Science.gov

Sample records for 4th order output

  1. Seismic Waves, 4th order accurate

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-08-16

    SW4 is a program for simulating seismic wave propagation on parallel computers. SW4 colves the seismic wave equations in Cartesian corrdinates. It is therefore appropriate for regional simulations, where the curvature of the earth can be neglected. SW4 implements a free surface boundary condition on a realistic topography, absorbing super-grid conditions on the far-field boundaries, and a kinematic source model consisting of point force and/or point moment tensor source terms. SW4 supports a fully 3-Dmore » heterogeneous material model that can be specified in several formats. SW4 can output synthetic seismograms in an ASCII test format, or in the SAC finary format. It can also present simulation information as GMT scripts, whixh can be used to create annotated maps. Furthermore, SW4 can output the solution as well as the material model along 2-D grid planes.« less

  2. Seismic Waves, 4th order accurate

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-16

    SW4 is a program for simulating seismic wave propagation on parallel computers. SW4 colves the seismic wave equations in Cartesian corrdinates. It is therefore appropriate for regional simulations, where the curvature of the earth can be neglected. SW4 implements a free surface boundary condition on a realistic topography, absorbing super-grid conditions on the far-field boundaries, and a kinematic source model consisting of point force and/or point moment tensor source terms. SW4 supports a fully 3-D heterogeneous material model that can be specified in several formats. SW4 can output synthetic seismograms in an ASCII test format, or in the SAC finary format. It can also present simulation information as GMT scripts, whixh can be used to create annotated maps. Furthermore, SW4 can output the solution as well as the material model along 2-D grid planes.

  3. Using 4th order Runge-Kutta method for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, Miftachul; Anderson, Malcolm; Husein, Andri

    2016-03-01

    We study numerical solution, especially using 4th order Runge-Kutta method, for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation. We find numerically that the value of minimum energy per unit length of vortex solution for a twisted Skyrmion string is 20.37 × 1060 eV/m.

  4. Multi-Dimensional Asymptotically Stable 4th Order Accurate Schemes for the Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, Saul; Ditkowski, Adi

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which solves the multi-dimensional diffusion equation on co mplex shapes to 4th-order accuracy and is asymptotically stable in time. This bounded-error result is achieved by constructing, on a rectangular grid, a differentiation matrix whose symmetric part is negative definite. The differentiation matrix accounts for the Dirichlet boundary condition by imposing penalty like terms. Numerical examples in 2-D show that the method is effective even where standard schemes, stable by traditional definitions fail.

  5. Computational aspects of the nonlinear normal mode initialization of the GLAS 4th order GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navon, I. M.; Bloom, S. C.; Takacs, L.

    1984-01-01

    Using the normal modes of the GLAS 4th Order Model, a Machenhauer nonlinear normal mode initialization (NLNMI) was carried out for the external vertical mode using the GLAS 4th Order shallow water equations model for an equivalent depth corresponding to that associated with the external vertical mode. A simple procedure was devised which was directed at identifying computational modes by following the rate of increase of BAL sub M, the partial (with respect to the zonal wavenumber m) sum of squares of the time change of the normal mode coefficients (for fixed vertical mode index) varying over the latitude index L of symmetric or antisymmetric gravity waves. A working algorithm is presented which speeds up the convergence of the iterative Machenhauer NLNMI. A 24 h integration using the NLNMI state was carried out using both Matsuno and leap-frog time-integration schemes; these runs were then compared to a 24 h integration starting from a non-initialized state. The maximal impact of the nonlinear normal mode initialization was found to occur 6-10 hours after the initial time.

  6. FAST DISPLACEMENT PROBABILITY PROFILE APPROXIMATION FROM HARDI USING 4TH-ORDER TENSORS.

    PubMed

    Barmpoutis, Angelos; Vemuri, Baba C; Forder, John R

    2008-05-14

    Cartesian tensor basis have been widely used to approximate spherical functions. In Medical Imaging, tensors of various orders have been used to model the diffusivity function in Diffusion-weighted MRI data sets. However, it is known that the peaks of the diffusivity do not correspond to orientations of the underlying fibers and hence the displacement probability profiles should be employed instead. In this paper, we present a novel representation of the probability profile by a 4(th) order tensor, which is a smooth spherical function that can approximate single-fibers as well as multiple-fiber structures. We also present a method for efficiently estimating the unknown tensor coefficients of the probability profile directly from a given high-angular resolution diffusion-weighted (HARDI) data set. The accuracy of our model is validated by experiments on synthetic and real HARDI datasets from a fixed rat spinal cord. PMID:20046536

  7. Continuum Kinetic Plasma Modeling Using a Conservative 4th-Order Method with AMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogman, Genia; Colella, Phillip

    2012-10-01

    When the number of particles in a Debye sphere is large, a plasma can be accurately represented by a distribution function, which can be treated as a continuous incompressible fluid in phase space. In the most general case the evolution of such a distribution function is described by the 6D Boltzmann-Maxwell partial differential equation system. To address the challenges associated with solving a 6D hyperbolic governing equation, a simpler 3D Vlasov-Poisson system is considered. A 4th-order accurate Vlasov-Poisson model has been developed in one spatial and two velocity dimensions. The governing equation is cast in conservation law form and is solved with a finite volume representation. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to allow for efficient use of computational resources while maintaining desired levels of resolution. The model employs a flux limiter to remedy non-physical effects such as numerical dispersion. The model is tested on the two-stream, beam-plasma, and Dory-Guest-Harris instabilities. All results are compared with linear theory.

  8. High-Order Residual-Distribution Hyperbolic Advection-Diffusion Schemes: 3rd-, 4th-, and 6th-Order

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza R.; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, spatially high-order Residual-Distribution (RD) schemes using the first-order hyperbolic system method are proposed for general time-dependent advection-diffusion problems. The corresponding second-order time-dependent hyperbolic advection- diffusion scheme was first introduced in [NASA/TM-2014-218175, 2014], where rapid convergences over each physical time step, with typically less than five Newton iterations, were shown. In that method, the time-dependent hyperbolic advection-diffusion system (linear and nonlinear) was discretized by the second-order upwind RD scheme in a unified manner, and the system of implicit-residual-equations was solved efficiently by Newton's method over every physical time step. In this paper, two techniques for the source term discretization are proposed; 1) reformulation of the source terms with their divergence forms, and 2) correction to the trapezoidal rule for the source term discretization. Third-, fourth, and sixth-order RD schemes are then proposed with the above techniques that, relative to the second-order RD scheme, only cost the evaluation of either the first derivative or both the first and the second derivatives of the source terms. A special fourth-order RD scheme is also proposed that is even less computationally expensive than the third-order RD schemes. The second-order Jacobian formulation was used for all the proposed high-order schemes. The numerical results are then presented for both steady and time-dependent linear and nonlinear advection-diffusion problems. It is shown that these newly developed high-order RD schemes are remarkably efficient and capable of producing the solutions and the gradients to the same order of accuracy of the proposed RD schemes with rapid convergence over each physical time step, typically less than ten Newton iterations.

  9. Comparison of rhodomine-WT and sodium chloride tracer transport in a 4th order arctic river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    Conservative tracers are useful for tracking a parcel of water through a river reach and understanding tracer transport phenomena (i.e. advection, dispersion, and transient storage). Rhodomine- WT (RWT) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are two popular stream tracers. NaCl is considered to be conservative and relatively inexpensive, yet it cannot be detected at very low concentrations. On the other hand, RWT can be detected at very low concentrations (<0.1 ppb), but it is known to photo-degrade and sorb to organic materials. Previous work has compared these tracers with small-scale laboratory analyses and field experiments on small headwater streams. The limitations and advantages to each of these tracers, as applied to large river slug injections, are not clearly understood. This work seeks to answer the following questions: 1) Does RWT improve the tracer window of detection (time of tracer arrival to time of tracer non-detection), compared to NaCl? 2) Are there differences in the late-time tailing behavior of each tracer? More specifically, can we compare RWT and NaCl breakthrough curve tail shapes to understand processes contributing to late time solute transport (transient storage or sorption-desorption)? During the summer of 2012, combined slug additions of RWT and NaCl were injected into a 1.5-kilometer reach on the Kuparuk River, a 4th order tundra river underlain by continuous permafrost located on Alaska's North Slope. Fluorescence and electrical conductivity were continuously logged at the upstream and downstream ends of the reach. Preliminary results show that the window of detection is expanded when using RWT under both high and low flow conditions by 0.2 times the advective transport timescale. Tail shapes are more similar under higher discharge conditions and dissimilar under lower discharge conditions. For example, using an exponential regression model (c(t) = eat) to quantify tail shapes, at Q = 500 l/s the exponential coefficient ratio, aRWT:aNaCl, is 0

  10. Image transformation into device-dependent color printer description using 4th-order polynomial regression and object-oriented programming development of image processing modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongeon, Michael C.

    1996-03-01

    This paper investigates the development of printer device profiles used in color document printing system environments when devices with intrinsically different gamut capabilities communicate with one another in a common (CIELAB) color space. While the main thrust of this activity focuses on the output printer, namely the Xerox 5760 printer, and its rendition of some device independent image description, characterizations are provided which investigate relative areas of photographic, monitor, and printer gamuts using a visual hue leaf comparison between devices. The printer is modeled using 4th-order polynomial regression which maps the device independent CIELAB image representation into device dependent printer CMYK. This technique results in 1.89 AEEavg over the training data set. Some key properties of the proposed calibration method are as follows: (1) Linearized CMYK tone reproduction curves with respect to AEEpaper to improve the distribution of calibration data in color space. (2) Application of GCR strategy and linearization to the calibration target prior to the regression on the measured CIELAB and original CMY values. Each strategy employs a K addition/No CMY removal method which maximizes printer gamut and relies on the regression to determine the appropriate CMY removal. The following GCR strategies are explored: CMY only (0% K addition), 50% K addition, 100% K addition, and non-linear K addition. A library of image processing algorithms is included, using LabView object oriented programming, which provides a modular approach for key color processing tasks. In the user interface, an image is selected with appropriate GCR strategy, and the program operates on the image. In general, the pictorial image quality is excellent for each GCR strategy with subtle differences between GCR approaches. Quantitative analysis of Q60 color matching performance is included.

  11. DNS and LES of Turbulent Backward-Facing Step Flow Using 2ND-and 4TH-Order Discretization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meri, Adnan; Wengle, Hans

    Results are presented from a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of turbulent flow over a backward-facing step (Reh=3300) with a fully developed channel flow (Rcτ=180) utilized asatime-dependent inflow condition. Numerical solutions using a fourth-order compact (Hermitian) scheme, which was formulated directly for anon-equidistant and staggered grid in [1] are compared with numerical solutions using the classical second-order central scheme. There sults from LES (using the dynamic subgrid scale model) are evaluated against a corresponding DNS reference data set (fourth-order solution).

  12. The Neumann system for the 4th-order eigenvalue problem and constraint flows of the coupled KdV-type equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ye; Gu, Zhuquan; Liu, Yafeng

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, the Neumann system for the 4th-order eigenvalue problem Ly = (∂4+ q∂2+∂2 q+ ip∂+ i∂ p+ y = Λy) has been given. By means of the Neumann constraint condition, the perfect constraint set Γ and the relations between the potentials { q, p, r} and the eigenvector y are obtained. Then, based on the Euler-Lagrange function and Legendre transformations, a reasonable Jacobi-Ostrogradsky coordinate system has been found, which can be equal to the real Hamiltonian canonical coordinate system in R 8 N . Using Cao's method and Moser's constraint manifold, the Lax pairs of the evolution equation hierarchy with the 4th-order eigenvalue problems are nonlinearized. So a new finite-dimensional integrable Hamilton system on the constraint submanifold R 8 N-4 is generated. Moreover, the solutions of the evolution equations for the infinite-dimensional soliton systems are obtained by the involutive flow of the finite-dimensional completely integrable systems.

  13. Learning about the Unfairgrounds: A 4th-Grade Teacher Introduces Her Students to Executive Order 9066

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydo-Reed, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, U.S. officials issued a series of proclamations that violated the civil and human rights of the vast majority of Japanese Americans in the United States--ostensibly to protect the nation from further Japanese aggression. The proclamations culminated in Executive Order 9066, which gave the…

  14. Computational modes and the Machenauer N.L.N.M.I. of the GLAS 4th order model. [NonLinear Normal Mode Initialization in numerical weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navon, I. M.; Bloom, S.; Takacs, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt was made to use the GLAS global 4th order shallow water equations to perform a Machenhauer nonlinear normal mode initialization (NLNMI) for the external vertical mode. A new algorithm was defined for identifying and filtering out computational modes which affect the convergence of the Machenhauer iterative procedure. The computational modes and zonal waves were linearly initialized and gravitational modes were nonlinearly initialized. The Machenhauer NLNMI was insensitive to the absence of high zonal wave numbers. The effects of the Machenhauer scheme were evaluated by performing 24 hr integrations with nondissipative and dissipative explicit time integration models. The NLNMI was found to be inferior to the Rasch (1984) pseudo-secant technique for obtaining convergence when the time scales of nonlinear forcing were much smaller than the time scales expected from the natural frequency of the mode.

  15. Opportunities and Limitation of Hyporheic Restoration in a 4th Order Semi-Arid Floodplain: a Case Study of Meacham Creek, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Daniel, S. J.; Amerson, B. E.; Lambert, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Persistent societal interest in improving water quality and recovering imperiled, native, aquatic species has expanded the scope of stream restoration to include the hyporheic zone as a focus. Despite the lack of detailed studies, hyporheic restoration is often invoked as a means to achieve multiple objectives including moderation of water temperature, delay of seasonal flows and increasing the localized volume of floodplain water. We present interim results from an ongoing case study that monitors the changes as a result of stream restoration of the hyporheic zone of a 4th order, alluvial floodplain in northeast Oregon, USA, Meacham Creek. Active and passive restoration of 2.5 km of Meacham Creek has altered the creek from a single-threaded, incised and bedrock-dominated channel to a perched, alluvial channel that seasonally exchanges overbank flows with the surrounding floodplain. Our results suggest that the stream restoration effort on Meacham Creek has increased the volume of annual hyporheic storage and created a more diverse distribution of flowpath lengths within the restoration site. Furthermore, our monitoring indicates that hyporheic process response to stream restoration, analogous to other geomorphic processes, conforms to a systematic hierarchy where nested flow paths range in length and residence time from meters and hours at the habitat scale to tens of meters and months at the floodplain scale. We assert that scale-explicit and measurement-focused restoration planning has a greater likelihood of meeting the stated objectives and result in improved water quality and encourage recovery of many native aquatic species.

  16. Quantitative Estimates of Temporal Mixing across a 4th-order Depositional Sequence: Variation in Time-averaging along the Holocene Marine Succession of the Po Plain, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarponi, D.; Kaufman, D.; Bright, J.; Kowalewski, M.

    2009-04-01

    Single fossiliferous beds contain biotic remnants that commonly vary in age over a time span of hundreds to thousands of years. Multiple recent studies suggest that such temporal mixing is a widespread phenomenon in marine depositional systems. This research focuses on quantitative estimates of temporal mixing obtained by direct dating of individual corbulid bivalve shells (Lentidium mediterraneum and Corbula gibba) from Po plain marine units of the Holocene 4th-order depositional sequence, including Transgressive Systems Tract [TST] and Highstand Systems Tract [HST]. These units displays a distinctive succession of facies consisting of brackish to marginal marine retrogradational deposits, (early TST), overlain by fully marine fine to coarse gray sands (late TST), and capped with progradational deltaic clays and sands (HST). More than 300 corbulid specimens, representing 19 shell-rich horizons evenly distributed along the depositional sequence and sampled from 9 cores, have been dated by means of aspartic acid racemization calibrated using 23 AMS-radiocarbon dates (14 dates for Lentidium mediterraneum and 9 dates for Corbula gibba, respectively). The results indicate that the scale of time-averaging is comparable when similar depositional environments from the same systems tract are compared across cores. However, time averaging is notably different when similar depositional environments from TST and HST segments of the sequence are compared. Specifically, late HST horizons (n=8) display relatively low levels of time-averaging: the mean within-horizon range of shell ages is 537 years and standard deviation averages 165 years. In contrast, late TST horizons (n=7) are dramatically more time-averaged: mean range of 5104 years and mean standard deviations of 1420 years. Thus, late TST horizons experience a 1 order of magnitude higher time-averaging than environmentally comparable late HST horizons. In conclusion the HST and TST systems tracts of the Po Plain display

  17. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    SciTech Connect

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-04-28

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.

  18. Reliability of Three-Dimensional Linear Kinematics and Kinetics of Swimming Derived from Digitized Video at 25 and 50 Hz with 10 and 5 Frame Extensions to the 4(th) Order Butterworth Smoothing Window.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Ross H; Gonjo, Tomohiro; McCabe, Carla B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability of estimating three-dimensional (3D) linear kinematics and kinetics of a swimmer derived from digitized video and to assess the effect of framing rate and smoothing window size. A stroke cycle of two high-level front crawl swimmers and one high level backstroke swimmer was recorded by four underwater and two above water video cameras. One of the front crawl swimmers was recorded and digitized at 50 Hz with a window for smoothing by 4(th) order Butterworth digital filter extending 10 frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle, while the other front crawl and backstroke swimmer were recorded and digitized at 25 Hz with the window extending five frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle. Each camera view of the stroke cycle was digitized five times yielding five independent 3D data sets from which whole body centre of mass (CM) component velocities and accelerations were derived together with wrist and ankle linear velocities. Coefficients of reliability ranging from r = 0.942 to r = 0.999 indicated that both methods are sufficiently reliable to identify real differences in net force production during the pulls of the right and left hands. Reliability of digitizing was better for front crawl when digitizing at 50Hz with 10 frames extension than at 25 Hz with 5 frames extension (p < 0.01) and better for backstroke than front crawl (p < 0.01). However, despite the extension and reflection of data, errors were larger in the first 15% of the stroke cycle than the period between 15 and 85% of the stroke cycle for CM velocity and acceleration and for foot speed (p < 0.01). Key pointsAn inverse dynamics based on 3D position data digitized from multiple camera views above and below the water surface is sufficiently reliable to yield insights regarding force production in swimming additional to those of other approaches.The ability to link the force profiles to swimming actions and technique is

  19. 17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor setback to left and atrium structure to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  20. The novel application of Benford's second order analysis for monitoring radiation output in interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Cournane, S; Sheehy, N; Cooke, J

    2014-06-01

    Benford's law is an empirical observation which predicts the expected frequency of digits in naturally occurring datasets spanning multiple orders of magnitude, with the law having been most successfully applied as an audit tool in accountancy. This study investigated the sensitivity of the technique in identifying system output changes using simulated changes in interventional radiology Dose-Area-Product (DAP) data, with any deviations from Benford's distribution identified using z-statistics. The radiation output for interventional radiology X-ray equipment is monitored annually during quality control testing; however, for a considerable portion of the year an increased output of the system, potentially caused by engineering adjustments or spontaneous system faults may go unnoticed, leading to a potential increase in the radiation dose to patients. In normal operation recorded examination radiation outputs vary over multiple orders of magnitude rendering the application of normal statistics ineffective for detecting systematic changes in the output. In this work, the annual DAP datasets complied with Benford's first order law for first, second and combinations of the first and second digits. Further, a continuous 'rolling' second order technique was devised for trending simulated changes over shorter timescales. This distribution analysis, the first employment of the method for radiation output trending, detected significant changes simulated on the original data, proving the technique useful in this case. The potential is demonstrated for implementation of this novel analysis for monitoring and identifying change in suitable datasets for the purpose of system process control. PMID:24321401

  1. Tool reconstructs data input points corresponding to first order output graph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggs, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Tool aids in graphic determination of input values for any first order lag system of known gain and time constant where the corresponding output function is displayed graphically and can be described by a first order differential equation. This tool permits a rapid reconstruction of input points.

  2. Serial Order and Consonant-Vowel Structure in a Graphemic Output Buffer Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasspool, D.W.; Houghton, G.

    2005-01-01

    We review features of the spelling errors of dysgraphic patients with ''Graphemic Buffer Disorder'' (GBD). We argue that the errors made by such patients suggest the breakdown of a system used to generate serial order in the output stages of spelling production, and we develop a model for this system based on an existing theory of sequential…

  3. Output Feedback Fractional-Order Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control of Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiawang; Gu, Linyi

    2014-01-01

    For the 4-DOF (degrees of freedom) trajectory tracking control problem of underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances, a novel output feedback fractional-order nonsingular terminal sliding mode control (FO-NTSMC) technique is introduced in light of the equivalent output injection sliding mode observer (SMO) and TSMC principle and fractional calculus technology. The equivalent output injection SMO is applied to reconstruct the full states in finite time. Meanwhile, the FO-NTSMC algorithm, based on a new proposed fractional-order switching manifold, is designed to stabilize the tracking error to equilibrium points in finite time. The corresponding stability analysis of the closed-loop system is presented using the fractional-order version of the Lyapunov stability theory. Comparative numerical simulation results are presented and analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, it is noteworthy that the proposed output feedback FO-NTSMC technique can be used to control a broad range of nonlinear second-order dynamical systems in finite time. PMID:24983004

  4. Tunable First-Order Resistorless All-Pass Filter with Low Output Impedance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage mode cascadable single active element tunable first-order all-pass filter with a single passive component. The active element used to realise the filter is a new building block termed as differential difference dual-X current conveyor with a buffered output (DD-DXCCII). The filter is thus realized with the help of a DD-DXCCII, a capacitor, and a MOS transistor. By exploiting the low output impedance, a higher order filter is also realized. Nonideal and parasitic study is also carried out on the realised filters. The proposed DD-DXCCII filters are simulated using TSMC the 0.25 µm technology. PMID:24587713

  5. Ordered polymer nanofibers enhance output brightness in bilayer light-emitting field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ben B Y; Seifter, Jason; Takacs, Christopher J; Zhong, Chengmei; Tseng, Hsin-Rong; Samuel, Ifor D W; Namdas, Ebinazar B; Bazan, Guillermo C; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong; Heeger, Alan J

    2013-03-26

    Polymer light emitting field effect transistors are a class of light emitting devices that reveal interesting device physics. Device performance can be directly correlated to the most fundamental polymer science. Control over surface properties of the transistor dielectric can dramatically change the polymer morphology, introducing ordered phase. Electronic properties such as carrier mobility and injection efficiency on the interface can be promoted by ordered nanofibers in the polymer. Moreover, by controlling space charge in the polymer interface, the recombination zone can be spatially extended and thereby enhance the optical output. PMID:23413831

  6. Transport coefficient computation based on input/output reduced order models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Joshua L.

    The guiding purpose of this thesis is to address the optimal material design problem when the material description is a molecular dynamics model. The end goal is to obtain a simplified and fast model that captures the property of interest such that it can be used in controller design and optimization. The approach is to examine model reduction analysis and methods to capture a specific property of interest, in this case viscosity, or more generally complex modulus or complex viscosity. This property and other transport coefficients are defined by a input/output relationship and this motivates model reduction techniques that are tailored to preserve input/output behavior. In particular Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) based methods are investigated. First simulation methods are identified that are amenable to systems theory analysis. For viscosity, these models are of the Gosling and Lees-Edwards type. They are high order nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) that employ Periodic Boundary Conditions. Properties can be calculated from the state trajectories of these ODEs. In this research local linear approximations are rigorously derived and special attention is given to potentials that are evaluated with Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC). For the Gosling description LTI models are developed from state trajectories but are found to have limited success in capturing the system property, even though it is shown that full order LTI models can be well approximated by reduced order LTI models. For the Lees-Edwards SLLOD type model nonlinear ODEs will be approximated by a Linear Time Varying (LTV) model about some nominal trajectory and both balanced truncation and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) will be used to assess the plausibility of reduced order models to this system description. An immediate application of the derived LTV models is Quasilinearization or Waveform Relaxation. Quasilinearization is a Newton's method applied to the ODE operator

  7. Robust fixed-order dynamic output feedback controller design for nonlinear uncertain suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badri, Pouya; Amini, Amir; Sojoodi, Mahdi

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with designing a robust fixed-order non-fragile dynamic output feedback controller for active suspension system of a quarter-car, by means of convex optimization and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Our purpose is to design a low-order controller that keeps the desired design specifications besides the simplicity of the implementation. The proposed controller is capable of asymptotically stabilizing the closed-loop system and developing H∞ control, despite model uncertainties and nonlinear dynamics of the quarter-car as well as the norm bounded perturbations of controller parameters. Furthermore, controller parameters are prevented from taking very large and undesirable amounts through appropriate LMI constraints. Finally, a numerical example is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing it with similar works.

  8. PREFACE: 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shu; Sekino, Tohru; Tanaka, Shun-ichiro; Sato, Tsugio; Lu, Li; Xue, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    The 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011) was held in Sendai, Japan, on 2-6 August 2011. This Special Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) consists of partial manuscripts which were presented at ISFM2011. Advanced materials have experienced a dramatic increase in demand for research, development and applications. The aim of the International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM) was to provide an overview of the present status with historical background and to foresee future trends in the field of functional materials. The 4th symposium, ISFM 2011, covered a wide variety of topics within state-of-the-art advanced materials science and technology, and focused especially on four major categories including: Environmental Materials, Electronic Materials, Energy Materials and Biomedical Materials. As you know, a massive earthquake and the Tsunami that followed occurred near the Tohoku region on 11 March 2011. After the earthquake, although there were many difficulties in continuing to organize the symposium, we received warm encouragement from many researchers and societies, especially from the members of the International Advisory Committee and Organizing Committee, so that ISFM2011 could be held on schedule. We are honored that ISFM2011 was the first formal international academic conference held in the Tohoku area of Japan after the 11 March earthquake. About 140 participants from 14 countries took part in the ISFM2011 symposium, which included five plenary talks by world-leading scientists, 32 invited talks, and many oral and poster presentations. We are delighted to see that many researchers are interested in the synthesis and the properties as well as the applications of functional materials. Many fruitful and exciting research achievements were presented in the symposium. We believe that this symposium provided a good chance for scientists to communicate and exchange opinions with each other. We would also like to

  9. Linear system identification - The application of Lion's identification scheme to a third order system with noisy input-output measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, C. M., Jr.; Monopoli, R. V.

    1974-01-01

    A linear system identification technique developed by Lion is adapted for use on a third-order system with six unknown parameters and noisy input-output measurements. A digital computer is employed so that rapid identification takes place with only two state variable filters. Bias in the parameter estimates is partially eliminated by a signal-to-noise ratio testing procedure.

  10. Analytic Empirical Potentials for BeH^+, BeD^+, and BeT^+ Including up to 4TH Order QED in the Long-Range and Predictions for the Halo Nucleonic Molecules 11BeH^+ and 14BeH^+.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Chun Fong, Lena C. M.; Lach, Grzegorz; Le Roy, Robert J.; Dattani, Nikesh S.

    2015-06-01

    The 13.81(8)s half-life of the halo nucleonic atom 11Be is orders of magnitude longer than those for any other halo nucleonic atom known, and makes Be-based diatomics the most promising candidates for the formation of the first halo nucleonic molecules. However, the 4e^- species LiH and BeH^+ are some of the first molecules for which the highest accuracy ab initio methods are not accessible, so empirical potential energy functions will be important for making predictions and for benchmarking how ab initio calculations break down at this transition from 3e^- to 4e^-. BeH^+ is also very light, and has one of the most extensive data sets involving a tritium isotopologue, making it a very useful benchmark for studying Born-Oppenheimer breakdown. We therefore seek to determine an empirical analytic potential energy function for BeH^+ that has as much precision as possible. To this end, all available spectroscopic data for all stable isotopologues of BeH^+ are analyzed in a standard direct-potential-fit procedure that uses least-squares fits to optimize the parameters defining an analytic potential. The ``Morse/Long-range'' (MLR) model used for the potential energy function incorporates the inverse-power long-range tail required by theory, and the calculation of the leading long-range coefficients C_4, C_6, C_7, and C_8 include non-adiabatic terms, and up to 4th order QED corrections. As a by-product, we have calculated some fundamental properties of 1e^- systems with unprecedented precision, such as the dipole, quadrupole, octupole, non-adiabatic, and mixed higher order polarizabilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium. We provide good first estimates for the transition energies for the halo nucleonic species 11BeH^+ and 14BeH^+.

  11. Reduced-order observer-based output feedback control of nonlinear time-delay systems with prescribed performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Changchun; Zhang, Liuliu; Guan, Xinping

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of output feedback control for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems with prescribed performance. The system is in the form of triangular structure with unmodelled dynamics. First, we introduce a reduced-order observer to provide the estimate of the unmeasured states. Then, by setting a new condition with the performance function, we design the state transformation with prescribed performance control. By employing backstepping method, we construct the output feedback controller. It is proved that the resulting closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and both transient and steady-state performance of the output are preserved with the changing supply function idea. Finally, a simulation example is conducted to show the effectiveness of the main results.

  12. First Things First: Similar List Length and Output Order Effects for Verbal and Nonverbal Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortis, Cathleen; Dent, Kevin; Kennett, Steffan; Ward, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    When participants are presented with a short list of unrelated words and they are instructed that they may recall in any order, they nevertheless show a very strong tendency to recall in forward serial order. Thus, if asked to recall "in any orde"r: "hat, mouse, tea, stairs," participants often respond "hat, mouse, tea,…

  13. Improving Social Interaction among 4th Grade Students through Social Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Shannon; Karwowski, Sandra; Shudes-Eitel, Jennifer

    This action research project implemented a program for improving social skills in order to establish positive interaction among 4th grade students at a northern Chicago suburban school. Social skills deficiency was documented through behavior checklists and referrals, teacher observations and student reflection. Teachers reported that low incomes,…

  14. Stochastic response analysis, order reduction, and output feedback controllers for flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hablani, H. B.

    1985-01-01

    Real disturbances and real sensors have finite bandwidths. The first objective of this paper is to incorporate this finiteness in the 'open-loop modal cost analysis' as applied to a flexible spacecraft. Analysis based on residue calculus shows that among other factors, significance of a mode depends on the power spectral density of disturbances and the response spectral density of sensors at the modal frequency. The second objective of this article is to compare performances of an optimal and a suboptimal output feedback controller, the latter based on 'minimum error excitation' of Kosut. Both the performances are found to be nearly the same, leading us to favor the latter technique because it entails only linear computations. Our final objective is to detect an instability due to truncated modes by representing them as a multiplicative and an additive perturbation in a nominal transfer function. In an example problem it is found that this procedure leads to a narrow range of permissible controller gains, and that it labels a wrong mode as a cause of instability. A free beam is used to illustrate the analysis in this work.

  15. Significantly enhanced energy output from 3D ordered macroporous structured Fe2O3/Al nanothermite film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenchao; Yin, Baoqing; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Jiahai; Thomas, Jason A; Chao, Yimin

    2013-01-23

    A three-dimensionally ordered macroporous Fe(2)O(3)/Al nanothermite membrane has been prepared with a polystyrene spheres template. The nanothermite, with an enhanced interfacial contact between fuel and oxidizer, outputs 2.83 kJ g(-1) of energy. This is significantly more than has been reported before. This approach, fully compatible with MEMS technology, provides an efficient way to produce micrometer thick three-dimensionally ordered nanostructured thermite films with overall spatial uniformity. These exciting achievements will greatly facilitate potential for the future development of applications of nanothermites. PMID:23276147

  16. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Paola; Villain, Patricia; Suonio, Eero; Almonte, Maribel; Anttila, Ahti; Atkin, Wendy S; Dean, Peter B; de Koning, Harry J; Dillner, Lena; Herrero, Rolando; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Minozzi, Silvia; Paci, Eugenio; Regula, Jaroslaw; Törnberg, Sven; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: Bowel cancer (men and women); Breast cancer (women); Cervical cancer (women)." Organized screening programs are preferable because they provide better conditions to ensure that the Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Screening are followed in order to achieve the greatest benefit with the least harm. Screening is recommended only for those cancers where a demonstrated life-saving effect substantially outweighs the potential harm of examining very large numbers of people who may otherwise never have, or suffer from, these cancers, and when an adequate quality of the screening is achieved. EU citizens are recommended to participate in cancer screening each time an invitation from the national or regional screening program is received and after having read the information materials provided and carefully considered the potential benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs in the European Union vary with respect to the age groups invited and to the interval between invitations, depending on each country's cancer burden, local resources, and the type of screening test used For colorectal cancer, most programs in the EU invite men and women starting at the age of 50-60 years, and from then on every 2 years if the screening test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test, or every 10 years or more if the screening test is flexible sigmoidoscopy or total colonoscopy. Most programs continue sending invitations to screening up to the age of 70-75 years. For breast cancer, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 50 years, and not before the age

  17. 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference Proceedings (Abstracts)

    SciTech Connect

    Frank W. Telewski; Lothar H. Koehler; Frank W. Ewers

    2003-07-20

    The 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference facilitated an interdisciplinary exchange between scientists, engineers, and educators addressing the major questions encountered in the field of Plant Biomechanics. Subjects covered by the conference include: Evolution; Ecology; Mechanoreception; Cell Walls; Genetic Modification; Applied Biomechanics of Whole Plants, Plant Products, Fibers & Composites; Fluid Dynamics; Wood & Trees; Fracture Mechanics; Xylem Pressure & Water Transport; Modeling; and Introducing Plant Biomechanics in Secondary School Education.

  18. Bifrost: A 4th Generation Launch Architecture Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrschneider, R. R.; Young, D.; St.Germain, B.; Brown, N.; Crowley, J.; Maatsch, J.; Olds, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    A 4th generation launch architecture is studied for the purpose of drastically reducing launch costs and hence enabling new large mass missions such as space solar power and human exploration of other planets. The architecture consists of a magnetic levitation launch tube placed on the equator with the exit end elevated to approximately 20 km. Several modules exist for sending manned and unmanned payloads into Earth orbit. Analysis of the launch tube operations, launch trajectories, module aerodynamics, propulsion modules, and system costs are presented. Using the hybrid logistics module, it is possible to place payloads into low Earth orbit for just over 100 per lb.

  19. A 95 GHz, 4th harmonic gyro-oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, T.A.; Scheitrum, G.P.; Bemis, T.; Higgins, L.

    1994-12-31

    There is currently an interest in medium power ({approximately}100 kW), compact 95 GHz amplifiers for future radar applications. Size, weight, and efficiency are critical for airborne applications. Litton has been investigating a 4th harmonic, 4-cavity gyro-amplifier. The key to success of the amplifier is the axis-encircling electron beam from a new type of electron gun, the advanced center post (ACP) gun. Gun simulations incorporating the actual magnetic field and thermal velocity spread in the emitted electrons show that axial velocity spreads of less than 2% are attainable, which is significantly better than other gun concepts. The amplifier utilizes coaxial-magnetron-type cavities operating in the {pi} mode. In this cavity, vanes extend nearly down to the electron beam`s outside diameter. The majority of the RF stored energy in the system is in the coaxial cavity, so that the resonant frequency and quality factor of each coaxial magnetron cavity may be adjusted by varying only the coaxial cavity. Several components are being tested individually. To test the cavity design, a 4th harmonic oscillator based on a coaxial magnetron cavity has been designed. Results of the oscillator testing will be presented.

  20. 76 FR 38015 - Safety Zones; July 4th Weekend Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port St. Petersburg...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; July 4th Weekend Fireworks Displays Within... under Executive Order 13132, Federalism, if it has a substantial direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt State law or impose a substantial direct cost of compliance on them....

  1. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  2. Special Issue: 4th International Workshop on Space Radiation (IWSRR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    This special issue of the journal "Radiation and Environmental Biophysics" contains 20 peer-reviewed papers contributed by leading space radiation researcher's world-wide attending the 4th IWSRR. Manuscripts cover a broad range of topics ranging from radiation environments and transport in shielding and planetary surfaces to new results in understanding the biological effects of protons and high-charge and energy (HZE) nuclei on the risk of cancer, and degenerative diseases such as central nervous system effects, heart disease, and cataracts. The issue provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field, demonstrating both the important results gathered in the past few years with experiments at accelerators, and the need for more research to quantify the risk and develop countermeasures.

  3. [Time--the 4th dimision in medicine and psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Günther

    2003-01-01

    Time is presented as well in his historical meaning and as 4th dimension in its medical and psychotherapeutic context. In this medical and psychotherapeutic process it has an important function and is a variable of a process procedure. The difference between "kairos" = (the right point of time) and "chronos" = (the period of time) is historically meanful. The subjective experienced time is as well emphasized by the development of time in the relation to the development of the "self" as in the subjective experience of time in medical and psychotherapeutic situations. There are also changed conceptions and understandings of time running parallel to the development of nature sciences. The importance of time is explained for the medical practice and the meeting with the patient--especially for chronic diseases. The connection of confidence and time is particularly emphasized in the systemic approach. PMID:12764877

  4. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Breastfeeding and cancer.

    PubMed

    Scoccianti, Chiara; Key, Timothy J; Anderson, Annie S; Armaroli, Paola; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Leitzmann, Michael; Norat, Teresa; Powers, Hilary; Schüz, Joachim; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women, and incidence rates have been rising in European Union (EU) countries over recent decades due in part to a sharp decline in breastfeeding practices. Evidence for a protective association between breastfeeding and the risk of breast cancer at all ages is convincing, and modest protective relationships between breastfeeding and the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers have been suggested. The reduction in breast cancer risk is estimated at 2% for an increase of 5 months of lifetime breastfeeding. The longer women breastfeed, the more they are protected against breast cancer. In addition, breastfeeding is associated with several health benefits for both the mother and the breastfed child. Taking all this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Breastfeeding reduces the mother's cancer risk. If you can, breastfeed your baby". PMID:26116994

  5. The Epilepsy Foundation's 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference.

    PubMed

    French, Jacqueline A; Schachter, Steven C; Sirven, Joseph; Porter, Roger

    2015-05-01

    On June 5 and 6, 2014, the Epilepsy Foundation held its 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference, an initiative of the Epilepsy Therapy Project, which showcased the most promising epilepsy innovations from health-care companies and academic laboratories dedicated to pioneering and advancing drugs, biologics, technologies, devices, and diagnostics for epilepsy. Speakers and attendees included emerging biotech and medical technology companies, major pharmaceutical and device companies, as well as investigators and innovators at the cutting-edge of epilepsy. The program included panel discussions on collaboration between small and large companies, how to get products in need of funding to the marketplace, who is currently funding epilepsy and CNS innovation, and how the NIH facilitates early-stage drug development. Finally, the conference featured the third annual "Shark Tank" competition. The presentations are summarized in this paper, which is followed by a compilation of the meeting poster abstracts. PMID:25922152

  6. 76 FR 37649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zone for the annual July 4th Fireworks Display (Tahoe City 4th of...

  7. 77 FR 39172 - Safety Zone: Skagway Harbor, Skagway, AK for 4th of July Fireworks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Skagway Harbor, Skagway, AK for 4th of July... 4th of July Fireworks display. Persons desiring to transit within this safety zone must contact the... Inlet for the City of Skagway, Alaska, sponsored 4th of July fireworks display. A no-action...

  8. Can astronomy enhance UNESCO World Heritage recognition? The paradigm of 4th Dynasty Egyptian pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The pyramids of Egypt, notably those of the 4th Dinasty as Giza, have always be considered an unmistikable part of human world heritage as the only surviving wonders of the Ancient World. Their majesty, technical hability and innovative character have always beeen considered as representative of ancient Egyptian ingenuity. However, past and present fringe theories about the pyramids and astronomy have always polluted the role of our discipline in the design, construction and symbolism of these impressive monuments. This is indeed unfear. Fortunately, things have started to change in the last couple of decades and now astronomy is interpreted as a neccessary tool for the correct interpretation of the astral eschatology present in the 5th and 6th Dynasty Texts of the Pyramids. Although the pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty are mute, there is however recent research showing that a strong astral symbolism could be hidden in many aspects of the complex architecture and in the design of these exceptional monuments. This idea comes from several hints obtained not only from planning and construction, but also from epigraphy and the analysis of celestial and local landscapes. Chronology also plays a most relevant role on this. The pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty at Meidum, Dahshur, Giza and Abu Rowash -- all of which enjoy UNESCO World Heritage recognition -- willl be scrutinized. As a consequence, we will show how astronomy can certainly enhance the face value of these extraordinary monuments as a definitive proof of the ancient Egyptian quest for Ma'at, i.e. their perennial obsesion for Cosmic Order.

  9. Managing haemophilia for life: 4th Haemophilia Global Summit.

    PubMed

    Astermark, J; Dolan, G; Hilberg, T; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Laffan, M; Lassila, R; Lobet, S; Martinoli, C; Perno, C-F

    2014-07-01

    The 4th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Potsdam, Germany, in September 2013 and brought together an international faculty of haemophilia experts and delegates from multidisciplinary backgrounds. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored global perspectives in haemophilia care, discussing practical approaches to the optimal management of haemophilia now and in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance and potential to influence haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Jan Astermark reviews current understanding of risk factors for the development of inhibitory antibodies and discusses whether this risk can be modulated and minimized. Factors key to the improvement of joint health in people with haemophilia are explored, with Carlo Martinoli and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste discussing the utility of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy. Other aspects of care necessary for the prevention and management of joint disease in people with haemophilia are outlined by Thomas Hilberg and Sébastian Lobet, who highlight the therapeutic benefits of physiotherapy and sports therapy. Riitta Lassila and Carlo-Federico Perno describe current knowledge surrounding the risk of transmission of infectious agents via clotting factor concentrates. Finally, different types of extended half-life technology are evaluated by Mike Laffan, with a focus on the practicalities and challenges associated with these products. PMID:24924596

  10. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Anderson, Annie; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Tim; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and salt, are related to reduced risks of death and cancer, and that a healthy diet can improve overall survival after diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancers. There is evidence that high intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, and the evidence that dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer is convincing. Red and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Diets rich in high-calorie foods, such as fatty and sugary foods, may lead to increased calorie intake, thereby promoting obesity and leading to an increased risk of cancer. There is some evidence that sugary drinks are related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Taking this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people have a healthy diet to reduce their risk of cancer: they should eat plenty of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits; limit high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat); avoid sugary drinks and processed meat; and limit red meat and foods high in salt. PMID:26164653

  11. miR-155 Inhibition Sensitizes CD4+ Th Cells for TREG Mediated Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Werner; Labhart, Paul; Alexiadis, Vassili; Becker, Christian; Hafner, Mathias; Weith, Andreas; Lenter, Martin C.; Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Mennerich, Detlev

    2009-01-01

    Background In humans and mice naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (nTregs) are a thymus-derived subset of T cells, crucial for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by controlling not only potentially autoreactive T cells but virtually all cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. Recent work using Dicer-deficient mice irrevocably demonstrated the importance of miRNAs for nTreg cell-mediated tolerance. Principal Findings DNA-Microarray analyses of human as well as murine conventional CD4+ Th cells and nTregs revealed a strong up-regulation of mature miR-155 (microRNA-155) upon activation in both populations. Studying miR-155 expression in FoxP3-deficient scurfy mice and performing FoxP3 ChIP-Seq experiments using activated human T lymphocytes, we show that the expression and maturation of miR-155 seem to be not necessarily regulated by FoxP3. In order to address the functional relevance of elevated miR-155 levels, we transfected miR-155 inhibitors or mature miR-155 RNAs into freshly-isolated human and mouse primary CD4+ Th cells and nTregs and investigated the resulting phenotype in nTreg suppression assays. Whereas miR-155 inhibition in conventional CD4+ Th cells strengthened nTreg cell-mediated suppression, overexpression of mature miR-155 rendered these cells unresponsive to nTreg cell-mediated suppression. Conclusion Investigation of FoxP3 downstream targets, certainly of bound and regulated miRNAs revealed the associated function between the master regulator FoxP3 and miRNAs as regulators itself. miR-155 is shown to be crucially involved in nTreg cell mediated tolerance by regulating the susceptibility of conventional human as well as murine CD4+ Th cells to nTreg cell-mediated suppression. PMID:19777054

  12. Report of the 4th World Climate Research Programme International Conference on Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Rixen, Michel; van Oevelen, Peter; Asrar, Ghassem; Compo, Gilbert; Onogi, Kazutoshi; Simmons, Adrian; Trenberth, Kevin; Behringer, Dave; Bhuiyan, Tanvir Hossain; Capps, Shannon; Chaudhuri, Ayan; Chen, Junye; Chen, Linling; Colasacco-Thumm, Nicole; Escobar, Maria Gabriela; Ferguson, Craig R.; Ishibashi, Toshiyuki; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Meng, Jesse; Molod, Andrea; Poli, Paul; Roundy, Joshua; Willett, Kate; Wollen, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The 4th WCRP International Conference on Reanalyses provided an opportunity for the international community to review and discuss the observational and modelling research, as well as process studies and uncertainties associated with reanalysis of the Earth System and its components. Characterizing the uncertainty and quality of reanalyses is a task that reaches far beyond the international community of producers, and into the interdisciplinary research community, especially those using reanalysis products in their research and applications. Reanalyses have progressed greatly even in the last 5 years, and newer ideas, projects and data are coming forward. While reanalysis has typically been carried out for the individual domains of atmosphere, ocean and land, it is now moving towards coupling using Earth system models. Observations are being reprocessed and they are providing improved quality for use in reanalysis. New applications are being investigated, and the need for climate reanalyses is as strong as ever. At the heart of it all, new investigators are exploring the possibilities for reanalysis, and developing new ideas in research and applications. Given the many centres creating reanalyses products (e.g. ocean, land and cryosphere research centres as well as NWP and atmospheric centers), and the development of new ideas (e.g. families of reanalyses), the total number of reanalyses is increasing greatly, with new and innovative diagnostics and output data. The need for reanalysis data is growing steadily, and likewise, the need for open discussion and comment on the data. The 4th Conference was convened to provide a forum for constructive discussion on the objectives, strengths and weaknesses of reanalyses, indicating potential development paths for the future.

  13. The role of rehearsal on the output order of immediate free recall of short and long lists.

    PubMed

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2013-03-01

    Participants tend to initiate immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists of words with the very first word on the list. Three experiments examined whether rehearsal is necessary for this recent finding. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with lists of between 2 and 12 words for IFR at a fast, medium, or slow rate, with and without articulatory suppression (AS). The tendency to initiate output with the first item for short lists (a) did not change greatly when presentation rate was increased from a medium to a fast rate under normal conditions, (b) was reduced but not eliminated by AS, and (c) was maintained at slower rates when rehearsal was allowed but decreased at slower rates when rehearsal was prevented. In Experiment 2, the overt rehearsal methodology was used, and the tendency to initiate output with the first item for short lists was present even in the absence of overt rehearsal. Experiment 3 re-examined IFR under normal encoding conditions and replicated the main findings from the normal encoding conditions of Experiment 1 while using the presentation rates and list lengths of Experiment 2. We argue that rehearsal is not strictly necessary for the tendency to initiate recall with the first item under normal conditions, but rehearsal nevertheless contributes to this effect at slower rates. PMID:22774850

  14. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer.

    PubMed

    Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Do not smoke. Do not use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace". PMID:26272517

  15. PREFACE: 4th International Hadron Physics Conference (TROIA'14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dağ, Hüseyin; Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ

    2014-11-01

    The 4th International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'14, was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 1-5 July 2014. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. It aimed at bringing together the experts and the young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 50 participants from 10 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: . Chiral Perturbation Theory . QCD Sum Rules . Effective Field Theory . Exotic Hadrons . Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD . Experimental Results and Future Perspectives . Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks. The speakers of the invited talks were: C. Alexandrou, A. Gal, L. Tolos, J.R. Pelaez and M. Schindler. We had also guest speakers D. A. Demir and T. Senger. The conference venue was a resort hotel around Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient Troia town and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to supporting agencies and to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Bora Işıldak, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 30.10.2014 The Editors

  16. A laboratory model of post-Newtonian gravity with high power lasers and 4th generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G.; Levy, M. C.; Wadud, M. A.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Bingham, R.

    2016-04-01

    Using the post-Newtonian formalism of gravity, we attempt to calculate the x-ray Thomson scattering cross section of electrons that are accelerated in the field of a high intensity optical laser. We show that our results are consistent with previous calculations, suggesting that the combination of high power laser and 4th generation light sources may become a powerful platform to test models exploring high order corrections to the Newtonian gravity.

  17. General Chemistry Collection for Students (CD-ROM), Abstract of Special Issue 16, 4th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    bookstore. The cost per CD can be quite low when large numbers are ordered (as little as $3 each), making this a cost-effective method of allowing students access to the software they need whenever and wherever they desire. Other JCE Software CDs can also be adopted. Network licenses to distribute the software to your students via your local campus network can also be arranged. Contact us for details on purchasing multiple user licenses. Price and Ordering An order form is inserted in this issue that provides prices and other ordering information. If this card is not available or if you need additional information, contact: JCE Software, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706-1396; phone; 608/262-5153 or 800/991-5534; fax: 608/265-8094; email: jcesoft@chem.wisc.edu. Table 1. Contents of the General Chemistry Collection, 4th Edition

  18. Quark masses and mixings in the RS1 model with a condensing 4th generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, A. E. Cárcamo; Dib, Claudio O.; Neill, Nicolás A.; Zerwekh, Alfonso R.

    2012-02-01

    We study the hierarchy of quark masses and mixings in a model based on a 5-dimensional spacetime with constant curvature of Randall-Sundrum type with two branes, where the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking is caused dynamically by the condensation of a 4th generation of quarks, due to underlying physics from the 5D bulk and the first KK gluons. We first study the hierarchy of quark masses and mixings that can be obtained from purely adjusting the profile localizations, finding that realistic masses are not reproduced unless non trivial hierarchies of underlying 4-fermion interactions from the bulk are included. Then we study global U(1) symmetries that can be imposed in order to obtain non-symmetric modified Fritzsch-like textures in the mass matrices that reproduce reasonably well quark masses and CKM mixings.

  19. Urban Infrasound Observations - Examples from July 4th 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, S.; Hayward, C.; Golden, P.; McKenna, M.; Simpson, C.

    2012-12-01

    , the Heroy Building Rooftop Array, is a two-element 30m line on a single rooftop. Large-scale fireworks displays in Dallas on 4 July 2012 provided an opportunity to identify and characterize known signals in an urban setting. The identified events were associated with one of these fireworks displays about 2 km from the arrays. Signals from these sources were used to tune processing parameters for an automatic coherent detection process, Progressive Multichannel Correlation Method (PMCC). PMCC was then used to scan the data for all possible firework sources in the urban environment and determine temporal, back azimuth, apparent velocity, and frequency information about the sources. The signal frequencies seen were 10-80 Hz and documented the details of the nearly 30 minute firework show. The resulting PMCC analysis showed potential to effectively identify other, lower frequency sources in the urban environment. These data were also is used to characterize the noise environment. Significant roof-to-roof noise differences may be related to the building configurations and mechanical equipment, as well as the interactions of the winds with the structures. During the evening of July 4th , additional ground deployed infrasound gauges provided a comparison of free surface and rooftop measurements. Permission to publish was granted by Director, Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory.

  20. 75 FR 35649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks Display safety zone, from 9 a.m. through 10...

  1. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Skills of 4th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…

  2. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  3. 75 FR 34636 - Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display... temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Lake Tahoe, for the Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks... has a substantial direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt State law...

  4. 75 FR 34639 - Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA in the Federal Register (75 FR 26157). We received no comments on... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's... the Reedville July 4th Celebration event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic...

  5. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina... Berkeley Pier, Berkeley, CA in support of the 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display... used in the fireworks display. Background and Purpose The City of Berkeley Marina will sponsor the...

  6. 75 FR 26157 - Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's..., VA in support of the Reedville July 4th Celebration event. This action is intended to restrict...

  7. Science Content Courses: Workshop in Food Chemistry for 4th Grade School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiyapechara, S.; Dong, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    A science content course in food chemistry was offered as a 4-day summer workshop from 1999 to 2001 to 4th grade school teachers in the Seattle School District. The objectives of the workshop were to increase the teachers' knowledge of food science, to perform simple experiments that could be used in the 4th grade classroom, and to help the…

  8. The effect of selective attention and a stimulus prefix on the output order of immediate free recall of short and long lists.

    PubMed

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff

    2015-03-01

    Participants tend to initiate immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists of words with the first word in the list (Serial Position 1 [SP1]) and then proceed in forward serial order. Two potential explanations for this finding were examined: that the first items have increased selective attention (Experiment 1A and 1B) and enhanced temporal distinctiveness (Experiment 2) relative to subsequent list items. In Experiments 1A and 1B, participants were presented with lists of colored words for IFR. The experimental group was told that some trials would contain a red word and that when this occurred, they should output this word first in recall before recalling as many other words as they could. This instruction was designed to shift attention away from SP1 and toward the red item. The control group participants received identical stimuli but were unaware of the importance of the colored words and had no output order constraints. The overall recall of SP1 was not greatly affected in either experiment. In Experiment 2, participants were presented with lists containing between 2 and 12 words. Half of the trials contained a triple word stimulus prefix. For short lists in IFR, the overall recall of SP1 and the tendency to initiate recall with SP1 were reduced but far from eliminated by the stimulus prefix. We argue that our findings may be explained within a grouping interpretation in which the tendency to initiate recall with the first to-be-remembered item may reflect participants' tendency to output the first word in a highly salient participant-determined group. PMID:25730637

  9. Control of the new 4th-order hyper-chaotic system with one input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loría, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    We solve the problem of chaos suppression of Lü's hyper-chaotic system via feedback control. We use only one control input and moreover the controller is a simple proportional feedback and uses the measurement of only one variable. We show that this simple control law suffices to stabilize the hyper-chaotic system to the zero equilibrium globally and asymptotically. We present stability proofs based on Lyapunov's direct method and integration of solutions. As a corollary of our main result we draw the conclusion that the system is globally stabilizable by simply varying one parameter, when possible. Simulation experiments that show the effectiveness of our method are also presented.

  10. 29. VIEW OF 4TH FLOOR'S TELEPHONE RACKS WITH CABLE TRAYS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF 4TH FLOOR'S TELEPHONE RACKS WITH CABLE TRAYS ABOVE. THESE ARE NEWER APPARATUS AND NOT ORIGINAL. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 16. 4th floor roof, view west, north side of setback ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 4th floor roof, view west, north side of setback to left and delivery stair bulkhead to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  12. TID Test Results for 4th Generation iPad(TradeMark)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guertin, S. M.; Allen, G. R.; McClure, S. S.; LaBel, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    TID testing of 4th generation iPads is reported. Of iPad subsystems, results indicate that the charging circuitry and display drivers fail at lowest TID levels. Details of construction are investigated for additional testing of components.

  13. 18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSITION FROM WOOD BENTS TO CONCRETE BENTS - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. Physics Computing '92: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Robert A.; Nadrchal, Jaroslav

    1993-04-01

    * Ordered Particle Simulations for Serial and MIMD Parallel Computers * "NOLP" -- Program Package for Laser Plasma Nonlinear Optics * Algorithms to Solve Nonlinear Least Square Problems * Distribution of Hydrogen Atoms in Pd-H Computed by Molecular Dynamics * A Ray Tracing of Optical System for Protein Crystallography Beamline at Storage Ring-SIBERIA-2 * Vibrational Properties of a Pseudobinary Linear Chain with Correlated Substitutional Disorder * Application of the Software Package Mathematica in Generalized Master Equation Method * Linelist: An Interactive Program for Analysing Beam-foil Spectra * GROMACS: A Parallel Computer for Molecular Dynamics Simulations * GROMACS Method of Virial Calculation Using a Single Sum * The Interactive Program for the Solution of the Laplace Equation with the Elimination of Singularities for Boundary Functions * Random-Number Generators: Testing Procedures and Comparison of RNG Algorithms * Micro-TOPIC: A Tokamak Plasma Impurities Code * Rotational Molecular Scattering Calculations * Orthonormal Polynomial Method for Calibrating of Cryogenic Temperature Sensors * Frame-based System Representing Basis of Physics * The Role of Massively Data-parallel Computers in Large Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations * Short-range Molecular Dynamics on a Network of Processors and Workstations * An Algorithm for Higher-order Perturbation Theory in Radiative Transfer Computations * Hydrostochastics: The Master Equation Formulation of Fluid Dynamics * HPP Lattice Gas on Transputers and Networked Workstations * Study on the Hysteresis Cycle Simulation Using Modeling with Different Functions on Intervals * Refined Pruning Techniques for Feed-forward Neural Networks * Random Walk Simulation of the Motion of Transient Charges in Photoconductors * The Optical Hysteresis in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon * Diffusion Monte Carlo Analysis of Modern Interatomic Potentials for He * A Parallel Strategy for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Polar Liquids on

  15. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Infections and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Villain, Patricia; Gonzalez, Paula; Almonte, Maribel; Franceschi, Silvia; Dillner, Joakim; Anttila, Ahti; Park, Jin Young; De Vuyst, Hugo; Herrero, Rolando

    2015-12-01

    Of the 2,635,000 new cancer cases (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) occurring in the European Union (EU) in 2012, it is estimated that approximately 185,000 are related to infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Chronic infection with these agents can lead to cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, and stomach, respectively. Chronic infection with HCV can also lead to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be of major public health importance in several EU countries and increases cancer risk via HIV-induced immunosuppression. The fourth edition of the European Code Against Cancer presents recommendations on effective and safe preventive interventions in order to reduce the risk of infection-related cancers in EU citizens. Based on current available evidence, the fourth edition recommends that parents ensure the participation of their children in vaccination programs against HBV (for newborns) and HPV (for girls). In the 'Questions and Answers' (Q&As) section about vaccination and infections in the website for the European Code Against Cancer, individuals who are at risk of chronic HBV or HCV are advised to seek medical advice about testing and obtaining treatment when appropriate. Individuals most at risk of HIV are advised to consult their doctor or healthcare provider to access counselling and, if needed, testing and treatment without delay. Information about H. pylori testing and treatment is also provided as testing might currently be offered in some high-risk areas in Europe. The rationale and supporting evidence for the recommendations on vaccination in the European Code Against Cancer, and for the main recommendations on vaccination and infection in the Q&As, are explained in the present review. PMID:26589774

  16. Physics Computing '92: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Robert A.; Nadrchal, Jaroslav

    1993-04-01

    * Ordered Particle Simulations for Serial and MIMD Parallel Computers * "NOLP" -- Program Package for Laser Plasma Nonlinear Optics * Algorithms to Solve Nonlinear Least Square Problems * Distribution of Hydrogen Atoms in Pd-H Computed by Molecular Dynamics * A Ray Tracing of Optical System for Protein Crystallography Beamline at Storage Ring-SIBERIA-2 * Vibrational Properties of a Pseudobinary Linear Chain with Correlated Substitutional Disorder * Application of the Software Package Mathematica in Generalized Master Equation Method * Linelist: An Interactive Program for Analysing Beam-foil Spectra * GROMACS: A Parallel Computer for Molecular Dynamics Simulations * GROMACS Method of Virial Calculation Using a Single Sum * The Interactive Program for the Solution of the Laplace Equation with the Elimination of Singularities for Boundary Functions * Random-Number Generators: Testing Procedures and Comparison of RNG Algorithms * Micro-TOPIC: A Tokamak Plasma Impurities Code * Rotational Molecular Scattering Calculations * Orthonormal Polynomial Method for Calibrating of Cryogenic Temperature Sensors * Frame-based System Representing Basis of Physics * The Role of Massively Data-parallel Computers in Large Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations * Short-range Molecular Dynamics on a Network of Processors and Workstations * An Algorithm for Higher-order Perturbation Theory in Radiative Transfer Computations * Hydrostochastics: The Master Equation Formulation of Fluid Dynamics * HPP Lattice Gas on Transputers and Networked Workstations * Study on the Hysteresis Cycle Simulation Using Modeling with Different Functions on Intervals * Refined Pruning Techniques for Feed-forward Neural Networks * Random Walk Simulation of the Motion of Transient Charges in Photoconductors * The Optical Hysteresis in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon * Diffusion Monte Carlo Analysis of Modern Interatomic Potentials for He * A Parallel Strategy for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Polar Liquids on

  17. Cutting orientations for non-complex parts in 4th axis machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman Zahid, M. N.; Case, K.; Watts, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The application of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining for Rapid Manufacturing processes (CNC-RM) exploits the innate potential of 4th axis machining. The use of an indexer allows the workpiece to be rotated to various orientations which directly increased the region accessible to the cutting tool. However, in order to avoid thin webs and preserve tool life, cutting must be executed with a minimum of three orientations even for geometrically simple parts. Recent findings have suggested the separation of cutting orientations into roughing and finishing operations. Thus, the selection of orientations in finishing processes becomes more flexible and independent. This study was conducted to identify the effects of using a minimum of two cutting orientations in finishing operations for CNC-RM applications. This method is only applicable for non-complex parts where all the features can be machined from two directions. The results of the study illustrate the positive effects of minimizing the number of orientations. Despite improvement in machining operations, the complexity in defining the cutting orientations was also reduced.

  18. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk. PMID:26126928

  19. Systematically frameshifting by deletion of every 4th or 4th and 5th nucleotides during mitochondrial transcription: RNA self-hybridization regulates delRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondria, secondary structures punctuate post-transcriptional RNA processing. Recently described transcripts match the human mitogenome after systematic deletions of every 4th, respectively every 4th and 5th nucleotides, called delRNAs. Here I explore predicted stem-loop hairpin formation by delRNAs, and their associations with delRNA transcription and detected peptides matching their translation. Despite missing 25, respectively 40% of the nucleotides in the original sequence, del-transformed sequences form significantly more secondary structures than corresponding randomly shuffled sequences, indicating biological function, independently of, and in combination with, previously detected delRNA and thereof translated peptides. Self-hybridization decreases delRNA abundances, indicating downregulation. Systematic deletions of the human mitogenome reveal new, unsuspected coding and structural informations. PMID:27018206

  20. 75 FR 38721 - Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay, Lake Superior, Munising, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of South Bay during the Munising 4th of July Fireworks... from hazards associated with the Munising 4th of July Fireworks display. Based on the explosive...

  1. 75 FR 34369 - Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Chicago, Illinois in the Federal Register (75 FR 22330). We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration... associated with the City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks. The Captain of the Port, Sector...

  2. 75 FR 34379 - Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Huron during the Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks... with the Mackinac Island 4th of July fireworks display. The fireworks display will occur between 9:45...

  3. 75 FR 38718 - Safety Zone; Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks, St. Mary's River, Sault Sainte Marie, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks... the Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks display, July ] 4, 2010. This temporary safety zone is... with the Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks display. The fireworks display is planned to...

  4. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions." PMID:26164655

  5. 20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH FLOOR WITH WHITE GLAZED TERRA COTTA SILL AND HEADERS. MULLIONS ARE ORANGE BROWN BRICKS LIKE THE WALLS. BRICKS ARE IN FLEMISH BOND PATTERN. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  7. Assessment of an Engineering Technology Outreach Program for 4th-7th Grade Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Elizabeth M.; Christman, Jeanne; Garrick, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop led by female Engineering Technology students, with support from female faculty, to provide an introduction to Engineering Technology to 4th-7th grade girls through a series of interactive laboratory experiments. This outreach program was developed to improve attitudes towards science and engineering in middle…

  8. 75 FR 33170 - Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for the launching of fireworks being sponsored by the City of...

  9. Relationships between Grade Levels, Personal Factors, and Instructional Variation among 4th-12th Grade Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate relationships between grade levels, personal factors of teachers, and instructional variety used by 4th-12th grade teachers in Kern County, California. The population under investigation included 2,844 teachers. 235 elementary, middle school/junior high, and secondary teachers…

  10. 77 FR 56208 - Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Kentucky has scheduled a...

  11. Reading Development and Achievement of 4th-Grade Hmong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…

  12. MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH MAIN CEMETERY GATE TO CEMETERY'S MAIN STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18276, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  13. Polarimetric Microwave Emission from Snow Surface: 4th Strokes Component Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of ice on the polarimetric 4th Stokes component observations is investigated using WindSat data over Antarctica. The difference in the magnitude of the signal observed during (July 2003) and summer (February 2004) months is investigated using a second harmonic sine function of the azimuth...

  14. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation...

  15. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  16. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  17. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  18. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  19. 11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, WITH WRAPPER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND CUTTER (RIGHT, BEHIND CHUTE); BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM PRESS TO 5TH FLOOR FOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  20. 4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here screenings were pumped from the elevator leg to this conveyor. The grains were ground, then conveyed back down to the first floor for bagging. - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  1. 94. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH 4TH TEE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH 4TH TEE IN THE BACKGROUND, FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE TACKLE BOX. RAMP OF PIER EXTENSION IS VISIBLE ON RIGHT - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. THE FIRST LASING OF 193 NM SASE, 4TH HARMONIC HGHG AND ESASE AT THE NSLS SDL.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG, X.J.; SHEN Y.; WATANABE, T.; MURPHY, J.B.; ROSE, J.; TSANG, T.

    2006-08-28

    The first lasing of three types of single-pass high-gain FELs, SASE at 193 nm, 4th harmonic HGHG at 199 nm and ESASE at the Source Development Lab (SDL) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is reported. The saturation of 4th harmonic HGHG and ESASE FELs was observed. We also observed the spectral broadening and instability of the 4th harmonic HGHG.

  3. 11th National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4th Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B.; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho e Melo, Teresa M.V.D.; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  4. 11(th) National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4(th) Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho E Melo, Teresa M V D; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  5. 10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, WITH AUTOMATIC CUTTER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND WRAPPER (RIGHT); LARGE CHUTE AT CENTER FROM 5TH FLOOR BINS TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS; OVERHEAD AND FLOOR (LOWER RIGHT) FINISHED GOODS CONVEYORS TO G BLOCK (HAER NO. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  6. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Causey

    1999-02-01

    The 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 14-15, 1998. This workshop occurs every two years, and has previously been held in Livermore/California, Nagoya/Japan, and the JRC-Ispra Site in Italy. The purpose of the workshop is to gather researchers involved in the topic of tritium migration, retention, and recycling in materials used to line magnetic fusion reactor walls and provide a forum for presentation and discussions in this area. This document provides an overall summary of the workshop, the workshop agenda, a summary of the presentations, and a list of attendees.

  7. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, are contained in this document and encompass the research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications.

  8. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held June 27-July 1, 1994 in Orlando, Florida. These documents encompass research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. The areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges; and power and energy applications.

  9. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition?

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Bundred, P E

    2000-05-01

    The ratio between the length of the 2nd and 4th digits is: (a) fixed in utero; (b) lower in men than in women; (c) negatively related to testosterone and sperm counts; and (d) positively related to oestrogen concentrations. Prenatal levels of testosterone and oestrogen have been implicated in infertility, autism, dyslexia, migraine, stammering, immune dysfunction, myocardial infarction and breast cancer. We suggest that 2D:4D ratio is predictive of these diseases and may be used in diagnosis, prognosis and in early life-style interventions which may delay the onset of disease or facilitate its early detection. PMID:10859702

  10. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering

  11. Design of a Nb3Sn Magnet for a 4th Generation ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Prestemon, S,; Trillaud, F.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G. L.; Lyneis, C. M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Hafalia, R.

    2008-08-17

    The next generation of Electron Cyclotron Resonant (ECR) ion sources are expected to operate at a heating radio frequency greater than 40 GHz. The existing 3rd generation systems, exemplified by the state of the art system VENUS, operate in the 10-28 GHz range, and use NbTi superconductors for the confinement coils. The magnetic field needed to confine the plasma scales with the rf frequency, resulting in peak fields on the magnets of the 4th generation system in excess of 10 T. High field superconductors such as Nb{sub 3}Sn must therefore be considered. The magnetic design of a 4th. generation ECR ion source operating at an rf frequency of 56 GHz is considered. The analysis considers both internal and external sextupole configurations, assuming commercially available Nb{sub 3}Sn material properties. Preliminary structural design issues are discussed based on the forces and margins associated with the coils in the different configurations, leading to quantitative data for the determination of a final magnet design.

  12. Spiritual Health Scale 2011: Defining and Measuring 4th Dimension of Health

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Neera; Chaturvedi, SK; Nandan, Deoki

    2011-01-01

    In the midst of physical comforts provided by the unprecedented developments in all spheres of life, the humanity is at cross roads and looking at something beyond these means. Spirituality has now been identified globally as an important aspect for providing answers to many questions related to health and happiness. The World Health Organization is also keen at looking beyond physical, mental and social dimensions of the health, and the member countries are actively exploring the 4th Dimension of the health i.e. the spiritual health and its impact on the overall health and happiness of an individual. National Institute of Health and Family Welfare (NIHFW), realized this need and initiated a research study in this direction. In this study, an effort was made to define this 4th Dimension of health from a common worldly person's perspective and measure it. 3 Domains, 6 Constructs and 27 Determinants of spiritual health were identified through a scientific process. A statistically reliable and valid Spiritual Health Scale (SHS 2011) containing 114 items has been developed. Construct validity and test- retest reliability has been established for urban educated adult population. The scale is first of its kind in the world to measure the spiritual health of a common worldly person, which is devoid of religious and cultural bias. Its items have universal applicability. PMID:22279257

  13. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSquare2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Dimitrios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2015-09-01

    The 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Mykonos, Greece, from Friday 5th June to Monday 8th June 2015. The Conference was attended by more than 150 participants and hosted about 200 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. There were more than 600 pre-registered authors. The 4th IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather intense as after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high quality of talks creating an innovative and productive scientific environment for all attendees. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  14. Crime rates and sedentary behavior among 4th grade Texas school children

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H Shelton; Pérez, Adriana; Mirchandani, Gita G; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Although per capita crime has generally fallen over the period which coincides with the obesity epidemic, it has not fallen uniformly across communities. It also has not fallen enough to allay fears on the part of parents. Over the past 30 years, technological changes have made the indoor alternatives to playing outside, where children are more vulnerable to criminal activity, more enjoyable (cable TV, video games, and the internet) and comfortable (the spread of air conditioning to low income neighborhoods). We determined whether indoor sedentary behavior patterns are associated with community crime statistics. 4th graders in the U.S. are typically 9 or 10 years old. Methods We used data from the 2004–2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey linked with U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics data for the years 2000 through 2005 and Texas State data on sexual offenders. The probability-based sample included a total of 7,907 children in grade four. Multistage probability sampling weights were used. The dependent variables included were hours of TV watching, video game playing, computer use and total indoor sedentary behavior after school. Incremental Relative Rates were computed for community crime rates including robberies, all violent crimes, murders, assaults, property crimes, rapes, burglaries, larcenies and motor vehicle thefts as well as for sexual offenders living in the neighborhood. The neighborhood refers to the areas where the students at each school live. In the case of sexual offenders, sexual offenders per capita are estimated using the per capita rate in the zip code of the school attended; all other crime statistics are estimated by the crimes per capita in the police department jurisdiction covering the school attended. After controlling for sex, age, and African-American and Hispanic, cross-sectional associations were determined using multivariate Poisson regression

  15. Linear output nitinol engine

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, R.M.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a linear output nitinol engine consisting of a number of integrated communicating parts. The engine has an external support framework which is described in detail. The patent further describes a wire transport mechanism, a pair of linkage levers with a loom secured to them, a number of nitinol wires strung between the looms, and a power takeoff block secured to the linkage levers. A pulley positioned in a flip-flop supporting bracket and a power takeoff modality including a tension member connected to a power output cable in order to provide linear power output transmission is described. A method for biasing the timing and the mechanism for timing the synchronization of the throw over arms and the flip-flop of the pulley are also described.

  16. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Alcohol drinking and cancer.

    PubMed

    Scoccianti, Chiara; Cecchini, Michele; Anderson, Annie S; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Espina, Carolina; Key, Timothy J; Leitzmann, Michael; Norat, Teresa; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is the third leading risk factor for disease and mortality in Europe. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs provide strengthened evidence that the consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally associated with cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectum and female breast, even for low and moderate alcohol intakes. The risk of cancer increases in a dose-dependent manner, and the higher the amount of alcohol consumed, the higher the risk of developing cancer. Several biological mechanisms explain the carcinogenicity of alcohol; among them, ethanol and its genotoxic metabolite acetaldehyde play a major role. Taking all this evidence into account, a recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer (ECAC) is: "If you drink alcohol of any type, limit your intake. Not drinking alcohol is better for cancer prevention." PMID:26115567

  17. Breakthrough in cardiac arrest: reports from the 4th Paris International Conference.

    PubMed

    Kudenchuk, Peter J; Sandroni, Claudio; Drinhaus, Hendrik R; Böttiger, Bernd W; Cariou, Alain; Sunde, Kjetil; Dworschak, Martin; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Deye, Nicolas; Friberg, Hans; Laureys, Steven; Ledoux, Didier; Oddo, Mauro; Legriel, Stéphane; Hantson, Philippe; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Laterre, Pierre-Francois

    2015-12-01

    Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th "Paris International Conference in Intensive Care", whose principle is to bring together the best international experts on a hot topic in critical care medicine. The 2014 theme was "Breakthrough in cardiac arrest", with many high-quality updates on epidemiology, public health data, pre-hospital and in-ICU cares. The present review includes short summaries of the major presentations, classified into six main chapters: Epidemiology of CA Pre-hospital management Post-resuscitation management: targeted temperature management Post-resuscitation management: optimizing organ perfusion and metabolic parameters Neurological assessment of brain damages Public healthcare. PMID:26380990

  18. The 4th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress in Lisbon: a personal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    The 4th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress, held in Lisbon, 18–21 June 2003, had a record turnout of more than 8600 delegates and the abstract submissions increased to 2600. A heat wave and a somewhat substandard venue hampered some of the activities, notably the poster sessions. The scientific program was comprehensive and of a high class, and it was organized in 10–12 parallel sessions. The European League Against Rheumatism standing committees are expanding their activities and stimulating European cooperation (e.g. by creating databases and guidelines, and by starting research programs). The standing committees presented several areas where European cooperative work is in progress. Advances in drug therapy were a prominent theme and were well presented. Commercialism remains a problem for this meeting as for other similar large meetings, where satellite symposia surround the scientific program of the congress and often duplicate this. PMID:14979931

  19. Report on the 4th International IUPAP Women in Physics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Cynthia

    2011-10-01

    Stellenbosch, South Africa was the site of the 4^th International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) International Conference on Women in Physics, which took place on April 5^th-8^th. This conference brought together the diverse contributions of 250 female physicist attendees from nearly 60 countries worldwide to dissect the challenges faced by female physicists worldwide and to propose strategies to attract and retain more girls and women to the field. Having served as a member of the U.S. Delegation, I will discuss the resolutions reached and highlight the most important results of Global Survey of Physicists, where nearly 15,000 physicists shine light on how gender affects their lives and careers.

  20. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4(th) Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Jana A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W

    2013-10-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4(th) graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009-2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4(th) grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students' multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539

  1. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Medical exposures, including hormone therapy, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    The 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends limiting - or avoiding when possible - the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) because of the increased risk of cancer, nevertheless acknowledging that prescription of HRT may be indicated under certain medical conditions. Current evidence shows that HRT, generally prescribed as menopausal hormone therapy, is associated with an increased risk of cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary, with the risk pattern depending on factors such as the type of therapy (oestrogen-only or combined oestrogen-progestogen), duration of treatment, and initiation according to the time of menopause. Carcinogenicity has also been established for anti-neoplastic agents used in cancer therapy, immunosuppressants, oestrogen-progestogen contraceptives, and tamoxifen. Medical use of ionising radiation, an established carcinogen, can provide major health benefits; however, prudent practices need to be in place, with procedures and techniques providing the needed diagnostic information or therapeutic gain with the lowest possible radiation exposure. For pharmaceutical drugs and medical radiation exposure with convincing evidence on their carcinogenicity, health benefits have to be balanced against the risks; potential increases in long-term cancer risk should be considered in the context of the often substantial and immediate health benefits from diagnosis and/or treatment. Thus, apart from HRT, no general recommendations on reducing cancer risk were given for carcinogenic drugs and medical radiation in the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer. It is crucial that the application of these measures relies on medical expertise and thorough benefit-risk evaluation. This also pertains to cancer-preventive drugs, and self-medication with aspirin or other potential chemopreventive drugs is strongly discouraged because of the possibility of serious, potentially lethal, adverse events. PMID:26390952

  2. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4th graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009–2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4th grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students’ multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539

  3. Conditions for the generation of cytotoxic CD4(+) Th cells that enhance CD8(+) CTL-mediated tumor regression.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunyu; Baird, Margaret; Yang, Jianping; Jackson, Chris; Ronchese, Franca; Young, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Adoptive cell therapies (ACTs) using tumor-reactive T cells have shown clinical benefit and potential for cancer treatment. While the majority of the current ACT are focused on using CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), others have shown that the presence of tumor-reactive CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells can greatly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8(+) CTL. However, difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of CD4(+) Th cells through in vitro expansion can limit the application of CD4 Th cells in ACT. This study aims to optimize the culture conditions for mouse CD4 T cells to provide basic information for animal studies of ACT using CD4 T cells. Taking advantage of the antigen-specificity of CD4(+) Th cells from OT-II transgenic mice, we examined different methodologies for generating antigen-specific CD4(+) Th1 cells in vitro. We found that cells grown in complete advanced-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with low-dose IL-2 and IL-7 induced substantial cell expansion. These Th cells were Th1-like, as they expressed multiple Th1-cytokines and exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity. In addition co-transfer of these CD4(+) Th1-like cells with CD8(+) CTL significantly enhanced tumor regression, leading to complete cure in 80% of mice bearing established B16-OVA. These observations indicate that the CD4(+) Th1-like cells generated using the method we optimized are functionally active to eliminate their target cells, and can also assist CD8(+) CTL to enhance tumor regression. The findings of this study provide valuable data for further research into in vitro expansion of CD4(+) Th1-like cells, with potential applications to cancer treatment involving ACT. PMID:27588200

  4. Conditions for the generation of cytotoxic CD4+ Th cells that enhance CD8+ CTL-mediated tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunyu; Baird, Margaret; Yang, Jianping; Jackson, Chris; Ronchese, Franca; Young, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapies (ACTs) using tumor-reactive T cells have shown clinical benefit and potential for cancer treatment. While the majority of the current ACT are focused on using CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), others have shown that the presence of tumor-reactive CD4+ T helper (Th) cells can greatly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8+ CTL. However, difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of CD4+ Th cells through in vitro expansion can limit the application of CD4 Th cells in ACT. This study aims to optimize the culture conditions for mouse CD4 T cells to provide basic information for animal studies of ACT using CD4 T cells. Taking advantage of the antigen-specificity of CD4+ Th cells from OT-II transgenic mice, we examined different methodologies for generating antigen-specific CD4+ Th1 cells in vitro. We found that cells grown in complete advanced-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with low-dose IL-2 and IL-7 induced substantial cell expansion. These Th cells were Th1-like, as they expressed multiple Th1-cytokines and exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity. In addition co-transfer of these CD4+ Th1-like cells with CD8+ CTL significantly enhanced tumor regression, leading to complete cure in 80% of mice bearing established B16-OVA. These observations indicate that the CD4+ Th1-like cells generated using the method we optimized are functionally active to eliminate their target cells, and can also assist CD8+ CTL to enhance tumor regression. The findings of this study provide valuable data for further research into in vitro expansion of CD4+ Th1-like cells, with potential applications to cancer treatment involving ACT. PMID:27588200

  5. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (Nanosafe2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, F.; Damlencourt, J.-F.; Schuster, F.; Gaultier, V.

    2015-05-01

    This volume contains a collection of contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (NANOSAFE 2014) held in Grenoble, France, from 18th to 20th November 2014. The issues of fast progress in the field of Nanosafety are up to the potential benefits that nanotechnology can bring to mankind. Making more efficient - more sustainable - easier to share mineral resources, increasing the yields of new energy technologies, enabling drugs that act selectively and locally are just few examples of the wide range of nanomaterial applications that currently benefit humanity. Nevertheless, the dynamic development of nanomaterials requires the adhesion from the general public who rightly demand major progresses in Nanosafety as a prerequisite. This is our exciting responsibility and challenge! Following the successful outcome of the three past international conferences on safe production and use of nanomaterials: Nanosafe 2008, 2010 and 2012, the organizing committee has the pleasure to welcoming you again to Minatec, Grenoble with some of the most famous specialists in the field. This year, two new topics have been added dealing with the "New Application of Nanomaterials" and "Nano-responsible Development" in addition to the usual issues addressed in previous Nanosafe conferences such as Expology, Detection and Characterization, Toxicology, Environmental Interactions, Nanomaterials Release, Life Cycle Analysis, Regulation and Standardization, Risk Management. The debates in 2012 proved highly successful so this formula has been kept in 2014 with 3 round tables: Nano-Responsible Development, Risks and Benefits for the Environment, Toxicology Progress. In this 4th edition, there were more than 330 registered participants from 28 different countries including 160 oral presentation covering the whole Nanosafety issues in 12 sessions, satellite workshops and round tables. This high number of participants makes this edition one of

  6. PREFACE: 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    This volume contains selected full length technical papers amongst forty oral presentations made in the 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014), NIT Rourkela, Rourkela, Odisha, India, December 5 - 6, 2014. The first conference of the NCPCM series was held at the same place in December 2011. Seeing the enthusiasm of the participants, it was decided to organize such conference in Rourkela every year. The basic idea was to establish a periodical national forum for multi-scale approaches in processing and characterization of materials in the eastern part of India. The conference NCPCM 2014 has successfully carried the tradition of previous conferences; more than fifty participants from twenty different organizations across India have registered. The conference was consisted of six technical sessions of about fifty contributory talks along with three keynote lectures. A metallography contest was also organized during the event. Out of these, thirty four best peer-reviewed contributions are published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. We would like to thank all the contributors, members of the organizing committee, session chairs as well as colleagues and students who helped with the preparation of the conference and, particularly, with the preparation of this volume. We convey our heartiest gratitude to the sponsors and advertisers for their contribution.

  7. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Joachim; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Herrero, Rolando; Leon, Maria E; Minozzi, Silvia; Romieu, Isabelle; Segnan, Nereo; Wardle, Jane; Wiseman, Martin; Belardelli, Filippo; Bettcher, Douglas; Cavalli, Franco; Galea, Gauden; Lenoir, Gilbert; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Nicula, Florian Alexandru; Olsen, Jørgen H; Patnick, Julietta; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; Puska, Pekka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Wiestler, Otmar; Zatonski, Witold

    2015-12-01

    This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer. PMID:26164654

  8. 4th-International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Science - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hrvoje Petek

    2005-01-26

    The 4-th International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Dynamics (UDS4) was held at the Telluride Summer Research Center on June 22-27, 2003. The International Organizing Committee consisting of Hrvoje Petek (USA), Xiaoyang Zhu (USA), Pedro Echenique (Spain) and Maki Kawai (Japan) brought together a total of 51 participants 16 of whom were from Europe, 10 from Japan, and 25 from the USA. The focus of the conference was on ultrafast electron or light induced processes at well-defined surfaces. Ultrafast surface dynamics concerns the transfer of charge and energy at solid surfaces on the femtosecond time scale. These processes govern rates of fundamental steps in surface reactions, interfacial electron transfer in molecular electronics, and relaxation in spin transport. Recent developments in femtosecond laser technology make it possible to measure by a variety of nonlinear optical techniques directly in the time domain the microscopic rates underlying these interfacial processes. Parallel progress in scanning probe microscopy makes it possible at a single molecular level to perform the vibrational and electronic spectroscopy measurements, to induce reactions with tunneling electrons, and to observe their outcome. There is no doubt that successful development in the field of ultrafast surface dynamics will contribute to many important disciplines.

  9. Multiwavelength Analysis of a Moving Type-IV Radio Burst on 4th March 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veluchamy, V.; Chen, Y.; Feng, S.; Du, G.; Song, H.; Kong, X.

    2015-12-01

    We performed a multiwavelength analysis of a moving Type-IV radio burst on 4th march 2012. The Type-IV radio burst is observed between 10:39 - 11:00 UT in the frequency range of 300 - 20 MHz. From the radio heliographic observation, the radio source of the type-IV burst is traced and their sky plane speed is estimated as ~ 370 km/s. A plasmoid structure is ejected during the impulsive phase of the flare, at the same time of the type-IV burst and the structure is clearly observed at SDO/AIA 131 Å channel. From this, we find that the radio source moves with the plasmoid. The high brightness temperature profile in the range of 108 - 109 K and the moderate polarization between -50 - 30 % supports the plasma emission mechanism. Further the differential emission measure (DEM) analysis will be carried out and their results will be presented to provide more evidence of the emission mechanism.

  10. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ultraviolet radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Greinert, Rüdiger; de Vries, Esther; Erdmann, Friederike; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as tanning devices. Acute skin reactions induced by UVR exposure are erythema (skin reddening), or sunburn, and the acquisition of a suntan triggered by UVR-induced DNA damage. UVR exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations, and its incidence has increased steeply over recent decades. According to estimates for 2012, about 100,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma and about 22,000 deaths from it occurred in Europe. The main mechanisms by which UVR causes cancer are well understood. Exposure during childhood appears to be particularly harmful. Exposure to UVR is a risk factor modifiable by individuals' behaviour. Excessive exposure from natural sources can be avoided by seeking shade when the sun is strongest, by wearing appropriate clothing, and by appropriately applying sunscreens if direct sunlight is unavoidable. Exposure from artificial sources can be completely avoided by not using sunbeds. Beneficial effects of sun or UVR exposure, such as for vitamin D production, can be fully achieved while still avoiding too much sun exposure and the use of sunbeds. Taking all the scientific evidence together, the recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer for ultraviolet radiation is: "Avoid too much sun, especially for children. Use sun protection. Do not use sunbeds." PMID:26096748

  11. 4th annual primary care ethics conference: ethics education and lifelong learning

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, John; McKenzie-Edwards, Emma; Misselbrook, David

    2014-01-01

    Primary care ethics is a field of study that has recently found new life, with calls to establish the relevance of ethical discussion in general practice, to gather a body of literature and to carve out an intellectual space for primary care on the academic landscape of bioethics. In this report, we reflect on the key strands of the 4th primary care ethics conference held at the Royal Society of Medicine, on a theme of ethics education and lifelong learning: first, to produce insights that have relevance for policy and practice; and second, to illustrate the idea that not only is ethics relevant in primary care, but primary care is relevant in medical ethics. Core themes included the advantages and disadvantages of prescriptive ways of doing ethics in education, ethical reflection and potential risk to professional status, the need to deal with societal change and to take on board the insights gained from empirical work, whether this is about different kinds of fatherhood, or work on the causes of moral distress in healthcare workers. PMID:25949739

  12. Project ASTRO: Local Coalitions for Bringing Astronomers to 4th - 9th Grade Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1998-05-01

    We report on Project ASTRO, an NSF and NASA funded program that now links professional and amateur astronomers with local 4th through 9th grade teachers in 10 sites around the country. Each site matches and trains about 20-25 astronomer-teacher partnerships per year, focusing on hands-on, age-appropriate activities, demonstrations of the scientific method, as well as family and community outreach. Over 10,000 copies of the project's 813-page UNIVERSE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS resource and activity notebook (published by the A.S.P) are now in use in educational institututions around the world. The project's HOW-TO-MANUAL is being used as a practical guide to establishing astronomer-teacher partnerships where no formal ASTRO site exists, and a 12-minute video explaining and demonstrating the project is also available. In each of the ten sites, a coalition of educational and scientific institutions is assisting the project with in-kind donations, publicity, personnel, training, materials, etc. We are conducting an experiment (at the behest of NSF) to see to what degree the sites can become self-supporting over time. (One site, in Salt Lake City, has already received full funding from a local foundation.) We will discuss the progress of the project and will have a variety of sample materials available, including our annotated catalog of national astronomy and space science education projects (see associated URL).

  13. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.

  14. Need for Specific Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Lessons for 4th and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Jacobs, Laurel; Waits, Juanita; Hartz, Vern; Martinez, Stephanie H.; Standfast, Rebecca D.; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Bawden, Margine; Whitmer, Evelyn; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to obesity. We hypothesized that school-based nutrition education would decrease SSB consumption. Design Self-selected interventional cohort with random selection for pre and post measurements Setting Arizona SNAP-Ed eligible schools Participants Randomly selected (9%) 4th and 5th grade classroom students Intervention The University of Arizona Nutrition Network (UANN) provided general nutrition education training and materials to teachers, to be delivered to their students. The UANN administered behavioral questionnaires to students in both Fall and Spring. Main Outcome Measure(s) Change in SSB consumption Analyses Descriptive statistics were computed for student demographics and beverage consumption on the day prior to testing. Paired t-tests evaluated change in classroom averages. Linear regression assessed potential correlates of SSB consumption. Results Fall mean SSB consumption was 1.1 (±0.2) times; mean milk and water intake were 1.6 (±0.2) and 5.2 (±0.7) times, respectively. Beverage consumption increased (3.2%) in springtime, with increased SSBs (14.4%) accounting for the majority (p=0.006). Change in SSB consumption was negatively associated with baseline SSB and water consumption, but positively associated with baseline milk fat (p≤0.05). Conclusions and Implications The results suggest the need for beverage specific education to encourage children to consume more healthful beverages in warmer weather. PMID:25239840

  15. Research on output feedback control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, Anthony J.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is presented of the main results obtained during the course of research on output feedback control. The term output feedback is used to denote a controller design approach which does not rely on an observer to estimate the states of the system. Thus, the order of the controller is fixed, and can even be zero order, which amounts to constant gain ouput feedback. The emphasis has been on optimal output feedback. That is, a fixed order controller is designed based on minimizing a suitably chosen quadratic performance index. A number of problem areas that arise in this context have been addressed. These include developing suitable methods for selecting an index of performance, both time domain and frequency domain methods for achieving robustness of the closed loop system, developing canonical forms to achieve a minimal parameterization for the controller, two time scale design formulations for ill-conditioned systems, and the development of convergent numerical algorithms for solving the output feedback problem.

  16. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  17. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alexandre; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    This volume contains 24 contributed papers presented at the 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS) held during October 12-16, 2014 in Yichang, China. Each paper was peer-reviewed by at least one referee chosen from a distinguished international panel. The previous three workshops of this series were organized in 2008, 2010, and 2012, in Le Mans, France, Wuhan, China, and Kazan, Russia, respectively. The SPMCS international workshop series is destined mainly to communicate and exchange research results and information on the fundamental challenges and questions in the vanguard of statistical physics, thermodynamics and mathematics for complex systems. More specifically, the topics of interest touch, but are not limited to, the following: • Fundamental aspects in the application of statistical physics and thermodynamics to complex systems and their modeling • Finite size and non-extensive system • Fluctuation theorems and equalities, quantum thermodynamics • Variational principle for random dynamics • Fractal geometry, fractional mathematics More than 50 participants from 7 countries participated in SPMCS-2014. 35 oral contributions were presented at the workshop. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Scientific Program Committee, many of whom acted as reviewers of the papers and responded promptly. We would also like to thank the organizing committee, the session chairs, the technicians and the students for the smooth running of the whole workshop. Thanks also go to China Three Gorges University who provided generous support for the conference venue, as well as exquisite refreshments for the tea breaks. The workshop was also partially supported by Central China Normal University and the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities under grant NO. B08033. Special thanks are due to Ms Juy Zhu who has done excellent editing work with great effort.

  18. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Chandan Kumar; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim Bin; Ahmad, Ibrahim Bin; Desa, Mohamed Nor Bin Mohamed; Din, Norashidah Bte Md; Bte Mohd, Lariyah; Hamid, Nasri A.; See, Ong Hang; Hafiz Nagi, Farrukh; Yong, Lee Choon; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Mei, Goh Su; Abdullah, Fairuz Bin; Satgunam, Meenaloshini

    2013-06-01

    The 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment 2013 (ICEE2013) was organized by the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) to provide a platform for creating and sharing ideas among engineers, researchers, scientists, industrialists and students in sustainable green energy and technologies. The theme 'Shaping a Sustainable Future through Advancement in Green Energy Technology' is in line with the University's vision to be a leading global energy university that shapes a sustainable future. The general scopes of the conference are renewable energy, smart grid, green technology, energy policies and economics, sustainable green energy and environment, sustainable education, international cooperation and innovation and technology transfer. Five international keynote speakers delivered their speeches in specialized areas of green energy technology and sustainability. In addition, the conference highlights several special parallel sessions by notable invited presenters in their niche areas, which are: Hybrid Energy Power Quality & Distributed Energy Smart Grid Nuclear Power & Technologies Geohazard Management Greener Environment for Sustainability Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics The research papers presented in ICEE2013 are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES). EES is abstracted and indexed in SCOPUS, GeoBase, GeoRef, Compendex, Inspec, Chemical Abstracts Service, NASA Astrophysics Data System, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS). With the comprehensive programme outline, the organizing committee hopes that the ICEE2013 was a notable intellectual sharing session for the research and academic community in Malaysia and regionally. The organizing committee expresses gratitude to the ICEE2013 delegates for their great support and contributions to the event.

  19. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, A.; Green, P.

    2010-04-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography. The conference was held at the Institute of Physics, London, UK on 27th-28th May 2010. Previous conferences in this series took place in 2000, 2003 and 2006. The aim of this conference series is to inform those responsible for the preservation of digitally printed materials about developments in digital photography and printing technologies. We aim to examine progress in research on inks and substrates and their significance for conservation and preservation issues and techniques. We also hope to develop links between related industries and the conservation/preservation world. Research areas explored in this conference include current developments and future trends in digital printing and photographic technologies; the effect of environmental, storage and salvage conditions on the durability of digital prints and photographs; image processing techniques; image permanence considerations and standards for fastness, permanence and the role of scanning and file formats. We would like to thank all participants for their contribution to the conference programme and these proceedings. Our thanks go to Ms C. Gu and Mr M. Sandy for chairing conference sessions. We are also grateful to Dawn Stewart and the Institute of Physics Conference Team for their invaluable support and assistance in arranging the conference and reception. Finally we would like to extend our thanks to the Society of Imaging Science and Technology (IS&T) for their sponsorship support. The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green (London College of Communication, University of the Arts London). Proceedings edited and compiled by Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green.

  20. Learning Natural Selection in 4th Grade with Multi-Agent-Based Computational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickes, Amanda Catherine; Sengupta, Pratim

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate how elementary school students develop multi-level explanations of population dynamics in a simple predator-prey ecosystem, through scaffolded interactions with a multi-agent-based computational model (MABM). The term "agent" in an MABM indicates individual computational objects or actors (e.g., cars), and these agents obey simple rules assigned or manipulated by the user (e.g., speeding up, slowing down, etc.). It is the interactions between these agents, based on the rules assigned by the user, that give rise to emergent, aggregate-level behavior (e.g., formation and movement of the traffic jam). Natural selection is such an emergent phenomenon, which has been shown to be challenging for novices (K16 students) to understand. Whereas prior research on learning evolutionary phenomena with MABMs has typically focused on high school students and beyond, we investigate how elementary students (4th graders) develop multi-level explanations of some introductory aspects of natural selection—species differentiation and population change—through scaffolded interactions with an MABM that simulates predator-prey dynamics in a simple birds-butterflies ecosystem. We conducted a semi-clinical interview based study with ten participants, in which we focused on the following: a) identifying the nature of learners' initial interpretations of salient events or elements of the represented phenomena, b) identifying the roles these interpretations play in the development of their multi-level explanations, and c) how attending to different levels of the relevant phenomena can make explicit different mechanisms to the learners. In addition, our analysis also shows that although there were differences between high- and low-performing students (in terms of being able to explain population-level behaviors) in the pre-test, these differences disappeared in the post-test.

  1. 77 FR 39422 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou; Niceville, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Niceville July...

  2. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club and the City of Stockton will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA. (a) Location....

  3. 78 FR 23869 - Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ..., telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not plan to hold public meetings on this proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks...

  4. 78 FR 39998 - Safety Zone; Grand Haven 4th of July Fireworks; Grand River; Grand Haven, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grand Haven 4th of July Fireworks; Grand... a State, local, or tribal government, in the aggregate, or by the private sector of...

  5. Examining General and Specific Factors in the Dimensionality of Oral Language and Reading in 4th-10th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population--adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to…

  6. 78 FR 23866 - Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks; Crescent City Harbor, Crescent City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July...

  7. 75 FR 35294 - Safety Zone; Marquette 4th of July Fireworks, Marquette Harbor, Lake Superior, Marquette, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Marquette Harbor, Lake Superior, Marquette, MI. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Marquette Harbor during the Marquette 4th of July Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with a firework...

  8. 78 FR 39606 - Safety Zone; City of Menominee 4th of July Fireworks, Green Bay, Menominee, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Menominee 4th of July Fireworks... that may result in the expenditure by a State, local, or tribal government, in the aggregate, or by...

  9. Impacts of a Discussion-Based Academic Language Program on Classroom Interactions in 4th through 7th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Kim, James; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis of treatment-control differences in the quality of classroom interactions in 4th through 7th grade urban classrooms. Word Generation (WG) is a research-based academic language program for middle school students designed to teach novel vocabulary and literacy through language arts, math, science, and…

  10. Teacher Implementation of Reform-Based Mathematics and Implications for Algebra Readiness: A Qualitative Study of 4th Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Stephen Korb

    2011-01-01

    This study looked at 4th grade classrooms to see "how" teachers implement NCTM standards-based or reform-based mathematics instruction and then analyzed it for the capacity to improve students' "algebra readiness." The qualitative study was based on classroom observations, teacher and administrator interviews, and teacher surveys. The study took…

  11. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (4th, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, July 6-8, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Calders, Toon; Conati, Cristina; Ventura, Sebastian; Romero, Cristobal; Stamper, John

    2011-01-01

    The 4th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2011) brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large datasets to answer educational research questions. The conference, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, July 6-9, 2011, follows the three previous editions…

  12. Comparing Science Learning among 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-Grade Students: STS versus Textbook-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E.; Choi, AeRan; Yager, Stuart O.; Akcay, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade teachers from five school districts each taught two sections of science--one with a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach and the other with a more traditional textbook approach in which basic science concepts were the major organizers. Local, current, and personally relevant issues provided the context and…

  13. The Influence of Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Phoneme Awareness in 2nd and 4th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics--neighborhood density and word frequency--interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods: Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation…

  14. 4th Annual SATN Conference 2011: Curriculum Transformation at Universities of Technology: Towards Development of New Generation Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthembu, T.

    2012-01-01

    The South African Technology Network (SATN) would like to thank the Editor of the "South African Journal of Higher Education" (SAJHE) for the opportunity to publish papers read at the 4th Annual SATN Conference that was hosted by Central University of Technology and held in Bloemfontein in November 2011. The journal makes it possible for…

  15. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  16. Impact of a Health and Media Literacy Curriculum on 4th-Grade Girls: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Heidi A.; Damico, Amy M.; Rodgers, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that young girls are preoccupied with their body size and that the media may be a contributing factor. This study aimed to discover the impact of an interdisciplinary media literacy intervention curriculum on 4th-grade girls in an urban elementary school. The authors developed and implemented a series of lessons that…

  17. 76 FR 72957 - 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention... Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Recovery for the Iraq...

  18. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  19. Characterization of HCV Specific CD4+Th17 Immunity in Recurrent Hepatitis C Induced Liver Allograft Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Basha, H. Ilias; Subramanian, Vijay; Seetharam, A.; Nath, D.S.; Ramachandran, S.; Anderson, C.D.; Shenoy, S.; Chapman, W.C.; Crippin, J.S.; Mohanakumar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) recurrence with accelerated fibrosis following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a universal phenomenon. To evaluate mechanisms contributing to HCV induced allograft fibrosis/cirrhosis, we investigated HCV specific CD4+Th17 cells and their induction in OLT recipients with recurrence utilizing 51 HCV+ OLT recipients, 15 healthy controls and 9 HCV- OLT recipients. Frequency of HCV specific CD4+ Tcells secreting IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-10 was analyzed by ELISpot. Serum cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by LUMINEX. Recipients with recurrent HCV induced allograft inflammation and fibrosis/cirrhosis demonstrated a significant increase in frequency of HCV specific CD4+Th17 cells. Increased pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-17, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1), decreased IFN-γ, and increased IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 levels were identified. OLT recipients with allograft inflammation and fibrosis/cirrhosis demonstrated increased frequency of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) that inhibited HCV specific CD4+Th1 but not Th17 cells. This suggests that recurrent HCV infection in OLT recipients induces an inflammatory milieu characterized by increased IL-6, IL-1β and decreased IFN-γ which facilitates induction of HCV specific CD4+Th17 cells. These cells are resistant to suppression by Tregs and may mediate an inflammatory cascade leading to cirrhosis in OLT recipients following HCV recurrence. PMID:21446979

  20. 75 FR 38723 - Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St....

  1. PREFACE: 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, H. E.; Khotsianovsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015), which is an annual event that started in 2012. CMSE 2015, technically supported by the Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering of University of Macau, organized by Wuhan Advance Materials Society, was successfully held at the University of Macau-new campus located on Hengqin Island from August 3rd-6th, 2015. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of Materials Science and Engineering, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Macau, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, where East meets West, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this annual international conference. The conference program included keynote presentations, special sessions, oral and poster contributions. From several hundred submissions, 52 of the most promising and mainstream, IOP-relevant, contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence and methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 200 qualified and high-level researchers and experts from over 40 countries, including 10 keynote speakers from 6 countries, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we would like to thank all participants of this conference, and particularly the

  2. FOREWORD: 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2014 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2014.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, on May 23, 2014. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 and May 2013, (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html), (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). The New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP) Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed, inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the

  3. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, “The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner,” “I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship,” and “I think all students should participate in a similar experience.” When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills

  4. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rebekah; Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, "The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner," "I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship," and "I think all students should participate in a similar experience." When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills required for

  5. PREFACE: 4th Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomić, Stanko; Probert, Matt; Migliorato, Max; Pal, Joydeep

    2014-06-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the MediaCityUK, University of Salford, Manchester, UK on 22-24 January 2014. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2012 at the University of Leeds, in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-performance computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Semi-empirical Electronic Structure Methods, Multi-scale Approaches, Modelling of PV devices, Electron Transport, and Graphene. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Photonic Structures, and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognized experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several contributions also from representatives of

  6. Some aspects of the NASTRAN program output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The NASTRAN program output is discussed from a structural analysts point of view, and the simple modifications which were made to the program in order to improve it are also described. The convenience of the output for use in original design work is critically appraised and compared with the output from ASTRAL. It is shown that considerable hand calculation is necessary in order to extract useful load distribution data from the available NASTRAN output. For this reason, some effort was directed toward providing additional force output for the NASTRAN shear panel element.

  7. Transfer of a CD4+ Th1 cell line to nude mice effects clearance of Rhodococcus equi from the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Kanaly, S T; Hines, S A; Palmer, G H

    1996-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi, and intracellular respiratory pathogen, causes sever e granulomatous pneumonia in humans with AIDS and in young horses. Pulmonary clearance of R. equi requires functional CD4+ T cells and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) expression from bronchial lymph node cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether R. equi-specific CD4+ Th1 cells could effect clearance of R. equi from the lung. Adoptive transfer of a clearance of R. equi from the lungs. In contrast, mice transfused with a R. equi-specific CD4+ Th2 cell line expressed interleukin-4 but not IFN-gamma mRNA, failed to clear pulmonary infection, and developed granulomas in the lung. Control mice, which did not receive cells, did not produce IFN-gamma or interleukin-4 and developed small pulmonary granulomas. These results clearly show that a Th1 response is sufficient to effect pulmonary clearance of R. equi. PMID:8606068

  8. A selected review of abstracts from the 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2014-03-01

    The 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology (WFNO), San Francisco, CA, USA, 21-24 November 2013 The 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology (WFNO) was the largest neuro-oncology meeting that meets once every 4 years and brings together clinicians and scientists from all parts of the world whose focus is on new brain cancer clinical trials and research primarily pertaining to gliomas. The WFNO 2013 meeting included 1 education day, 2.5 days of presentation, 13 sunrise sessions, one town hall meeting, one mini-symposium, 130 oral presentations and 900 abstracts. This short meeting review highlights select adult clinical abstracts presented at WFNO 2013 that will only in part encompass the contents of a large and multifaceted meeting. PMID:25055016

  9. Output optics for laser velocimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Dana H. (Inventor); Gunter, William D. (Inventor); Mcalister, Kenneth W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Space savings are effected in the optical output system of a laser velocimeter. The output system is comprised of pairs of optical fibers having output ends from which a beam of laser light emerges, a transfer lens for each light beam, and at least one final (LV) lens for receiving the light passing through the transfer lenses and for focussing that light at a common crossing point or area. In order to closely couple the transfer lenses to the final lens, each transfer lens is positioned relative to the final lens receiving light therefrom such that the output waist of the corresponding beam received by the final lens from the transfer lens is a virtual waist located before the transfer lens.

  10. Caldecott 4th bore tunnel project: influence of ground water flows and inflows triggered by tectonic fault zones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhuber, G.; G. Neuhuber1, W. Klary1, A. Nitschke1, B. Thapa2, Chris Risden3, T. Crampton4, D. Zerga5

    2011-12-01

    The 4th Bore is a highway tunnel on California State Route 24 currently under construction. The 4th Bore is undertaken by the California State Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) and the Contra Costa County Transportation Commission (CCTC) to alleviate traffic congestion on SR24 connecting the cities of Oakland and Orinda in the San Francisco East Bay Area. The cost for the 4th Bore is estimated at $ 390.8 Mill. The 3,249 ft long 4th Bore tunnel will have excavated dimensions of approximately 40 ft height and 49 ft width. A total of 7 cross passages will run between the 3rd and the new 4th bore. Geology and Hydrogeology: The project is located in the Oakland Berkeley Hills of the SF Bay Area. The Caldecott Tunnels lie within the easterly assemblage of the Hayward fault zone province which consists of a sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks that accumulated in the interval between about 16 and 8.4 Ma (Miocene). The basal rocks of these Tertiary deposits consist of deep marine basin sediments of the Monterey Group. These rocks are overlain uncomfortably by an interbedded sequence of terrestrial sediments (Orinda Formation) and volcanic rocks (Moraga Formation). The Tertiary rocks have been folded into large amplitude, NW trending folds that are cut by N trending strike and slip faults. The SF Bay Region, which is crossed by 4 major faults (San Gregorio, San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras), is considered one of the more seismically active regions of the world. The active Hayward fault lies 0.9mi to the west of the Caldecott Tunnels and is the closest major fault to the project area. The tunnel is at the moment under top heading construction: West Portal (360ft) and East Portal (1,968.5ft). While major faults typically influence groundwater flow, characterization of such influences is extremely difficult because of the heterogeneity of the hydraulic systems and the different lithological parameters and influences. Four major inactive fault zones striking

  11. Production of IL-16 correlates with CD4+ Th1 inflammation and phosphorylation of axonal cytoskeleton in multiple sclerosis lesions

    PubMed Central

    Skundric, Dusanka S; Cai, Juan; Cruikshank, William W; Gveric, Djordje

    2006-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system-specific autoimmune, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Infiltration of lesions by autoaggressive, myelin-specific CD4+Th1 cells correlates with clinical manifestations of disease. The cytokine IL-16 is a CD4+ T cell-specific chemoattractant that is biased towards CD4+ Th1 cells. IL-16 precursor is constitutively expressed in lymphocytes and during CD4+ T cell activation; active caspase-3 cleaves and releases C-terminal bioactive IL-16. Previously, we used an animal model of MS to demonstrate an important role for IL-16 in regulation of autoimmune inflammation and subsequent axonal damage. This role of IL-16 in MS is largely unexplored. Here we examine the regulation of IL-16 in relation to CD4+ Th1 infiltration and inflammation-related changes of axonal cytoskeleton in MS lesions. Methods We measured relative levels of IL-16, active caspase-3, T-bet, Stat-1 (Tyr 701), and phosphorylated NF(M+H), in brain and spinal cord lesions from MS autopsies, using western blot analysis. We examined samples from 39 MS cases, which included acute, subacute and chronic lesions, as well as adjacent, normal-appearing white and grey matter. All samples were taken from patients with relapsing remitting clinical disease. We employed two-color immunostaining and confocal microscopy to identify phenotypes of IL-16-containing cells in frozen tissue sections from MS lesions. Results We found markedly increased levels of pro- and secreted IL-16 (80 kD and 22 kD, respectively) in MS lesions compared to controls. Levels of IL-16 peaked in acute, diminished in subacute, and were elevated again in chronic active lesions. Compared to lesions, lower but still appreciable IL-6 levels were measured in normal-appearing white matter adjacent to active lesions. Levels of IL-16 corresponded to increases in active-caspase-3, T-bet and phosphorylated Stat-1. In MS lesions, we readily observed IL-16 immunoreactivity confined to

  12. 4th Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-12-02

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. There was one shipment of two drums sent for offsite treatment and disposal. This report summarizes the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014.

  13. Collaborative interactions between type 2 innate lymphoid cells and antigen-specific CD4+ Th2 cells exacerbate murine allergic airway diseases with prominent eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Lee, Jee-Boong; Chen, Chun-Yu; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana; Wang, Yui-Hsi

    2015-04-15

    Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the acquired CD4(+) Th2 and Th17 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental asthma; however, their roles in Ag-driven exacerbation of chronic murine allergic airway diseases remain elusive. In this study, we report that repeated intranasal rechallenges with only OVA Ag were sufficient to trigger airway hyperresponsiveness, prominent eosinophilic inflammation, and significantly increased serum OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE in rested mice that previously developed murine allergic airway diseases. The recall response to repeated OVA inoculation preferentially triggered a further increase of lung OVA-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, whereas CD4(+) Th17 and ILC2 cell numbers remained constant. Furthermore, the acquired CD4(+) Th17 cells in Stat6(-/-)/IL-17-GFP mice, or innate ILC2s in CD4(+) T cell-ablated mice, failed to mount an allergic recall response to OVA Ag. After repeated OVA rechallenge or CD4(+) T cell ablation, the increase or loss of CD4(+) Th2 cells resulted in an enhanced or reduced IL-13 production by lung ILC2s in response to IL-25 and IL-33 stimulation, respectively. In return, ILC2s enhanced Ag-mediated proliferation of cocultured CD4(+) Th2 cells and their cytokine production, and promoted eosinophilic airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia driven by adoptively transferred Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells. Thus, these results suggest that an allergic recall response to recurring Ag exposures preferentially triggers an increase of Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, which facilitates the collaborative interactions between acquired CD4(+) Th2 cells and innate ILC2s to drive the exacerbation of a murine allergic airway diseases with an eosinophilic phenotype. PMID:25780046

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Event Performance Analysis FY 2013 4th Quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Lisbeth A. Mitchell

    2013-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2 “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable for the previous twelve months. This report is the analysis of occurrence reports and deficiency reports (including not reportable events) identified at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) during the period of October 2012 through September 2013.

  15. Injector Beam Dynamics for a High-Repetition Rate 4th-Generation Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, C. F.; Corlett, J.; Emma, P.; Filippetto, D.; Penn, G.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Steier, C.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.

    2013-05-20

    We report on the beam dynamics studies and optimization methods for a high repetition rate (1 MHz) photoinjector based on a VHF normal conducting electron source. The simultaneous goals of beamcompression and reservation of 6-dimensional beam brightness have to be achieved in the injector, in order to accommodate a linac driven FEL light source. For this, a parallel, multiobjective optimization algorithm is used. We discuss the relative merits of different injector design points, as well as the constraints imposed on the beam dynamics by technical considerations such as the high repetition rate.

  16. A prototype for computer management of petroleum data and generation of maps and sections using 4th dimension{sup {trademark}}

    SciTech Connect

    French, D.E.; McBane, J.D.

    1996-06-01

    A commercial relational database program available for Macintosh and Windows-based computers known as 4th Dimension, has been adapted for use as a tool for storage, manipulation, and presentation of petroleum industry data. The database organization, input and output layouts, and manipulation routines are collectively referred to as WellFile4. Well data, land-survey data, production statistics, and stratigraphic information can be entered into the database from the keyboard or by importing files purchased from data vendors. The data can then be organized into files that can be searched and sorted based upon user-defined criteria. Selected subsets of data can be printed in various custom report formats. A graphics-editing module, 4D Draw, is used to generate maps, cross sections, and borehole-completion profiles. Maps can incorporate well-header information, formation tops, isopach values, or production data. Production data can also be presented as a bubble map. Maps can also include data selected from tables generated by a spreadsheet module, 4D Calc. Seismic-time values can be treated with appropriate velocity functions using the spreadsheet to derive depth values for posting to the base map. Structural or stratigraphic cross sections can be generated by selecting wells or seismic shot points from a map, and vertical exaggeration can be determined by the user. Maps can be modified extensively by the user before printing or plotting, and can be saved as a document that can be opened by other programs. Production statistics can be compiled based upon location, stratigraphic interval, or other criteria into a single set of data and presented as a chart or table. These can be printed or saved as a text file for use by other spreadsheet or chart-generation programs.

  17. An Ecological Study of Food Desert Prevalence and 4th Grade Academic Achievement in New York State School Districts

    PubMed Central

    Frndak, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Design and methods Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4th grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Core of Data), and food desert data (USDA Food Desert Atlas). Multiple regression models assessed the percentage of variation in achievement scores explained by food desert variables, after controlling for additional predictors. Results The proportion of individuals living in food deserts significantly explained 4th grade achievement scores, after accounting for additional predictors. School districts with higher proportions of individuals living in food desert regions demonstrated lower 4th grade achievement across science, English and math. Conclusions Food deserts appear to be related to academic achievement at the school district level among urban and suburban regions. Further research is needed to better understand how food access is associated with academic achievement at the individual level. Significance for public health The prevalence of food deserts in the United States is of national concern. As poor nutrition in United States children continues to spark debate, food deserts are being evaluated as potential sources of low fruit and vegetable intake and high obesity rates. Cognitive development and IQ have been linked to nutrition patterns, suggesting that children in food desert regions may have a disadvantage academically. This research evaluates if an ecological relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level can be demonstrated. Results suggest that food desert prevalence may relate to poor academic performance at

  18. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30th July until the 3rd August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period. PMID:22589590

  19. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30(th) July until the 3(rd) August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period. PMID:22589590

  20. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4(th)/5(th) Century CE).

    PubMed

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Makki, Mahsasadat; Heidari, Zahra; Rezaeian, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Araujo, Adauto; Boenke, Nicole; Aali, Abolfazl; Stollner, Thomas; Mobedi, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4(th)/5(th) century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran. PMID:26246822

  1. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4th/5th Century CE)

    PubMed Central

    MOWLAVI, Gholamreza; MAKKI, Mahsasadat; HEIDARI, Zahra; REZAEIAN, Mostafa; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ARAUJO, Adauto; BOENKE, Nicole; AALI, Abolfazl; STOLLNER, Thomas; MOBEDI, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4th/5th century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran. PMID:26246822

  2. [Guideline for the additional test positions according to the EPQC 4th Edition for Digital Mammography Systems].

    PubMed

    Sommer, A; Lenzen, H; Blaser, D; Ehlers, S-E; Schopphoven, S; John, C

    2009-09-01

    Within the physical-technical quality assurance of the German breast cancer screening program all digital mammography systems have to perform the contrast resolution test and the determination of the average glandular dose based on the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis (4th Edition). Since 1.1.2009 this applies to digital systems outside the screening program too. To accomplish uniform measurements in all federal states of Germany, the physical board of the reference centers developed together a special guideline for these test position. This Guideline describes the determination of the average glandular dose for different types of mammography systems, the CDMAM image acquisition and the CDMAM image evaluation as well. This guideline was verified by the German task group "Röntgenverordnung". PMID:19676011

  3. Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES): comparative performance of 2nd-, 4th-, and 8th-grade Czech children.

    PubMed

    Otto, D A; Skalik, I; House, D E; Hudnell, H K

    1996-01-01

    The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System was designed for field studies of workers, but many NES tests can be performed satisfactorily by children as young as 7 or 8 years old and a few tests, such as simple reaction time, can be performed by preschool children. However, little comparative data from children of different ages or grade levels are available. Studies of school children in the Czech Republic indicate that 2nd-grade children could perform the following NES tests satisfactorily: Finger Tapping, Visual Digit Span. Continuous Performance, Symbol-Digit Substitution, Pattern Comparison, and simpler conditions of Switching Attention. Comparative scores of boys and girls from the 2nd, 4th, and 8th grades and power analyses to estimate appropriate sample size were presented. Performance varied systematically with grade level and gender. Larger samples were needed with younger children to achieve comparable levels of statistical power. Gender comparisons indicated that boys responded faster, but made more errors than girls. PMID:8866533

  4. The influence of neighborhood density and word frequency on phoneme awareness in 2nd and 4th grades

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics – neighborhood density and word frequency – interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation between words' neighborhood density, word frequency, and phoneme awareness performance was examined across grades while covarying type and place of deletion. Results A predicted interaction was revealed: words from dense neighborhoods or those with high frequency were more likely to yield correct phoneme awareness responses across grades. Conclusions Findings support an expansion to the lexical restructuring model to include interactions between neighborhood density and word frequency to account for phoneme awareness. PMID:20691979

  5. 4th Annual Conference for African-American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4). Preliminary Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tapia, Richard

    1998-06-01

    In June, The Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center, hosted the 4th Annual Conference for African-American Reserachers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4) at Rice University. The main goal of this conference was to highlight current work by African-American researchers and graduate students in mathematics. This conference strengthened the mathematical sciences by encouraging the increased participation of African-American and underrepresented groups into the field, facilitating working relationships between them and helping to cultivate their careers. In addition to the talks there was a graduate student poster session and tutorials on topics in mathematics and computer science. These talks, presentations, and discussions brought a broader perspective to the critical issues involving minority participation in mathematics.

  6. Research on output feedback control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Kramer, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    In designing fixed order compensators, an output feedback formulation has been adopted by suitably augmenting the system description to include the compensator states. However, the minimization of the performance index over the range of possible compensator descriptions was impeded due to the nonuniqueness of the compensator transfer function. A controller canonical form of the compensator was chosen to reduce the number of free parameters to its minimal number in the optimization. In the MIMO case, the controller form requires a prespecified set of ascending controllability indices. This constraint on the compensator structure is rather innocuous in relation to the increase in convergence rate of the optimization. Moreover, the controller form is easily relatable to a unique controller transfer function description. This structure of the compensator does not require penalizing the compensator states for a nonzero or coupled solution, a problem that occurs when following a standard output feedback synthesis formulation.

  7. [A development of Byzantine Christian charities during the 4(th)-7(th) centuries and the birth of the hospital].

    PubMed

    Nam, Sung Hyun

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine the beginning and the development of Christian Charities during the 4(th)-6(th) centuries which would eventually result in the birth of the hospital in modern sense in the first half of the 7(th) century. For this purpose, I looked carefully into various primary sources concerning the early Christian institutions for the poor and the sick. Above all, it's proper to note that the first xenodocheion where hospitality was combined with a systematic caring, is concerned with the Trinitarian debate of the 4(th) century. In 356, Eustathios, one of the leaders of homoiousios group, established xenodocheion to care for the sick and the lepers in Sebaste of Armenia, whereas his opponent Aetios, doctor and leader of the heteroousios party, was reckoned to have combined the medical treatment with his clerical activities. Then, Basil of Caesarea, disciple of Eustathios of Sebaste, also founded in 372 a magnificent benevolent complex named 'Basileias' after its founder. I scrupulously analysed several contemporary materials mentioning the charitable institution of Caesarea which was called alternatively katagogia, ptochotropheion, xenodocheion. John Chrysostome also founded several nosokomeia in Constantinople at the end of the 4(th) century and the beginning of the 5(th) century. Apparently, the contemporary sources mention that doctors existed for these Charities, but there is no sufficient proof that these 'Christian Hospitals,' Basileias or nosokomeia of Constantinople were hospitals in modern sense. Imperial constitutions began to mention ptochotropheion, xenodocheion and orphanotropheion since the second half of the 5(th) century and then some Justinian laws evoked nosokomium, brephotrophia, gerontocomia. These laws reveal that 'Christian Hospitals' were well clarified and deeply rooted in Byzantine society already in these periods. And then, new benevolent institutions emerged in the 6(th) century: nosokomeia for a specific class and

  8. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered through classroom observations and interviews in four Turkish elementary schools. Focus group interviews with 47 students and individual interviews with 17 teachers and 10 parents were conducted. Participants identified a wide range of SIS, including TV, magazines, newspapers, internet, peers, teachers, families, science centers/museums, science exhibitions, textbooks, science books, and science camps. Students reported using various SIS in school-based and non-school contexts to satisfy their cognitive, affective, personal, and social integrative needs. SIS were used for science courses, homework/project assignments, examination/test preparations, and individual science-related research. Students assessed SIS in terms of the perceived accessibility of the sources, the quality of the content, and the content presentation. In particular, some sources such as teachers, families, TV, science magazines, textbooks, and science centers/museums ("directive sources") predictably led students to other sources such as teachers, families, internet, and science books ("directed sources"). A small number of sources crossed context boundaries, being useful in both school and out. Results shed light on the connection between science education and science communication in terms of promoting science learning.

  9. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kiniwa, Yukiko; Li, Jiang; Wang, Mingjun; Sun, Chuang; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Wang, Rong-Fu; Wang, Helen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8+ T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4+ T helper (Th) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4+ T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1) as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4+ Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4+ T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma. PMID:25993655

  10. A study of personality factors and interaction in 4th-year dental students and their teachers.

    PubMed

    Watts, T L; Millard, L

    1997-02-01

    No previous investigation has considered dental student and teaching staff opinions on their relationship with each other. In a day when students are increasingly asked for feedback on the quality of teaching by staff, such investigations are of particular interest. This exploratory study was designed to compare the personality characteristics of a clinical year of dental students with those of the teaching staff they most frequently encountered, and to investigate these factors for possible associations with the quality of perceived teaching-learning interaction between the 2 groups. A complete 4th year of dental students (n = 87), and those teachers whom they met regularly (n = 80), were asked to participate. Subjects completed a form of the Myers-Briggs personality questionnaire simplified for use in education, and were asked to assess their relationship with persons in the other group. All the students and 75% of the staff, after follow-up, returned usable data. There was close similarity between staff and student personality profiles, and perception of working relationships by both groups was largely independent of personality factors and temperament. There were differences in staff perception of their relationship with extrovert and introvert students. Students showed minor differences in their perception of staff relationships with respect to two other personality factors. These findings indicate a substantial similarity between staff and students, and suggest a mature and stable relationship between people in the 2 groups. PMID:9567907

  11. Meeting report: 4th ISIRV antiviral group conference: Novel antiviral therapies for influenza and other respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L; Fry, Alicia M

    2016-05-01

    The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases (isirv) held its 4th Antiviral Group Conference at the University of Texas on 2-4 June, 2015. With emerging resistance to the drugs currently licensed for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza viruses, primarily the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) and the M2 inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine, and the lack of effective interventions against other respiratory viruses, the 3-day programme focused on the discovery and development of inhibitors of several virus targets and key host cell factors involved in virus replication or mediating the inflammatory response. Virus targets included the influenza haemagglutinin, neuraminidase and M2 proteins, and both the respiratory syncytial virus and influenza polymerases and nucleoproteins. Therapies for rhinoviruses and MERS and SARS coronaviruses were also discussed. With the emerging development of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics, the potential implications of antibody-dependent enhancement of disease were also addressed. Topics covered all aspects from structural and molecular biology to preclinical and clinical studies. The importance of suitable clinical trial endpoints and regulatory issues were also discussed from the perspectives of both industry and government. This meeting summary provides an overview, not only for the conference participants, but also for those interested in the current status of antivirals for respiratory viruses. PMID:26872862

  12. Quality of Education Predicts Performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading Subtest

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Dean, Andy C.; Thames, April D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  13. Quality of education predicts performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading subtest.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S; Dean, Andy C; Thames, April D

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  14. Advances in Urea cycle Neuroimaging: Proceedings from the 4th International symposium on Urea cycle disorders, Barcelona, Spain, September 2013

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Colon, Ileana; Fricke, Stanley; VanMeter, John; Gropman, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous imaging research performed as part of a Urea Cycle Rare Disorders Consortium (UCRDC) grant, has identified specific biomarkers of neurologic injury in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, OTCD. While characterization of mutations can be achieved in most cases, this information does not necessarily predict the severity of the underlying neurological syndrome. The biochemical consequences of any mutation may be modified additionally by a large number of factors, including contributions of other enzymes and transport systems that mediate flux through the urea cycle, diet and other environmental factors. These factors likely vary from one patient to another, and they give rise to heterogeneity of clinical severity. Affected cognitive domains include non-verbal learning, fine motor processing, reaction time, visual memory, attention, and executive function. Deficits in these capacities may be seen in symptomatic patients, as well as asymptomatic carriers with normal IQ and correlate with variances in brain structure and function in these patients. Using neuroimaging we can identify biomarkers that reflect the downstream impact of UCDs on cognition. This manuscript is a summary of the presentation from the 4th International Consortium on Urea cycle disorders held in, Barcelona, Spain, September 2, 2014. PMID:25066103

  15. Diodes stabilize LED output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deters, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Small-signal diodes are placed in series with light-emitting diodes (LED's) to stabilize LED output against temperature fluctuations. Simple inexpensive method compensates for thermal fluctuations over a broad temperature range. Requiring few components, technique is particularly useful where circuit-board space is limited.

  16. Output beam analysis of high power COIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Deli; Sang, Fengting; Jin, Yuqi; Sun, Yizhu

    2003-03-01

    As the output power of a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) increases, the output laser beam instability appears as the far-field beam spot drift and deformation for the large Fresnel number unstable resonator. In order to interpret this phenomenon, an output beam mode simulation code was developed with the fast Fourier transform method. The calculation results show that the presence of the nonuniform gain in COIL produces a skewed output intensity distribution, which causes the mirror tilt and bulge due to the thermal expansion. With the output power of COIL increases, the mirror surfaces, especially the back surface of the scraper mirror, absorb more and more heat, which causes the drift and deformation of far field beam spot seriously. The initial misalignment direction is an important factor for the far field beam spot drifting and deformation.

  17. Application of the FUN3D Unstructured-Grid Navier-Stokes Solver to the 4th AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Hammond, Dana P.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Pirzadeh, S. Z.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    FUN3D Navier-Stokes solutions were computed for the 4th AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop grid convergence study, downwash study, and Reynolds number study on a set of node-based mixed-element grids. All of the baseline tetrahedral grids were generated with the VGRID (developmental) advancing-layer and advancing-front grid generation software package following the gridding guidelines developed for the workshop. With maximum grid sizes exceeding 100 million nodes, the grid convergence study was particularly challenging for the node-based unstructured grid generators and flow solvers. At the time of the workshop, the super-fine grid with 105 million nodes and 600 million elements was the largest grid known to have been generated using VGRID. FUN3D Version 11.0 has a completely new pre- and post-processing paradigm that has been incorporated directly into the solver and functions entirely in a parallel, distributed memory environment. This feature allowed for practical pre-processing and solution times on the largest unstructured-grid size requested for the workshop. For the constant-lift grid convergence case, the convergence of total drag is approximately second-order on the finest three grids. The variation in total drag between the finest two grids is only 2 counts. At the finest grid levels, only small variations in wing and tail pressure distributions are seen with grid refinement. Similarly, a small wing side-of-body separation also shows little variation at the finest grid levels. Overall, the FUN3D results compare well with the structured-grid code CFL3D. The FUN3D downwash study and Reynolds number study results compare well with the range of results shown in the workshop presentations.

  18. Benefits of a 4th Ice Class in the Simulated Radar Reflectivities of Convective Systems Using a Bulk Microphysics Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Stephen E.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Wu, Di; Li, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous cloud microphysical schemes designed for cloud and mesoscale models are currently in use, ranging from simple bulk to multi-moment, multi-class to explicit bin schemes. This study details the benefits of adding a 4th ice class (hail) to an already improved 3-class ice bulk microphysics scheme developed for the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model based on Rutledge and Hobbs (1983,1984). Besides the addition and modification of several hail processes from Lin et al. (1983), further modifications were made to the 3-ice processes, including allowing greater ice super saturation and mitigating spurious evaporationsublimation in the saturation adjustment scheme, allowing graupelhail to become snow via vapor growth and hail to become graupel via riming, and the inclusion of a rain evaporation correction and vapor diffusivity factor. The improved 3-ice snowgraupel size-mapping schemes were adjusted to be more stable at higher mixing rations and to increase the aggregation effect for snow. A snow density mapping was also added. The new scheme was applied to an intense continental squall line and a weaker, loosely-organized continental case using three different hail intercepts. Peak simulated reflectivities agree well with radar for both the intense and weaker case and were better than earlier 3-ice versions when using a moderate and large intercept for hail, respectively. Simulated reflectivity distributions versus height were also improved versus radar in both cases compared to earlier 3-ice versions. The bin-based rain evaporation correction affected the squall line case more but did not change the overall agreement in reflectivity distributions.

  19. Breakfast patterns among low-income, ethnically-diverse 4th-6th grade children in an urban area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing school breakfast participation has been advocated as a method to prevent childhood obesity. However, little is known about children’s breakfast patterns outside of school (e.g., home, corner store). Policies that increase school breakfast participation without an understanding of children’s breakfast habits outside of school may result in children consuming multiple breakfasts and may undermine efforts to prevent obesity. The aim of the current study was to describe morning food and drink consumption patterns among low-income, urban children and their associations with relative weight. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 651 4th-6th graders (51.7% female, 61.2% African American, 10.7 years) in 2012. Students completed surveys at school that included all foods eaten and their locations that morning. Height and weight were measured by trained research staff. Results On the day surveyed, 12.4% of youth reported not eating breakfast, 49.8% reported eating one breakfast, 25.5% reported eating two breakfasts, and 12.3% reported eating three or more breakfasts. The number of breakfasts consumed and BMI percentile showed a significant curvilinear relationship, with higher mean BMI percentiles observed among children who did not consume any breakfast and those who consumed ≥ 3 breakfasts. Sixth graders were significantly less likely to have consumed breakfast compared to younger children. A greater proportion of obese youth had no breakfast (18.0%) compared to healthy weight (10.1%) and overweight youth (10.7%, p = .01). Conclusions When promoting school breakfast, policies will need to be mindful of both over- and under-consumption to effectively address childhood obesity and food insecurity. Clinical trial registration NCT01924130 from http://clinicaltrials.gov/. PMID:24928474

  20. Climate Model Output Rewriter

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K. E.; Doutriaux, C.

    2004-06-21

    CMOR comprises a set of FORTRAN 90 dunctions that can be used to produce CF-compliant netCDF files. The structure of the files created by CMOR and the metadata they contain fulfill the requirements of many of the climate community’s standard model experiments (which are referred to here as "MIPS", which stands for "model intercomparison project", including, for example, AMIP, CMIP, CFMIP, PMIP, APE, and IPCC scenario runs), CMOR was not designed to serve as an all-purpose wfiter of CF-compliant netCDF files, but simply to reduce the effort required to prepare and manage MIP data. Although MIPs encourage systematic analysis of results across models, this is only easy to do if the model output is written in a common format with files structured similarly and with sufficient metadata uniformly stored according to a common standard. Individual modeling groups store their data in different ways. but if a group can read its own data with FORTRAN, then it should easily be able to transform the data, using CMOR, into the common format required by the MIPs, The adoption of CMOR as a standard code for exchanging climate data will facilitate participation in MIPs because after learning how to satisfy the output requirements of one MIP, it will be easy to prepare output for the other MIPs.

  1. Climate Model Output Rewriter

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-06-21

    CMOR comprises a set of FORTRAN 90 dunctions that can be used to produce CF-compliant netCDF files. The structure of the files created by CMOR and the metadata they contain fulfill the requirements of many of the climate community’s standard model experiments (which are referred to here as "MIPS", which stands for "model intercomparison project", including, for example, AMIP, CMIP, CFMIP, PMIP, APE, and IPCC scenario runs), CMOR was not designed to serve as anmore » all-purpose wfiter of CF-compliant netCDF files, but simply to reduce the effort required to prepare and manage MIP data. Although MIPs encourage systematic analysis of results across models, this is only easy to do if the model output is written in a common format with files structured similarly and with sufficient metadata uniformly stored according to a common standard. Individual modeling groups store their data in different ways. but if a group can read its own data with FORTRAN, then it should easily be able to transform the data, using CMOR, into the common format required by the MIPs, The adoption of CMOR as a standard code for exchanging climate data will facilitate participation in MIPs because after learning how to satisfy the output requirements of one MIP, it will be easy to prepare output for the other MIPs.« less

  2. Autism: Proceedings of Annual Meeting of the National Society for Autistic Children (4th, June 22-24, 1972, Flint Michigan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society for Autistic Children, Syracuse, NY.

    Presented are proceedings of the 4th annual (1972) meeting of the National Society for Autistic Children including 11 papers given at the meeting. Listed are officers and board members of the society, the convention committee members, and recipients of citations and awards. The president's report notes past goals, accomplishments, and future…

  3. Examining Differentiation and Utilization of iPads across Content Areas in an Independent, PreK-4th Grade Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Natalie B.; Carlson-Bancroft, Angela; Vanden Boogart, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods case study examined the implementation of a 1:1 iPad initiative in a suburban, co-educational, independent, preK-4th grade elementary school in the United States. This article focuses on how teachers used iPads to differentiate instruction and across multiple content areas. Findings show the processes by which teachers employed…

  4. An Assessment of 4th, 8th, and 11th Grade Students' Knowledge Related to Marine Science and Natural Resource Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.; Koch, Helmut

    In an effort to contribute information for science teachers and curriculum developers in Maine, this study generated base line data on 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students' knowledge of marine science and natural resources principles in relation to the Gulf of Maine. Five concept maps representing 15 major content principles were developed. Two…

  5. The Relationship of Values in Elementary School 4th Grade Social Studies Textbook with the Attainments and Their Level of Being Included in Student Workbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…

  6. The Effect of Direct Instruction Strategy on Math Achievement of Primary 4th and 5th Grade Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Makahleh, Ahmad Abdulhameed Aufan

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to verify the effect of direct instruction strategy on Math achievment of students with learning difficulties in the fourth and fifth grade levels and measure the improvement in their attitudes to Mathematics. Sample consisted of sixty (60) students with Math learning difficulties attending 4th and 5th grade level resource rooms…

  7. Color Duplex Assessment of 4th and 5th Internal Mammary Artery Perforators: The Pedicles of the Medially Based Lower Pole Breast Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Monem, Kareem; Elshahat, Ahmed; Abou-Gamrah, Sherif; Eldin Abol-Atta, Hossam; Abd Eltawab, Reda; Massoud, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Reconstruction of a breast after mastectomy using the contralateral lower pole breast flap is an appealing procedure because it uses the tissues that were going to be excised during reduction of the sound breast to achieve symmetry. Literature mentioned that these flaps are supplied by the lower internal mammary artery perforators (IMAPs) with no further details. The aim of this study was to determine the site, size, and number of the 4th and 5th IMAPs by using preoperative color Duplex ultrasound and intraoperative exploration. Method: Twenty breasts in 10 patients who presented for reduction mammoplasty were included in this study. Preoperative color duplex was used to determine IMAPs in the 4th and 5th intercostal spaces. These perforators were localized intraoperatively. Intravenous fluorescein injection was used to determine the perfusion of the lower pole breast flap on the basis of these perforators. Results: Statistically, the 4th IMAPs diameters were significantly larger than the 5th IMAPs diameters (P < .05). The lower pole breast flap was perfused through these perforators. Conclusion: Color Duplex ultrasound is an accurate tool to preoperatively determine the 4th and 5th IMAPs. PMID:22292100

  8. The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

  9. Meeting Materials for the 4th NRC Meeting on the Guidance for and the Review of EPA's Toxicological Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 2-3, 2015, the National Research Council (NRC) hosted the 4th meeting of the committee formed to peer review the draft IRIS assessment of inorganic arsenic. EPA presented background and overview materials during the public session on December 2nd. This information co...

  10. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  11. Nation and Language: Modern Aspects of Socio-Linguistic Development. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference (Lithuania, October 21-22, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 4th international conference "Nation and Language: Modern Aspects of Socio-Linguistic Development" continues an eight-year old tradition. The conference is organized by Kaunas University of Technology Panevezys Institute and aims to bring scientists and researchers together for a general scientific discussion on new trends in sociolinguistic,…

  12. PREFACE: 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, N.; Valliappan, S.; Li, Q.; Russell, A.

    2010-07-01

    The use for mathematical models of natural phenomena has underpinned science and engineering for centuries, but until the advent of modern computers and computational methods, the full utility of most of these models remained outside the reach of the engineering communities. Since World War II, advances in computational methods have transformed the way engineering and science is undertaken throughout the world. Today, theories of mechanics of solids and fluids, electromagnetism, heat transfer, plasma physics, and other scientific disciplines are implemented through computational methods in engineering analysis, design, manufacturing, and in studying broad classes of physical phenomena. The discipline concerned with the application of computational methods is now a key area of research, education, and application throughout the world. In the early 1980's, the International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM) was founded to promote activities related to computational mechanics and has made impressive progress. The most important scientific event of IACM is the World Congress on Computational Mechanics. The first was held in Austin (USA) in 1986 and then in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1990, Chiba (Japan) in 1994, Buenos Aires (Argentina) in 1998, Vienna (Austria) in 2002, Beijing (China) in 2004, Los Angeles (USA) in 2006 and Venice, Italy; in 2008. The 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics is held in conjunction with the 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics under the auspices of Australian Association for Computational Mechanics (AACM), Asian Pacific Association for Computational Mechanics (APACM) and International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM). The 1st Asian Pacific Congress was in Sydney (Australia) in 2001, then in Beijing (China) in 2004 and Kyoto (Japan) in 2007. The WCCM/APCOM 2010 publications consist of a printed book of abstracts given to delegates, along with 247 full length peer reviewed papers published with

  13. Something going on in Milan: a review of the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference.

    PubMed

    Segré, C

    2010-01-01

    The 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference was held at the IFOM-IEO-Campus in Milan from 19-21 May 2010 http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.phpThe Conference covered many topics related to cancer, from basic biology to clinical aspects of the disease. All attendees presented their research, by either giving a talk or presenting a poster. This conference is an opportunity to introduce PhD students to top cancer research institutes across Europe.THE CORE PARTICIPANTING INSTITUTES INCLUDED: European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM)-IFOM-IEO Campus, MilanBeatson Institute for Cancer Research (BICR), GlasgowCambridge Research Institute (CRI), Cambridge, UKMRC Gray Institute of Radiation Biology (GIROB), OxfordLondon Research Institute (LRI), LondonPaterson Institute for Cancer Research (PICR), ManchesterThe Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), Amsterdam'You organizers have crushed all my prejudices towards Italians. Congratulations, I enjoyed the conference immensely!' Even if it might have sounded like rudeness for sure this was supposed to be a genuine compliment (at least, that's how we took it), also considering that it was told by a guy who himself was the fusion of two usually antithetical concepts: fashion style and English nationality.The year 2010 has marked an important event for Italian research in the international scientific panorama: the European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM) had the honour to host the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference, which was held from 19-21 May 2010 at the IFOM-IEO-Campus (http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.php) in Milan.The conference was attended by more than one hundred students, coming from a selection of cutting edge European institutes devoted to cancer research. The rationale behind it is the promotion of cooperation among young scientists across Europe to debate about science and to exchange ideas and experiences. But that is not all, it is also designed for PhD students to get in touch

  14. Random output and hospital performance.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2003-11-01

    Many countries are under pressure to reform health care financing and delivery. Hospital care is one part of the health system that is under scrutiny. Private management initiatives are a possible way to increase efficiency in health care delivery. This motivates the interest in developing methodologies to assess hospital performance, recognizing hospitals as a different sort of firm. We present a simple way to describe hospital production: hospital output as a change in the distribution of survival probabilities. This output definition allows us to separate hospital production from patients' characteristics. The notion of "better performance" has a precise meaning: (first-order) stochastic dominance of a distribution of survival probabilities over another distribution. As an illustration, we compare, for an important DRG, private and public management and find that private management performs better, mainly in the range of high-survival probabilities. The measured performance difference cannot be attributed to input prices or to economies of scale and/or scope. It reflects pure technological and organisational differences. PMID:14686628

  15. Syntheses and single-crystal structures of CsTh(MoO 4) 2Cl and Na 4Th(WO 4) 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang Jin, Geng; Soderholm, L.

    2011-02-01

    Colorless crystals of CsTh(MoO 4) 2Cl and Na 4Th(WO 4) 4 have been synthesized at 993 K by the solid-state reactions of ThO 2, MoO 3, CsCl, and ThCl 4 with Na 2WO 4. Both compounds have been characterized by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of CsTh(MoO 4) 2Cl is orthorhombic, consisting of two adjacent [Th(MoO 4) 2] layers separated by an ionic CsCl sublattice. It can be considered as an insertion compound of Th(MoO 4) 2 and reformulated as Th(MoO 4) 2·CsCl. The Th atom coordinates to seven monodentate MoO 4 tetrahedra and one Cl atom in a highly distorted square antiprism. Na 4Th(WO 4) 4 adopts a scheelite superlattice structure. The three-dimensional framework of Na 4Th(WO 4) 4 is constructed from corner-sharing ThO 8 square antiprisms and WO 4 tetrahedra. The space within the channels is filled by six-coordinate Na ions. Crystal data: CsTh(MoO 4) 2Cl, monoclinic, P2 1/ c, Z=4, a=10.170(1) Å, b=10.030(1) Å, c=9.649(1) Å, β=95.671(2)°, V=979.5(2) Å 3, R( F)=2.65% for I>2 σ( I); Na 4Th(WO 4) 4, tetragonal, I4 1/ a, Z=4, a=11.437(1) Å, c=11.833(2) Å, V=1547.7(4) Å 3, R( F)=3.02% for I>2 σ( I).

  16. 2.5 Gbps clock data recovery using 1/4th-rate quadricorrelator frequency detector and skew-calibrated multi-phase clock generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tontisirin, S.; Tielert, R.

    2006-09-01

    A Gb/s clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit using 1/4th-rate digital quadricorrelator frequency detector and skew-calibrated multi-phase voltage-controlled oscillator is presented. With 1/4th-rate clock architecture, the coil-free oscillator can have lower operation frequency providing sufficient low-jitter operation. Moreover, it is an inherent 1-to-4 DEMUX. The skew calibration scheme is applied to reduce phase offset in multi-phase clock generator. The CDR with frequency detector can have small loop bandwidth, wide pull-in range and can operate without the need for a local reference clock. This 1/4th-rate CDR is implemented in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology. It has an active area of 0.7 mm2 and consumes 100 mW at 1.8 V supply. The CDR has low jitter operation in a wide frequency range from 1-2.25 Gb/s. Measurement of Bit-Error Rate is less than 10-12 for 2.25 Gb/s incoming data 27-1 PRBS, jitter peak-to-peak of 0.7 unit interval (UI) modulation at 10 MHz.

  17. Unstable resonator with reduced output coupling.

    PubMed

    Pargmann, Carsten; Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank; Grünewald, Karin Maria; Handke, Jürgen

    2012-06-20

    The properties of a laser beam coupled out of a standard unstable laser resonator are heavily dependent on the chosen resonator magnification. A higher magnification results in a higher output coupling and a better beam quality. But in some configurations, an unstable resonator with a low output coupling in combination with a good beam quality is desirable. In order to reduce the output coupling for a particular resonator, magnification fractions of the outcoupled radiation are reflected back into the cavity. In the confocal case, the output mirror consists of a spherical inner section with a high reflectivity and a flat outer section with a partial reflectivity coating. With the application of the unstable resonator with reduced output coupling (URROC), magnification and output coupling can be adjusted independently from each other and it is possible to get a good beam quality and a high power extraction for lasers with a large low gain medium. The feasibility of this resonator design is examined numerically and experimentally with the help of a chemical oxygen iodine laser. PMID:22722301

  18. Guest Editor's introduction: Selected papers from the 4th USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sventek, Joe

    1998-12-01

    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA Introduction The USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems (COOTS) is held annually in the late spring. The conference evolved from a set of C++ workshops that were held under the auspices of USENIX, the first of which met in 1989. Given the growing diverse interest in object-oriented technologies, the C++ focus of the workshop eventually became too narrow, with the result that the scope was widened in 1995 to include object-oriented technologies and systems. COOTS is intended to showcase advanced R&D efforts in object-oriented technologies and software systems. The conference emphasizes experimental research and experience gained by using object-oriented techniques and languages to build complex software systems that meet real-world needs. COOTS solicits papers in the following general areas: application of, and experiences with, object-oriented technologies in particular domains (e.g. financial, medical, telecommunication); the architecture and implementation of distributed object systems (e.g. CORBA, DCOM, RMI); object-oriented programming and specification languages; object-oriented design and analysis. The 4th meeting of COOTS was held 27 - 30 April 1998 at the El Dorado Hotel, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Several tutorials were given. The technical program proper consisted of a single track of six sessions, with three paper presentations per session. A keynote address and a provocative panel session rounded out the technical program. The program committee reviewed 56 papers, selecting the best 18 for presentation in the technical sessions. While we solicit papers across the spectrum of applications of object-oriented technologies, this year there was a predominance of distributed, object-oriented papers. The accepted papers reflected this asymmetry, with 15 papers on distributed objects and 3 papers on object-oriented languages. The papers in this special issue are

  19. Efficient 2(nd) and 4(th) harmonic generation of a single-frequency, continuous-wave fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Sudmeyer, Thomas; Imai, Yutaka; Masuda, Hisashi; Eguchi, Naoya; Saito, Masaki; Kubota, Shigeo

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate efficient cavity-enhanced second and fourth harmonic generation of an air-cooled, continuous-wave (cw), single-frequency 1064 nm fiber-amplifier system. The second harmonic generator achieves up to 88% total external conversion efficiency, generating more than 20-W power at 532 nm wavelength in a diffraction-limited beam (M(2) < 1.05). The nonlinear medium is a critically phase-matched, 20-mm long, anti-reflection (AR) coated LBO crystal operated at 25 degrees C. The fourth harmonic generator is based on an AR-coated, Czochralski-grown beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal optimized for low loss and high damage threshold. Up to 12.2 W of 266-nm deep-UV (DUV) output is obtained using a 6-mm long critically phase-matched BBO operated at 40 degrees C. This power level is more than two times higher than previously reported for cw 266-nm generation. The total external conversion efficiency from the fundamental at 1064 nm to the fourth harmonic at 266 nm is >50%. PMID:18542230

  20. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  1. Lightweight multiple output converter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisch, J. J.; Martinelli, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    A high frequency, multiple output power conditioner was developed and breadboarded using an eight-stage capacitor diode voltage multiplier to provide +1200 Vdc, and a three-stage for -350 Vdc. In addition, two rectifier bridges were capacitively coupled to the eight-stage multiplier to obtain 0.5 and 0.65 a dc constant current outputs referenced to +1200 Vdc. Total power was 120 watts, with an overall efficiency of 85 percent at the 80 kHz operating frequency. All outputs were regulated to three percent or better, with complete short circuit protection. The power conditioner component weight and efficiency were compared to the equivalent four outputs of the 10 kHz conditioner for the 8 cm ion engine. Weight reduction for the four outputs was 557 grams; extrapolated in the same ratio to all nine outputs, it would be 1100 to 1400 grams.

  2. CMOS output buffer wave shaper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albertson, L.; Whitaker, S.; Merrell, R.

    1990-01-01

    As the switching speeds and densities of Digital CMOS integrated circuits continue to increase, output switching noise becomes more of a problem. A design technique which aids in the reduction of switching noise is reported. The output driver stage is analyzed through the use of an equivalent RLC circuit. The results of the analysis are used in the design of an output driver stage. A test circuit based on these techniques is being submitted to MOSIS for fabrication.

  3. Nonlinear input-output systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. R.; Luksic, Mladen; Su, Renjeng

    1987-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions that the nonlinear system dot-x = f(x) + ug(x) and y = h(x) be locally feedback equivalent to the controllable linear system dot-xi = A xi + bv and y = C xi having linear output are found. Only the single input and single output case is considered, however, the results generalize to multi-input and multi-output systems.

  4. Effects of heat exposure in the absence of hyperthermia on power output during repeated cycling sprints

    PubMed Central

    Arimitsu, T; Yunoki, T; Kimura, T; Yamanaka, R; Yano, T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heat exposure in the absence of hyperthermia on power output during repeated cycling sprints. Seven males performed four 10-s cycling sprints interspersed by 30 s of active recovery on a cycle ergometer in hot-dry and thermoneutral environments. Changes in rectal temperature were similar under the two ambient conditions. The mean 2-s power output over the 1st–4th sprints was significantly lower under the hot-dry condition than under the thermoneutral condition. The amplitude of the electromyogram was lower under the hot-dry condition than under the thermoneutral condition during the early phase (0–3 s) of each cycling sprint. No significant difference was observed for blood lactate concentration between the two ambient conditions. Power output at the onset of a cycling sprint during repeated cycling sprints is decreased due to heat exposure in the absence of hyperthermia. PMID:25729145

  5. The 4th Bi-annual international African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium conference: building capacity to address cancer health disparities in populations of African descent.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Elizabeth; Campbell, Jasmine; Bowen, Carlene; Delmoor, Ernestine; Jean-Louis, Gilda; Noumbissi, Raphiatou; O'Garro, Yvonne; Richards-Waritay, Oni; Straughter, Stanley; Tolbert, Vera; Wilson, Barbara; Ragin, Camille

    2014-01-01

    This is a brief summary of the 4(th) International Meeting of the African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3), organized and sponsored by Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC), and held on July 21-22, 2012 at the Lincoln University Graduate Center, Lincoln Plaza, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. AC3 investigators gathered in Philadelphia, PA to present the results of our ongoing collaborative research efforts throughout the African Diaspora. The general theme addressed cancer health disparities and presentations represented all cancer types. However, there was particular emphasis on women's cancers, related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. PMID:26422007

  6. 4H-Chromene-based anticancer agents towards multi-drug resistant HL60/MX2 human leukemia: SAR at the 4th and 6th positions.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Manohar; Zhao, Xinghua; Casemore, Denise; Zhou, Bo; Aridoss, Gopalakrishnan; Narayanapillai, Sreekanth; Xing, Chengguo

    2016-03-15

    4H-Chromene-based compounds, for example, CXL017, CXL035, and CXL055, have a unique anticancer potential that they selectively kill multi-drug resistant cancer cells. Reported herein is the extended structure-activity relationship (SAR) study, focusing on the ester functional group at the 4th position and the conformation at the 6th position. Sharp SARs were observed at both positions with respect to cellular cytotoxic potency and selectivity between the parental HL60 and the multi-drug resistant HL60/MX2 cells. These results provide critical guidance for future medicinal optimization. PMID:26867486

  7. Cooperative Output Regulation of Singular Heterogeneous Multiagent Systems.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qian; Xu, Shengyuan; Lewis, Frank L; Zhang, Baoyong; Zou, Yun

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates the cooperative output regulation problem of singular heterogeneous multiagent systems. General distributed observers are proposed for every agent obtaining the estimated state of the exosystem. The feedforward control technique and reduced-order approach are used to design distributed singular output feedback controllers and distributed normal output feedback controllers. The proposed cooperative dynamic controller is dependent on the plant parameters and the interaction topologies. A simulation example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design method. PMID:26173224

  8. Collector-Output Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glandorf, D. R.; Phillips, Robert F., II

    1986-01-01

    Collector-Output Analysis Program (COAP) programmer's aid for analyzing output produced by UNIVAC collector (MAP processor). COAP developed to aid in design of segmentation structures for programs with large memory requirements and numerous elements but of value in understanding relationships among components of any program. Crossreference indexes and supplemental information produced. COAP written in FORTRAN 77.

  9. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Dunham, Mark E.; Morley, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  10. Ruggedized minicomputer hardware and software topics, 1981: Proceedings of the 4th ROLM MIL-SPEC Computer User's Group Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Presentations of a conference on the use of ruggedized minicomputers are summarized. The following topics are discussed: (1) the role of minicomputers in the development and/or certification of commercial or military airplanes in both the United States and Europe; (2) generalized software error detection techniques; (3) real time software development tools; (4) a redundancy management research tool for aircraft navigation/flight control sensors; (5) extended memory management techniques using a high order language; and (6) some comments on establishing a system maintenance scheme. Copies of presentation slides are also included.

  11. Output from MHD Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, Nektarios

    2010-03-01

    Outflows emanating from the environment of stellar or galactic objects are a widespread phenomenon in astrophysics. Their morphology ranges from nearly spherically symmetric winds to highly collimated jets. In some cases, e.g., in jets associated with young stellar objects, the bulk outflow speeds are nonrelativistic, while in others, e.g., in jets associated with active galactic nuclei or gamma-ray bursts, it can even be highly relativistic. The main driving mechanism of collimated outflows is likely related to magnetic fields. These fields are able to tap the rotational energy of the compact object or disk, accelerate, and collimate matter ejecta. To zeroth order these outflows can be described by the highly intractable theory of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Even in systems where the assumptions of zero resistivity (ideal MHD), steady state, axisymmetry, one fluid description, and polytropic equation of state are applicable, the problem remains difficult. In this case the problem reduces to only two equations, corresponding to the two components of the momentum equation along the flow and in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field (transfield direction). The latter equation is the most difficult to solve, but also the most important. It answers the question on the degree of the collimation, but also crucially affects the solution of the first, the acceleration efficiency and the bulk velocity of the flow. The first and second parts of this chapter refer to nonrelativistic and relativistic flows, respectively. These Parts can be read independently. In each one, the governing equations are presented and discussed, focusing on the case of flows that are magnetically dominated near the central source. The general characteristics of the solutions in relation to the acceleration and collimation mechanisms are analyzed. As specific examples of exact solutions of the full system of the MHD equations that satisfy all the analyzed general characteristics, self

  12. Humoral immunity and CD4+ Th1 cells are both necessary for a fully protective immune response upon secondary infection with Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; De Trez, Carl; Akira, Shizuo; Ryffel, Bernhard; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

    2014-04-15

    Brucella spp are intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the most common zoonoses in the world. Given the serious medical consequences of this disease, a safe and effective human vaccine is urgently needed. Efforts to develop this vaccine have been hampered by our lack of understanding of what constitutes a protective memory response against Brucella. In this study, we characterize the cells and signaling pathways implicated in the generation of a protective immune memory response following priming by the injection of heat-killed or live Brucella melitensis 16M. Using a panel of gene-deficient mice, we demonstrated that during a secondary recall response, both the Brucella-specific humoral response and CD4+ Th1 cells must act together to confer protective immunity in the spleen to B. melitensis infection. Humoral protective immunity is induced by the inoculation of both heat-killed and live bacteria, and its development does not require T cells, MyD88/IL-12p35 signaling pathways, or an activation-induced deaminase-mediated isotype switch. In striking contrast, the presence of memory IFN-γ-producing CD4+ Th1 cells requires the administration of live bacteria and functional MyD88/IL-12p35 pathways. In summary, our work identifies several immune markers closely associated with protective immune memory and could help to define a rational strategy to obtain an effective human vaccine against brucellosis. PMID:24646742

  13. Better sensors = better imagery = better outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The photogrammetric workflow has traditionally relied upon the use of high quality metric cameras that enable the acquisition of good quality imagery, from which outputs with a well constrained geometry can be obtained. However with the proliferation of low altitude aerial photography from a range of platforms, the quality of sensor itself has largely become of secondary importance in order to reduce weight and minimise cost. These instruments are often "off-the-shelf" consumer digital cameras, not designed for either aerial photography or photogrammetry. This imposes limitations upon the quality of imagery that can be collected and outputs subsequently produced. Photogrammetric techniques such as a self-calibrating bundle adjustment or Structure from Motion allow the use of "less stable" imagery. Yet at the simplest level, the better the sensor, the better the imagery, the better the output. Where analysis and the validity of scientific conclusions are dependent upon the quality of outputs it is critical that consideration is given to the choice of sensor - the wide availability and application of UAVs across disciplines means that users may not be aware of such choices and their implications. This presentation is designed to stimulate discussion around the use of consumer cameras with a focus upon the exposure triangle of ISO-aperture-shutter speed and how this is related to dynamic range and the signal-to-noise ratio. A further important factor is understanding the ground resolution element in terms of resolution, focal length, sensor size (crop factor) and height.

  14. Climatic changes and social transformations in the Near East and North Africa during the 'long' 4th millennium BC: A comparative study of environmental and archaeological evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Joanne; Brooks, Nick; Banning, Edward B.; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Campbell, Stuart; Clare, Lee; Cremaschi, Mauro; di Lernia, Savino; Drake, Nick; Gallinaro, Marina; Manning, Sturt; Nicoll, Kathleen; Philip, Graham; Rosen, Steve; Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich; Tafuri, Mary Anne; Weninger, Bernhard; Zerboni, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the possible links between rapid climate change (RCC) and social change in the Near East and surrounding regions (Anatolia, central Syria, southern Israel, Mesopotamia, Cyprus and eastern and central Sahara) during the 'long' 4th millennium (∼4500-3000) BC. Twenty terrestrial and 20 marine climate proxies are used to identify long-term trends in humidity involving transitions from humid to arid conditions and vice versa. The frequency distribution of episodes of relative aridity across these records is calculated for the period 6300-2000 BC, so that the results may be interpreted in the context of the established arid episodes associated with RCC around 6200 and 2200 BC (the 8.2 and 4.2 kyr events). We identify two distinct episodes of heightened aridity in the early-mid 4th, and late 4th millennium BC. These episodes cluster strongly at 3600-3700 and 3100-3300 BC. There is also evidence of localised aridity spikes in the 5th and 6th millennia BC. These results are used as context for the interpretation of regional and local archaeological records with a particular focus on case studies from western Syria, the middle Euphrates, southern Israel and Cyprus. Interpretation of the records involves the construction of plausible narratives of human-climate interaction informed by concepts of adaptation and resilience from the literature on contemporary (i.e. 21st century) climate change and adaptation. The results are presented alongside well-documented examples of climatically-influenced societal change in the central and eastern Sahara, where detailed geomorphological studies of ancient environments have been undertaken in tandem with archaeological research. While the narratives for the Near East and Eastern Mediterranean remain somewhat speculative, the use of resilience and adaptation frameworks allows for a more nuanced treatment of human-climate interactions and recognises the diversity and context-specificity of human responses to climatic

  15. Model output: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2015-04-01

    As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a

  16. Model output: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2015-04-01

    As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a

  17. Gas dynamics and heat transfer in a packed pebble-bed reactor for the 4th generation nuclear energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulmohsin, Rahman

    -AlOx-Al junctions, we show that, despite excellent temperature stability, temperature fluctuations induce observable critical current fluctuations. Particularly, becuase 1/ f critical current noise has decreased with improved fabrication techniques in recent years, it is important to understand and eliminate this additional noise source. Next, we introduce a numerical method of calculating the mean square flux noise F2 from independently fluctuating spins on the surface of thin-film loops of arbitrary geometry. By reciprocity, F2 is proportional to Br2 , where B(r) is the magnetic field generated by a circulating current around the loop and r varies over the loop surface. By discretizing the loop nonuniformly, we efficiently and accurately compute the current distribution and resulting magnetic field, which may vary rapidly across the loop. We use this method to compute F2 in a number of scenarios in which we systematically vary physical parameters of the loop. We compare our simulations to an earlier analytic result predicting that F2 ∝ R/W in the limit where the loop radius R is much greater than the linewidth W. We further show that the previously neglected contribution of edge spins to F2 is significant---even dominant---in narrow-linewidth loops. To calculate theoretical dephasing rates in qubits, we consider flux noise with a spectral density Sphi( f) = A2/ (f/1 Hz) alpha, where A is of the order of 1 muphi 0 Hz--1/2 and 0.6 ≤ alpha ≤ 1.2; applied flux, our calculations of the dependence of the pure dephasing time tau φ Ramsey and echo pulse sequences on alpha for fixed A show that tauφ decreases rapidly as alpha is reduced. We find that tauφ is relatively insensitive to the noise bandwidth, f1 ≤ f ≤ f2 for all alpha provided the ultraviolet cutoff frequency f2 > 1/tauφ. We calculate the ratio tauφ,E/tau φ, R of the echo (E) and Ramsey (R) sequences, and the dependence of the decay function on alpha and f2. We investigate the case in which S phi(f0) is fixed

  18. The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, 5-9 April 2014, Florence, Italy: a summary of topics and trends.

    PubMed

    Abayomi, Olukayode; Amato, Davide; Bailey, Candace; Bitanihirwe, Byron; Bowen, Lynneice; Burshtein, Shimon; Cullen, Alexis; Fusté, Montserrat; Herrmann, Ana P; Khodaie, Babak; Kilian, Sanja; Lang, Qortni A; Manning, Elizabeth E; Massuda, Raffael; Nurjono, Milawaty; Sadiq, Sarosh; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Simon, Nicholas; Spiteri-Staines, Anneliese; Sirijit, Suttajit; Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Wadehra, Sunali; Wang, Yi; Wigton, Rebekah; Wright, Susan; Yagoda, Sergey; Zaytseva, Yuliya; O'Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E

    2014-11-01

    The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 5-9, 2014 and this year had as its emphasis, "Fostering Collaboration in Schizophrenia Research". Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session, summarized the important contributions of each session and then each report was integrated into a final summary of data discussed at the entire conference by topic. It is hoped that by combining data from different presentations, patterns of interest will emerge and thus lead to new progress for the future. In addition, the following report provides an overview of the conference for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:25306204

  19. THE 4th SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 5–9 APRIL 2014, FLORENCE, ITALY: A summary of topics and trends

    PubMed Central

    Abayomi, Olukayode; Amato, Davide; Bailey, Candace; Bitanihirwe, Byron; Bowen, Lynneice; Burshtein, Shimon; Cullen, Alexis; Fusté, Montserrat; Herrmann, Ana P; Khodaie, Babak; Kilian, Sanja; Lang, Qortni A; Manning, Elizabeth E; Massuda, Raffael; Nurjono, Milawaty; Sadiq, Sarosh; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Simon, Nicholas; Spiteri-Staines, Anneliese; Sirijit, Suttajit; Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Wadehra, Sunali; Wang, Yi; Wigton, Rebekah; Wright, Susan; Yagoda, Sergey; Zaytseva, Yuliya; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2015-01-01

    The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 5–9, 2014.and this year had as its emphasis, “Fostering Collaboration in Schizophrenia Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session, summarized the important contributions of each session and then each report was integrated into a final summary of data discussed at the entire conference by topic. It is hoped that by combining data from different presentations, patterns of interest will emerge and thus lead to new progress for the future. In addition, the following report provides an overview of the conference for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:25306204

  20. Limbic system development underlies the emergence of classical fear conditioning during the 3rd and 4th weeks of life in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Alex L.; Erickson, Kristen J.; Shiers, Stephanie I.; Burman, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Classical fear conditioning creates an association between an aversive stimulus and a neutral stimulus. Although the requisite neural circuitry is well understood in mature organisms, the development of these circuits is less well studied. The current experiments examine the ontogeny of fear conditioning and relate it to neuronal activation assessed through immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the amygdala, hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and hypothalamus of periweanling rats. Rat pups were fear conditioned, or not, during the 3rd or 4th weeks of life. Neuronal activation was assessed by quantifying expression of FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in Experiment 1. Fos and early growth response gene-1 (EGR1) expression was assessed using qRT-PCR in Experiment 2. Behavioral data confirm that both auditory and contextual fear continue to emerge between PD 17 and 24. The IEG expression data are highly consistent with these behavioral results. IHC results demonstrate significantly more FOS protein expression in the basal amygdala of fear conditioned PD 23 subjects compared to control subjects, but no significant difference at PD 17. qRT-PCR results suggest specific activation of the amygdala only in older subjects during auditory fear expression. A similar effect of age and conditioning status was also observed in the perirhinal cortex during both contextual and auditory fear expression. Overall, the development of fear conditioning occurring between the 3rd and 4th weeks of life appears to be at least partly attributable to changes in activation of the amygdala and perirhinal cortex during fear conditioning or expression. PMID:26820587

  1. Phase 2 clinical trial of rapamycin-resistant donor CD4+ Th2/Th1 (T-Rapa) cells after low-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Daniel H.; Mossoba, Miriam E.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Halverson, David C.; Stroncek, David; Khuu, Hahn M.; Hakim, Frances T.; Castiello, Luciano; Sabatino, Marianna; Leitman, Susan F.; Mariotti, Jacopo; Gea-Banacloche, Juan C.; Sportes, Claude; Hardy, Nancy M.; Hickstein, Dennis D.; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Rowley, Scott; Goy, Andre; Donato, Michele; Korngold, Robert; Pecora, Andrew; Levine, Bruce L.; June, Carl H.; Gress, Ronald E.; Bishop, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    In experimental models, ex vivo induced T-cell rapamycin resistance occurred independent of T helper 1 (Th1)/T helper 2 (Th2) differentiation and yielded allogeneic CD4+ T cells of increased in vivo efficacy that facilitated engraftment and permitted graft-versus-tumor effects while minimizing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). To translate these findings, we performed a phase 2 multicenter clinical trial of rapamycin-resistant donor CD4+ Th2/Th1 (T-Rapa) cells after allogeneic-matched sibling donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for therapy of refractory hematologic malignancy. T-Rapa cell products, which expressed a balanced Th2/Th1 phenotype, were administered as a preemptive donor lymphocyte infusion at day 14 post-HCT. After T-Rapa cell infusion, mixed donor/host chimerism rapidly converted, and there was preferential immune reconstitution with donor CD4+ Th2 and Th1 cells relative to regulatory T cells and CD8+ T cells. The cumulative incidence probability of acute GVHD was 20% and 40% at days 100 and 180 post-HCT, respectively. There was no transplant-related mortality. Eighteen of 40 patients (45%) remain in sustained complete remission (range of follow-up: 42-84 months). These results demonstrate the safety of this low-intensity transplant approach and the feasibility of subsequent randomized studies to compare T-Rapa cell-based therapy with standard transplantation regimens. This trial was registered at www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials as #NCT 00077480. PMID:23426943

  2. Spacelab output processing system architectural study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Two different system architectures are presented. The two architectures are derived from two different data flows within the Spacelab Output Processing System. The major differences between these system architectures are in the position of the decommutation function (the first architecture performs decommutation in the latter half of the system and the second architecture performs that function in the front end of the system). In order to be examined, the system was divided into five stand-alone subsystems; Work Assembler, Mass Storage System, Output Processor, Peripheral Pool, and Resource Monitor. The work load of each subsystem was estimated independent of the specific devices to be used. The candidate devices were surveyed from a wide sampling of off-the-shelf devices. Analytical expressions were developed to quantify the projected workload in conjunction with typical devices which would adequately handle the subsystem tasks. All of the study efforts were then directed toward preparing performance and cost curves for each architecture subsystem.

  3. Output-Only Techniques for Fault Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Adam John

    a realization of a white random process, which may not be true. Hence, we define and characterize pseudo transfer functions (PTFs), which relate output measurements, and we use changes in the identified PTF to detect faults. We demonstrate the effects of non-zero initial conditions, non-white excitation, unknown model order, and output noise on the accuracy of the identification and fault detection results.

  4. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  5. World Input-Output Network

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  6. Coral Mortality and Bleaching Output

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMBO is a spreadsheet-based model for the use of managers, conservationists, and biologists for projecting the effects of climate change on coral reefs at local-to-regional scales. The COMBO (Coral Mortality and Bleaching Output) model calculates the impacts to coral reefs from...

  7. World Input-Output Network.

    PubMed

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  8. Classroom Interaction and Language Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiaoying; Castro, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of classroom interactions between a) students and students and b) students and teachers on the learning of English passivization by L1 Chinese adult learners of English as a foreign language during the language input and output treatments. In phase 1, both groups were asked to read and underline the input…

  9. Input/output interface module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozyazici, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    Module detects level changes in any of its 16 inputs, transfers changes to its outputs, and generates interrupts when changes are detected. Up to four changes-in-state per line are stored for later retrieval by controlling computer. Using standard TTL logic, module fits 19-inch rack-mounted console.

  10. Input-output dynamic mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annoni, Jennifer; Jovanovic, Mihailo; Nichols, Joseph; Seiler, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain reduced-order models for fluid flows that can be used for control design. High-fidelity computational fluid dynamic models provide accurate characterizations of complex flow dynamics but are not suitable for control design due to their prohibitive computational complexity. A variety of methods, including proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), can be used to extract the dominant flow structures and obtain reduced-order models. In this presentation, we introduce an extension to DMD that can handle problems with inputs and outputs. The proposed method, termed input-output dynamic mode decomposition (IODMD), utilizes a subspace identification technique to obtain models of low-complexity. We show that, relative to standard DMD, the introduction of the external forcing in IODMD provides robustness with respect to small disturbances and noise. We use the linearized Navier-Stokes equations in a channel flow to demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach and to provide a comparison with standard techniques for obtaining reduced-order dynamical representations. NSF Career Grant No. NSFCMMI-1254129.

  11. A Kinesthetic Learning Approach to Earth Science for 3rd and 4th Grade Students on the Pajarito Plateau, Los Alamos, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wershow, H. N.; Green, M.; Stocker, A.; Staires, D.

    2010-12-01

    Current efforts towards Earth Science literacy in New Mexico are guided by the New Mexico Science Benchmarks [1]. We are geoscience professionals in Los Alamos, NM who believe there is an important role for non-traditional educators utilizing innovative teaching methods. We propose to further Earth Science literacy for local 3rd and 4th grade students using a kinesthetic learning approach, with the goal of fostering an interactive relationship between the students and their geologic environment. We will be working in partnership with the Pajarito Environmental Education Center (PEEC), which teaches the natural heritage of the Pajarito Plateau to 3rd and 4th grade students from the surrounding area, as well as the Family YMCA’s Adventure Programs Director. The Pajarito Plateau provides a remarkable geologic classroom because minimal structural features complicate the stratigraphy and dramatic volcanic and erosional processes are plainly on display and easily accessible. Our methodology consists of two approaches. First, we will build an interpretive display of the local geology at PEEC that will highlight prominent rock formations and geologic processes seen on a daily basis. It will include a simplified stratigraphic section with field specimens and a map linked to each specimen’s location to encourage further exploration. Second, we will develop and implement a kinesthetic curriculum for an exploratory field class. Active engagement with geologic phenomena will take place in many forms, such as a scavenger hunt for precipitated crystals in the vesicles of basalt flows and a search for progressively smaller rhyodacite clasts scattered along an actively eroding canyon. We believe students will be more receptive to origin explanations when they possess a piece of the story. Students will be provided with field books to make drawings of geologic features. This will encourage independent assessment of phenomena and introduce the skill of scientific observation. We

  12. Adaptive Neural Output Feedback Control of Output-Constrained Nonlinear Systems With Unknown Output Nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Lai, Guanyu; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Chun Lung Philip

    2015-08-01

    This paper addresses the problem of adaptive neural output-feedback control for a class of special nonlinear systems with the hysteretic output mechanism and the unmeasured states. A modified Bouc-Wen model is first employed to capture the output hysteresis phenomenon in the design procedure. For its fusion with the neural networks and the Nussbaum-type function, two key lemmas are established using some extended properties of this model. To avoid the bad system performance caused by the output nonlinearity, a barrier Lyapunov function technique is introduced to guarantee the prescribed constraint of the tracking error. In addition, a robust filtering method is designed to cancel the restriction that all the system states require to be measured. Based on the Lyapunov synthesis, a new neural adaptive controller is constructed to guarantee the prescribed convergence of the tracking error and the semiglobal uniform ultimate boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system. Simulations are implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed neural control algorithm in this paper. PMID:25915964

  13. UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  14. Microgyroscope with closed loop output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Cargille, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A micro-gyroscope (10) having closed loop operation by a control voltage (V.sub.TY), that is demodulated by an output signal of the sense electrodes (S1, S2), providing Coriolis torque rebalance to prevent displacement of the micro-gyroscope (10) on the output axis (y-axis). The present invention provides wide-band, closed-loop operation for a micro-gyroscope (10) and allows the drive frequency to be closely tuned to a high Q sense axis resonance. A differential sense signal (S1-S2) is compensated and fed back by differentially changing the voltage on the drive electrodes to rebalance Coriolis torque. The feedback signal is demodulated in phase with the drive axis signal (K.sub..omega..crclbar..sub.x) to produce a measure of the Coriolis force.

  15. Standardized multiple output power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive program to develop a prototype model of a standardized multiple output power supply for use in space flight applications is described. The prototype unit was tested and evaluated to assure that the design would provide near optimum performance for the planned application. The prototype design used a dc-to-dc converter incorporating reqenerative current feedback with a time-ratio controlled duty cycle to achieve high efficiency over a wide variation of input voltage and output loads. The packaging concept uses a mainframe capable of accommodating up to four inverter/regulator modules with one common input filter and housekeeping module. Each inverter/regulator module provides a maximum of 100 watts or 10 amperes. Each module is adaptable to operate at any voltage between 4.0 volts and 108 volts. The prototype unit contains +5, + or - 15 and +28 volt modules.

  16. Status and Trend of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the 4th of July Butterfly Count Program in 1977-2014.

    PubMed

    Swengel, Scott R; Swengel, Ann B

    2016-01-01

    Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) primarily inhabits prairie, a native grassland of central North America, and occurs rarely in nonprairie grasslands further east. This butterfly has experienced widespread decline and marked range contraction. We analyze Regal Fritillary incidence and abundance during 1977-2014 in 4th of July Butterfly Counts, an annual census of butterflies in North America. Volunteers count within the same 24 km diameter circle each year. Only 6% of counts in range reported a Regal, while 18% of counts in core range in the Midwest and Great Plains did. 99.9% of Regal individuals occurred in core range. Only four circles east of core range reported this species, and only during the first half of the study period. All individuals reported west of its main range occurred in two circles in Colorado in the second half of the study. The number of counts per year and survey effort per count increased during the study. During 1991-2014, >31 counts occurred per year in core Regal range, compared to 0-23 during 1975-1990. During 1991-2014, all measures of Regal presence and abundance declined, most significantly. These results agree with other sources that Regal Fritillary has contracted its range and declined in abundance. PMID:27239370

  17. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Campania has always offered suitable climatic and physiographic conditions for human settlements since prehistoric times. In particular, many Graeco-Roman towns developed along its coasts starting from the 7th-6th cent. BC. In the last decade, geoarchaelogical surveys have been carried out in the archaeological excavations of Neapolis, Paestum and Elea-Velia allowing the main steps of the landscape evolution around these towns to be defined in detail. The greek town of Neapolis rose in the late 6th cent. BC [1] on a terrace overlooking a low-relief rocky coast surrounded by volcanic hills. Port activities developed in a protected bay facing the town from the 4th-2nd cent. BC up to the 4th cent. AD, as testified by the discovery of structures and shipwrecks [2, 3, 4]. Starting from the 3rd cent. AD a spit bar formed at the bay entrance causing the progressive establishment of a lagoon which was gradually filled up by alluvial inputs and completely closed in the 5th cent. AD. During the same period, episodes of increased alluvial inputs were also recorded further west along the coast, where a narrow sandy beach formed at the cliff toe. The greek town of Poseidonia, renamed Paestum by the Romans, was founded in the 540 BC on a travertine terrace facing the sandy littoral of a prograding coastal plain [5]. In front of the main town door, a coastal lagoon developed thanks to the growth of a dune ridge and was probably used for harbor activities [5]. After this period the shoreline shifted seawards, another dune ridge formed and the back-ridge depression was filled with fluvial-marshy deposits, slowly drying up. Phases of travertine deposition, which characterized the SE sector of the plain all along the Holocene, were recorded in the northern and southern quarters of the town in historical times and were connected to the abandonment of the town in the early Medieval times. The greek colony of Elea-Velia was located on top of a siliciclastic promontory where the ruins of

  18. Status and Trend of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the 4th of July Butterfly Count Program in 1977–2014

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) primarily inhabits prairie, a native grassland of central North America, and occurs rarely in nonprairie grasslands further east. This butterfly has experienced widespread decline and marked range contraction. We analyze Regal Fritillary incidence and abundance during 1977–2014 in 4th of July Butterfly Counts, an annual census of butterflies in North America. Volunteers count within the same 24 km diameter circle each year. Only 6% of counts in range reported a Regal, while 18% of counts in core range in the Midwest and Great Plains did. 99.9% of Regal individuals occurred in core range. Only four circles east of core range reported this species, and only during the first half of the study period. All individuals reported west of its main range occurred in two circles in Colorado in the second half of the study. The number of counts per year and survey effort per count increased during the study. During 1991–2014, >31 counts occurred per year in core Regal range, compared to 0–23 during 1975–1990. During 1991–2014, all measures of Regal presence and abundance declined, most significantly. These results agree with other sources that Regal Fritillary has contracted its range and declined in abundance. PMID:27239370

  19. Future perspectives in melanoma research. Meeting report from the “Melanoma Bridge. Napoli, December 2nd-4th 2012”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent insights into the genetic and somatic aberrations have initiated a new era of rapidly evolving targeted and immune-based treatments for melanoma. After decades of unsuccessful attempts to finding a more effective cure in the treatment of melanoma now we have several drugs active in melanoma. The possibility to use these drugs in combination to improve responses to overcome the resistance, to potentiate the action of immune system with the new immunomodulating antibodies, and identification of biomarkers that can predict the response to a particular therapy represent new concepts and approaches in the clinical management of melanoma. The third “Melanoma Research: “A bridge from Naples to the World” meeting, shortened as “Bridge Melanoma Meeting” took place in Naples, December 2 to 4th, 2012. The four topics of discussion at this meeting were: advances in molecular profiling and novel biomarkers, combination therapies, novel concepts toward integrating biomarkers and therapies into contemporary clinical management of patients with melanoma across the entire spectrum of disease stage, and the knowledge gained from the biology of tumor microenvironment across different tumors as a bridge to impact on prognosis and response to therapy in melanoma. This international congress gathered more than 30 international faculty members who in an interactive atmosphere which stimulated discussion and exchange of their experience regarding the most recent advances in research and clinical management of melanoma patients. PMID:23731854

  20. Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

  1. Integrating data and mashup concepts in Hydro-Meteorological Research: the torrential rainfall event in Genoa (4th November 2011) case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrina, T.; Parodi, A.; Quarati, A.; Clematis, A.; Rebora, N.; Laiosa, D.

    2012-04-01

    One of the critical issues in Hydro-Meteorological Research (HMR) is a better exploitation of data archives according to a multidisciplinary perspective. Different Earth science databases offer a huge amount of observational data, which often need to be assembled, processed, combined accordingly HM scientists needs. The cooperation between scientists active in HMR and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is essential in the development of innovative tools and applications for manipulating, aggregating and re-arranging heterogeneous information in flexible way. In this paper it is described an application devoted to the collection and integration of HM datasets, originated by public or private sources, freely exposed via Web services API. This application uses the mashup, recently become very popular in many fields, (Chow S.-W., 2007) technology concepts. Such methodology means combination of data and/or programs published by external online sources into an integrated experience. Mashup seems to be a promising methodology to respond to the multiple data-related activities into which HM researchers are daily involved (e.g. finding and retrieving high volume data; learning formats and developing readers; extracting parameters; performing filtering and mask; developing analysis and visualization tools). The specific case study of the recent extreme rainfall event, occurred over Genoa in Italy on the 4th November 2011 is shown through the integration of semi-professional weather observational networks as free available data source in addition to official weather networks.

  2. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  3. Microwave Transmitter With Multimode Output Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Daniel J.; Bhanji, Alaudin M.; Cormier, Reginald A.

    1988-01-01

    Output-waveguide structure transports 400 kW of continuous-wave signal power at 34.5 GHz. Transmitter generates 400 kW of continuous-wave (CW) signal power. Main feature of conceptual design of this microwave transmitter is output section. Output waveguide structure includes mode converter, directional coupler, polarization monitor, and corrugated overmoded output section. Output directional pattern suitable for antenna illumination without flared feedhorn.

  4. Bridging the US and China together to conquer cancer: report of the 4th annual meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wancai; Guan, Lingjie

    2012-01-01

    A global collaborative effort is pivotal to conquer cancer. Themed “Emerging role of China in global clinical development of novel anti-cancer drugs”, the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) held its 4th annual meeting in Chicago on June 2, 2012, in conjunction with the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting to further bridge the US and China together to outsmart cancer. Although a young organization, USCACA has made significant contributions to this goal in the 3 years since its inception through extensive collaboration with academic organizations, the pharmaceutical industry, and governmental agencies. USCACA has engaged various stakeholders in developing translational and personalized medical strategies to facilitate new anti-cancer drug development and clinical trials in China. USCACA has initiated and implemented the USCACA-National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR) scholarship to encourage overseas returnees to continue cancer research in China. USCACA announced the Hengrui-USCACA scholarship to fund clinical trial staff from China to conduct the observation of early oncologic clinical trials in the US. During the annual meeting, distinguished panelists and the audience discussed the following critical topics: (1) oncologic translational research and early development capabilities in China; (2) novel chemical entity development and partnership with Chinese companies; and (3) Chinese participation in global anti-cancer drug development. USCACA will continue to promote collaborations among cancer researchers and clinicians in the US and China by engaging in more frequent communications and joint efforts across fields, disciplines, and countries, diligently working together toward curing and eliminating cancers. PMID:22739264

  5. Changes in the regional prevalence of child obesity in 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students in Texas from 2000-2002 to 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H; Pérez, Adriana; Day, R Sue; Benoit, Julia S; Frankowski, Ralph F; Walker, Joey L; Lee, Eun S

    2010-07-01

    Although national and state estimates of child obesity are available, data at these levels are insufficient to monitor effects of local obesity prevention initiatives. The purpose of this study was to examine regional changes in the prevalence of obesity due to statewide policies and programs among children in grades 4, 8, and 11 in Texas Health Services Regions (HSRs) between 2000-2002 and 2004-2005, and nine selected counties in 2004-2005. A cross-sectional, probability-based sample of 23,190 Texas students in grades 4, 8, and 11 were weighed and measured to obtain BMI. Obesity was >95th percentile for BMI by age/sex using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Child obesity prevalence significantly decreased between 2000-2002 and 2004-2005 for 4th grade students in the El Paso HSR (-7.0%, P = 0.005). A leveling off in the prevalence of obesity was noted for all other regions for grades 4, 8, and 11. County-level data supported the statistically significant decreases noted in the El Paso region. The reduction of child obesity levels observed in the El Paso area is one of the few examples of effective programs and policies based on a population-wide survey: in this region, a local foundation funded extensive regional implementation of community programs for obesity prevention, including an evidence-based elementary school-based health promotion program, adult nutrition and physical activity programs, and a radio and television advertising campaign. Results emphasize the need for sustained school, community, and policy efforts, and that these efforts can result in decreases in child obesity at the population level. PMID:19798066

  6. Cardiovascular screening in adolescents and young adults: a prospective study comparing the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition and ECG

    PubMed Central

    Fudge, Jessie; Harmon, Kimberly G; Owens, David S; Prutkin, Jordan M; Salerno, Jack C; Asif, Irfan M; Haruta, Alison; Pelto, Hank; Rao, Ashwin L; Toresdahl, Brett G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the accuracy of cardiovascular screening in active adolescents and young adults using a standardised history, physical examination and resting 12-lead ECG. Methods Participants were prospectively screened using a standardised questionnaire based on the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition (PPE-4), physical examination and ECG interpreted using modern standards. Participants with abnormal findings had focused echocardiography and further evaluation. Primary outcomes included disorders associated with sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Results From September 2010 to July 2011, 1339 participants underwent screening: age 13–24 (mean 16) years, 49% male, 68% Caucasian, 17% African-American and 1071 (80%) participating in organised sports. Abnormal history responses were reported on 916 (68%) questionnaires. After physician review, 495/ 916 (54%) participants with positive questionnaires were thought to have non-cardiac symptoms and/or a benign family history and did not warrant additional evaluation. Physical examination was abnormal in 124 (9.3%) participants, and 72 (5.4%) had ECG abnormalities. Echocardiograms were performed in 586 (44%) participants for abnormal history (31%), physical examination (8%) or ECG (5%). Five participants (0.4%) were identified with a disorder associated with SCA, all with ECG-detected Wolff-Parkinson-White. The false-positive rates for history, physical examination and ECG were 31.3%, 9.3% and 5%, respectively. Conclusions A standardised history and physical examination using the PPE-4 yields a high false-positive rate in a young active population with limited sensitivity to identify those at risk for SCA. ECG screening has a low false-positive rate using modern interpretation standards and improves detection of primary electrical disease at risk of SCA. PMID:24948082

  7. Relationship between Long Working Hours and Suicidal Thoughts: Nationwide Data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Seok, Hongdeok; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Background Long working hours are a worldwide problem and may increase the risk of various health issues. However, the health effects of long working hours on suicidal thoughts have not been frequently studied. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between long working hours and suicidal thoughts in the rapidly developing country of Korea. Methods Data from 12,076 participants (7,164 men, 4,912 women) from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used for the current analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts. Combined effects of long working hours and lower socioeconomic status or sleep disturbance were also estimated. Results Compared to groups who worked less than 52 hours per week, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for suicidal thoughts in groups who worked 60 hours or more per week were 1.36 (1.09–1.70) for males and 1.38 (1.11–1.72) for females, even after controlling for household income, marital status, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, health-related behaviors, and past two weeks’ experience of injury, intoxication, or acute or chronic diseases, as well as type of work. The combined effects of long working hours with lower socioeconomic status, or with sleep disturbance, were also significantly higher compared to participants who worked less than 52 hours per week with higher socioeconomic status, or with 6–8 hours of nighttime sleep. Conclusion In this study, long working hours were linked to suicidal thoughts for both genders. Additionally, the odds of those suicidal thoughts were higher for lower socioeconomic groups. To prevent adverse psychological health problems such as suicidal thoughts, a strategy regarding long working hours should be investigated. PMID:26080022

  8. Student learning of key concepts and skills in inquiry science: A longitudinal study of 4th and 6th grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Reeny De Vos

    This study arose out of the need to measure the validity of the hands-on, inquiry-based approach to science learning, as articulated in the National Science Education Standards. It addressed the question of whether the use of hands-on, inquiry-based curriculum promotes improved student understanding of science content and problem-solving and scientific reasoning skills. It measured 4th and 6th grade student learning in five skills (comparing, graphing, investigating, measuring, predicting) and five concepts (objects in the sky, properties, variables, units of measure, life cycle). Data were collected in 1997 and 1999 from two elementary schools in one suburban Pittsburgh school district, where hands-on curriculum units were implemented starting in 1997. A performance-based assessment instrument was devised. Findings were compared by school and by year and showed significant improvement in student learning over the two years. Students improved significantly in the skills of comparing and measuring and in the concepts of objects in the sky, variables, and the life cycle. Additionally, in the repeated measures group, significant improvement was also indicated in the skill of graphing and the concepts of properties and units of measure. No significant differences were found in the skills of investigating and predicting. Student scores in the school with somewhat lower socio-economic status increased more significantly. The study supports the key principles that guided the development of the National Science Education Standards and comprehensive science education programs aligned with them. The results support including the elements of systemic reform, i.e., hands-on curriculum materials, ongoing professional development, centralized materials support, assessment, and community involvement, in all schools.

  9. Fast metabolite identification with Input Output Kernel Regression

    PubMed Central

    Brouard, Céline; Shen, Huibin; Dührkop, Kai; d'Alché-Buc, Florence; Böcker, Sebastian; Rousu, Juho

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: An important problematic of metabolomics is to identify metabolites using tandem mass spectrometry data. Machine learning methods have been proposed recently to solve this problem by predicting molecular fingerprint vectors and matching these fingerprints against existing molecular structure databases. In this work we propose to address the metabolite identification problem using a structured output prediction approach. This type of approach is not limited to vector output space and can handle structured output space such as the molecule space. Results: We use the Input Output Kernel Regression method to learn the mapping between tandem mass spectra and molecular structures. The principle of this method is to encode the similarities in the input (spectra) space and the similarities in the output (molecule) space using two kernel functions. This method approximates the spectra-molecule mapping in two phases. The first phase corresponds to a regression problem from the input space to the feature space associated to the output kernel. The second phase is a preimage problem, consisting in mapping back the predicted output feature vectors to the molecule space. We show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art accuracy in metabolite identification. Moreover, our method has the advantage of decreasing the running times for the training step and the test step by several orders of magnitude over the preceding methods. Availability and implementation: Contact: celine.brouard@aalto.fi Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307628

  10. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  11. How Do 4th, 5th, and 6th Grade Students' Categories of Cognitive Reflections in Interviews on Derivational Morphology Compare to Their Upper Level Spelling Inventory Orthographic Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Darcie D.

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-seven 4th, 5th and 6th grade students were administered the "Derivational Relatedness Interview" (DRI) (Templeton, Smith, Moloney, Van Pelt, & Ives, 2009). The purpose of this instrument is to explore students' understanding of derivational morphology. During the same week, the subjects were also administered an Upper…

  12. Estimation of sow milk nutrient output.

    PubMed

    Noblet, J; Etienne, M

    1989-12-01

    Ten replicates of two littermate gilts were used during a 21-d lactation in order to calculate relationships between milk nutrient intake and piglet growth rate and composition of gain. Gilts were fed 14.2 or 10.4 Mcal ME/d and litter size was standardized to 9 or 10 piglets. Piglets had no access to creep feed. Milk production was measured on 10 sucklings over 12 h on d 1, 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21 by the weigh-suckle-weigh method. Heat production of the piglets was measured (RQ method) on the same days in a confinement chamber. Milk composition was determined on the days following milk production measurements. Four to ten piglets/litter were slaughtered at weaning and their body composition was determined. Milk nutrient production during part of lactation was related closely to piglet weight gain and body weight (R2 = .80 to .96). Milk DM, energy and N output over the entire lactation were predicted from piglet ADG (R2 = .87 to .90) when, for each litter, the difference between energy in piglet daily weight gain measured by the slaughter technique and energy in piglet daily weight gain estimated by the RQ method was included in the model. This variable corrects for milk production measurement errors. The relationships were slightly improved, especially for energy output, when the composition of piglet weight gain was taken into account (R2 = .93 to .97). PMID:2613581

  13. Overload protection circuit for output driver

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Roger G.

    1982-05-11

    A protection circuit for preventing excessive power dissipation in an output transistor whose conduction path is connected between a power terminal and an output terminal. The protection circuit includes means for sensing the application of a turn on signal to the output transistor and the voltage at the output terminal. When the turn on signal is maintained for a period of time greater than a given period without the voltage at the output terminal reaching a predetermined value, the protection circuit decreases the turn on signal to, and the current conduction through, the output transistor.

  14. Classroom Order and Student Learning in Late Elementary School: A Multilevel Transactional Model of Achievement Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskins, Clare S.; Herres, Joanna; Kobak, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association between classroom order in 4th and 5th grades and student achievement growth over a school year. A three level transactional model tested the effects of classroom order on students' rates of growth in math and reading during the school year controlling for starting achievement levels, student risk factors, and…

  15. Output tracking for nonlinear non-minimum phase systems with output delay and application to an F-16 jet fighter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bo; Wang, Xinhua; Cai, Kai-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    In this article, output tracking for a class of nonlinear non-minimum phase systems with output delay is considered. By applying the first-order Padé approximation technique to deal with the time-delay function, the original control problem is reduced to the output-tracking problem of a new non-minimum phase system without delay. The bounded tracking profiles of the unstable internal dynamics in the new system are generated by using the nonlinear inversion-based method, and a complete sliding mode control scheme is proposed to stabilise the output-tracking error as well as the internal dynamics. Moreover, the proposed control scheme is applied to solve the flight-path angle tracking problem of an F-16 jet fighter.

  16. Digital plus analog output encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafle, R. S. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The disclosed encoder is adapted to produce both digital and analog output signals corresponding to the angular position of a rotary shaft, or the position of any other movable member. The digital signals comprise a series of binary signals constituting a multidigit code word which defines the angular position of the shaft with a degree of resolution which depends upon the number of digits in the code word. The basic binary signals are produced by photocells actuated by a series of binary tracks on a code disc or member. The analog signals are in the form of a series of ramp signals which are related in length to the least significant bit of the digital code word. The analog signals are derived from sine and cosine tracks on the code disc.

  17. Design of laser diode stable output system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Cao, Rui-ming

    2008-03-01

    High-stability output's system of laser diode is introduced in this paper. The system which is based on the MCU of MSP430 has been designed light power feedback loop and coller of TEC. It includes stable current, protecting circuit, light power feedback loop, temperature controlling, power display and so on. It is also able to control and show the power at the real time. The power could be set by botton too. The software of slow start up, slow close and the protecting relay are adopted by MCU. DRV592 is introduced as PWM driver to control the current of TEC. The duty cycle is generate by MCU. In order to control temperature, it is changed to influence the current of TEC. The power that is sampled by photodiode which is integrated in the laser diode is controlled by the micro-processing. The laser is monitored by voltage control circuit and current control circuit at the real time.

  18. EDITORIAL: Instrumentation and Methods for Neutron Scattering—papers from the 4th European Conference on Neutron Scattering in Lund, Sweden, June 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, Adrian R.

    2008-03-01

    Neutron scattering is used as a tool to study problems in disciplines that include chemistry, materials science, biology and condensed matter physics as well as problems from neighbouring disciplines such as geology, environmental sciences and archaeology. Equipment for these studies is found at laboratories with research reactors or spallation neutron sources and there are many recent or current developments with new instruments and even entirely new facilities such as the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge, USA, the OPAL reactor at Lucas Heights, Australia and the second target station at the ISIS facility in the UK. Design and optimization of the instruments at these facilities involves work with many research laboratories and groups in universities. Every four years the European Conference on Neutron Scattering (ECNS) brings together both the specialists in neutron instrumentation and the community of users (in intervening years there are International and American conferences). In June 2007 about 700 delegates came to the 4th ECNS that was held in Lund, Sweden. There were more than 600 presentations as talks and posters. The opportunity to publish papers in Measurement Science and Technology that relate to neutron scattering instrumentation and method development was offered to the participants, and the papers that follow describe some of the recent activity in this field. Accounts of work on condensed matter science and the applications of neutron scattering appear separately in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. There are, of course, many features of neutron instrumentation that are specific to this particular field of measurement. However, there are also many elements of apparatus and experiment design that can usefully be shared with a broader community. It is hoped that this issue with papers from ECNS will find a broad community of interest. Apart from descriptions of overall design of diffractometers and spectrometers there are accounts of new

  19. New Wisdom to Defy an Old Enemy: Summary from a scientific symposium at the 4th Influenza Vaccines for the World (IVW) 2012 Congress, 11 October, Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Poland, Gregory A; Fleming, Douglas M; Treanor, John J; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Luke, Thomas C; Ball, Emma M A; Poland, Caroline M

    2013-04-17

    Both seasonal and pandemic influenza cause considerable morbidity and mortality globally. In addition, the ongoing threat of new, unpredictable influenza pandemics from emerging variant strains cannot be underestimated. Recently bioCSL (previously known as CSL Biotherapies) sponsored a symposium 'New Wisdom to Defy an Old Enemy' at the 4th Influenza Vaccines for the World Congress in Valencia, Spain. This symposium brought together a renowned faculty of experts to discuss lessons from past experience, novel influenza vaccine developments, and new methods to increase vaccine acceptance and coverage. Specific topics reviewed and discussed included new vaccine development efforts focused on improving efficacy via alternative administration routes, dose modifications, improved adjuvants, and the use of master donor viruses. Improved safety was also discussed, particularly the new finding of an excess of febrile reactions isolated to children who received the 2010 Southern Hemisphere (SH) trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Significant work has been done to both identify the cause and minimize the risk of febrile reactions in children. Other novel prophylactic and therapeutic advances were discussed including immunotherapy. Standard IVIg and hIVIg have been used in ferret studies and human case reports with promising results. New adjuvants, such as ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant, were noted to provide single-dose, prolonged protection with seasonal vaccine after lethal H5N1 virus challenge in a ferret model of human influenza disease. The data suggest that adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines may provide broader protection than unadjuvanted vaccines. The use of an antigen-formulated vaccine to induce broad protection between pandemics that could bridge the gap between pandemic declaration and the production of a homologous vaccine was also discussed. Finally, despite the availability of effective vaccines, most current efforts to increase influenza vaccine coverage

  20. Mathematics and the Heart: Understanding Cardiac Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champanerkar, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates a biological application of the concepts of relative change and area under a curve, from mathematics. We study two biological measures "relative change in cardiac output" and "cardiac output", which are predictors of heart blockages and other related ailments. Cardiac output refers to the quantity of…

  1. Speech Perception in Children with Speech Output Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of speech production pathology is dominated by describing deficits in output. However, perceptual problems might underlie, precede, or interact with production disorders. The present study hypothesizes that the level of the production disorders is linked to level of perception disorders, thus lower-order production problems…

  2. Optical Waveguide Output Couplers Fabricated in Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Abushagur, Mustafa A. G.; Ashley, Paul R.; Johnson-Cole, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Waveguide output couplers fabricated in Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA) #81 and AMOCO Ultradel 9020D polyimide are investigated. The output couplers are implemented using periodic relief gratings on a planar waveguide. Design theory of the couplers is based on the perturbation approach. Coupling of light from waveguide propagation modes to output radiation modes is described by coupled mode theory and the transmission line approximation of the perturbed area (grating structure). Using these concepts, gratings can be accurately designed to output a minimum number of modes at desired output angles. Waveguide couplers were designed using these concepts. These couplers were fabricated and analyzed for structural accuracy, output beam accuracy, and output efficiency. The results for the two different materials are compared.

  3. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  4. Output tracking of some class non-minimum phase nonlinear systems via output redefinition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firman, Naiborhu, Janson

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present the output tracking for a class non-minimum phase nonlinear. To achive the output tracking, we will apply the modified steepest descent control. To apply the modified steepest descent control, the output of the system will be redefined such that the system will become minimum phase with respect to a new output.

  5. The theoretical output of a ring core fluxgate sensor.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Demonstration that the output from a ring core sensor is directly proportional to the first time derivative of the product of dynamic permeability and magnetic intensity perturbation within the core caused by an external, uniform magnetic field. (Dynamic permeability is defined to be the slope of the hysteresis loop at a given point in time). Assuming that ellipsoidal shells can approximate the core, the demagnetization factor can be 'estimated' in the first order to be proportional to the first power of the quantity tape thickness (or number of wraps) divided by the core diameter. The constant of proportionality is determined from laboratory data. When an additional scale adjustment is applied to the resulting sensor output formula, the computed output tracks laboratory data for a range of sensor geometries.

  6. Cointegration of output, capital, labor, and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stresing, R.; Lindenberger, D.; Kã¼mmel, R.

    2008-11-01

    Cointegration analysis is applied to the linear combinations of the time series of (the logarithms of) output, capital, labor, and energy for Germany, Japan, and the USA since 1960. The computed cointegration vectors represent the output elasticities of the aggregate energy-dependent Cobb-Douglas function. The output elasticities give the economic weights of the production factors capital, labor, and energy. We find that they are for labor much smaller and for energy much larger than the cost shares of these factors. In standard economic theory output elasticities equal cost shares. Our heterodox findings support results obtained with LINEX production functions.

  7. The impacts of final demand changes on total output of Indonesian ICT sectors: An analysis using input-output approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Indonesian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors. This study employs Input-Output (IO) analysis as a tool of analysis. More specifically, demand-pull IO quantity model is applied in order to achieve the objective. "Whole sector change" and "pure change" conditions are considered in this study. The results of calculation show that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact to the total output of the sectors is given by the change of households consumption while the change of import has a negative impact. One of the recommendations suggested from this study is to construct import restriction policy for ICT products.

  8. Beyond Course Availability: An Investigation into Order and Concurrency Effects of Undergraduate Programming Courses on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbaczewski, Andrew; Urbaczewski, Lise

    The objective of this study was to find the answers to two primary research questions: "Do students learn programming languages better when they are offered in a particular order, such as 4th generation languages before 3rd generation languages?"; and "Do students learn programming languages better when they are taken in separate semesters as…

  9. Error Patterns in Ordering Fractions among At-Risk Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Amelia Schneider; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2015-01-01

    The 3 purposes of this study were to: (a) describe fraction ordering errors among at-risk 4th-grade students; (b) assess the effect of part-whole understanding and accuracy of fraction magnitude estimation on the probability of committing errors; and (c) examine the effect of students' ability to explain comparing problems on the probability of…

  10. Terahertz intracavity generation from output coupler consisting of stacked GaP plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pu; Ragam, Srinivasa; Ding, Yujie J.; Zotova, Ioulia B.

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate intracavity terahertz generation from an output coupler of a compact dual-frequency solid state laser. The output coupler consisting of unbonded and stacked GaP plates is used as a second-order nonlinear medium where the difference-frequency generation takes place. When quasi-phase matching is achieved within the alternatively rotated GaP plates, terahertz output power is significantly enhanced compared with that for the corresponding external-cavity configuration.

  11. New concept input and output systems for high power gyroklystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoxi; Lawson, W.; Liu, C.; Cheng, J.; Anderson, J.; Hogan, B.; Granatstein, V. L.; Reiser, M.

    1999-07-01

    In order to obtain the high mode purity of a TE011 mode in an overmoded gyroklystron input cavity while maintaining high coupling efficiency, a coaxial dual-cavity input structure with an outer TE411 mode and an inner TE011 mode coaxial cavity has been designed to get a reasonable low Q and to avoid mode distortion due to a single coupling aperture between an input waveguide and input cavity. A quality factor of 73 and a resonant frequency of 8.570 GHz with high mode purity have been obtained for the inner TE011 mode coaxial cavity. Furthermore, in order to inject the output power of a second harmonic gyroklystron (17.136 GHz) into our future pulse composer and accelerator system, a coaxial TE021 output cavity with a TE02-TE01 mode converter is proposed and designed as the output structure of the gyroklystron. The output power can be extracted radially, and at the same time the TE02 mode is converted to TE01 mode into a inner coaxial waveguide.

  12. Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

  13. MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.

    2010-06-01

    -energy correlations are studied in detail such as in problems involving the associated particle technique. In addition, since the finite time resolution of the simulated detector cannot be modeled with MCNP, systems in which time-energy correlation is crucial cannot be described in a satisfactory way. Finally, realistic particle energy deposit in detectors is calculated with MCNP in a two-step process involving type-5 then type-8 tallies. In the first step, the photon flux energy spectrum associated to a time region is selected and serves as a source energy distribution for the second step. Thus, several files must be manipulated before getting the result, which can be time consuming if one needs to study several time regions or different detectors performances. In the same way, modeling counting statistics obtained in a limited acquisition time requires several steps and can also be time consuming. Solution method: In order to overcome the previous limitations, the MODAR C++ code has been written to make use of CERN's ROOT data analysis software. MCNP output data are read from the MCNP output file with dedicated routines. Two-dimensional histograms are filled and can be handled efficiently within the ROOT framework. To keep a user friendly analysis tool, all processing and data display can be done by means of ROOT Graphical User Interface. Specific routines have been written to include detectors finite time resolution and energy response function as well as counting statistics in a straightforward way. Additional comments: The possibility of adding tallies has also been incorporated in MODAR in order to describe systems in which the signal from several detectors can be summed. Moreover, MODAR can be adapted to handle other problems involving two-dimensional data. Running time: The CPU time needed to smear a two-dimensional histogram depends on the size of the histogram. In the presented example, the time-energy smearing of one of the 139×740 two-dimensional histograms takes 3

  14. MCNP output data analysis with ROOT (MODAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.

    2010-12-01

    file into Microsoft Excel. Such an approach is satisfactory when the quantity of data is small but is not efficient when the size of the simulated data is large, for example when time-energy correlations are studied in detail such as in problems involving the associated particle technique. In addition, since the finite time resolution of the simulated detector cannot be modeled with MCNP, systems in which time-energy correlation is crucial cannot be described in a satisfactory way. Finally, realistic particle energy deposit in detectors is calculated with MCNP in a two step process involving type-5 then type-8 tallies. In the first step, the photon flux energy spectrum associated to a time region is selected and serves as a source energy distribution for the second step. Thus, several files must be manipulated before getting the result, which can be time consuming if one needs to study several time regions or different detectors performances. In the same way, modeling counting statistics obtained in a limited acquisition time requires several steps and can also be time consuming. Solution method: In order to overcome the previous limitations, the MODAR C++ code has been written to make use of CERN's ROOT data analysis software. MCNP output data are read from the MCNP output file with dedicated routines. Two dimensional histograms are filled and can be handled efficiently within the ROOT framework. To keep a user friendly analysis tool, all processing and data display can be done by means of ROOT Graphical User Interface. Specific routines have been written to include detectors finite time resolution and energy response function as well as counting statistics in a straightforward way. Reasons for new version: For applications involving the Associate Particle Technique, a large number of gamma rays are produced by the fast neutrons interactions. To study the energy spectra, it is useful to identify the gamma-ray energy peaks in a straightforward way. Therefore, the

  15. High Power Amplifier Harmonic Output Level Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, R. M.; Hoppe, D. J.; Khan, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for the measurement of the harmonic output power of high power klystron amplifiers, involving coherent hemispherical radiation pattern measurements of the radiated klystron output. Results are discussed for the operation in saturated and unsaturated conditions, and with a waveguide harmonic filter included.

  16. Computer Output Microfilm and Library Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Richard W.

    Early computers dealt with mathematical and scientific problems requiring very little input and not much output, therefore high speed printing devices were not required. Today with increased variety of use, high speed printing is necessary and Computer Output Microfilm (COM) devices have been created to meet this need. This indirect process can…

  17. Reinvestigating the Noticing Function of Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggen, Maren S.

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual replication of Izumi and Bigelow's research, this study used multiple measures to investigate second language (L2) learners' processes in output-input-output sequences. Specifically, it examined whether producing the target language impacts learners' attention to L2 structures in subsequent input. Thirty learners of English as a…

  18. Observations in the Computer Room: L2 Output and Learner Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Christine

    2004-01-01

    This article draws on second language theory, particularly output theory as defined by Swain (1995), in order to conceptualise observations made in a computer-assisted language learning setting. It investigates second language output and learner behaviour within an electronic role-play setting, based on a subject-specific problem solving task and…

  19. Marketing Outputs as Art? Bringing an Aesthetic Sensibility to the Marketing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.; Budeva, Desislava; Chung, Christina; Dzhogleva, Hristina

    2011-01-01

    Can marketing outputs--advertising, packaging, product design, and retail environments--be considered a form of art? This paper explores the potential for incorporating the theories and concepts of aesthetics in the marketing curriculum in order to facilitate students' capacity to interpret marketing outputs and develop effective practical…

  20. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  1. A fission fragment detector for correlated fission output studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Tovesson, F.; Couture, A.; Duke, D. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Meharchand, R.; Meierbachtol, K.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Perdue, B.; Richman, D.; Shields, D.

    2014-09-01

    A digital data acquisition system has been combined with a double Frisch gridded ionization chamber for use at both moderated and unmoderated neutron sources at the Los Alamos Neutron Science (LANSCE) facility. The high efficiency of the instrument combined with intense LANSCE beams and new acquisition system permits fission output measurements across 11 orders of magnitude incident neutron energy. The acquisition and analysis system is presented along with the first in-beam performance tests of the setup.

  2. Laser wavelength selection and output coupling by a grating.

    PubMed

    Hard, T M

    1970-08-01

    The principles of use of gratings as laser wavelength-selective end reflectors are reviewed. A useful output beam can be derived from a grating's zeroth-order reflection. This beam moves when the grating is rotated to select various laser wavelengths, but can be made stationary by the addition of auxiliary mirrors. The grating-mirror combination has been applied to a CO(2) laser in the in and to a dye laser in the visible. PMID:20094146

  3. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA·cm−2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW·cm−2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics. PMID:25791299

  4. High output piezo/triboelectric hybrid generator.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA · cm(-2), and average power density of ~4.44 mW · cm(-2). The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics. PMID:25791299

  5. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-03-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA.cm-2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW.cm-2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics.

  6. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  7. Methods in pharmacology: measurement of cardiac output

    PubMed Central

    Geerts, Bart F; Aarts, Leon P; Jansen, Jos R

    2011-01-01

    Many methods of cardiac output measurement have been developed, but the number of methods useful for human pharmacological studies is limited. The ‘holy grail’ for the measurement of cardiac output would be a method that is accurate, precise, operator independent, fast responding, non-invasive, continuous, easy to use, cheap and safe. This method does not exist today. In this review on cardiac output methods used in pharmacology, the Fick principle, indicator dilution techniques, arterial pulse contour analysis, ultrasound and bio-impedance are reviewed. PMID:21284692

  8. High Energy Output Marx Generator Design

    SciTech Connect

    Monty Lehmann

    2011-07-01

    High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50×500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

  9. Nonlinear dynamical model based control of in vitro hippocampal output

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Min-Chi; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a modeling-control paradigm to control the hippocampal output (CA1 response) for the development of hippocampal prostheses. In order to bypass a damaged hippocampal region (e.g., CA3), downstream hippocampal signal (e.g., CA1 responses) needs to be reinstated based on the upstream hippocampal signal (e.g., dentate gyrus responses) via appropriate stimulations to the downstream (CA1) region. In this approach, we optimize the stimulation signal to CA1 by using a predictive DG-CA1 nonlinear model (i.e., DG-CA1 trajectory model) and an inversion of the CA1 input–output model (i.e., inverse CA1 plant model). The desired CA1 responses are first predicted by the DG-CA1 trajectory model and then used to derive the optimal stimulation intensity through the inverse CA1 plant model. Laguerre-Volterra kernel models for random-interval, graded-input, contemporaneous-graded-output system are formulated and applied to build the DG-CA1 trajectory model and the CA1 plant model. The inverse CA1 plant model to transform desired output to input stimulation is derived from the CA1 plant model. We validate this paradigm with rat hippocampal slice preparations. Results show that the CA1 responses evoked by the optimal stimulations accurately replicate the CA1 responses recorded in the hippocampal slice with intact trisynaptic pathway. PMID:23429994

  10. Coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guolin; Shu Ting; Yuan Chengwei; Zhang Jun; Yang Jianhua; Jin Zhenxing; Yin Yi; Wu Dapeng; Zhu Jun; Ren Heming; Yang Jie

    2010-12-15

    The coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves is a promising technique for the development of high power microwave technologies, as it can enhance the output capacities of presently studied devices. According to the investigations on the spatial filtering method and waveguide filtering method, the hybrid filtering method is proposed for the coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves. As an example, a specific structure is designed for the coupling output of S/X/X band three-channel high power microwaves and investigated with the hybrid filtering method. In the experiments, a pulse of 4 GW X band beat waves and a pulse of 1.8 GW S band microwave are obtained.

  11. Memory-based parallel data output controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A memory-based parallel data output controller employs associative memories and memory mapping to decommutate multiple channels of telemetry data. The output controller contains a random access memory (RAM) which has at least as many address locations as there are channels. A word counter addresses the RAM which provides as it outputs an encoded peripheral device number and a MSB/LSB-first flag. The encoded device number and a bit counter address a second RAM which contains START and STOP flags to pick out the required bits from the specified word number. The LSB/MSB, START and STOP flags, along with the serial input digital data go to a control block which selectively fills a shift register used to drive the parallel data output bus.

  12. Scaling of global input-output networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sai; Qi, Zhengling; Qu, Shen; Zhu, Ji; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Jia, Xiaoping; Xu, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Examining scaling patterns of networks can help understand how structural features relate to the behavior of the networks. Input-output networks consist of industries as nodes and inter-industrial exchanges of products as links. Previous studies consider limited measures for node strengths and link weights, and also ignore the impact of dataset choice. We consider a comprehensive set of indicators in this study that are important in economic analysis, and also examine the impact of dataset choice, by studying input-output networks in individual countries and the entire world. Results show that Burr, Log-Logistic, Log-normal, and Weibull distributions can better describe scaling patterns of global input-output networks. We also find that dataset choice has limited impacts on the observed scaling patterns. Our findings can help examine the quality of economic statistics, estimate missing data in economic statistics, and identify key nodes and links in input-output networks to support economic policymaking.

  13. Anomalous light output from lightning dart leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, C.; Krider, E. P.

    1985-01-01

    About 5 percent of the multiple-stroke cloud-to-ground lightning discharges recorded at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 1981 contained dart leaders that produced an unusually large light output. An analysis of these cases indicates that the average peak light output per unit length in the leader may be comparable to or even exceed that of the return stroke that follows.

  14. Surface emitting lasers with combined output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, Donald B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Surface emitting lasers are laterally aligned and coupled together and also have their light output signals combined. This results in greater phase and frequency coherency and narrower and reduced amplitude sidelobes. Preferably, not more than two lasers are longitudinally aligned along the same axis for still greater coherency compared with adding the light output signals of more than two longitudinally aligned lasers. The lasers can be of the DH-LOC type or of the QW type.

  15. Input/output system for multiprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Bernick, D.L.; Chan, K.K.; Chan, W.M.; Dan, Y.F.; Hoang, D.M.; Hussain, Z.; Iswandhi, G.I.; Korpi, J.E.; Sanner, M.W.; Zwangerman, J.A.

    1989-04-11

    A device controller is described, comprising: a first port-input/output controller coupled to a first input/output channel bus; and a second port-input/output controlled coupled to a second input/output channel bus; each of the first and second port-input/output controllers having: a first ownership latch means for granting shared ownership of the device controller to a first host processor to provide a first data path on a first I/O channel through the first port I/O controller between the first host processor and any peripheral, and at least a second ownership latch means operative independently of the first ownership latch means for granting shared ownership of the device controller to a second host processor independently of the first port input/output controller to provide a second data path on a second I/O channel through the second port I/O controller between the second host processor and any peripheral devices coupled to the device controller.

  16. Order Nidovirales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, entitled "Order Nidovirales", is for inclusion in the Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), to be published as both a single volume text and online. The chapter details the taxonomy of members of the Nidovirus order, including family Arteriviridae o...

  17. Extreme output sensitivity to subwavelength boundary deformation in microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Li; Song, Qinghai; Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate a generic and robust mechanism that leads to an extreme output sensitivity to a deep subwavelength boundary perturbation in wavelength-scale microcavities. A deformation of the cavity boundary on the order of ten-thousandth of a wavelength may flip the output directions by 180∘, corresponding to a variation of 0.1 nm for a 1-μm-radius cavity. Our analysis based on a perturbation theory reveals that such tiny structural change can cause a strong mixing of nearly degenerate cavity resonances with different angular momenta, and their interference is greatly enhanced to have a radical influence on the far-field pattern. Our finding opens the possibility of utilizing carefully designed wavelength-scale microcavities for fast beam steering and high-resolution detection.

  18. Efficient Output Mode Converter for 30 GHz Gyroklystron at IAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzikov, Sergey V.; Plotkin, Mikhail E.; Zaitsev, Nikolay I.

    2010-02-01

    An output mode converter for Ka-band multi-MW gyroklystron in the Institute of Applied Physics (IAP) operating in the TE53 mode is suggested. Two variants of the converter, aimed for different applications, are presented: the TE53 to TE01 mode converter with power output along the device axis and the TE53 mode to Gaussian wavebeam quasi-optical converter with a visor. The suggested designs include the built-in electron beam collector. The converters were designed using a new synthesis algorithm, which implies iterative improvement of the waveguide wall shape in order to achieve high efficiency. The calculation results were proven by HFSS simulation and low-power tests of one version of the converter.

  19. Caffeine, maximal power output and fatigue.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J H; Signorile, J F; Barnes, W S; Henrich, T W

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on maximal power output and fatigue during short term, high intensity exercise. Nine adult males performed 15 s maximal exercise bouts 60 min after ingestion of caffeine (7 mg.kg-1) or placebo. Exercise bouts were carried out on a modified cycle ergometer which allowed power output to be computed for each one-half pedal stroke via microcomputer. Peak power output under caffeine conditions was not significantly different from that obtained following placebo ingestion. Similarly, time to peak power, total work, power fatigue index and power fatigue rate did not differ significantly between caffeine and placebo conditions. These results suggest that caffeine ingestion does not increase one's maximal ability to generate power. Further, caffeine does not alter the rate or magnitude of fatigue during high intensity, dynamic exercise. PMID:3228680

  20. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  1. Pole placement with constant gain output feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Given a linear time invariant multivariable system with m inputs and p outputs, it was shown that p closed loop poles of the system can be preassigned arbitrarily using constant gain output feedback provided (A circumflex, B circumflex) is controllable. These data show that if (A circumflex, B circumflex, C circumflex) is controllable and observable, and Rank B circumflex = m, Rank C circumflex = p, then max (m,p) poles of the system can be assigned arbitarily using constant gain output feedback. Further, it is shown that in some cases more than max (m,p) poles can be arbitrarily assigned. A least square design technique is outlined to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.

  2. Input/Output Subroutine Library Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, James B.

    1988-01-01

    Efficient, easy-to-use program moved easily to different computers. Purpose of NAVIO, Input/Output Subroutine Library, provides input/output package of software for FORTRAN programs that is portable, efficient, and easy to use. Implemented as hierarchy of libraries. At bottom is very small library containing only non-portable routines called "I/O Kernel." Design makes NAVIO easy to move from one computer to another, by simply changing kernel. NAVIO appropriate for software system of almost any size wherein different programs communicate through files.

  3. FOREWORD: The 4th CCM International Conference on Pressure Metrology from Ultra-High Vacuum to Very High Pressures (10-9 Pa to 109 Pa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legras, Jean-Claude; Jousten, Karl; Severn, Ian

    2005-12-01

    The fourth CCM (Consultative Committee for Mass and related quantities) International Conference on Pressure Metrology from Ultra-High Vacuum to Very High Pressures (10-9 Pa to 109 Pa) was held at the Institute of Physics in London from 19-21 April 2005. The event, which was organized by the Low, Medium and High Pressure working groups of the CCM, was attended by in excess of one hundred participants with representatives from five continents and every regional metrology organization. The purpose of this conference is to review all the work that is devoted to the highest quality of pressure measurement by primary standards as well as the dissemination of the pressure scale. A total of 52 papers were presented orally, and 26 as posters, in sessions that covered the following topics: Latest scientific advances in pressure and vacuum metrology Innovative transfer standards, advanced sensors and new instrument development Primary (top-level) measurement standards International and regional key comparisons New approaches to calibration It is interesting the note that since the third conference in 1999 the pressure range covered has increased by two orders of magnitude to 109 Pa, to take into account more exacting scientific and industrial demands for traceable vacuum measurement. A further feature of the conference was the increased range of instrumentation and techniques used in the realization and potential realization of pressure standards. Seton Bennett, Director of International Metrology at the National Physical Laboratory, opened the conference and Andrew Wallard, Director of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), gave the keynote address which described the implementation of the mutual recognition arrangement and the resulting removal of metrological barriers to international trade. Many experts have contributed significant amounts of their time to organize the event and to review the submitted papers. Thanks are due to all of these people

  4. Solar cell system having alternating current output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A monolithic multijunction solar cell was modified by fabricating an integrated circuit inverter on the back of the cell to produce a device capable of generating an alternating current output. In another embodiment, integrated curcuit power conditioning electronics was incorporated in a module containing a solar cell power supply.

  5. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Robert M.; Dale, Gregory E

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  6. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Timothy W.; Sathe, Sanjeev B.; Peck, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  7. Input-output, expandable-parity network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckevitt, J. F., III

    1974-01-01

    Large-scale integrated circuit generates and checks parity of four eight-bit registers. In addition, circuit will indicate by output signal whether parity error exists. Circuit can also generate or check parity of words up to 32 bits. This is done by making appropriate internal wiring connections on the large-scale integrated chip.

  8. A Large Scale Computer Terminal Output Controller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Paul Thomas

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a large scale computer terminal output controller which supervises the transfer of information from a Control Data 6400 Computer to a PLATO IV data network. It discusses the cost considerations leading to the selection of educational television channels rather than telephone lines for…

  9. Coatings Boost Solar-Cell Outputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Campbell, Robert B.; O'Keefe, T. W.; Rai-Choudbury, Posenjit; Hoffman, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiencies increased by more-complete utilization of incident light. Electrical outputs of thin solar photovoltaic cells made of dendritic-web silicon increased by combination of front-surface, antireflective coatings and back-surface, reflective coatings. Improvements achieved recently through theoretical and experimental studies of ways to optimize coatings for particular wavelengths of incident light, cell thicknesses, and cell materials.

  10. Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Automated Functions, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This final report describes the design, development, and testing of the Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST), a computer-based system which enables the evaluation of students with visual impairments to determine the optimal combination of sensory adaptive aids to meet their needs. The system uses multimedia devices in conjunction with customized…

  11. Output feedback regulator design for jet engine control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A multivariable control design procedure based on the output feedback regulator formulation is described and applied to turbofan engine model. Full order model dynamics, were incorporated in the example design. The effect of actuator dynamics on closed loop performance was investigaged. Also, the importance of turbine inlet temperature as an element of the dynamic feedback was studied. Step responses were given to indicate the improvement in system performance with this control. Calculation times for all experiments are given in CPU seconds for comparison purposes.

  12. Output feedback regulator design for jet engine control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W.

    1977-01-01

    A multivariable control design procedure based on the output feedback regulator formulation is described and applied to an F100 turbofan engine model. Full order model dynamics, are incorporated in the example design. The effect of actuator dynamics on closed loop performance is investigated. Also, the importance of turbine inlet temperature as an element of the dynamic feedback is studied. Step responses are given to indicate the improvement in system performance with this control. Calculation times for all experiments are given in CPU seconds for comparison purposes.

  13. Design of turbofan engine controls using output feedback regulator theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A multivariable control design procedure based on output feedback regulator (OFR) theory is applied to the F100 turbofan engine. Results for the OFR design are compared to a design based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. The OFR feedback control is designed in the full order state space and thus eliminates any need for model reduction techniques. Using the performance measure and control structure of the LQR design, an equivalent OFR feedback control is obtained. The flexibility of the OFR as a control design procedure is demonstrated, and differing feedback control structures are evaluated.

  14. Jet and ultrasonic nebuliser output: use of a new method for direct measurement of aerosol output.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, J H; Stenton, S C; Beach, J R; Avery, A J; Walters, E H; Hendrick, D J

    1990-01-01

    Output from jet nebulisers is calibrated traditionally by weighing them before and after nebulisation, but the assumption that the weight difference is a close measure of aerosol generation could be invalidated by the concomitant process of evaporation. A method has been developed for measuring aerosol output directly by using a solute (fluoride) tracer and aerosol impaction, and this has been compared with the traditional weight loss method for two Wright, six Turbo, and four Micro-Cirrus jet nebulisers and two Microinhaler ultrasonic nebulisers. The weight loss method overestimated true aerosol output for all jet nebulisers. The mean aerosol content, expressed as a percentage of the total weight loss, varied from as little as 15% for the Wright jet nebulisers to 54% (range 45-61%) for the Turbo and Micro-Cirrus jet nebulisers under the operating conditions used. In contrast, there was no discrepancy between weight loss and aerosol output for the ultrasonic nebulisers. These findings, along with evidence of both concentrating and cooling effects from jet nebulisation, confirm that total output from jet nebulisers contains two distinct fractions, vapour and aerosol. The vapour fraction, but not the aerosol fraction, was greatly influenced by reservoir temperature within the nebuliser; so the ratio of aerosol output to total weight loss varied considerably with temperature. It is concluded that weight loss is an inappropriate method of calibrating jet nebuliser aerosol output, and that this should be measured directly. PMID:2247862

  15. Enhanced DEA model with undesirable output and interval data for rice growing farmers performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar Ramli, Razamin Baten, M. D. Azizul

    2015-12-11

    Agricultural production process typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emission, nitrate leaching, effects to human and organisms and water pollution). In efficiency analysis, this undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in order to obtain the actual estimation of firms efficiency. Additionally, climatic factors as well as data uncertainty can significantly affect the efficiency analysis. There are a number of approaches that has been proposed in DEA literature to account for undesirable outputs. Many researchers has pointed that directional distance function (DDF) approach is the best as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, it has been found that interval data approach is the most suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding its distribution and membership function. In this paper, an enhanced DEA model based on DDF approach that considers undesirable outputs as well as climatic factors and interval data is proposed. This model will be used to determine the efficiency of rice farmers who produces undesirable outputs and operates under uncertainty. It is hoped that the proposed model will provide a better estimate of rice farmers’ efficiency.

  16. Enhanced DEA model with undesirable output and interval data for rice growing farmers performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, M. D. Azizul

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production process typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emission, nitrate leaching, effects to human and organisms and water pollution). In efficiency analysis, this undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in order to obtain the actual estimation of firms efficiency. Additionally, climatic factors as well as data uncertainty can significantly affect the efficiency analysis. There are a number of approaches that has been proposed in DEA literature to account for undesirable outputs. Many researchers has pointed that directional distance function (DDF) approach is the best as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, it has been found that interval data approach is the most suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding its distribution and membership function. In this paper, an enhanced DEA model based on DDF approach that considers undesirable outputs as well as climatic factors and interval data is proposed. This model will be used to determine the efficiency of rice farmers who produces undesirable outputs and operates under uncertainty. It is hoped that the proposed model will provide a better estimate of rice farmers' efficiency.

  17. Designing Effective Instruction. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gary R.; Ross, Steven M.; Kemp, Jerrold E.

    This book presents practical skills for successful instructional design. Maintaining a balance between theory and application, it offers a flexible model that can be adapted for use in many settings. Examples are presented from business, higher education, and K-12 education. The 15 chapters are: (1) "Introduction to the Instructional Design…

  18. Elementary Science Guide -- 4th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 4. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Four units are…

  19. Atlas of radiologic anatomy. 4th edition

    SciTech Connect

    Wicke, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book reveals the clinical radiographic appearance of virtually every major anatomical structure, including skeletal and other specialized features. The highest quality printing and electronic contrast enhancement of all radiographs ensure that even student radiographers will be able to obtain all the important anatomical information they need.

  20. [4th World Conference on Women].

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    The World Platform of Action is a document prepared by the secretary of the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) that acknowledges commitments made by the subscribing governments. In the final preparatory meeting for the Fourth International Conference on Women in Beijing, official delegations of the world's governments discussed the draft of the Platform of Action. Throughout the Platform, there is evidence of a retreat from concepts internationally recognized at other conferences. The Vatican, in alliance with countries like Honduras, Argentina, and Guatemala, and with fundamentalist religious groups, is largely responsible for the obstruction. The draft indicates which topics have failed to gain consensus and require discussion at the full Conference. The Platform is defined as an agenda for seeking empowerment of women, an objective necessitating removal of obstacles to active participation by women in all spheres of public life. The Platform defines the critical areas for action as the persistent increase in poverty among women, unequal access to education and training, unequal access to health care, violence against women and girls, effects of persecution and armed conflicts, unequal access to productive processes, and unequal power and influence in decision making at all levels. Insufficient mechanisms for promoting women, protection of the human rights of women, women and communication, and women and the environment are other priority topics. Problems are discussed in each of these areas, and objectives and concrete actions are proposed. The work describes the types of institutional changes that will be needed if the objectives are to be achieved; defines sex, gender, and other relevant terms; and analyses some of the strategic objectives in greater detail. The final section contains recommendations for women's groups and other lobbyists in Colombia to present to the government. PMID:12319902

  1. YVUN Celebrates Its 4th Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonka, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the formation of the Youth Visits the United Nations (YVUN) program. The program began in 2003 with funds provided by the Ursula Thrush Peace Seed Grant. Its purpose is to bring middle school students to New York to attend sessions of the United Nations, allowing these adolescents the opportunity to learn about global issues…

  2. 4th European Antibody Congress 2008

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth European Antibody meeting, organized by Terrapin Ltd., was held in Geneva, a center of the European biopharmaceutical industry. Merck-Serono, NovImmune, Pierre Fabre and Therapeomic are located nearby, as are R&D centers of Boehringer-Ingelheim, Novartis, Roche and Sanofi-Aventis. Over 40 speakers and more than 200 delegates attended the event. Companies represented included Abbott, Ablynx, Adnexus/ BMS, Astra-Zeneca/ CAT/ Medimmune, BiogenIdec, BioRad, Centocor (Johnson & Johnson), Crucell/DSM, Domantis, Dyax, Genmab, Genzyme, Glycart/ Roche, Haptogen, Immunogen, Kyowa-Kirin, LFB, Medarex, Merck-Serono, Micromet, Novartis, Pierre Fabre Laboratories, Roche, Sanofi-Aventis, Seattle-Genetics, Transgene, UCB Celltech and Wyeth. Other attendees included those based in academe or government (University of Amsterdam, University of Zurich, Univeristy Hospital-Lyon, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, INSERM, Tufts University, US National Institutes of Health), consultants, and patent attorneys (Edwards, Angell, Palmer & Dodge). The meeting was very interactive and included exchanges during the many scheduled networking times (exhibitions, speed-networking, lunches and evening receptions). The first day of the three day conference was dedicated to advances in understanding antibody structure-function relationships. Challenges and opportunities in antibody development were the focus of the second day and the third day featured discussion of innovative antibodies and antibody alternatives. PMID:20061813

  3. Electronic Learning. Art: The 4th "R."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2001-01-01

    With the Internet revolution in education, students are learning to think as designers and artists. The language of art must become the fourth "R," and students must become literate in this environment. The paper discusses art and the digital age and what teachers can do (rename art, hire more art teachers, and increase fourth-R literacy…

  4. Exergie /4th revised and enlarged edition/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloh, T.; Wittwer, E.

    The theoretical concept of exergy is explained and its practical applications are discussed. Equilibrium and thermal equilibrium are reviewed as background, and exergy is considered as a reference point for solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-gas systems. Exergetic calculations and their graphic depictions are covered. The concepts of enthalpy and entropy are reviewed in detail, including their applications to gas mixtures, solutions, and isolated substances. The exergy of gas mixtures, solutions, and isolated substances is discussed, including moist air, liquid water in water vapor, dry air, and saturation-limited solutions. Mollier exergy-enthalpy-entropy diagrams are presented for two-component systems, and exergy losses for throttling, isobaric mixing, and heat transfer are addressed. The relationship of exergy to various processes is covered, including chemical processes, combustion, and nuclear reactions. The optimization of evaporation plants through exergy is discussed. Calculative examples are presented for energy production and heating, industrial chemical processes, separation of liquid air, nuclear reactors, and others.

  5. Medical Imaging Physics, 4th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendee, William R.; Ritenour, E. Russell

    2002-05-01

    This comprehensive publication covers all aspects of image formation in modern medical imaging modalities, from radiography, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography, to magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. It addresses the techniques and instrumentation used in the rapidly changing field of medical imaging. Now in its fourth edition, this text provides the reader with the tools necessary to be comfortable with the physical principles, equipment, and procedures used in diagnostic imaging, as well as appreciate the capabilities and limitations of the technologies.

  6. Fireworks on the 4th of July

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    After half a century of waiting, the drama was intense. Physicists slept overnight outside the auditorium to get seats for the seminar at the CERN lab in Geneva, Switzerland. Ten thousand miles away on the other side of the planet, at the world's most prestigious international particle physics conference, hundreds of physicists from every corner…

  7. PFC design via FRIT Approach for Adaptive Output Feedback Control of Discrete-time Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Takagi, Taro; Fukui, Sota; Shah, Sirish L.

    This paper deals with a design problem of an adaptive output feedback control for discrete-time systems with a parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) which is designed for making the augmented controlled system ASPR. A PFC design scheme by a FRIT approach with only using an input/output experimental data set will be proposed for discrete-time systems in order to design an adaptive output feedback control system. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed PFC design method will be confirmed through numerical simulations by designing adaptive control system with adaptive NN (Neural Network) for an uncertain discrete-time system.

  8. Cooperative linear output regulation for networked systems by dynamic measurement output feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaobao; Feng, Gang; Wang, Juan; Luo, Xiaoyuan; Guan, Xinping

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the cooperative linear output regulation problem of a class of heterogeneous networked systems with a common reference input but with different disturbances for individual nodes. A novel distributed control law is presented based on dynamic measurement output feedback. It is shown that the overall networked closed-loop control system is asymptotically stable and the output regulation errors asymptotically approach zero as time goes to infinity under a sufficient and necessary condition. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control law.

  9. Characterizing output bottlenecks in a supercomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Bing; Chase, Jeffrey; Dillow, David A; Drokin, Oleg; Klasky, Scott A; Oral, H Sarp; Podhorszki, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Supercomputer I/O loads are often dominated by writes. HPC (High Performance Computing) file systems are designed to absorb these bursty outputs at high bandwidth through massive parallelism. However, the delivered write bandwidth often falls well below the peak. This paper characterizes the data absorption behavior of a center-wide shared Lustre parallel file system on the Jaguar supercomputer. We use a statistical methodology to address the challenges of accurately measuring a shared machine under production load and to obtain the distribution of bandwidth across samples of compute nodes, storage targets, and time intervals. We observe and quantify limitations from competing traffic, contention on storage servers and I/O routers, concurrency limitations in the client compute node operating systems, and the impact of variance (stragglers) on coupled output such as striping. We then examine the implications of our results for application performance and the design of I/O middleware systems on shared supercomputers.

  10. Prokineticin 2 and circadian clock output

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qun-Yong; Cheng, Michelle Y.

    2009-01-01

    Circadian timing from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a critical component of sleep regulation. Animal lesion and genetic studies have indicated an essential interaction between the circadian signals and the homeostatic processes that regulate sleep. Here we summarize the biological functions of prokineticins, a pair of newly discovered regulatory proteins, with focus on the circadian function of prokineticin 2 (PK2) and its potential role in sleep-wake regulation. PK2 has been shown as a candidate SCN output molecule that regulates circadian locomotor behavior. The PK2 molecular rhythm in the SCN is predominantly controlled by the circadian transcriptional/translational loops, but also regulated directly by light. The receptor for PK2 is expressed in the primary SCN output targets that regulate circadian behavior including sleep-wake. The depolarizing effect of PK2 on neurons that express PK2 receptor may represent a possible mechanism for the regulatory role of PK2 in circadian rhythms. PMID:16279936

  11. Photoplethysmographic sensor with smoothed output signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis; Rubins, Uldis

    1999-01-01

    A reflectance-type photoplethysmographic sensor probe connected to personal computer has been constructed and tested. Special algorithms and PC programs providing fast processing and smoothing of the output signals were developed. High-quality single period photoplethysmography signals were recorded from various locations of the body (fingers, forearm, neck). Clear differences in the shapes of detected single-period signals have been observed for different persons, and also for the same person at various measurement locations and before/after physical exercise.

  12. Generalized Input-Output Inequality Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yingfan Zhang Qinghong

    2006-09-15

    In this paper two types of generalized Leontief input-output inequality systems are introduced. The minimax properties for a class of functions associated with the inequalities are studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the inequality systems to have solutions are obtained in terms of the minimax value. Stability analysis for the solution set is provided in terms of upper semi-continuity and hemi-continuity of set-valued maps.

  13. Hipparcos telescope: behavior of the output signal.

    PubMed

    Badiali, M; Cardini, D; Emanuele, A

    1989-08-15

    A detailed simulation of the output signal of the ESA space telescope Hipparcos has been performed, based on a complete and updated model. Various spectra of the incident light from different positions in the field of view have been simulated, both for nominal telescope parameters and for a wide range of possible deviations from their nominal values. Here we give a description of the algorithm and a brief survey of the results. PMID:20555716

  14. Burst Firing Enhances Neural Output Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ho Ka; Yang, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Changsong; Nowotny, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Neurons communicate and transmit information predominantly through spikes. Given that experimentally observed neural spike trains in a variety of brain areas can be highly correlated, it is important to investigate how neurons process correlated inputs. Most previous work in this area studied the problem of correlation transfer analytically by making significant simplifications on neural dynamics. Temporal correlation between inputs that arises from synaptic filtering, for instance, is often ignored when assuming that an input spike can at most generate one output spike. Through numerical simulations of a pair of leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons receiving correlated inputs, we demonstrate that neurons in the presence of synaptic filtering by slow synapses exhibit strong output correlations. We then show that burst firing plays a central role in enhancing output correlations, which can explain the above-mentioned observation because synaptic filtering induces bursting. The observed changes of correlations are mostly on a long time scale. Our results suggest that other features affecting the prevalence of neural burst firing in biological neurons, e.g., adaptive spiking mechanisms, may play an important role in modulating the overall level of correlations in neural networks. PMID:27242499

  15. Characterizing detonator output using dynamic witness plates

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Michael John; Adrian, Ronald J

    2009-01-01

    A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire.

  16. Scaled Runge-Kutta algorithms for handling dense output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    Low order Runge-Kutta algorithms are developed which determine the solution of a system of ordinary differential equations at any point within a given integration step, as well as at the end of each step. The scaled Runge-Kutta methods are designed to be used with existing Runge-Kutta formulas, using the derivative evaluations of these defining algorithms as the core of the system. For a slight increase in computing time, the solution may be generated within the integration step, improving the efficiency of the Runge-Kutta algorithms, since the step length need no longer be severely reduced to coincide with the desired output point. Scaled Runge-Kutta algorithms are presented for orders 3 through 5, along with accuracy comparisons between the defining algorithms and their scaled versions for a test problem.

  17. Extreme inputs/outputs for multiple input multiple output linear systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, David Ora

    2005-09-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the auto spectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the auto spectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input auto spectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one will result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.

  18. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Linear Systems Extreme Inputs/Outputs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smallwood, David O.

    2007-01-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the autospectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the autospectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input autospectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one willmore » result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.« less

  19. Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

    2011-12-20

    In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

  20. 47 CFR 2.1046 - Measurements required: RF power output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measurements required: RF power output. 2.1046... Measurements required: RF power output. (a) For transmitters other than single sideband, independent sideband and controlled carrier radiotelephone, power output shall be measured at the RF output terminals...

  1. Minimum output entropy of bosonic channels: A conjecture

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Guha, Saikat; Maccone, Lorenzo; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Lloyd, Seth

    2004-09-01

    The von Neumann entropy at the output of a bosonic channel with thermal noise is analyzed. Coherent-state inputs are conjectured to minimize this output entropy. Physical and mathematical evidence in support of the conjecture is provided. A stronger conjecture - that output states resulting from coherent-state inputs majorize the output states from other inputs - is also discussed.

  2. Control strategies to optimise power output in heave buoy energy convertors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Zarim, M. A. U. A.; Sharip, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Wave energy converter (WEC) designs are always discussed in order to obtain an optimum design to generate the power from the wave. Output power from wave energy converter can be improved by controlling the oscillation in order to acquire the interaction between the WEC and the incident wave.The purpose of this research is to study the heave buoys in the interest to generate an optimum power output by optimising the phase control and amplitude in order to maximise the active power. In line with the real aims of this study which investigate the theory and function and hence optimise the power generation of heave buoys as renewable energy sources, the condition that influence the heave buoy must be understand in which to propose the control strategies that can be use to control parameters to obtain optimum power output. However, this research is in an early stage, and further analysis and technical development is require.

  3. Combining Multiple Gyroscope Outputs for Increased Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed method of processing the outputs of multiple gyroscopes to increase the accuracy of rate (that is, angular-velocity) readings has been developed theoretically and demonstrated by computer simulation. Although the method is applicable, in principle, to any gyroscopes, it is intended especially for application to gyroscopes that are parts of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The method is based on the concept that the collective performance of multiple, relatively inexpensive, nominally identical devices can be better than that of one of the devices considered by itself. The method would make it possible to synthesize the readings of a single, more accurate gyroscope (a virtual gyroscope) from the outputs of a large number of microscopic gyroscopes fabricated together on a single MEMS chip. The big advantage would be that the combination of the MEMS gyroscope array and the processing circuitry needed to implement the method would be smaller, lighter in weight, and less power-hungry, relative to a conventional gyroscope of equal accuracy. The method (see figure) is one of combining and filtering the digitized outputs of multiple gyroscopes to obtain minimum-variance estimates of rate. In the combining-and-filtering operations, measurement data from the gyroscopes would be weighted and smoothed with respect to each other according to the gain matrix of a minimum- variance filter. According to Kalman-filter theory, the gain matrix of the minimum-variance filter is uniquely specified by the filter covariance, which propagates according to a matrix Riccati equation. The present method incorporates an exact analytical solution of this equation.

  4. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  5. Nano-JASMINE: Simulation of Data Outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Yano, T.; Hatsutori, Y.; Gouda, N.; Murooka, J.; Niwa, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2011-02-01

    We simulated the data outputs of the first Japanese astrometry satellite Nano-JASMINE, which is scheduled to be launched by the Cyclone-4 rocket in August 2011. The simulations were carried out using existing stellar catalogues such as the Hipparcos catalogue, the Tycho catalogue, and the Guide Star catalogue version 2.3. Several statics are shown such as the number of stars those will be measured distances using annual aberration observations. The method for determining the initial direction of the satellite's spin axis has also been discussed. In this case, the frequency of bright stars observed by the satellite is an important factor.

  6. Off-set stabilizer for comparator output

    DOEpatents

    Lunsford, James S.

    1991-01-01

    A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

  7. Inductive Output Tubes -- Status and Future Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlen, Heinz

    2002-08-01

    Invented in 1938, at the same time as the klystron, it took the Inductive Output Tube (IOT) more than 40 years to surface as a useful device. Its progress after that event was rapid. Though plagued by teething problems in the beginning, it has since replaced the klystron as a TV amplifier in UHF, and it holds its own against the solid-state competition in that application. The IOT also shows much promise as a high-power amplifier, but early developments in this direction have remained solitary events so far. The paper discusses the causes and the potential of the device for future high-power applications.

  8. HCN laser with an adaptive output mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenev, Yu E; Masalov, S A; Filimonova, A A

    2006-09-30

    A device for optimal coupling between a laser resonator and the external medium, having the form of one-dimensional wire grating conjugated with a plane mirror with an aperture, is proposed, developed and tested experimentally. The dependences of the output laser power on the separation between the grating and the mirror, diameter of the aperture in the plane mirror, and the grating period, are studied. The obtained results not only confirm the possibility of using such a coupling device, but also point towards the ways and principles of its application. (lasers)

  9. Example of input-output analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The thirty sectors included in the ECASTAR energy input-output model were listed. Five of these belong to energy producing sectors, fifteen to manufacturing industries, two to residential and commercial sectors, and eight to service industries. The model is capable of tracing impacts of an action in three dimensions: dollars, BTU's of energy, and labor. Four conservation actions considered were listed and then discussed separately, dealing with the following areas: increase in fuel efficiency, reduction in fuel used by the transportation and warehousing group, manufacturing of smaller automobiles, and a communications/transportation trade-off.

  10. Input-output-controlled nonlinear equation solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    To upgrade the efficiency and stability of the successive substitution (SS) and Newton-Raphson (NR) schemes, the concept of input-output-controlled solvers (IOCS) is introduced. By employing the formal properties of the constrained version of the SS and NR schemes, the IOCS algorithm can handle indefiniteness of the system Jacobian, can maintain iterate monotonicity, and provide for separate control of load incrementation and iterate excursions, as well as having other features. To illustrate the algorithmic properties, the results for several benchmark examples are presented. These define the associated numerical efficiency and stability of the IOCS.

  11. Assessing change in diet and biological affinity between the 4th and 3rd millennia cal BCE in the Portuguese Estremadura: a preliminary dental comparison of Feteira II and Bolores.

    PubMed

    Horwath, B C; Waterman, A J; Lillios, K T; Irish, J D

    2014-04-01

    Although the social and political changes accompanying the transition from the Neolithic through Copper Age, between the 4th and 3rd millennia cal BCE, in southwestern Iberia are reasonably well understood, much less is known about whether population movements and dietary changes accompanied these transformations. To address this question, human dental remains from the Middle through Late Neolithic site of Feteira II (3600-2900 cal BCE) and the Late Neolithic site of Bolores (2800-2600 cal BCE) in the Portuguese Estremadura were used to examine diet (microwear) and affinity (dental non-metrics). Microwear features were not found to be significantly different between Feteira II and Bolores, suggesting that the emergence of social complexity during this period did not result in large-scale changes in subsistence practices during the period of use at these sites. Using the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System and supporting statistics, no significant difference between the samples from Feteira II and Bolores was observed, suggesting that no population replacement occurred between the Middle Neolithic and Late Neolithic/Copper Age. However, at Bolores there is some indication that there may have been demographic exchanges between southern Iberian and North African populations during the Late Neolithic/Copper Age. PMID:24642202

  12. Targeted therapy against multi-resistant bacteria in leukemic and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: guidelines of the 4th European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL-4, 2011)

    PubMed Central

    Averbuch, Diana; Cordonnier, Catherine; Livermore, David M.; Mikulska, Małgorzata; Orasch, Christina; Viscoli, Claudio; Gyssens, Inge C.; Kern, Winfried V.; Klyasova, Galina; Marchetti, Oscar; Engelhard, Dan; Akova, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The detection of multi-resistant bacterial pathogens, particularly those to carbapenemases, in leukemic and stem cell transplant patients forces the use of old or non-conventional agents as the only remaining treatment options. These include colistin/polymyxin B, tigecycline, fosfomycin and various anti-gram-positive agents. Data on the use of these agents in leukemic patients are scanty, with only linezolid subjected to formal trials. The Expert Group of the 4th European Conference on Infections in Leukemia has developed guidelines for their use in these patient populations. Targeted therapy should be based on (i) in vitro susceptibility data, (ii) knowledge of the best treatment option against the particular species or phenotype of bacteria, (iii) pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data, and (iv) careful assessment of the risk-benefit balance. For infections due to resistant Gram-negative bacteria, these agents should be preferably used in combination with other agents that remain active in vitro, because of suboptimal efficacy (e.g., tigecycline) and the risk of emergent resistance (e.g., fosfomycin). The paucity of new antibacterial drugs in the near future should lead us to limit the use of these drugs to situations where no alternative exists. PMID:24323984

  13. Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Høtje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

  14. Report on the 3'rd scientific meeting of the "Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie" (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Motzen, Germany, Nov. 4'th - Nov. 6'th, 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    From November 4th- 6th 2011, the 3rd NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. Like in the previous years, the meeting provided an excellent platform for scientific exchange and the presentation of innovative projects for young colleagues in the fields of neurovascular research, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. As kick-off to the scientific sessions, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Head of the Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology in Munich, gave an illustrious overview on the many fascinations of neuroimmunologic research. A particular highlight on the second day of the meeting was the award of the 1'st NEUROWIND e.V. prize for young academics in the field of experimental neurology. This award is posted for young colleagues under the age of 35 with a significant achievement in the field of neurovascular research, neuroinflammation or neurodegeneration and comprises an amount of 20.000 Euro, founded by Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt. Germany. The first prize was awarded to Ivana Nikic from Martin Kerschensteiner's group in Munich for her brilliant work on a reversible form of axon damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, published in Nature Medicine in 2011. This first prize award ceremony was a great incentive for the next call for proposals now upcoming in 2012. PMID:22360825

  15. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bonney, Matthew S.; Brake, Matthew R.W.

    2015-08-01

    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  16. [Input and output channels of quantum biocomputers].

    PubMed

    Minina, S V; Liberman, E A

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that "Quantum Molecular" computer of a neuron consists of the cell cytoskeleton serving as calculating media and input ionic channel sending a hypersound signal to observe these media. The sound spreads through the media travelling along microtubules and microfilaments and switching between those via molecular bridges which serve as elementary switches. The whole system works like a wave guiding net connecting input ionic channels (which generate different sound signals) and output ionic channels (which are controlled by the processed sound signals). Thus the output of such systems depends on the input (controlled by synaptic activity) and on the construction and state of these calculating media. We think that the sound waves spreading through different calculating media solve different physical problems. The construction of the calculating part of the cytoskeleton, according to the hypothesis, is different in different neurons. It is defined by special protein which is produced by DNA, RNA and protein molecular word processor (during brain development and, may be, education). We comment on how the existence of an extremal computer produces an impact on physics and mathematics exemplified by the optimality principle as substitution of physical relativity principle for a complex problem. PMID:1693290

  17. Explicit least squares system parameter identification for exact differential input/output models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    The equation error for a class of systems modeled by input/output differential operator equations has the potential to be integrated exactly, given the input/output data on a finite time interval, thereby opening up the possibility of using an explicit least squares estimation technique for system parameter identification. The paper delineates the class of models for which this is possible and shows how the explicit least squares cost function can be obtained in a way that obviates dealing with unknown initial and boundary conditions. The approach is illustrated by two examples: a second order chemical kinetics model and a third order system of Lorenz equations.

  18. Strategies for shortening the output pulse of silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yebras, José Manuel; Antoranz, Pedro; Miranda, José Miguel

    2012-07-01

    In this work, three strategies for shortening the output pulse of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) are reported. The first strategy is passive filtering, where band-pass filtering removes the lowest frequency components in the signal, getting a noticeable reduction in pulse width (a compression ratio of 10∶1 was obtained). In the second place, a reflectometric scheme is proposed where the amplified signal coming from the SiPM is injected into a signal splitter with one of its stubs connected to a short-circuited stub. In the last strategy, the reflectometric part is replaced by an analog subtractor circuit. In this approach, a signal splitter with stubs of different lengths is used. All solutions provide good compression ratios, up to 10∶1. Best pulses obtained are single narrow peaks, with width below 10 ns, preserving the photonic modulation and with good pseudo-Gaussian shape, single polarity and low ringing. The potential of pulse shortening for improving the capability of the detector to resolve single photons is demonstrated by mean of single photon counting patterns. The detection error probability is reduced in one order of magnitude when shortening is used for conditioning the output photosignal.

  19. Isotropic sequence order learning.

    PubMed

    Porr, Bernd; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2003-04-01

    In this article, we present an isotropic unsupervised algorithm for temporal sequence learning. No special reward signal is used such that all inputs are completely isotropic. All input signals are bandpass filtered before converging onto a linear output neuron. All synaptic weights change according to the correlation of bandpass-filtered inputs with the derivative of the output. We investigate the algorithm in an open- and a closed-loop condition, the latter being defined by embedding the learning system into a behavioral feedback loop. In the open-loop condition, we find that the linear structure of the algorithm allows analytically calculating the shape of the weight change, which is strictly heterosynaptic and follows the shape of the weight change curves found in spike-time-dependent plasticity. Furthermore, we show that synaptic weights stabilize automatically when no more temporal differences exist between the inputs without additional normalizing measures. In the second part of this study, the algorithm is is placed in an environment that leads to closed sensor-motor loop. To this end, a robot is programmed with a prewired retraction reflex reaction in response to collisions. Through isotropic sequence order (ISO) learning, the robot achieves collision avoidance by learning the correlation between his early range-finder signals and the later occurring collision signal. Synaptic weights stabilize at the end of learning as theoretically predicted. Finally, we discuss the relation of ISO learning with other drive reinforcement models and with the commonly used temporal difference learning algorithm. This study is followed up by a mathematical analysis of the closed-loop situation in the companion article in this issue, "ISO Learning Approximates a Solution to the Inverse-Controller Problem in an Unsupervised Behavioral Paradigm" (pp. 865-884). PMID:12689389

  20. The effect of incomplete acetylene washout on cardiac output measurement using open circuit acetylene uptake.

    PubMed

    Balouch, Jamal; Olfert, I Mark; Wagner, Peter D; Hopkins, Susan R

    2007-02-15

    The open circuit acetylene uptake method is a useful non-invasive means of measuring cardiac output. However, because of accumulation of inhaled acetylene in tissues, the cardiac output uptake is underestimated, if residual acetylene is not allowed to wash out completely in between measurements. We determined the effect of applying a correction factor that estimates mixed venous acetylene concentration from endtidal values to the calculation of cardiac output. This accounts for mixed venous acetylene present during measurements made before complete washout. Six healthy subjects performed steady-state exercise at approximately 30% and 60% of V(O2 max). Cardiac output measurements were made at each exercise intensity using the open circuit acetylene uptake method (inspired [acetylene] approximately 1%), with the first and last measurements having no detectible levels of acetylene in expired gas (reference measurement). Data were also obtained with immediate pre-measurement endtidal concentrations ranging from 3% to 15% of the inspired [acetylene], in random order in between. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and heart rate did not change significantly during testing at each exercise intensity. Reference cardiac output also did not change significantly and averaged 11.1+/-0.8 L/min at 30% of V(O2 max) and 16.5+/-2.0 L/min at 60% of V(O2 max). Uncorrected cardiac output measurements progressively underestimated cardiac output by 15% at the 3% of inspired endtidal [acetylene] and by over 50% at 15% [acetylene] (p<0.0001). However, when corrected for residual endtidal [acetylene], cardiac outputs were not significantly different from the reference measurements. The results of this study suggest that by accounting for residual endtidal acetylene in mixed venous blood, cardiac output can be accurately measured even when washout of acetylene is incomplete, allowing measurements as often as every 10-15 s. PMID:16714151

  1. Measuring fluid flow and heat output in seafloor hydrothermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, Leonid N.; Hurt, Robert S.; Smith, Joshua E.; Genc, Gence; Lowell, Robert P.

    2015-12-01

    We review techniques for measuring fluid flow and advective heat output from seafloor hydrothermal systems and describe new anemometer and turbine flowmeter devices we have designed, built, calibrated, and tested. These devices allow measuring fluid velocity at high- and low-temperature focused and diffuse discharge sites at oceanic spreading centers. The devices perform at ocean floor depths and black smoker temperatures and can be used to measure flow rates ranging over 2 orders of magnitude. Flow velocity is determined from the rotation rate of the rotor blades or paddle assembly. These devices have an open bearing design that eliminates clogging by particles or chemical precipitates as the fluid passes by the rotors. The devices are compact and lightweight enough for deployment from either an occupied or remotely operated submersible. The measured flow rates can be used in conjunction with vent temperature or geochemical measurements to obtain heat outputs or geochemical fluxes from both vent chimneys and diffuse flow regions. The devices have been tested on 30 Alvin dives on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and 3 Jason dives on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). We measured an anomalously low entrainment coefficient (0.064) and report 104 new measurements over a wide range of discharge temperatures (5°-363°C), velocities (2-199 cm/s), and depths (1517-2511 m). These include the first advective heat output measurements at the High Rise vent field and the first direct fluid flow measurement at Middle Valley. Our data suggest that black smoker heat output at the Main Endeavour vent field may have declined since 1994 and that after the 2005-2006 eruption, the high-temperature advective flow at the EPR 9°50'N field may have become more channelized, predominately discharging through the Bio 9 structure. We also report 16 measurements on 10 Alvin dives and 2 Jason dives with flow meters that predate devices described in this work and were used in the process of their development

  2. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2010-01-01

    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  3. Newer methods of cardiac output monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Yatin; Arora, Dheeraj

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle per minute and is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. CO can thus be manipulated by alteration in heart rate or rhythm, preload, contractility and afterload. Moreover it gives important information about tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery. CO can be measured by various methods and thermodilution method using pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is till date considered as gold standard method. Complications associated with PAC led to development of newer methods which are minimally or non-invasive. Newer methods fulfil other properties like continuous and reproducible reading, cost effective, reliable during various physiological states and have fast response time. These methods are validated against the gold standard with good level agreement. In this review we have discussed various newer methods of CO monitoring and their effectiveness in clinical use. PMID:25276302

  4. Reliable numerical computation in an optimal output-feedback design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, Brett; Ly, Uy-Loi

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a reliable algorithm for the evaluation of a quadratic performance index and its gradients with respect to the controller design parameters. The algorithm is part of a design algorithm for optimal linear dynamic output-feedback controller that minimizes a finite-time quadratic performance index. The numerical scheme is particularly robust when it is applied to the control-law synthesis for systems with densely packed modes and where there is a high likelihood of encountering degeneracies in the closed-loop eigensystem. The algorithm has been included in a control design package for optimal robust low-order controllers. Usefulness of the proposed numerical algorithm has been demonstrated using numerous practical design cases where degeneracies occur frequently in the closed-loop system under an arbitrary controller design initialization and during the numerical search.

  5. Reliable numerical computation in an optimal output-feedback design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, Brett; Ly, Uy-Loi

    1991-01-01

    A reliable algorithm is presented for the evaluation of a quadratic performance index and its gradients with respect to the controller design parameters. The algorithm is a part of a design algorithm for optimal linear dynamic output-feedback controller that minimizes a finite-time quadratic performance index. The numerical scheme is particularly robust when it is applied to the control-law synthesis for systems with densely packed modes and where there is a high likelihood of encountering degeneracies in the closed-loop eigensystem. This approach through the use of an accurate Pade series approximation does not require the closed-loop system matrix to be diagonalizable. The algorithm was included in a control design package for optimal robust low-order controllers. Usefulness of the proposed numerical algorithm was demonstrated using numerous practical design cases where degeneracies occur frequently in the closed-loop system under an arbitrary controller design initialization and during the numerical search.

  6. Constant-output atomizer. [Inhalation therapy and aerosol research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dea, J. Y. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A constant-output atomizer includes a body which has a generally frustoconical expansion nozzle for producing an air jet when a supply of pressurized air is connected to the nozzle upstream of the throat of the nozzle. A liquid feed line supplies liquid to be atomized by the air jet, and the body includes a groove which opens into the diffuser section of the nozzle downstream of the throat for conducting liquid from the feed line to the nozzle. The groove which extends in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the nozzle, and radially with respect to it, has a depth approximately equal to half the axial length of the nozzle. Liquid, conducted by capillary action in the groove to the nozzle, is atomized into a fine mist by the air jet in the nozzle; and the groove eliminates fluctuations in spray order.

  7. Design of turbofan engine controls using output feedback regulator theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A multivariable control design procedure based on output feedback regulator (OFR) theory is applied to the F100 turbofan engine. Results for the OFR design are compared to a design based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. This LQR design was obtained as part of the F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis (MVCS) program. In the MVCS program the LQR feedback control was designed in a reduced dimension state space and then applied to the original system. However, the OFR feedback control is designed in the full order state space and thus eliminates any need for model reduction techniques. Using the performance measure and control structure of the MVCS program LQR design, an equivalent OFR feedback control is obtained. The flexibility of the OFR as a control design procedure is demonstrated and differing feedback control structures are evaluated.

  8. Output feedback trajectory stabilization of the uncertainty DC servomechanism system.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Ibañez, Carlos; Garrido-Moctezuma, Ruben; Davila, Jorge

    2012-11-01

    This work proposes a solution for the output feedback trajectory-tracking problem in the case of an uncertain DC servomechanism system. The system consists of a pendulum actuated by a DC motor and subject to a time-varying bounded disturbance. The control law consists of a Proportional Derivative controller and an uncertain estimator that allows compensating the effects of the unknown bounded perturbation. Because the motor velocity state is not available from measurements, a second-order sliding-mode observer permits the estimation of this variable in finite time. This last feature allows applying the Separation Principle. The convergence analysis is carried out by means of the Lyapunov method. Results obtained from numerical simulations and experiments in a laboratory prototype show the performance of the closed loop system. PMID:22884179

  9. Handling Input and Output for COAMPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Tran, Nam; Li, Yongzuo; Anantharaj, Valentine

    2007-01-01

    Two suites of software have been developed to handle the input and output of the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS), which is a regional atmospheric model developed by the Navy for simulating and predicting weather. Typically, the initial and boundary conditions for COAMPS are provided by a flat-file representation of the Navy s global model. Additional algorithms are needed for running the COAMPS software using global models. One of the present suites satisfies this need for running COAMPS using the Global Forecast System (GFS) model of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first step in running COAMPS downloading of GFS data from an Internet file-transfer-protocol (FTP) server computer of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is performed by one of the programs (SSC-00273) in this suite. The GFS data, which are in gridded binary (GRIB) format, are then changed to a COAMPS-compatible format by another program in the suite (SSC-00278). Once a forecast is complete, still another program in the suite (SSC-00274) sends the output data to a different server computer. The second suite of software (SSC- 00275) addresses the need to ingest up-to-date land-use-and-land-cover (LULC) data into COAMPS for use in specifying typical climatological values of such surface parameters as albedo, aerodynamic roughness, and ground wetness. This suite includes (1) a program to process LULC data derived from observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA s Terra and Aqua satellites, (2) programs to derive new climatological parameters for the 17-land-use-category MODIS data; and (3) a modified version of a FORTRAN subroutine to be used by COAMPS. The MODIS data files are processed to reformat them into a compressed American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format used by COAMPS for efficient processing.

  10. Testing PSHA Output via Precariously Balanced Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvance, M. D.; Brune, J. N.; Anooshehpoor, R.

    2005-12-01

    Purvance (2005) has shown that the overturning responses of precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) depend on the PBR shapes, sizes, and the vector of ground motion intensity measures including PGA and either PGV, SA@1sec, or SA@2sec. This formulation allows one to quantify the overturning probability of an object that has been exposed to a ground motion time history with specified peak parameters (e.g. PGA and PGV). Vector-valued PSHA (VPSHA) provides a methodology to estimate the rate of occurrence of all ground motions. Combining the VPSHA output with the PBR fragility results in the rate of PBR overturning. In this way, one can compare the PBR age with the estimated failure date given the assumptions inherent in the VPSHA calculation. This study focuses on the variability of estimated failure dates of PBRs as a function of attenuation relations utilized in the VPSHA calculations. The following attenuation relations have been investigated: Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Abrahamson (2005), and Gregor et al. (2002). The Boore et al. (1997) and Abrahamson (2005) relations produce ground motion models that are more consistent with the PBRs in southern California than the Abrahamson and Silva (1997) and Gregor et al. (2002) relations. It is apparent that the addition of recent data (e.g. Chi-Chi, Izmit) in the development of the Abrahamson (2005) attenuation relation significantly affects the VPSHA output. These findings highlight the utility of this methodology to test alternate attenuation relations such as those produced by the NGA initiative. In addition, varying RELM models may be assessed for consistency with PBRs via the described methodology.

  11. Higher order mode excitations in gyro-amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Calame, J. P.; Danly, B. G.; Levush, B.; Garven, M.; Antonsen, T.

    2001-05-01

    In gyro-devices, a nonlinear output taper is often employed as the transition from the near cutoff radius of the interaction circuit to a much larger output waveguide. The tapers are usually designed to avoid passive mode conversion, and thus do not consider the effect of a bunched beam. However, recent simulations with the self-consistent MAGY code [Botton et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 882 (1998)] indicate that higher order mode interactions with the bunched electron beam can substantially compromise the mode purity of the rf output. The interaction in the taper region is traveling wave in nature, and is strongly dependent on the residual beam bunching characteristics resulting from the upstream operating mode interaction. An experiment has been performed to quantify the rf output mode content from a Ka-band gyroklystron. The agreement between salient theoretical and measured rf output characteristics confirms the existence of higher order mode excitation in output tapers as predicted by theory.

  12. Laboratory measurement of human power output during maximum intensity exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakomy, Henryk K. A.

    1993-11-01

    The power output of an athlete decreases rapidly with time. The author describes different ways of measuring power output, including a unique method developed at Loughborough University for measuring the power developed by a sprint runner.

  13. Improved system measures output energy of pyrotechnic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortly, E. M.

    1966-01-01

    System for measuring the output energy of pyrotechnic devices discharges the reaction products into a test chamber. It measures the radiant heat output from a pinhole aperture as well as internal pressure changes on a common time base.

  14. Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory 4th Quarter 2009 Milestone Report: Measure and simulate target temperature and dynamic response in optimized NDCX-I configurations with initial diagnostics suite

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Henestroza, E.; Logan, B.G.; Lidia, S.; More, R.M.; Ni, P.A.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Grote, D.; Friedman, A.

    2009-09-30

    This milestone has been met. The effort contains two main components: (1) Experimental results of warm dense matter target experiments on optimized NDCX-I configurations that include measurements of target temperature and transient target behavior. (2) A theoretical model of the target response to beam heating that includes an equilibrium heating model of the target foil and a model for droplet formation in the target for comparison with experimental results. The experiments on ion-beam target heating use a 300-350-keV K{sup +} pulsed beam from the Neutralized Compression Drift Experiment (NDCX-I) accelerator at LBNL. The NDCX-I accelerator delivers an uncompressed pulse beam of several microseconds with a typical power density of >100 kW/cm{sup 2} over a final focus spot size of about 1 mm. An induction bunching module the NDCX-I compresses a portion of the beam pulse to reach a much higher power density over 2 nanoseconds. Under these conditions the free-standing foil targets are rapidly heated to temperatures to over 4000 K. We model the target thermal dynamics using the equation of heat conduction for the temperature T(x,t) as a function of time (t) and spatial dimension along the beam direction (x). The competing cooling processes release energy from the surface of the foil due to evaporation, radiation, and thermionic (Richardson) emission. A description of the experimental configuration of the target chamber and results from initial beam-target experiments are reported in our FY08 4th Quarter and FY09 2nd Quarter Milestone Reports. The WDM target diagnostics include a high-speed multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. The fast optical pyrometer is a unique and significant new diagnostic which provides valuable information on the temperature evolution of the heated target.

  15. Technology mapping based on modified graph of outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kania, Dariusz; Kubica, Marcin

    2015-12-01

    The paper focuses on the problem of technology mapping of multi-output function in PAL-based CPLDs. The graph of outputs is used in the process of technology mapping. The paper presents the method of the graph's of outputs modification that makes the process of the synthesis more effective. The results of the experiments confirm efficiency of the proposed technique in comparison with the classical logic synthesis and technology mapping based on graph of outputs without modification.

  16. SARAH 3.2: Dirac gauginos, UFO output, and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staub, Florian

    2013-07-01

    SARAH is a Mathematica package optimized for the fast, efficient and precise study of supersymmetric models beyond the MSSM: a new model can be defined in a short form and all vertices are derived. This allows SARAH to create model files for FeynArts/FormCalc, CalcHep/CompHep and WHIZARD/O'Mega. The newest version of SARAH now provides the possibility to create model files in the UFO format which is supported by MadGraph 5, MadAnalysis 5, GoSam, and soon by Herwig++. Furthermore, SARAH also calculates the mass matrices, RGEs and 1-loop corrections to the mass spectrum. This information is used to write source code for SPheno in order to create a precision spectrum generator for the given model. This spectrum-generator-generator functionality as well as the output of WHIZARD and CalcHep model files has seen further improvement in this version. Also models including Dirac gauginos are supported with the new version of SARAH, and additional checks for the consistency of the implementation of new models have been created. Program summaryProgram title:SARAH Catalogue identifier: AEIB_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIB_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 22 411 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 629 206 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: All for which Mathematica is available. Operating system: All for which Mathematica is available. Classification: 11.1, 11.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEIB_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 182 (2011) 808 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes, the new version includes all known features of the previous version but also provides the new features mentioned below

  17. Postdoctoral researchers in the UK: a snapshot at factors affecting their research output.

    PubMed

    Felisberti, Fatima M; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Postdoctoral training is a typical step in the course of an academic career, but very little is known about postdoctoral researchers (PDRs) working in the UK. This study used an online survey to explore, for the first time, relevant environmental factors which may be linked to the research output of PDRs in terms of the number of peer-reviewed articles per year of PDR employment. The findings showed reliable links between the research output and research institutions, time spent as PDR, and parental education, whereas no clear links were observed between PDRs' output and research area, nationality, gender, number of siblings, or work environment. PDRs based in universities tended to publish, on average, more than the ones based in research centres. PDRs with children tended to stay longer in postdoctoral employment than PDRs without children. Moreover, research output tended to be higher in PDRs with fathers educated at secondary or higher level. The work environment did not affect output directly, but about 1/5 of PDRs were not satisfied with their job or institutional support and about 2/3 of them perceived their job prospects as "difficult". The results from this exploratory study raise important questions, which need to be addressed in large-scale studies in order to understand (and monitor) how PDRs' family and work environment interact with their research output-an essential step given the crucial role of PDRs in research and development in the country. PMID:24705885

  18. Differences in output from corticosteroid inhalers used with a volumatic spacer.

    PubMed

    Miller, M R; Bright, P

    1995-10-01

    Corticosteroid inhaler therapy using a spacer device is commonly used as an important part of asthma management. Increasingly, generic corticosteroid inhalers are being used with spacer devices. We have therefore tested whether these generic inhalers yield equivalence in dose when compared to the established inhalers. We measured the in vitro output, discharged into a Volumatic spacer from beclomethasone dipropionate inhalers (250 micrograms.puff-1) made by three manufacturers, Allen & Hanburys, 3M and Baker Norton. The output from 20 of each type of inhaler was sampled, in random order, by a computer driven pump system. Beclomethasone was absorbed onto a coded filter, which was analysed independently for drug content. The output per puff differed significantly between the inhalers of each manufacturer, with a 36% difference between the highest output from the Allen & Hanburys device and the lowest output device. We conclude that there are important differences in output from these inhalers when used with a spacer, and that substitution of one device with another will not necessarily give equivalent therapy to the patient. PMID:8586114

  19. A Practical Approach for Analysis of Input and Output Impedances of Feedback Amplifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovitz, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests a pedagogical approach to teaching the subject of the analysis of feedback amplifiers for electrical engineering students at the undergraduate level. Special attention is given to derivation of the input and output impedances. In order to make the procedure clear and suitable for classroom presentation an alternative proof of…

  20. Input-output relations in biological systems: measurement, information and the Hill equation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems produce outputs in response to variable inputs. Input-output relations tend to follow a few regular patterns. For example, many chemical processes follow the S-shaped Hill equation relation between input concentrations and output concentrations. That Hill equation pattern contradicts the fundamental Michaelis-Menten theory of enzyme kinetics. I use the discrepancy between the expected Michaelis-Menten process of enzyme kinetics and the widely observed Hill equation pattern of biological systems to explore the general properties of biological input-output relations. I start with the various processes that could explain the discrepancy between basic chemistry and biological pattern. I then expand the analysis to consider broader aspects that shape biological input-output relations. Key aspects include the input-output processing by component subsystems and how those components combine to determine the system’s overall input-output relations. That aggregate structure often imposes strong regularity on underlying disorder. Aggregation imposes order by dissipating information as it flows through the components of a system. The dissipation of information may be evaluated by the analysis of measurement and precision, explaining why certain common scaling patterns arise so frequently in input-output relations. I discuss how aggregation, measurement and scale provide a framework for understanding the relations between pattern and process. The regularity imposed by those broader structural aspects sets the contours of variation in biology. Thus, biological design will also tend to follow those contours. Natural selection may act primarily to modulate system properties within those broad constraints. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene Koonin, Georg Luebeck and Sergei Maslov. PMID:24308849

  1. Multiple high voltage output DC-to-DC power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, Donald L. (Inventor); Farber, Bertrand F. (Inventor); Gehm, Hartmut K. (Inventor); Goldin, Daniel S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a multiple output DC-to-DC converter. The DC input power is filtered and passed through a chopper preregulator. The chopper output is then passed through a current source inverter controlled by a squarewave generator. The resultant AC is passed through the primary winding of a transformer, with high voltages induced in a plurality of secondary windings. The high voltage secondary outputs are each solid-state rectified for passage to individual output loads. Multiple feedback loops control the operation of the chopper preregulator, one being responsive to the current through the primary winding and another responsive to the DC voltage level at a selected output.

  2. Regulation of cardiac output in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-12-01

    This brief review addresses the regulation of cardiac output (Q) at rest and during submaximal exercise in acute and chronic hypoxia. To preserve systemic O2 delivery in acute hypoxia Q is increased by an acceleration of heart rate, whereas stroke volume (SV) remains unchanged. Tachycardia is governed by activation of carotid and aortic chemoreceptors and a concomitant reduction in arterial baroreflex activation, all balancing sympathovagal activity toward sympathetic dominance. As hypoxia extends over several days a combination of different adaptive processes restores arterial O2 content to or beyond sea level values and hence Q normalizes. The latter however occurs as a consequence of a decrease in SV whereas tachycardia persists. The diminished SV reflects a lower left ventricular end-diastolic volume which is primarily related to hypoxia-generated reduction in plasma volume. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction may contribute by increasing right ventricular afterload and thus decreasing its ejection fraction. In summary, the Q response to hypoxia is the result of a complex interplay between several physiological mechanisms. Future studies are encouraged to establish the individual contributions of the different components from an integrative perspective. PMID:26589118

  3. A Simple Model for Microchannel Plate Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, E. C.; Weaver, J. L.

    2005-10-01

    Microchannel plates (MCPs) are an essential component in an imaging diagnostic known as an x-ray framing camera, which is currently used by NIF, Omega, Nike, and Z to image radiation imploded targets. An MCP is used to convert incident x-ray photons into electrons with gains of 10^2 to 10^4. These electrons are accelerated into a phosphor and the subsequent visible light is captured with a CCD. A variety of parameters, such as photocathode material type (Au, Ni, CsI), photocathode coating depth, and MCP bias angle, affect the gain and gain variations in the MCP electron output. This poster presents initial results of a simple 3D MCP computer model along with an experimental comparison. Several ideas for increasing MCP imaging performance by reducing gain variations and increasing MCP quantum efficiency are presented. Work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory, National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Research Grant DE-FG52-03NA00064, and through DE FG53 2005 NA26014, and Livermore National Laboratory.

  4. Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A.; Jin, Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2011-01-01

    Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

  5. Synchronised output regulation of nonlinear multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ji; Li, Yanjun; Wei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a synchronised output regulation (SOR) problem of nonlinear multi-agent systems with switching graph. The SOR means that all agents have their outputs synchronised but also ultimately evolve on a manifold determined by a predefined exosystem. Each agent constructs its local copy of the predefined exosystem and exchanges the state information of the local exosystem to realise the synchronisation of local exosystem. A controller based on the nonlinear output regulation theory is then presented to force the agent's output track the output of local exosystem. It is shown that the SOR is solvable under the assumptions same as that for nonlinear output regulation of a single agent, if the switching graph satisfies the bounded interconnectivity times condition. Both state feedback and output feedback are addressed. A numerical simulation is made to show the efficacy of the analytic results.

  6. Buffering PV output during cloud transients with energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moumouni, Yacouba

    Consideration of the use of the major types of energy storage is attempted in this thesis in order to mitigate the effects of power output transients associated with grid-tied CPV systems due to fast-moving cloud coverage. The approach presented here is to buffer intermittency of CPV output power with an energy storage device (used batteries) purchased cheaply from EV owners or battery leasers. When the CPV is connected to the grid with the proper energy storage, the main goal is to smooth out the intermittent solar power and fluctuant load of the grid with a convenient control strategy. This thesis provides a detailed analysis with appropriate Matlab codes to put onto the grid during the day time a constant amount of power on one hand and on the other, shift the less valuable off-peak electricity to the on-peak time, i.e. between 1pm to 7pm, where the electricity price is much better. In this study, a range of base constant power levels were assumed including 15kW, 20kW, 21kW, 22kW, 23kW, 24kW and 25kW. The hypothesis based on an iterative solution was that the capacity of the battery was increased by steps of 5 while the base supply was decreased by the same step size until satisfactorily results were achieved. Hence, it turned out with the chosen battery capacity of 54kWh coupled to the data from the Amonix CPV 7700 unit for Las Vegas for a 3-month period, it was found that 20kW was the largest constant load the system can supply uninterruptedly to the utility company. Simulated results are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  7. Output-sensitive 3D line integral convolution.

    PubMed

    Falk, Martin; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We propose an output-sensitive visualization method for 3D line integral convolution (LIC) whose rendering speed is largely independent of the data set size and mostly governed by the complexity of the output on the image plane. Our approach of view-dependent visualization tightly links the LIC generation with the volume rendering of the LIC result in order to avoid the computation of unnecessary LIC points: early-ray termination and empty-space leaping techniques are used to skip the computation of the LIC integral in a lazy-evaluation approach; both ray casting and texture slicing can be used as volume-rendering techniques. The input noise is modeled in object space to allow for temporal coherence under object and camera motion. Different noise models are discussed, covering dense representations based on filtered white noise all the way to sparse representations similar to oriented LIC. Aliasing artifacts are avoided by frequency control over the 3D noise and by employing a 3D variant of MIPmapping. A range of illumination models is applied to the LIC streamlines: different codimension-2 lighting models and a novel gradient-based illumination model that relies on precomputed gradients and does not require any direct calculation of gradients after the LIC integral is evaluated. We discuss the issue of proper sampling of the LIC and volume-rendering integrals by employing a frequency-space analysis of the noise model and the precomputed gradients. Finally, we demonstrate that our visualization approach lends itself to a fast graphics processing unit (GPU) implementation that supports both steady and unsteady flow. Therefore, this 3D LIC method allows users to interactively explore 3D flow by means of high-quality, view-dependent, and adaptive LIC volume visualization. Applications to flow visualization in combination with feature extraction and focus-and-context visualization are described, a comparison to previous methods is provided, and a detailed performance

  8. Brugia malayi Antigen (BmA) Inhibits HIV-1 Trans-Infection but Neither BmA nor ES-62 Alter HIV-1 Infectivity of DC Induced CD4+ Th-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mouser, Emily E. I. M.; Pollakis, Georgios; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Harnett, William

    2016-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of HIV-1 disease is the association of heightened CD4+ T-cell activation with HIV-1 replication. Parasitic helminths including filarial nematodes have evolved numerous and complex mechanisms to skew, dampen and evade human immune responses suggesting that HIV-1 infection may be modulated in co-infected individuals. Here we studied the effects of two filarial nematode products, adult worm antigen from Brugia malayi (BmA) and excretory-secretory product 62 (ES-62) from Acanthocheilonema viteae on HIV-1 infection in vitro. Neither BmA nor ES-62 influenced HIV-1 replication in CD4+ enriched T-cells, with either a CCR5- or CXCR4-using virus. BmA, but not ES-62, had the capacity to bind the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) thereby inhibiting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ enriched T-cells. As for their effect on DCs, neither BmA nor ES-62 could enhance or inhibit DC maturation as determined by CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression, or the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α. As expected, due to the unaltered DC phenotype, no differences were found in CD4+ T helper (Th) cell phenotypes induced by DCs treated with either BmA or ES-62. Moreover, the HIV-1 susceptibility of the Th-cell populations induced by BmA or ES-62 exposed DCs was unaffected for both CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 viruses. In conclusion, although BmA has the potential capacity to interfere with HIV-1 transmission or initial viral dissemination through preventing the virus from interacting with DCs, no differences in the Th-cell polarizing capacity of DCs exposed to BmA or ES-62 were observed. Neither antigenic source demonstrated beneficial or detrimental effects on the HIV-1 susceptibility of CD4+ Th-cells induced by exposed DCs. PMID:26808476

  9. The International Health Partnership Plus: rhetoric or real change? Results of a self-reported survey in the context of the 4th high level forum on aid effectiveness in Busan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which provides an international agreement on how to deliver aid, has recently been reviewed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Health sector aid effectiveness is important, given the volume of financial aid and the number of mechanisms through which health assistance is provided. Recognizing this, the international community created the International Health Partnership (IHP+), to apply the Paris Declaration to the health sector. This paper, which presents findings from an independent monitoring process (IHP+Results), makes a valuable contribution to the literature in the context of the recent 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, Korea. Methods IHP+Results monitored commitments made under the IHP + using an agreed framework with twelve measures for IHP + Development Partners and ten for IHP + recipient country governments. Data were collected through self-administered survey tools. IHP+Results analyzed these data, using transparent criteria, to produce Scorecards as a means to highlight progress against commitments and thereby strengthen mutual accountability amongst IHP + signatories. Results There have been incremental improvements in the strengthening of national planning processes and principles around mutual accountability. There has also been progress in Development Partners aligning their support with national budgets. But there is a lack of progress in the use of countries’ financial management and procurement systems, and in the integration of duplicative performance reporting frameworks and information systems. Discussion and Conclusions External, independent monitoring is potentially useful for strengthening accountability in health sector aid. While progress in strengthening country ownership, harmonisation and alignment seems evident, there are ongoing challenges. In spite of some useful findings, there are limitations with IHP

  10. Parameterization of electron beam output factor.

    PubMed

    Akino, Yuichi; Zhu, Timothy C; Das, Indra J

    2015-06-01

    Electron beam dose distribution is dependent on the beam energy and complicated trajectory of particles. Recent treatment planning systems using Monte Carlo calculation algorithm provide accurate dose calculation. However, double check of monitor units (MUs) based on an independent algorithm is still required. In this study, we have demonstrated single equation that reproduces the measured relative output factor (ROF) that can be used for MU calculation for electron radiotherapy. Electron beams generated by an iX (Varian Medical Systems) and a PRIMUS (Siemens) accelerator were investigated. For various energies of electron beams, the ROF at respective dmax were measured using diode detector in a water phantom at SSD of 100 cm. Curve fitting was performed with an exponential generalized equation ROF = α(β - e(-γR)) including three variables (α, β, γ) as a function of field radius and electron energy. The correlation coefficients between the ROF measured and that calculated by the equation were greater than 0.998. For ROF of Varian electron beams, the average values of all fitting formulas were applied for two of the constants; α and β. The parameter γ showed good agreement with the quadratic approximation as a function of mean energy at surface (E0). The differences between measured and calculated ROF values were within ± 3% for beams with cutout radius of ≥ 1.5 cm for electron beams with energies from 6 MeV to 15 MeV. The proposed formula will be helpful for double-check of MUs, as it requires minimal efforts for MU calculation. PMID:25726475

  11. Regularized Positive-Definite Fourth Order Tensor Field Estimation from DW-MRI★

    PubMed Central

    Barmpoutis, Angelos; Vemuri, Baba C.; Howland, Dena; Forder, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Image (DW-MRI) processing, a 2nd order tensor has been commonly used to approximate the diffusivity function at each lattice point of the DW-MRI data. From this tensor approximation, one can compute useful scalar quantities (e.g. anisotropy, mean diffusivity) which have been clinically used for monitoring encephalopathy, sclerosis, ischemia and other brain disorders. It is now well known that this 2nd-order tensor approximation fails to capture complex local tissue structures, e.g. crossing fibers, and as a result, the scalar quantities derived from these tensors are grossly inaccurate at such locations. In this paper we employ a 4th order symmetric positive-definite (SPD) tensor approximation to represent the diffusivity function and present a novel technique to estimate these tensors from the DW-MRI data guaranteeing the SPD property. Several articles have been reported in literature on higher order tensor approximations of the diffusivity function but none of them guarantee the positivity of the estimates, which is a fundamental constraint since negative values of the diffusivity are not meaningful. In this paper we represent the 4th-order tensors as ternary quartics and then apply Hilbert’s theorem on ternary quartics along with the Iwasawa parametrization to guarantee an SPD 4th-order tensor approximation from the DW-MRI data. The performance of this model is depicted on synthetic data as well as real DW-MRIs from a set of excised control and injured rat spinal cords, showing accurate estimation of scalar quantities such as generalized anisotropy and trace as well as fiber orientations. PMID:19063978

  12. Maximizing Output Power in a Cantilevered Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester by Electrode Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Sijun; Jia, Yu; Seshia, Ashwin

    2015-12-01

    A resonant vibration energy harvester typically comprises of a clamped anchor and a vibrating shuttle with a proof mass. Piezoelectric materials are embedded in locations of high strain in order to transduce mechanical deformation into electric charge. Conventional design for piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEH) usually utilizes piezoelectric material and metal electrode layers covering the entire surface area of the cantilever with no consideration provided to examining the trade-off involved with respect to maximizing output power. This paper reports on the theory and experimental verification underpinning optimization of the active electrode area of a cantilevered PVEH in order to maximize output power. The analytical formulation utilizes Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to model the mechanical response of the cantilever. The expression for output power is reduced to a fifth order polynomial expression as a function of the electrode area. The maximum output power corresponds to the case when 44% area of the cantilever is covered by electrode metal. Experimental results are also provided to verify the theory.

  13. Adaptive output feedback control of flexible systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bong-Jun

    Neural network-based adaptive output feedback approaches that augment a linear control design are described in this thesis, and emphasis is placed on their real-time implementation with flexible systems. Two different control architectures that are robust to parametric uncertainties and unmodelled dynamics are presented. The unmodelled effects can consist of minimum phase internal dynamics of the system together with external disturbance process. Within this context, adaptive compensation for external disturbances is addressed. In the first approach, internal model-following control, adaptive elements are designed using feedback inversion. The effect of an actuator limit is treated using control hedging, and the effect of other actuation nonlinearities, such as dead zone and backlash, is mitigated by a disturbance observer-based control design. The effectiveness of the approach is illustrated through simulation and experimental testing with a three-disk torsional system, which is subjected to control voltage limit and stiction. While the internal model-following control is limited to minimum phase systems, the second approach, external model-following control, does not involve feedback linearization and can be applied to non-minimum phase systems. The unstable zero dynamics are assumed to have been modelled in the design of the existing linear controller. The laboratory tests for this method include a three-disk torsional pendulum, an inverted pendulum, and a flexible-base robot manipulator. The external model-following control architecture is further extended in three ways. The first extension is an approach for control of multivariable nonlinear systems. The second extension is a decentralized adaptive control approach for large-scale interconnected systems. The third extension is to make use of an adaptive observer to augment a linear observer-based controller. In this extension, augmenting terms for the adaptive observer can be used to achieve adaptation in

  14. A modified Taylor rule for dealing with demand shocks and uncertain potential macroeconomic output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2008-02-01

    A critical issue for central banks in modern economies is the inflation stabilization about a prescribed level. The best-known simple instrumental rule to guide monetary policy to control inflation is the Taylor rule, where the instrument (e.g., a short interest rate) responds to changes in the inflation and the output gaps. The objective of this paper is to introduce some modifications to the Taylor rule in order to improve its robustness with respect to uncertainties about potential output and unanticipated shocks. To this end, departing from feedback control theory, the Taylor rule is equipped with an adaptive control scheme to reject the adverse effects of shocks and to estimate the deviations of the potential output. It is shown that the proposed adaptation procedure is equivalent to a classical integral feedback controller whose characteristics and implementation issues are well understood in practical control engineering. Singular perturbation methods are used to establish the stability properties of the resulting control system.

  15. Computation of output feedback gains for linear stochastic systems using the Zangnill-Powell Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H.

    1975-01-01

    Because conventional optimal linear regulator theory results in a controller which requires the capability of measuring and/or estimating the entire state vector, it is of interest to consider procedures for computing controls which are restricted to be linear feedback functions of a lower dimensional output vector and which take into account the presence of measurement noise and process uncertainty. To this effect a stochastic linear model has been developed that accounts for process parameter and initial uncertainty, measurement noise, and a restricted number of measurable outputs. Optimization with respect to the corresponding output feedback gains was then performed for both finite and infinite time performance indices without gradient computation by using Zangwill's modification of a procedure originally proposed by Powell. Results using a seventh order process show the proposed procedures to be very effective.

  16. Design of a C-band relativistic extended interaction klystron with coaxial output cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wu; Zhao, De-Kui; Chen, Yong-Dong

    2015-07-01

    In order to overcome the disadvantages of conventional high frequency relativistic klystron amplifiers in power capability and RF conversion efficiency, a C-band relativistic extended interaction klystron amplifier with coaxial output cavity is designed with the aid of PIC code MAGIC. In the device, disk-loaded cavities are introduced in the input and intermediate cavity to increase the beam modulation depth, and a coaxial disk-loaded cavity is employed in the output cavity to enhance the RF conversion efficiency. In PIC simulation, when the beam voltage is 680 kV and current is 4 kA, the device can generate 1.11 GW output power at 5.64 GHz with an efficiency of 40.8%.

  17. Static output feedback for partial eigenstructure assignment of undamped vibration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiafan; Ye, Jianping; Ouyang, Huajiang

    2016-02-01

    A novel method for partial eigenstructure assignment of undamped vibration systems using acceleration and displacement output feedback is presented in this paper. It is based on modifications of mass and stiffness that preserve partial eigenstructure. A numerical algorithm for determining the required control gain matrices of acceleration and displacement output feedback, which assign the desired eigenstructure, is developed. This algorithm is easy to implement, and works directly on the second-order system model. More importantly, the algorithm allows the output matrix and the input matrix to be specified beforehand and also leads naturally to a small norm solution of the gain matrices. Finally, some numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Markov Modeling of Component Fault Growth over a Derived Domain of Feasible Output Control Effort Modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bole, Brian; Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel Markov process formulation of stochastic fault growth modeling, in order to facilitate the development and analysis of prognostics-based control adaptation. A metric representing the relative deviation between the nominal output of a system and the net output that is actually enacted by an implemented prognostics-based control routine, will be used to define the action space of the formulated Markov process. The state space of the Markov process will be defined in terms of an abstracted metric representing the relative health remaining in each of the system s components. The proposed formulation of component fault dynamics will conveniently relate feasible system output performance modifications to predictions of future component health deterioration.

  19. Decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback vibration control for piezoelectric smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jian-ping; Li, Dong-xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback vibration control for piezoelectric smart structures. A smart panel with collocated piezoelectric actuators and velocity sensors is modeled using a finite element method, and then the size of the model is reduced in the state space using the modal Hankel singular value. The necessary and sufficient conditions of decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback control for the reduced system have been presented. The decentralized and centralized static output feedback matrices can be obtained from solving two linear matrix inequalities. A comparison between centralized control and decentralized control is performed in order to investigate their effectiveness in suppressing vibration of a smart panel. Numerical results show that when the system is subjected to initial displacement or white noise disturbance, the decentralized and centralized controls are both very effective and the control results are very close.

  20. Preview-Based Stable-Inversion for Output Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Qing-Ze; Devasia, Santosh

    1999-01-01

    Stable Inversion techniques can be used to achieve high-accuracy output tracking. However, for nonminimum phase systems, the inverse is non-causal - hence the inverse has to be pre-computed using a pre-specified desired-output trajectory. This requirement for pre-specification of the desired output restricts the use of inversion-based approaches to trajectory planning problems (for nonminimum phase systems). In the present article, it is shown that preview information of the desired output can be used to achieve online inversion-based output tracking of linear systems. The amount of preview-time needed is quantified in terms of the tracking error and the internal dynamics of the system (zeros of the system). The methodology is applied to the online output tracking of a flexible structure and experimental results are presented.

  1. Method and apparatus for varying accelerator beam output energy

    DOEpatents

    Young, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    A coupled cavity accelerator (CCA) accelerates a charged particle beam with rf energy from a rf source. An input accelerating cavity receives the charged particle beam and an output accelerating cavity outputs the charged particle beam at an increased energy. Intermediate accelerating cavities connect the input and the output accelerating cavities to accelerate the charged particle beam. A plurality of tunable coupling cavities are arranged so that each one of the tunable coupling cavities respectively connect an adjacent pair of the input, output, and intermediate accelerating cavities to transfer the rf energy along the accelerating cavities. An output tunable coupling cavity can be detuned to variably change the phase of the rf energy reflected from the output coupling cavity so that regions of the accelerator can be selectively turned off when one of the intermediate tunable coupling cavities is also detuned.

  2. Halbach array generator/motor having mechanically regulated output voltage and mechanical power output

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Richard F.

    2005-06-14

    A motor/generator has its stationary portion, i.e., the stator, positioned concentrically within its rotatable element, i.e., the rotor, along the axis of rotation of the rotor. The rotor includes a Halbach array of magnets. The voltage and power outputs are regulated by varying the radial gap in between the stator windings and the rotating Halbach array. The gap is varied by extensible and retractable supports attached to the stator windings that can move the windings in a radial direction.

  3. Certainty equivalence in nonlinear output regulation with unmeasured error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celani, F.

    2010-11-01

    In this article, we consider a nonlinear output regulation problem in which the controlled output and the measured output are not the same. It is assumed that the controlled plant has a single control input, and that it can be transformed into Gauthier-Kupka's observability canonical form. Then, it is shown that a design based on certainty equivalence is effective for determining a controller that solves the given problem.

  4. Amplifier similariton laser with extra-broad bandwidth output pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobko, D. A.; Okhotnikov, O. G.; Zolotovskii, I. O.

    2016-03-01

    We propose an advanced scheme of amplifier similariton laser providing an output pulse spectrum much wider than the gain bandwidth. The upgrade is an additional dispersive element introduced into the cavity to locally increase the peak pulse power. The proposed scheme demonstrates a drastic increase in the output pulse spectrum width, reduction of the pulse duration, and an increase in the output peak pulse power after compression.

  5. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    PubMed

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs. PMID:24595200

  6. The effect of atmospheric pressure on ventricular assist device output.

    PubMed

    Goto, Takeshi; Sato, Masaharu; Yamazaki, Akio; Fukuda, Wakako; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukui, Kozo; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2012-03-01

    The effect of cabin pressure change on the respiratory system during flight is well documented in the literature, but how the change in atmospheric pressure affects ventricular assist device (VAD) output flow has not been studied yet. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the change in VAD output using a mock circulatory system in a low-pressure chamber mimicking high altitude. Changes in output and driving pressure were measured during decompression from 1.0 to 0.7 atm and pressurization from 0.7 to 1.0 atm. Two driving systems were evaluated: the VCT system and the Mobart system. In the VCT system, output and driving pressure remained the same during decompression and pressurization. In the Mobart system, the output decreased as the atmospheric pressure dropped and recovered during pressurization. The lowest output was observed at 0.7 atm, which was 80% of the baseline driven by the Mobart system. Under a practical cabin pressure of 0.8 atm, the output driven by the Mobart system was 90% of the baseline. In the Mobart system, the output decreased as the atmospheric pressure dropped, and recovered during pressurization. However, the decrease in output was slight. In an environment where the atmospheric pressure changes, it is necessary to monitor the diaphragmatic motion of the blood pump and the driving air pressure, and to adjust the systolic:diastolic ratio as well as the positive and negative pressures in a VAD system. PMID:21915797

  7. Compact waveguide power divider with multiple isolated outputs

    DOEpatents

    Moeller, Charles P.

    1987-01-01

    A waveguide power divider (10) for splitting electromagnetic microwave power and directionally coupling the divided power includes an input waveguide (21) and reduced height output waveguides (23) interconnected by axial slots (22) and matched loads (25) and (26) positioned at the unused ends of input and output guides (21) and (23) respectively. The axial slots are of a length such that the wave in the input waveguide (21) is directionally coupled to the output waveguides (23). The widths of input guide (21) and output guides (23) are equal and the width of axial slots (22) is one half of the width of the input guide (21).

  8. Multiple input/output random vibration control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.

    1988-01-01

    A multi-input/output random vibration control algorithm was developed based on system identification concepts derived from random vibration spectral analysis theory. The unique features of the algorithm are: (1) the number of input excitors and the number of output control responses need not be identical; (2) the system inverse response matrix is obtained directly from the input/output spectral matrix; and (3) the system inverse response matrix is updated every control loop cycle to accommodate system amplitude nonlinearities. A laboratory demonstration case of two imputs with three outputs is presented to demonstrate the system capabilities.

  9. Optimization and static output-feedback control for half-car active suspensions with constrained information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Changzheng; Yu, Shenbo

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the static output-feedback control problem of active suspension systems with information structure constraints is investigated. In order to simultaneously improve the ride comfort and stability, a half car model is used. Other constraints such as suspension deflection, actuator saturation, and controller constrained information are also considered. A novel static output-feedback design method based on the variable substitution is employed in the controller design. A single-step linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization problem is solved to derive the initial feasible solution with a sparsity constraint. The initial infeasibility issue of the static output-feedback is resolved by using state-feedback information. Specifically, an optimization algorithm is proposed to search for less conservative results based on the feasible controller gain matrix. Finally, the validity of the designed controller for different road profiles is illustrated through numerical examples. The simulation results indicate that the optimized static output-feedback controller can achieve better suspension performances when compared with the feasible static output-feedback controller.

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 49: Unexpected Output Drops: Pitted Blackholes in Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, A; Pierce, G

    2014-08-15

    During the daily measurement of radiation output of a 6 MV beam on a Varian Trilogy Linear Accelerator the output dropped below 2% and initiated a call to action by physics to determine the cause. Over the course of weeks the cause of the issue was diagnosed to be a defect in the target, resulting in a drop in output and an asymmetry of the beam. Steps were taken to return the machine to clinical service while parts were on order while ensuring the safety of patient treatment. The machine target was replaced and the machine continues to operate as expected. A drop in output is usually a rarity and a defect in the target is possibly more rare. This experience demonstrated the importance of routine QC measurement, recording and analyzing daily output and symmetry values. In addition, this event showcased the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach in a high-pressure situation to effectively troubleshoot unique events to ensure consistence, safety patient treatment.

  11. Parametric time domain analysis of the multiple input/scalar output problem: The source identification problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersch, W.; Brotherton, T.; Braun, S.

    1980-04-01

    A multiple input/scalar output stationary time series identification problem is considered from a parametric model time domain point of view. Particular emphasis is on the source identification problem. Closed form formula estimates of the individual source power contributions are expressed in terms of sample correlations that are obtained from the observed input and output time series and from parametric models fitted to that data. The estimates of the noise power contributions are asymptotically jointly normally distributed. The mean values and covariance matrix of those estimates yield confidence interval estimates of the individual and joint power contributions. The motivation for developing a rational polynomial transfer function or ARMA model of the multi-input scalar output plus additive noise situation is given. A two correlated input/single output version of this model is considered for a Monte Carlo simulation study. Parametric ARMA and approximate AR models are fitted to the simulated data. The asymptotic normality, and the distribution of the mean and covariances of the source power contribution computed from the ARMA and AR models are appraised. Several facets of the relative performance of windowed periodogram and AR model spectral analysis are examined for the multiple input/scalar output identification problem. The points that are emphasized are that conventional windowed periodogram spectral analysis is subjective, not particularly satisfactory for the sharp spectral peak situation that is commonly encountered in vibration data analysis and very likely not as good as "objective" Akaike criterion order AR modelled spectral analysis.

  12. Variability of Polychaete Secondary Production in Intertidal Creek Networks along a Stream-Order Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tianjiang; Sheng, Qiang; Wang, Sikai; Wu, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic tidal creek networks are important habitats for sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in salt marsh wetlands. To evaluate the importance of creek heterogeneity in supporting benthic secondary production, we assess the spatial distribution and secondary production of a representative polychaete species (Dentinephtys glabra) in creek networks along a stream-order gradient in a Yangtze River estuarine marsh. Density, biomass, and secondary production of polychaetes were found to be highest in intermediate order creeks. In high order (3rd and 4th) creeks, the density and biomass of D. glabra were higher in creek edge sites than in creek bottom sites, whereas the reverse was true for low order (1st and 2nd) creeks. Secondary production was highest in 2nd order creeks (559.7 mg AFDM m−2 year−1) and was ca. 2 folds higher than in 1st and 4th order creeks. Top fitting AIC models indicated that the secondary production of D. glabra was mainly associated with geomorphological characters including cross-sectional area and bank slope. This suggests that hydrodynamic forces are essential factors influencing secondary production of macrobenthos in salt marshes. This study emphasizes the importance of microhabitat variability when evaluating secondary production and ecosystem functions. PMID:24817092

  13. Optimal fixed-finite-dimensional compensator for Burgers' equation with unbounded input/output operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, John A.; Marrekchi, Hamadi

    1993-01-01

    The problem of using reduced order dynamic compensators to control a class of nonlinear parabolic distributed parameter systems was considered. Concentration was on a system with unbounded input and output operators governed by Burgers' equation. A linearized model was used to compute low-order-finite-dimensional control laws by minimizing certain energy functionals. Then these laws were applied to the nonlinear model. Standard approaches to this problem employ model/controller reduction techniques in conjunction with linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory. The approach used is based on the finite dimensional Bernstein/Hyland optimal projection theory which yields a fixed-finite-order controller.

  14. Global sampled-data output feedback stabilisation for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown output function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jun-yong; Du, Hai-bo; Fei, Shu-min

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the problem of global sampled-data output feedback stabilisation for a class of nonlinear systems whose output function is unknown. A systematic design scheme is developed to construct a linear output feedback control law in sampled-data form. An explicit formula for the maximum allowable sampling period is computed to guarantee global stability of the uncertain nonlinear systems under the proposed controller with appropriate gains. Two examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedure.

  15. Urine Output Changes During Postcardiac Arrest Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Raper, Jaron D; Wang, Henry E

    2013-12-01

    While commonly described, no studies have characterized cold-induced diuresis or rewarm anti-diuresis occurring during the delivery of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). We sought to determine urine output changes during the provision of postcardiac arrest TH. We analyzed clinical data on patients receiving postcardiac arrest TH at an urban tertiary care center. TH measures included cooling by cold intravenous fluid, external ice packs, and a commercial external temperature management system. TH treatment was divided into phases: (1) induction, (2) maintenance, (3) rewarm, and (4) post-rewarm. The primary outcome measure was the mean urine output rate (mL/hour). We compared urine output rates between TH phases using a Generalized Estimating Equations model, defining urine output rate (mL/hour) as the dependent variable and TH phase (induction, maintenance, rewarm, and post-rewarm) as the primary exposure variable. We adjusted for age, sex, initial ECG rhythm, location of arrest, shock, acute kidney injury, rate of intravenous fluid input, and body mass index. Complete urine output data were available on 33 patients. Mean urine output rates during induction, maintenance, rewarm, and post-rewarm phases were 157 mL/hour (95% CI: 104-210), 103 mL/hour (95% CI: 82-125), 70 mL/hour (95% CI: 51-88), and 91 mL/hour (95% CI: 65-117), respectively. Compared with the post-rewarm phase, adjusted urine output was higher during the TH induction phase (output rate difference +51 mL/hour; 95% CI: 3-99). Adjusted urine output during the maintenance and rewarm phases did not differ from the post-rewarm phase. In this preliminary study, we observed modest increases in urine output during TH induction. We did not observe urine output changes during TH maintenance or rewarming. PMID:24380030

  16. 40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065... Ambient Conditions § 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified... sensors, transducers, and meters that meet the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065... Ambient Conditions § 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified... sensors, transducers, and meters that meet the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that...

  18. An eigenvalue/eigenvector assignment algorithm using output feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, R. R.; Liberty, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    An eigenvalue/eigenvector assignment algorithm using stationary output feedback is presented. The algorithm permits assignment of min (n, m + r - 1) eigenvalues and max (m-1, r-1) eigenvectors, where n, m, r refer to the system state, input and output dimensions, respectively. An example is given to illustrate the design procedures.

  19. Taking the Measure: Applying Reference Outputs to Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Carolyn M.; Mielke, Linda

    1986-01-01

    Presents preliminary results of Clearwater Public Library's study of the usefulness of "Output Measures for Public Libraries" as an indicator of reference performance, and the impact of collection development choices on reference output measures. Data on turnover rate, in-library use, reference fill rate, and reference transactions per capita are…

  20. Output-based Job Descriptions: Beyond Skills and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mary Norris

    2000-01-01

    Explains output-based job descriptions, which describe the work rather than the worker. Topics include identifying job outputs; job analyses; identifying skills and competencies as support elements; and benefits over traditional job descriptions, including help in achieving business goals, use in strategic planning, clarifying role relationships,…

  1. 36 CFR 1193.43 - Output, display, and control functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Output, display, and control functions. 1193.43 Section 1193.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.43 Output,...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065... Ambient Conditions § 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified... sensors, transducers, and meters that meet the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065... Ambient Conditions § 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified... sensors, transducers, and meters that meet the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065... Ambient Conditions § 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified... sensors, transducers, and meters that meet the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that...

  5. 30 CFR 7.66 - Output energy test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Output energy test. 7.66 Section 7.66 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Multiple-Shot Blasting Units § 7.66 Output...

  6. Research Self-Efficacy, Publication Output, and Early Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Kay, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has two aims: to investigate the relationship of self-efficacy beliefs in terms of research on publication output; and, to identify the relationship of self-efficacy beliefs about research to the publishing outputs of neophyte lecturers. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was utilised to obtain responses from…

  7. Learner Output, Hypothesis Testing, and Internalizing Linguistic Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehadeh, Ali

    2003-01-01

    Investigates how output can be a process by which second language (L2) learners test out hypotheses about the L2 and the extent to which learner hypothesis testing attempts that result in non-target like (NTL) output are challenged by interlocutors. A picture-descriptions task was used to collect data from eight native- and eight…

  8. 30 CFR 7.66 - Output energy test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Output energy test. 7.66 Section 7.66 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Multiple-Shot Blasting Units § 7.66 Output...

  9. 30 CFR 7.66 - Output energy test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Output energy test. 7.66 Section 7.66 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Multiple-Shot Blasting Units § 7.66 Output...

  10. 30 CFR 7.66 - Output energy test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Output energy test. 7.66 Section 7.66 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Multiple-Shot Blasting Units § 7.66 Output...

  11. 30 CFR 7.66 - Output energy test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Output energy test. 7.66 Section 7.66 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Multiple-Shot Blasting Units § 7.66 Output...

  12. Computer Output Laser Disk (COLD) Systems--COM Replacement Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolnick, Franklin I.

    1993-01-01

    Explains the COLD (Computer Output Laser Disk) system and describes current applications. Use of the COLD system to replace COM (Computer Output Microfilm) is discussed; advantages and disadvantages of the COLD system are considered; optical disks OD-WORM (Optical Disk-Write Once Read Many) versus CD-ROM are compared; and equipment and software…

  13. Publish or Perish: Evaluating and Promoting Scholarly Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Low Hui; Abdullah, Amelia; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Scholarly output, particularly in the form of journal publication is a key indicator in various levels of university performance. It contributes to university ranking, faculty ranking and academicians' scholarship credentials. Therefore, scholarly output has become a standard measure used to determine intake, promotion and tenure renewal of…

  14. Against Journal Articles for Measuring Value in University Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbali, C.

    2010-01-01

    The following lines of arguments against the metrics of journal articles is developed: (1) Textual output should no longer be main valued output; (2) Digitalization enables other ways of advancing knowledge; (3) Measures by journal article favours the disciplines of Natural Science and Engineering (NSE) and moulds other disciplines of Social…

  15. Single-photon quantum router with multiple output ports.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei-Bin; Fan, Heng

    2014-01-01

    The routing capability is a requisite in quantum network. Although the quantum routing of signals has been investigated in various systems both in theory and experiment, the general form of quantum routing with many output terminals still needs to be explored. Here we propose a scheme to achieve the multi-channel quantum routing of the single photons in a waveguide-emitter system. The channels are composed by the waveguides and are connected by intermediate two-level emitters. By adjusting the intermediate emitters, the output channels of the input single photons can be controlled. This is demonstrated in the cases of one output channel, two output channels and the generic N output channels. The results show that the multi-channel quantum routing of single photons can be well achieved in the proposed system. This offers a scheme for the experimental realization of general quantum routing of single photons. PMID:24769619

  16. Controlled oscillator system with a time dependent output frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelstein, R. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A controlled oscillator system is presented for providing an output with a frequency which changes with respect to time and with a phase which is within established phase error limits. The system includes a frequency synthesizer with a symmetrical search oscillator, capable of tuning the output with a range of + or - 100 Hz about any fixed frequency to which the synthesizer is set. For a tuning range of 200 Hz (+ or - 100 Hz) an expanded search oscillator output of a frequency range of 4 MHz (from 1 MHz to 5 MHz) is provided. A counter counts continuously the expanded output cycles and at each of fixed sampling intervals, for every 0.1 second, the count or number accumulated in the counter is read out. The sample number is compared with a theoretical number which should be present in the counter at the particular sampling instant for proper synthesizer's output frequency and phase.

  17. Numerical studies and optimization of magnetron with diffraction output (MDO) using particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majzoobi, Alireza

    The first magnetron as a vacuum-tube device, capable of generating microwaves, was invented in 1913. This thesis research focuses on numerical simulation-based analysis of magnetron performance. The particle-in-cell (PIC) based MAGIC software tool has been utilized to study the A6 and the Rising-Sun magnetron structures, and to obtain the optimized geometry for optimizing the device performance. The A6 magnetron is the more traditional structure and has been studied more often. The Rising-Sun geometry, consists of two alternating groups of short and long vanes in angular orientation, and was created to achieve mode stability. The effect of endcaps, changes in lengths of the cathode, the location of cathodes with respect to the anode block, and use of transparent cathodes have been probed to gauge the performance of the A6 magnetron with diffraction output. The simulations have been carried out with different types of endcaps. The results of this thesis research demonstrate peak output power in excess of 1GW, with efficiencies on the order of 66% for magnetic (B)-fields in the range of 0.4T - 0.42T. In addition, particle-in-cell simulations have been performed to provide a numerical evaluation of the efficiency, output power and leakage currents for a 12-cavitiy, Rising-Sun magnetron with diffraction output with transparent cathodes. The results demonstrate peak output power in excess of 2GW, with efficiencies on the order of 68% for B-fields in the 0.42T - 0.46T range. While slightly better performance for longer cathode length has been recorded. The results show the efficiency in excess of 70% and peak output power on the order of 2.1GW for an 18 cm cathode length at 0.45T magnetic field and 400 kV applied voltage. All results of this thesis conform to the definite advantage of having endcaps. Furthermore, the role of secondary electron emission (SEE) on the output performance of the12-cavity, 12-cathodes Rising-Sun magnetron has been probed. The results indicate

  18. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  19. MESAFace, a graphical interface to analyze the MESA output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotti, M.; Wise, M.; Mohammed, A.

    2013-04-01

    MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics) has become very popular among astrophysicists as a powerful and reliable code to simulate stellar evolution. Analyzing the output data thoroughly may, however, present some challenges and be rather time-consuming. Here we describe MESAFace, a graphical and dynamical interface which provides an intuitive, efficient and quick way to analyze the MESA output. Catalogue identifier: AEOQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19165 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6300592 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: Any computer capable of running Mathematica. Operating system: Any capable of running Mathematica. Tested on Linux, Mac, Windows XP, Windows 7. RAM: Recommended 2 Gigabytes or more. Supplementary material: Additional test data files are available. Classification: 1.7, 14. Nature of problem: Find a way to quickly and thoroughly analyze the output of a MESA run, including all the profiles, and have an efficient method to produce graphical representations of the data. Solution method: We created two scripts (to be run consecutively). The first one downloads all the data from a MESA run and organizes the profiles in order of age. All the files are saved as tables or arrays of tables which can then be accessed very quickly by Mathematica. The second script uses the Manipulate function to create a graphical interface which allows the user to choose what to plot from a set of menus and buttons. The information shown is updated in real time. The user can access very quickly all the data from the run under examination and visualize it with plots and tables. Unusual features: Moving the

  20. Modelflow underestimates cardiac output in heat-stressed individuals.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Wilson, Thad E; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H; Crandall, Craig G

    2011-02-01

    An estimation of cardiac output can be obtained from arterial pressure waveforms using the Modelflow method. However, whether the assumptions associated with Modelflow calculations are accurate during whole body heating is unknown. This project tested the hypothesis that cardiac output obtained via Modelflow accurately tracks thermodilution-derived cardiac outputs during whole body heat stress. Acute changes of cardiac output were accomplished via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermic and heat-stressed conditions. In nine healthy normotensive subjects, arterial pressure was measured via brachial artery cannulation and the volume-clamp method of the Finometer. Cardiac output was estimated from both pressure waveforms using the Modeflow method. In normothermic conditions, cardiac outputs estimated via Modelflow (arterial cannulation: 6.1 ± 1.0 l/min; Finometer 6.3 ± 1.3 l/min) were similar with cardiac outputs measured by thermodilution (6.4 ± 0.8 l/min). The subsequent reduction in cardiac output during LBNP was also similar among these methods. Whole body heat stress elevated internal temperature from 36.6 ± 0.3 to 37.8 ± 0.4°C and increased cardiac output from 6.4 ± 0.8 to 10.9 ± 2.0 l/min when evaluated with thermodilution (P < 0.001). However, the increase in cardiac output estimated from the Modelflow method for both arterial cannulation (2.3 ± 1.1 l/min) and Finometer (1.5 ± 1.2 l/min) was attenuated compared with thermodilution (4.5 ± 1.4 l/min, both P < 0.01). Finally, the reduction in cardiac output during LBNP while heat stressed was significantly attenuated for both Modelflow methods (cannulation: -1.8 ± 1.2 l/min, Finometer: -1.5 ± 0.9 l/min) compared with thermodilution (-3.8 ± 1.19 l/min). These results demonstrate that the Modelflow method, regardless of Finometer or direct arterial waveforms, underestimates cardiac output during heat stress and during subsequent reductions in cardiac output via LBNP. PMID:21084673

  1. SU-E-T-257: Output Constancy: Reducing Measurement Variations in a Large Practice Group

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, K; Fitzgerald, T; Miller, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To standardize output constancy check procedures in a large medical physics practice group covering multiple sites, in order to identify and reduce small systematic errors caused by differences in equipment and the procedures of multiple physicists. Methods: A standardized machine output constancy check for both photons and electrons was instituted within the practice group in 2010. After conducting annual TG-51 measurements in water and adjusting the linac to deliver 1.00 cGy/MU at Dmax, an acrylic phantom (comparable at all sites) and PTW farmer ion chamber are used to obtain monthly output constancy reference readings. From the collected charge reading, measurements of air pressure and temperature, and chamber Ndw and Pelec, a value we call the Kacrylic factor is determined, relating the chamber reading in acrylic to the dose in water with standard set-up conditions. This procedure easily allows for multiple equipment combinations to be used at any site. The Kacrylic factors and output results from all sites and machines are logged monthly in a central database and used to monitor trends in calibration and output. Results: The practice group consists of 19 sites, currently with 34 Varian and 8 Elekta linacs (24 Varian and 5 Elekta linacs in 2010). Over the past three years, the standard deviation of Kacrylic factors measured on all machines decreased by 20% for photons and high energy electrons as systematic errors were found and reduced. Low energy electrons showed very little change in the distribution of Kacrylic values. Small errors in linac beam data were found by investigating outlier Kacrylic values. Conclusion: While the use of acrylic phantoms introduces an additional source of error through small differences in depth and effective depth, the new standardized procedure eliminates potential sources of error from using many different phantoms and results in more consistent output constancy measurements.

  2. Peak Power Output Test on a Rowing Ergometer: A Methodological Study.

    PubMed

    Metikos, Boris; Mikulic, Pavle; Sarabon, Nejc; Markovic, Goran

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the peak power output test on a rowing ergometer (Concept II Model D Inc.) and to establish the "optimal resistance" at which this peak power output was observed in 87 participants with varying levels of physical activity and rowing expertise: 15 male and 12 female physically inactive students (age: 21 ± 2 years), 16 male and 20 female physically active students (age: 23 ± 2 years), and 15 male and 9 female trained rowers (age: 19 ± 2 years). The participants performed countermovement jump (CMJ) test on a force plate, followed by 3 maximal-effort rowing trials using the lowest, medium, and the highest adjustable resistance settings (i.e., "1", "5," and "10" on the resistance control dial on the ergometer) in randomized order. The test proved to be reliable (coefficients of variation: 2.6-6.5%; intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.87-0.98). The correlation coefficients between CMJ peak power and rowing peak power (both in watts per kilogram) were fairly consistent across all 3 groups of participants and resistance levels, ranging between r = 0.70 and r = 0.78. Finally, the highest power output was observed at the highest resistance setting in 2 nonathletic groups (p < 0.01), whereas rowers seem to produce the highest power output at the moderate-resistance setting. We conclude that the power output test on a Concept II rowing ergometer may serve as a reliable and valid tool for assessing whole-body peak power output in untrained individuals and rowing athletes. PMID:25785705

  3. Robust Combining of Disparate Classifiers Through Order Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2001-01-01

    Integrating the outputs of multiple classifiers via combiners or meta-learners has led to substantial improvements in several difficult pattern recognition problems. In this article we investigate a family of combiners based on order statistics, for robust handling of situations where there are large discrepancies in performance of individual classifiers. Based on a mathematical modeling of how the decision boundaries are affected by order statistic combiners, we derive expressions for the reductions in error expected when simple output combination methods based on the the median, the maximum and in general, the ith order statistic, are used. Furthermore, we analyze the trim and spread combiners, both based on linear combinations of the ordered classifier outputs, and show that in the presence of uneven classifier performance, they often provide substantial gains over both linear and simple order statistics combiners. Experimental results on both real world data and standard public domain data sets corroborate these findings.

  4. Experimental characterization of variable output refractive beamshapers using freeform elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, Jason A.; Smilie, Paul J.; Dutterer, Brian S.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

    2014-09-01

    We present experimental results from variable output refractive beam shapers based on freeform optical surfaces. Two freeform elements in close proximity comprise a beam shaper that maps a circular Gaussian input to a circular `flat-top' output. Different lateral relative shifts between the elements result in a varying output diameter while maintaining the uniform irradiance distribution. We fabricated the beam shaping elements in PMMA using multi-axis milling on a Moore Nanotech 350FG diamond machining center and tested with a 632.8 nm Gaussian input. Initial optical testing confirmed both the predicted beam shaping and variable functionality, but with poor output uniformity. The effects of surface finish on optical performance were investigated using LightTrans VirtualLabTM to perform physical optics simulations of the milled freeform surfaces. These simulations provided an optimization path for determining machining parameters to improve the output uniformity of the beam shaping elements. A second variable beam shaper based on a super-Gaussian output was designed and fabricated using the newly determined machining parameters. Experimental test results from the second beam shaper showed outputs with significantly higher quality, but also suggest additional areas of study for further improvements in uniformity.

  5. Classification of hospitals based on measured output: the VA system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J W; Berki, S E; Wyszewianski, L; Ashcraft, M L

    1983-07-01

    Evaluation of hospital performance and improvement of resource allocation in hospital systems require a method for classifying hospitals on the basis of their output. Previous approaches to hospital classification relied largely on input characteristics. The authors propose and apply a procedure for classifying hospitals into groups where within-group hospitals are similar with respect to output. Direct measures of case-mix-adjusted discharges and outpatient visits are the principal measures of patient care output; other measures capture training and research functions. The component measures were weighted, and a composite output measure was calculated for each of the 162 hospitals in the Veterans Administration health care system. The output score then was used as the dependent variable in an Automatic Interaction Detector analysis, which partitioned the 162 hospitals into 10 groups, accounting for 85 per cent of the variance in the dependent variable. An extension of the output classification method is presented for illustration of how the difference between hospitals' actual operating costs and costs predicted on the basis of output can be used in defining isoefficiency groups. PMID:6350744

  6. Dual output acoustic wave sensor for molecular identification

    DOEpatents

    Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    A method of identification and quantification of absorbed chemical species by measuring changes in both the velocity and the attenuation of an acoustic wave traveling through a thin film into which the chemical species is sorbed. The dual output response provides two independent sensor responses from a single sensing device thereby providing twice as much information as a single output sensor. This dual output technique and analysis allows a single sensor to provide both the concentration and the identity of a chemical species or permits the number of sensors required for mixtures to be reduced by a factor of two.

  7. Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum

    DOEpatents

    Beene, James R.; Bemis, Jr., Curtis E.

    1986-01-01

    A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the transducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When such a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

  8. Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum

    DOEpatents

    Beene, J.R.; Bemis, C.E. Jr.

    1984-07-17

    A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the tranducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

  9. Dynamic output feedback H ∞ control for affine fuzzy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huimin; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2013-06-01

    This article investigates the problem of designing H ∞ dynamic output feedback controllers for nonlinear systems, which are described by affine fuzzy models. The system outputs have been chosen as premise variables, which can guarantee that the plant and the controller always switch to the same region. By using a piecewise Lyapunov function and adding slack matrix variables, a piecewise-affine dynamic output feedback controller design method is obtained in the formulation of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be efficiently solved numerically. In contrast to the existing work, the proposed approach needs less LMI constraints and leads to less conservatism. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the new result.

  10. Variable-order fuzzy fractional PID controller.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Pan, Feng; Xue, Dingyu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new tuning method of variable-order fractional fuzzy PID controller (VOFFLC) is proposed for a class of fractional-order and integer-order control plants. Fuzzy logic control (FLC) could easily deal with parameter variations of control system, but the fractional-order parameters are unable to change through this way and it has confined the effectiveness of FLC. Therefore, an attempt is made in this paper to allow all the five parameters of fractional-order PID controller vary along with the transformation of system structure as the outputs of FLC, and the influence of fractional orders λ and μ on control systems has been investigated to make the fuzzy rules for VOFFLC. Four simulation results of different plants are shown to verify the availability of the proposed control strategy. PMID:25440947

  11. Erbium-doped fiber triple-ring laser configuration with single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Hone-Zhang; Chen, Jhih-Yu; Tsai, Ning; Zhuang, Yuan-Hong; Chen, Jing-Heng; Lin, Fey

    2016-02-01

    In this investigation, we propose and demonstrate a stabilized single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser triple-ring cavity. Here, two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are used inside the fiber cavity to generate dual-wavelength output. In order to complete the SLM output, the triple-ring configuration is utilized for suppressing the densely multi-longitudinal mode (MLM). The output powers and wavelengths of  -8.4 and  -8.5 dBm and 1535.76 and 1543.28 nm are obtained in the proposed dual-wavelength EDF laser, respectively. Moreover, the stability performances of output power and wavelength in the proposed EDF laser are also discussed.

  12. New high order schemes in BATS-R-US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, G.; van der Holst, B.; Daldorff, L.; Chen, Y.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Michigan global magnetohydrodynamics code BATS-R-US has long relied on the block-adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to increase accuracy in regions of interest, and we used a second order accurate TVD scheme. While AMR can in principle produce arbitrarily accurate results, there are still practical limitations due to computational resources. To further improve the accuracy of the BATS-R-US code, recently, we have implemented a 4th order accurate finite volume scheme (McCorquodale and Colella, 2011}), the 5th order accurate Monotonicity Preserving scheme (MP5, Suresh and Huynh, 1997) and the 5th order accurate CWENO5 scheme (Capdeville, 2008). In the first implementation the high order accuracy is achieved in the uniform parts of the Cartesian grids, and we still use the second order TVD scheme at resolution changes. For spherical grids the new schemes are only second order accurate so far, but still much less diffusive than the TVD scheme. We show a few verification tests that demonstrate the order of accuracy as well as challenging space physics applications. The high order schemes are less robust than the TVD scheme, and it requires some tricks and effort to make the code work. When the high order scheme works, however, we find that in most cases it can obtain similar or better results than the TVD scheme on twice finer grids. For three dimensional time dependent simulations this means that the high order scheme is almost 10 times faster requires 8 times less storage than the second order method.

  13. Exact solution for four-order acousto-optic Bragg diffraction with arbitrary initial conditions.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Ron; Koslover, Deborah; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2009-03-01

    An exact solution to the four-order acousto-optic (AO) Bragg diffraction problem with arbitrary initial conditions compatible with exact Bragg angle incident light is developed. The solution, obtained by solving a 4th-order differential equation, is formalized into a transition matrix operator predicting diffracted light orders at the exit of the AO cell in terms of the same diffracted light orders at the entrance. It is shown that the transition matrix is unitary and that this unitary matrix condition is sufficient to guarantee energy conservation. A comparison of analytical solutions with numerical predictions validates the formalism. Although not directly related to the approach used to obtain the solution, it was discovered that all four generated eigenvalues from the four-order AO differential matrix operator are expressed simply in terms of Euclid's Divine Proportion. PMID:19252607

  14. Epilepsy Research in Iran: a Scientometric Analysis of Publications Output During 2000-2014

    PubMed Central

    Rasolabadi, Masoud; Rasouli-Ghahfarkhi, Seyedeh Moloud; Ardalan, Marlin; Kalhor, Marya Maryam; Seidi, Jamal; Gharib, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the epilepsy research output of Iran in national and global contexts, as reflected in its publication output indexed in Scopus citation database during 2000-2014. Methods: This study was based on the publications of epilepsy research from Iranian authors retrieved Feb. 2015 from Scopus Citation database [www.scopus.com]. The string used to retrieve the data was developed using “epilepsy OR epilepsies” keywords in title, abstract and keywords and Iran in affiliation field was our main string. Results: Cumulative publication output of Iran in epilepsy research consisted of 702 papers from 2000 to 2014, with an average number of 46.53 papers per year. The total publication output of Iran in epilepsy research increased from 2 papers in 2000 to 88 papers in 2014. Hence, with 702 paper, Iran ranked 25th among the top 25 countries with a global share of 0.82 %. Iranian publication average citation per paper increased from 0 in 2000 to 7.88 in 2014. Overall, the received citations were 3184 citations during those years. Conclusion: Iran is collaborating with 36 countries with no more than 244 of its papers (35% of its total papers). It is necessary to prepare conditions for epilepsy researchers to collaborate more with international scientific societies in order to produce more and high quality papers. PMID:26862249

  15. A Novel Searching Method for Distribution Network Topology to Maximize Outputs of PV Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tsunaki; Saitoh, Hiroumi

    This paper proposes a novel searching method for radial distribution network to maximize outputs of PV generators. When a lot of PV generators are connected to distribution network, it is necessary to control PV outputs to keep the voltage within the regulated range of power quality. The aim of the paper is to find the optimal topology, that is the state of section switches so as to maximize the total PV outputs. This problem becomes a combinatorial optimization one and the exhaustive search results in enormous computation time. In this paper, a novel searching method is proposed which is based on the replacement of the complex combinatorial optimization problem with a minimization problem regarding with voltage profile of distribution network. The features of the proposed method are to utilize the relation between the total outputs of PV generators and the voltage profile, the superposition of radial electric circuit and a sequential algorithm for search in an optimal topology. In order to verify the proposed method, the comparison study has been done by using two distribution network models. As the result, there is possibility that the proposed method can find sub optimal topology in a short time compared with tabu search approach.

  16. The neuronal response at extended timescales: a linearized spiking input–output relation

    PubMed Central

    Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Many biological systems are modulated by unknown slow processes. This can severely hinder analysis – especially in excitable neurons, which are highly non-linear and stochastic systems. We show the analysis simplifies considerably if the input matches the sparse “spiky” nature of the output. In this case, a linearized spiking Input–Output (I/O) relation can be derived semi-analytically, relating input spike trains to output spikes based on known biophysical properties. Using this I/O relation we obtain closed-form expressions for all second order statistics (input – internal state – output correlations and spectra), construct optimal linear estimators for the neuronal response and internal state and perform parameter identification. These results are guaranteed to hold, for a general stochastic biophysical neuron model, with only a few assumptions (mainly, timescale separation). We numerically test the resulting expressions for various models, and show that they hold well, even in cases where our assumptions fail to hold. In a companion paper we demonstrate how this approach enables us to fit a biophysical neuron model so it reproduces experimentally observed temporal firing statistics on days-long experiments. PMID:24765073

  17. Steady-state bumpless transfer under controller uncertainty using the state/output feedback topology

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, K.; Lee, A.H.; Bentsman, J.; Taft, C.W.

    2006-01-15

    Linear quadratic (LQ) bumpless transfer design introduced recently by Turner and Walker gives a very convenient and straightforward computational procedure for the steady-state bumpless transfer operator synthesis. It is, however, found to be incapable of providing convergence of the output of the offline controller to that of the online controller in several industrial applications, producing bumps in the plant output in the wake of controller transfer. An examination of this phenomenon reveals that the applications in question are characterized by a significant mismatch, further referred to as controller uncertainty, between the dynamics of the implemented controllers and their models used in the transfer operator computation. To address this problem, while retaining the convenience of the Turner and Walker design, a novel state/output feedback bumpless transfer topology is introduced that employs the nominal state of the offline controller and, through the use of an additional controller/model mismatch compensator, also the offline controller output. A corresponding steady-state bumpless transfer design procedure along with the supporting theory is developed for a large class of systems. Due to these features, it is demonstrated to solve a long-standing problem of high-quality steady-state bumpless transfer from the industry standard low-order nonlinear multiloop PID-based controllers to the modern multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) robust controllers in the megawatt/throttle pressure control of a typical coal-fired boiler/turbine unit.

  18. Superconducting Complementary Output Switching Logic Operating at 10 - 18 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Mark; van Duzer, T.; Perold, Willem

    1998-03-01

    We have developed a new type of superconducting voltage-state logic called Complementary Output Switching Logic (COSL)(M. Jeffery, W. Perold, and T. Van Duzer, Appl. Phys. Lett., 69) (18), 2746 (1996). The basic COSL gates have been demonstrated at 10 GHz and complex 2-bit encoder circuits have operated at 5 - 8 GHz. The COSL gates have extremely low power dissipation, of order 10 μW/gate, and we have measured bit error rates less than 10-12 at 2 GHz. For these results we used the HYPRES 1 kA/cm^2 critical current density Nb Josephson fabrication process. In the present work we describe our recent test results using the new HYPRES 2.5 kA/cm^2 process. The increased critical current density process significantly improves the switching speed of the COSL devices. We will describe the Monte Carlo method used to optimize the COSL gates for 20 - 30 GHz operation, and the optimal circuit layouts including moats, or ground plane holes, to shield the circuits from trapped magnetic flux. Experimental test results will be presented for the basic COSL devices operating at 10 - 18 GHz. These are the fastest superconducting voltage-state logic devices ever reported, and may have many applications in low power ultra-high-speed digital systems of the future.

  19. Automated output-only dynamic identification of civil engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainieri, C.; Fabbrocino, G.

    2010-04-01

    Modal-based damage detection algorithms are well-known techniques for structural health assessment, but they are not commonly used due to the lack of automated modal identification and tracking procedures. Development of such procedures is not a trivial task since traditional modal identification requires extensive interaction from an expert user. Nevertheless, computational efforts have to be carefully considered. If fast on-line data processing is crucial for quickly varying in time systems (such as a rocket burning fuel), a number of vibration-based condition monitoring applications are performed at very different time scales, resulting in satisfactory time steps for on-line data analysis. Moreover, promising results in the field of automated modal identification have been recently achieved. In the present paper, a literature review on this topic is presented and recent developments concerning fully automated output-only modal identification procedures are described. Some case studies are also reported in order to validate the approach. They are characterized by different levels of complexity, in terms of mode coupling, dynamic interaction effects and level of vibration. Advantages and drawbacks of the proposed approach will be pointed out with reference to available experimental results. The final objective is the implementation of a fully automated system for vibration-based structural health monitoring of civil engineering structures and identification of adequate requirements about sensor number and layout, record duration and hardware characteristics able to ensure a reliable low-cost health assessment of constructions. Results of application of the proposed methodology to modal parameter estimation in operational conditions and during ground motions induced by the recent L'Aquila earthquake will be finally presented and discussed.

  20. An adaptive observer for single-input single-output linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, R. L.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that the full order adaptive observer for single input, single output, observable, continuous, stable, linear differential systems in the absence of a deterministic or random disturbance vector guarantees the vanishing of observation error, regardless of the size of the constant or slowly varying parameter ignorance. The observer parameters are directly changed in a Liapunov adaptive way so as to eventually yield the unknown full order Luenberger observer. The observer poles throughout may be placed freely in the stable region and no derivatives are required in the adaptive law.

  1. A Differential ECG Amplifier with Single-Ended Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katchis, L.

    1972-01-01

    Three-stage amplifier is used for ECG measurements which require conversion of differential input to single-ended output. Circuit may be useful in biological telemetry for amplification of signals from specimen-implanted sensors.

  2. Automatic Ranked Output from Boolean Searches in SIRE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noreault, Terry; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness using an automatic algorithm to rank the results of Boolean searches of an inverted file design document retrieval system. Relevant documents were ranked significantly higher than nonrelevant documents on output lists. (Author/KP)

  3. Issues in methods and measurement of thermodilution cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Sommers, M S; Woods, S L; Courtade, M A

    1993-01-01

    Criterion-related validity of the thermodilution cardiac output technique for cardiac output measurement has to have a high correlation (r = .91 to .98) with the direct Fick method, the gold standard of cardiac output measurement. Issues that can affect validity of the measurements include the position of the pulmonary artery catheter, the rate of injection of the indicator solution, the volume and temperature of the injectate, the timing of the injection of indicator solution during the respiratory cycle, the position of the subject, and the presence of concomitant infusions. Variation in measurement can be limited by considering the delivery system for the indicator solution, by recording time-temperature cardiac output curves, and by considering normal biologic variations. PMID:8337161

  4. User manual for two simple postscript output FORTRAN plotting routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. X.

    1991-01-01

    Graphics is one of the important tools in engineering analysis and design. However, plotting routines that generate output on high quality laser printers normally come in graphics packages, which tend to be expensive and system dependent. These factors become important for small computer systems or desktop computers, especially when only some form of a simple plotting routine is sufficient. With the Postscript language becoming popular, there are more and more Postscript laser printers now available. Simple, versatile, low cost plotting routines that can generate output on high quality laser printers are needed and standard FORTRAN language plotting routines using output in Postscript language seems logical. The purpose here is to explain two simple FORTRAN plotting routines that generate output in Postscript language.

  5. An improved optical identity authentication system with significant output images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Liu, Ming-tang; Yao, Shu-xia; Xin, Yan-hui

    2012-06-01

    An improved method for optical identity authentication system with significant output images is proposed. In this method, a predefined image is digitally encoded into two phase-masks relating to a fixed phase-mask, and this fixed phase-mask acts as a lock to the system. When the two phase-masks, serving as the key, are presented to the system, the predefined image is generated at the output. In addition to simple verification, our method is capable of identifying the type of input phase-mask, and the duties of identity verification and recognition are separated and, respectively, assigned to the amplitude and phase of the output image. Numerical simulation results show that our proposed method is feasible and the output image with better image quality can be obtained.

  6. Linearisation via input-output injection of time delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramírez, Eduardo; Moog, Claude H.; Califano, Claudia; Alejandro Márquez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of linearisation of systems with constant commensurable delays by input-output injection using algebraic control tools based on the theory of non-commutative rings. Solutions for the problem of linearisation free of delays, and with delays of an observable nonlinear time-delay systems are presented based on the analysis of the input-output equation. These results are achieved by means of constructive algorithms that use the nth derivative of the output expressed in terms of the state-space variables instead of the explicit computation of the input-output representation of the system. Necessary and sufficient conditions are established in both cases by means of an invertible change of coordinates.

  7. High-Output Heart Failure Caused by Thyrotoxicosis and Beriberi.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    High-output heart failure is not seen as commonly as low-output heart failure and some of the typical guideline recommendations may not benefit patients with high-output failure. High-output failure is caused by several diseases, including thyrotoxicosis and beriberi, highlighted in this article. Thyrotoxicosis, caused by excessive thyroid hormone production, has profound hemodynamic effects. Wet beriberi, affecting predominately the cardiovascular system, is caused by severe thiamine deficiency, most commonly seen in patients with chronic alcoholism or poor nutrition from other causes. Prompt recognition of these infrequently seen syndromes is essential. This article outlines the medical treatment and nursing care needed to return these patients to a normal state. PMID:26567494

  8. Sham-feeding decreases cardiac output in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H B; Jensen, E W; Madsbad, S; Nielsen, S L; Burcharth, F; Christensen, N J

    1992-07-01

    The cardiovascular effect of sham-feeding was measured in seven healthy non-obese human subjects by the Fick principle using the carbon dioxide rebreathing method. The subjects were resting in the sitting position and were exposed to the sight and smell but not the taste of a breakfast meal. Cardiac output decreased significantly from a mean value of 4.0 1 min-1 to 3.5 1 min-1 during sham-feeding (Friedman, P = 0.004). The cardiac output returned to basal values in all seven subjects when the sensory stimulus was removed. The decrease in cardiac output was due to a decreased stroke volume, whereas heart rate and blood pressure did not change. The mechanism of the decrease in cardiac output during sham-feeding remains to be established. PMID:1505165

  9. Electrochemistry in Organisms: Electron Flow and Power Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirpich, Thomas P.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a series of calculations, appropriate for the freshman level, to determine the flow of electrons to oxygen along the electron transport chain. States that living organisms resemble fuel cells and develops calculations for determining power output. (GS)

  10. Two (or more) rotary outputs from one input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical sequencing device produces cyclic rotations of two outputs from single cyclic rotary input. Device is useful in automatic assemble apparatus, in food-processing machinery, and as controller for sequentially operated valves.

  11. Interfacing synthetic DNA logic operations with protein outputs.

    PubMed

    Prokup, Alexander; Deiters, Alexander

    2014-11-24

    DNA logic gates are devices composed entirely of DNA that perform Boolean logic operations on one or more oligonucleotide inputs. Typical outputs of DNA logic gates are oligonucleotides or fluorescent signals. Direct activation of protein function has not been engineered as an output of a DNA-based computational circuit. Explicit control of protein activation enables the immediate triggering of enzyme function and could yield DNA computation outputs that are otherwise difficult to generate. By using zinc-finger proteins, AND, OR, and NOR logic gates were created that respond to short oligonucleotide inputs and lead to the activation or deactivation of a split-luciferase enzyme. The gate designs are simple and modular, thus enabling integration with larger multigate circuits, and the modular structure gives flexibility in the choice of protein output. The gates were also modified with translator circuits to provide protein activation in response to microRNA inputs as potential cellular cancer markers. PMID:25283524

  12. Acute negative effect of a hypertrophy-oriented training bout on subsequent upper-body power output.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    Athletes regularly combine maximal strength, power, and hypertrophy-oriented training within the same workout. Traditionally, it has been suggested that power-oriented exercises precede strength and hypertrophy-oriented training within a workout to avoid the possible negative effects that the latter types of training may have on power output. However, with regard to upper-body training, little study has been performed to verify this commonly held belief. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent, if any, of a high-repetition, short-rest-period, hypertrophy-oriented training dose on upper-body power output. Twenty-seven college-aged rugby league players were tested for average power output during bench press throws with a resistance of 40 kg (BT P40). The experimental group (Hyp, n = 15) then performed a typical hypertrophy-oriented work bout (3 x 10 at 65% 1 repetition maximum bench press, 1RM BP) before being retested for power output with the same resistance. In comparison with the control group (Con, n = 12), whose power output remained unchanged between the pre- and posttest periods, the Hyp group experienced a large, significant decrease in BT P40 power output. Even after further passive rest of 7 minutes, power output remained suppressed from the pretest values. Furthermore, the strongest 5 subjects experienced significantly larger percentage declines in power output than did the 5 less strong subjects. This study shows that a high-repetition, short-rest-period training can acutely decrease power output. Coaches should plan the order of exercises carefully when combining power and hypertrophy training. PMID:12930181

  13. An improved output feedback control of flexible large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. H.; Lin, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A special output feedback control design technique for flexible large space structures is proposed. It is shown that the technique will increase both the damping and frequency of selected modes for more effective control. It is also able to effect integrated control of elastic and rigid-body modes and, in particular, closed-loop system stability and robustness to modal truncation and parameter variation. The technique is seen as marking an improvement over previous work concerning large space structures output feedback control.

  14. Output Feedback M-MRAC Backstepping With Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Sriniva

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a certainty equivalence output feedback backstepping adaptive control design method for the systems of any relative degree with unmatched uncertainties without over-parametrization. It uses a fast prediction model to estimate the unknown parameters, which is independent of the control design. It is shown that the system's input and output tracking errors can be systematically decreased by the proper choice of the design parameters. The approach is applied to aerospace control problems and tested in numerical simulations.

  15. Input-output stability for accelerometer control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Morris, K. A.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that, although accelerometer control systems are not well-posed in the sense of Salamon, a well-defined input-output relation exists. It is established that the output of an accelerometer control system can be described by the convolution of the input and a distribution. This distribution is Laplace transformable, and the Laplace transform of the distribution is the transfer function of the system.

  16. Nine Criteria for a Measure of Scientific Output

    PubMed Central

    Kreiman, Gabriel; Maunsell, John H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research produces new knowledge, technologies, and clinical treatments that can lead to enormous returns. Often, the path from basic research to new paradigms and direct impact on society takes time. Precise quantification of scientific output in the short-term is not an easy task but is critical for evaluating scientists, laboratories, departments, and institutions. While there have been attempts to quantifying scientific output, we argue that current methods are not ideal and suffer from solvable difficulties. Here we propose criteria that a metric should have to be considered a good index of scientific output. Specifically, we argue that such an index should be quantitative, based on robust data, rapidly updated and retrospective, presented with confidence intervals, normalized by number of contributors, career stage and discipline, impractical to manipulate, and focused on quality over quantity. Such an index should be validated through empirical testing. The purpose of quantitatively evaluating scientific output is not to replace careful, rigorous review by experts but rather to complement those efforts. Because it has the potential to greatly influence the efficiency of scientific research, we have a duty to reflect upon and implement novel and rigorous ways of evaluating scientific output. The criteria proposed here provide initial steps toward the systematic development and validation of a metric to evaluate scientific output. PMID:22102840

  17. Robust stability of second-order systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, C.-H.

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown recently how virtual passive controllers can be designed for second-order dynamic systems to achieve robust stability. The virtual controllers were visualized as systems made up of spring, mass and damping elements. In this paper, a new approach emphasizing on the notion of positive realness to the same second-order dynamic systems is used. Necessary and sufficient conditions for positive realness are presented for scalar spring-mass-dashpot systems. For multi-input multi-output systems, we show how a mass-spring-dashpot system can be made positive real by properly choosing its output variables. In particular, sufficient conditions are shown for the system without output velocity. Furthermore, if velocity cannot be measured then the system parameters must be precise to keep the system positive real. In practice, system parameters are not always constant and cannot be measured precisely. Therefore, in order to be useful positive real systems must be robust to some degrees. This can be achieved with the design presented in this paper.

  18. Global output regulation of a class of lower triangular nonlinear systems with unknown control direction via output feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ranran

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the global output regulation problem of a class of lower triangular systems under measurement output feedback. A novel high-gain filter is proposed to estimate the unmeasured states of the systems. Furthermore, we integrate the robust stabilisation technique and Nussbaumgain technique to achieve asymptotic regulation when the control direction is unknown. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Boolean modeling of neural systems with point-process inputs and outputs.

    PubMed

    Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Zanos, Theodoros P; Courellis, Spiros H; Berger, Theodore W

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modeling approach for neural systems with point-process inputs and outputs (binary time-series of 0's and 1's) that utilizes Boolean operators of modulo-2 multiplication and addition, corresponding to the logical AND and OR operations respectively. The form of the employed mathematical model is akin to a "Boolean-Volterra" model that contains the product terms of all relevant input lags in a hierarchical order, where terms of order higher than first represent nonlinear interactions among the various lagged values of each input point-process or among lagged values of various inputs (if multiple inputs exist) as they reflect on the output. The coefficients of this Boolean model are also binary variables that indicate the presence or absence of the respective term in each specific model/system. Simulations are used to explore the properties of such models and the feasibility of accurate estimation of such models from short data-records in the presence of noise (i.e. spurious spikes). The results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining reliable estimates of such models, even in the presence of considerable noise in the input and/or output, thus making the proposed approach an attractive candidate for modeling neural systems in a practical context. PMID:17946091

  20. Power output during women's World Cup road cycle racing.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Tammie R; Martin, David T; McDonald, Warren; Victor, James; Plummer, John; Withers, Robert T

    2005-12-01

    Little information exists on the power output demands of competitive women's road cycle racing. The purpose of our investigation was to document the power output generated by elite female road cyclists who achieved success in FLAT and HILLY World Cup races. Power output data were collected from 27 top-20 World Cup finishes (19 FLAT and 8 HILLY) achieved by 15 nationally ranked cyclists (mean +/- SD; age: 24.1+/-4.0 years; body mass: 57.9+/-3.6 kg; height: 168.7+/-5.6 cm; VO2max 63.6+/-2.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1); peak power during graded exercise test (GXT(peak power)): 310+/-25 W). The GXT determined GXT(peak power), VO2peak lactate threshold (LT) and anaerobic threshold (AT). Bicycles were fitted with SRM powermeters, which recorded power (W), cadence (rpm), distance (km) and speed (km h(-1)). Racing data were analysed to establish time in power output and metabolic threshold bands and maximal mean power (MMP) over different durations. When compared to HILLY, FLAT were raced at a similar cadence (75+/-8 vs. 75+/-4 rpm, P=0.93) but higher speed (37.6+/-2.6 vs. 33.9+/-2.7 km h(-1), P=0.008) and power output (192+/-21 vs. 169+/-17 W, P=0.04; 3.3+/-0.3 vs. 3.0+/-0.4 W kg(-1), P=0.04). During FLAT races, riders spent significantly more time above 500 W, while greater race time was spent between 100 and 300 W (LT-AT) for HILLY races, with higher MMPs for 180-300 s. Racing terrain influenced the power output profiles of our internationally competitive female road cyclists. These data are the first to define the unique power output requirements associated with placing well in both flat and hilly women's World Cup cycling events. PMID:16151832