Science.gov

Sample records for 4th lumbar vertebral

  1. Spontaneous resolution of lumbar vertebral eosinophilic granuloma.

    PubMed

    Bavbek, M; Atalay, B; Altinörs, N; Caner, H

    2004-02-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare disease but is more common in adults than children. It's often self-limiting. Spinal involvement is rare. It is the localized and most benign form of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (previously known as histiocytosis X), characterised by lytic lesions in one or more bones. Spontaneous resolution of vertebral body lesions is very rare. In this case, the patient had one EG in a cervical vertebra and a similar lesion in a lumbar vertebra. This case is important because it featured a symptomatic lesion in the cervical spine accompanied by an asymptomatic lesion in a lumbar vertebra. We treated the cervical lesion by surgical fusion and followed the lumbar lesion up conservatively, with the patient in a corset. After 8 years of follow-up, control MRI showed that the lumbar lesion had spontaneously resolved. PMID:14963750

  2. Rate-dependent fracture characteristics of lumbar vertebral bodies.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie L; Umale, Sagar; Shah, Alok S; Shender, Barry S; Paskoff, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Experimental testing incorporating lumbar columns and isolated components is essential to advance the understanding of injury tolerance and for the development of safety enhancements. This study incorporated a whole column axial acceleration model and an isolated vertebral body model to quantify compression rates during realistic loading and compressive tolerance of vertebrae. Eight lumbar columns and 53 vertebral bodies from 23 PMHS were used. Three-factor ANOVA was used to determine significant differences (p<0.05) in physiologic and failure biomechanics based on compression rate, spinal level, and gender. Results demonstrated a significant increase in ultimate force (i.e., fracture) from lower to higher compression rates. Ultimate stress also increased with compression rate. Displacement and strain to failure were consistent at both compression rates. Differences in ultimate mechanics between vertebral bodies obtained from males and females demonstrated non-significant trends, with female vertebral bodies having lower ultimate force that would be associated with decreased injury tolerance. This was likely a result of smaller vertebrae in that population. Combined with existing literature, results presented in this manuscript contribute to the understanding of lumbar spine tolerance during axial loading events that occur in both military and civilian environments with regard to effects of compression rate and gender. PMID:25154535

  3. Automated quantification of lumbar vertebral kinematics from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jon; Zhao, Kristin; Morel, Etienne; White, Dan; Magnuson, Dixon; Gay, Ralph; An, Kai-Nan; Robb, Richard

    2009-02-01

    We hypothesize that the vertebra-to-vertebra patterns of spinal flexion and extension motion of persons with lower back pain will differ from those of persons who are pain-free. Thus, it is our goal to measure the motion of individual lumbar vertebrae noninvasively from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences. Two-dimensional normalized mutual information-based image registration was used to track frame-to-frame motion. Software was developed that required the operator to identify each vertebra on the first frame of the sequence using a four-point "caliper" placed at the posterior and anterior edges of the inferior and superior end plates of the target vertebrae. The program then resolved the individual motions of each vertebra independently throughout the entire sequence. To validate the technique, 6 cadaveric lumbar spine specimens were potted in polymethylmethacrylate and instrumented with optoelectric sensors. The specimens were then placed in a custom dynamic spine simulator and moved through flexion-extension cycles while kinematic data and fluoroscopic sequences were simultaneously acquired. We found strong correlation between the absolute flexionextension range of motion of each vertebra as recorded by the optoelectric system and as determined from the fluoroscopic sequence via registration. We conclude that this method is a viable way of noninvasively assessing twodimensional vertebral motion.

  4. Estimation of stature from radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Chang, Yun-feng; Fan, Fei; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2015-11-01

    The recent study was to assess the relationship between the radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions and stature in Chinese and to develop regression formulae to estimate stature from these dimensions. A total of 412 normal, healthy volunteers, comprising 206 males and 206 females, were recruited. The linear regression analysis were performed to assess the correlation between the stature and lengths of various segments of the lumbar vertebral column. Among the regression equations created for single variable, the predictive value was greatest for the reconstruction of stature from the lumbar segment in both sexes and subgroup analysis. When individual vertebral body was used, the heights of posterior vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for male group, the heights of central vertebral body of L1 provided the most accurate results for female group and female group with age above 45 years, the heights of central vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for the groups with age from 20-45 years for both sexes and the male group with age above 45 years. The heights of anterior vertebral body of L5 gave the less accurate results except for the heights of anterior vertebral body of L4 provided the less accurate result for the male group with age above 45 years. As expected, multiple regression equations were more successful than equations derived from a single variable. The research observations suggest lumbar vertebral dimensions to be useful in stature estimation among Chinese population. PMID:26593994

  5. Does the correlation between Schmorl's nodes and vertebral morphology extend into the lumbar spine?

    PubMed

    Plomp, Kimberly; Roberts, Charlotte; Strand Vidarsdottir, Una

    2015-07-01

    Schmorl's nodes are depressions on vertebrae due to herniation of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc into the vertebral body. This study provides an extension of our previous study which analyzed the shape of the lower thoracic spine and found that vertebral morphology was associated with the presence of Schmorl's nodes. Ninety adult individuals from the late Medieval site of Fishergate House, York, and the Post-Medieval site of Coach Lane, North Shields, Tyne and Wear, England, were analysed using 2D geometric morphometrics to identify possible relationships between vertebral morphology and Schmorl's nodes at the thoraco-lumbar junction and in the lumbar spine. A significant correlation was found between vertebral shape and the presence of Schmorl's nodes in the twelfth thoracic vertebrae and the first to third lumbar vertebrae. The findings corroborate previous studies and suggest that vertebral shape may be an important factor in spinal health. It is hypothesized that the pedicle shape of affected vertebrae may not provide adequate structural support for the vertebral bodies, resulting in vertical disc herniation. PMID:25752504

  6. Computer Simulation and Analysis on Flow Characteristics and Distribution Patterns of Polymethylmethacrylate in Lumbar Vertebral Body and Vertebral Pedicle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Da; Liu, Xu-li; Zhang, Bo; Liao, Dong-fa; Li, Zhi-qiang; Zhou, Jiang-jun; Kang, Xia; Zheng, Wei; Lei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the flow and distribution of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in vertebral body through computer simulation. Cadaveric lumbar vertebrae were scanned through electron beam tomography (EBT). The data was imported into Mimics software to build computational model. Vertebral body center and junction of pedicle and vertebral body were chosen as injection points. Silicone oil with viscosity of 100,000 cSt matching with PMMA bone cement was chosen for injection. The flow and distribution of silicone oil were analyzed using Fluent software. In vertebral body, silicone oil formed a circle-like shape centered by injection point on transverse and longitudinal sections, finally forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. Silicone oil diffused along lateral and posterior walls forming a circle-like shape on transverse section centered by injection point in pedicle, eventually forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. This study demonstrated that silicone oil flowed and diffused into a circle-like shape centered by injection point and finally formed a sphere-like shape as a whole in both vertebral body and pedicle. The flow and distribution of silicon oil in computational model could simulate PMMA distribution in vertebral body. It may provide theoretical evidence to reduce PMMA leakage risk during percutaneous vertebroplasty. PMID:26770969

  7. Investigation of biomechanical behavior of lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic stabilization device using finite element approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deoghare, Ashish B.; Kashyap, Siddharth; Padole, Pramod M.

    2013-03-01

    Degenerative disc disease is a major source of lower back pain and significantly alters the biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Dynamic stabilization device is a remedial technique which uses flexible materials to stabilize the affected lumbar region while preserving the natural anatomy of the spine. The main objective of this research work is to investigate the stiffness variation of dynamic stabilization device under various loading conditions under compression, axial rotation and flexion. Three dimensional model of the two segment lumbar spine is developed using computed tomography (CT) scan images. The lumbar structure developed is analyzed in ANSYS workbench. Two types of dynamic stabilization are considered: one with stabilizing device as pedicle instrumentation and second with stabilization device inserted around the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis suggests that proper positioning of the dynamic stabilization device is of paramount significance prior to the surgery. Inserting the device in the posterior region indicates the adverse effects as it shows increase in the deformation of the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis executed by positioning stabilizing device around the inter-vertebral disc yields better result for various stiffness values under compression and other loadings. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. A model of the human lumbar vertebral column: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Vanneuville, G; Cluzel, P; Massaux, M; Bressolette, P; Kyndt, T; Garcier, J M; Guillot, M; Gabrillargues, J; Chandezon, R; Poumarat, G

    1995-01-01

    Finite element modelling of the human lumbar vertebral column employs data-processing procedures for study of the linear and nonlinear elasticity of materials such as are currently used in mechanics or in civil engineering. Thanks to developments in computer science, requiring a close collaboration between doctors and engineers, we put forward in this preliminary study a linear computerised model of the lumbar column comprising 4824 meshes and 6813 nodes. By reducing the simplificatory hypotheses and integrating new parameters, this model as developed is capable of important clinical applications in surgery and ergonomics. PMID:7597566

  9. Asymptomatic Lumbar Vertebral Erosion from Inferior Vena Cava Filter Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Wayne Hieb, Robert A.; Olson, Eric; Carrera, Guillermo F.

    2007-06-15

    In 2002, a 24-year-old female trauma patient underwent prophylactic inferior vena cava filter placement. Recurrent bouts of renal stones prompted serial CT imaging in 2004. In this brief report, we describe erosion and ossification of the L3 vertebral body by a Greenfield filter strut.

  10. Posterior-Only Circumferential Decompression and Reconstruction in the Surgical Management of Lumbar Vertebral Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Caridi, John; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective The purpose of this report is to discuss the surgical management of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis with a spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and present a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with instrumentation using an expandable titanium cage and without segmental nerve root sacrifice as an option in the treatment of this disease process. Methods We report a 42-year-old man who presented with 3 days of low back pain and chills who rapidly decompensated with severe sepsis following admission. Magnetic resonance imaging of his lumbosacral spine revealed intramuscular abscesses of the left paraspinal musculature and iliopsoas with SEA and L4 vertebral body involvement. The patient failed maximal medical treatment, which necessitated surgical treatment as a last resort for infectious source control. He underwent a previously undescribed procedure in the setting of SEA: a single-stage, posterior-only approach for circumferential decompression and reconstruction of the L4 vertebral body with posterior segmental instrumented fixation. Results After the surgery, the patient's condition gradually improved; however, he suffered a wound dehiscence necessitating a surgical exploration and deep wound debridement. Six months after the surgery, the patient underwent a revision surgery for adjacent-level pseudarthrosis. At 1-year follow-up, the patient was pain-free and off narcotic pain medication and had returned to full activity. Conclusion This patient is the first reported case of lumbar osteomyelitis with SEA treated surgically with a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with posterior instrumentation. Although this approach is more technically challenging, it presents another viable option for the treatment of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis that may reduce the morbidity associated with an anterior approach. PMID:26835214

  11. Anterior instrumentation for the treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis of thoracic and lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Anterior radical debridement and bone grafting is popular in the treatment of pyogenic infection of the spine, but there remains great concern of placing instrumentation in the presence of infection because of the potentiality of infection recurrence after surgery. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of anterior instrumentation in patients who underwent simultaneous anterior debridement and autogenous bone grafting for the treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. The series consisted of 22 consecutive patients who were treated with anterior debridement, interbody fusion with autogenous bone grafting and anterior instrumentation for pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis of thoracic and lumbar spine. The patients were prospectively followed up for a minimum of 3 years (average 46.1 months; range 36–74 months). Data were obtained for assessing clinically the neurological function and pain and radiologically the spinal alignment and fusion progress as well as recurrence of the infection. All the patients experienced complete or significant relief of back pain with rapid improvement of neurological function. Kyphosis was improved with an average correction rate of 93.1% (range 84–100%). Solid fusion and healing of the infection was achieved in all the patients without any evidence of recurrent or residual infection. The study shows that combined with perioperative antibiotic regimen, anterior instrumentation is effective and safe in the treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis of thoracic and lumbar spine directly following radical debridement and autogenous bone grafting. PMID:18575900

  12. Effects on the vertebral end-plate of uncomplicated lumbar discography: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Saifuddin, A; Renton, P; Taylor, B A

    1998-01-01

    The study aimed to identify and characterise changes occurring in the vertebral end-plate on MRI following uncomplicated lumbar discography. MRI was performed immediately before and within 2 h after uncomplicated lumbar discography in 20 consecutive patients undergoing the study as a precursor to possible spinal fusion. Of these, seven patients underwent a further MRI study at a mean of 72 days after discography (range 19-183 days). The MRI scans were assessed for the presence of any changes in the end-plates prior to and following discography. End-plate changes were identified in eight patients (40%) prior to discography. No new changes in end-plate signal intensity (SI) were identified in either the immediate or delayed MRI studies. The study suggests that any changes occurring in the vertebral end-plate following discography should be considered due to infectious discitis. There is no support for the concept of chemical discitis, chemical irritation of bone or microfracture of subchondral trabeculae as a cause of pain at discography. PMID:9548356

  13. Lumbar vertebral canal size in adults and children: observations from a skeletal sample from London, England.

    PubMed

    Watts, R

    2013-04-01

    The morphometry of the lumbar vertebral canal is of importance to clinical and bioarchaeological researchers, yet there are no growth standards for its diameters and there is a disagreement over the age at which its development is complete. Direct measurements of the midsagittal and interpedicular diameters of the lumbar vertebral canal (L1-L5) were taken from 65 children (3-17 years) and 120 adults (>17 years) from the East Smithfield Black Death cemetery, London (1348-1350 CE) to discover the age at which these diameters reached their final adult size in an historical population from later mediaeval London. Children were grouped into age categories: 3-5 years; 6-10 years; 11-14 years; 15-17 years, and the group means of each diameter were compared with the mean adult diameters using one-way ANOVAs. The child midsagittal diameters were not significantly different from adults in any age category, indicating that this diameter reached adult size by 3-5 years of age. However, interpedicular diameters increased with age until 15-17 years when they reached full adult size. Mean diameters and percentiles (10th and 90th) are provided for each age category. PMID:23415375

  14. Dysfunctional Microcirculation of the Lumbar Vertebral Marrow Prior to the Bone Loss and Intervertebral Discal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guang-ming

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. Descriptive study, stratified sampling. Objective. Using dynamic computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) to explore the age-related distribution patterns of the microcirculation perfusion in the vertebral marrow, the vertebral bone mineral density (BMD), and the intervertebral discal degeneration (IDD) further to discuss the possible causation between them. Summary of Background Data. A latest viewpoint deemed that reduced blood supply of the vertebral marrow was correlated with an increased incidence of IDD and loss of BMD. However, the causative relationship between them needs more investigation. Methods. One hundred eighty-six general people were randomly enrolled by stratified sampling and grouped by age: 15 years or less, 16 to 25 years, 26 to 35 years, 36 to 45 years, 46 to 55 years, 56 to 65 years, 66 to 75 years, and 76 years or more. Both CTP and BMD of the third and fourth lumbar vertebral marrow were measured, and the IDD incidence of the third-fourth vertebrae was assessed. The temporal-spatial distribution patterns of the age-related changes of CTP, BMD, and IDD were described, and the correlations between them were calculated. Results. Microcirculatory perfusion of the vertebral marrow developed to maturate by 25 years, maintained stable at 35 years, and then declined by age after 35 years. BMD grew to a peak phase in 26 to 45 years and then dropped by years. However, IDD presented a sudden increase after 45 years of age. CTP (blood flow [r = 0.806], blood volume [r = 0.685], and permeability [r = 0.619]) showed strong positive correlations and CTP (time to peak [r = −0.211], mean transit time [r = −0.598]) showed negative correlations with BMD. Meanwhile, CTP (blood flow [r = −0.815], blood volume [r = −0.753], and permeability [r = −0.690]) had strong negative correlations and CTP (time to peak [r = 0.323] and mean transit time [r = 0.628]) had positive correlations with the incidence of IDD. Conclusion. Aging-related decrease

  15. Relationships between Paraspinal Muscle Activity and Lumbar Inter-Vertebral Range of Motion.

    PubMed

    du Rose, Alister; Breen, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Control of the lumbar spine requires contributions from both the active and passive sub-systems. Identifying interactions between these systems may provide insight into the mechanisms of low back pain. However, as a first step it is important to investigate what is normal. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between the lumbar inter-vertebral range of motion and paraspinal muscle activity during weight-bearing flexion in healthy controls using quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) and surface electromyography (sEMG). Contemporaneous lumbar sEMG and QF motion sequences were recorded during controlled active flexion of 60° using electrodes placed over Longissimus thoracis pars thoracis (TES), Longissimus thoracis pars lumborum (LES), and Multifidus (LMU). Normalised root mean square (RMS) sEMG amplitude data were averaged over five epochs, and the change in amplitude between epochs was calculated. The sEMG ratios of LMU/LES LMU/TES and LES/TES were also determined. QF was used to measure the maximum inter-vertebral range of motion from L2-S1, and correlation coefficients were calculated between sEMG amplitude variables and these measurements. Intra- and inter-session sEMG amplitude repeatability was also assessed for all three paraspinal muscles. The sEMG amplitude measurements were highly repeatable, and sEMG amplitude changes correlated significantly with L4-5 and L5-S1 IV-RoMmax (r = -0.47 to 0.59). The sEMG amplitude ratio of LES/TES also correlated with L4-L5 IV-RoMmax (r = -0.53). The relationships found may be important when considering rehabilitation for low back pain. PMID:27417592

  16. Relationships between Paraspinal Muscle Activity and Lumbar Inter-Vertebral Range of Motion

    PubMed Central

    du Rose, Alister; Breen, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Control of the lumbar spine requires contributions from both the active and passive sub-systems. Identifying interactions between these systems may provide insight into the mechanisms of low back pain. However, as a first step it is important to investigate what is normal. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between the lumbar inter-vertebral range of motion and paraspinal muscle activity during weight-bearing flexion in healthy controls using quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) and surface electromyography (sEMG). Contemporaneous lumbar sEMG and QF motion sequences were recorded during controlled active flexion of 60° using electrodes placed over Longissimus thoracis pars thoracis (TES), Longissimus thoracis pars lumborum (LES), and Multifidus (LMU). Normalised root mean square (RMS) sEMG amplitude data were averaged over five epochs, and the change in amplitude between epochs was calculated. The sEMG ratios of LMU/LES LMU/TES and LES/TES were also determined. QF was used to measure the maximum inter-vertebral range of motion from L2-S1, and correlation coefficients were calculated between sEMG amplitude variables and these measurements. Intra- and inter-session sEMG amplitude repeatability was also assessed for all three paraspinal muscles. The sEMG amplitude measurements were highly repeatable, and sEMG amplitude changes correlated significantly with L4-5 and L5-S1 IV-RoMmax (r = −0.47 to 0.59). The sEMG amplitude ratio of LES/TES also correlated with L4-L5 IV-RoMmax (r = −0.53). The relationships found may be important when considering rehabilitation for low back pain.

  17. Clinical Identification of the Vertebral Level at Which the Lumbar Sympathetic Ganglia Aggregate

    PubMed Central

    An, Ji Won; Koh, Jae Chul; Sun, Jong Min; Park, Ju Yeon; Choi, Jong Bum; Shin, Myung Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background The location and the number of lumbar sympathetic ganglia (LSG) vary between individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate level for a lumbar sympathetic ganglion block (LSGB), corresponding to the level at which the LSG principally aggregate. Methods Seventy-four consecutive subjects, including 31 women and 31 men, underwent LSGB either on the left (n = 31) or the right side (n = 43). The primary site of needle entry was randomly selected at the L3 or L4 vertebra. A total of less than 1 ml of radio opaque dye with 4% lidocaine was injected, taking caution not to traverse beyond the level of one vertebral body. The procedure was considered responsive when the skin temperature increased by more than 1℃ within 5 minutes. Results The median responsive level was significantly different between the left (lower third of the L4 body) and right (lower margin of the L3 body) sides (P = 0.021). However, there was no significant difference in the values between men and women. The overall median responsive level was the upper third of the L4 body. The mean responsive level did not correlate with height or BMI. There were no complications on short-term follow-up. Conclusions Selection of the primary target in the left lower third of the L4 vertebral body and the right lower margin of the L3 vertebral body may reduce the number of needle insertions and the volume of agents used in conventional or neurolytic LSGB and radiofrequency thermocoagulation. PMID:27103965

  18. Detection of vertebral plateaus in lateral lumbar spinal X-ray images with Gabor filters.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Ribeiro, Eduardo; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M; Azevedo-Marques, Paulo M

    2010-01-01

    A few recent studies have proposed computed-aided methods for the detection and analysis of vertebral bodies in radiographic images. This paper presents a method based on Gabor filters. Forty-one lateral lumbar spinal X-ray images from different patients were included in the study. For each image, a radiologist manually delineated the vertebral plateaus of L1, L2, L3, and L4 using a software tool for image display and mark-up. Each original image was filtered with a bank of 180 Gabor filters. The angle of the Gabor filter with the highest response at each pixel was used to derive a measure of the strength of orientation or alignment. In order to limit the spatial extent of the image data and the derived features in further analysis, a semi-automated procedure was applied to the original image. A neural network utilizing the logistic sigmoid function was trained with pixel intensity from the original image, the result of manual delineation of the plateaus, the Gabor magnitude response, and the alignment image. The average overlap between the results of detection by image processing and manual delineation of the plateaus of L1-L4 in the 41 images tested was 0.917. The results are expected to be useful in the analysis of vertebral deformities and fractures. PMID:21097095

  19. The arterial anatomy of the developing human dorsal and lumbar vertebral body. A microarteriographic study.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J F

    1981-12-01

    The arterial anatomy of 60 lumbar and lower dorsal vertebral bodies from eight subjects aged between 29 weeks gestation and 15 years was studied. The arteries had been injected with a suspension of barium sulphate and the vertebrae decalcified, sectioned and radiographed. In the specimen of 29 weeks gestation, the equatorial arteries were present. Precursors of the metaphyseal arteries lay obliquely over and completely outside the ossification centre. These precursors originated from an irregular network of perichondral arteries near the equator. By six months of age, the perichondral arteries had migrated discally and had become well organized metaphyseal anastomoses while the metaphyseal arteries had become horizontal. Also by six months, the extra-osseous longitudinal anastomoses had developed into the adult pattern. In the 36 weeks fetus, the ends of the unbranching metaphyseal arteries were incorporated into the ossification centre. This central relationship was maintained into adult life, but, as the ossification centre expanded, the branches of the intra-osseous arteries followed the zone of ossification in a centrifugal manner. In infancy, the metaphyseal arteries were approximately equal in length and the equatorial arteries divided in the middle of the vertebral body; by the age of 15 years, the metaphyseal arteries arising from the anterolateral surfaces were longer than those which arose from the posterior surface, and the equatorial arteries divided behind the mid-point. From these arterial observations, a number of deductions concerning the mode of growth of the vertebral body have been drawn. Preterminal coils and typical peripheral arteries, frequent features in the adult vertebral body, were not seen in any of these specimens. There was no evidence of any epiphyseal growth plate, nor of epiphyseal arteries in these specimens. PMID:7333964

  20. Regional variations in the compressive properties of lumbar vertebral trabeculae. Effects of disc degeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, T.S.; Hansson, T.H.; Abram, A.C.; Spengler, D.M.; Panjabi, M.M. )

    1989-09-01

    The compressive mechanical properties of human lumbar vertebral trabeculae were examined on the basis of anatomic origin, bone density, and intervertebral disc properties. Trabecular bone compressive strength and stiffness increased with increasing bone density, the latter proportional to strength and stiffness to the one-half power. Regional variations within each segment were found, the most prevalent differences occurring in regions of bone overlying the disc nucleus in comparison with bone overlying the disc anulus. For normal discs, the ratio of strength of bone overlying the disc nucleus to bone overlying the disc anulus was 1.25, decreasing to 1.0 for moderately degenerated discs. These results suggest that an interdependency of trabecular bone properties and intervertebral disc properties may exist.

  1. Lumbar vertebral hemangioma mimicking lateral spinal canal stenosis: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Syrimpeis, Vasileios; Vitsas, Vasileios; Korovessis, Panagiotis

    2014-03-01

    Context Hemangiomas are the commonest benign tumors of the spine. Most occur in the thoracolumbar spine and the majority are asymptomatic. Rarely, hemangiomas cause symptoms through epidural expansion of the involved vertebra, resulting in spinal canal stenosis, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, and pathological burst fracture. Findings We report a rare case of a 73-year-old woman, who had been treated for two months for degenerative neurogenic claudication. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic scans revealed a hemangioma of the third lumbar vertebra protruding to the epidural space producing lateral spinal stenosis and ipsilateral nerve root compression. The patient underwent successful right hemilaminectomy for decompression of the nerve root, balloon kyphoplasty with poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and pedicle screw segmental stabilization. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion In the elderly, this rare presentation of spinal stenosis due to hemangiomas may be encountered. Decompression and vertebral augmentation by means balloon kyphoplasty with PMMA plus segmental pedicle screw fixation is recommended. PMID:24090267

  2. Giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and living hominoids converge on lumbar vertebral adaptations to orthograde trunk posture.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Williams, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Living hominoids share a common body plan characterized by a gradient of derived postcranial features that distinguish them from their closest living relatives, cercopithecoid monkeys. However, the evolutionary scenario(s) that led to the derived postcranial features of hominoids are uncertain. Explanations are complicated by the fact that living hominoids vary considerably in positional behaviors, and some Miocene hominoids are morphologically, and therefore probably behaviorally, distinct from modern hominoids. Comparative studies that aim to identify morphologies associated with specific components of positional behavioral repertoires are an important avenue of research that can improve our understanding of the evolution and adaptive significance of the hominoid postcranium. Here, we employ a comparative approach to offer additional insight into the evolution of the hominoid lumbar vertebral column. Specifically, we tested whether giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) converge with living hominoids on lumbar vertebral adaptations to the single component of their respective positional behavioral repertoires that they share--orthograde (i.e., upright) trunk posture. We compare lumbar vertebral morphologies of Ailuropoda to those of other living ursids and caniform outgroups (northern raccoons and gray wolves). Mirroring known differences between living hominoids and cercopithecoids, Ailuropoda generally exhibits fewer, craniocaudally shorter lumbar vertebrae with more dorsally positioned transverse processes that are more dorsally oriented and laterally directed, and taller, more caudally directed spinous processes than other caniforms in the sample. Our comparative evidence lends support to a potential evolutionary scenario in which the acquisition of hominoid-like lumbar vertebral morphologies may have evolved for generalized orthograde behaviors and could have been exapted for suspensory behavior in crown hominoids and for other locomotor

  3. Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebral Bone Mineral Density Changes in a Natural Occurring Dog Model of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    PubMed Central

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M. A.; Gielen, Ingrid M. V. L.; Volk, Holger A.

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  4. Thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone mineral density changes in a natural occurring dog model of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M A; Gielen, Ingrid M V L; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  5. Does Vertebral Endplate Morphology Influence Outcomes in Lumbar Disc Arthroplasty? Part I: An Initial Assessment of a Novel Classification System of Lumbar Endplate Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Yue, James J.; Oetgen, Matthew E.; la Torre, Jorge J. Jaramillo-de; Bertagnoli, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Background The influence of lumbar endplate morphology on the clinical and radiographic outcomes of lumbar disc arthroplasty has not been evaluated to the best of our knowledge. Study Design and Objective In this observational study of 80 patients, the objective was to formulate a reproducible and valid lumbar endplate classification system to be used in evaluating lumbar total disc replacement patients. Methods A novel vertebral endplate morphology classification system was formulated after review of data related to 80 patients enrolled in a prospective, randomized clinical trial in conjunction with an application for a US Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption. Intraobserver and interobserver analyses of the classification system were performed on the same 80 patients utilizing the classification system. Results The initial review of the radiographs revealed 5 types of endplates: Type I (n = 82) flat endplates; Type II (n = 26) posterior lip; Type III (n = 5) central concavity; Type IV (n = 4) anterior sloping endplate; and Type V (n = 2) combination of Types I—IV. The intraobserver kappa was 0.66 and the interobserver kappa was 0.51. These kappa values indicate “substantial” to “moderate” reproducibility, respectively. Conclusions In this study, we propose a lumbar endplate classification system to be used in the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing lumbar disc arthroplasty. The classification can function as a basis for comparison and discussion among arthroplasty clinicians, and serve as a possible exclusionary screening tool for disc arthroplasty. Special consideration should be given to Type II endplates to optimize proper positioning and functioning of a total disc replacement (TDR) implant. Further outcome studies are warranted to assess the clinical significance of this classification system. The key points of our study are: (1) We present a novel lumbar vertebral endplate classification system; (2) Five types of

  6. Usefulness of Fracture Risk Assessment Tool Using Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Prediction of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heui Seung; Lee, Sang Hyung; Chung, Young Seob; Yang, Hee-Jin; Son, Young-Je

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) in fracture risk assessment (FRAX) tool. Methods One hundred and ten patients aged over 60 years were enrolled and divided into 2 groups as non-osteoporotic vertebral fracture (OVF) and OVF groups. The 10-year-risk of major osteoporotic vertebral fracture of each group was calculated by FRAX tool with femoral and lumbar spine BMDs to compare the usefulness of lumbar spine BMD in prediction of OVF. The blood level of osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) as markers of activities of osteoblast and osteoclast, respectively were analyzed using the institutional database. Results In the OVF group, the ratio of patients with previous fracture history or use of glucocorticoid was higher than those in non-OVF group (p=0.000 and 0.030, respectively). The levels of T-score of femur neck and lumbar spine in OVF group were significantly lower than those in non-OVF group (p=0.001 and 0.000, respectively). The risk of OVF in FRAX using femur BMD in non-OVF and OVF groups was 6.7±6.13 and 11.4±10.06, respectively (p=0.007). The risk of using lumbar BMD in the 2 groups was 6.9±8.91 and 15.1±15.08, respectively (p=0.002). The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve in the FRAX risk with lumbar and femur neck BMD were 0.726 and 0.684, respectively. The comparison of osteocalcin and CTX was not significant (p=0.162 and 0.369, respectively). Conclusion In our study, the 10-year risk of major osteoporotic fracture in the OVF group of our study was lower than the recommended threshold of intervention for osteoporosis. Hence, a lower threshold for the treatment of osteoporosis may be set for the Korean population to prevent OVF. In the prediction of symptomatic OVF, FRAX tool using lumbar spine BMD may be more useful than that using femur neck BMD. PMID:26587188

  7. Ulmus davidiana extract improves lumbar vertebral parameters in ovariectomized osteopenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xinming; Fu, Changfeng; Liu, Wanguo; Wang, Yuanyi; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yadong; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the skeletal effect of total ethanolic extract from the stem-bark of Ulmus davidiana (UDE) in a rat model of postmenopausal bone loss. Effective dose of UDE was determined in adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by measuring bone regeneration at fracture site. UDE (250 mg/kg p.o.) was administered to ovariectomized (OVX) osteopenic SD rats for 12 weeks. OVX rats treated with vehicle or 17β-estradiol, and sham-operated rats treated with vehicle served as various controls. Bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitecture, biomechanical strength, turnover markers, and uterotrophic effect were studied. Bioactive markers in UDE were analyzed by HPLC. Human osteoblasts was used to study the effect of compounds on differentiation by alkaline phosphase assay. One-way ANOVA was used to test significance of effects. OVX+UDE group showed BMD, microarchitectural parameters and compressive strength at lumbar vertebra (L5) comparable to sham. At proximal femur, OVX+UDE group exhibited significantly higher BMD, better microarchitecture and compressive strength compared with OVX+vehicle. OVX-induced decrease in Ca/P ratio was completely restored at both skeletal sites by UDE treatment. Serum procollagen N-terminal propeptide and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks were respectively higher and lower in OVX+UDE group compared with OVX+vehicle group. Osteogenic genes were upregulated in L5 and anti-resorptive genes were suppressed in proximal femur of OVX+UDE group compared with OVX+vehicle. UDE had no uterine estrogenicity. Analysis of markers yielded two osteogenic isoforms of catechin. In conclusion, UDE completely restored vertebral trabecular bones and strength in osteopenic rats by an osteogenic mechanism and prevented bone loss at proximal femur. PMID:27158327

  8. The Effect of the Lumbar Vertebral Malpositioning on Bone Mineral Density Measurements of the Lumbar Spine by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Izadyar, Sina; Golbarg, Shima; Takavar, Abbas; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman

    2016-01-01

    A significant discrepancy between the results of previous human and phantoms studies is identified regarding the effects of vertebral positioning on bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. We aimed to evaluate the effects of lumbar vertebral positioning on BMD measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a human cadaveric spine phantom. A spine phantom was designed using L1-L4 vertebrae harvested from a 48-year-old male cadaver without coronal or sagittal deformity. The spine phantom was scanned by DEXXUM T bone densitometer in a constant scanning speed of 30 mm/s and resolution of 1.0 × 1.0 mm. BMD values were measured in a positive and negative lumbar lordosis and kyphosis tilt angles in the sagittal plane, from 0° to 35°, with 7° increments. Also BMD values were measured in axial and lateral rotations with 5° increments. Projectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are significantly affected by positioning of the lumbar spine, more severely affected by kyphotic curvature, but also by axial and lateral rotational scoliosis as well as lordotic curvature. Increasing the severity of lordosis and kyphosis curvatures leads to false reduction of BMD value up to 17.5% and 11.5%, respectively. Increasing the degree of lateral and axial rotational scolioses results in a false decrease in BMD measurements by up to 10.8% and 9.6%, respectively. To achieve the most accurate scanning results, error sources and abnormal positioning should be identified and minimized as much as possible. If not correctable, they should be taken into consideration while interpreting the results. PMID:26778450

  9. A predictive mechanical model for evaluating vertebral fracture probability in lumbar spine under different osteoporotic drug therapies.

    PubMed

    López, E; Ibarz, E; Herrera, A; Puértolas, S; Gabarre, S; Más, Y; Mateo, J; Gil-Albarova, J; Gracia, L

    2016-07-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures represent a major cause of disability, loss of quality of life and even mortality among the elderly population. Decisions on drug therapy are based on the assessment of risk factors for fracture from bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. A previously developed model, based on the Damage and Fracture Mechanics, was applied for the evaluation of the mechanical magnitudes involved in the fracture process from clinical BMD measurements. BMD evolution in untreated patients and in patients with seven different treatments was analyzed from clinical studies in order to compare the variation in the risk of fracture. The predictive model was applied in a finite element simulation of the whole lumbar spine, obtaining detailed maps of damage and fracture probability, identifying high-risk local zones at vertebral body. For every vertebra, strontium ranelate exhibits the highest decrease, whereas minimum decrease is achieved with oral ibandronate. All the treatments manifest similar trends for every vertebra. Conversely, for the natural BMD evolution, as bone stiffness decreases, the mechanical damage and fracture probability show a significant increase (as it occurs in the natural history of BMD). Vertebral walls and external areas of vertebral end plates are the zones at greatest risk, in coincidence with the typical locations of osteoporotic fractures, characterized by a vertebral crushing due to the collapse of vertebral walls. This methodology could be applied for an individual patient, in order to obtain the trends corresponding to different treatments, in identifying at-risk individuals in early stages of osteoporosis and might be helpful for treatment decisions. PMID:27265047

  10. Automated determination of the centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in CT and MR lumbar spine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štern, Darko; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2010-03-01

    The knowledge of the location of the centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs is valuable for the analysis of the spine. Existing methods for the detection and segmentation of vertebrae in images acquired by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are usually applicable only to a specific image modality and require prior knowledge of the location of vertebrae, usually obtained by manual identification or statistical modeling. We propose a completely automated framework for the detection of the centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in CT and MR images. The image intensity and gradient magnitude profiles are first extracted in each image along the already obtained spinal centerline and therefore contain a repeating pattern representing the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. Based on the period of the repeating pattern and by using a function that approximates the shape of the vertebral body, a model of the vertebral body is generated. The centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs are detected by measuring the similarity between the generated model and the extracted profiles. The method was evaluated on 29 CT and 13 MR images of lumbar spine with varying number of vertebrae. The overall mean distance between the obtained and the ground truth centers was 2.8 +/- 1.9 mm, and no considerable differences were detected between the results for CT, T1-weighted MR or T2-weighted MR images, or among different vertebrae. The proposed method may therefore be valuable for initializing the techniques for the detection and segmentation of vertebrae.

  11. Foraminoplastic Superior Vertebral Notch Approach with Reamers in Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy : Technical Note and Clinical Outcome in Limited Indications of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kang-Jun; Ha, Sang-Soo; Kang, Joon-Ki

    2016-01-01

    To describe the details of the foraminoplastic superior vertebral notch approach (FSVNA) with reamers in percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and to demonstrate the clinical outcomes in limited indications of PELD. Retrospective data were collected from 64 patients who underwent PELD with FSVNA from August 2012 to April 2014. Inclusion criteria were high grade migrated disc, high canal compromised disc, and disc protrusion combined with foraminal stenosis. The clinical outcomes were assessed using by the visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and modified MacNab criteria. Complications related to the surgery were reviewed. The procedure used a unique approach, using the superior vertebral notch as the target and performing foraminoplasty with only reamers under C-arm control. The mean age of the 55 female and 32 male patients was 52.73 years. The mean F/U period was 12.2±4.2 months. Preoperative VAS (8.24±1.25) and ODI (67.8±15.4) score improved significantly at the last follow-up (VAS, 1.93±1.78; ODI, 17.14±15.7). Based on the modified MacNab criteria, excellent or good results were obtained in 95.3% of the patients. Postoperative transient dysthesia (n=2) and reoperation (n=1) due to recurred disc were reported. PELD with FSVNA could be a good method for treating lumbar disc herniation. This procedure may offer safe and efficacious results, especially in the relatively limited indications for PELD. PMID:26962427

  12. Does Vertebral Endplate Morphology Influence Outcomes in Lumbar Total Disc Arthroplasty? Part II: Clinical and Radiographic Results as Evaluated Utilizing the Vertebral Endplate Yue-Bertagnoli (VEYBR) Classification

    PubMed Central

    Oetgen, Matthew E.; la Torre, Jorge J. Jaramillo-de; Bertagnoli, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Study Design This study was a prospective study with a minimum patient follow-up of 2 years. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of a vertebral endplate classification system (VEYBR) in predicting outcomes following lumbar arthroplasty. Background In the present study, our previously described endplate classification system was evaluated to determine its clinical usefulness in patients undergoing lumbar arthroplasty. Methods The patient cohort in this study consisted of 80 patients who had been enrolled in the US FDA ProDisc clinical trial. Radiographs were classified using the VEYBR classification. The preoperative categories (Types I to V) were then correlated with the patients’ visual analogue scores (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores and radiographic outcomes at an average follow-up point of 28 months. Results The rank order of total change in VAS based on preoperative VEYBR classification was Type IV, III, I II, and V, with Type IV having the greatest improvement in VAS and Type V having the least improvement. The rank order of total change in ODI was Type IV, II, III, I, and V. We found no differences in clinical outcomes among the 5 vertebral endplate types. Type II endplates had least optimal sagittal positioning. Conclusions Although not statistically significant, there was a strong trend for Type V endplates to have the least improvements in VAS and Oswestry clinical outcome scores. Knowledge and use of the endplate classification system did lead to consistent implant placement across endplate classes which may indicate the usefulness of this classification system in preoperative planning, especially for physicians in the “learning curve” phase of this procedure. Level of Evidence Case series (Level IV). PMID:25802609

  13. Automated detection of spinal centrelines, vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in CT and MR images of lumbar spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2010-01-01

    We propose a completely automated algorithm for the detection of the spinal centreline and the centres of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in images acquired by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The developed methods are based on the analysis of the geometry of spinal structures and the characteristics of CT and MR images and were evaluated on 29 CT and 13 MR images of lumbar spine. The overall mean distance between the obtained and the ground truth spinal centrelines and centres of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs were 1.8 ± 1.1 mm and 2.8 ± 1.9 mm, respectively, and no considerable differences were detected among the results for CT, T1-weighted MR and T2-weighted MR images. The knowledge of the location of the spinal centreline and the centres of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs is valuable for the analysis of the spine. The proposed method may therefore be used to initialize the techniques for labelling and segmentation of vertebrae.

  14. Mineralization and collagen orientation throughout aging at the vertebral endplate in the human lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Paietta, Rachel C; Burger, Evalina L; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2013-11-01

    The human vertebral body and intervertebral disc interface forms the region where the cartilaginous endplate, annulus fibrosis and bone of the vertebral body are connected through an intermediate calcified cartilage layer. While properties of both the vertebral body and components of the disc have been extensively studied, limited quantitative data exists describing the microstructure of the vertebral body-intervertebral disc interface in the spine throughout development and degeneration. Quantitative backscattered scanning electron and second harmonic generation confocal imaging were used to collect quantitative data describing the mineral content and collagen fiber orientation across the interface, respectively. Specimens spanned ages 56 days to 84 years and measurements were taken across the vertebral endplate at the outer annulus, inner annulus and nucleus pulposis. In mature and healthy endplates, collagen fibers span the calcified cartilage layer in all regions, including the endplate adjacent to the central nucleus pulposis. We also observed an abrupt transition from high mineral volume fractions (35-50%) to 0% over short distances measuring 3-15 microns in width across the transition from calcified cartilage to unmineralized cartilage. The alignment of collagen fibers at the outer annulus and thickness of the CC layer indicated that collagen fiber mineralization adjacent to the bone may serve to anchor the soft tissue without a gradual change in material properties. Combining backscattered scanning electron microscopy and second harmonic generation imaging on the same sections thus enable a novel assessment of morphology and properties in both mineralized and soft tissues at the vertebral body-intervertebral disc throughout development and aging. PMID:23999190

  15. High precision semiautomated computed tomography measurement of lumbar disk and vertebral heights

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Yao, Lawrence; Ward, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of treatments of many spine disorders requires precise measurement of the heights of vertebral bodies and disk spaces. The authors present a semiautomated computer algorithm measuring those heights from spine computed tomography (CT) scans and evaluate its precision. Methods: Eight patients underwent two spine CT scans in the same day. In each scan, five thoracolumbar vertebral heights and four disk heights were estimated using the algorithm. To assess precision, the authors computed the differences between the height measurements in the two scans, coefficients of variation (CV), and 95% limits of agreement. Intraoperator and interoperator precisions were evaluated. For local vertebral and disk height measurement (anterior, middle, posterior) the algorithm was compared to a manual mid-sagittal plane method. Results: The mean (standard deviation) interscan difference was as low as 0.043 (0.031) mm for disk heights and 0.044 (0.043) mm for vertebral heights. The corresponding 95% limits of agreement were [−0.085, 0.11] and [−0.10, 0.12] mm, respectively. Intraoperator and interoperator precision was high, with a maximal CV of 0.30%. For local vertebral and disk heights, the algorithm improved upon the precision of the manual mid-sagittal plane measurement by as much as a factor of 6 and 4, respectively. Conclusions: The authors evaluated the precision of a novel computer algorithm for measuring vertebral body heights and disk heights using short term repeat CT scans of patients. The 95% limits of agreement indicate that the algorithm can detect small height changes of the order of 0.1 mm. PMID:23298096

  16. Lumbar vertebral morphology of flying, gliding, and suspensory mammals: implications for the locomotor behavior of the subfossil lemurs Palaeopropithecus and Babakotia.

    PubMed

    Granatosky, Michael C; Miller, Charlotte E; Boyer, Doug M; Schmitt, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Lumbar vertebral morphology has been used as an indicator of locomotor behavior in living and fossil mammals. Rigidity within the lumbar region is thought to be important for increasing overall axial rigidity during various forms of locomotion, including bridging between supports, inverted quadrupedalism, gliding, and flying. However, distinguishing between those behaviors using bony features has been challenging. This study used osteological characters of the lumbar vertebrae to attempt to develop fine-grade functional distinctions among different mammalian species in order to make more complete inferences about how the axial skeleton affects locomotor behavior in extant mammals. These same lumbar characters were measured in two extinct species for which locomotor behaviors are well known, the sloth lemurs (Palaeopropithecus and Babakotia radofilai), in order to further evaluate their locomotor behaviors. Results from a principal components analysis of seven measurements, determined to be functionally significant from previous studies, demonstrate that inverted quadrupeds in the sample are characterized by dorsoventrally short and cranio-caudally expanded spinous processes, dorsally oriented transverse processes, and mediolaterally short and dorsoventrally high vertebral bodies compared with mammals that are relatively pronograde, vertical clingers, or gliders. Antipronograde mammals, dermopterans, and chiropterans also exhibit these traits, but not to the same extent as the inverted quadrupeds. In accordance with previous studies, our data show that the sloth lemur B. radofilai groups closely with antipronograde mammals like lorises, while Palaeopropithecus groups with extant sloths. These findings suggest that Palaeopropithecus was engaged in inverted quadrupedalism at a high frequency, while B. radofilai may have engaged in a more diverse array of locomotor and positional behaviors. The osteological features used here reflect differences in lumbar mobility

  17. Transpedicular vertebral body augmentation reinforced with pedicle screw fixation in fresh traumatic A2 and A3 lumbar fractures: comparison between two devices and two bone cements.

    PubMed

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Vardakastanis, Konstantinos; Repantis, Thomas; Vitsas, Vasilios

    2014-07-01

    This retrospective study compares efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty (BK) with calcium phosphate (Group A) versus KIVA implant with PMMA (Group B) reinforced with three vertebrae pedicle screw constructs for A2 and A3 single fresh non-osteoporotic lumbar (L1-L4) fractures in 38 consecutive age- and diagnosis-matched patient populations. Extracanal leakage of both low-viscosity PMMA and calcium phosphate (CP) as well as the following roentgenographic parameters: segmental kyphosis (SKA), anterior (AVBHr) and posterior (PVBHr) vertebral body height ratio, spinal canal encroachment (SCE) clearance, and functional outcome measures: VAS and SF-36, were recorded and compared between the two groups. All patients in both groups were followed for a minimum 26 (Group A) and 25 (Group B) months. Extracanal CP and PMMA leakage was observed in four (18 %) and three (15 %) vertebrae/patients of group A and B, respectively. Hybrid fixation improved AVBHr, SKA, SCE, but PVBHr only in group B. VAS and SF-36 improved postoperatively in the patients of both groups. Short-segment construct with the novel KIVA implant restored better than BK-fractured lumbar vertebral body, but this had no impact in functional outcome. Since there was no leakage difference between PMMA and calcium phosphate and no short-term adverse related to PMMA use were observed, we advice the use of PMMA in fresh traumatic lumbar fractures. PMID:23982115

  18. Age- and direction-related adaptations of lumbar vertebral trabecular bone with respect to apparent stiffness and tissue level stress distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, He; Fan, Yubo; Zhang, Ming; Qin, Ling

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to study the age-related adaptation of lumbar vertebral trabecular bone at the apparent level, as well as the tissue level in three orthogonal directions. Ninety trabecular specimens were obtained from six normal L4 vertebral bodies of six male cadavers in two age groups, three aged 62 years and three aged 69 years, and were scanned using a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system, then converted to micro-finite element models to do micro-finite element analyses. The relationship between apparent stiffness and bone volume fraction, and the tissue level von Mises stress distribution for each trabecular specimen when compressed separately in the longitudinal direction, medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions (transverse directions) were derived and compared between two age groups. The results showed that at the apparent level, trabecular bones from 69-year group had stiffer bone structure relative to their volume fractions in all three directions, and in both age groups, changes in bone volume fraction could explain more variations in apparent stiffness in the longitudinal direction than the transverse directions; at the tissue level, aging had little effect on the tissue von Mises stress distributions for the compressions in all the three directions. The novelty of the present study was that it provided quantitative assessments on the age and direction-related adaptation of Chinese male lumbar vertebral trabecular bone from two different levels: stiffness at the apparent level and stress distribution at the tissue level. It may help to understand the failure mechanisms and fracture risks of vertebral body associated with aging and direction for the prevention of fracture risks in elder individuals.

  19. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    SciTech Connect

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-04-28

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.

  20. Replacement of Vertebral Lamina (Laminoplasty) in Surgery for Lumbar Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: 5-Year Follow-Up Results

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A review of clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar laminoplasty (LL) for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis (ISL). Purpose The single session performance of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with allograft in the anterior column and providing the realignment of the vertebrae was presented as a preliminary report earlier. Overview of Literature Long-term surgical outcome of cervical laminoplasty in patients has been reported. But, outcome of LL in patients is unclear. Methods The long-term (5 years) year follow-up results of the LL technique are reported in this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative direct X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The patients that did not respond to conservative treatment were operated. Twenty-one (52.5%) female and 19 (47.5%) male patients were included. Results Mean age was 43,5 years (ranges, 22–57 years). The most common symptoms were low back pain (89%), pelvic and leg pain (69%) and reduction in walking distance (65%). A total of 180 pedicle screws were inserted in 40 patients; posterior lumbar interbody fusion and laminoplasty with reduction was performed in 20 patients for L4–L5, 12 patients for L5–S1, 4 patients for L3–L4–L5 and 4 patients for L4–L5-S1. Ten (25%) patients with ILL had accompanying spinal stenosis. The difference between preoperative and postoperative sagittal plane rotation and dislocation degrees and disc space heights were statistically significant in all patients (p<0.05). Solid grade 4 fusion was observed in 38 patients; in only 2 patients grade 2 pseudoarthrosis developed (5%), but these patients were asymptomatic. Visual analog scale, Prolo economical and functional scale was examined with an average follow-up 5.5 years. Conclusions LL technique has the advantages of shorter duration of operation, lack of graft donor site complications, protection of posterior column osseoligamentous structures and

  1. 17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor setback to left and atrium structure to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  2. Dynamic fe Model of Sitting Man Adjustable to Body Height, Body Mass and Posture Used for Calculating Internal Forces in the Lumbar Vertebral Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankoke, S.; Buck, B.; Woelfel, H. P.

    1998-08-01

    Long-term whole-body vibrations can cause degeneration of the lumbar spine. Therefore existing degeneration has to be assessed as well as industrial working places to prevent further damage. Hence, the mechanical stress in the lumbar spine—especially in the three lower vertebrae—has to be known. This stress can be expressed as internal forces. These internal forces cannot be evaluated experimentally, because force transducers cannot be implementated in the force lines because of ethical reasons. Thus it is necessary to calculate the internal forces with a dynamic mathematical model of sitting man.A two dimensional dynamic Finite Element model of sitting man is presented which allows calculation of these unknown internal forces. The model is based on an anatomic representation of the lower lumbar spine (L3-L5). This lumber spine model is incorporated into a dynamic model of the upper torso with neck, head and arms as well as a model of the body caudal to the lumbar spine with pelvis and legs. Additionally a simple dynamic representation of the viscera is used. All these parts are modelled as rigid bodies connected by linear stiffnesses. Energy dissipation is modelled by assigning modal damping ratio to the calculated undamped eigenvalues. Geometry and inertial properties of the model are determined according to human anatomy. Stiffnesses of the spine model are derived from static in-vitro experiments in references [1] and [2]. Remaining stiffness parameters and parameters for energy dissipation are determined by using parameter identification to fit measurements in reference [3]. The model, which is available in 3 different postures, allows one to adjust its parameters for body height and body mass to the values of the person for which internal forces have to be calculated.

  3. "Effectiveness of continuous vertebral resonant oscillation using the POLD method in the treatment of lumbar disc hernia". A randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    López-Díaz, Juan Vicente; Arias-Buría, José Luis; Lopez-Gordo, Estrella; Lopez Gordo, Sandra; Oyarzún, Alejandra P Aros

    2015-06-01

    This study analyses the efficacy of manual oscillatory therapy, following the POLD technique, for acute Lumbar Disc Hernia (LDH) and compares it to usual treatment. A randomised, controlled, triple-blind pilot clinical trial. The sample of 30 patients was divided into two homogeneous groups to receive usual treatment (A) or treatment with the POLD technique (B). We analysed range of motion and subjective variables such as the severity (visual analogue pain scale (VAS)) and extension of the pain. With the application of POLD therapy, patients presented significant changes on range of motion (forward flexion with p < 0.05) at completion of the trial in comparison with the control group. They showed a significant reduction in the severity of pain with a mean VAS scale for lumbar, glutaeus and thigh pain, which improved from 5.09 to 0.79, 5.07 to 0.97 and 4.43 to 0.49 respectively (p < 0.05), and also when compared to usual treatment (p < 0.05) for all body regions. Moreover, we observed a reduction in pain extension (centralization phenomena) (p < 0.001) in comparison with usual treatment. In our study the POLD Method was shown to be an effective manual therapy approach for reducing the severity and irradiation of the pain in LDH patients with sciatica, and more efficient than usual treatment. PMID:25511449

  4. Optical, Spectroscopic, and Doppler Evaluation of “Normal” and “Abnormal” Reflexology Areas in Lumbar Vertebral Pathology: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Krishna; Elanchezhiyan, D.; Maran, V. B.; Das, Raunak Kumar; Kumar, Piyush; Singh, S. P.; Murali Krishna, C.; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2012-01-01

    Scientific validation of reflexology requires an in-depth and noninvasive evaluation of “reflexology/reflex areas” in health and disease. The present paper reports the differential properties of “normal” and “abnormal” reflexology areas related to the lumbar vertebrae in a subject suffering from low back pain. The pathology is supported by radiological evidence. The reflexology target regions were clinically assessed with respect to colour and tenderness in response to finger pressure. Grey scale luminosity and pain intensity, as assessed by visual analogue scale scores, differentiated “normal” from “abnormal” skin. Skin swept source-optical coherence tomography recorded their structural differences. Infrared thermography revealed temperature variations. A laser Doppler study using a combined microcirculation and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring system indicated alterations in blood flow and oxygen perfusion. Raman spectroscopy showed differences in chemical signatures between these areas. The present findings may indicate a potential correlation between the reflexology areas and subsurface pathological changes, showing an association with the healthy or unhealthy status of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:23365581

  5. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  6. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  7. Cost comparison of patients with 3-level artificial total lumbar disc replacements versus 360° fusion at 3 contiguous lumbar vertebral levels: an analysis of compassionate use at 1 site of the US investigational device exemption clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Buttacavoli, Frank A.; Delamarter, Rick B.; Kanim, Linda E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background We sought to evaluate the difference between hospital service costs of 2 treatment options for patients diagnosed with 3-level degenerative disc disease (DDD) in the lumbar spine. In this retrospective analysis, itemized billing records of hospital stay for patients with 3-level DDD treated with artificial disc replacement (ADR) were compared with those treated with circumferential fusion (standard of care). Methods Sequential 3-level DDD patients treated with either ADR (ProDisc-L; Synthes, West Chester, Pennsylvania) or circumferential fusion during the period from January 2004 to October 2005 were included. Surgeries were performed at the same hospital for all patients. The ADR-treated patients were participating in the investigational device exemption clinical trial as part of the compassionate-use arm. Patients treated with fusion at the same institution during this same time interval were evaluated. Itemized billing records were collected at least 1 year after the index surgery. Costs according to hospital service categories were compared between ADR-treated and fusion-treated patients by use of analysis of variance and multivariate statistical techniques. Results There were 43 consecutive patients treated for 3-level DDD between January 2004 and October 2005. Of these, 21 underwent 3-level ADR and 22 had a 3-level fusion procedure. There was a mean of 3 fewer hospital days for patients treated with ADR (4.77 ± 1.11 days) than for those treated with fusion (8.00 ± 1.82 days) (P < .0001). The cost of hospital services for ADR-treated patients was 49% less excluding instrumentation costs and 54% less when accounting for instrumentation. The pattern of cost was similar when workers’ compensation patients were analyzed separately. Conclusions ADR-treated 3-level patients benefited from significantly lower costs from their in-hospital stay compared with those treated by fusion. Hospital service costs were 49% (54% when instrumentation was included

  8. [Lumbar hernia].

    PubMed

    Teiblum, Sandra Sofie; Hjørne, Flemming Pii; Bisgaard, Thue

    2010-03-22

    Lumbar hernia is a rare condition. Lumbar hernia should be considered a rare differential diagnosis to unexplained back pain. Symptoms are scarce and diffuse and can vary with the size and content of the hernia. As there is a 25% risk of incarceration, operation is indicated even in asymptomatic hernias. We report a case of lumbar hernia in a woman with a slow growing mass in the lumbar region. She presented with pain and a computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis. She underwent open surgery and fully recovered with recurrence within the first half year. PMID:20334799

  9. Scaling of lumbar vertebrae in anthropoids and implications for evolution of the hominoid axial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Nakatsukasa, Masato; Hirose, Youichi

    2003-04-01

    We investigated allometric relationships between vertebral centrum cranial surface areas and body weight and skeletal lumbar length in extant platyrrhine and cercopithecid species. Platyrrhines have smaller lumbar vertebral centra regarding the cranial surface area relative to their body weight than extant catarrhines. However, the stress to the spine of quadrupeds is not only influenced by the body weight but also its length, which contributes to the amount of bending moment. Our results indicated that platyrrhines and cercopithecids have similar lumbar vertebral centrum surface areas when they are scaled on the product of the body weight and skeletal lumbar length. Platyrrhines generally tend to have relatively short lumbar columns for a given body weight. As a result of this tendency, their vertebral centra appear relatively small if only body weight is taken into account. The centrum surface area is rather constant relative to the product of the body weight and skeletal lumbar length within platyrrhines or cercopithecids, despite the fact that skeletal lumbar length is in itself rather variable relative to body weight. This result indicates that the vertebral centrum articular area, the lumbar column length and the body weight are strongly correlated with each other and that such relationships are similar between platyrrhines and cercopithecids. These relationships were observed using both the zygapophyseal and rib definitions of the lumbar vertebrae. However, they were more clearly observed when the zygapophyseal definition was adopted. It appeared that lumbar vertebrae of Proconsul nyanzae (KNM-MW 13142) had distinctively smaller surface areas relative to its body weight and lumbar length than for platyrrhines and cercopithecids, differing from extant hominoids, which have comparatively larger lumbar vertebrae. In the case of Morotopithecus, the lumbar vertebral surface area seems to be as large as in extant platyrrhines and cercopithecids if it had a reduced

  10. The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Frater, Nakita; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Two partial vertebral columns of Australopithecus sediba grant insight into aspects of early hominin spinal mobility, lumbar curvature, vertebral formula, and transitional vertebra position. Au. sediba likely possessed five non-rib-bearing lumbar vertebrae and five sacral elements, the same configuration that occurs modally in modern humans. This finding contrasts with other interpretations of early hominin regional vertebral numbers. Importantly, the transitional vertebra is distinct from and above the last rib-bearing vertebra in Au. sediba, resulting in a functionally longer lower back. This configuration, along with a strongly wedged last lumbar vertebra and other indicators of lordotic posture, would have contributed to a highly flexible spine that is derived compared with earlier members of the genus Australopithecus and similar to that of the Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton. PMID:23580532

  11. [Dorso-lumbar pain caused by a schmorl hernia].

    PubMed

    Esteban Navarro, Pedro Luis; García Casas, Oscar; Girvent Montllor, Francesc

    2008-09-01

    Thoracic and lumbar spine conditions cause primarily mechanical back pain, although the clinician has to ensure that the symptoms are not from another etiology. We present the case of a patient with thoracic and lumbar non mechanical pain, resistant to treatment, diagnosed with a herniation of the intervertebral disc through the vertebral end-plate. We also performed a literature review. PMID:21794532

  12. Vertebral Morphometry.

    PubMed

    Chou, Sharon H; Vokes, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    There is as yet no agreement about the criteria by which to arrive at an imaging diagnosis of a vertebral fracture. Because high-grade fractures result in alterations in vertebral shape, 1 possible avenue of diagnosis has been to quantitate changes in vertebral shape. The result has been a variety of methods for the relative and absolute measurements of vertebral dimensions. Such measurements have also lent themselves to automated computed analysis. The number of techniques reflects the absence of any consensus about the best. The semiquantitative technique proposed by Genant has become the most widely used and has served the field well for comparative purposes. Its use in higher grade fractures has been widely endorsed, if some concepts (e.g., short vertebral height-vertebrae) are at variance with lower grades of fracturing. Vertebral morphometry may be the only recourse in high volume epidemiological and interventional studies. PMID:26349790

  13. Vertebral Osteomyelitis Caused by Helicobacter cinaedi

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizaki, Aisa; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Asako; Mizuno, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter cinaedi causes bacteremia, cellulitis, and gastroenteritis. We report the first case of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by H. cinaedi in an elderly man with low back pain and fever. The pathogen was detected in blood and lumbar disc, and the infection was successfully treated with oral doxycycline for 11 weeks. PMID:26109448

  14. 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference Proceedings (Abstracts)

    SciTech Connect

    Frank W. Telewski; Lothar H. Koehler; Frank W. Ewers

    2003-07-20

    The 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference facilitated an interdisciplinary exchange between scientists, engineers, and educators addressing the major questions encountered in the field of Plant Biomechanics. Subjects covered by the conference include: Evolution; Ecology; Mechanoreception; Cell Walls; Genetic Modification; Applied Biomechanics of Whole Plants, Plant Products, Fibers & Composites; Fluid Dynamics; Wood & Trees; Fracture Mechanics; Xylem Pressure & Water Transport; Modeling; and Introducing Plant Biomechanics in Secondary School Education.

  15. Lumbar lordosis of extinct hominins.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Kramer, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The lordotic curvature of the lumbar spine (lumbar lordosis) in humans is a critical component in the ability to achieve upright posture and bipedal gait. Only general estimates of the lordotic angle (LA) of extinct hominins are currently available, most of which are based on the wedging of the vertebral bodies. Recently, a new method for calculating the LA in skeletal material has become available. This method is based on the relationship between the lordotic curvature and the orientation of the inferior articular processes relative to vertebral bodies in the lumbar spines of living primates. Using this relationship, we developed new regression models in order to calculate the LAs in hominins. The new models are based on primate group-means and were used to calculate the LAs in the spines of eight extinct hominins. The results were also compared with the LAs of modern humans and modern nonhuman apes. The lordotic angles of australopithecines (41° ± 4), H. erectus (45°) and fossil H. sapiens (54° ± 14) are similar to those of modern humans (51° ± 11). This analysis confirms the assumption that human-like lordotic curvature was a morphological change that took place during the acquisition of erect posture and bipedalism as the habitual form of locomotion. Neandertals have smaller lordotic angles (LA = 29° ± 4) than modern humans, but higher angles than nonhuman apes (22° ± 3). This suggests possible subtle differences in Neandertal posture and locomotion from that of modern humans. PMID:22052243

  16. A kind of specific osteolytic destruction of the vertebral bodies

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Baogan; Chen, Jinhong; Pang, Xiaodong; Hei, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This report describes two young patients with osteolytic destruction in two adjacent vertebral bodies along with the intervertebral disc, and reveals its possible mechanism. A lateral radiograph and CT scan displayed a giant osteolytic cavity in the L4 vertebral body. An MRI or CT scan with a two-dimensional reconstruction displayed the same changes in the L4 vertebral body and lower endplate erosion in the L3 vertebral body. A comprehensive preoperative evaluation did not identify a specific cause of vertebral destruction. Both patients underwent anterior lumbar fusion surgery. The lesions were removed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Histopathological study of the destructed vertebral bodies in the two patients revealed the disruption or atrophy of bone trabeculae with infiltration of a large amount of B-lymphocytes and macrophages into the marrow cavities. Studies of its pathogenesis reveal that it is likely to be a B-lymphocyte-mediated local immune inflammatory reaction in the lumbar spine. PMID:22675148

  17. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the spine area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  18. Bifrost: A 4th Generation Launch Architecture Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrschneider, R. R.; Young, D.; St.Germain, B.; Brown, N.; Crowley, J.; Maatsch, J.; Olds, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    A 4th generation launch architecture is studied for the purpose of drastically reducing launch costs and hence enabling new large mass missions such as space solar power and human exploration of other planets. The architecture consists of a magnetic levitation launch tube placed on the equator with the exit end elevated to approximately 20 km. Several modules exist for sending manned and unmanned payloads into Earth orbit. Analysis of the launch tube operations, launch trajectories, module aerodynamics, propulsion modules, and system costs are presented. Using the hybrid logistics module, it is possible to place payloads into low Earth orbit for just over 100 per lb.

  19. A 95 GHz, 4th harmonic gyro-oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, T.A.; Scheitrum, G.P.; Bemis, T.; Higgins, L.

    1994-12-31

    There is currently an interest in medium power ({approximately}100 kW), compact 95 GHz amplifiers for future radar applications. Size, weight, and efficiency are critical for airborne applications. Litton has been investigating a 4th harmonic, 4-cavity gyro-amplifier. The key to success of the amplifier is the axis-encircling electron beam from a new type of electron gun, the advanced center post (ACP) gun. Gun simulations incorporating the actual magnetic field and thermal velocity spread in the emitted electrons show that axial velocity spreads of less than 2% are attainable, which is significantly better than other gun concepts. The amplifier utilizes coaxial-magnetron-type cavities operating in the {pi} mode. In this cavity, vanes extend nearly down to the electron beam`s outside diameter. The majority of the RF stored energy in the system is in the coaxial cavity, so that the resonant frequency and quality factor of each coaxial magnetron cavity may be adjusted by varying only the coaxial cavity. Several components are being tested individually. To test the cavity design, a 4th harmonic oscillator based on a coaxial magnetron cavity has been designed. Results of the oscillator testing will be presented.

  20. Lumbar Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kirkham B

    2016-04-01

    When a patient presents with spine problems, the spine surgeon would do well to avoid use of, reliance on, and acceptance of radiographs as the sole or primary source of information. Measurement of pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis, although crucial, does not take into account the effort the patient must make to move, the level of involvement of other parts of the body, and the history of previous procedures and outcomes. Radiographs may show pathology that is not consistent with the appearance of the patient. How should we assess this situation? PMID:27015064

  1. Diagnosis of Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis using Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ohtori, Seiji; Suzuki, Munetaka; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Hajime; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Aoki, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Atsuya; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of lumbar foraminal stenosis remains difficult. Here, we report on a case in which bilateral lumbar foraminal stenosis was difficult to diagnose, and in which diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was useful. The patient was a 52-year-old woman with low back pain and pain in both legs that was dominant on the right. Right lumbosacral nerve compression due to a massive uterine myoma was apparent, but the leg pain continued after a myomectomy was performed. No abnormalities were observed during nerve conduction studies. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated bilateral L5 lumbar foraminal stenosis. DTI imaging was done. The extraforaminal values were decreased and tractography was interrupted in the foraminal region. Bilateral L5 vertebral foraminal stenosis was treated by transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and the pain in both legs disappeared. The case indicates the value of DTI for diagnosing vertebral foraminal stenosis. PMID:26949473

  2. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Breastfeeding and cancer.

    PubMed

    Scoccianti, Chiara; Key, Timothy J; Anderson, Annie S; Armaroli, Paola; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Leitzmann, Michael; Norat, Teresa; Powers, Hilary; Schüz, Joachim; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women, and incidence rates have been rising in European Union (EU) countries over recent decades due in part to a sharp decline in breastfeeding practices. Evidence for a protective association between breastfeeding and the risk of breast cancer at all ages is convincing, and modest protective relationships between breastfeeding and the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers have been suggested. The reduction in breast cancer risk is estimated at 2% for an increase of 5 months of lifetime breastfeeding. The longer women breastfeed, the more they are protected against breast cancer. In addition, breastfeeding is associated with several health benefits for both the mother and the breastfed child. Taking all this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Breastfeeding reduces the mother's cancer risk. If you can, breastfeed your baby". PMID:26116994

  3. Special Issue: 4th International Workshop on Space Radiation (IWSRR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    This special issue of the journal "Radiation and Environmental Biophysics" contains 20 peer-reviewed papers contributed by leading space radiation researcher's world-wide attending the 4th IWSRR. Manuscripts cover a broad range of topics ranging from radiation environments and transport in shielding and planetary surfaces to new results in understanding the biological effects of protons and high-charge and energy (HZE) nuclei on the risk of cancer, and degenerative diseases such as central nervous system effects, heart disease, and cataracts. The issue provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field, demonstrating both the important results gathered in the past few years with experiments at accelerators, and the need for more research to quantify the risk and develop countermeasures.

  4. [Time--the 4th dimision in medicine and psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Günther

    2003-01-01

    Time is presented as well in his historical meaning and as 4th dimension in its medical and psychotherapeutic context. In this medical and psychotherapeutic process it has an important function and is a variable of a process procedure. The difference between "kairos" = (the right point of time) and "chronos" = (the period of time) is historically meanful. The subjective experienced time is as well emphasized by the development of time in the relation to the development of the "self" as in the subjective experience of time in medical and psychotherapeutic situations. There are also changed conceptions and understandings of time running parallel to the development of nature sciences. The importance of time is explained for the medical practice and the meeting with the patient--especially for chronic diseases. The connection of confidence and time is particularly emphasized in the systemic approach. PMID:12764877

  5. The Epilepsy Foundation's 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference.

    PubMed

    French, Jacqueline A; Schachter, Steven C; Sirven, Joseph; Porter, Roger

    2015-05-01

    On June 5 and 6, 2014, the Epilepsy Foundation held its 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference, an initiative of the Epilepsy Therapy Project, which showcased the most promising epilepsy innovations from health-care companies and academic laboratories dedicated to pioneering and advancing drugs, biologics, technologies, devices, and diagnostics for epilepsy. Speakers and attendees included emerging biotech and medical technology companies, major pharmaceutical and device companies, as well as investigators and innovators at the cutting-edge of epilepsy. The program included panel discussions on collaboration between small and large companies, how to get products in need of funding to the marketplace, who is currently funding epilepsy and CNS innovation, and how the NIH facilitates early-stage drug development. Finally, the conference featured the third annual "Shark Tank" competition. The presentations are summarized in this paper, which is followed by a compilation of the meeting poster abstracts. PMID:25922152

  6. Lumbar paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Dillard-Cannon, Erika; Atsina, Kofi-Buaku; Ghobrial, George; Gnass, Esteban; Curtis, Mark T; Heller, Joshua

    2016-08-01

    Spinal paragangliomas (SP) are benign and overall rare extra-adrenal neuroendocrine tumors often diagnosed during workup for lower back pain. Complete surgical resection achieves both symptomatic relief and cure. We present a 32-year-old man with a longstanding history of lumbago and bilateral lower extremity pain found to have a lumbar paraganglioma at the level of the L3 vertebrae. The clinical, histopathological, and radiological characteristics are described, including the rare finding of superficial siderosis on MRI of the brain. A laminectomy with microscopic dissection of the intradural mass achieved complete debulking without evidence of residual tumor. Excellent prognosis can be achieved with complete surgical resection of SP without the need for adjuvant therapy. Therefore, care should be taken to distinguish these spinal tumors from those that appear similar but are more aggressive. As such, the radiological finding of superficial siderosis should raise the suspicion for SP when a vascular intradural extramedullary spinal tumor is observed. PMID:27032749

  7. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic bilateral lumbar sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Segers, B; Himpens, J; Barroy, J P

    2007-06-01

    The first retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy was performed in 1924 by Julio Diez. The classic procedure for sympathectomy is open surgery. We report a unilateral laparoscopic retroperitoneal approach to perform bilateral lumbar sympathectomy. This approach was performed for a 43-year-old man with distal arterial occlusive disease and no indication for direct revascularization. His predominant symptoms were intermittent claudication at 100 metres and cold legs. The patient was placed in a left lateral decubitus position. The optical system was placed first in an intra-abdominal position to check that the trocars were well positioned in the retroperitoneal space. The dissection of retroperitoneum was performed by CO2 insufflation. The inferior vena cava was reclined and the right sympathetic chain was individualized. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation. The aorta was isolated on a vessel loop and careful anterior traction allowed a retro-aortic pre-vertebral approach between the lumbar vessels. The left sympathetic chain was dissected. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation. PMID:17685269

  8. 77 FR 39172 - Safety Zone: Skagway Harbor, Skagway, AK for 4th of July Fireworks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Skagway Harbor, Skagway, AK for 4th of July... 4th of July Fireworks display. Persons desiring to transit within this safety zone must contact the... Inlet for the City of Skagway, Alaska, sponsored 4th of July fireworks display. A no-action...

  9. 76 FR 37649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zone for the annual July 4th Fireworks Display (Tahoe City 4th of...

  10. Nontraumatic Rupture of Lumbar Artery Causing an Intravertebral Body Pseudoaneurysm: Treatment by Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, Yoshinori Kudoh, Kouichi; Nakasone, Yutaka; Fujisaki, Tadashi; Uemura, Shouichirou; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2006-10-15

    We report a case of nontraumatic rupture of the lumbar artery that led to a pseudoaneurysm in the vertebral body and massive retroperitoneal to retropleural hematoma. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular embolization. To our knowledge, idiopathic rupture of the lumbar artery has been reported in a limited number of cases and pseudoaneurysm formation in the vertebral body has not been presented in the literature. The etiology of hemorrhage has been discussed based on CT, MRI, and three-dimensional rotational angiography.

  11. PREFACE: 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shu; Sekino, Tohru; Tanaka, Shun-ichiro; Sato, Tsugio; Lu, Li; Xue, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    The 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011) was held in Sendai, Japan, on 2-6 August 2011. This Special Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) consists of partial manuscripts which were presented at ISFM2011. Advanced materials have experienced a dramatic increase in demand for research, development and applications. The aim of the International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM) was to provide an overview of the present status with historical background and to foresee future trends in the field of functional materials. The 4th symposium, ISFM 2011, covered a wide variety of topics within state-of-the-art advanced materials science and technology, and focused especially on four major categories including: Environmental Materials, Electronic Materials, Energy Materials and Biomedical Materials. As you know, a massive earthquake and the Tsunami that followed occurred near the Tohoku region on 11 March 2011. After the earthquake, although there were many difficulties in continuing to organize the symposium, we received warm encouragement from many researchers and societies, especially from the members of the International Advisory Committee and Organizing Committee, so that ISFM2011 could be held on schedule. We are honored that ISFM2011 was the first formal international academic conference held in the Tohoku area of Japan after the 11 March earthquake. About 140 participants from 14 countries took part in the ISFM2011 symposium, which included five plenary talks by world-leading scientists, 32 invited talks, and many oral and poster presentations. We are delighted to see that many researchers are interested in the synthesis and the properties as well as the applications of functional materials. Many fruitful and exciting research achievements were presented in the symposium. We believe that this symposium provided a good chance for scientists to communicate and exchange opinions with each other. We would also like to

  12. Managing haemophilia for life: 4th Haemophilia Global Summit.

    PubMed

    Astermark, J; Dolan, G; Hilberg, T; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Laffan, M; Lassila, R; Lobet, S; Martinoli, C; Perno, C-F

    2014-07-01

    The 4th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Potsdam, Germany, in September 2013 and brought together an international faculty of haemophilia experts and delegates from multidisciplinary backgrounds. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored global perspectives in haemophilia care, discussing practical approaches to the optimal management of haemophilia now and in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance and potential to influence haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Jan Astermark reviews current understanding of risk factors for the development of inhibitory antibodies and discusses whether this risk can be modulated and minimized. Factors key to the improvement of joint health in people with haemophilia are explored, with Carlo Martinoli and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste discussing the utility of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy. Other aspects of care necessary for the prevention and management of joint disease in people with haemophilia are outlined by Thomas Hilberg and Sébastian Lobet, who highlight the therapeutic benefits of physiotherapy and sports therapy. Riitta Lassila and Carlo-Federico Perno describe current knowledge surrounding the risk of transmission of infectious agents via clotting factor concentrates. Finally, different types of extended half-life technology are evaluated by Mike Laffan, with a focus on the practicalities and challenges associated with these products. PMID:24924596

  13. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Anderson, Annie; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Tim; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and salt, are related to reduced risks of death and cancer, and that a healthy diet can improve overall survival after diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancers. There is evidence that high intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, and the evidence that dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer is convincing. Red and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Diets rich in high-calorie foods, such as fatty and sugary foods, may lead to increased calorie intake, thereby promoting obesity and leading to an increased risk of cancer. There is some evidence that sugary drinks are related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Taking this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people have a healthy diet to reduce their risk of cancer: they should eat plenty of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits; limit high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat); avoid sugary drinks and processed meat; and limit red meat and foods high in salt. PMID:26164653

  14. Vitamin E deficiency reduced lumbar bone calcium content in female rats.

    PubMed

    Norazlina, M; Chua, C W; Ima-Nirwana, S

    2004-12-01

    Vitamin E deficiency has been found to impair bone calcification. This study was done to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on parathyroid hormone, i.e. the hormone involved in bone regulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal rat chow (RC), 2) vitamin E deficiency (VED), vitamin E deficient rats supplemented with 3) 60 mg/kg alpha-tocotrienol (ATT) and 4) 60 mg/kg (alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatment was carried out for 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency caused hypocalcaemia during the first month of the treatment period, increased the parathyroid hormone level in the second month and decreased the bone calcium content in the 4th lumbar bone at the end of the treatment. Vitamin E supplementation (ATT and ATF) failed to improve these conditions. The bone formation marker, osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker, deoxypyridinoline did not change throughout the study period. In conclusion vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcium homeostasis with subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism and vertebral bone loss. Replacing the vitamin E with pure ATF or pure ATT alone failed to correct the changes seen. PMID:15889565

  15. Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis in Heroin Addicts

    PubMed Central

    Fishbach, Ronald S.; Rosenblatt, Jon E.; Dahlgren, James G.

    1973-01-01

    The diagnosis of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis was made in seven narcotic addicts between 1967 and 1972. Vertebrae involved were either cervical or lumbar. Bacteriologic diagnosis was made in each case by percutaneous needle biopsy and aspiration. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in two patients. Five patients had infections due to Gram-negative bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter. All patients were cured by treatment with antibiotics and immobilization. PMID:4199351

  16. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer.

    PubMed

    Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Do not smoke. Do not use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace". PMID:26272517

  17. PREFACE: 4th International Hadron Physics Conference (TROIA'14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dağ, Hüseyin; Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ

    2014-11-01

    The 4th International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'14, was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 1-5 July 2014. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. It aimed at bringing together the experts and the young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 50 participants from 10 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: . Chiral Perturbation Theory . QCD Sum Rules . Effective Field Theory . Exotic Hadrons . Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD . Experimental Results and Future Perspectives . Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks. The speakers of the invited talks were: C. Alexandrou, A. Gal, L. Tolos, J.R. Pelaez and M. Schindler. We had also guest speakers D. A. Demir and T. Senger. The conference venue was a resort hotel around Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient Troia town and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to supporting agencies and to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Bora Işıldak, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 30.10.2014 The Editors

  18. Does lumbar facet arthrosis precede disc degeneration? A postmortem study.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Jason David; Lee, Michael J; Cassinelli, Ezequiel; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2007-11-01

    It is believed lumbar degeneration begins in the disc, where desiccation and collapse lead to instability and compensatory facet arthrosis. We explored the contrary contention that facet degeneration precedes disc degeneration by examining 647 skeletal lumbar spines. Using facet osteophytosis as a measure of facet degeneration and vertebral rim osteophytosis as a measure of disc degeneration, we assumed bone degeneration in both locations equally reflected the progression of those in the soft tissues. We graded arthrosis Grade 0 to 4 on a continuum from no arthritis to ankylosis. The data were analyzed for different age groups to examine patterns of degeneration with age. Specimens younger than 30 years of age had a higher prevalence of facet osteophytosis compared with vertebral rim osteophotosis at L1-L2 and L2-L3. Specimens aged 30 to 39 years showed more facet osteophytosis than vertebral rim osteophytosis at L4-L5. Specimens older than 40 years, however, showed more vertebral rim osteophytosis compared with facet osteophytosis at all levels except L4-L5 and L5-S1. This skeletal study suggests facet osteophytosis appears early in the degenerative process, preceding vertebral rim osteophytosis of degenerating intervertebral discs. However, once facets begin deteriorating with age, vertebral rim osteophytosis overtakes continued facet osteophytosis. These data challenge the belief that facet osteophytosis follows vertebral rim osteophytosis; rather, it appears vertebral rim osteophytosis progresses more rapidly in later years, but facet osteophotosis occurs early, predominating in younger individuals. PMID:17767079

  19. Vertebrate Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  20. Vertebrate skeletogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Véronique; Bhattaram, Pallavi

    2010-01-01

    Vertebrate skeletogenesis consists in elaborating an edifice of more than 200 pieces of bone and cartilage. Each skeletal piece is crafted at a distinct location in the body, is articulated with others, and reaches a specific size, shape, and tissue composition according to both species instructions and individual determinants. This complex, customized body frame fulfills multiple essential tasks. It confers morphological features, allows controlled postures and movements, protects vital organs, houses hematopoiesis, stores minerals, and adsorbs toxins. This review provides an overview of the multiple facets of this ingenious process for experts as well as nonexperts of skeletogenesis. We explain how the developing vertebrate uses both specific and ubiquitously expressed genes to generate multipotent mesenchymal cells, specify them to a skeletogenic fate, control their survival and proliferation, and direct their differentiation into cartilage, bone, and joint cells. We review milestone discoveries made toward uncovering the intricate networks of regulatory factors that are involved in these processes, with an emphasis on signaling pathways and transcription factors. We describe numerous skeletal malformation and degeneration diseases that occur in humans as a result of mutations in regulatory genes, and explain how these diseases both help and motivate us to further decipher skeletogenic processes. Upon discussing current knowledge and gaps in knowledge in the control of skeletogenesis, we highlight ultimate research goals and propose research priorities and approaches for future endeavors. PMID:20691853

  1. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Paola; Villain, Patricia; Suonio, Eero; Almonte, Maribel; Anttila, Ahti; Atkin, Wendy S; Dean, Peter B; de Koning, Harry J; Dillner, Lena; Herrero, Rolando; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Minozzi, Silvia; Paci, Eugenio; Regula, Jaroslaw; Törnberg, Sven; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: Bowel cancer (men and women); Breast cancer (women); Cervical cancer (women)." Organized screening programs are preferable because they provide better conditions to ensure that the Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Screening are followed in order to achieve the greatest benefit with the least harm. Screening is recommended only for those cancers where a demonstrated life-saving effect substantially outweighs the potential harm of examining very large numbers of people who may otherwise never have, or suffer from, these cancers, and when an adequate quality of the screening is achieved. EU citizens are recommended to participate in cancer screening each time an invitation from the national or regional screening program is received and after having read the information materials provided and carefully considered the potential benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs in the European Union vary with respect to the age groups invited and to the interval between invitations, depending on each country's cancer burden, local resources, and the type of screening test used For colorectal cancer, most programs in the EU invite men and women starting at the age of 50-60 years, and from then on every 2 years if the screening test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test, or every 10 years or more if the screening test is flexible sigmoidoscopy or total colonoscopy. Most programs continue sending invitations to screening up to the age of 70-75 years. For breast cancer, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 50 years, and not before the age

  2. Sensitivity of lumbar spine loading to anatomical parameters.

    PubMed

    Putzer, Michael; Ehrlich, Ingo; Rasmussen, John; Gebbeken, Norbert; Dendorfer, Sebastian

    2016-04-11

    Musculoskeletal simulations of lumbar spine loading rely on a geometrical representation of the anatomy. However, this data has an inherent inaccuracy. This study evaluates the influence of defined geometrical parameters on lumbar spine loading utilising five parametrised musculoskeletal lumbar spine models for four different postures. The influence of the dimensions of vertebral body, disc, posterior parts of the vertebrae as well as the curvature of the lumbar spine was studied. Additionally, simulations with combinations of selected parameters were conducted. Changes in L4/L5 resultant joint force were used as outcome variable. Variations of the vertebral body height, disc height, transverse process width and the curvature of the lumbar spine were the most influential. These parameters can be easily acquired from X-rays and should be used to morph a musculoskeletal lumbar spine model for subject-specific approaches with respect to bone geometry. Furthermore, the model was very sensitive to uncommon configurations and therefore, it is advised that stiffness properties of discs and ligaments should be individualised. PMID:26680014

  3. Charcot Arthropathy of the Lumbosacral Spine Mimicking a Vertebral Tumor after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Son, Soo-Bum; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2013-01-01

    Charcot spinal arthropathy is a rare, progressive type of vertebral joint degeneration that occurs in the setting of any preexisting condition characterized by decreased afferent innervation to the extent that normal protective joint sensation in the vertebral column is impaired. The authors report on a case of Charcot arthropathy of the lower lumbar spine mimicking a spinal tumor following cervical cord injury. PMID:24527202

  4. Urban Infrasound Observations - Examples from July 4th 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, S.; Hayward, C.; Golden, P.; McKenna, M.; Simpson, C.

    2012-12-01

    , the Heroy Building Rooftop Array, is a two-element 30m line on a single rooftop. Large-scale fireworks displays in Dallas on 4 July 2012 provided an opportunity to identify and characterize known signals in an urban setting. The identified events were associated with one of these fireworks displays about 2 km from the arrays. Signals from these sources were used to tune processing parameters for an automatic coherent detection process, Progressive Multichannel Correlation Method (PMCC). PMCC was then used to scan the data for all possible firework sources in the urban environment and determine temporal, back azimuth, apparent velocity, and frequency information about the sources. The signal frequencies seen were 10-80 Hz and documented the details of the nearly 30 minute firework show. The resulting PMCC analysis showed potential to effectively identify other, lower frequency sources in the urban environment. These data were also is used to characterize the noise environment. Significant roof-to-roof noise differences may be related to the building configurations and mechanical equipment, as well as the interactions of the winds with the structures. During the evening of July 4th , additional ground deployed infrasound gauges provided a comparison of free surface and rooftop measurements. Permission to publish was granted by Director, Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory.

  5. 75 FR 34636 - Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display... temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Lake Tahoe, for the Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks... has a substantial direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt State law...

  6. 75 FR 34639 - Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA in the Federal Register (75 FR 26157). We received no comments on... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's... the Reedville July 4th Celebration event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic...

  7. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina... Berkeley Pier, Berkeley, CA in support of the 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display... used in the fireworks display. Background and Purpose The City of Berkeley Marina will sponsor the...

  8. 75 FR 26157 - Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's..., VA in support of the Reedville July 4th Celebration event. This action is intended to restrict...

  9. Science Content Courses: Workshop in Food Chemistry for 4th Grade School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiyapechara, S.; Dong, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    A science content course in food chemistry was offered as a 4-day summer workshop from 1999 to 2001 to 4th grade school teachers in the Seattle School District. The objectives of the workshop were to increase the teachers' knowledge of food science, to perform simple experiments that could be used in the 4th grade classroom, and to help the…

  10. 75 FR 35649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks Display safety zone, from 9 a.m. through 10...

  11. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Skills of 4th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…

  12. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  13. Supraphysiologic glucocorticoid administration increased biomechanical bone strength of rats' vertebral body

    PubMed Central

    Najar, Azam; Fridoni, Mohammadjavad; Rezaei, Fatemesadat; Bayat, Saba

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effects of different glucocorticoid administration protocols on biomechanical properties of the first lumbar vertebral body in rats. We divided 40 male rats into the following groups: control, dexamethasone (7 mg/week), dexamethasone (0.7 mg/week), methylprednisolone (7 mg/kg/week), methylprednisolone (5 mg/kg twice weekly), dexamethasone (7 mg/kg three times per week), dexamethasone (0.7 mg/kg three times per week, and low-level laser treated rats. Lumbar vertebrae in rats were exposed to the pulsed laser. We conducted a biomechanical test to examine the mechanical properties of vertebral body in rats' lumbar bone. Supraphysiologic glucocorticoid administration protocols did not impair the biomechanical properties of rats' vertebral bodies compared to control and laser-treated rats. Supraphysiologic glucocorticoid administration caused an anabolic effect on the vertebral bodies. PMID:26755921

  14. Primary lumbar extradural hemangiosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Paek, Matthew; Glass, Eric; Kent, Marc; Clifford, Craig A; De Lahunta, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    A 9 yr old castrated male golden retriever weighing 36 kg was presented for evaluation of progressive left pelvic limb paresis and fecal and urinary incontinence. MRI demonstrated an extradural, ovoid mass compressing the lumbar spinal cord. Surgical excision of the mass was performed. Histologically, the mass was consistent with hemangiosarcoma with no involvement of the adjacent vertebrae. The dog underwent a doxorubicin-based chemotherapy protocol with the addition of oral cyclophosphamide. After completion of chemotherapy, the dog was evaluated q 4 mo for restaging. Clinicopathological evidence of primary tumor recurrence or metastatic disease was not detected for 15 mo after initial diagnosis and treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a primary extradural hemangiosarcoma in the lumbar vertebral column in a dog. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome are also discussed. PMID:25955146

  15. Prediction of biomechanical parameters in the lumbar spine during static sagittal plane lifting.

    PubMed

    Kong, W Z; Goel, V K; Gilbertson, L G

    1998-04-01

    A combined approach involving optimization and the finite element technique was used to predict biomechanical parameters in the lumbar spine during static lifting in the sagittal plane. Forces in muscle fascicles of the lumbar region were first predicted using an optimization-based force model including the entire lumbar spine. These muscle forces as well as the distributed upper body weight and the lifted load were then applied to a three-dimensional finite element model of the thoracolumbar spine and rib cage to predict deformation, the intradiskal pressure, strains, stresses, and load transfer paths in the spine. The predicted intradiskal pressures in the L3-4 disk at the most deviated from the in vivo measurements by 8.2 percent for the four lifting cases analyzed. The lumbosacral joint flexed, while the other lumbar joints extended for all of the four lifting cases studied (rotation of a joint is the relative rotation between its two vertebral bodies). High stresses were predicted in the posterolateral regions of the endplates and at the junctions of the pedicles and vertebral bodies. High interlaminar shear stresses were found in the posterolateral regions of the lumbar disks. While the facet joints of the upper two lumbar segments did not transmit any load, the facet joints of the lower two lumbar segments experienced significant loads. The ligaments of all lumbar motion segments except the lumbosacral junction provided only marginal moments. The limitations of the current model and possible improvements are discussed. PMID:10412390

  16. Thoracic and lumbar extradural structure examined by extraduroscope.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, T; Hirabayashi, Y; Shimizu, R; Saitoh, K; Fukuda, H

    1998-08-01

    We examined the extradural space using a flexible extraduroscope in 113 patients undergoing extradural anaesthesia. Patients were classified into two groups to receive either thoracic or lumbar extradural anaesthesia as needed for perioperative analgesia. The extraduroscopy showed that the thoracic extradural space becomes widely patent after injecting a given amount of air and that the amount of fatty and fibrous connective tissue is less in the thoracic extradural space compared with the lumbar extradural space. We suggest that differences between the structure of these two vertebral regions may affect the spread of local anaesthetics in the extradural space. PMID:9813508

  17. TID Test Results for 4th Generation iPad(TradeMark)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guertin, S. M.; Allen, G. R.; McClure, S. S.; LaBel, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    TID testing of 4th generation iPads is reported. Of iPad subsystems, results indicate that the charging circuitry and display drivers fail at lowest TID levels. Details of construction are investigated for additional testing of components.

  18. 18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSITION FROM WOOD BENTS TO CONCRETE BENTS - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 29. VIEW OF 4TH FLOOR'S TELEPHONE RACKS WITH CABLE TRAYS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF 4TH FLOOR'S TELEPHONE RACKS WITH CABLE TRAYS ABOVE. THESE ARE NEWER APPARATUS AND NOT ORIGINAL. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 16. 4th floor roof, view west, north side of setback ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 4th floor roof, view west, north side of setback to left and delivery stair bulkhead to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  1. A device mimicking the biomechanical characteristics of crocodile skull for lumbar fracture reduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingmin; Guo, Lihua; Li, Yuancheng; Lei, Zhenkun; Liu, Yuanchang; Shi, Weiping; Li, Tao; Li, Weikang; Liu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    Open surgery is currently the main treatment method for the lumbar burst fracture with neurological deficit but may irreversibly disrupt the lumbar anatomy. The minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques have recently gained increasing attention. However, their use is still limited to lumbar burst fractures mainly due to their difficulties in burst fracture reduction and decompression. Here we present a novel bio-inspired MIS device which can be used with an endoscope to reset the bone fragments retropulsed into the spinal canal within the wounded vertebral body. Its head jaw mimics the biomechanical characteristics of a crocodile rostrum to improve the performance in gripping and moving bone pieces in the confined space of a vertebral body. This study may be capable of converting the posterior open surgeries to the MIS procedures, and expands the use of the MIS techniques in the treatment of lumbar burst fractures. PMID:27529133

  2. Morphological and postural sexual dimorphism of the lumbar spine facilitates greater lordosis in females.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jeannie F; Sparrey, Carolyn J; Been, Ella; Kramer, Patricia A

    2016-07-01

    Previous work suggests females are evolutionarily adapted to have greater lumbar lordosis than males to aid in pregnancy load-bearing, but no consensus exists. To explore further sex-differences in the lumbar spine, and to understand contradictions in the literature, we conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study of sex-differences in lumbar spine morphology and sacral orientation. In addition, our sample includes data for separate standing and supine samples of males and females to examine potential sex-differences in postural loading on lumbosacral morphology. We measured sagittal lumbosacral morphology on 200 radiographs. Measurements include: lumbar angle (L1-S1), lumbar vertebral body and disc wedging angles, sacral slope and pelvic incidence. Lumbar angle, representative of lordotic curvature between L1 and S1, was 7.3° greater in females than males, when standing. There were no significant sex-differences in lumbar angle when supine. This difference in standing lumbar angle can be explained by greater lordotic wedging of the lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5) in females. Additionally, sacral slope was greater in females than males, when standing. There were no significant sex-differences in pelvic incidence. Our results support that females have greater lumbar lordosis than males when standing, but not when supine - suggesting a potentially greater range of motion in the female spine. Furthermore, sex-differences in the lumbar spine appear to be supported by postural differences in sacral-orientation and morphological differences in the vertebral body wedging. A better understanding of sex-differences in lumbosacral morphology may explain sex-differences in spinal conditions, as well as promote necessary sex-specific treatments. PMID:26916466

  3. Percutaneous stabilization of lumbar spine: a literature review and new options in treating spine pain.

    PubMed

    Marcia, Stefano; Saba, Luca; Marras, Mariangela; Suri, Jasjit S; Calabria, Eros; Masala, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Vertebral fracture (VF) is a common condition with >160,000 patients affected every year in North America and most of them with affected lumbar vertebrae. The management of VF is well known and defined by many protocols related to associated clinical neurological symptoms, especially in case of the presence or absence of myelopathy or radicular deficit. In this article, we will explore the percutaneous stabilization of the lumbar spine by showing the newest approaches for this condition. PMID:27351691

  4. Vertebral osteomyelitis: disk hypodensity on CT

    SciTech Connect

    Larde, D.; Mathieu, D.; Frija, J.; Gaston, A.; Vasile, N.

    1982-11-01

    The importance and role of computed tomography (CT) are discussed on the basis of 36 cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. The bone images themselves, the detection of lumbar disk hypodensity, and the exploration of soft paraspinal regions in the search for an abscess are factors that contribute to the superiority of this method in difficult cases. In cases where the diagnosis is already known, CT offers an excellent method to assess the extent of the lesions. Its accuracy, coupled with its rapidity and noninvasive nature, affects the role of conventional tomography, a method that is incomplete and involves higher radiation doses. CT offers an excellent method for follow-up after treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis.

  5. Comparison of vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females.

    PubMed

    Choe, Han Seong; Lee, Jae Hong; Min, Dong Ki; Shin, So Hong

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 314 females in their 40s to 70s were divided into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups and their vertebral and femoral bone mineral densities were compared. [Results] Comparisons of T scores revealed significant differences among measurements of the third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and femoral trochanter. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess differences between the vertebral and femoral measurements, and significant differences and positive correlations were observed among third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and femur trochanter in the normal group. [Conclusion] Females in the normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups showed significant differences in their third lumbar vertebrae. The lack of significant differences among measurements in the osteoporosis group in this study suggests that patients with osteoporosis require careful and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27390449

  6. Comparison of vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Han Seong; Lee, Jae Hong; Min, Dong Ki; Shin, So Hong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 314 females in their 40s to 70s were divided into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups and their vertebral and femoral bone mineral densities were compared. [Results] Comparisons of T scores revealed significant differences among measurements of the third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward’s triangle, and femoral trochanter. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess differences between the vertebral and femoral measurements, and significant differences and positive correlations were observed among third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward’s triangle, and femur trochanter in the normal group. [Conclusion] Females in the normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups showed significant differences in their third lumbar vertebrae. The lack of significant differences among measurements in the osteoporosis group in this study suggests that patients with osteoporosis require careful and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27390449

  7. Systematically frameshifting by deletion of every 4th or 4th and 5th nucleotides during mitochondrial transcription: RNA self-hybridization regulates delRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondria, secondary structures punctuate post-transcriptional RNA processing. Recently described transcripts match the human mitogenome after systematic deletions of every 4th, respectively every 4th and 5th nucleotides, called delRNAs. Here I explore predicted stem-loop hairpin formation by delRNAs, and their associations with delRNA transcription and detected peptides matching their translation. Despite missing 25, respectively 40% of the nucleotides in the original sequence, del-transformed sequences form significantly more secondary structures than corresponding randomly shuffled sequences, indicating biological function, independently of, and in combination with, previously detected delRNA and thereof translated peptides. Self-hybridization decreases delRNA abundances, indicating downregulation. Systematic deletions of the human mitogenome reveal new, unsuspected coding and structural informations. PMID:27018206

  8. Lumbar (Open) Microscopic Discectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common surgical treatment for ruptured or herniated discs of the lumbar spine. When the outer wall ... a slipped or bulging disc. (See discussion of herniated disc for more information.) Once the inner disc material ...

  9. Herniated Lumbar Disc

    MedlinePlus

    ... 50. A herniated lumbar disc may also cause back pain, although back pain alone (without leg pain) can have many causes ... 90% success); surgery is less effective in relieving back pain. Nonsurgical treatment Your doctor may prescribe nonsurgical treatments ...

  10. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need a lumbar MRI if you have: Low back pain that does not get better after treatment Leg ... spine Injury or trauma to the lower spine Low back pain and a history or signs of cancer Multiple ...

  11. Spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging findings in congenital lumbar spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Chalian, Majid; Thawait, Shrey; Belzberg, Alan J; Eng, John; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether congenital lumbar spinal stenosis (CLSS) is associated with a specific degenerative changes of the lumbar spine. METHODS: The lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging studies of 52 subjects with CLSS and 48 control subjects were retrospectively evaluated. In each examination, the five lumbar levels were assessed for the presence or absence of circumferential or shallow annular bulges, annular tears, anterior or posterior disc herniations, epidural lipomatosis, Schmorl’s nodes, spondylolisthesis, pars defects, and stress reactions of the posterior vertebral elements. RESULTS: Compared to control individuals, subjects with CLSS exhibited increased incidence of circumferential and shallow annular bulges, annular tears, disc herniations and spondylolisthesis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: CLSS is associated with increased incidence of degenerative changes in specific osseous and soft-tissue elements of the lumbar spine. PMID:25516864

  12. 75 FR 38721 - Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay, Lake Superior, Munising, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of South Bay during the Munising 4th of July Fireworks... from hazards associated with the Munising 4th of July Fireworks display. Based on the explosive...

  13. 75 FR 34369 - Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Chicago, Illinois in the Federal Register (75 FR 22330). We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration... associated with the City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks. The Captain of the Port, Sector...

  14. 75 FR 34379 - Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Huron during the Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks... with the Mackinac Island 4th of July fireworks display. The fireworks display will occur between 9:45...

  15. 75 FR 38718 - Safety Zone; Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks, St. Mary's River, Sault Sainte Marie, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks... the Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks display, July ] 4, 2010. This temporary safety zone is... with the Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks display. The fireworks display is planned to...

  16. Chordoma of the Lumbar Spine Presenting as Sciatica and Treated with Vertebroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Somenath; Bodhey, Narendra Kuber Gupta, Arun Kumar; Periakaruppan, Alagappan

    2010-12-15

    The lumbar spine is a less common location for chordoma. Here we describe a 44-year-old woman presenting with pain due to a L4 vertebral expansile lesion that caused significant canal stenosis and neural foraminal compromise. Vertebroplasty was performed and resulted in immediate pain relief. For patients with painful lumbar chordoma who are unwilling to undergo surgery, vertebroplasty can play a palliative role as in patients with other vertebral lesions. Treating pain and stabilizing vertebra by way of vertebroplasty in a case of chordoma has not yet been reported.

  17. [Congenital lumbar hernia].

    PubMed

    Peláez Mata, D J; Alvarez Muñoz, V; Fernández Jiménez, I; García Crespo, J M; Teixidor de Otto, J L

    1998-07-01

    Hernias in the lumbar region are abdominal wall defects that appear in two possible locations: the superior lumbar triangle of Grynfelt-Lesshaft and the inferior lumbar triangle of Petit. There are 40 cases reported in the pediatric literature, and only 16 are considered congenital, associated with the lumbocostovertebral syndrome and/or meningomyelocele. A new case is presented. A premature newborn with a mass in the left flank that increases when the patient cries and reduces easily. The complementary studies confirm the diagnosis of lumbar hernia and reveal the presence of lumbocostovertebral syndrome associated. At the time of operation a well defined fascial defect at the superior lumbar triangle of Grynfelt-Lesshaft is primarily closed. The diagnosis of lumbar hernia is not difficult to establish but it is necessary the screening of the lumbocostovertebral syndrome. We recommend the surgical treatment before 12 months of age; the objective is to close the defect primarily or to use prosthetic material if necessary. PMID:12602034

  18. Experimental and clinical analysis of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone graft fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Wen; Xiao, Dong-Min; Wu, Hong; Ye, Ming; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the animal experimental and clinical results of the bone graft fusion of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone. Methods: 1. Sixty rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Posterolateral lumbar bone graft with the appendicular bone and iliac bones, respectively, was then performed on these two groups. A lumbar spine X-ray was performed on the postoperative 4th, 8th and 16th weeks, and the gray value changes of the bone graft fusion area were measured to calculate fusion rates. Histology analysis was also performed to observe and count osteoblasts. 2. The appendicular bones of 106 patients who suffered from lumbar disorders were cut during lumbar surgery, and a posterolateral lumbar bone graft was performed. The postoperative follow-up used the Steffee criteria to evaluate clinical efficacy and the White criteria to evaluate fusion conditions. Results: No significant difference was observed in the relative gray values of X-ray bone density, bone graft fusion rates, and osteoblast counts in the bone graft regions between the two groups (P > 0.05). The follow-up duration of the 106 patients were 4-8 years (6.12 years), the clinical efficacy rate was 85.85%, and the fusion rate was 83.02%. Conclusions: The animal experimental and clinical results of posterolateral lumbar bone graft fusion with autologous iliac and appendicular bones were similar. PMID:26885221

  19. Blunt Abdominal Aortic Injury Associated with L2 Vertebral Fracture.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yuki; Morimoto, Yoshihisa; Sugimoto, Takaki; Arase, Hiroki; Araki, Kota

    2016-07-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic injury (BAAI) is very rare. In general, BAAI occurs in high-energy accidents. Here, we present a case of BAAI in a low-energy accident. A 70-year-old female was injured after falling 3 m. Her vital signs were stable. She had lumbar fractures (L1, L2) and BAAI associated with a fragment of the fractured L2 vertebral body. On the fifth posttrauma day, we performed an operation because computed tomography showed a bone fragment of the lumbar fractures (L1, L2) threatening the abdominal aorta. The aortic injury site was transected, and the fragment of the L2 vertebral body was removed. Even in low-energy accidents, BAAI should be considered. BAAI with stable vital signs can be electively treated. PMID:27126715

  20. Three-dimensional static modeling of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Karadogan, Ernur; Williams, Robert L

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional static modeling of the human lumbar spine to be used in the formation of anatomically-correct movement patterns for a fully cable-actuated robotic lumbar spine which can mimic in vivo human lumbar spine movements to provide better hands-on training for medical students. The mathematical model incorporates five lumbar vertebrae between the first lumbar vertebra and the sacrum, with dimensions of an average adult human spine. The vertebrae are connected to each other by elastic elements, torsional springs and a spherical joint located at the inferoposterior corner in the mid-sagittal plane of the vertebral body. Elastic elements represent the ligaments that surround the facet joints and the torsional springs represent the collective effect of intervertebral disc which plays a major role in balancing torsional load during upper body motion and the remaining ligaments that support the spinal column. The elastic elements and torsional springs are considered to be nonlinear. The nonlinear stiffness constants for six motion types were solved using a multiobjective optimization technique. The quantitative comparison between the angles of rotations predicted by the proposed model and in the experimental data confirmed that the model yields angles of rotation close to the experimental data. The main contribution is that the new model can be used for all motions while the experimental data was only obtained at discrete measurement points. PMID:22938364

  1. Diabetes Mellitus, a New Risk Factor for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Asadian, Leila; Haddadi, Kaveh; Aarabi, Mohsen; Zare, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with spinal stenosis and lumbar vertebral disk degeneration, and the correlation of diabetes with these diseases. STUDY DESIGN This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS This case–control study was performed during 2012–2014 with 110 patients suffering from lumbar spinal stenosis and 110 patients with lumbar disk herniation, who were diagnosed using clinical and radiological evidences. Additionally, 110 participants who were referred to the clinic and did not show clinical signs of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine entered the study as a control group. Demographic data and medical histories of the patients were collected using checklists. RESULTS A total of 50 patients (15.2%) were diagnosed with diabetes, which comprised 32 (29.1%) in the stenosis group, 7 (6.4%) in the lumbar disk herniation group, and 11 (10%) in the control group. The prevalence of diabetes in women with spinal stenosis and women with lumbar disk herniation was 35.9% and 10.3%, respectively, whereas prevalence of diabetes in women was 10.9% in the control group. This difference was statistically significant in the spinal stenosis group in comparison with the controls (P < 0.0001). Conversely, no significant difference was found in men. CONCLUSIONS There is an association between diabetes and lumbar spinal stenosis. Diabetes mellitus may be a predisposing factor for the development of lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:27168730

  2. Improving Social Interaction among 4th Grade Students through Social Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Shannon; Karwowski, Sandra; Shudes-Eitel, Jennifer

    This action research project implemented a program for improving social skills in order to establish positive interaction among 4th grade students at a northern Chicago suburban school. Social skills deficiency was documented through behavior checklists and referrals, teacher observations and student reflection. Teachers reported that low incomes,…

  3. Relationships between Grade Levels, Personal Factors, and Instructional Variation among 4th-12th Grade Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate relationships between grade levels, personal factors of teachers, and instructional variety used by 4th-12th grade teachers in Kern County, California. The population under investigation included 2,844 teachers. 235 elementary, middle school/junior high, and secondary teachers…

  4. 77 FR 56208 - Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Kentucky has scheduled a...

  5. Reading Development and Achievement of 4th-Grade Hmong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…

  6. MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH MAIN CEMETERY GATE TO CEMETERY'S MAIN STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18276, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  7. Polarimetric Microwave Emission from Snow Surface: 4th Strokes Component Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of ice on the polarimetric 4th Stokes component observations is investigated using WindSat data over Antarctica. The difference in the magnitude of the signal observed during (July 2003) and summer (February 2004) months is investigated using a second harmonic sine function of the azimuth...

  8. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation...

  9. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  10. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  11. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  12. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  13. 94. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH 4TH TEE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH 4TH TEE IN THE BACKGROUND, FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE TACKLE BOX. RAMP OF PIER EXTENSION IS VISIBLE ON RIGHT - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. 20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH FLOOR WITH WHITE GLAZED TERRA COTTA SILL AND HEADERS. MULLIONS ARE ORANGE BROWN BRICKS LIKE THE WALLS. BRICKS ARE IN FLEMISH BOND PATTERN. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. Using 4th order Runge-Kutta method for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, Miftachul; Anderson, Malcolm; Husein, Andri

    2016-03-01

    We study numerical solution, especially using 4th order Runge-Kutta method, for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation. We find numerically that the value of minimum energy per unit length of vortex solution for a twisted Skyrmion string is 20.37 × 1060 eV/m.

  16. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  17. Assessment of an Engineering Technology Outreach Program for 4th-7th Grade Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Elizabeth M.; Christman, Jeanne; Garrick, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop led by female Engineering Technology students, with support from female faculty, to provide an introduction to Engineering Technology to 4th-7th grade girls through a series of interactive laboratory experiments. This outreach program was developed to improve attitudes towards science and engineering in middle…

  18. 75 FR 33170 - Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for the launching of fireworks being sponsored by the City of...

  19. 4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here screenings were pumped from the elevator leg to this conveyor. The grains were ground, then conveyed back down to the first floor for bagging. - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, WITH WRAPPER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND CUTTER (RIGHT, BEHIND CHUTE); BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM PRESS TO 5TH FLOOR FOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  1. Relationship Between BMD and Prevalent Vertebral Fractures in Indian Women Older Than 50 Yr.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Yashdeep; Marwaha, Raman K; Kukreja, Subhash; Bhadra, Kuntal; Narang, Archana; Mani, Kalaivani; Mithal, Ambrish; Tandon, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the relationship of morphometric vertebral fractures with bone mineral density (BMD) in Indian women older than 50 yr. Four hundred fifteen healthy Indian women older than 50 yr (mean age: 62.8 yr) underwent lateral X-rays of the lumbar and thoracic spine. Genant's semiquantitative method was used to diagnose and classify morphometric vertebral fractures. BMD was measured by DXA at lumbar spine and total hip. Recruited subjects underwent anthropometric, biochemical, and hormonal evaluation. Vertebral fractures were present in 17.1% (95% confidence interval: 13.5, 20.8) subjects. Prevalence of osteoporosis based on BMD was 35.7%. By adding those with prevalent fractures, the number of women requiring therapy for osteoporosis would increase to 46.5%. The BMD measured at femur neck, total hip, and lumbar spine (L1eL4) was not found to be lower in women with vertebral fractures as compared with those without fractures. BMD was not found to be lower in women with vertebral fractures as compared with those without fractures. Significant number of additional subjects with BMD in the normal or osteopenic range become eligible for osteoporosis treatment when presence of vertebral fracture is used as an independent indication for such treatment. PMID:26050877

  2. The topographical anatomy of the lumbar epidural space.

    PubMed Central

    Parkin, I G; Harrison, G R

    1985-01-01

    Although clinically important, the lumbar epidural space is inconsistently described in textbooks of both anatomy and anaesthetics. This anatomical study of twelve cadavers was performed in an attempt to clarify the description of this region. The dura mater, which possesses a midline fold in a very few cases, is apposed to the walls of the vertebral canal, and attached to them by connective tissue, which is sufficient to allow for displacement of the dural sac during movement of the spine and venous engorgement. Between the dura mater and the vertebral canal is a thin layer of areolar tissue. This contains the internal vertebral venous plexus and a posterior deposit of fat which lies in a recess between the ligamenta flava. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies in an attempt to arrive at a cohesive description of the epidural region. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:4077717

  3. THE FIRST LASING OF 193 NM SASE, 4TH HARMONIC HGHG AND ESASE AT THE NSLS SDL.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG, X.J.; SHEN Y.; WATANABE, T.; MURPHY, J.B.; ROSE, J.; TSANG, T.

    2006-08-28

    The first lasing of three types of single-pass high-gain FELs, SASE at 193 nm, 4th harmonic HGHG at 199 nm and ESASE at the Source Development Lab (SDL) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is reported. The saturation of 4th harmonic HGHG and ESASE FELs was observed. We also observed the spectral broadening and instability of the 4th harmonic HGHG.

  4. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. In reply to a question, lumbar spinal stenosis, commonly a multifactorial disease that can have profound functional consequences, is considered, along with a discussion of physical and pharmacologic treatments and quality of life. PMID:27145444

  5. Lumbar corsets can decrease lumbar motion in golf swing.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Miyamoto, Kei; Yanagawa, Takashi; Hattori, Ryo; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Toshio; Ohno, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2013-01-01

    Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K.), full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC), with a soft corset (SC), and with a hard corset (HC), with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity) in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt) were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38°) or HC (28°) than under WOC (44°) conditions (p < 0.05). The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec) than under SC (177°/sec) and WOC (191° /sec) conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC. Key pointsRotational and extension forces on the lumbar spine may cause golf-related low back painWearing lumbar corsets during a golf swing can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles and angular velocity.Wearing lumbar corsets increased the rotational motion of the hip joint while reducing the rotation of the lumbar spine. PMID:24149729

  6. Lumbar Corsets Can Decrease Lumbar Motion in Golf Swing

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koji; Miyamoto, Kei; Yanagawa, Takashi; Hattori, Ryo; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Toshio; Ohno, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2013-01-01

    Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K.), full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC), with a soft corset (SC), and with a hard corset (HC), with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity) in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt) were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38°) or HC (28°) than under WOC (44°) conditions (p < 0.05). The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec) than under SC (177°/sec) and WOC (191° /sec) conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC. Key points Rotational and extension forces on the lumbar spine may cause golf-related low back pain Wearing lumbar corsets during a golf swing can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles and angular velocity. Wearing lumbar corsets increased the rotational motion of the hip joint while reducing the rotation of the lumbar spine. PMID:24149729

  7. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  8. Increase in vertebral body size in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Briot, K; Kolta, S; Fechtenbaum, J; Said-Nahal, R; Benhamou, C L; Roux, C

    2010-08-01

    Bone geometry plays a prominent role in bone strength. Cross-sectional studies have shown that advancing age is associated with increasing diameter of long bones, related to both periostal apposition and endosteal resorption. However, there are few data provided by prospective studies, especially concerning the changes in vertebral body dimensions. The objective of this prospective study was to measure the changes occurring in the vertebral body size of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Three-year data from placebo groups of the SOTI and TROPOS trials, performed in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, were used for this study. In these trials, patients underwent lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine at baseline and annually over 3 years, according to standardized procedures. Six-point digitization method was used: the four corner points of the vertebral body from T4 to L4 are marked, as well as an additional point in the middle of the upper and lower endplates. From these 6 points, the vertebral body perimeter, area and depth were measured at baseline and at 3 years. The analysis excluded all vertebrae with prevalent or incident fracture. A total of 2017 postmenopausal women (mean age 73.4+/-6.1 years) with a mean lumbar spine T score of -3.1+/-1.5, and a mean femoral neck T score of -3.0+/-0.7 are included in the analysis. Vertebral body dimensions increased over 3 years, by 2.1+/-5.5% (mean depth+/-SD), by 1.7+/-8.3% (mean area+/-SD) and by 1.5+/-4.9% (mean perimeter+/-SD) at the thoracic level (T4 to T12). At the lumbar level (L1 to L4), these dimensions increased as well: 1.4+/-3.6% (mean depth+/-SD), 1.4+/-5.7% (mean area+/-SD), 0.7+/-2.9% (mean perimeter+/-SD). A significant increase in vertebral body size was observed for each vertebral level from T5 to L4 for each of these parameters (p<0.01). These prospective results demonstrate that vertebral body dimensions increase over 3 years in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID

  9. Iatrogenic left common iliac artery and vein perforation during lumbar discectomy: a fatal case.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Frati, Paola; Carbone, Iacopo; Pugnetti, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic vascular injury during lumbar disk surgery, although rare, is a serious complication, and when it does occur, can be sudden and life-threatening. The risk of injury to the pelvic vessels intra-operatively can be explained by the close proximity of the retroperitoneal vessels to the vertebral column therefore causing injury to the anterior longitudinal ligament, which can give access to the retroperitoneal space. If signs of circulatory instability are noted during lumbar disk surgery, early diagnosis of vascular injury and urgent transperitoneal surgery or emergency stenting can save the patient's life. Here, is presented the case of a 52-year-old man who underwent an elective lumbar discectomy for a rightward disk herniation in the L4-L5 intervertebral space and died 12h after the operation for a hemorrhagic shock due to a severe intra-abdominal hemorrhage following iatrogenic left common iliac artery and vein perforation during lumbar discectomy. PMID:25467198

  10. 11th National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4th Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B.; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho e Melo, Teresa M.V.D.; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  11. 11(th) National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4(th) Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho E Melo, Teresa M V D; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  12. 10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, WITH AUTOMATIC CUTTER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND WRAPPER (RIGHT); LARGE CHUTE AT CENTER FROM 5TH FLOOR BINS TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS; OVERHEAD AND FLOOR (LOWER RIGHT) FINISHED GOODS CONVEYORS TO G BLOCK (HAER NO. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  13. Automatic lumbar vertebra segmentation from clinical CT for wedge compression fracture diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Alomari, Raja'S.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2011-03-01

    Lumbar vertebral fractures vary greatly in types and causes and usually result from severe trauma or pathological conditions such as osteoporosis. Lumbar wedge compression fractures are amongst the most common ones where the vertebra is severely compressed forming a wedge shape and causing pain and pressure on the nerve roots and the spine. Since vertebral segmentation is the first step in any automated diagnosis task, we present a fully automated method for robustly localizing and segmenting the vertebrae for preparation of vertebral fracture diagnosis. Our segmentation method consists of five main steps towards the CAD(Computer-Aided Diagnosis) system: 1) Localization of the intervertebral discs. 2) Localization of the vertebral skeleton. 3) Segmentation of the individual vertebra. 4) Detection of the vertebrae center line and 5) Detection of the vertebrae major boundary points. Our segmentation results are promising with an average error of 1.5mm (modified Hausdorff distance metric) on 50 clinical CT cases i.e. a total of 250 lumbar vertebrae. We also present promising preliminary results for automatic wedge compression fracture diagnosis on 15 cases, 7 of which have one or more vertebral compression fracture, and obtain an accuracy of 97.33%.

  14. Prevalent Morphometric Vertebral Fractures in Professional Male Rugby Players

    PubMed Central

    Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52) and union (n = 43) players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23), T9 (n = 18) and T10 (n = 21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

  15. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  16. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, “The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner,” “I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship,” and “I think all students should participate in a similar experience.” When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills

  17. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rebekah; Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, "The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner," "I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship," and "I think all students should participate in a similar experience." When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills required for

  18. Current concepts on spinal arthrodesis in degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Lykissas, Marios G; Aichmair, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Back pain is a common chronic disorder that represents a large burden for the health care system. There is a broad spectrum of available treatment options for patients suffering from chronic lower back pain in the setting of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine, including both conservative and operative approaches. Lumbar arthrodesis techniques can be divided into sub-categories based on the part of the vertebral column that is addressed (anterior vs posterior). Furthermore, one has to differentiate between approaches aiming at a solid fusion in contrast to motion-sparing techniques with the proposed advantage of a reduced risk of developing adjacent disc disease. However, the field of application and long-term outcomes of these novel motion-preserving surgical techniques, including facet arthroplasty, nucleus replacement, and lumbar disc arthroplasty, need to be more precisely evaluated in long-term prospective studies. Innovative surgical treatment strategies involving minimally invasive techniques, such as lateral lumbar interbody fusion or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, as well as percutaneous implantation of transpedicular or transfacet screws, have been established with the reported advantages of reduced tissue invasiveness, decreased collateral damage, reduced blood loss, and decreased risk of infection. The aim of this study was to review well-established procedures for lumbar spinal fusion with the main focus on current concepts on spinal arthrodesis and motion-sparing techniques in degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. PMID:24303453

  19. Lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

    1993-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

  20. [Lumbar spinal angiolipoma].

    PubMed

    Isla, Alberto; Ortega Martinez, Rodrigo; Pérez López, Carlos; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro; Mansilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are fairly infrequent benign tumours that are usually located in the epidural space of the thoracic column and represent 0.14% to 1.3% of all spinal tumours. Lumbar angiolipomas are extremely rare, representing only 9.6% of all spinal extradural angiolipomas. We report the case of a woman who complained of a lumbar pain of several months duration with no neurological focality and that had intensified in the last three days without her having had any injury or made a physical effort. The MR revealed an extradural mass L1-L2, on the posterior face of the medulla, decreasing the anteroposterior diameter of the canal. The patient symptoms improved after surgery. Total extirpation of the lesion is possible in most cases, and the prognosis is excellent even if the lesion is infiltrative. For this reason, excessively aggressive surgery is not necessary to obtain complete resection. PMID:27263067

  1. LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    Vialle, Luis Roberto; Vialle, Emiliano Neves; Suárez Henao, Juan Esteban; Giraldo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis among the degenerative abnormalities of the lumbar spine (affecting 2 to 3% of the population), and is the principal cause of spinal surgery among the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (four to six weeks). The initial treatment should be conservative, managed through medication and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with percutaneous nerve root block. Surgical treatment is indicated if pain control is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit greater than grade 3, if there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or if cauda equina syndrome is present. The latter represents a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces the risk of recurrence over the long term. PMID:27019834

  2. Retrolisthesis as a Compensatory Mechanism in Degenerative Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ikchan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Posterior vertebral translation as a type of spondylolisthesis, retrolisthesis is observed commonly in patients with degenerative spinal problems. Nevertheless, there is insufficient literature on retrolisthesis compared to anterolisthesis. The purpose of this study is to clarify the clinical features of retrolisthesis, and its developmental mechanism associated with a compensatory role in sagittal imbalance of the lumbar spine. Methods From 2003 to 2012, 230 Korean patients who underwent spinal surgery in our department under the impression of degenerative lumbar spinal disease were enrolled. All participants were divided into four groups : 35 patients with retrolisthesis (group R), 32 patients with simultaneous retrolisthesis and anterolisthesis (group R+A), 76 patients with anterolisthesis (group A), and 87 patients with non-translation (group N). The clinical features and the sagittal parameters related to retrolisthesis were retrospectively analyzed based on the patients' medical records. Results There were different clinical features and developmental mechanisms between retrolisthesis and anterolisthesis. The location of retrolisthesis was affected by the presence of simultaneous anterolisthesis, even though it predominantly manifest in L3. The relative lower pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, and lumbar lordosis compared to anterolisthesis were related to the generation of retrolisthesis, with the opposite observations of patients with anterolisthesis. Conclusion Retrolisthesis acts as a compensatory mechanism for moving the gravity axis posteriorly for sagittal imbalance in the lumbar spine under low pelvic incidence and insufficient intra-spinal compensation. PMID:25810857

  3. Lumbar spine chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Hatem, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare tumor arising from notochord remnants in the spine. It is slow-growing, which makes it difficult to diagnose and difficult to follow up after treatment. Typically, it occurs in the base of the skull and sacrococcygeal spine; it rarely occurs in other parts of the spine. CT-guided biopsy of a suspicious mass enabled diagnosis of lumbar spine chordoma.

  4. Salmonella Typhi Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Ying Ying; Chen, John L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection. We report a case of a 57-year-old transgender male who presented with lower back pain for a period of one month following a fall. Physical examination only revealed tenderness over the lower back with no neurological deficits. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine revealed a spondylodiscitis at T10-T11 and T12-L1 and right posterior epidural collection at the T9-T10 level. He underwent decompression laminectomy with segmental instrumentation and fusion of T8 to L3 vertebrae. Intraoperatively, he was found to have acute-on-chronic osteomyelitis in T10 and T11, epidural abscess, and discitis in T12-L1. Tissue and wound culture grew Salmonella Typhi and with antibiotics susceptibility guidance he was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for a period of six weeks. He recovered well with no neurological deficits. PMID:27034871

  5. Lumbar spinal surgery - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of bones (vertebrae) separated by soft cushions (intervertebral discs). ... Lumbar (lower back) spine disease is usually caused by herniated ... bodies (osteophytes), which compress spinal nerves, trauma, and ...

  6. The cat vertebral column: stance configuration and range of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Ye, Y.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the configuration of the vertebral column of the cat during independent stance and in various flexed positions. The range of motion in the sagittal plane is similar across most thoracic and lumbar joints, with the exception of a lesser range at the transition region from thoracic-type to lumbar-type vertebrae. The upper thoracic column exhibits most of its range in dorsiflexion and the lower thoracic and lumbar in ventroflexion. Lateral flexion is limited to less than 5 degrees at all segments. The range in torsion is almost 180 degrees and occurs primarily in the midthoracic region, T4-T11. Contrary to the depiction in most atlases, the standing cat exhibits several curvatures, including a mild dorsiflexion in the lower lumbar segments, a marked ventroflexion in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar segments, and a profound dorsiflexion in the upper thoracic (above T9) and cervical segments. The curvatures are not significantly changed by altering stance distance but are affected by head posture. During stance, the top of the scapula lies well above the spines of the thoracic vertebrae, and the glenohumeral joint is just below the bodies of vertebrae T3-T5. Using a simple static model of the vertebral column in the sagittal plane, it was estimated that the bending moment due to gravity is bimodal with a dorsiflexion moment in the lower thoracic and lumbar region and a ventroflexion moment in the upper thoracic and cervical region. Given the bending moments and the position of the scapula during stance, it is proposed that two groups of scapular muscles provide the major antigravity support for the head and anterior trunk. Levator scapulae and serratus ventralis form the lateral group, inserting on the lateral processes of cervical vertebrae and on the ribs. The major and minor rhomboids form the medial group, inserting on the spinous tips of vertebrae from C4 to T4. It is also proposed that the hypaxial muscles, psoas major, minor, and quadratus

  7. PRIMARY LIPOSARCOMA OF THE LUMBAR SPINE: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; Cardoso, André Luiz Passos; Tristão, Newton Antônio; Pimenta, Wilson Eloy; Daher, Sérgio; de Souza Carneiro, Siderley; Barbosa, Nathalia Parrode Machado; de Lima Malta, Nayanne; Ribeiro, Noara Barros

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of primary bone liposarcoma of the lumbar spine, for which only one case has been reported. A female patient, 60 years of age, with lumbar pain and left sciatalgy for six months. In the imaging exams, a destructive tumor was found in the L4 vertebral body, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumoral lesion with T1 hiposignal and T2 hypersignal. Histological diagnosis was difficult, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis. Surgical treatment was performed with wide ressection, spinal cord decompression, and anterior and posterior fusion of L3 to L5 complemented by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. After three years, a computed tomography (CT) scan evidenced an expansive injury in the lung. Despite its rarity, liposarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sciatica and primary tumors of the spine. PMID:27027092

  8. [Surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis in Gabon].

    PubMed

    Loembe, P M; Ndong-Launay, M; Chouteau, Y; Mwanyombet-Ompounga, L; Dukuly, L; Bouger, D

    1990-01-01

    The authors report their experiences based on 41 cases operated on for lumbar spinal stenosis between 1981 and 1988. The series included 28 men and 13 women aged between 23 and 63 years (mean age: 48 years). Neurogenic intermittent claudication was the presenting symptom in only 12% of the cases, as opposed to lumbago-sciatica in 78%. Clinical examination did not provide any specific elements. The key to diagnosis was lumbar myelography. Laminectomy was the most important aspect of treatment which, in certain cases, was associated with vertebral stabilization by arthrodesis (3 cases). There were ten minor operative complications. Further surgery was necessary in five cases (12%). Therapeutic results in patients followed from one to eight years (35 cases) were satisfactory. The discussion covers nosologic, clinicoradiologic and therapeutic aspects. PMID:2142258

  9. Can astronomy enhance UNESCO World Heritage recognition? The paradigm of 4th Dynasty Egyptian pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The pyramids of Egypt, notably those of the 4th Dinasty as Giza, have always be considered an unmistikable part of human world heritage as the only surviving wonders of the Ancient World. Their majesty, technical hability and innovative character have always beeen considered as representative of ancient Egyptian ingenuity. However, past and present fringe theories about the pyramids and astronomy have always polluted the role of our discipline in the design, construction and symbolism of these impressive monuments. This is indeed unfear. Fortunately, things have started to change in the last couple of decades and now astronomy is interpreted as a neccessary tool for the correct interpretation of the astral eschatology present in the 5th and 6th Dynasty Texts of the Pyramids. Although the pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty are mute, there is however recent research showing that a strong astral symbolism could be hidden in many aspects of the complex architecture and in the design of these exceptional monuments. This idea comes from several hints obtained not only from planning and construction, but also from epigraphy and the analysis of celestial and local landscapes. Chronology also plays a most relevant role on this. The pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty at Meidum, Dahshur, Giza and Abu Rowash -- all of which enjoy UNESCO World Heritage recognition -- willl be scrutinized. As a consequence, we will show how astronomy can certainly enhance the face value of these extraordinary monuments as a definitive proof of the ancient Egyptian quest for Ma'at, i.e. their perennial obsesion for Cosmic Order.

  10. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, are contained in this document and encompass the research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications.

  11. miR-155 Inhibition Sensitizes CD4+ Th Cells for TREG Mediated Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Werner; Labhart, Paul; Alexiadis, Vassili; Becker, Christian; Hafner, Mathias; Weith, Andreas; Lenter, Martin C.; Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Mennerich, Detlev

    2009-01-01

    Background In humans and mice naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (nTregs) are a thymus-derived subset of T cells, crucial for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by controlling not only potentially autoreactive T cells but virtually all cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. Recent work using Dicer-deficient mice irrevocably demonstrated the importance of miRNAs for nTreg cell-mediated tolerance. Principal Findings DNA-Microarray analyses of human as well as murine conventional CD4+ Th cells and nTregs revealed a strong up-regulation of mature miR-155 (microRNA-155) upon activation in both populations. Studying miR-155 expression in FoxP3-deficient scurfy mice and performing FoxP3 ChIP-Seq experiments using activated human T lymphocytes, we show that the expression and maturation of miR-155 seem to be not necessarily regulated by FoxP3. In order to address the functional relevance of elevated miR-155 levels, we transfected miR-155 inhibitors or mature miR-155 RNAs into freshly-isolated human and mouse primary CD4+ Th cells and nTregs and investigated the resulting phenotype in nTreg suppression assays. Whereas miR-155 inhibition in conventional CD4+ Th cells strengthened nTreg cell-mediated suppression, overexpression of mature miR-155 rendered these cells unresponsive to nTreg cell-mediated suppression. Conclusion Investigation of FoxP3 downstream targets, certainly of bound and regulated miRNAs revealed the associated function between the master regulator FoxP3 and miRNAs as regulators itself. miR-155 is shown to be crucially involved in nTreg cell mediated tolerance by regulating the susceptibility of conventional human as well as murine CD4+ Th cells to nTreg cell-mediated suppression. PMID:19777054

  12. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Causey

    1999-02-01

    The 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 14-15, 1998. This workshop occurs every two years, and has previously been held in Livermore/California, Nagoya/Japan, and the JRC-Ispra Site in Italy. The purpose of the workshop is to gather researchers involved in the topic of tritium migration, retention, and recycling in materials used to line magnetic fusion reactor walls and provide a forum for presentation and discussions in this area. This document provides an overall summary of the workshop, the workshop agenda, a summary of the presentations, and a list of attendees.

  13. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition?

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Bundred, P E

    2000-05-01

    The ratio between the length of the 2nd and 4th digits is: (a) fixed in utero; (b) lower in men than in women; (c) negatively related to testosterone and sperm counts; and (d) positively related to oestrogen concentrations. Prenatal levels of testosterone and oestrogen have been implicated in infertility, autism, dyslexia, migraine, stammering, immune dysfunction, myocardial infarction and breast cancer. We suggest that 2D:4D ratio is predictive of these diseases and may be used in diagnosis, prognosis and in early life-style interventions which may delay the onset of disease or facilitate its early detection. PMID:10859702

  14. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held June 27-July 1, 1994 in Orlando, Florida. These documents encompass research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. The areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges; and power and energy applications.

  15. Multi-Dimensional Asymptotically Stable 4th Order Accurate Schemes for the Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, Saul; Ditkowski, Adi

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which solves the multi-dimensional diffusion equation on co mplex shapes to 4th-order accuracy and is asymptotically stable in time. This bounded-error result is achieved by constructing, on a rectangular grid, a differentiation matrix whose symmetric part is negative definite. The differentiation matrix accounts for the Dirichlet boundary condition by imposing penalty like terms. Numerical examples in 2-D show that the method is effective even where standard schemes, stable by traditional definitions fail.

  16. Minodronic acid ameliorates vertebral bone strength by increasing bone mineral density in 9-month treatment of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makoto; Mori, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Kazuhito; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-07-01

    The effect of treatment for 9months with minodronic acid, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on vertebral mechanical strength was examined in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. Forty skeletally mature female monkeys were randomized into four OVX groups and one sham group (n=8) based on lumbar bone mineral density (BMD). OVX animals were treated orally with 15 and 150μg/kg QD of minodronic acid or 500μg/kg QD alendronate as a reference drug. Measurements of bone turnover markers and lumbar BMD were conducted at 0, 4 and 8months. Measurements of bone mechanical strength and minodronic acid concentration in vertebral bodies were also performed. OVX resulted in a decrease in lumbar BMD and an increase in bone turnover markers at 4 and 8months, compared to the sham group, and the ultimate load on the lumbar vertebra was decreased in OVX animals. Minodronic acid and alendronate prevented the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover markers and decrease in lumbar BMD. Minodronic acid at 150μg/kg increased the ultimate load on lumbar vertebra compared to untreated OVX animals. Regression analysis revealed that the ultimate load was correlated with lumbar BMD and bone mineral content (BMC), and most strongly with the increase in lumbar BMD and BMC over 8months. In a separate analysis within the sham-OVX controls and minodronic acid and alendronate treatment groups, the ultimate loads were also correlated with BMD and BMC. The load-BMD (BMC) correlation in the minodronic acid group showed a trend for a shift to a higher load from the basal relationship in the sham-OVX controls. These results indicate that treatment with minodronic acid for 9months increases vertebral mechanical strength in OVX monkeys, mainly by increasing BMD and BMC. PMID:27155564

  17. Spiritual Health Scale 2011: Defining and Measuring 4th Dimension of Health

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Neera; Chaturvedi, SK; Nandan, Deoki

    2011-01-01

    In the midst of physical comforts provided by the unprecedented developments in all spheres of life, the humanity is at cross roads and looking at something beyond these means. Spirituality has now been identified globally as an important aspect for providing answers to many questions related to health and happiness. The World Health Organization is also keen at looking beyond physical, mental and social dimensions of the health, and the member countries are actively exploring the 4th Dimension of the health i.e. the spiritual health and its impact on the overall health and happiness of an individual. National Institute of Health and Family Welfare (NIHFW), realized this need and initiated a research study in this direction. In this study, an effort was made to define this 4th Dimension of health from a common worldly person's perspective and measure it. 3 Domains, 6 Constructs and 27 Determinants of spiritual health were identified through a scientific process. A statistically reliable and valid Spiritual Health Scale (SHS 2011) containing 114 items has been developed. Construct validity and test- retest reliability has been established for urban educated adult population. The scale is first of its kind in the world to measure the spiritual health of a common worldly person, which is devoid of religious and cultural bias. Its items have universal applicability. PMID:22279257

  18. Computational aspects of the nonlinear normal mode initialization of the GLAS 4th order GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navon, I. M.; Bloom, S. C.; Takacs, L.

    1984-01-01

    Using the normal modes of the GLAS 4th Order Model, a Machenhauer nonlinear normal mode initialization (NLNMI) was carried out for the external vertical mode using the GLAS 4th Order shallow water equations model for an equivalent depth corresponding to that associated with the external vertical mode. A simple procedure was devised which was directed at identifying computational modes by following the rate of increase of BAL sub M, the partial (with respect to the zonal wavenumber m) sum of squares of the time change of the normal mode coefficients (for fixed vertical mode index) varying over the latitude index L of symmetric or antisymmetric gravity waves. A working algorithm is presented which speeds up the convergence of the iterative Machenhauer NLNMI. A 24 h integration using the NLNMI state was carried out using both Matsuno and leap-frog time-integration schemes; these runs were then compared to a 24 h integration starting from a non-initialized state. The maximal impact of the nonlinear normal mode initialization was found to occur 6-10 hours after the initial time.

  19. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSquare2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Dimitrios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2015-09-01

    The 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Mykonos, Greece, from Friday 5th June to Monday 8th June 2015. The Conference was attended by more than 150 participants and hosted about 200 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. There were more than 600 pre-registered authors. The 4th IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather intense as after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high quality of talks creating an innovative and productive scientific environment for all attendees. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  20. Design of a Nb3Sn Magnet for a 4th Generation ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Prestemon, S,; Trillaud, F.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G. L.; Lyneis, C. M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Hafalia, R.

    2008-08-17

    The next generation of Electron Cyclotron Resonant (ECR) ion sources are expected to operate at a heating radio frequency greater than 40 GHz. The existing 3rd generation systems, exemplified by the state of the art system VENUS, operate in the 10-28 GHz range, and use NbTi superconductors for the confinement coils. The magnetic field needed to confine the plasma scales with the rf frequency, resulting in peak fields on the magnets of the 4th generation system in excess of 10 T. High field superconductors such as Nb{sub 3}Sn must therefore be considered. The magnetic design of a 4th. generation ECR ion source operating at an rf frequency of 56 GHz is considered. The analysis considers both internal and external sextupole configurations, assuming commercially available Nb{sub 3}Sn material properties. Preliminary structural design issues are discussed based on the forces and margins associated with the coils in the different configurations, leading to quantitative data for the determination of a final magnet design.

  1. Upper lumbar disk herniations.

    PubMed

    Cedoz, M E; Larbre, J P; Lequin, C; Fischer, G; Llorca, G

    1996-06-01

    Specific features of upper lumbar disk herniations are reviewed based on data from the literature and from a retrospective study of 24 cases treated surgically between 1982 and 1994 (seven at L1-L2 and 17 at L2-L3). Clinical manifestations are polymorphic, misleading (abdominogenital pain suggestive of a visceral or psychogenic condition, meralgia paresthetica, isolated sciatica; femoral neuralgia is uncommon) and sometimes severe (five cases of cauda equina syndrome in our study group). The diagnostic usefulness of imaging studies (radiography, myelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and results of surgery are discussed. The risk of misdiagnosis and the encouraging results of surgery are emphasized. PMID:8817752

  2. Mimickers of lumbar radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Bennett Douglas; Blessinger, Brian Joseph; Darden, Bruce Vaiden; Brigham, Craig D; Kneisl, Jeffrey S; Laxer, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons frequently treat patients who report pain that radiates from the back into the lower extremity. Although the most common etiology is either a herniated disk or spinal stenosis, a myriad of pathologies can mimic the symptoms of radiculopathy, resulting in differences in the clinical presentation and the workup. Therefore, the clinician must be able to distinguish the signs and symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy from pathologies that may have a similar presentation. Being cognizant of these other possible conditions enables the physician to consider a breadth of alternative diagnoses when a patient presents with radiating lower extremity pain. PMID:25538126

  3. Crime rates and sedentary behavior among 4th grade Texas school children

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H Shelton; Pérez, Adriana; Mirchandani, Gita G; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Although per capita crime has generally fallen over the period which coincides with the obesity epidemic, it has not fallen uniformly across communities. It also has not fallen enough to allay fears on the part of parents. Over the past 30 years, technological changes have made the indoor alternatives to playing outside, where children are more vulnerable to criminal activity, more enjoyable (cable TV, video games, and the internet) and comfortable (the spread of air conditioning to low income neighborhoods). We determined whether indoor sedentary behavior patterns are associated with community crime statistics. 4th graders in the U.S. are typically 9 or 10 years old. Methods We used data from the 2004–2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey linked with U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics data for the years 2000 through 2005 and Texas State data on sexual offenders. The probability-based sample included a total of 7,907 children in grade four. Multistage probability sampling weights were used. The dependent variables included were hours of TV watching, video game playing, computer use and total indoor sedentary behavior after school. Incremental Relative Rates were computed for community crime rates including robberies, all violent crimes, murders, assaults, property crimes, rapes, burglaries, larcenies and motor vehicle thefts as well as for sexual offenders living in the neighborhood. The neighborhood refers to the areas where the students at each school live. In the case of sexual offenders, sexual offenders per capita are estimated using the per capita rate in the zip code of the school attended; all other crime statistics are estimated by the crimes per capita in the police department jurisdiction covering the school attended. After controlling for sex, age, and African-American and Hispanic, cross-sectional associations were determined using multivariate Poisson regression

  4. [Improvement of approach to performance of lumbar sympathetic blockade in patients with tissue ischemia of the lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Panov, V M; Fesenko, U A; Kutsyn, V M

    2014-06-01

    New access for performance of sympathic blockade in region of aortal bifurcation, was elaborated, basing on calculations, conducted on 30 spiral computeric tomograms of lumbar and sacral parts of vertebral column. Application of the method permits to escape such complications, as a renal and the main vessels damage, the sympathetic nerves blockade, do not demand roentgenological control. PMID:25252554

  5. Herniated lumbar disc

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Herniated lumbar disc is a displacement of disc material (nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosis) beyond the intervertebral disc space. The highest prevalence is among people aged 30 to 50 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:1. There is little evidence to suggest that drug treatments are effective in treating herniated disc. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, non-drug treatments, and surgery for herniated lumbar disc? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 37 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, advice to stay active, analgesics, antidepressants, bed rest, corticosteroids (epidural injections), cytokine inhibitors (infliximab), discectomy (automated percutaneous, laser, microdiscectomy, standard), exercise therapy, heat, ice, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), percutaneous disc decompression, spinal manipulation, and traction. PMID:21711958

  6. Efficacy of traditional treatment regimen on Kati Shoola with special reference to lumbar spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ediriweera, E. R. H. S. S.; Gunathilka, H. D. P.; Weerasinghe, K. D. C. M.; Kalawana, O. T. M. R. K. S. B.

    2013-01-01

    According to Ayurveda, Kati Shoola is a disease with pain in lumbar region. Lumbar spondylolisthesis, anterior displacement of a vertebra or the vertebral column in relation to the vertebrae below, is one of the common causes. Current case study was carried out at Ayurveda Teaching hospital, Borella, to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment regimen used by Sri Lankan traditional physician family “Weerasinghe.” A 59-year-old female with a 9-month history of lumbar spondylolisthesis was treated with this regimen. The patient had progressive pain in left lower back, right and left buttocks, and difficulty in bending forward over 5°. X-ray of lumbo sacral region indicated that patient was suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. She was treated for 65 days with four treatment packages consisting of 13 prepared medicines. The response to the treatment was recorded and therapeutic effects were evaluated through symptomatic relief. Clinical symptoms were significantly reduced and degree of anterior flexion increased from 5° to 90°. However, X-rays indicated that the patient was still suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. This regimen is effective in successfully treating Kati Shoola (lumbar spondylolisthesis) by helping to reduce the symptoms and improving the degree of anterior flexion. PMID:24049411

  7. Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, Katherine A.; Li Chenghong; Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J.; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

  8. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  9. Variation in anthropoid vertebral formulae: implications for homology and homoplasy in hominoid evolution.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A

    2012-03-01

    Variation in vertebral formulae within and among hominoid species has complicated our understanding of hominoid vertebral evolution. Here, variation is quantified using diversity and similarity indices derived from population genetics. These indices allow for testing models of hominoid vertebral evolution that call for disparate amounts of homoplasy, and by inference, different patterns of evolution. Results are interpreted in light of "short-backed" (J Exp Zool (Mol Dev Evol) 302B:241-267) and "long-backed" (J Exp Zool (Mol Dev Evol) 314B:123-134) ancestries proposed in different models of hominin vertebral evolution. Under the long-back model, we should expect reduced variation in vertebral formulae associated with adaptively driven homoplasy (independently and repeatedly reduced lumbar regions) and the relatively strong directional selection presumably associated with it, especially in closely related taxa that diverged relatively recently (e.g., Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus). Instead, high amounts of intraspecific variation are observed among all hominoids except humans and eastern gorillas, taxa that have likely experienced strong stabilizing selection on vertebral formulae associated with locomotor and habitat specializations. Furthermore, analyses of interspecific similarity support an evolutionary scenario in which the vertebral formulae observed in western gorillas and chimpanzees represent a reasonable approximation of the ancestral condition for great apes and humans, from which eastern gorillas, humans, and bonobos derived their unique vertebral profiles. Therefore, these results support the short-back model and are compatible with a scenario of homology of reduced lumbar regions in hominoid primates. Fossil hominin vertebral columns are discussed and shown to support, rather than contradict, the short-back model. PMID:22532475

  10. Breakthrough in cardiac arrest: reports from the 4th Paris International Conference.

    PubMed

    Kudenchuk, Peter J; Sandroni, Claudio; Drinhaus, Hendrik R; Böttiger, Bernd W; Cariou, Alain; Sunde, Kjetil; Dworschak, Martin; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Deye, Nicolas; Friberg, Hans; Laureys, Steven; Ledoux, Didier; Oddo, Mauro; Legriel, Stéphane; Hantson, Philippe; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Laterre, Pierre-Francois

    2015-12-01

    Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th "Paris International Conference in Intensive Care", whose principle is to bring together the best international experts on a hot topic in critical care medicine. The 2014 theme was "Breakthrough in cardiac arrest", with many high-quality updates on epidemiology, public health data, pre-hospital and in-ICU cares. The present review includes short summaries of the major presentations, classified into six main chapters: Epidemiology of CA Pre-hospital management Post-resuscitation management: targeted temperature management Post-resuscitation management: optimizing organ perfusion and metabolic parameters Neurological assessment of brain damages Public healthcare. PMID:26380990

  11. The 4th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress in Lisbon: a personal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    The 4th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress, held in Lisbon, 18–21 June 2003, had a record turnout of more than 8600 delegates and the abstract submissions increased to 2600. A heat wave and a somewhat substandard venue hampered some of the activities, notably the poster sessions. The scientific program was comprehensive and of a high class, and it was organized in 10–12 parallel sessions. The European League Against Rheumatism standing committees are expanding their activities and stimulating European cooperation (e.g. by creating databases and guidelines, and by starting research programs). The standing committees presented several areas where European cooperative work is in progress. Advances in drug therapy were a prominent theme and were well presented. Commercialism remains a problem for this meeting as for other similar large meetings, where satellite symposia surround the scientific program of the congress and often duplicate this. PMID:14979931

  12. FAST DISPLACEMENT PROBABILITY PROFILE APPROXIMATION FROM HARDI USING 4TH-ORDER TENSORS.

    PubMed

    Barmpoutis, Angelos; Vemuri, Baba C; Forder, John R

    2008-05-14

    Cartesian tensor basis have been widely used to approximate spherical functions. In Medical Imaging, tensors of various orders have been used to model the diffusivity function in Diffusion-weighted MRI data sets. However, it is known that the peaks of the diffusivity do not correspond to orientations of the underlying fibers and hence the displacement probability profiles should be employed instead. In this paper, we present a novel representation of the probability profile by a 4(th) order tensor, which is a smooth spherical function that can approximate single-fibers as well as multiple-fiber structures. We also present a method for efficiently estimating the unknown tensor coefficients of the probability profile directly from a given high-angular resolution diffusion-weighted (HARDI) data set. The accuracy of our model is validated by experiments on synthetic and real HARDI datasets from a fixed rat spinal cord. PMID:20046536

  13. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Alcohol drinking and cancer.

    PubMed

    Scoccianti, Chiara; Cecchini, Michele; Anderson, Annie S; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Espina, Carolina; Key, Timothy J; Leitzmann, Michael; Norat, Teresa; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is the third leading risk factor for disease and mortality in Europe. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs provide strengthened evidence that the consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally associated with cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectum and female breast, even for low and moderate alcohol intakes. The risk of cancer increases in a dose-dependent manner, and the higher the amount of alcohol consumed, the higher the risk of developing cancer. Several biological mechanisms explain the carcinogenicity of alcohol; among them, ethanol and its genotoxic metabolite acetaldehyde play a major role. Taking all this evidence into account, a recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer (ECAC) is: "If you drink alcohol of any type, limit your intake. Not drinking alcohol is better for cancer prevention." PMID:26115567

  14. General Chemistry Collection for Students (CD-ROM), Abstract of Special Issue 16, 4th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    The General Chemistry Collection contains both new and previously published JCE Software programs that are intended for use by introductory-level chemistry students. These peer-reviewed programs for Macintosh and for Windows are available on a single CD-ROM for convenient distribution to and access by students, and the CD may be adopted for students to purchase as they would a textbook. General Chemistry Collection covers a broad range of topics providing students with interesting information, tutorials, and simulations that will be useful to them as they study chemistry for the first time. There are 22 programs included in the General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition. Their titles and the general chemistry topics they cover are listed in Table 1. Features in This Edition General Chemistry Collection, 4th edition includes:

    • Lessons for Introductory Chemistry and INQUAL-S, two new programs not previously published by JCE Software (abstracts appear below)
    • Writing Electron Dot Structures (1) and Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment for Windows (2), two programs published individually by JCE Software
    • Periodic Table Live! LE, a limited edition of Periodic Table Live!, 2nd Edition (3) (this replaces Chemistry Navigator (4) and Illustrated Periodic Table (5))
    • Many of the programs from previous editions (6)1
    Hardware and Software Requirements System requirements are given in Table 2. Some programs have additional requirements. See the individual program abstracts at JCE Online, or documentation included on the CD-ROM for more specific information. Licensing and Discounts for Adoptions The General Chemistry Collection is intended for use by individual students. Institutions and faculty members may adopt General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition as they would a textbook. We can arrange for CDs to be packaged with laboratory manuals or other course materials or to be sold for direct distribution to students through the campus

  15. Quark masses and mixings in the RS1 model with a condensing 4th generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, A. E. Cárcamo; Dib, Claudio O.; Neill, Nicolás A.; Zerwekh, Alfonso R.

    2012-02-01

    We study the hierarchy of quark masses and mixings in a model based on a 5-dimensional spacetime with constant curvature of Randall-Sundrum type with two branes, where the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking is caused dynamically by the condensation of a 4th generation of quarks, due to underlying physics from the 5D bulk and the first KK gluons. We first study the hierarchy of quark masses and mixings that can be obtained from purely adjusting the profile localizations, finding that realistic masses are not reproduced unless non trivial hierarchies of underlying 4-fermion interactions from the bulk are included. Then we study global U(1) symmetries that can be imposed in order to obtain non-symmetric modified Fritzsch-like textures in the mass matrices that reproduce reasonably well quark masses and CKM mixings.

  16. Report on the 4th International IUPAP Women in Physics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Cynthia

    2011-10-01

    Stellenbosch, South Africa was the site of the 4^th International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) International Conference on Women in Physics, which took place on April 5^th-8^th. This conference brought together the diverse contributions of 250 female physicist attendees from nearly 60 countries worldwide to dissect the challenges faced by female physicists worldwide and to propose strategies to attract and retain more girls and women to the field. Having served as a member of the U.S. Delegation, I will discuss the resolutions reached and highlight the most important results of Global Survey of Physicists, where nearly 15,000 physicists shine light on how gender affects their lives and careers.

  17. Report of the 4th World Climate Research Programme International Conference on Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Rixen, Michel; van Oevelen, Peter; Asrar, Ghassem; Compo, Gilbert; Onogi, Kazutoshi; Simmons, Adrian; Trenberth, Kevin; Behringer, Dave; Bhuiyan, Tanvir Hossain; Capps, Shannon; Chaudhuri, Ayan; Chen, Junye; Chen, Linling; Colasacco-Thumm, Nicole; Escobar, Maria Gabriela; Ferguson, Craig R.; Ishibashi, Toshiyuki; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Meng, Jesse; Molod, Andrea; Poli, Paul; Roundy, Joshua; Willett, Kate; Wollen, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The 4th WCRP International Conference on Reanalyses provided an opportunity for the international community to review and discuss the observational and modelling research, as well as process studies and uncertainties associated with reanalysis of the Earth System and its components. Characterizing the uncertainty and quality of reanalyses is a task that reaches far beyond the international community of producers, and into the interdisciplinary research community, especially those using reanalysis products in their research and applications. Reanalyses have progressed greatly even in the last 5 years, and newer ideas, projects and data are coming forward. While reanalysis has typically been carried out for the individual domains of atmosphere, ocean and land, it is now moving towards coupling using Earth system models. Observations are being reprocessed and they are providing improved quality for use in reanalysis. New applications are being investigated, and the need for climate reanalyses is as strong as ever. At the heart of it all, new investigators are exploring the possibilities for reanalysis, and developing new ideas in research and applications. Given the many centres creating reanalyses products (e.g. ocean, land and cryosphere research centres as well as NWP and atmospheric centers), and the development of new ideas (e.g. families of reanalyses), the total number of reanalyses is increasing greatly, with new and innovative diagnostics and output data. The need for reanalysis data is growing steadily, and likewise, the need for open discussion and comment on the data. The 4th Conference was convened to provide a forum for constructive discussion on the objectives, strengths and weaknesses of reanalyses, indicating potential development paths for the future.

  18. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Medical exposures, including hormone therapy, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    The 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends limiting - or avoiding when possible - the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) because of the increased risk of cancer, nevertheless acknowledging that prescription of HRT may be indicated under certain medical conditions. Current evidence shows that HRT, generally prescribed as menopausal hormone therapy, is associated with an increased risk of cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary, with the risk pattern depending on factors such as the type of therapy (oestrogen-only or combined oestrogen-progestogen), duration of treatment, and initiation according to the time of menopause. Carcinogenicity has also been established for anti-neoplastic agents used in cancer therapy, immunosuppressants, oestrogen-progestogen contraceptives, and tamoxifen. Medical use of ionising radiation, an established carcinogen, can provide major health benefits; however, prudent practices need to be in place, with procedures and techniques providing the needed diagnostic information or therapeutic gain with the lowest possible radiation exposure. For pharmaceutical drugs and medical radiation exposure with convincing evidence on their carcinogenicity, health benefits have to be balanced against the risks; potential increases in long-term cancer risk should be considered in the context of the often substantial and immediate health benefits from diagnosis and/or treatment. Thus, apart from HRT, no general recommendations on reducing cancer risk were given for carcinogenic drugs and medical radiation in the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer. It is crucial that the application of these measures relies on medical expertise and thorough benefit-risk evaluation. This also pertains to cancer-preventive drugs, and self-medication with aspirin or other potential chemopreventive drugs is strongly discouraged because of the possibility of serious, potentially lethal, adverse events. PMID:26390952

  19. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4(th) Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Jana A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W

    2013-10-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4(th) graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009-2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4(th) grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students' multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539

  20. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4th graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009–2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4th grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students’ multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539

  1. Outcome of Salvage Lumbar Fusion after Lumbar Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Harel

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review. Purpose This study aims to define the role of lumbar fusion for persistent back pains after the lumbar disc replacement. Overview of Literature Little is written about lumbar fusion after optimally placed lumbar arthroplasty in patients with persistent lower back pains. Methods Retrospective review of cases of lumbar artificial disc requiring subsequent fusion because of persistent back pains despite optimally placed artificial discs. Outcomes were evaluated using Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Clinical improvements indicated 25% improvement in ODI and VAS values. Results Five patients met the study criteria. The mean baseline ODI for the five patients was 52. The mean baseline VAS scores for back and leg pains were 76 and 26, respectively. All the five patients had optimally placed prosthesis. The indication for surgery was the constant low back pains found in all the patients. Revision surgery involved disc explantation and fusion in two of the patients and posterolateral fusion without removing the prosthesis in three. None of the patients achieved adequate pain control after the revision surgery despite the solid bony fusion documented by postoperative computed tomography. The mean ODI value after the fusion was 55. The mean values for back and leg pains VAS were 72 and 30, respectively. Conclusions Lack of good pain relief after successful lumbar artifical disc replacements may indicate different etiology for the back pains. The spine-treating surgeons should have a high threshold level to perform salvage fusion at that level. PMID:24596600

  2. Conditions for the generation of cytotoxic CD4(+) Th cells that enhance CD8(+) CTL-mediated tumor regression.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunyu; Baird, Margaret; Yang, Jianping; Jackson, Chris; Ronchese, Franca; Young, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Adoptive cell therapies (ACTs) using tumor-reactive T cells have shown clinical benefit and potential for cancer treatment. While the majority of the current ACT are focused on using CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), others have shown that the presence of tumor-reactive CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells can greatly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8(+) CTL. However, difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of CD4(+) Th cells through in vitro expansion can limit the application of CD4 Th cells in ACT. This study aims to optimize the culture conditions for mouse CD4 T cells to provide basic information for animal studies of ACT using CD4 T cells. Taking advantage of the antigen-specificity of CD4(+) Th cells from OT-II transgenic mice, we examined different methodologies for generating antigen-specific CD4(+) Th1 cells in vitro. We found that cells grown in complete advanced-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with low-dose IL-2 and IL-7 induced substantial cell expansion. These Th cells were Th1-like, as they expressed multiple Th1-cytokines and exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity. In addition co-transfer of these CD4(+) Th1-like cells with CD8(+) CTL significantly enhanced tumor regression, leading to complete cure in 80% of mice bearing established B16-OVA. These observations indicate that the CD4(+) Th1-like cells generated using the method we optimized are functionally active to eliminate their target cells, and can also assist CD8(+) CTL to enhance tumor regression. The findings of this study provide valuable data for further research into in vitro expansion of CD4(+) Th1-like cells, with potential applications to cancer treatment involving ACT. PMID:27588200

  3. Conditions for the generation of cytotoxic CD4+ Th cells that enhance CD8+ CTL-mediated tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunyu; Baird, Margaret; Yang, Jianping; Jackson, Chris; Ronchese, Franca; Young, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapies (ACTs) using tumor-reactive T cells have shown clinical benefit and potential for cancer treatment. While the majority of the current ACT are focused on using CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), others have shown that the presence of tumor-reactive CD4+ T helper (Th) cells can greatly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8+ CTL. However, difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of CD4+ Th cells through in vitro expansion can limit the application of CD4 Th cells in ACT. This study aims to optimize the culture conditions for mouse CD4 T cells to provide basic information for animal studies of ACT using CD4 T cells. Taking advantage of the antigen-specificity of CD4+ Th cells from OT-II transgenic mice, we examined different methodologies for generating antigen-specific CD4+ Th1 cells in vitro. We found that cells grown in complete advanced-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with low-dose IL-2 and IL-7 induced substantial cell expansion. These Th cells were Th1-like, as they expressed multiple Th1-cytokines and exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity. In addition co-transfer of these CD4+ Th1-like cells with CD8+ CTL significantly enhanced tumor regression, leading to complete cure in 80% of mice bearing established B16-OVA. These observations indicate that the CD4+ Th1-like cells generated using the method we optimized are functionally active to eliminate their target cells, and can also assist CD8+ CTL to enhance tumor regression. The findings of this study provide valuable data for further research into in vitro expansion of CD4+ Th1-like cells, with potential applications to cancer treatment involving ACT. PMID:27588200

  4. The nerve supply of the lumbar intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Edgar, M A

    2007-09-01

    The anatomical studies, basic to our understanding of lumbar spine innervation through the sinu-vertebral nerves, are reviewed. Research in the 1980s suggested that pain sensation was conducted in part via the sympathetic system. These sensory pathways have now been clarified using sophisticated experimental and histochemical techniques confirming a dual pattern. One route enters the adjacent dorsal root segmentally, whereas the other supply is non-segmental ascending through the paravertebral sympathetic chain with re-entry through the thoracolumbar white rami communicantes. Sensory nerve endings in the degenerative lumbar disc penetrate deep into the disrupted nucleus pulposus, insensitive in the normal lumbar spine. Complex as well as free nerve endings would appear to contribute to pain transmission. The nature and mechanism of discogenic pain is still speculative but there is growing evidence to support a 'visceral pain' hypothesis, unique in the muscloskeletal system. This mechanism is open to 'peripheral sensitisation' and possibly 'central sensitisation' as a potential cause of chronic back pain. PMID:17905946

  5. Chronic Q-Fever (Coxiella burnetii) Causing Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Lumbar Osteomyelitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Leahey, P. Alexander; Tahan, Steven R.; Kasper, Ekkehard M.; Albrecht, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a rare cause of chronic infection that most frequently presents as endocarditis. We report a case of C burnetii causing an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm with contiguous lumbar osteomyelitis resulting in spinal cord compromise. The diagnosis was established by serologic studies consistent with chronic Q-fever (ratio of C burnetii immunoglobulin [Ig]G phase II titer to IgG phase I titer <1) and was confirmed by positive C burnetii polymerase chain reaction of vertebral tissue in addition to pathology of vertebral bone showing intracellular Gram-negative coccobacillary bacteria. The patient clinically improved after surgical decompression and prolonged treatment with doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. PMID:26730393

  6. Chronic Q-Fever (Coxiella burnetii) Causing Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Lumbar Osteomyelitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Leahey, P Alexander; Tahan, Steven R; Kasper, Ekkehard M; Albrecht, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a rare cause of chronic infection that most frequently presents as endocarditis. We report a case of C burnetii causing an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm with contiguous lumbar osteomyelitis resulting in spinal cord compromise. The diagnosis was established by serologic studies consistent with chronic Q-fever (ratio of C burnetii immunoglobulin [Ig]G phase II titer to IgG phase I titer <1) and was confirmed by positive C burnetii polymerase chain reaction of vertebral tissue in addition to pathology of vertebral bone showing intracellular Gram-negative coccobacillary bacteria. The patient clinically improved after surgical decompression and prolonged treatment with doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. PMID:26730393

  7. Nucleus pulposus cells derived IGF-1 and MCP-1 enhance osteoclastogenesis and vertebrae disruption in lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhongjiao; Huang, Peng; Chong, Yanxue; George, Suraj K; Wen, Bingtao; Han, Na; Liu, Zhiqiang; Kang, Lixin; Lin, Nie

    2014-01-01

    vertebral erosions. Hence, this study suggests that targeting osteoclastogenesis related cytokines has potential clinical significance in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation patients. PMID:25674216

  8. Computed tomography of thoracic and lumbar spine fractures that have been treated with Harrington instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Golimbu, C.; Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.; Engler, G.; Delman, A.

    1984-06-01

    Twenty patients with fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine underwent computed tomography (CT) following Harrington distraction instrumentation and a spinal fusion. CT was done to search for a cause of persistent cord or nerve root compression in those patients who failed to improve and completely recover their partial neurologic deficit (14 cases). The most common abnormality was the presence of residual bone fragments originating in the burst fracture of a vertebral body displaced posteriorly, into the spinal canal. In patients with complications in the late recovery period, CT found exuberant callus indenting the canal or lack of fusion of the bone grafts placed in the anterolateral aspect of the vertebral bodies. This experience indicates that CT is the modality of choice for spinal canal evaluation in those patients who fail to have an optimal clinical course following fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine treated with Harrington rods.

  9. [Revision surgery after implantation of a vertebral disc prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Hopf, C

    2008-04-01

    Assessment of the revisability of surgery after the endoprosthetic replacement of vertebral discs shows that the surgical approach depends on the time of revision surgery and the reason why it is carried out. Our experience is based on nine revision operations out of 152 cervical vertebra prostheses of the Bryan and Prodisc C types implanted from 2003 to 2007 and 312 endoprostheses of the Charité and Prodisc types implanted from 1999 to 2007. Our own results show differing approaches in perioperative or late postoperative revision operations. Operations to exchange implants were not possible, whereas a change of surgical procedure is the rule. The same access route can usually be selected in the cervical spine, but in the lumbar spine this can only be done perioperatively; if revision surgery is carried out at a later date, an alternative access route must be used. Using strict indications for the primary implant is the only way to prevent postoperative revision surgery that is due to an inaccurate primary assessment and not to the vertebral endoprosthesis (e.g. post-discotomy syndrome, facet joint arthropathy, rotation instability, vertebral slip). The next generation of vertebral disc endoprostheses must incorporate reduced load of the zygapophyseal joints and improved revisability. PMID:18340432

  10. Vertebral hemangioma coincident with metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zapałowicz, Krzysztof; Bierzyńska-Macyszyn, Grażyna; Stasiów, Bartłomiej; Krzan, Aleksandra; Wierzycka, Beata; Kopycka, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on colon cancer metastasis to the L-3 vertebra, which had been previously found to be involved by an asymptomatic hemangioma. A 61-year-old female patient was admitted after onset of lumbar axial pain and weakness of the right quadriceps muscle. Her medical history included colon cancer that had been diagnosed 3 years earlier and was treated via a right hemicolectomy followed by chemotherapy. Presurgical imaging revealed an asymptomatic hemangioma in the L-3 vertebral body. Computed tomography and MRI of the spine were performed after admission and revealed a hemangioma in the L-3 vertebral body as well as a soft-tissue mass protruding from the L-3 vertebral body to the spinal canal. Treatment consisted of vertebroplasty of the hemangioma, left L-3 hemilaminectomy, and removal of the pathological mass from the spinal canal and the L-3 vertebral body. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of colon cancer metastasis and a hemangioma in the same vertebra. PMID:26588498

  11. Computed tomographic epidurography: an aid to understanding deformation of the lumbar dural sac by epidural injections.

    PubMed

    Fukushige, T; Kano, T; Sano, T; Irie, M

    1999-09-01

    Local anaesthetics injected into the epidural space may deform the dural sac to a variable degree, thereby contributing to variability in the extent of the block. We investigated deformation of the lumbar dural sac after injection into the lumbar epidural space. The subjects were 26 patients with low-back pain who underwent lumbar epidurography and computed tomographic (CT) epidurography, of whom seven also underwent myelography and computed tomographic myelography. The epidural space was entered via the sacral hiatus in 24 patients and through the L5/S1 interspace in two patients. Ten millilitres of local anaesthetic was then injected into the epidural space followed by 20 mL of contrast medium. Computed tomographic epidurography was undertaken approximately 30-min after the epidural injection at the mid-vertebral and mid-discal levels from the first lumbar through to the first sacral vertebrae. The dural sac usually showed an oval or hexagonal shape on the transverse views at the first and second lumbar vertebral levels, and the shape of an inverted triangle below the level of the third lumbar vertebra. A median line of translucency was also observed on the posteroanterior epidurographic view in 25 of the 26 patients. This line was though to be a manifestation of the dural deformation to the inverted triangle. Dural sac deformation usually shows a specific pattern, although there are individual variations. Dural deformability is an important consideration in any analysis of the spread of epidural block or of the changes of epidural pressure after epidural injection of local anaesthetics. PMID:10549463

  12. [Vertebral hydatidosis: case report].

    PubMed

    Varela, R; Santelices, J P; Cuzmar, D; Aldunate, J T; Plaza-Guzmán, N; Lizama-Calvo, P

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis caused by echinococcus granulosus may affect any organ in the body, with the lungs and the liver as the most commonly affected organs. Vertebral compromise resulting from echinococcus granulosus has a low prevalence and accounts for less than 1% of bone compromise. We report the case of a 50 year-old female who presented at the Trauma Service with progressive low back pain with 5 months of duration that irradiated to the right lower limb, and led to neurologic compromise of the limb. Imaging studies showed spondylodiscitis at T12-L1, confirmed by a biopsy. Treatment of this condition is both orthopedic and surgical. The recurrence rate is high, between 30 and 40%. The objective of describing this case is to propose the differential diagnosis of a vertebral mass of unknown origin and provide details as to how to manage this condition. PMID:27012085

  13. Viruses of lower vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Essbauer, S; Ahne, W

    2001-08-01

    Viruses of lower vertebrates recently became a field of interest to the public due to increasing epizootics and economic losses of poikilothermic animals. These were reported worldwide from both wildlife and collections of aquatic poikilothermic animals. Several RNA and DNA viruses infecting fish, amphibians and reptiles have been studied intensively during the last 20 years. Many of these viruses induce diseases resulting in important economic losses of lower vertebrates, especially in fish aquaculture. In addition, some of the DNA viruses seem to be emerging pathogens involved in the worldwide decline in wildlife. Irido-, herpes- and polyomavirus infections may be involved in the reduction in the numbers of endangered amphibian and reptile species. In this context the knowledge of several important RNA viruses such as orthomyxo-, paramyxo-, rhabdo-, retro-, corona-, calici-, toga-, picorna-, noda-, reo- and birnaviruses, and DNA viruses such as parvo-, irido-, herpes-, adeno-, polyoma- and poxviruses, is described in this review. PMID:11550762

  14. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze. PMID:20607135

  15. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (Nanosafe2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, F.; Damlencourt, J.-F.; Schuster, F.; Gaultier, V.

    2015-05-01

    This volume contains a collection of contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (NANOSAFE 2014) held in Grenoble, France, from 18th to 20th November 2014. The issues of fast progress in the field of Nanosafety are up to the potential benefits that nanotechnology can bring to mankind. Making more efficient - more sustainable - easier to share mineral resources, increasing the yields of new energy technologies, enabling drugs that act selectively and locally are just few examples of the wide range of nanomaterial applications that currently benefit humanity. Nevertheless, the dynamic development of nanomaterials requires the adhesion from the general public who rightly demand major progresses in Nanosafety as a prerequisite. This is our exciting responsibility and challenge! Following the successful outcome of the three past international conferences on safe production and use of nanomaterials: Nanosafe 2008, 2010 and 2012, the organizing committee has the pleasure to welcoming you again to Minatec, Grenoble with some of the most famous specialists in the field. This year, two new topics have been added dealing with the "New Application of Nanomaterials" and "Nano-responsible Development" in addition to the usual issues addressed in previous Nanosafe conferences such as Expology, Detection and Characterization, Toxicology, Environmental Interactions, Nanomaterials Release, Life Cycle Analysis, Regulation and Standardization, Risk Management. The debates in 2012 proved highly successful so this formula has been kept in 2014 with 3 round tables: Nano-Responsible Development, Risks and Benefits for the Environment, Toxicology Progress. In this 4th edition, there were more than 330 registered participants from 28 different countries including 160 oral presentation covering the whole Nanosafety issues in 12 sessions, satellite workshops and round tables. This high number of participants makes this edition one of

  16. Vertebral Fracture Assessment in Adolescents and Young Women with Anorexia Nervosa: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    DiVasta, Amy D.; Feldman, Henry A.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of vertebral fracture (VF) for young women with anorexia nervosa (AN) are not well understood. We sought to determine the rates of asymptomatic VF in patients suffering from AN, hypothesizing that VF rates would be higher in subjects with low BMD Z-scores. We recruited young women with AN (n=80) for participation in a longitudinal trial. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images of the lateral thoracic and lumbar spine were obtained for vertebral fracture assessment at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months. Thirteen subjects (16%) had a low spinal BMD at baseline (BMD Z-score ≤ –2 SD). Using the Genant semiquantitative technique, 2/80 subjects at baseline (2.5%) had evidence of a single, Genant grade 1 deformity. One subject had a Genant Grade 2 deformity. Over the 18-month trial, 10 incident vertebral fractures occurred in 9 subjects (12.5%). Using quantitative techniques, only two subjects had a >15% loss in vertebral height. Neither anthropometric data nor markers of disease severity were associated with fracture. In conclusion, ill young women with AN were at low risk for asymptomatic VF in our cohort. Vertebral fractures were not predicted by duration of illness, severity of malnutrition, or traditional measures of aBMD at the lumbar spine. PMID:23562364

  17. Seven years’ experience with etidronate in a woman with anorexia nervosa and vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Uzawa, Mitsuyoshi; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old Japanese woman with anorexia nervosa and vertebral fractures who was treated with etidronate. She had a history of anorexia nervosa, chronic back pain, osteoporosis, and multiple vertebral fractures (morphometric fractures) that responded poorly to treatment with alfacalcidol (1 μg daily) for 1 year and was treated with cyclical etidronate (200 mg for 2 weeks every 3 months) for 7 years. The lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) increased, and the serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen levels and back pain decreased. During the 7-year period of treatment with etidronate, no osteoporotic fractures occurred. The patient experienced neither renal dysfunction nor hyperparathyroidism caused by osteomalacia. No gastrointestinal tract symptoms were observed. Thus, etidronate was effective for increasing the lumbar spine BMD and reducing back pain over a 7-year period without causing either osteoporotic fractures or adverse events. PMID:21845050

  18. Seven years' experience with etidronate in a woman with anorexia nervosa and vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Uzawa, Mitsuyoshi; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old Japanese woman with anorexia nervosa and vertebral fractures who was treated with etidronate. She had a history of anorexia nervosa, chronic back pain, osteoporosis, and multiple vertebral fractures (morphometric fractures) that responded poorly to treatment with alfacalcidol (1 μg daily) for 1 year and was treated with cyclical etidronate (200 mg for 2 weeks every 3 months) for 7 years. The lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) increased, and the serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen levels and back pain decreased. During the 7-year period of treatment with etidronate, no osteoporotic fractures occurred. The patient experienced neither renal dysfunction nor hyperparathyroidism caused by osteomalacia. No gastrointestinal tract symptoms were observed. Thus, etidronate was effective for increasing the lumbar spine BMD and reducing back pain over a 7-year period without causing either osteoporotic fractures or adverse events. PMID:21845050

  19. Vertebral sarcoidosis: demonstration of bone involvement by computerized axial tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Dinerstein, S.L.; Kovarsky, J.

    1984-08-01

    A report is given of a rare case of vertebral sarcoidosis with negative conventional spinal x-ray films, yet with typical cystic lesions of the spine found incidentally during abdominal computerized axial tomography (CAT). The patient was a 28-year-old black man, who was admitted for evaluation of a 1 1/2-year history of diffuse myalgias, intermittent fever to 102 F orally, bilateral hilar adenopathy, and leukopenia. A technetium polyphosphate bone scan revealed diffuse areas of increased uptake over the sternum, entire vertebral column, and pelvis. Conventional x-ray films of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, and an AP view of the pelvis were all normal. Chest x-ray film revealed only bilateral hilar adenopathy. During the course of an extensive negative evaluation for infection, an abdominal CAT scan was done, showing multiple, small, sclerotic-rimmed cysts at multiple levels of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine. Bone marrow biopsy revealed only changes consistent with anemia of chronic disease. Mediastinal lymph node biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomas. A tentative diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made, and treatment with prednisone, isoniazid and rifampin was begun. Within two weeks of initiation of prednisone therapy, the patient was symptom-free. A repeat technetium polyphosphate bone scan revealed only a small residual area of mildly increased uptake over the upper thoracic vertebrae.

  20. Building the Vertebrate Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead

  1. Cutting orientations for non-complex parts in 4th axis machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman Zahid, M. N.; Case, K.; Watts, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The application of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining for Rapid Manufacturing processes (CNC-RM) exploits the innate potential of 4th axis machining. The use of an indexer allows the workpiece to be rotated to various orientations which directly increased the region accessible to the cutting tool. However, in order to avoid thin webs and preserve tool life, cutting must be executed with a minimum of three orientations even for geometrically simple parts. Recent findings have suggested the separation of cutting orientations into roughing and finishing operations. Thus, the selection of orientations in finishing processes becomes more flexible and independent. This study was conducted to identify the effects of using a minimum of two cutting orientations in finishing operations for CNC-RM applications. This method is only applicable for non-complex parts where all the features can be machined from two directions. The results of the study illustrate the positive effects of minimizing the number of orientations. Despite improvement in machining operations, the complexity in defining the cutting orientations was also reduced.

  2. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk. PMID:26126928

  3. PREFACE: 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    This volume contains selected full length technical papers amongst forty oral presentations made in the 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014), NIT Rourkela, Rourkela, Odisha, India, December 5 - 6, 2014. The first conference of the NCPCM series was held at the same place in December 2011. Seeing the enthusiasm of the participants, it was decided to organize such conference in Rourkela every year. The basic idea was to establish a periodical national forum for multi-scale approaches in processing and characterization of materials in the eastern part of India. The conference NCPCM 2014 has successfully carried the tradition of previous conferences; more than fifty participants from twenty different organizations across India have registered. The conference was consisted of six technical sessions of about fifty contributory talks along with three keynote lectures. A metallography contest was also organized during the event. Out of these, thirty four best peer-reviewed contributions are published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. We would like to thank all the contributors, members of the organizing committee, session chairs as well as colleagues and students who helped with the preparation of the conference and, particularly, with the preparation of this volume. We convey our heartiest gratitude to the sponsors and advertisers for their contribution.

  4. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Joachim; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Herrero, Rolando; Leon, Maria E; Minozzi, Silvia; Romieu, Isabelle; Segnan, Nereo; Wardle, Jane; Wiseman, Martin; Belardelli, Filippo; Bettcher, Douglas; Cavalli, Franco; Galea, Gauden; Lenoir, Gilbert; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Nicula, Florian Alexandru; Olsen, Jørgen H; Patnick, Julietta; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; Puska, Pekka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Wiestler, Otmar; Zatonski, Witold

    2015-12-01

    This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer. PMID:26164654

  5. 4th-International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Science - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hrvoje Petek

    2005-01-26

    The 4-th International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Dynamics (UDS4) was held at the Telluride Summer Research Center on June 22-27, 2003. The International Organizing Committee consisting of Hrvoje Petek (USA), Xiaoyang Zhu (USA), Pedro Echenique (Spain) and Maki Kawai (Japan) brought together a total of 51 participants 16 of whom were from Europe, 10 from Japan, and 25 from the USA. The focus of the conference was on ultrafast electron or light induced processes at well-defined surfaces. Ultrafast surface dynamics concerns the transfer of charge and energy at solid surfaces on the femtosecond time scale. These processes govern rates of fundamental steps in surface reactions, interfacial electron transfer in molecular electronics, and relaxation in spin transport. Recent developments in femtosecond laser technology make it possible to measure by a variety of nonlinear optical techniques directly in the time domain the microscopic rates underlying these interfacial processes. Parallel progress in scanning probe microscopy makes it possible at a single molecular level to perform the vibrational and electronic spectroscopy measurements, to induce reactions with tunneling electrons, and to observe their outcome. There is no doubt that successful development in the field of ultrafast surface dynamics will contribute to many important disciplines.

  6. Continuum Kinetic Plasma Modeling Using a Conservative 4th-Order Method with AMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogman, Genia; Colella, Phillip

    2012-10-01

    When the number of particles in a Debye sphere is large, a plasma can be accurately represented by a distribution function, which can be treated as a continuous incompressible fluid in phase space. In the most general case the evolution of such a distribution function is described by the 6D Boltzmann-Maxwell partial differential equation system. To address the challenges associated with solving a 6D hyperbolic governing equation, a simpler 3D Vlasov-Poisson system is considered. A 4th-order accurate Vlasov-Poisson model has been developed in one spatial and two velocity dimensions. The governing equation is cast in conservation law form and is solved with a finite volume representation. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to allow for efficient use of computational resources while maintaining desired levels of resolution. The model employs a flux limiter to remedy non-physical effects such as numerical dispersion. The model is tested on the two-stream, beam-plasma, and Dory-Guest-Harris instabilities. All results are compared with linear theory.

  7. Project ASTRO: Local Coalitions for Bringing Astronomers to 4th - 9th Grade Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1998-05-01

    We report on Project ASTRO, an NSF and NASA funded program that now links professional and amateur astronomers with local 4th through 9th grade teachers in 10 sites around the country. Each site matches and trains about 20-25 astronomer-teacher partnerships per year, focusing on hands-on, age-appropriate activities, demonstrations of the scientific method, as well as family and community outreach. Over 10,000 copies of the project's 813-page UNIVERSE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS resource and activity notebook (published by the A.S.P) are now in use in educational institututions around the world. The project's HOW-TO-MANUAL is being used as a practical guide to establishing astronomer-teacher partnerships where no formal ASTRO site exists, and a 12-minute video explaining and demonstrating the project is also available. In each of the ten sites, a coalition of educational and scientific institutions is assisting the project with in-kind donations, publicity, personnel, training, materials, etc. We are conducting an experiment (at the behest of NSF) to see to what degree the sites can become self-supporting over time. (One site, in Salt Lake City, has already received full funding from a local foundation.) We will discuss the progress of the project and will have a variety of sample materials available, including our annotated catalog of national astronomy and space science education projects (see associated URL).

  8. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ultraviolet radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Greinert, Rüdiger; de Vries, Esther; Erdmann, Friederike; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as tanning devices. Acute skin reactions induced by UVR exposure are erythema (skin reddening), or sunburn, and the acquisition of a suntan triggered by UVR-induced DNA damage. UVR exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations, and its incidence has increased steeply over recent decades. According to estimates for 2012, about 100,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma and about 22,000 deaths from it occurred in Europe. The main mechanisms by which UVR causes cancer are well understood. Exposure during childhood appears to be particularly harmful. Exposure to UVR is a risk factor modifiable by individuals' behaviour. Excessive exposure from natural sources can be avoided by seeking shade when the sun is strongest, by wearing appropriate clothing, and by appropriately applying sunscreens if direct sunlight is unavoidable. Exposure from artificial sources can be completely avoided by not using sunbeds. Beneficial effects of sun or UVR exposure, such as for vitamin D production, can be fully achieved while still avoiding too much sun exposure and the use of sunbeds. Taking all the scientific evidence together, the recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer for ultraviolet radiation is: "Avoid too much sun, especially for children. Use sun protection. Do not use sunbeds." PMID:26096748

  9. 4th annual primary care ethics conference: ethics education and lifelong learning

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, John; McKenzie-Edwards, Emma; Misselbrook, David

    2014-01-01

    Primary care ethics is a field of study that has recently found new life, with calls to establish the relevance of ethical discussion in general practice, to gather a body of literature and to carve out an intellectual space for primary care on the academic landscape of bioethics. In this report, we reflect on the key strands of the 4th primary care ethics conference held at the Royal Society of Medicine, on a theme of ethics education and lifelong learning: first, to produce insights that have relevance for policy and practice; and second, to illustrate the idea that not only is ethics relevant in primary care, but primary care is relevant in medical ethics. Core themes included the advantages and disadvantages of prescriptive ways of doing ethics in education, ethical reflection and potential risk to professional status, the need to deal with societal change and to take on board the insights gained from empirical work, whether this is about different kinds of fatherhood, or work on the causes of moral distress in healthcare workers. PMID:25949739

  10. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.

  11. Need for Specific Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Lessons for 4th and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Jacobs, Laurel; Waits, Juanita; Hartz, Vern; Martinez, Stephanie H.; Standfast, Rebecca D.; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Bawden, Margine; Whitmer, Evelyn; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to obesity. We hypothesized that school-based nutrition education would decrease SSB consumption. Design Self-selected interventional cohort with random selection for pre and post measurements Setting Arizona SNAP-Ed eligible schools Participants Randomly selected (9%) 4th and 5th grade classroom students Intervention The University of Arizona Nutrition Network (UANN) provided general nutrition education training and materials to teachers, to be delivered to their students. The UANN administered behavioral questionnaires to students in both Fall and Spring. Main Outcome Measure(s) Change in SSB consumption Analyses Descriptive statistics were computed for student demographics and beverage consumption on the day prior to testing. Paired t-tests evaluated change in classroom averages. Linear regression assessed potential correlates of SSB consumption. Results Fall mean SSB consumption was 1.1 (±0.2) times; mean milk and water intake were 1.6 (±0.2) and 5.2 (±0.7) times, respectively. Beverage consumption increased (3.2%) in springtime, with increased SSBs (14.4%) accounting for the majority (p=0.006). Change in SSB consumption was negatively associated with baseline SSB and water consumption, but positively associated with baseline milk fat (p≤0.05). Conclusions and Implications The results suggest the need for beverage specific education to encourage children to consume more healthful beverages in warmer weather. PMID:25239840

  12. Multiwavelength Analysis of a Moving Type-IV Radio Burst on 4th March 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veluchamy, V.; Chen, Y.; Feng, S.; Du, G.; Song, H.; Kong, X.

    2015-12-01

    We performed a multiwavelength analysis of a moving Type-IV radio burst on 4th march 2012. The Type-IV radio burst is observed between 10:39 - 11:00 UT in the frequency range of 300 - 20 MHz. From the radio heliographic observation, the radio source of the type-IV burst is traced and their sky plane speed is estimated as ~ 370 km/s. A plasmoid structure is ejected during the impulsive phase of the flare, at the same time of the type-IV burst and the structure is clearly observed at SDO/AIA 131 Å channel. From this, we find that the radio source moves with the plasmoid. The high brightness temperature profile in the range of 108 - 109 K and the moderate polarization between -50 - 30 % supports the plasma emission mechanism. Further the differential emission measure (DEM) analysis will be carried out and their results will be presented to provide more evidence of the emission mechanism.

  13. Extensive Erosion of Vertebral Bodies Due to a Chronic Contained Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Alecio Fernando; Cardoso, Fabiano Nassar; da Rocha Fernandes, Artur

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a case of chronically ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm contained within the lumbar vertebral bodies that presented with dull abdominal pain. Sudden, massive hemorrhage is an uncommon, yet well-known complication of an untreated abdominal aortic aneurysm. In addition, misleading clinical and radiological findings present difficult diagnostic challenges in such cases. This report emphasizes the findings obtained with multidetector computed tomography and delineates the differentiation of this condition from similar pathologies. PMID:27200153

  14. Osteolytic lumbar discal cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Marushima, Aiki; Uemura, Kazuya; Sato, Naoaki; Maruno, Toru; Matsumura, Akira

    2008-08-01

    A 25-year-old man presented with left lumboischialgia refractory to medical treatment. Neurological examination revealed L5 and S1 radiculopathy which rapidly worsened over a short period. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated disk bulging with a discal cyst at the L4-5 intervertebral space and disk herniation at the L5-S1 intervertebral space. Computed tomography showed osteolytic change of the L5 vertebral body adjacent to the cyst. Resection of the cyst and removal of the herniated disk were performed following fenestration of the L4-5 and L5-S1 interlaminar spaces. Bloody serous fluid followed by clear serous fluid was recognized during the aspiration and partial resection of the cyst at the L4-5 level. Histological examination demonstrated a cyst wall consisting of fibrous connective tissue without a single-layer lining of cells, and fibrin deposits. The patient's symptoms disappeared immediately after the operation. This osteolytic lumbar discal cyst possibly occurred subsequent to hemorrhage from the epidural venous plexus following intervertebral disk injury, hematoma encapsulation by connective fibrous tissue, and cyst wall formation in reaction to the disk injury and hemorrhage. The cyst may have enlarged due to the inflow of the serous fluid from the water-containing degenerated disk. PMID:18719328

  15. Activity of thoracic and lumbar epaxial extensors during postural responses in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Fung, J.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the role of trunk extensor muscles in the thoracic and lumbar regions during postural adjustments in the freely standing cat. The epaxial extensor muscles participate in the rapid postural responses evoked by horizontal translation of the support surface. The muscles segregate into two regional groups separated by a short transition zone, according to the spatial pattern of the electromyographic (EMG) responses. The upper thoracic muscles (T5-9) respond best to posteriorly directed translations, whereas the lumbar muscles (T13 to L7) respond best to anterior translations. The transition group muscles (T10-12) respond to almost all translations. Muscles group according to vertebral level rather than muscle species. The upper thoracic muscles change little in their response with changes in stance distance (fore-hindpaw separation) and may act to stabilize the intervertebral angles of the thoracic curvature. Activity in the lumbar muscles increases along with upward rotation of the pelvis (iliac crest) as stance distance decreases. Lumbar muscles appear to stabilize the pelvis with respect to the lumbar vertebrae (L7-sacral joint). The transition zone muscles display a change in spatial tuning with stance distance, responding to many directions of translation at short distances and focusing to respond best to contralateral translations at the long stance distance.

  16. [Congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis].

    PubMed

    Barrero Candau, R; Garrido Morales, M

    2007-04-01

    We report a new case of congenital lumbar hernia. This is first case reported of congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis. We review literature and describe associated malformations reported that would be role out in every case of congenital lumbar hernia. PMID:17650728

  17. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery Plus Lumbar Mini-Open Surgery for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyon Su; Kim, Hak Sun; Ankur, Nanda; Kho, Phillip Anthony; Kim, Sung Jun; Kim, Do Yeon; Park, Jin Oh; Moon, Seong Hwan; Lee, Hwan Mo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study are to describe the outcome of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated with Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) plus supplementary minimal incision in the lumbar region for thoracic and lumbar deformity correction and fusion. Materials and Methods This is a case series of 13 patients treated with VATS plus lumbar mini-open surgery for AIS. A total of 13 patients requiring fusions of both the thoracic and lumbar regions were included in this study: 5 of these patients were classified as Lenke type 1A and 8 as Lenke type 5C. Fusion was performed using VATS up to T12 or L1 vertebral level. Lower levels were accessed via a small mini-incision in the lumbar area to gain access to the lumbar spine via the retroperitoneal space. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Results The average number of fused vertebrae was 7.1 levels. A significant correction in the Cobb angle was obtained at the final follow-up (p = 0.001). The instrumented segmental angle in the sagittal plane was relatively well-maintained following surgery, albeit with a slight increase. Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) scores were noted have significantly improved at the final follow-up (p < 0.05). Conclusion Indications for the use of VATS may be extended from patients with localized thoracic scoliosis to those with thoracolumbar scoliosis. By utilizing a supplementary minimal incision in the lumbar region, a satisfactory deformity correction may be accomplished with minimal post-operative scarring. PMID:21155045

  18. Mechanotransduction During Vertebrate Neurulation.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Sergei Y

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate neural tube formation is a complex morphogenetic process, which involves hundreds of genes dynamically coordinating various behaviors in different cell populations of neural tissue. The challenge remains to determine the relative contributions of physical forces and biochemical signaling events to neural tube closure and accompanying cell fate specification. Planar cell polarity (PCP) molecules are prime candidate factors for the production of actomyosin-dependent mechanical signals necessary for morphogenesis. Conversely, physical forces may contribute to the polarized distribution of PCP proteins. Understanding mechanosensory and mechanotransducing properties of diverse molecules should help define the direction and amplitude of physical stresses that are critical for neurulation. PMID:26969989

  19. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alexandre; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    This volume contains 24 contributed papers presented at the 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS) held during October 12-16, 2014 in Yichang, China. Each paper was peer-reviewed by at least one referee chosen from a distinguished international panel. The previous three workshops of this series were organized in 2008, 2010, and 2012, in Le Mans, France, Wuhan, China, and Kazan, Russia, respectively. The SPMCS international workshop series is destined mainly to communicate and exchange research results and information on the fundamental challenges and questions in the vanguard of statistical physics, thermodynamics and mathematics for complex systems. More specifically, the topics of interest touch, but are not limited to, the following: • Fundamental aspects in the application of statistical physics and thermodynamics to complex systems and their modeling • Finite size and non-extensive system • Fluctuation theorems and equalities, quantum thermodynamics • Variational principle for random dynamics • Fractal geometry, fractional mathematics More than 50 participants from 7 countries participated in SPMCS-2014. 35 oral contributions were presented at the workshop. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Scientific Program Committee, many of whom acted as reviewers of the papers and responded promptly. We would also like to thank the organizing committee, the session chairs, the technicians and the students for the smooth running of the whole workshop. Thanks also go to China Three Gorges University who provided generous support for the conference venue, as well as exquisite refreshments for the tea breaks. The workshop was also partially supported by Central China Normal University and the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities under grant NO. B08033. Special thanks are due to Ms Juy Zhu who has done excellent editing work with great effort.

  20. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Chandan Kumar; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim Bin; Ahmad, Ibrahim Bin; Desa, Mohamed Nor Bin Mohamed; Din, Norashidah Bte Md; Bte Mohd, Lariyah; Hamid, Nasri A.; See, Ong Hang; Hafiz Nagi, Farrukh; Yong, Lee Choon; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Mei, Goh Su; Abdullah, Fairuz Bin; Satgunam, Meenaloshini

    2013-06-01

    The 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment 2013 (ICEE2013) was organized by the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) to provide a platform for creating and sharing ideas among engineers, researchers, scientists, industrialists and students in sustainable green energy and technologies. The theme 'Shaping a Sustainable Future through Advancement in Green Energy Technology' is in line with the University's vision to be a leading global energy university that shapes a sustainable future. The general scopes of the conference are renewable energy, smart grid, green technology, energy policies and economics, sustainable green energy and environment, sustainable education, international cooperation and innovation and technology transfer. Five international keynote speakers delivered their speeches in specialized areas of green energy technology and sustainability. In addition, the conference highlights several special parallel sessions by notable invited presenters in their niche areas, which are: Hybrid Energy Power Quality & Distributed Energy Smart Grid Nuclear Power & Technologies Geohazard Management Greener Environment for Sustainability Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics The research papers presented in ICEE2013 are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES). EES is abstracted and indexed in SCOPUS, GeoBase, GeoRef, Compendex, Inspec, Chemical Abstracts Service, NASA Astrophysics Data System, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS). With the comprehensive programme outline, the organizing committee hopes that the ICEE2013 was a notable intellectual sharing session for the research and academic community in Malaysia and regionally. The organizing committee expresses gratitude to the ICEE2013 delegates for their great support and contributions to the event.

  1. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, A.; Green, P.

    2010-04-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography. The conference was held at the Institute of Physics, London, UK on 27th-28th May 2010. Previous conferences in this series took place in 2000, 2003 and 2006. The aim of this conference series is to inform those responsible for the preservation of digitally printed materials about developments in digital photography and printing technologies. We aim to examine progress in research on inks and substrates and their significance for conservation and preservation issues and techniques. We also hope to develop links between related industries and the conservation/preservation world. Research areas explored in this conference include current developments and future trends in digital printing and photographic technologies; the effect of environmental, storage and salvage conditions on the durability of digital prints and photographs; image processing techniques; image permanence considerations and standards for fastness, permanence and the role of scanning and file formats. We would like to thank all participants for their contribution to the conference programme and these proceedings. Our thanks go to Ms C. Gu and Mr M. Sandy for chairing conference sessions. We are also grateful to Dawn Stewart and the Institute of Physics Conference Team for their invaluable support and assistance in arranging the conference and reception. Finally we would like to extend our thanks to the Society of Imaging Science and Technology (IS&T) for their sponsorship support. The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green (London College of Communication, University of the Arts London). Proceedings edited and compiled by Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green.

  2. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  3. Learning Natural Selection in 4th Grade with Multi-Agent-Based Computational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickes, Amanda Catherine; Sengupta, Pratim

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate how elementary school students develop multi-level explanations of population dynamics in a simple predator-prey ecosystem, through scaffolded interactions with a multi-agent-based computational model (MABM). The term "agent" in an MABM indicates individual computational objects or actors (e.g., cars), and these agents obey simple rules assigned or manipulated by the user (e.g., speeding up, slowing down, etc.). It is the interactions between these agents, based on the rules assigned by the user, that give rise to emergent, aggregate-level behavior (e.g., formation and movement of the traffic jam). Natural selection is such an emergent phenomenon, which has been shown to be challenging for novices (K16 students) to understand. Whereas prior research on learning evolutionary phenomena with MABMs has typically focused on high school students and beyond, we investigate how elementary students (4th graders) develop multi-level explanations of some introductory aspects of natural selection—species differentiation and population change—through scaffolded interactions with an MABM that simulates predator-prey dynamics in a simple birds-butterflies ecosystem. We conducted a semi-clinical interview based study with ten participants, in which we focused on the following: a) identifying the nature of learners' initial interpretations of salient events or elements of the represented phenomena, b) identifying the roles these interpretations play in the development of their multi-level explanations, and c) how attending to different levels of the relevant phenomena can make explicit different mechanisms to the learners. In addition, our analysis also shows that although there were differences between high- and low-performing students (in terms of being able to explain population-level behaviors) in the pre-test, these differences disappeared in the post-test.

  4. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions." PMID:26164655

  5. Sex difference in the validity of vertebral deformities as an index of prevalent vertebral osteoporotic fractures: a population survey of older men and women.

    PubMed

    Leidig-Bruckner, G; Limberg, B; Felsenberg, D; Bruckner, T; Holder, S; Kather, A; Miksch, J; Wüster, C; Ziegler, R; Scheidt-Nave, C

    2000-01-01

    Morphometric methods have been developed for standardized assessment of vertebral deformities in clinical and epidemiologic studies of spinal osteoporosis. However, vertebral deformity may be caused by a variety of other conditions. To examine the validity of morphometrically assessed vertebral deformities as an index of osteoporotic vertebral fractures, we developed an algorithm for radiological differential classification (RDC) based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative assessment of lateral spinal radiographs. Radiographs were obtained in a population of 50- to 80-year-old German women (n = 283) and men (n = 297) surveyed in the context of the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS). Morphometric methods (Eastell 3 SD and 4 SD criteria, McCloskey) were validated against RDC and against bone mineral density (BMD) at the femur and the lumbar spine. According to RDC 36 persons (6.2%) had at least one osteoporotic vertebral fracture; among 516 (88.9%) nonosteoporotics 154 had severe spondylosis, 132 had other spinal disease and 219 had normal findings; 14 persons (2.4%) could not be unequivocally classified. The prevalence of morphometrically assessed vertebral deformities ranged from 7.3% to 19.2% in women and from 3.5% to 16.6% in men, depending on the stringency of the morphometric criteria. The agreement between RDC and morphometric methods was poor. In men, 62-86% of cases with vertebral deformities were classified as nonosteoporotic (severe spondylosis or other spinal disease) by RDC, compared with 31-68% in women. Among these, most had wedge deformities of the thoracic spine. On the other hand, up to 80% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in men and up to 48% in women were missed by morphometry, in particular endplate fractures at the lumbar spine. In the group with osteoporotic vertebral fractures by RDC the proportion of persons with osteoporosis according to the WHO criteria (T-score < -2.5 SD) was 90.0% in women and 86.6% in men

  6. Capturing three-dimensional in vivo lumbar intervertebral joint kinematics using dynamic stereo-X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Aiyangar, Ameet K; Zheng, Liying; Tashman, Scott; Anderst, William J; Zhang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Availability of accurate three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of lumbar vertebrae is necessary to understand normal and pathological biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Due to the technical challenges of imaging the lumbar spine motion in vivo, it has been difficult to obtain comprehensive, 3D lumbar kinematics during dynamic functional tasks. The present study demonstrates a recently developed technique to acquire true 3D lumbar vertebral kinematics, in vivo, during a functional load-lifting task. The technique uses a high-speed dynamic stereo-radiography (DSX) system coupled with a volumetric model-based bone tracking procedure. Eight asymptomatic male participants performed weight-lifting tasks, while dynamic X-ray images of their lumbar spines were acquired at 30 fps. A custom-designed radiation attenuator reduced the radiation white-out effect and enhanced the image quality. High resolution CT scans of participants' lumbar spines were obtained to create 3D bone models, which were used to track the X-ray images via a volumetric bone tracking procedure. Continuous 3D intervertebral kinematics from the second lumbar vertebra (L2) to the sacrum (S1) were derived. Results revealed motions occurring simultaneously in all the segments. Differences in contributions to overall lumbar motion from individual segments, particularly L2-L3, L3-L4, and L4-L5, were not statistically significant. However, a reduced contribution from the L5-S1 segment was observed. Segmental extension was nominally linear in the middle range (20%-80%) of motion during the lifting task, but exhibited nonlinear behavior at the beginning and end of the motion. L5-S1 extension exhibited the greatest nonlinearity and variability across participants. Substantial AP translations occurred in all segments (5.0 ± 0.3 mm) and exhibited more scatter and deviation from a nominally linear path compared to segmental extension. Maximum out-of-plane rotations (<1.91 deg) and translations (<0.94 mm) were

  7. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  8. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club and the City of Stockton will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA. (a) Location....

  9. 78 FR 23869 - Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ..., telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not plan to hold public meetings on this proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks...

  10. 78 FR 39998 - Safety Zone; Grand Haven 4th of July Fireworks; Grand River; Grand Haven, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grand Haven 4th of July Fireworks; Grand... a State, local, or tribal government, in the aggregate, or by the private sector of...