonald
This study investigated associations among third-grade teachers' (N = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students' (N = 523, M[subscript age] = 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. teachers' depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students' spring mathematics achievement. This…
Energy and Man's Environment, Inc., Portland, OR.
The instructional materials and classroom activities described in the document are intended to aid teachers in grades four through six develop and implement educational programs dealing with energy-related issues. The document is presented in four sections. Section I explains the organization of the document and summarizes how teachers should…
Wiseman, Angela M.; Mäkinen, Marita; Kupiainen, Reijo
This article reports findings from a diverse third grade classroom that integrates a literacy through photography (LTP) curriculum as a central component of writing instruction in an urban public school. A case study approach was used in order to provide an in-depth, multi-dimensional consideration of phenomena by drawing on multiple data sources…
Temple, Codruta; Doerr, Helen M.
The purpose of this study was to identify the interactional strategies that one teacher used in a discourse-rich tenth-grade classroom to develop her students' facility with the mathematical register. Viewing the mathematical register as multi-semiotic and having a specific grammatical patterning, we used discourse analysis (Sinclair & Coulthard,…
Nevada Foreign Language Standards: Content Standards for Grades Kindergarten, 3, 5, 8, 1st Year High School Study, 2nd Year High School Study, and 4th Year High School Study [and] Performance Standards.
Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.
These standards offer a vision of excellence for K-12 foreign language education in Nevada. They are designed to provide guidance for school districts as they develop high quality foreign language programs through Nevada schools. The standards are benchmarked for the following grades: kindergarten, 3rd, 5th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and 12th. For each…
Llinares, Ana; Lyster, Roy
This study compares the frequency and distribution of different types of corrective feedback (CF) (recasts, prompts and explicit correction) and learner uptake in 43 hours of classroom interaction at the 4th-5th grade level across three instructional settings: (1) two content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classrooms in Spain with English…
Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Freer, Benjamin Dunham; Dunlap, Emily E.; Hodell, Emily C.; Calderhead, William J.
Students (n = 1,069) from 60 4th-grade classrooms were taught the control of variables strategy (CVS) for designing experiments. Half of the classrooms were in schools that performed well on a state-mandated test of science achievement, and half were in schools that performed relatively poorly. Three teaching interventions were compared: an…
Baxter, Gail P.; Bass, Kristin M.; Glaser, Robert
Examined ways three fifth-grade teachers facilitated student notebook writing as part of an inquiry of electric circuits. Found that teachers promoted notebook writing through explicit instructions and prompts. Teachers provided frequent opportunities for writing, and checked that students had documented procedural aspects of investigations.…
Economopoulos, Marjorie P.
Challenging problems and project ideas for mathematically able students in grades 5 and 6 are reviewed. Number patterns are viewed as a good tool to introduce inductive and deductive thinking. Applications of mathematics in sales, the stock market, opinion polls, weather prediction, and other areas are discussed. (MP)
Johnson, Jacquelyn; Benegar, John
This publication contains teacher developed activities for teaching about global issues in grades 5-8. The self-contained activities are organized into three major parts. Part I, "Global Awareness," introduces students to the concept of global education. Students are made aware of the nature of the world and the part they play in it as inhabitants…
Dombek, Jennifer Lucas; Connor, Carol McDonald
Retention is a frequently used strategy to support children who are struggling academically. However, the strategy is costly, and research findings with regard to positive outcomes are mixed. This study examined whether efficacious reading instruction might reduce rates of retention in first grade. We also evaluated the reading instruction the…
Bintz, William P.
Developing and implementing curriculum that is relevant, challenging, integrative, and exploratory is central to successful middle grades education (Erb, 2005; Jackson & Davis, 2000; National Middle School Association [NMSA], 2003, 2010). However, as one language arts teacher suggests, it can be difficult to create curricula that meet these…
This book provides ideas for table exhibits for grades 3-6 in nine different subject areas. These areas are: marine life; nature in the backyard; the history and uses of flags; impressionist painters and art; winter festivals around the world; fibers and fabrics; Native Americans in touch with the land; sugar and chocolate; and keeping the earth,…
Friend, Jennifer Ingrid
This study examined two hypotheses related to same-gender grouping of eighth-grade science classes in a public middle-school setting in suburban Kansas City. The first hypothesis, male and female students enrolled in same-gender eighth-grade science classes demonstrate more positive science academic achievement than their male and female peers enrolled in mixed-gender science classes. The second hypothesis, same-gender grouping of students in eighth-grade science has a positive effect on classroom climate. The participants in this study were randomly assigned to class sections of eighth-grade science. The first experimental group was an eighth-grade science class of all-male students (n = 20) taught by a male science teacher. The control group used for comparison to the male same-gender class consisted of the male students (n = 42) in the coeducational eighth-grade science classes taught by the same male teacher. The second experimental group was an eighth-grade science class of all-female students (n = 23) taught by a female science teacher. The control group for the female same-gender class consisted of female students (n = 61) in the coeducational eighth-grade science classes taught by the same female teacher. The male teacher and the female teacher did not vary instruction for the same-gender and mixed-gender classes. Science academic achievement was measured for both groups through a quantitative analysis using grades on science classroom assessment and overall science course grades. Classroom climate was measured through qualitative observations and through qualitative and quantitative analysis of a twenty-question student survey administered at the end of each trimester grading period. The results of this study did not indicate support for either hypothesis. Data led to the conclusions that same-gender grouping did not produce significant differences in student science academic achievement, and that same-gender classes did not create a more positive
Eick, Charles J.
A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science…
Bloome, David; Beierle, Marlene; Grigorenko, Margaret; Goldman, Susan
Framed within interactional sociolinguistics, microethnographic discourse analysis, and cognitive science, we examine how intercontextuality, collective memories, and classroom chronotopes were used in generating learning opportunities in a ninth-grade language arts classroom. Five consecutive videorecorded lessons were analyzed focusing on how…
Palardy, Gregory J.
Background: An enduring question about achievement gaps is, which aspects of schools contribute most? At the early grade levels, when children spend the vast majority of their school day in a single classroom with a single teacher, school inequities that correlate with achievement gaps likely originate within the classroom. This study examined the…
Stephens, Summer Elizabeth
A problem exists in grading practices accurately measuring student achievement. Both students' academic achievements and nonacademic factors, such as effort, homework completion, and behaviors continue to factor into grades. This combination can lead to inaccurate representation of true academic ability, rendering a grade useless. While…
This resource presents scripts for eight Shakespearean plays. The scripts are adapted for classroom presentation by intermediate level students. Each play includes introductory materials, instructions for staging and costumes, a vocabulary list, and a cast of characters. Enough roles are provided for participation by every child in the class. Many…
Bea, Jennifer W.; Jacobs, Laurel; Waits, Juanita; Hartz, Vern; Martinez, Stephanie H.; Standfast, Rebecca D.; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Bawden, Margine; Whitmer, Evelyn; Misner, Scottie
Objective Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to obesity. We hypothesized that school-based nutrition education would decrease SSB consumption. Design Self-selected interventional cohort with random selection for pre and post measurements Setting Arizona SNAP-Ed eligible schools Participants Randomly selected (9%) 4th and 5th grade classroom students Intervention The University of Arizona Nutrition Network (UANN) provided general nutrition education training and materials to teachers, to be delivered to their students. The UANN administered behavioral questionnaires to students in both Fall and Spring. Main Outcome Measure(s) Change in SSB consumption Analyses Descriptive statistics were computed for student demographics and beverage consumption on the day prior to testing. Paired t-tests evaluated change in classroom averages. Linear regression assessed potential correlates of SSB consumption. Results Fall mean SSB consumption was 1.1 (±0.2) times; mean milk and water intake were 1.6 (±0.2) and 5.2 (±0.7) times, respectively. Beverage consumption increased (3.2%) in springtime, with increased SSBs (14.4%) accounting for the majority (p=0.006). Change in SSB consumption was negatively associated with baseline SSB and water consumption, but positively associated with baseline milk fat (p≤0.05). Conclusions and Implications The results suggest the need for beverage specific education to encourage children to consume more healthful beverages in warmer weather. PMID:25239840
Plank, Stephen B.; Condliffe, Barbara
This report presents findings from two years of classroom observation designed to help understand the in-school experiences of students who had been first graders in eight Baltimore public schools in 2007-08. During the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years, the authors conducted fieldwork to understand learning opportunities and settings for a set of…
Lam, H. M.; Ho, F.
ISF Academy, a K-G12 school in Hong Kong with over 1500 students and currently spanning 3 buildings, is retrofitting the school with an energy tracking system in three phases. The first phase during the fall of 2015 will include retrofitting eight Grade 5 classrooms. This new program will show the daily energy usage data from these classrooms. The Grade 5 students receive feedback on their energy use in real time as they compete over two months in their homeroom classes to lower their electrical use, and subsequently their carbon footprint. This competition style initiative will teach the 180 Grade 5 students about their energy usage in a fun and informative manner. ISF Academy has over 400 air-conditioners and we have already determined that the air conditioners are the largest single use of energy in the school. The energy tracking system installed and maintained by from Global Design Corporation utilizes uniquely identified current detectors attached to circuit breakers, to monitor electrical use of individual circuits. These detectors will also monitor the energy used for classroom lighting, fans and plugs, as well as the air conditioners. The system has been installed and the Grade 5 classrooms averaged between 40 kWh and 120 kWh of usage in May 2015. This data will be used as the baseline for the competition. Further analysis can also be done with the data, such as calculating the carbon emissions reduction throughout the school year, providing possible class learning activities and also aiding in future energy use and carbon footprint predictions. The data collected will help refine phase 2 and 3 of the installation, expanding the system to more buildings and also giving insight to the rollout of the system to the whole school when the systems are fully in place.
McKissick, Chele; Hawkins, Renee O.; Lentz, Francis E.; Hailley, Jennifer; McGuire, Shannon
Disruptive behaviors displayed in the classroom interfere with learning by taking time away from academic instruction. This study investigated the effects of randomizing components within an interdependent group contingency for group disruptive behavior and engagement levels of 26 students in a second-grade classroom in an urban Midwestern school.…
Albert, Michael; Beatty, Brian J.
The authors discuss the application of the flipped classroom model to the redesign of an introduction to management course at a highly diverse, urban, Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited U.S. university. The author assessed the impact of a flipped classroom versus a lecture class on grades. Compared to the prior…
Nenthien, Sansanee; Loima, Jyrki
The aims of this qualitative research were to investigate the level of motivation and learning of ninth grade students in mathematics classrooms in Thailand and to reveal how the teachers supported students' levels of motivation and learning. The participants were 333 students and 12 teachers in 12 mathematics classrooms from four regions of…
Matz, Debbie S.
This study examined how the use of teacher think-alouds influenced and transferred to the reading comprehension and metacognition of seventh grade middle school social studies students in two Reading Apprenticeship classrooms. The researcher conducted classroom observations at a middle school in a mid-size suburban and rural school district in…
Kasten, Wendy C.; Clarke, Barbara K.
Using ethnographic techniques to observe seven fifth grade and seven third grade students, a study examined the function of children's oral language during creative writing sessions in typical classroom situations. Findings indicated that oral language plays an important role in the writing process; specifically, that it (1) accompanies writing as…
Lehman, Margaret A.
This study investigated the student-student interactions, attitudes toward reading and engagement during literacy events in a second grade classroom. The literacy environment and the teacher's conceptualization of her role as a reading instructor were also part of this investigation. Five second grade struggling readers and their teacher,…
Turner, Steven L.
The focus on grades and what they represent happens in every middle grades classroom--some students completely understand the concepts when reviewed, but perform poorly on the quiz; some gifted students score high on tests but appear bored in class. With the current emphasis on school accountability by standardized test scores, middle level…
Hurtig, Anders; Sörqvist, Patrik; Ljung, Robert; Hygge, Staffan; Rönnberg, Jerker
The purpose of this experiment was to explore whether listening positions (close or distant location from the sound source) in the classroom, and classroom reverberation, influence students' score on a test for second-language (L2) listening comprehension (i.e., comprehension of English in Swedish speaking participants). The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 125 high school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects, classroom reverberation between subjects. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as distance from the sound source increased. The effect of reverberation was qualified by the participants' baseline L2 proficiency. A shorter reverberation was beneficial to participants with high L2 proficiency, while the opposite pattern was found among the participants with low L2 proficiency. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores-and hence students' grade in English-may depend on students' classroom listening position. PMID:27304980
Sörqvist, Patrik; Ljung, Robert; Hygge, Staffan; Rönnberg, Jerker
The purpose of this experiment was to explore whether listening positions (close or distant location from the sound source) in the classroom, and classroom reverberation, influence students’ score on a test for second-language (L2) listening comprehension (i.e., comprehension of English in Swedish speaking participants). The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 125 high school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects, classroom reverberation between subjects. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as distance from the sound source increased. The effect of reverberation was qualified by the participants’ baseline L2 proficiency. A shorter reverberation was beneficial to participants with high L2 proficiency, while the opposite pattern was found among the participants with low L2 proficiency. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores—and hence students’ grade in English—may depend on students’ classroom listening position. PMID:27304980
The purpose of this study was to identify and promote successful teaching strategies that incorporate classroom pets in order to influence student engagement, achievement, and perceptions of animals. This was a small action research study conducted in a fourth grade science classroom. Both quantitative and qualitative data were obtained including, pre- and post-assessments, student interviews, researcher field notes, researcher journal, and student work. The results of this study revealed an increased academic achievement from the pre- to post-assessment, increased student observations and descriptions when discussing the animals, and increased student empathy toward the animals. The results also revealed that the teacher's incorporation of the animals within the science curriculum grew in ease over time, and that the animals provided the educator with opportunities to teach non-content related lessons and also a concrete experience for the teacher to apply and extend the science content.
McLean, Leigh; Connor, Carol McDonald
This study investigated associations among third grade teachers’ (n = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students’ (n = 523, mean age 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. Teachers’ depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students’ spring mathematics achievement. This depended on students’ fall mathematics scores; students who began the year with weaker math skills and were in classrooms where teachers reported more depressive symptoms achieved smaller gains than did peers whose teachers reported fewer symptoms. Teachers’ depressive symptoms were negatively associated with quality of CLE, and quality of CLE mediated the association between depressive symptoms and student achievement. Findings point to the importance of teachers’ mental health, with implications for policy and practice. PMID:25676719
McLean, Leigh; McDonald Connor, Carol
This study investigated associations among third-grade teachers' (N = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students' (N = 523, Mage = 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. teachers' depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students' spring mathematics achievement. This depended on students' fall mathematics scores; students who began the year with weaker math skills and were in classrooms where teachers reported more depressive symptoms achieved smaller gains than did peers whose teachers reported fewer symptoms. teachers' depressive symptoms were negatively associated with quality of CLE, and quality of CLE mediated the association between depressive symptoms and student achievement. The findings point to the importance of teachers' mental health, with implications for policy and practice. PMID:25676719
Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Dept. of Public Instruction.
The purpose of the Idaho Direct Mathematics Assessment (DMA) is to measure Idaho students' mathematical problem-solving skills, including their ability to apply basic skills to problem-solving situations as stated in the Idaho Achievement Standards document. Problem solving is valued as an essential tool for success in a complex, modern world. The…
Although parents and teachers appreciate the value of reading aloud to early elementary children, they often forget that upper elementary children can still benefit from individual attention during reading. A small pilot study in a South Carolina elementary school demonstrates the value of pairing adults and children for regular reading time.…
Faller, Susan Elisabeth
In the face of low adolescent literacy rates (NCES, 2012), concerns about the nation's prospects of remaining competitive in science and technology (Hill, Corbett, & St. Rose, 2010), a persistent gender gap in science (NCES, 2012; Reilly, 2012), and the continued rollout of college- and career-ready standards, there is a need to focus on adolescent girls' science literacy. Such science literacy involves not only general knowledge about science, but also the ability to engage in the advanced reading and writing practices fundamental to doing science (Norris & Phillips, 2003). In this thesis, I present three articles with findings that respond to this need. They are the results of a multiple-case embedded (Yin, 2009) study that I conducted over the course of 7 months in four science classrooms (grades 5 through 8; 50 students) taught by a single teacher in a small all-female middle school. I collected in-depth data focused on science literacy from multiple sources, including (a) fieldnotes (Emerson, Fretz & Shaw, 2011), (b) videorecorded classroom observations (102 classes, 113 hours, recorded on 29 days), (c) a survey of all students, (d) semi-structured interviews with the subsample of 12 focal students (ranging from 18 to 37 minutes) and (e) photographs of classroom artifacts and student work. In the first article, I provide a window into standard literacy practices in science classrooms by examining the reading and writing genres to which students are exposed. In the second article, I examine how a teacher's language and instructional practices within her classrooms, and popular images of science from the world beyond their classrooms might shape adolescent girls' science identities. Finally, in the third article, I explore different aspects of science identity using the words of three case study students. Taken together, these studies fill gaps in the literature by investigating science literacy in an understudied context, all-female classrooms. In addition
Sternberg, Robert J.; Jarvin, Linda; Birney, Damian P.; Naples, Adam; Stemler, Steven E.; Newman, Tina; Otterbach, Renate; Parish, Carolyn; Randi, Judy; Grigorenko, Elena L.
This study addressed whether prior successes with educational interventions grounded in the theory of successful intelligence could be replicated on a larger scale as the primary basis for instruction in language arts, mathematics, and science. A total of 7,702 4th-grade students in the United States, drawn from 223 elementary school classrooms in…
Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.
Dickinson, David K; Porche, Michelle V
Indirect effects of preschool classroom indexes of teacher talk were tested on fourth-grade outcomes for 57 students from low-income families in a longitudinal study of classroom and home influences on reading. Detailed observations and audiotaped teacher and child language data were coded to measure content and quantity of verbal interactions in preschool classrooms. Preschool teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary during free play predicted fourth-grade reading comprehension and word recognition (mean age=9; 7), with effects mediated by kindergarten child language measures (mean age=5; 6). In large group preschool settings, teachers' attention-getting utterances were directly related to later comprehension. Preschool teachers' correcting utterances and analytic talk about books, and early support in the home for literacy predicted fourth-grade vocabulary, as mediated by kindergarten receptive vocabulary. PMID:21413936
The current study examines if the occurrence of dynamic variables namely, authentic questions, uptake, high-level evaluation and student questions in primary science classrooms vary by teachers' instructional beliefs. Twelve 4th grade teachers from two different schools volunteered to participate in the study. Data was collected through…
Trotman, Alicia M.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyze and interpret the stories told by one teacher, Ms. M, in a fifth grade science classroom. In this study, stories are defined as teacher utterances that are used in first person or third person narrative view, and are related to an experience that occurred outside the classroom. This research answers questions concerning: (a) what types of stories Ms. M tells during science instruction; (b) when these stories occur in the classroom; and (c) what pedagogical functions do these stories serve in the classroom. Utilizing theories on the social construction of knowledge and narrative cognition, stories told may be formed through multiple paths that follow no logical expression to make sense of the context and to connect to its audience. Therefore, this study provides insight into how Ms. M made sense of science with her stories and the ways in which they worked with her students. The results illlustrated that the types of stories found with Ms. M were autobiographical, biographical, fictional, or based on current events. These stories occurred when the teacher initiated the discussion by bringing forth a definition, a question or reinforcing a concept. However, the stories were triggered by students to a greater degree with their questions, concerns, observations or their own stories or explanations. Finally, all pedagogical functions of stories were identified with Ms. M's stories: promotion of engagement or attention of students, building community, clarifying concepts or vocabulary, activation and building of background knowledge and disclosure of teacher role and voice. Ms. M stories exemplified her sense-making of science and connections to her own life that her students were eventually able to make for themselves.
Justice, Laura M.; Pratt, Amy; Logan, Jessica; Gray, Shelley
This quasi-experimental study was designed to test the impacts of a curriculum supplement, "Let's Know!", on the quantity and quality of language-focused comprehension instruction in pre-kindergarten to third grade classrooms. Sixty classrooms (12 per each of pre-K to grade 3) were enrolled in the study, with 40 teachers assigned to…
Effects of teachers' assessment practices on ninth grade students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations in Muscat science classrooms in the Sultanate of Oman
Al Kharusi, Hussain A.
Classroom assessment is a continual activity for teachers to improve the quality of instruction and motivate students to learn (Brookhart, 1999; Gronlund, 2006). Although there is a great deal of research on teachers' classroom assessment practices, few empirical research attempts have been made to link these practices to students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and motivation defined in terms of achievement goal orientations. This study examined teachers' assessment practices within the framework of classroom assessment literature and achievement goal theory. More specifically, the purposes of this study were to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations and to investigate the possible effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on perceived classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The participants were 1,636 ninth grade students and their corresponding 83 science teachers enrolled in public schools within Muscat educational region in Oman during the spring semester 2007. Two questionnaires were developed and used, one for students and one for teachers. The student's questionnaire focused on students' perceived classroom assessment environment, achievement goal orientations, and academic self-efficacy. The teacher's questionnaire focused on teachers' frequent uses of traditional assessments, alternative assessments, and classroom assessment practices recommended by experts of educational measurement and assessment. Principal components/exploratory factor analyses (PCA/EFA) were conducted to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were employed to examine the effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment
Effects of teachers' assessment practices on ninth grade students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations in Muscat science classrooms in the Sultanate of Oman
Al Kharusi, Hussain A.
Classroom assessment is a continual activity for teachers to improve the quality of instruction and motivate students to learn (Brookhart, 1999; Gronlund, 2006). Although there is a great deal of research on teachers' classroom assessment practices, few empirical research attempts have been made to link these practices to students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and motivation defined in terms of achievement goal orientations. This study examined teachers' assessment practices within the framework of classroom assessment literature and achievement goal theory. More specifically, the purposes of this study were to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations and to investigate the possible effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on perceived classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The participants were 1,636 ninth grade students and their corresponding 83 science teachers enrolled in public schools within Muscat educational region in Oman 2 during the spring semester 2007. Two questionnaires were developed and used, one for students and one for teachers. The student's questionnaire focused on students' perceived classroom assessment environment, achievement goal orientations, and academic selfefficacy. The teacher's questionnaire focused on teachers' frequent uses of traditional assessments, alternative assessments, and classroom assessment practices recommended by experts of educational measurement and assessment. Principal components/exploratory factor analyses (PCA/EFA) were conducted to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were employed to examine the effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment
Florio, Susan; Clark, Christopher M.
One segment of a year-long descriptive field study of school writing is described in this paper. In particular, the paper examines some of the uses to which writing is put in the first weeks of school in one second/third grade classroom. In doing this, the paper speculates on the writing curriculum in elementary schools and on the realization of…
Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; And Others
This study explored teachers' behavior as related to effective teaching practices in 8th, 9th, and 10th grade English classrooms in Jordan. The study also examined some variables that could predict teachers' implementation of effective teaching practices and aimed at finding an estimate of the percentage of students in 8th, 9th, and 10th grades…
Cirignano, Sherri M.; Fitzgerald, Nurgul; Hughes, Luanne J.; Savoca, LeeAnne; Morgan, Kathleen; Grenci, Alexandra
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coordinated in-classroom education and taste-testing activities on fruit and vegetable acceptance in a state-wide sample of third through sixth grade children. Methods: Two taste-testing sessions were a part of six nutrition lessons that were implemented in nine elementary…
Dresden, Janna; Lee, Kyunghwa
This article discusses how a brief project-based unit promoted the learning of children in a first-grade classroom. The children attended a public elementary school located in a southeastern university town in the United States. Approximately 94% of the students in the school were from economically disadvantaged families. No children in this…
Zimmerman, Daniele C.
Based on the assumption that project based learning (PBL) in 12th grade social studies classrooms contributes to the development of life skills for high school seniors in this advanced and globalized time, this research will investigate student experiences with PBL methods for helping them acquire skills along with a case study of a successful PBL…
McEvoy, Christian S.; Cantore, Kathryn M.; Denlinger, LeAnn N.; Schleich, Michele A.; Stevens, Nicole M.; Swavely, Steven C.; Odom, Anne A.; Novick, Marsha B.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a flipped classroom progamme, designed and implemented by medical students, in communicating nutrition education to fourth-grade school students aged 9-10 years and to characterise teachers' assessments of the progamme, which was designed to minimise the burden placed on…
Quirk, Barbara A.; Cianciolo, Patricia J.
A descriptive/observational study examined one teacher's approach to teaching literature in a heterogeneous, self-contained fifth-grade classroom in a growing suburban community in southeastern Michigan during one school year. The teacher (with 21 years experience) was selected by the Murray Hill School administrators and was observed once a week…
Jordan, Michelle E.; Santori, Diane
This multisite study investigates dialogic literacy events that revolved around narrative and informational texts in two 3rd-grade classrooms. The authors offer a metaphor of musical improvisation to contemplate dialogic literacy events as part of the repertoire of teaching and learning experiences. In literacy learning, where there is much…
Pappas, Christine C.; Varelas, Maria; Patton, Sofia Kokkino; Ye, Li; Ortiz, Ibett
This article shows how various dialogic discourse strategies were used in read-alouds of English science information books in a 2nd-grade bilingual classroom. Using a variety of discursive strategies, Ibett encouraged her Spanish-speaking students to provide explanations and reasoning related to science ideas. Similarly, she used intertextual…
McMunn, Nancy; Schenck, Patricia; McColskey, Wendy
Whether school district support and training in standards-based assessment, grading, and reporting in classrooms can change teacher practice in these areas was studied in a Florida school district. This district, Bay District Schools of Panama City, has been working with the SERVE Regional Educational Laboratory on a project that involves teachers…
Miller, Kelli C.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Gibby, Lana; Galyon, Charles E.; Meadows-Allen, Sadonya
A multiple-baseline design across math-fact sets was used to evaluate the effects of a taped-problems intervention on students' performance with addition facts and their inverses in an intact, rural, second-grade classroom. Results suggested that the procedure was effective in improving fluency on math facts as well as their inverses. Across 3…
Schaenen, Inda L.
This teacher research inquiry is a critical discourse analysis of second grade classroom talk about racial identity and dialect difference within the theoretical framework of moral philosophy. Participants in the study, which took place in an urban public district in a Midwestern United States city, included ten African American students and a…
This qualitative study investigated the writing processes of eight emergent bilingual children as they composed stories in two languages in a Writing Workshop (WW) context. The research was situated in two grade 1 classrooms in a Spanish/English Two-Way Bilingual Education program in the north-eastern USA. For six months, researchers observed…
Schaffer, Rebecca; Skinner, Debra G.
This article addresses how preadolescents produce and perform race through an ethnographic study of 8- to 11-year-old students in four fourth grade classrooms in the southeastern United States. Although Asian, Latino, and white students tended to avoid explicit talk of race, many white students constructed black students as disruptive…
Barilla, Rosemary; Brown, Tina Boyer
Rosemary Barilla, a middle-grade language arts teacher, inspired by her own dedication to the arts, describes the ways she integrates the fine arts into her classroom program that is designed to teach reading and writing. Tina Boyer Brown, a founding teacher at The Chicago High School for the Arts (ChiArts®), describes the school as a place where…
Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.; Gest, Scott
This article examined teacher-student agreement on the measure: "bullies and kids they pick on" in 38 (15 first, 12 third, and 11 fifth grade) elementary school classrooms. Overall agreement between teachers and students was low, 7.9%. The frequency of bully-victim dyads reported by teachers and victim prominence were positive…
Windingstad, Sunny; Skinner, Christopher H.; Rowland, Emily; Cardin, Elizabeth; Fearrington, Jamie Y.
A multiple-baseline, across-tasks design was used to extend research on the taped-problems (TP) intervention with an intact, rural, second-grade classroom. During TP sessions an audio recording paced the class through a series of 15 or 16 addition facts four times. Problems and answers were read and students were instructed to attempt to provide…
Spencer, Laura K.
The problem: The problem addressed in this study was to examine how teacher attitudes towards software applications affect student achievement in the classroom. Method: A correlational study was conducted, and 50 fourth and fifth grade teachers who taught in the Santee School District, were administered a survey assessing their attitudes…
This article justifies classifying the TI-Nspire CAS Touchpad as a mobile device for grades 8-16 mathematics classrooms equipped with a Navigator system. The 2010 Horizon Report: K-12 indicates virtually every secondary school aged child has some sort of mobile device. Yet, many school policies ban the use of mobile devices, preventing students…
This book provides a wide variety of strategies for differentiating instruction for students in grades 3-12. Chapter 1 presents an overview of differentiated content, process, and product, and the role of the teacher in a differentiated classroom. Chapter 2 focuses on the first step of differentiation: gathering information about students. Chapter…
Wetzel, Keith; Marshall, Summer
This is a qualitative study addressing the question: In what ways does a sixth grade middle school teacher show evidence of behaviors that fit the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework in the classroom? The researcher observed in this class, interviewed the teacher, and looked for evidence of the interplay between…
Giallousi, M.; Gialamas, V.; Pavlatou, E. A.
The present study was the first in Greece in which educational effectiveness theory constituted a knowledge base for investigating the impact of chemistry classroom environment in 10 Grade students' enjoyment of class. An interpretive heuristic schema was developed and utilised in order to incorporate two factors of teacher behaviour at…
As mathematics teachers attempt to promote classroom discourse that emphasizes reasoning about mathematical concepts and supports students' development of mathematical autonomy, not all students will participate similarly. For the purposes of this research report, I examined how 15 seventh-grade students participated during whole-class discussions…
Gelderman, R.; Carini, M. T.; McGruder, C. H.; Roberts, J. L.; Siewers, F. D.; Tyler, R. T.; Wulff, A. H.
The "How Old Is Your Universe?" workshops for middle grade science teachers have succeeded in providing an activity-based, learner-centered approach to the significance of the vastness of cosmological timescales. A team of astronomers, geologists and educators from Western Kentucky University developed the professional development workshops for in-service and pre-service science teachers. Specifically designed around the grades 5-11 science standards, upon which Kentucky's high stakes testing is based, the presentation of the workshop materials was purposefully designed around inquiry-based activities. Each of the two workshops was held over four days, split between the topics of "How old is our Earth?" and "How old is our Cosmos?" Each day was composed of a mix of hands-on activities, in-depth discussions of content, and forums to allow teachers to investigate their own optimal way to implement the material into their classrooms. Participants were assessed prior to and immediately after each day of the workshop. The in-service teachers were required to submit an implementation plan for their individual classrooms. Implementation has been supported by the faculty/researcher mentors; with stipends and further materials available to the teachers as additional encouragement. This poster presents an overview of the workshops as well as the results of our various assessment efforts. We describe how the participants clearly increased their understanding of the nature of cosmological timescales, and of the strategies and benefits behind inquiry-based teaching methods. The implementation process is proceeding well and we are continuing our efforts to broadly disseminate our workshop structure as a highly successful template. The development and implementation of these workshops was funded through the STScI IDEAS program. Support for proposal HST-ED-90251.01-A was provided by NASA through a grant from the STScI, which is operated by the AURA, Inc under NASA contract NAS5-26555.
North Carolina State Dept. of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Raleigh. Div. of Parks and Recreation.
This curriculum guide was developed to provide environmental education through a series of hands-on activities for the classroom and the outdoor setting of Goose Creek State Park, North Carolina. This activity packet, designed for the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades, meets established curriculum objectives of the North Carolina Department of Public…
Abry, Tashia; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Hulleman, Chris S.; Thomas, Julie; Ko, Michelle
In the context of an experimental trial, the authors examined variability in treatment and control teachers' use of several "Responsive Classroom" (RC) practices to predict students' 4th grade academic achievement. Further, they examined the extent to which use of the "RC" practices is differentially important for subgroups of students. They…
Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.
With a sample of African American and European American 3rd- and 4th-grade children (N = 486, ages 8-11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group,…
Promraksa, Siwarak; Sangaroon, Kiat; Inprasitha, Maitree
The objectives of this research were to study and analyze the characteristics of computational thinking about the estimation of the students in mathematics classroom applying lesson study and open approach. Members of target group included 4th grade students of 2011 academic year of Choomchon Banchonnabot School. The Lesson plan used for data…
Wilcox, Holly C.; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Poduska, Jeanne; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Wang, Wei; Anthony, James C.
Objective This paper reports the impact of two first- and second-grade classroom based universal preventive interventions on the risk of Suicide Ideation (SI) and Suicide Attempts (SA) by young adulthood. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) was directed at socializing children for the student role and reducing aggressive, disruptive behavior. Mastery Learning (ML) was aimed at improving academic achievement. Both were implemented by the teacher. Methods The design was epidemiologically based, with randomization at the school and classroom levels and balancing of children across classrooms. The trial involved a cohort of first-grade children in 19 schools and 41 classrooms with intervention at first and second grades. A replication was implemented with the next cohort of first grade children with the same teachers but with little mentoring or monitoring. Results In the first cohort, there was consistent and robust GBG-associated reduction of risk for suicide ideation by age 19–21 years compared to youths in standard setting (control) classrooms regardless of any type of covariate adjustment. A GBG-associated reduced risk for suicide attempt was found, though in some covariate-adjusted models the effect was not statistically robust. No statistically significant impact on these outcomes was found for ML. The impact of the GBG on suicide ideation and attempts was greatly reduced in the replication trial involving the second cohort. Conclusions A universal preventive intervention directed at socializing children and classroom behavior management to reduce aggressive, disruptive behavior may delay or prevent onset of suicide ideation and attempts. The GBG must be implemented with precision and continuing support of teachers. PMID:18329189
Eick, Charles J.
A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science and language arts curriculum. This teacher's early life experiences supported her strong interest in science and nature in the outdoors and experiencing it with her children. Children interacted with the outdoor classroom throughout the day as a context for science and literacy learning. All but one child successfully met Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) goals in reading at the end of the school year.
Omotunde, Mojisola Bolanle
In the past 50 years there have been concerns about the teaching and learning of science in American schools. Furthermore, recent assessments have indicated that American students in 4th, 8th, and 12th grade levels are not performing better than their counterparts in other industrialized countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a change in instructional methods would improve test scores and meet the standards of the No Child Left Behind Act that requires that 95%-100% of students being tested should be proficient in the subject matter by 2014. The study used learner-centered learning strategies of PALMS (Partnerships Advancing the Learning of Mathematics and Science) inquiry-based learning, cooperative learning, and brain-based learning to instruct a group of students. PALMS was an initiative of the Massachusetts Department of Education in the effort to improve student performance in the state. The sample consisted of 161 ninth grade students enrolled in 8 physical science classes. Eighty-six students were instructed by the learner-centered learning strategies of inquiry-based learning, cooperative learning, and brain-based learning, while 75 students were instructed by the teacher-centered traditional method of instruction, which consists of lectures and direct instruction. The students who received PALMS learner-centered instruction were the treatment group while the students who received teacher-centered instruction were the control group. Analysis of the data by one way ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the test scores (average combined scores of selected chapters of the textbook and the district's six weeks test) of students who were instructed by learner-centered instructional methods and those who were instructed by the teacher-centered instructional methods. The learner-centered group scored higher than the teacher-centered group, although they did not improve their test scores when compared to their baseline
LaFever, Karen M.
Co-teaching is a method that is increasing within schools across the US as educators strive to leave no child behind. It is a costly method, having two paid instructors in one classroom, with an average of 24 students shared between them. If it significantly increases the achievement of all students, it is well worth the costs involved. However, few studies have analyzed the effectiveness of this method on student achievement. This research follows the academic accomplishments of students in a ninth grade physical science course. Nine sections of the course "Force and Motion" were taught with a single teacher, and two additional sections were co-taught, one led by a science-certified and special educator, and another co-taught by two science certified teachers. Subgroup achievement performance was analyzed to determine whether significant differences exist between students with or without IEPs, as well as other factors such as free and reduced lunch status or gender. The results show significance with the presence of a co-teacher, while there is minimal effect size of co-teaching in this study for students with IEPs. The benefactors in these ninth grade co-taught classes were the students without IEPs, an unintended result of co-teaching.
Templin, Mark Arnold
This dissertation focuses on the development of students' scientific literacy discourse in a middle grade science classroom as the teacher attempted to establish a learning community. Instructional design features included a change in teacher and students' roles such that authority over many classroom decisions was shared and students were encouraged to design their own investigations within the context of extended learning projects. The study followed the progress of two groups of four students, representing diversity in academic performance, gender, and ethnicity, over the course of four months. Target group discourse was recorded once every other school day and then transcribed. Accompanying field notes were written. Classroom artifacts, including a complete set of daily lesson plans, instructional materials, and student products, were collected. The interpretive framework, which highlighted different discourse practices and the instructional moves that supported them, evolved during data analysis as it was repeatedly tried out against the empirical materials through stages of data reduction, display, conclusion drawing, and verification. Analysis of the teacher's practice indicated that he initiated and maintained a classroom learning community by encouraging students to (a) think about their thinking by responding to questions that promoted such reflection; (b) share their reflections and other written products with each other and revise them through peer review; (c) decide for themselves which science content was relevant to their investigations; (d) share problem solving strategies; and (e) debate the meaning of terms so that a common understanding of science concepts could be developed. The teacher modeled and asked questions to promote these reflective and collaborative practices, successively withdrawing his active involvement in group dialogue as the term progressed. Analysis of students' discourse indicated that students increasingly developed
Writing is a predictor of academic achievement and is essential for student success in content area learning. Despite its importance, many students, including English language learners (ELLs), struggle with writing. There is thus a need to study students' writing experience in content area classrooms. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined 11 ELL students' writing experience in two sixth grade science classrooms in a southeastern state of the United States, including what they wrote, how they wrote, and why they wrote in the way they did. The written products produced by these students over one semester were collected. Also collected were teacher interviews, field notes from classroom observations, and classroom artifacts. Student writing samples were first categorized into extended and nonextended writing categories, and each extended essay was then analyzed with respect to its schematic structure and grammatical features. Teacher interviews and classroom observation notes were analyzed thematically to identify teacher expectations, beliefs, and practices regarding writing instruction for ELLs. It was found that the sixth-grade ELLs engaged in mostly non-extended writing in the science classroom, with extended writing (defined as writing a paragraph or longer) constituting roughly 11% of all writing assignments. Linguistic analysis of extended writing shows that the students (a) conveyed information through nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbial groups and prepositional phrases; (b) constructed interpersonal context through choices of mood, modality, and verb tense; and (c) structured text through thematic choices and conjunctions. The appropriateness of these lexicogrammatical choices for particular writing tasks was related to the students' English language proficiency levels. The linguistic analysis also uncovered several grammatical problems in the students' writing, including a limited range of word choices, inappropriate use of mood
Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María-Pilar
Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through discourse, and to connect them to actions and decisions in a real-life context. In this paper we examine the process of elaboration of plans for resources management in a marine ecosystem by 10th grade students (15-16 year) in the context of solving an authentic task. A complete class ( N = 14) worked in a sequence about ecosystems. Working in small groups, the students made models of energy flow and trophic pyramids, and used them to solve the problem of feeding a small community for a long time. Data collection included videotaping and audiotaping of all of the sessions, and collecting the students' written productions. The research objective is to examine the process of designing a plan for sustainable resources management in terms of the discursive moves of the students across stages in contextualizing practices, or different degrees of complexity (Jiménez-Aleixandre & Reigosa International Journal of Science Education, 14(1): 51-61 2006), understood as transformations from theoretical statements to decisions about the plan. The analysis of students' discursive moves shows how the groups progressed through stages of connecting different models, between them and with the context, in order to solve the task. The challenges related to taking this sustainability issue to the classroom are discussed.
Henry, David Roy
Students begin to develop mental models to explain electrostatic and magnetic phenomena throughout childhood, middle childhood and high school, although these mental models are often incoherent and unscientific (Borges, Tenico, & Gilbert, 1998; Maloney, 1985). This is a case study of a classroom of grade four students and the mental models of magnetism and static electricity they used during a six-week science unit. The 22 students studied magnetism and static electricity using inquiry activities structured to create an environment where students would be likely to construct powerful scientific ideas (Goldberg & Bendall, 1995). Multiple data sources, including students' writing, student assessments, teacher interviews, student interviews, teacher journals, and classroom video and audio recordings were used to uncover how fourth grade students made sense of static electricity and magnetism before, during, and after instruction. The data were analyzed using a social constructivist framework to determine if students were able to develop target scientific ideas about static electricity and magnetism. In general, students were found to have three core mental models prior to instruction: (1) Static electricity and magnetism are the same "substance"; (2) This substance exists on the surface of a magnet or a charged object and can be rubbed off, and (3) Opposite substances attract. During the activities, students had many opportunities to observe evidence that contradicted these core mental models. Using evidence from direct observations, the students practiced differentiating between evidence and ideas. Through group and class discussions, they developed evidenced-based (scientific) ideas. Final assessments revealed that students were able to construct target ideas such as: (1) static electricity and magnetism are fundamentally different; (2) there are two kinds of static "charge;" (3) magnet-rubbed wires act like a magnet; and (4) opposite substances move toward each
Kvet, Edward J.
No significant difference was found in sixth-grade reading, language, and mathematics achievement between students who were excused from regular classroom activities for the study of instrumental music and students not studying instrumental music. (Author/RM)
Wirth, Harold E.
A fourth-grade teacher developed a unit on writing designed to help his students go from oral to written text after finding that only 4 of the 22 in his classroom had the organizational and writing skills to get their ideas on paper. The basis of the unit was a unique problem which the teacher himself was trying to solve in real life; namely, how…
Ferrier, Ann M.
Education in the United States is moving quickly toward holding school districts more accountable for the academic success of all students. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if utilizing differentiated instructional strategies had an impact on student achievement. Differentiated instruction, based on the theory of constructivism, is a means of meeting the needs of all learners within a single classroom. Teachers must vary how and what they teach, as well as how they evaluate. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine the impact instruction using differentiated strategies had on the academic achievement of second-grade students in life science and in physical science. Students in the differentiated instructional classes were found to score significantly greater than their traditionally instructed peers. School districts across the United States can benefit from the findings of this study. Teachers at all levels should be trained in differentiated instruction to better serve their students. Differentiated instruction provides all children better opportunities to learn, resulting in more academically equipped and contributing members of society.
This study is to verify the effects of sensory education based on classroom activities for 2nd and 3rd grade children. The hypothesis is that children who participated in sensory education would demonstrate positive changes in eating behaviors through sensory experiences. The sensory education program consists of 12 lessons. Twenty-six children were being recruited from one school in Changwon, Korea. Two control groups, one of which was the same age as the educated group and the other group of sixth graders, were selected by random sampling from the same school. Children answered a self-administered questionnaire. The parents (n = 20) of the children who participated in the program, took part in evaluating the program through self-administered questionnaires after the program ended. The questionnaire contained variables of general characteristics, education satisfaction, nutrition knowledge, eating attitude and behavior concerning unfamiliar foods. The score of nutrition knowledge was improved in educated children (P < 0.05). Food neophobia score towards unfamiliar foods (P < 0.05) was increased in educated children, but there are no changes in eating behaviors in all groups towards unfamiliar foods. In conclusion, sensory education is useful for having a positive eating attitude among children. Its consistent implementation could lead to healthier and well-balanced eating behaviors for children. PMID:23964323
Nystrand, Martin; Graff, Nelson
Draws on classroom observations, interviews, and writing portfolios to contend that competing demands in modern classrooms can lead to environments that sabotage the teaching of argumentative and persuasive writing. Concludes that the epistemology fostered by classroom talk and other activities was inimical to the complex rhetoric the teacher was…