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Sample records for 5-18ffluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides

  1. Carbocyclic pyrimidine nucleosides as inhibitors of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Sylvester L; Bakke, Brian A; Sadler, Joshua M; Sunkara, Naresh K; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L

    2006-12-01

    The design, synthesis, and unexpected inhibitory activity against S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) hydrolase (SAHase, EC 3.3.1.1) for a series of truncated carbocyclic pyrimidine nucleoside analogues is presented. Of the four nucleosides obtained, 10 was found to be active with a Ki value of 5.0 microM against SAHase. PMID:16904326

  2. Synthetic strategies toward carbocyclic purine-pyrimidine hybrid nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Joshua M; Mosley, Sylvester L; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L

    2009-08-01

    The blending of key structural features from the purine and pyrimidine nucleobase scaffolds gives rise to a new class of hybrid nucleosides. The purine-pyrimidine hybrid nucleosides can be viewed as either N-3 ribosylated purines or 5,6-disubstituted pyrimidines, thus recognition by both purine- and pyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes is possible. Given the increasing reports of the development of resistance in many enzymatic systems, a drug that could be recognized by more than one enzyme could prove highly advantageous in overcoming resistance mechanisms related to binding site mutations. In that regard, the design, synthesis and results of preliminary biological activity for a series of carbocyclic uracil derivatives with either a fused imidazole or thiazole ring are presented herein. PMID:19592260

  3. Synthetic Strategies Toward Carbocyclic Purine-Pyrimidine Hybrid Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Joshua M.; Mosley, Sylvester L.; Dorgan, Kathleen M.; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The blending of key structural features from the purine and pyrimidine nucleobase scaffolds gives rise to a new class of hybrid nucleosides. The purine-pyrimidine hybrid nucleosides can be viewed as either N-3 ribosylated purines or 5,6-disubstituted pyrimidines, thus recognition by both purine- and pyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes is possible. Given the increasing reports of the development of resistance in many enzymatic systems, a drug that could be recognized by more than one enzyme could prove highly advantageous in overcoming resistance mechanisms related to binding site mutations. In that regard, the design, synthesis and results of preliminary biological activity for a series of carbocyclic uracil derivatives with either a fused imidazole or thiazole ring are presented herein. PMID:19592260

  4. Novel inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth based on modified pyrimidine nucleosides and their analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmalenyuk, E. R.; Kochetkov, S. N.; Alexandrova, L. A.

    2013-09-01

    The review summarizes data on the synthesis and antituberculosis activity of pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives and their analogues. Enzymes from M. tuberculosis as promising targets for prototypes of new-generation drugs are considered. Nucleosides as inhibitors of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains are characterized. The bibliography includes 101 references.

  5. Synthesis of 5-Fluoroalkylated Pyrimidine Nucleosides via Negishi Cross-Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Qu, Wenchao

    2014-01-01

    5-fluoroalkylated pyrimidine nucleosides (1) have potential as therapeutic agents and molecular imaging agents targeting HSV1-tk suicide gene therapy. Thus, straightforward preparation of 5-fluoroalkylated nucleoside derivatives has been developed. Reported herein are the first examples of Pd-catalyzed Negishi cross-coupling of 3-N-benzoyl-3′,5′-di-O-benzoyl-5-iodo-2′-deoxyuridine (2a) and 3-N-benzoyl-3′,5′-di-O-benzoyl-5-iodo-2′-deoxy-2′-fluoroarabinouridine (2b) with unactivated Csp3 fluoroalkylzinc bromides. This paper demonstrates the first synthesis of six 5-fluoroalkyl-2′-deoxy pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives with three to five methylene-chain lengths (5). Furthermore, this methodology has been extended to create a series of thirteen 5-alkyl substituted nucleosides, including the target nucleosides 5 and 5-silyloxypropyl and 5-cyanobutyl derivatives. PMID:18522415

  6. Enantioselective Intermolecular Cyclopropanations for the Synthesis of Chiral Pyrimidine Carbocyclic Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming-Sheng; Zhou, Peng; Niu, Hong-Ying; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2016-09-01

    A direct route to chiral cyclopropylpyrimidine carbocyclic nucleoside analogues has been reported via highly enantioselective intermolecular cyclopropanation reactions of N1-vinylpyrimidines with α-diazoesters. With chiral ruthenium(II)-phenyloxazoline complex (2 mol %) as the catalyst, cyclopropyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues could be obtained in good yields (71-96% yields) with high levels of diastereo- and enantioselectivities (10:1 to >20:1 dr and 96-99% ee) in 1 min. PMID:27526779

  7. Evidence for incorporation of intact dietary pyrimidine (but not purine) nucleosides into hepatic RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Berthold, H K; Crain, P F; Gouni, I; Reeds, P J; Klein, P D

    1995-01-01

    The absorption and metabolism of dietary nucleic acids have received less attention than those of other organic nutrients, largely because of methodological difficulties. We supplemented the rations of poultry and mice with the edible alga Spirulina platensis, which had been uniformly labeled with 13C by hydroponic culture in 13CO2. The rations were ingested by a hen for 4 wk and by four mice for 6 days; two mice were fed a normal diet and two were fed a nucleic acid-deficient diet. The animals were killed and nucleosides were isolated from hepatic RNA. The isotopic enrichment of all mass isotopomers of the nucleosides was analyzed by selected ion monitoring of the negative chemical ionization mass spectrum and the labeling pattern was deconvoluted by reference to the enrichment pattern of the tracer material. We found a distinct difference in the 13C enrichment pattern between pyrimidine and purine nucleosides; the isotopic enrichment of uniformly labeled [M + 9] isotopomers of pyrimidines exceeded that of purines [M + 10] by > 2 orders of magnitude in the avian nucleic acids and by 7- and 14-fold in the murine nucleic acids. The purines were more enriched in lower mass isotopomers, those less than [M + 3], than the pyrimidines. Our results suggest that large quantities of dietary pyrimidine nucleosides and almost no dietary purine nucleosides are incorporated into hepatic nucleic acids without hydrolytic removal of the ribose moiety. In addition, our results support a potential nutritional role for nucleosides and suggest that pyrimidines are conditionally essential organic nutrients. PMID:7479738

  8. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates.

    PubMed

    López-Zavala, Alonso A; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2014-09-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325-331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism. PMID:25195883

  9. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates

    PubMed Central

    López-Zavala, Alonso A.; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E.; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S.; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012 ▶), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325–331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2′-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism. PMID:25195883

  10. 5-(1-Substituted) alkyl pyrimidine nucleosides as antiviral (herpes) agents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh

    2004-10-01

    The treatment of viral diseases remains one of the major challenges to modern medicine. During the past two decades there has been increased recognition of the consequences of serious viral illnesses that are not controlled by vaccination. These illnesses include human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes viruses, and viruses that cause hepatitis. There are now eight pathogens recognized in the herpes virus family that cause infections in humans. Infections by the herpes viruses are opportunistic and often life-threatening, leading to significant morbidity and mortality in the increasing number of chronically immune compromised individuals such as AIDS patients, cancer patients and transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy. Nearly all individuals with AIDS are infected with one or more of the herpes viruses. Antiviral therapy with guanosine nucleoside analogs acyclovir and ganciclovir has had a major impact on diseases caused by herpes simplex virus type-1 and type-2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), Varicella zoster virus (VZV), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) but development of resistant virus strains and the absence of any effective treatment for other members of the herpes family provide a stimulus for increased search of new agents effective against various herpes viruses. Pyrimidine nucleosides have taken up an important role in the therapy of virus infection. Significant progress in the study of anti-herpes nucleosides has been made by the advent of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides such as 5-iodo-, 5-ethyl-, 5-(2-chloroethyl)-, and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)- derivatives of 2'-deoxyuridine. These are highly specific inhibitors of HSV-1, HSV-2, and/or VZV infections. However, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and HCMV are much less sensitive to these agents. In 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides the nature of substituents, particularly at the C-5 position, has been found to be an important determinant of anti-herpes activity. Structural requirements at the C-2 carbon of the 5

  11. Anti-flavivirus Activity of Different Tritylated Pyrimidine and Purine Nucleoside Analogues.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Christopher; Serpi, Michaela; Slusarczyk, Magdalena; Ferrari, Valentina; Pertusati, Fabrizio; Meneghesso, Silvia; Derudas, Marco; Farleigh, Laura; Zanetta, Paola; Bugert, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    A series of tritylated and dimethoxytritylated analogues of selected pyrimidine and purine nucleosides were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against two important members of the genus Flavivirus in the Flaviviridae family, the yellow fever (YFV) and dengue viruses (DENV). Among all compounds tested, the 5'-O-tritylated and the 5'-O-dimethoxytritylated 5-fluorouridine derivatives exerted potency against YFV. Interestingly in the series of purine analogues, the 5'O, N-bis-tritylated fludarabine derivative revealed strong inhibitory activity against DENV at μm concentrations, however significantly weaker potency against YFV. PMID:27551659

  12. Anti‐flavivirus Activity of Different Tritylated Pyrimidine and Purine Nucleoside Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Serpi, Michaela; Slusarczyk, Magdalena; Ferrari, Valentina; Pertusati, Fabrizio; Meneghesso, Silvia; Derudas, Marco; Farleigh, Laura; Zanetta, Paola; Bugert, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A series of tritylated and dimethoxytritylated analogues of selected pyrimidine and purine nucleosides were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against two important members of the genus Flavivirus in the Flaviviridae family, the yellow fever (YFV) and dengue viruses (DENV). Among all compounds tested, the 5′‐O‐tritylated and the 5′‐O‐dimethoxytritylated 5‐fluorouridine derivatives exerted potency against YFV. Interestingly in the series of purine analogues, the 5′O, N‐bis‐tritylated fludarabine derivative revealed strong inhibitory activity against DENV at μm concentrations, however significantly weaker potency against YFV. PMID:27551659

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of thymidine kinase 1-targeting carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Hitesh K; Khalil, Ahmed; Ishita, Keisuke; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J; Wu, Lai-Chu; Ali, Tehane; Tiwari, Rohit; Byun, Youngjoo; Barth, Rolf F; Tjarks, Werner

    2015-07-15

    A library of sixteen 2nd generation amino- and amido-substituted carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs, designed as substrates and inhibitors of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) for potential use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer, was synthesized and evaluated in enzyme kinetic-, enzyme inhibition-, metabolomic-, and biodistribution studies. One of these 2nd generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs (YB18A [3]), having an amino group directly attached to a meta-carborane cage tethered via ethylene spacer to the 3-position of thymidine, was approximately 3-4 times superior as a substrate and inhibitor of hTK1 than N5-2OH (2), a 1st generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analog. Both 2 and 3 appeared to be 5'-monophosphorylated in TK1(+) RG2 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in rats bearing intracerebral RG2 glioma resulted in selective tumor uptake of 3 with an intratumoral concentration that was approximately 4 times higher than that of 2. The obtained results significantly advance the understanding of the binding interactions between TK1 and carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs and will profoundly impact future design strategies for these agents. PMID:26087030

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of thymidine kinase 1-targeting carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Khalil, Ahmed; Ishita, Keisuke; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J.; Wu, Lai-Chu; Ali, Tehane; Tiwari, Rohit; Byun, Youngjoo; Barth, Rolf F.; Tjarks, Werner

    2015-01-01

    A library of sixteen 2nd generation amino- and amido-substituted carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues, designed as substrates and inhibitors of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) for potential use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer, was synthesized and evaluated in enzyme kinetic-, enzyme inhibition-, metabolomic-, and biodistribution studies. One of these 2nd generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues (YB18A [3]), having an amino group directly attached to a meta-carborane cage tethered via ethylene spacer to the 3-position of thymidine, was approximately 3–4 times superior as a substrate and inhibitor of hTK1 than N5-2OH (2), a 1st generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogue. Both 2 and 3 appeared to be 5′-monophosphorylated in TK1(+) RG2 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in rats bearing intracerebral RG2 glioma resulted in selective tumor uptake of 3 with an intratumoral concentration that was approximately 4 times higher than that of 2. The obtained results significantly advance the understanding of the binding interactions between TK1 and carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues and will profoundly impact future design strategies for these agents. PMID:26087030

  15. Triazole pyrimidine nucleosides as inhibitors of Ribonuclease A. Synthesis, biochemical, and structural evaluation.

    PubMed

    Parmenopoulou, Vanessa; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Manta, Stella; Bougiatioti, Stamatina; Maragozidis, Panagiotis; Gkaragkouni, Dimitra-Niki; Kaffesaki, Eleni; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Zographos, Spyridon E; Zounpoulakis, Panagiotis; Balatsos, Nikolaos A A; Komiotis, Dimitris; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2012-12-15

    Five ribofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides and their corresponding 1,2,3-triazole derivatives have been synthesized and characterized. Their inhibitory action to Ribonuclease A has been studied by biochemical analysis and X-ray crystallography. These compounds are potent competitive inhibitors of RNase A with low μM inhibition constant (K(i)) values with the ones having a triazolo linker being more potent than the ones without. The most potent of these is 1-[(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]uracil being with K(i) = 1.6 μM. The high resolution X-ray crystal structures of the RNase A in complex with three most potent inhibitors of these inhibitors have shown that they bind at the enzyme catalytic cleft with the pyrimidine nucleobase at the B(1) subsite while the triazole moiety binds at the main subsite P(1), where P-O5' bond cleavage occurs, and the ribose at the interface between subsites P(1) and P(0) exploiting interactions with residues from both subsites. The effect of a susbsituent group at the 5-pyrimidine position at the inhibitory potency has been also examined and results show that any addition at this position leads to a less efficient inhibitor. Comparative structural analysis of these RNase A complexes with other similar RNase A-ligand complexes reveals that the triazole moiety interactions with the protein form the structural basis of their increased potency. The insertion of a triazole linker between the pyrimidine base and the ribose forms the starting point for further improvement of these inhibitors in the quest for potent ribonucleolytic inhibitors with pharmaceutical potential. PMID:23122937

  16. 4'-Substituted pyrimidine nucleosides lacking 5'-hydroxyl function as potential anti-HCV agents.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Neeraj; Vedi, Satish; Liang, Chao; Yang, Fang; Agrawal, Babita; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major health problems worldwide. If left untreated, it leads to liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. Herein, we report synthesis and anti-HCV activity of a new class of pyrimidine nucleosides possessing a 4'-carboxymethyl (9-16, 21 and 23) or 4'-carboxamide function (17-19 and 24). Among these, 10-12 (EC50=33.1-42.4 μM), 14 and 21 (EC50=43.4-59.5 μM) exhibited potent activity in HCV-1a replicon cells without any toxicity to parent Huh-7 cells (CC50=>829-1055 μM). The anti-HCV activities demonstrated by this unusual class of compounds were superior to that of ribavirin (EC50=81.9 μM). Further, the most active analog, 12, was found to interact synergistically with ribavirin to inhibit HCV RNA replication. PMID:24485784

  17. Complex self-assembly of pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine nucleoside supramolecular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hang; Guo, Xiurong; He, Shiliang; Zeng, Xin; Zhou, Xinglong; Zhang, Chaoliang; Hu, Jing; Wu, Xiaohua; Xing, Zhihua; Chu, Liangyin; He, Yang; Chen, Qianming

    2014-01-01

    Supramolecular self-assembly is not only one of the chemical roots of biological structure but is also drawing attention in different industrial fields. Here we study the mechanism of the formation of a complex flower-shaped supramolecular structure of pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine nucleosides by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray analysis. Upon removing the hydroxyl group of sugars, different flower-shaped superstructures can be produced. These works demonstrate that complex self-assembly can indeed be attained through hierarchical non-covalent interactions of single molecules. Furthermore, chimerical structures built from molecular recognition by these monomers indicate their potential in other fields if combined with other chemical entities.

  18. Synthesis and Anti-HCV Activity of 4-Methoxy-7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d] Pyrimidine Carbocyclic Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Anandarajan; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; Sharon, Ashoke; Bal, Chandralata

    2016-06-01

    The present study includes the exploration of new possible nucleoside mimetics based on 4-methoxy-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine carbocyclic nucleosides (4a-g), which were synthesized by 10-15 synthetic steps and characterized adequately. We report the anti-HCV activities and cytotoxicities of 4a-g. Compound 4a was analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction which showed some puckering in the cyclopentene ring with a 2'-endo conformation and anti-base disposition (χ = -125.7°). PMID:27152477

  19. Interaction of monoclonal antibodies directed against bromodeoxyuridine with pyrimidine bases, nucleosides, and DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.R.; Heyneman, C.; Walker, S.; Ulrich, R.G.

    1986-03-01

    Although antibodies directed against bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) are being used in both clinical and basic research laboratories as tools to study and monitor DNA synthesis, little is known about the epitopes with which they react. Four monoclonal antibodies directed against BrdU were produced and were characterized to learn more about the epitopes on BrdU which are important for antibody recognition, to identify compounds other than BrdU which react with the antibodies and which might interfere with immunologic assays for BrdU, and to characterize the reaction of these antibodies with BrdU-containing DNA. By radioimmunoassays, the antibodies generally reacted well with 5-iododeoxyuridine, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, and 5-nitrouracil. However, none of the antibodies reacted well with uridine - indicating that a substituent on uridine C5 was essential for antibody reactivity - or with 5-bromo or iodo-cytosine, indicating that the region around pyrimidine C4 is important for antibody recognition. Although the antibodies reacted with 5-halogen-substituted uracil bases, the antibodies reacted much better with the corresponding halogenated nucleosides, indicating that the sugar moiety was important for recognition. The presence of a triphosphate group of C'5 of BrdU (i.e., BrdUTP) did not detectably alter antibody recognition. S/sub 1/ nuclease treatment of purified DNA suggested that all four monoclonal antibodies reacted exclusively with single-stranded regions of BrdU-containing DNA. Comparison of detecting DNA synthesis by (/sup 3/H)TdR incorporation followed by autoradiography with that by BrdU incorporation followed by indirect immunofluorescence indicated that the latter technique was both an accurate and a sensitive measure of DNA synthesis.

  20. Predictive markers of capecitabine sensitivity identified from the expression profile of pyrimidine nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Yasuno, Hideyuki; Kurasawa, Mitsue; Yanagisawa, Mieko; Sato, Yasuko; Harada, Naoki; Mori, Kazushige

    2013-02-01

    Molecular markers predicting sensitivity to anticancer drugs are important and useful not only for selecting potential responders but also for developing new combinations. In the present study, we analyzed the difference in the sensitivity of xenograft models to capecitabine (Xeloda®), 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR, doxifluridine, Furtulon®) and 5-FU by comparing the mRNA levels of 12 pyrimidine nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes. Amounts of mRNA in the tumor tissues of 80 xenograft models were determined by real-time RT-PCR and mutual correlations were examined. A clustering analysis revealed that the 12 enzymes were divided into two groups; one group consisted of 8 enzymes, including orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT), TMP kinase (TMPK) and UMP kinase (UMPK), and was related to the de novo synthesis pathway for nucleotides, with mRNA expression levels showing significant mutual correlation. In the other group, 4 enzymes, including thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), were involved in the salvage/degradation pathway of the nucleotides, and the mRNA levels of this group were dispersed more widely than that of the de novo group. Antitumor activity was assessed in 24 xenograft models for each drug. The antitumor activity of capecitabine and 5'-DFUR correlated significantly with the mRNA levels of TP and with the TP/DPD ratio, whereas the activity of 5-FU correlated significantly with OPRT, TMPK, UMPK and CD. In a stepwise regression analysis, TP and DPD were found to be independent predictive factors of sensitivity to capecitabine and 5'-DFUR, and UMPK was predictive of sensitivity to 5-FU. These results indicate that the predictive factors for sensitivity to capecitabine and 5'-DFUR in xenograft models may be different from those for 5-FU, suggesting that these drugs may have different responders in clinical usage. PMID:23229803

  1. Morpholino, piperidino, and pyrrolidino derivatives of pyrimidine nucleosides as inhibitors of ribonuclease A: synthesis, biochemical, and crystallographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Anirban; Leonidas, Demetres D; Dasgupta, Swagata; Pathak, Tanmaya; Zographos, Spyros E; Oikonomakos, Nikos G

    2009-02-26

    Six 5'-deoxy-5'-morpholine, piperidine, and pyrrolidine of pyrimidine nucleosides have been synthesized and characterized. Their inhibitory action to ribonuclease A has been studied by biochemical analysis and X-ray crystallography. These compounds are moderate inhibitors of RNase A with mid-to-upper micromolar inhibition constants (K(i)). The high resolution X-ray crystal structures of the RNase A-inhibitor complexes have shown that all inhibitors bind at the enzyme catalytic cleft with the pyrimidine nucleobase at the B(1)R(2) subsites while the 5' group binds away from the main subsite P(1), where P-O(5') bond cleavage occurs, toward the solvent close to subsite P(0). Structure-activity relationship analysis has demonstrated that the compounds with the larger group in the 5' position are more potent. Comparative structural analysis of these RNase A complexes with other similar RNase A-ligand complexes provides a structural explanation of their potency and suggests ways to improve their efficiency and selectivity. These inhibitors can be the starting point for the development of compounds that can be used as pharmaceuticals against pathologies associated with RNase A homologues such as human angiogenin, which is implicated in tumor induced neovascularization. PMID:19173562

  2. Design and synthesis of novel 5-substituted acyclic pyrimidine nucleosides as potent and selective inhibitors of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Nath, Mahendra; Tyrrell, D Lorne J

    2002-05-01

    A novel class of 5-substituted acyclic pyrimidine nucleosides, 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-5-(1-azidovinyl)uracil (9a), 1-[(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl]-5-(1-azidovinyl)uracil (9b), and 1-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-butyl]-5-(1-azidovinyl)uracil (9c), were synthesized by regiospecific addition of bromine azide to the 5-vinyl substituent of the respective 5-vinyluracils (2a-c) followed by treatment of the obtained 5-(1-azido-2-bromoethyl) compounds (3a-c) with t-BuOK, to affect the base-catalyzed elimination of HBr. Thermal decomposition of 9b and 9c at 110 degrees C in dioxane yielded corresponding 5-[2-(1-azirinyl)]uracil analogues (10b,c). The 5-(1-azidovinyl)uracil derivatives 9a-c were found to exhibit potent and selective in vitro anti-HBV activity against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infected primary duck hepatocytes at low concentrations (EC(50) = 0.01-0.1 microg/mL range). The most active anti-DHBV agent (9c), possessing a [4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-butyl] substituent at N-1, exhibited an activity (EC(50) of 0.01-0.05 microg/mL) comparable to that of reference compound (-)-beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3-TC) (EC(50) = 0.01-0.05 microg/mL). In contrast, related 5-[2-(1-azirinyl)]uracil analogues (10b,c) were devoid of anti-DHBV activity, indicating that an acyclic side chain at C-5 position of the pyrimidine ring is essential for anti-HBV activity. The pyrimidine nucleosides (9a-c, 10b,c) exhibited no cytotoxic activity against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. All of the compounds investigated did not show any detectable toxicity to several stationary and proliferating host cell lines or to mitogen stimulated proliferating human T lymphocytes, up to the highest concentration tested. PMID:11985471

  3. Novel 5-vinyl pyrimidine nucleosides with potent anti-hepatitis B virus activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Tyrrell, D L

    2001-11-19

    Synthesis and antiviral activities of novel N-1 alkyl substituted pyrimidines, 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-5-vinyluracil (5), 1-[(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl]-5-vinyluracil (6), and 1-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-butyl]-5-vinyluracil (7) are reported. Compounds 6 and 7 were potent inhibitors of DHBV in cell culture, in contrast, all of the compounds described were devoid of activity against TK(+) HSV-1 and TK(-) HSV-1. PMID:11677126

  4. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of 5-[18F]Fluoroalkyl Pyrimidine Nucleosides for Molecular Imaging of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Thymidine Kinase Reporter Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Qu, Wenchao; Kung, Hank F.

    2014-01-01

    Two novel series of 5-fluoroalkyl-2′-deoxyuridines (FPrDU, FBuDU, FPeDU) and 2′-fluoro-2′-deoxy-5-fluoroalkylarabinouridines (FFPrAU, FFBuAU, FFPeAU), having three, four or five methylene units (propyl, butyl, or pentyl) at C-5, were prepared and tested as reporter probes for imaging HSV1-tk gene expression. The Negishi coupling methodology was employed to efficiently synthesize the radiolabeling precursors. All six 5-[18F]fluoroalkyl pyrimidines were prepared readily from 3-N-benzoyl-3′,5′-di-O-benzoyl-protected 5-O-mesylate precursors in 17–35% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected). In vitro studies highlighted that all six [18F]labeled nucleosides selectively accumulated in cells expressing the HSV1-TK protein, with negligible uptake in control cells. [18F]FPrDU, [18F]FBuDU, [18F]FPeDU, and [18F]FFBuAU had the best uptake profiles. Despite selective accumulation in HSV1-tk expressing cells, all 5-fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides had low to negligible cytotoxic activity (CC50>1000–209 μM). Ultimately, results demonstrated that 5-[18F]fluoropropyl, [18F]fluorobutyl, and [18F]fluoropentyl pyrimidine nucleosides have potential as in vivo HSV1-TK PET reporter probes over a dynamic range of reporter gene expression levels. PMID:18800764

  5. Nuclear quadrupole resonance of 14N and 2H in pyrimidines, purines, and their nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, S. R.; Edmonds, D. T.; Gosling, P.

    Using nuclear quadrupole double-resonance techniques, nitrogen-14 and deuterium nuclear quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters have been measured in uracil, 5-bromouracil, cytosine, adenine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, their nucleosides, 2-aminopyrimidine, and benzimidazole. Zeeman studies and the detection of the simultaneous transitions of neighboring nuclei allowed in many cases a complete assignment of the observed spectral lines to particular 14N and 2D sites.

  6. Stable expression of a recombinant sodium-dependent, pyrimidine-selective nucleoside transporter (CNT1) in a transport-deficient mouse leukemia cell line.

    PubMed

    Crawford, C R; Cass, C E; Young, J D; Belt, J A

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies of nucleoside transport in mammalian cells have identified two types of activities: the equilibrative nucleoside transporters and concentrative, Na+-nucleoside cotransporters. Characterization of the concentrative nucleoside transporters has been hampered by the presence in most cells and tissues of multiple transporters with overlapping permeant specificities. With the recent cloning of cDNAs encoding rat and human members of the concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family, it is now possible to study the concentrative transporters in isolation by use of functional expression systems. We report here the isolation of a nucleoside transport-deficient subline of L1210 mouse leukemia (L1210/DNC3) that is a suitable recipient for stable expression of cloned nucleoside transporter cDNAs. We have used L1210/DNC3 as the recipient in gene transfer studies to develop a stable cell line (L1210/DU5) that produces the recombinant concentrative nucleoside transporter with selectivity for pyrimidine nucleosides (CNT1) that was initially identified in rat intestine (Q.Q. Huang, S.Y. Yao, M.W. Ritzel, A.R.P. Paterson, C.E. Cass, and J.D. Young. 1994. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 17,757-17,760). L1210/DU5 was used to examine the permeant selectivity of recombinant rat CNT1 by comparing a series of nucleoside analogs with respect to (i) inhibition of inward fluxes of [3H]thymidine, (ii) initial rates of transport of 3H-analog, and (iii) cytotoxicity to L1210/DU5 versus the parental transport-deficient cell line. By all three criteria, recombinant CNT1 transported 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-fluorouridine well and cytosine arabinoside poorly. Although some purine nucleosides (2'-deoxyadenosinedeoxyadeno-2'-deoxyadenosine, 7-deazaadenosine) were potent inhibitors of CNT1, they were poor permeants when uptake was measured directly by analysis of isotopic fluxes or indirectly by comparison of cytotoxicity ratios. We conclude that comparison of analog cytotoxicity to L

  7. In vivo protective effect of Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, on genotoxicity induced by Levodopa/Carbidopa in mice.

    PubMed

    Orenlili Yaylagul, Esra; Cansev, Mehmet; Celikler Kasimogullari, Serap

    2015-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that affects millions of people all over the world. Motor symptoms of PD are most commonly controlled by L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Levodopa, L-DOPA), a precursor of dopamine, plus a peripherally-acting aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase) inhibitor, such as carbidopa. However, chronic treatment with a combination of Levodopa plus carbidopa has been demonstrated to cause a major complication, namely abnormal involuntary movements. On the other hand, the effect of this treatment on bone marrow cells is unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate possible genotoxic effects of Levodopa and Carbidopa using male Balb/C mice. Our results showed that Levodopa alone or in combination with carbidopa caused genotoxicity in in vivo micronucleus test (mouse bone marrow) and Comet assay (blood cells). Furthermore, we showed that simultaneous administration of uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, reversed the genotoxic effect of Levodopa and Carbidopa in both assays. Our data show for the first time that Levodopa plus carbidopa combination causes genotoxicity which is reversed by uridine treatment. These findings might enhance our understanding for the complications of a common Parkinson's treatment and confer benefit in terms of reducing a possible genotoxic effect of this treatment. PMID:25976300

  8. Influence of intermittent hypoxia and pyrimidinic nucleosides on cerebral enzymatic activities related to energy transduction.

    PubMed

    Dagani, F; Marzatico, F; Curti, D; Taglietti, M; Zanada, F; Benzi, G

    1984-08-01

    The effect of intermittent normobaric hypoxia and of biological pyrimidines (uridine and cytidine) on the specific activities of some enzymes related to cerebral energy metabolism were studied. Measurement were carried out on the following: homogenate in toto; purified mitochondrial fraction; crude synaptosomal fraction, in different areas of rat brain: cerebral cortex, hippocampus, corpus striatum, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. Intermittent normobaric hypoxia (12 hours daily for 5 days) caused modifications of the enzyme activities in the homogenate in toto (decrease of hexokinase in cerebellum; increase of pyruvate kinase in medulla oblongata), in the purified mitochondrial fraction (increase of succinate dehydrogenase in the corpus striatum) and in the crude synaptosomal fraction (decrease of cytochrome oxidase activity in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum; decrease of malate dehydrogenase in hippocampus and cerebellum; decrease of lactate dehydrogenase in cerebellum). Daily treatment with cytidine or uridine altered some enzyme activities either affected or unaffected by intermittent hypoxia. PMID:6493441

  9. Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylation in developing seeds and germinating seedlings of wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Uridine- and thymidine-phosphorylating enzymes were measured in developing and germinating seeds of Triticum aestivum v. Arthur and T. aestivum v. Lemhi. Because crude extracts were to be used in the developmental study, characteristics of unpurified nucleoside phosphotransferase (NPTase) were examined. In the developmental study with two varieties of wheat, NPTase activity was found to be very low in all of the true seed tissues during seed maturation. Uridine-phosphorylating activity was due to primarily to uridine kinase. Thymidine phosphorylation was very low in all tissues throughout seed maturation, with a brief appearance by thymidine kinase in the developing embryo. In germinating seeds, uridine-phosphorylating activity was present from earliest stages of germination but showed a decrease in activity followed by a recovery after 48 hours inbibition. Experiments using ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)ATP indicated that uridine kinase was present during early germination but had disappeared by 96 hours. Uridine phosphorylation at later stages of germination was accomplished by NTPase. Thymidine phosphorylation did not begin until after 36 hours of germination and was the result of NPTase activity.

  10. Pyrimidine and nucleoside gamma-esters of L-Glu-Sar: synthesis, stability and interaction with hPEPT1.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, André H; Elm, Peter L; Begtrup, Mikael; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert; Steffansen, Bente

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve the synthetic pathway of bioreversible dipeptide derivatives as well as evaluate the potential of using l-Glu-Sar as a pro-moiety for delivering three newly synthesised nucleoside and pyrimidine l-Glu-Sar derivatives. l-Glu(trans-2-thymine-1-yl-tetrahydrofuran-3-yl ester)-Sar (I), l-Glu(thymine-1-yl-methyl ester)-Sar (II) and l-Glu(acyclothymidine)-Sar (III) were synthesised and in vitro stability was studied in various aqueous and biological media. Affinity to and translocation via hPEPT1 was investigated in mature Caco-2 cell monolayers, grown on permeable supports. Affinity was estimated in a competition assay, using [14C] labelled Gly-Sar (glycylsarcosine). Translocation was measured as pHi-changes induced by the substrates using the fluorescent probe BCECF and an epifluorescence microscope setup. All dipeptide derivatives released the model drugs quantitatively by specific base-catalysed hydrolysis at pH>6.0. II was labile in aqueous buffer solution, whereas I and III showed appropriate stability for oral administration. In 10% porcine intestinal homogenate, the half-lives of the dipeptide derivatives indicated limited enzyme catalyzed degradation. All compounds showed good affinity to hPEPT1, but the Compounds I and III showed not to be translocated by hPEPT1. The translocation of the l-Glu-Sar derivative of acyclovir, l-Glu(acyclovir)-Sar was also investigated and showed not to take place. Consequently, l-Glu-Sar seems to be a poor pro-moiety for hPEPT1-mediated transport. PMID:15854810

  11. Structure and Function of Nucleoside Hydrolases from Physcomitrella patens and Maize Catalyzing the Hydrolysis of Purine, Pyrimidine, and Cytokinin Ribosides1[W

    PubMed Central

    Kopečná, Martina; Blaschke, Hanna; Kopečný, David; Vigouroux, Armelle; Končitíková, Radka; Novák, Ondřej; Kotland, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Moréra, Solange; von Schwartzenberg, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive characterization of the nucleoside N-ribohydrolase (NRH) family in two model plants, Physcomitrella patens (PpNRH) and maize (Zea mays; ZmNRH), using in vitro and in planta approaches. We identified two NRH subclasses in the plant kingdom; one preferentially targets the purine ribosides inosine and xanthosine, while the other is more active toward uridine and xanthosine. Both subclasses can hydrolyze plant hormones such as cytokinin ribosides. We also solved the crystal structures of two purine NRHs, PpNRH1 and ZmNRH3. Structural analyses, site-directed mutagenesis experiments, and phylogenetic studies were conducted to identify the residues responsible for the observed differences in substrate specificity between the NRH isoforms. The presence of a tyrosine at position 249 (PpNRH1 numbering) confers high hydrolase activity for purine ribosides, while an aspartate residue in this position confers high activity for uridine. Bud formation is delayed by knocking out single NRH genes in P. patens, and under conditions of nitrogen shortage, PpNRH1-deficient plants cannot salvage adenosine-bound nitrogen. All PpNRH knockout plants display elevated levels of certain purine and pyrimidine ribosides and cytokinins that reflect the substrate preferences of the knocked out enzymes. NRH enzymes thus have functions in cytokinin conversion and activation as well as in purine and pyrimidine metabolism. PMID:24170203

  12. Synthesis of Conformationally North-Locked Pyrimidine Nucleosides Built on an Oxa-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Ludek, Olaf R.; Marquez, Victor E.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with a known 3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane scaffold (I), the relocation of the fused cyclopropane ring bond and the shifting of the oxygen atom to an alternative location engendered a new 2-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane template (II) that mimics more closely the tetrahydrofuran ring of conventional nucleosides. The synthesis of this new class of locked nucleosides involved a novel approach that required the isocyanate II (B = NCO) with a hydroxyl-protected scaffold as a pivotal intermediate that was obtained in eleven steps from a known dihydrofuran precursor. The completion of the nucleobases was successfully achieved by quenching the isocyanate with the lithium salts of the corresponding acrylic amides that led to the uracil and thymidine precursors in a single step. Ring closure of these intermediates led to the target, locked nucleosides. The anti-HIV activity of 29 (uridine analogue), 31 (thymidine analogue), and 34 (cytidine analogue) was explored in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells or modified HOS cells (HOS-313) expressing the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK). Only the cytidine analogue showed moderate activity in HOS-313 cells, which means that the compounds are not good substrates for the cellular kinases. PMID:22026578

  13. Synthesis and biological investigations of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides coupled to a dihydropyridine/pyridinium salt redox chemical delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Wang, L; Wiebe, L I; Knaus, E E

    2001-11-01

    The syntheses, antiviral activities, and partition coefficients (P) of 3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3-carbonyl)-coupled nucleosides are described. These novel compounds were designed in an effort to enhance the lipophilicity, and thereby the delivery to the CNS, without compromising the anti-HSV-1 activity of the parental nucleosides. We have previously reported the synthesis of 3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3- carbonyl) analogs of 5-iodo-(5), 5-vinyl-(6), and (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridines (7). We now report the synthesis of 5-iodo-3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3- carbonyl)-5'-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyuridine (15) and 3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3-carbonyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (17). Quarternization of the 3'-O-(3-pyridylcarbonyl) compounds (10,12) using iodomethane afforded the corresponding 1-methyl pyridinium salts (13,14) which were reduced with sodium dithionite to yield the corresponding 3'-O-1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3-carbonyl compounds (15,16). The deprotection of 3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl- 3-carbonyl)-5'-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl-2'-deoxyuridine (16) with Bu4N+F- afforded 3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3-carbonyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (17). Compounds 5-7 and 15 were evaluated for their antiviral activity in vitro against HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV, and VZV, and were found to retain anti-HSV-1, HSV-2 and VZV activity as compared to their parental nucleosides (1-3). In addition, the cellular toxicity of 3'-O-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3-carbonyl)-coupled compounds (5-7 and 15) was found to be lower than the parent nucleosides. The lipophilicity of compounds (5-7,15,17) are enhanced substantially, compared to the parent nucleosides, as indicated by an increase in corresponding P values (1-octanol-water) upon replacement of the C-3' hydroxyl by 1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3-carbonyl moiety. PMID:11822172

  14. The pivotal role of uridine-cytidine kinases in pyrimidine metabolism and activation of cytotoxic nucleoside analogues in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    van Kuilenburg, André B P; Meinsma, Rutger

    2016-09-01

    Uridine-cytidine kinase (UCK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine as well as the pharmacological activation of several cytotoxic pyrimidine ribonucleoside analogues. In this study, we investigated the functional role of two isoforms of UCK in neuroblastoma cell lines. Analysis of mRNA coding for UCK1 and UCK2 showed that UCK2 is the most abundantly expressed UCK in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines. Transient and stable overexpression of UCK2 in neuroblastoma cells increased the metabolism of uridine and cytidine as well as the cytotoxicity of 3-deazauridine. Knockdown of endogenous UCK2 as well as overexpression of UCK1 resulted in decreased metabolism of uridine and cytidine and protected the neuroblastoma cells from 3-deazauridine-induced toxicity. Subcellular localization studies showed that UCK1-GFP and UCK2-GFP were localized in the cell nucleus and cytosol, respectively. However, co-expression of UCK1 with UCK2 resulted in a nuclear localization of UCK2 instead of its normal cytosolic localization, thereby impairing its normal function. The physical association of UCK1 and UCK2 was further demonstrated through pull-down analysis using his-tagged UCK. The discovery that UCK2 is highly expressed in neuroblastoma opens the possibility for selectively targeting neuroblastoma cells using UCK2-dependent pyrimidine analogues, while sparing normal tissues. PMID:27239701

  15. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Thiophene[3,2-d]pyrimidine Derivatives as HIV-1 Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors with Significantly Improved Drug Resistance Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongwei; Fang, Zengjun; Li, Zhenyu; Huang, Boshi; Zhang, Heng; Lu, Xueyi; Xu, Haoran; Zhou, Zhongxia; Ding, Xiao; Daelemans, Dirk; De Clercq, Erik; Pannecouque, Christophe; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-09-01

    We designed and synthesized a series of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) with a piperidine-substituted thiophene[3,2-d]pyrimidine scaffold, employing a strategy of structure-based molecular hybridization and substituent decorating. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited broad-spectrum activity with low (single-digit) nanomolar EC50 values toward a panel of wild-type (WT), single-mutant, and double-mutant HIV-1 strains. Compound 27 was the most potent; compared with ETV, its antiviral efficacy was 3-fold greater against WT, 5-7-fold greater against Y181C, Y188L, E138K, and F227L+V106A, and nearly equipotent against L100I and K103N, though somewhat weaker against K103N+Y181C. Importantly, 27 has lower cytotoxicity (CC50 > 227 μM) and a huge selectivity index (SI) value (ratio of CC50/EC50) of >159101. 27 also showed favorable, drug-like pharmacokinetic and safety properties in rats in vivo. Molecular docking studies and the structure-activity relationships provide important clues for further molecular elaboration. PMID:27541578

  16. Synthesis and anti-DNA viral activities in vitro of certain 2,4-disubstituted-7-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)pyrrolo[2,3-d d pyrimidine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, B K; Ojwang, J O; Rando, R F; Huffman, J H; Revankar, G R

    1995-09-29

    Several novel 2,4-disubstituted-7-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D- arabinofuranosyl)pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines have been synthesized and evaluated for their anti-human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV), and anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activities in vitro. These nucleosides were prepared starting from 2-amino-4-chloro-7-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro- 3,5-di-O-benzoyl-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (3), which in turn was synthesized by direct glycosylation of the sodium salt of 2-amino-4-chloropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (1) with 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-3,5-di-O-benzoyl-alpha-D-arabinofuranosyl bromide (2). Displacement of the 4-chloro group of 3 with OH, NH2, NHOH, SH, and SeH nucleophiles furnished the corresponding nucleosides 6-8, 12, and 14, respectively. The 3'-deoxygenation of 2-amino-4-chloro-7- (2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (4) and subsequent amination gave 2,4-diamino-2',3'-dideoxy derivative 19. Catalytic hydrogenation of 3 followed by debenzoylation afforded 2-aminopyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine nucleoside 23. Among the compounds evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of HCMV (strain AD169) in MRC-5 cells using a plaque reduction assay, only 7 was significantly active in vitro with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.7 micrograms/mL (TI > 125), whereas the IC50 value of ganciclovir (DHPG) was 3.2 micrograms/mL. Strain D16 of HCMV was more resistant to 7 (IC50 11 micrograms/mL) than the AD169 strain. When 7 was tested in combination with DHPG, the resultant anti-HCMV activity was found to be moderately synergistic with no evidence of antagonism. Nucleoside 7 also reduced episomal HBV replication in human hepatoblastoma 2.2.15 cells with an IC50 of 0.7 micrograms/mL (TI > 143). Development of cells harboring HBV which had become resistant to the drug was not observed with 7. Compound 7 also exhibited significant activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (IC50 of 4.1 and 6.3 micrograms

  17. Synthesis and Anti-Influenza Activity of Pyridine, Pyridazine, and Pyrimidine C-Nucleosides as Favipiravir (T-705) Analogues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyi; Wan, Jinqiao; Hu, Yujian; Wu, Xiangyang; Prhavc, Marija; Dyatkina, Natalia; Rajwanshi, Vivek K; Smith, David B; Jekle, Andreas; Kinkade, April; Symons, Julian A; Jin, Zhinan; Deval, Jerome; Zhang, Qingling; Tam, Yuen; Chanda, Sushmita; Blatt, Lawrence; Beigelman, Leonid

    2016-05-26

    Influenza viruses are responsible for seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics which cause significant morbidity and mortality. Despite available vaccines, only partial protection is achieved. Currently, there are two classes of widely approved anti-influenza drugs: M2 ion channel blockers and neuraminidase inhibitors. However, the worldwide spread of drug-resistant influenza strains poses an urgent need for novel antiviral drugs, particularly with a different mechanism of action. Favipiravir (T-705), a broad-spectrum antiviral agent, has shown potent anti-influenza activity in cell-based assays, and its riboside (2) triphosphate inhibited influenza polymerase. In one of our approaches to treat influenza infection, we designed, prepared, and tested a series of C-nucleoside analogues, which have an analogy to 2 and were expected to act by a similar antiviral mechanism as favipiravir. Compound 3c of this report exhibited potent inhibition of influenza virus replication in MDCK cells, and its triphosphate was a substrate of and demonstrated inhibitory activity against influenza A polymerase. Metabolites of 3c are also presented. PMID:27120583

  18. Recent molecular advances in studies of the concentrative Na+-dependent nucleoside transporter (CNT) family: identification and characterization of novel human and mouse proteins (hCNT3 and mCNT3) broadly selective for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides (system cib).

    PubMed

    Ritzel, M W; Ng, A M; Yao, S Y; Graham, K; Loewen, S K; Smith, K M; Hyde, R J; Karpinski, E; Cass, C E; Baldwin, S A; Young, J D

    2001-01-01

    The human concentrative (Na+-linked) plasma membrane transport proteins hCNT1 and hCNT2, found primarily in specialized epithelia, are selective for pyrimidine nucleosides (system cit) and purine nucleosides (system cif), respectively. Both have orthologs in other mammalian species and belong to a gene family (CNT) that also includes members in lower vertebrates, insects, nematodes, pathogenic yeast and bacteria. The CNT transporter family also includes a newly identified human and mouse CNT3 transporter isoform. This paper reviews the studies of CNT transport proteins that led to the identification of hCNT3 and mCNT3, and gives an overview of the structural and functional properties of these latest CNT family members. hCNT3 and mCNT3 have primary structures that place them in a CNT subfamily separate from CNT1/2, transport a wide range of physiological pyrimidine and purine nucleosides and antineoplastic and antiviral nucleoside drugs (system cib), and exhibit a Na+:uridine coupling ratio of at least 2:1 (cf 1:1 for hCNT1/2). Cells and tissues containing hCNT3 transcripts include mammary gland, differentiated HL-60 cells, pancreas, bone marrow, trachea, liver, prostrate and regions of intestine, brain and heart. In HL-60 cells, hCNT3 is transcriptionally regulated by phorbol myristate (PMA). The hCNT3 gene, which contains an upstream PMA response element, mapped to 9q22.2 (cf chromosome 15 for hCNT1 and hCNT2). PMID:11396613

  19. Novel (2,6-difluorophenyl)(2-(phenylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)methanones with restricted conformation as potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Šimon, Petr; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Šaman, David; Stepan, George; Hu, Eric; Lansdon, Eric B; Jansa, Petr; Janeba, Zlatko

    2016-10-21

    To elucidate the structure-geometry-activity relationship in diarylpyrimidine family (DAPYs) containing carbonyl linker between the central pyrimidine core and phenyl type B-arm, a series of (2,6-difluorophenyl)(2-(phenylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)methanones was designed, prepared and tested for their anti-HIV-1 activity. The carbonyl linker bearing B phenyl arm was successfully attached at both C-2 and C-4 positions of the central pyrimidine ring using a new synthetic approach. Further modifications of target compounds are present at C-5 position of the pyrimidine ring. In vitro anti-HIV-1 activity study performed on a series of 22 compounds confirmed the crucial importance of both conformational rigidity between phenyl B arm and the pyrimidine core linked through the carbonyl bridge, as well as presence of fluoro substituents in ortho-positions of phenyl B moiety. The most potent derivative of the series, compound 17, having almost perpendicular angle within the two planes made from the B aromatic arm and the pyrimidine ring, exhibited low nanomolar anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50 = 4 nM) with no significant toxicity (CC50 > 57.1 μM). PMID:27371922

  20. The concentrative nucleoside transporter family, SLC28.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jennifer H; Owen, Ryan P; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2004-02-01

    The SLC28 family consists of three subtypes of sodium-dependent, concentrative nucleoside transporters, CNT1, CNT2, and CNT3 (SLC28A1, SLC28A2, and SLC28A3, respectively), that transport both naturally occurring nucleosides and synthetic nucleoside analogs used in the treatment of various diseases. These subtypes differ in their substrate specificities: CNT1 is pyrimidine-nucleoside preferring, CNT2 is purine-nucleoside preferring, and CNT3 transports both pyrimidine and purine nucleosides. Recent studies have identified key amino acid residues that are determinants of pyrimidine and purine specificity of CNT1 and CNT2. The tissue distributions of the CNTs vary: CNT1 is localized primarily in epithelia, whereas CNT2 and CNT3 have more generalized distributions. Nucleoside transporters in the SLC28 and SLC29 families play critical roles in nucleoside salvage pathways where they mediate the first step of nucleotide biosynthesis. In addition, these transporters work in concert to terminate adenosine signaling. SLC28 family members are crucial determinants of response to a variety of anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogs, as they modulate the entry of these analogs into target tissues. Further, this family is involved in the absorption and disposition of many nucleoside analogs. Several CNT single nucleoside polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified, but have yet to be characterized. PMID:12856181

  1. C-C Bond Formation: Synthesis of C5 Substituted Pyrimidine and C8 Substituted Purine Nucleosides Using Water Soluble Pd-imidate Complex.

    PubMed

    Gayakhe, Vijay; Ardhapure, Ajaykumar V; Kapdi, Anant R; Sanghvi, Yogesh S; Serrano, Jose Luis; Schulzke, Carola

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of a highly efficient, water soluble [Pd(Sacc)2 (TPA)2 ] complex for C-C bond formation is described. Additionally, application of the [Pd(Sacc)2 (TPA)2 ] complex for Suzuki-Miyaura arylation of all four nucleosides (5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine [5-IdU], 5-iodo-2'-deoxycytidine [5-IdC], 8-bromo-2'-deoxyadenosine, and 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine) with various aryl/heteroaryl boronic acids in plain water under milder conditions is demonstrated. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27248782

  2. Chemoselective N-Deacetylation of Protected Nucleosides and Nucleotides Promoted by Schwartz's Reagent

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Valentina; Serpi, Michaela; McGuigan, Christopher; Pertusati, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Protection and deprotection strategies involving the N-acetyl group are widely utilized in nucleoside and nucleotide chemistry. Herein, we present a mild and selective N-deacetylation methodology, applicable to purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, by means of Schwartz's reagent, compatible with most of the common protecting groups used in nucleoside chemistry. PMID:26492555

  3. Acid-Base and Metal Ion-Coordinating Properties of Pyrimidine-Nucleoside 5'-Diphosphates (CDP, UDP, dTDP) and of Several Simple Diphosphate Monoesters. Establishment of Relations between Complex Stability and Diphosphate Basicity.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, S. Ali A.; Song, Bin; Gregán, Fridrich; Sigel, Helmut

    1999-02-01

    The stability constants of the 1:1 complexes formed between Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), or Cd(2+) and the pyrimidine-nucleoside 5'-diphosphates CDP(3)(-), UDP(3)(-), and dTDP(3)(-) (= NDP(3)(-)) were determined by potentiometric pH titration in aqueous solution (I = 0.1 M, NaNO(3); 25 degrees C). For comparison, the same values were measured for the corresponding complexes with the simple diphosphate monoesters (R-DP(3)(-)) phenyl diphosphate, methyl diphosphate, and n-butyl diphosphate. The acidity constants for H(3)(CDP)(+/-), H(2)(UDP)(-), H(2)(dTDP)(-), and H(2)(R-DP)(-) were measured also via potentiometric pH titration and various comparisons with related constants are made. By plotting log versus for the complexes of all six diphosphates mentioned and by a careful evaluation of the deviation of the various data pairs from the straight-line correlations, the expectation is confirmed that in the M(UDP)(-) and M(dTDP)(-) complexes the metal ion is only diphosphate-coordinated. The straight-line equations, which result from the mentioned correlations, together with the pK(a) value of a given monoprotonated diphosphate monoester allow now to predict the stability of the corresponding M(R-DP)(-) complexes. In this way, the experimentally determined stability constants for the M(CDP)(-) complexes are evaluated and it is concluded that the pyridine-like N3 of the cytosine residue does not participate in complex formation; i.e., the stability of the M(CDP)(-) complexes is also solely determined by the coordination tendency of the diphosphate residue. In all the monoprotonated M(H;NDP) and M(H;R-DP) complexes both, H(+) and M(2+), are bound at the diphosphate group. Only the Cu(H;CDP) complex exists in aqueous solution in the form of three different isomers: about 15% of the species have Cu(2+) and H(+) at the diphosphate residue, in about 13% Cu(2+) is bound at N3 and H(+) at the terminal beta-phosphate group, and the

  4. Genetic Dissection of Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Salvage in Leishmania donovani*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Zachary N.; Gilroy, Caslin A.; Boitz, Jan M.; Ullman, Buddy; Yates, Phillip A.

    2012-01-01

    Protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus express the metabolic machinery to synthesize pyrimidine nucleotides via both de novo and salvage pathways. To evaluate the relative contributions of pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage to pyrimidine homeostasis in both life cycle stages of Leishmania donovani, individual mutant lines deficient in either carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), the first enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), a salvage enzyme, or both CPS and UPRT were constructed. The Δcps lesion conferred pyrimidine auxotrophy and a growth requirement for medium supplementation with one of a plethora of pyrimidine nucleosides or nucleobases, although only dihydroorotate or orotate could circumvent the pyrimidine auxotrophy of the Δcps/Δuprt double knockout. The Δuprt null mutant was prototrophic for pyrimidines but could not salvage uracil or any pyrimidine nucleoside. The capability of the Δcps parasites to infect mice was somewhat diminished but still robust, indicating active pyrimidine salvage by the amastigote form of the parasite, but the Δcps/Δuprt mutant was completely attenuated with no persistent parasites detected after a 4-week infection. Complementation of the Δcps/Δuprt clone with either CPS or UPRT restored infectivity. These data establish that an intact pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway is essential for the growth of the promastigote form of L. donovani in culture, that all uracil and pyrimidine nucleoside salvage in the parasite is mediated by UPRT, and that both the biosynthetic and salvage pathways contribute to a robust infection of the mammalian host by the amastigote. These findings impact potential therapeutic design and vaccine strategies for visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22367196

  5. 2',5'-Bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro-5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''- oxathiole-2'',2'-dioxide)pyrimidine (TSAO) nucleoside analogues: highlyselective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 that are targeted at the viral reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed Central

    Balzarini, J; Pérez-Pérez, M J; San-Félix, A; Schols, D; Perno, C F; Vandamme, A M; Camarasa, M J; De Clercq, E

    1992-01-01

    A series of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues containing [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro-5''-(4''-amino- 1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2''-dioxide)]-beta-D-ribofuranose as the pentose were found to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1(IIIB)] replication at a concentration of 0.06-0.8 microM but were not cytotoxic at a 1000- to 10,000-fold higher concentration. These nucleoside derivatives were also effective against various other HIV-1 strains, including those resistant to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, but not against HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus, Moloney murine sarcoma virus, or other RNA or DNA viruses. They proved to be highly specific inhibitors of the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase function of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, showing no marked inhibition of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-associated DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity, HIV-2 reverse transcriptase, DNA polymerase alpha, herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase, or Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase. Images PMID:1374900

  6. Origin, Utilization, and Recycling of Nucleosides in the Central Nervous System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipata, Piero Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The brain relies on the salvage of preformed purine and pyrimidine rings, mainly in the form of nucleosides, to maintain its nucleotide pool in the proper qualitative and quantitative balance. The transport of nucleosides from blood into neurons and glia is considered to be an essential prerequisite to enter their metabolic utilization in the…

  7. Transport characteristics of mouse concentrative nucleoside transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Niitani, Miho; Nishida, Kentaro; Okuda, Hiroto; Nagai, Katsuhito; Fujimoto, Sadaki; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2010-03-30

    Concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (CNT1, SLC28A1) is a key molecule for determining the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of a candidate compound derived from a pyrimidine nucleoside, but there is no available information on the differences in the functional profile of this ortholog between man and mouse. Here, using a clone of mouse CNT1 (mCNT1), we investigated its transport characteristics and substrate specificity for synthetic nucleoside analogues, and compared them with those of human CNT1 (hCNT1). In mCNT1-transfected Cos-7 cells, pyrimidine, but not purine, nucleosides showed sodium- and concentration-dependent uptake, and uridine uptake was competitively inhibited by uridine analogues, the rank order of the inhibitory effects being 5-bromouridine>3'-deoxyuridine>2'-deoxyuridine. cis- and trans-Inhibition studies involving synthetic nucleoside drugs revealed that gemcitabine and zidovudine greatly inhibited [(3)H]uridine uptake mediated by mCNT1 in the both cases, while cytarabine and zalcitabine showed small cis-inhibitory effect, and no trans-inhibitory effect on the uptake. These results demonstrate that the transport characteristics of mCNT1 are almost the same as those of hCNT1, suggesting that mice may be a good animal model in evaluation of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues as to their applicability in human therapy. PMID:20060452

  8. Characterization of nucleoside transport systems in cultured rat epididymal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Leung, G P; Ward, J L; Wong, P Y; Tse, C M

    2001-05-01

    The nucleoside transport systems in cultured epididymal epithelium were characterized and found to be similar between the proximal (caput and corpus) and distal (cauda) regions of the epididymis. Functional studies revealed that 70% of the total nucleoside uptake was Na(+) dependent, while 30% was Na(+) independent. The Na(+)-independent nucleoside transport was mediated by both the equilibrative nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR)-sensitive system (40%) and the NBMPR-insensitive system (60%), which was supported by a biphasic dose response to NBMPR inhibition. The Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]uridine uptake was selectively inhibited 80% by purine nucleosides, indicating that the purine nucleoside-selective N1 system is predominant. Since Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]guanosine uptake was inhibited by thymidine by 20% and Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]thymidine uptake was broadly inhibited by purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, this suggested the presence of the broadly selective N3 system accounting for 20% of Na(+)-dependent nucleoside uptake. Results of RT-PCR confirmed the presence of mRNA for equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1, ENT2, and concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) 2 and the absence of CNT1. It is suggested that the nucleoside transporters in epididymis may be important for sperm maturation by regulating the extracellular concentration of adenosine in epididymal plasma. PMID:11287319

  9. Aqueous microwaves assisted cross-coupling reactions applied to unprotected nucleosides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Len, Christophe; Hervé, Gwénaelle

    2015-02-01

    Nucleoside analogues have attracted much attention due to their potential biological activities. Amongst all synthetic nucleosides, C5-modified pyrimidines and C7- or C8-modified purines have mostly been prepared using palladium cross-coupling reactions and then studied as antitumoral and antiviral agents. Our objective is to focus this review on the Suzuki-Miyaura and on the Heck cross-couplings of nucleosides using microwave irradiations which are an alternative technology compatible with green chemistry and sustainable development.

  10. Nucleoside transport in primary cultured rabbit tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Neil R; Wu, Sharon K; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Lee, Vincent H L

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating the mechanisms of nucleoside transport in primary cultured rabbit tracheal epithelial cells (RTEC) grown on a permeable filter support. Uptake of (3)H-uridine, the model nucleoside substrate, from the apical fluid of primary cultured RTEC was examined with respect to its dependence on Na(+), substrate concentration, temperature and its sensitivity to inhibitors, other nucleosides and antiviral nucleoside analogs. Apical (3)H-uridine uptake in primary cultured RTEC was strongly dependent on an inward Na(+) gradient and temperature. Ten micromolar nitro-benzyl-mercapto-purine-ribose (NBMPR) (an inhibitor of es-type nucleoside transport in the nanomolar range) did not further inhibit this process. (3)H-uridine uptake from apical fluid was inhibited by basolateral ouabain (10 microM) and apical phloridzin (100 microM), indicating that uptake may involve a secondary active transport process. Uridine uptake was saturable with a K(m) of 3.4 +/- 1.8 microM and the V(max) of 24.3 +/- 5.2 pmoles/mg protein/30 s. Inhibition studies indicated that nucleoside analogs that have a substitution on the nucleobase competed with uridine uptake from apical fluid, but those with modifications on the ribose sugar including acyclic analogs were ineffective. The pattern of inhibition of apical (3)H-uridine, (3)H-inosine and (3)H-thymidine uptake into RTEC cells by physiological nucleosides was consistent with multiple systems: A pyrimidine-selective transport system (CNT1); a broad nucleoside substrate transport system that excludes inosine (CNT4) and an equilibrative NBMPR-insensitive nucleoside transport system (ei type). These results indicate that the presence of apically located nucleoside transporters in the epithelial cells lining the upper respiratory tract can lead to a high accumulation of nucleosides in the trachea. At least one Na(+)-dependent, secondary, active transport process may mediate the apical absorption of nucleosides or

  11. Compositions containing nucleosides and manganese and their uses

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.; Matrosova, Vera Y.; Levine, Rodney L.; Wehr, Nancy B.

    2015-11-17

    This invention encompasses methods of preserving protein function by contacting a protein with a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese). In addition, the invention encompasses methods of treating and/or preventing a side effect of radiation exposure and methods of preventing a side effect of radiotherapy comprising administration of a pharmaceutically effective amount of a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese) to a subject in need thereof. The compositions may comprise D. radiodurans extracts.

  12. Synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides using N-benzyloxycarbonyl-blocked nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Kiely, J.S.; Rapoport, H.

    1982-10-20

    The exo amino groups of 2'-deoxyadenosine and 2'-deoxycytidine have been blocked as the benzyl carbamates, and 2'-deoxyguanosine has been blocked as its 2-N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)carbamate and 6-O-benzyl ether. These blocked nucleosides have been incorporated into an efficient oligodeoxyribonucleotide synthetic scheme, and the resulting oligomer has been successfully deblocked by using transfer hydrogenation. The deblocking conditions result in no reduction of the pyrimidine bases.

  13. The SLC28 (CNT) and SLC29 (ENT) nucleoside transporter families: a 30-year collaborative odyssey.

    PubMed

    Young, James D

    2016-06-15

    Specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins are required for passage of nucleosides and hydrophilic nucleoside analogues across biological membranes. Physiologic nucleosides serve as central salvage metabolites in nucleotide biosynthesis, and nucleoside analogues are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer and antiviral diseases. The nucleoside adenosine modulates numerous cellular events via purino-receptor cell signalling pathways. Human NTs are divided into two structurally unrelated protein families: the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family and the SLC29 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. Human CNTs are inwardly directed Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters found predominantly in intestinal and renal epithelial and other specialized cell types. Human ENTs mediate bidirectional fluxes of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides down their concentration gradients and are ubiquitously found in most, possibly all, cell types. Both protein families are evolutionarily old: CNTs are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; ENTs are widely distributed in mammalian, lower vertebrate and other eukaryote species. This mini-review describes a 30-year collaboration with Professor Stephen Baldwin to identify and understand the structures and functions of these physiologically and clinically important transport proteins. PMID:27284054

  14. N-alkylated and O-alkylated regioisomers of 5-(hydroxyalkyl)pyrimidines: Synthesis and structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meščić, Andrijana; Glavač, Danijel; Osmanović, Amar; Završnik, Davorka; Cetina, Mario; Makuc, Damjan; Plavec, Janez; Ametamey, Simon M.; Raić-Malić, Silvana

    2013-05-01

    Synthesis of novel 5-(2-hydroxyethyl) and 5-(3-hydroxypropyl) acyclic pyrimidine nucleosides is described. Introduction of penciclovir-like side chain in C-5 substituted pyrimidines occurred both at N-1 and O-2 position of pyrimidine moiety that was corroborated by correlation of signals in 2D HMBC spectra. Therefore, alkylation of 5-(acetoxyethyl)-4-methoxypyrimidin-2-one (2a) and 5-(acetoxypropyl)-4-methoxypyrimidin-2-one (2b) afforded mixture of N- and O-acyclic pyrimidine nucleosides in the ratio of 49: 45 (4a: 5a) and 41: 21 (4b: 5b). Structures of 5-(acetoxyalkyl)-4-methoxypyrimidin-2-ones, as the first examples of 4-methoxypyrimidin-2-ones, were unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  15. Electron scattering from pyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenares, Rafael; Fuss, Martina C.; Oller, Juan C.; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; Almeida, Diogo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; García, Gustavo

    2014-04-01

    Electron scattering from pyrimidine (C4H4N2) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following different experimental and theoretical approaches, total, elastic and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  16. Nucleoside transporter expression and function in cultured mouse astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Huang, Rong; Yu, Albert C H; Fung, King Y; Rathbone, Michel P; Hertz, Leif

    2005-10-01

    Uptake of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides in astrocytes is important for several reasons: (1) uptake of nucleosides contributes to nucleic acid synthesis; (2) astrocytes synthesize AMP, ADP, and ATP from adenosine and GTP from guanosine; and (3) adenosine and guanosine function as neuromodulators, whose effects are partly terminated by cellular uptake. It has previously been shown that adenosine is rapidly accumulated by active uptake in astrocytes (Hertz and Matz, Neurochem Res 14:755-760, 1989), but the ratio between active uptake and metabolism-driven uptake of adenosine is unknown, as are uptake characteristics for guanosine. The present study therefore aims at providing detailed information of nucleoside transport and transporters in primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction identified the two equilibrative nucleoside transporters, ENT1 and ENT2, together with the concentrative nucleoside transporter CNT2, whereas CNT3 was absent, and CNT1 expression could not be investigated. Uptake studies of tritiated thymidine, formycin B, guanosine, and adenosine (3-s uptakes at 1-4 degrees C to study diffusional uptake and 1-60-min uptakes at 37 degrees C to study concentrative uptake) demonstrated a fast diffusional uptake of all four nucleosides, a small, Na(+)-independent and probably metabolism-driven uptake of thymidine (consistent with DNA synthesis), larger metabolism-driven uptakes of guanosine (consistent with synthesis of DNA, RNA, and GTP) and especially of adenosine (consistent with rapid nucleotide synthesis), and Na(+)-dependent uptakes of adenosine (consistent with its concentrative uptake) and guanosine, rendering neuromodulator uptake independent of nucleoside metabolism. Astrocytes are accordingly well suited for both intense nucleoside metabolism and metabolism-independent uptake to terminate neuromodulator effects of adenosine and guanosine. PMID:15892125

  17. The crystal structure and activity of a putative trypanosomal nucleoside phosphorylase reveal it to be a homodimeric uridine phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Eric T.; Mudeppa, Devaraja G.; Gillespie, J. Robert; Mueller, Natascha; Napuli, Alberto J.; Arif, Jennifer A.; Ross, Jenni; Arakaki, Tracy L.; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Zucker, Frank; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylases and uridine phosphorylases are closely related enzymes involved in purine and pyrimidine salvage, respectively, which catalyze the removal of the ribosyl moiety from nucleosides so that the nucleotide base may be recycled. Parasitic protozoa generally are incapable of de novo purine biosynthesis so the purine salvage pathway is of potential therapeutic interest. Information about pyrimidine biosynthesis in these organisms is much more limited. Though all seem to carry at least a subset of enzymes from each pathway, the dependency on de novo pyrimidine synthesis versus salvage varies from organism to organism and even from one growth stage to another. We have structurally and biochemically characterized a putative nucleoside phosphorylase from the pathogenic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei and find that it is a homodimeric uridine phosphorylase. This is the first characterization of a uridine phosphorylase from a trypanosomal source despite this activity being observed decades ago. Although this gene was broadly annotated as a putative nucleoside phosphorylase, it was widely inferred to be a purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Our characterization of this trypanosomal enzyme shows that it is possible to distinguish between purine and uridine phosphorylase activity at the sequence level based on the absence or presence of a characteristic uridine phosphorylase-specificity insert. We suggest that this recognizable feature may aid in proper annotation of the substrate specificity of enzymes in the nucleoside phosphorylase family. PMID:20070944

  18. Multicomponent reactions in nucleoside chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Buchowicz, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review covers sixty original publications dealing with the application of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) in the synthesis of novel nucleoside analogs. The reported approaches were employed for modifications of the parent nucleoside core or for de novo construction of a nucleoside scaffold from non-nucleoside substrates. The cited references are grouped according to the usually recognized types of the MCRs. Biochemical properties of the novel nucleoside analogs are also presented (if provided by the authors). PMID:25161730

  19. Functional characterization of nucleoside transporter gene replacements in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Boitz, Jan M; Galazka, Jon; Arendt, Cassandra S; Carter, Nicola S; Ullman, Buddy

    2006-12-01

    Leishmania donovani express two nucleoside transporters of non-overlapping ligand selectivity. To evaluate the physiological role of nucleoside transporters in L. donovani, homozygous null mutants of the genes encoding the LdNT1 adenosine-pyrimidine nucleoside transporter and the LdNT2 inosine-guanosine transporter were created singly and in combination by single targeted gene replacement followed by selection for loss-of-heterozygosity. The mutant alleles were verified by Southern blotting, and the effects of gene replacement on transport phenotype were evaluated by rapid sampling transport measurements and by drug resistance profiles. The Deltaldnt1, Deltaldnt2, and Deltaldnt1/Deltaldnt2 mutants were all capable of proliferation in defined culture medium supplemented with any of a spectrum of purine nucleobases or nucleosides, except that a Deltaldnt2 lesion conferred an inability to efficiently salvage exogenous xanthosine, a newly discovered ligand of LdNT2. Each of the three knockout strains was viable as promastigotes and axenic amastigotes and capable of maintaining an infection in J774 and bone marrow-derived murine macrophages. These genetic studies demonstrate: (1) that L. donovani promastigotes, axenic amastigotes, and tissue amastigotes are viable in the absence of nucleoside transport; (2) that nucleoside transporters are not essential for sustaining an infection in mammalian host cells; (3) that the phagolysosome of macrophages is likely to contain purines that are not LdNT1 or LdNT2 ligands, i.e., nucleobases. Furthermore, the Deltaldnt1, Deltaldnt2, and Deltaldnt1/Deltaldnt2 knockouts offer a unique genetically defined null background for the biochemical and genetic characterization of nucleoside transporter genes and cDNAs from phylogenetically diverse species and of genetically manipulated LdNT1 and LdNT2 constructs. PMID:17050001

  20. Analysis of Nucleosides in Municipal Wastewater by Large-Volume Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Alex J.; Lunte, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosides are components of both DNA and RNA, and contain either a ribose (RNA) or 2deoxyribose (DNA) sugar and a purine or pyrimidine base. In addition to DNA and RNA turnover, modified nucleosides found in urine have been correlated to a diminished health status associated with AIDS, cancers, oxidative stress and age. Nucleosides found in municipal wastewater influent are potentially useful markers of community health status, and as of now, remain uninvestigated. A method was developed to quantify nucleosides in municipal wastewater using large-volume injection, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. Method accuracy ranged from 92 to 139% when quantified by using isotopically labeled internal standards. Precision ranged from 6.1 to 19% of the relative standard deviation. The method’s utility was demonstrated by the analysis of twenty-four hour composite wastewater influent samples that were collected over a week to investigate community nucleoside excretion. Nucleosides originating from RNA were more abundant that DNA over the study period, with total loads of nucleosides ranging from 2 to 25 kg/day. Given this relatively high amount of nucleosides found over the study period they present an attractive analyte for the investigation of community health. PMID:26322136

  1. Conserved Glutamate Residues Glu-343 and Glu-519 Provide Mechanistic Insights into Cation/Nucleoside Cotransport by Human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter hCNT3*

    PubMed Central

    Slugoski, Melissa D.; Smith, Kyla M.; Ng, Amy M. L.; Yao, Sylvia Y. M.; Karpinski, Edward; Cass, Carol E.; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Young, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 (hCNT3) utilizes electrochemical gradients of both Na+ and H+ to accumulate pyrimidine and purine nucleosides within cells. We have employed radioisotope flux and electrophysiological techniques in combination with site-directed mutagenesis and heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes to identify two conserved pore-lining glutamate residues (Glu-343 and Glu-519) with essential roles in hCNT3 Na+/nucleoside and H+/nucleoside cotransport. Mutation of Glu-343 and Glu-519 to aspartate, glutamine, and cysteine severely compromised hCNT3 transport function, and changes included altered nucleoside and cation activation kinetics (all mutants), loss or impairment of H+ dependence (all mutants), shift in Na+:nucleoside stoichiometry from 2:1 to 1:1 (E519C), complete loss of catalytic activity (E519Q) and, similar to the corresponding mutant in Na+-specific hCNT1, uncoupled Na+ currents (E343Q). Consistent with close-proximity integration of cation/solute-binding sites within a common cation/permeant translocation pore, mutation of Glu-343 and Glu-519 also altered hCNT3 nucleoside transport selectivity. Both residues were accessible to the external medium and inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate when converted to cysteine. PMID:19380587

  2. Pyrimidine Salvage in Trypanosoma brucei Bloodstream Forms and the Trypanocidal Action of Halogenated Pyrimidiness

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Juma A. M.; Creek, Darren J.; Burgess, Karl; Allison, Harriet C.; Field, Mark C.; Mäser, Pascal; De Koning, Harry P.

    2016-01-01

    African trypanosomes are capable of both pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage of preformed pyrimidines from the host. However, uptake of pyrimidines in bloodstream form trypanosomes has not been investigated, making it difficult to judge the relative importance of salvage and synthesis or to design a pyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Detailed characterization of pyrimidine transport activities in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei found that these cells express a high-affinity uracil transporter (designated TbU3) that is clearly distinct from the procyclic pyrimidine transporters. This transporter had low affinity for uridine and 2′deoxyuridine and was the sole pyrimidine transporter expressed in these cells. In addition, thymidine was taken up inefficiently through a P1-type nucleoside transporter. Of importance, the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil was an excellent substrate for TbU3, and several 5-fluoropyrimidine analogs were investigated for uptake and trypanocidal activity; 5F-orotic acid, 5F-2′deoxyuridine displayed activity in the low micromolar range. The metabolism and mode of action of these analogs was determined using metabolomic assessments of T. brucei clonal lines adapted to high levels of these pyrimidine analogs, and of the sensitive parental strains. The analysis showed that 5-fluorouracil is incorporated into a large number of metabolites but likely exerts toxicity through incorporation into RNA. 5F-2′dUrd and 5F-2′dCtd are not incorporated into nucleic acids but act as prodrugs by inhibiting thymidylate synthase as 5F-dUMP. We present the most complete model of pyrimidine salvage in T. brucei to date, supported by genome-wide profiling of the predicted pyrimidine biosynthesis and conversion enzymes. PMID:23188714

  3. Inhibition of dengue virus through suppression of host pyrimidine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Yin; Bushell, Simon; Qing, Min; Xu, Hao Ying; Bonavia, Aurelio; Nunes, Sandra; Zhou, Jing; Poh, Mee Kian; Florez de Sessions, Paola; Niyomrattanakit, Pornwaratt; Dong, Hongping; Hoffmaster, Keith; Goh, Anne; Nilar, Shahul; Schul, Wouter; Jones, Susan; Kramer, Laura; Compton, Teresa; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2011-07-01

    Viral replication relies on the host to supply nucleosides. Host enzymes involved in nucleoside biosynthesis are potential targets for antiviral development. Ribavirin (a known antiviral drug) is such an inhibitor that suppresses guanine biosynthesis; depletion of the intracellular GTP pool was shown to be the major mechanism to inhibit flavivirus. Along similar lines, inhibitors of the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway could be targeted for potential antiviral development. Here we report on a novel antiviral compound (NITD-982) that inhibits host dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), an enzyme required for pyrimidine biosynthesis. The inhibitor was identified through screening 1.8 million compounds using a dengue virus (DENV) infection assay. The compound contains an isoxazole-pyrazole core structure, and it inhibited DENV with a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of 2.4 nM and a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) of >5 μM. NITD-982 has a broad antiviral spectrum, inhibiting both flaviviruses and nonflaviviruses with nanomolar EC(90)s. We also show that (i) the compound inhibited the enzymatic activity of recombinant DHODH, (ii) an NITD-982 analogue directly bound to the DHODH protein, (iii) supplementing the culture medium with uridine reversed the compound-mediated antiviral activity, and (iv) DENV type 2 (DENV-2) variants resistant to brequinar (a known DHODH inhibitor) were cross resistant to NITD-982. Collectively, the results demonstrate that the compound inhibits DENV through depleting the intracellular pyrimidine pool. In contrast to the in vitro potency, the compound did not show any efficacy in the DENV-AG129 mouse model. The lack of in vivo efficacy is likely due to the exogenous uptake of pyrimidine from the diet or to a high plasma protein-binding activity of the current compound. PMID:21507975

  4. The Ugi reaction in the generation of new nucleosides as potential antiviral and antileishmanial agents.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuesen; Zhang, Xinying; Bories, Christian; Loiseau, Philippe M; Torrence, Paul F

    2007-04-01

    5-Formyl-2'-deoxyuridine-3',5'-diacetate was converted to a small library of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleoside N-acylamino acid amides by means of a Ugi multicomponent reaction. The reaction allowed introduction of various substituents at the acyl moiety, at the amino acid alpha-amide group, and at the amino acid carboxyl function. Evaluation of these novel 5-substituted nucleosides against vaccinia virus and cowpox virus provided one compound with discernable activity against cowpox virus but five- to eightfold less active than the Cidofovir standard. More promising activity was seen for the inhibition of Leishmania donovani promastigotes. Several synthetic products showed antileishmanial activity in the 10(-5)M range. When compared to earlier studies demonstrating anti-orthopoxviral and antileishmanial activity of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides, these results imply that the 5-(N-acylamino acid amide)-derivatized pyrimidine nucleosides may possess more steric bulk, greater hydrophobicity, and more flexibility than is compatible with these particular biological activities. PMID:16996561

  5. Isolation and functional characterization of the PfNT1 nucleoside transporter gene from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Carter, N S; Ben Mamoun, C; Liu, W; Silva, E O; Landfear, S M; Goldberg, D E; Ullman, B

    2000-04-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most lethal form of human malaria, is incapable of de novo purine synthesis, and thus, purine acquisition from the host is an indispensable nutritional requirement. This purine salvage process is initiated by the transport of preformed purines into the parasite. We have identified a gene encoding a nucleoside transporter from P. falciparum, PfNT1, and analyzed its function and expression during intraerythrocytic parasite development. PfNT1 predicts a polypeptide of 422 amino acids with 11 transmembrane domains that is homologous to other members of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter family. Southern analysis and BLAST searching of The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) malaria data base indicate that PfNT1 is a single copy gene located on chromosome 14. Northern analysis of RNA from intraerythrocytic stages of the parasite demonstrates that PfNT1 is expressed throughout the asexual life cycle but is significantly elevated during the early trophozoite stage. Functional expression of PfNT1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes significantly increases their ability to take up naturally occurring D-adenosine (K(m) = 13.2 microM) and D-inosine (K(m) = 253 microM). Significantly, PfNT1, unlike the mammalian nucleoside transporters, also has the capacity to transport the stereoisomer L-adenosine (K(m) > 500 microM). Inhibition studies with a battery of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and bases as well as their analogs indicate that PfNT1 exhibits a broad substrate specificity for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides. These data provide compelling evidence that PfNT1 encodes a functional purine/pyrimidine nucleoside transporter whose expression is strongly developmentally regulated in the asexual stages of the P. falciparum life cycle. Moreover, the unusual ability to transport L-adenosine and the vital contribution of purine transport to parasite survival makes PfNT1 an attractive target for therapeutic evaluation. PMID

  6. Cloning and functional expression of a complementary DNA encoding a mammalian nucleoside transport protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Q Q; Yao, S Y; Ritzel, M W; Paterson, A R; Cass, C E; Young, J D

    1994-07-01

    Expression screening in Xenopus oocytes was used to isolate a cDNA from rat jejunal epithelium encoding a Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transport protein (named cNT1). The cDNA sequence of cNT1 predicts a protein of 648 amino acids (relative molecular mass 71,000) with 14 potential transmembrane domains. Data base searches indicate significant sequence similarity to the NUPC proton/nucleoside symporter of Escherichia coli. There is no sequence similarity between cNT1 and proteins of mammalian origin. Functionally, cNT1 exhibited the transport characteristics of the nucleoside transport system cit (selective for pyrimidine nucleosides and adenosine) and accepted both 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) as permeants (Km = 0.49 and 0.51 mM, respectively). The demonstration of transport of AZT by cNT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes provides the first direct evidence that AZT enters cells by transporter-mediated processes, as well as by passive diffusion. Consistent with the tissue distribution of system cit transport activity, transcripts for cNT1 were detected in kidney as well as jejunum. cNT1 therefore belongs to a potential new gene family and may be involved in the intestinal absorption and renal handling of pyrimidine nucleoside analogs used to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:8027026

  7. Na+ reabsorption in cultured rat epididymal epithelium via the Na+/nucleoside cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Leung, G P; Cheung, K H; Tse, C M; Wong, P Y

    2001-03-01

    The effect of nucleoside on Na+ reabsorption via Na+/nucleoside cotransporter in cultured rat epididymal epithelia was studied by short-circuit current (Isc) technique. Guanosine added apically stimulated Isc in a dose-dependent manner, with a median effective concentration (EC50) of 7 +/- 2 microM (mean +/- SEM). Removal of Na+ from the apical bathing solution or pretreatment with a nonspecific Na+/nucleoside cotransporter inhibitor, phloridzin, completely blocked the Isc response to guanosine. Moreover, the guanosine response was abolished by pretreatment of the tissue with ouabain, a Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of Na+/nucleoside cotransporter on the apical side and Na+/K+-ATPase on the basolateral side in Na+ reabsorption. In contrast, the Isc response to guanosine was not affected after desensitization of purinoceptors by ATP. Addition of the Na+/K+/2Cl- symport inhibitor bumetanide to the basolateral side or the nonspecific Cl- channel blocker diphenylamine-2-carboxylate to the apical side showed no effect on the Isc response to guanosine, excluding stimulation of Cl- secretion by guanosine as the cause of the guanosine-induced Isc. The Isc response to purine nucleoside (guanosine and inosine) was much higher than that to pyrimidine nucleoside (thymidine and cytidine). Consistent with substrate specificity, results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed mRNA for concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT2), which is a purine nucleoside-selective Na+/nucleoside cotransporter in the epididymis, but not for CNT1. It is suggested that the Na+/nucleoside cotransporter (i.e., CNT2) may be one of the elements involved in Na+ and fluid reabsorption in the epididymis, thereby providing an optimal microenvironment for the maturation and storage of spermatozoa. PMID:11207189

  8. A New Subfamily of Polyphosphate Kinase 2 (Class III PPK2) Catalyzes both Nucleoside Monophosphate Phosphorylation and Nucleoside Diphosphate Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Motomura, Kei; Hirota, Ryuichi; Okada, Mai; Ikeda, Takeshi; Ishida, Takenori

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer of tens to hundreds of phosphate (Pi) residues linked by “high-energy” phosphoanhydride bonds as in ATP. PolyP kinases, responsible for the synthesis and utilization of polyP, are divided into two families (PPK1 and PPK2) due to differences in amino acid sequence and kinetic properties. PPK2 catalyzes preferentially polyP-driven nucleotide phosphorylation (utilization of polyP), which is important for the survival of microbial cells under conditions of stress or pathogenesis. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the PPK2 family could be divided into three subfamilies (classes I, II, and III). Class I and II PPK2s catalyze nucleoside diphosphate and nucleoside monophosphate phosphorylation, respectively. Here, we demonstrated that class III PPK2 catalyzes both nucleoside monophosphate and nucleoside diphosphate phosphorylation, thereby enabling us to synthesize ATP from AMP by a single enzyme. Moreover, class III PPK2 showed broad substrate specificity over purine and pyrimidine bases. This is the first demonstration that class III PPK2 possesses both class I and II activities. PMID:24532069

  9. A search for interstellar pyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Yan, Chi-Hung; Charnley, Steven B.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Huang, Hui-Chun

    2003-10-01

    We have searched three hot molecular cores for submillimetre emission from the nucleic acid building block pyrimidine. We obtain upper limits to the total pyrimidine (beam-averaged) column densities towards Sgr B2(N), Orion KL and W51 e1/e2 of 1.7 × 1014, 2.4 × 1014 and 3.4 × 1014 cm-2, respectively. The associated upper limits to the pyrimidine fractional abundances lie in the range (0.3-3) × 10-10. Implications of this result for interstellar organic chemistry, and for the prospects of detecting nitrogen heterocycles in general, are discussed briefly.

  10. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Luděk; Nencka, Radim; Huvarová, Ivana; Palus, Martin; Joao Alves, Maria; Gould, Ernest A; De Clercq, Erik; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    There is growing evidence that Zika virus (ZIKV) can cause devastating infant brain defects and other neurological disorders in humans. However, no specific antiviral therapy is available at present. We tested a series of 2'-C- or 2'-O-methyl-substituted nucleosides, 2'-C-fluoro-2'-C-methyl-substituted nucleosides, 3'-O-methyl-substituted nucleosides, 3'-deoxynucleosides, derivatives with 4'-C-azido substitution, heterobase-modified nucleosides, and neplanocins for their ability to inhibit ZIKV replication in cell culture. Antiviral activity was identified when 2'-C-methylated nucleosides were tested, suggesting that these compounds might represent promising lead candidates for further development of specific antivirals against ZIKV. PMID:27234417

  11. Evaluation of anti-HIV-1 mutagenic nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Isel, Catherine; El Safadi, Yazan; Smyth, Redmond P; Laumond, Géraldine; Moog, Christiane; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Because of their high mutation rates, RNA viruses and retroviruses replicate close to the threshold of viability. Their existence as quasi-species has pioneered the concept of "lethal mutagenesis" that prompted us to synthesize pyrimidine nucleoside analogues with antiviral activity in cell culture consistent with an accumulation of deleterious mutations in the HIV-1 genome. However, testing all potentially mutagenic compounds in cell-based assays is tedious and costly. Here, we describe two simple in vitro biophysical/biochemical assays that allow prediction of the mutagenic potential of deoxyribonucleoside analogues. The first assay compares the thermal stabilities of matched and mismatched base pairs in DNA duplexes containing or not the nucleoside analogues as follows. A promising candidate should display a small destabilization of the matched base pair compared with the natural nucleoside and the smallest gap possible between the stabilities of the matched and mismatched base pairs. From this assay, we predicted that two of our compounds, 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine, should be mutagenic. The second in vitro reverse transcription assay assesses DNA synthesis opposite nucleoside analogues inserted into a template strand and subsequent extension of the newly synthesized base pairs. Once again, only 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine are predicted to be efficient mutagens. The predictive potential of our fast and easy first line screens was confirmed by detailed analysis of the mutation spectrum induced by the compounds in cell culture because only compounds 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine were found to increase the mutation frequency by 3.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively. PMID:25398876

  12. Spectrum of activity and mechanisms of resistance of various nucleoside derivatives against gammaherpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Coen, Natacha; Duraffour, Sophie; Topalis, Dimitri; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela

    2014-12-01

    The susceptibilities of gammaherpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and animal rhadinoviruses, to various nucleoside analogs was investigated in this work. Besides examining the antiviral activities and modes of action of antivirals currently marketed for the treatment of alpha- and/or betaherpesvirus infections (including acyclovir, ganciclovir, penciclovir, foscarnet, and brivudin), we also investigated the structure-activity relationship of various 5-substituted uridine and cytidine molecules. The antiviral efficacy of nucleoside derivatives bearing substitutions at the 5 position was decreased if the bromovinyl was replaced by chlorovinyl. 1-β-D-Arabinofuranosyl-(E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil (BVaraU), a nucleoside with an arabinose configuration of the sugar ring, exhibited no inhibitory effect against rhadinoviruses but was active against EBV. On the other hand, the fluoroarabinose cytidine analog 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-aracytosine (FIAC) showed high selectivity indices against gammaherpesviruses that were comparable to those of brivudin. Additionally, we selected brivudin- and acyclovir-resistant rhadinoviruses in vitro and characterized them by phenotypic and genotypic (i.e., sequencing of the viral thymidine kinase, protein kinase, and DNA polymerase) analysis. Here, we reveal key amino acids in these enzymes that play an important role in substrate recognition. Our data on drug susceptibility profiles of the different animal gammaherpesvirus mutants highlighted cross-resistance patterns and indicated that pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives are phosphorylated by the viral thymidine kinase and purine nucleosides are preferentially activated by the gammaherpesvirus protein kinase. PMID:25267682

  13. Na+-dependent nucleoside transport in liver: two different isoforms from the same gene family are expressed in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Felipe, A; Valdes, R; Santo, B; Lloberas, J; Casado, J; Pastor-Anglada, M

    1998-03-01

    Hepatocytes show a Na+-dependent nucleoside transport activity that is kinetically heterogeneous and consistent with the expression of at least two independent concentrative Na+-coupled nucleoside transport systems (Mercader et al. Biochem. J. 317, 835-842, 1996). So far, only a single nucleoside carrier-related cDNA (SPNT) has been isolated from liver cells (Che et al. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 13596-13599, 1995). This cDNA presumably encodes a plasma membrane protein responsible for Na+-dependent purine nucleoside transport activity. Thus, the liver must express, at least, a second nucleoside transporter which should be pyrimidine-preferring. Homology cloning using RT-PCR revealed that a second isoform is indeed present in liver. This second isoform turned out to be identical to the 'epithelial-specific isoform' called cNT1, which shows in fact high specificity for pyrimidine nucleosides. Although cNT1 mRNA is present at lower amounts than SPNT mRNA, the amounts of cNT1 protein, when measured using isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies, were even higher than the SPNT protein levels. Moreover, partially purified basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from liver were enriched in the SPNT but not in the cNT1 protein, which suggests that the subcellular localization of these carrier proteins is different. SPNT and cNT1 protein amounts in crude membrane extracts from 6 h-regenerating rat livers are higher than in the preparations from sham-operated controls (3.5- and 2-fold, respectively). These results suggest that liver parenchymal cells express at least two different isoforms of concentrative nucleoside carriers, the cNT1 and SPNT proteins, which show differential regulation and subcellular localization. PMID:9480921

  14. Na+-dependent nucleoside transport in liver: two different isoforms from the same gene family are expressed in liver cells.

    PubMed Central

    Felipe, A; Valdes, R; Santo, B; Lloberas, J; Casado, J; Pastor-Anglada, M

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocytes show a Na+-dependent nucleoside transport activity that is kinetically heterogeneous and consistent with the expression of at least two independent concentrative Na+-coupled nucleoside transport systems (Mercader et al. Biochem. J. 317, 835-842, 1996). So far, only a single nucleoside carrier-related cDNA (SPNT) has been isolated from liver cells (Che et al. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 13596-13599, 1995). This cDNA presumably encodes a plasma membrane protein responsible for Na+-dependent purine nucleoside transport activity. Thus, the liver must express, at least, a second nucleoside transporter which should be pyrimidine-preferring. Homology cloning using RT-PCR revealed that a second isoform is indeed present in liver. This second isoform turned out to be identical to the 'epithelial-specific isoform' called cNT1, which shows in fact high specificity for pyrimidine nucleosides. Although cNT1 mRNA is present at lower amounts than SPNT mRNA, the amounts of cNT1 protein, when measured using isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies, were even higher than the SPNT protein levels. Moreover, partially purified basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from liver were enriched in the SPNT but not in the cNT1 protein, which suggests that the subcellular localization of these carrier proteins is different. SPNT and cNT1 protein amounts in crude membrane extracts from 6 h-regenerating rat livers are higher than in the preparations from sham-operated controls (3.5- and 2-fold, respectively). These results suggest that liver parenchymal cells express at least two different isoforms of concentrative nucleoside carriers, the cNT1 and SPNT proteins, which show differential regulation and subcellular localization. PMID:9480921

  15. Microbial transformation of nucleosides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamba, S. S.

    1979-01-01

    A study involving the use of coulter counter in studying the effects of neomycin on E. coli, S. aureus and A. aerogenes was completed. The purpose of this was to establish proper technique for enumeration of cells per ml. It was found that inhibitory effects on growth of E. coli and A. aerogenes, both gram negative organisms, were directly related to the concentration of neomycin used. However, in case S. aureus, a gram positive organism, a decreased inhibition was noted at higher concentrations. A paper entitled, Use of Coulter Counter in Studying Effect of Drugs on Cells in Culture 1 - Effects of Neomycin on E. coli, S. aureus and A. aerogenes, is attached in the appendix. Laboratory procedures were also established to study the effects of nucleoside antibiotic cordycepin on He La cell grown in suspension cultures.

  16. [Purine nucleoside phosphorylase].

    PubMed

    Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2013-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is one of the most important enzymes of the purine metabolism, wich promotes the recycling of purine bases. Nowadays is the actual to search for effective inhibitors of this enzyme which is necessary for creation T-cell immunodeficient status of the organism in the organs and tissues transplantation, and chemotherapy of a number pathologies as well. For their successful practical application necessary to conduct in-depth and comprehensive study of the enzyme, namely a structure, functions, and an affinity of the reaction mechanism. In the review the contemporary achievements in the study of PNP from various biological objects are presented. New data describing the structure of PNP are summarised and analysed. The physiological role of the enzyme is discussed. The enzyme basic reaction mechanisms and actions are considered. The studies on enzyme physicochemical, kinetic, and catalytic research are presented. PMID:24479338

  17. Structural basis of nucleoside and nucleoside drug selectivity by concentrative nucleoside transporters

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Zachary Lee; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Kiyoun; Lee, Minhee; Kwon, Do-Yeon; Hong, Jiyong; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) are responsible for cellular entry of nucleosides, which serve as precursors to nucleic acids and act as signaling molecules. CNTs also play a crucial role in the uptake of nucleoside-derived drugs, including anticancer and antiviral agents. Understanding how CNTs recognize and import their substrates could not only lead to a better understanding of nucleoside-related biological processes but also the design of nucleoside-derived drugs that can better reach their targets. Here, we present a combination of X-ray crystallographic and equilibrium-binding studies probing the molecular origins of nucleoside and nucleoside drug selectivity of a CNT from Vibrio cholerae. We then used this information in chemically modifying an anticancer drug so that it is better transported by and selective for a single human CNT subtype. This work provides proof of principle for utilizing transporter structural and functional information for the design of compounds that enter cells more efficiently and selectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03604.001 PMID:25082345

  18. [Determination of individual purine and pyrimidine bases in carbohydrate-rich food].

    PubMed

    Lassek, E; Montag, A

    1987-05-01

    The following method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of purine and pyrimidine bases in carbohydrate rich food: The bases were liberated from nucleic acids, nucleotides or nucleosides by acid hydrolysis in a pressure digestion vessel. A complete liberation without losses of purine bases occurs upon hydrolysis for 15 min at 240 degrees C with trifluoroacetic and formic acids (1+1; V + V), pyrimidine bases need 45 min at 240 degrees C. The products arising from side reactions (such as hydroxymethylfurfural from hexoses and furfural from pentoses) could be removed from the hydrolysate by extraction with dichlormethane. The liberated bases could be separated upon stepwise elution by cation exchange chromatography. They were detected and determined by UV-measurements, continuously monitoring at lambda = 260 nm, and integrating electronically. The evaluation was carried out by a method with internal standard. PMID:3604458

  19. Nucleoside transporters in the disposition and targeting of nucleoside analogs in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Mangravite, Lara M; Badagnani, Ilaria; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2003-10-31

    Systemic disposition of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs is dependent on renal handling of these compounds. There are five known, functionally characterized nucleoside transporters with varying substrate specificities for nucleosides: concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT1-CNT3; Solute Carrier (SLC) 28A1-28A3), which mediate the intracellular flux of nucleosides, and equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT1-ENT2; SLC29A1-SLC29A2), which mediate bi-directional facilitated diffusion of nucleosides. All five of these transporters are expressed in the kidney. Concentrative nucleoside transporters primarily localize to the apical membrane of renal epithelial cells while equilibrative nucleoside transporters primarily localize to the basolateral membrane. These transporters work in concert to mediate reabsorptive flux of naturally occurring nucleosides and nucleoside analogs. In addition, equilibrative transporters also participate in secretory flux of some nucleoside analogs. Nucleoside transporters also serve in the targeting of nucleoside analog therapies to renal tumors. This review examines the role that these transporters play in renal disposition of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs in both systemic and kidney-specific therapies. PMID:14612157

  20. Regulation of pyrimidine formation in Pseudomonas oryzihabitans.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2007-10-01

    The regulation of pyrimidine formation in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas oryzihabitans was investigated at the level of enzyme synthesis and at the level of activity for the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase. Although pyrimidine supplementation of succinate-grown P. oryzihabitans cells produced little effect on the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway enzyme activities, pyrimidine limitation experiments undertaken using an orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase mutant strain isolated from P. oryzihabitans ATCC 43272 indicated that repression of enzyme synthesis by pyrimidines was occurring. Following pyrimidine limitation of the succinate-grown decarboxylase mutant strain cells, aspartate transcarbamoylase and dihydroorotase activities were found to increase by about 3-fold while dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase activities were also observed to increase relative to their activities in the mutant strain cells grown on excess uracil. At the level of enzyme activity, aspartate transcarbamoylase in P. oryzihabitans was strongly inhibited by pyrophosphate, ADP, ATP and GTP in the presence of saturating substrate concentrations. PMID:17910097

  1. A Sustainable Multicomponent Pyrimidine Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Deibl, Nicklas; Ament, Kevin; Kempe, Rhett

    2015-10-14

    Since alcohols are accessible from indigestible biomass (lignocellulose), the development of novel preferentially catalytic reactions in which alcohols are converted into important classes of fine chemicals is a central topic of sustainable synthesis. Multicomponent reactions are especially attractive in organic chemistry as they allow the synthesis of large libraries of diversely functionalized products in a short time when run in a combinatorial fashion. Herein, we report a novel, regioselective, iridium-catalyzed multicomponent synthesis of pyrimidines from amidines and up to three (different) alcohols. This reaction proceeds via a sequence of condensation and dehydrogenation steps which give rise to selective C-C and C-N bond formations. While the condensation steps deoxygenate the alcohol components, the dehydrogenations lead to aromatization. Two equiv of hydrogen and water are liberated in the course of the reactions. PN5P-Ir-pincer complexes, recently developed in our laboratory, catalyze this sustainable multicomponent process most efficiently. A total of 38 different pyrimidines were synthesized in isolated yields of up to 93%. Strong points of the new protocol are its regioselectivity and thus the immediate access to pyrimidines that are highly and unsymmetrically decorated with alkyl or aryl substituents. The combination of this novel protocol with established methods for converting alcohols to nitriles now allows to selectively assemble pyrimidines from four alcohol building blocks and 2 equiv of ammonia. PMID:26414993

  2. Binding of nucleotides to nucleoside diphosphate kinase: a calorimetric study.

    PubMed

    Cervoni, L; Lascu, I; Xu, Y; Gonin, P; Morr, M; Merouani, M; Janin, J; Giartosio, A

    2001-04-17

    The source of affinity for substrates of human nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinases is particularly important in that its knowledge could be used to design more effective antiviral nucleoside drugs (e.g., AZT). We carried out a microcalorimetric study of the binding of enzymes from two organisms to various nucleotides. Isothermal titration calorimetry has been used to characterize the binding in terms of Delta G degrees, Delta H degrees and Delta S degrees. Thermodynamic parameters of the interaction of ADP with the hexameric NDP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum and with the tetrameric enzyme from Myxococcus xanthus, at 20 degrees C, were similar and, in both cases, binding was enthalpy-driven. The interactions of ADP, 2'deoxyADP, GDP, and IDP with the eukaryotic enzyme differed in enthalpic and entropic terms, whereas the Delta G degrees values obtained were similar due to enthalpy--entropy compensation. The binding of the enzyme to nonphysiological nucleotides, such as AMP--PNP, 3'deoxyADP, and 3'-deoxy-3'-amino-ADP, appears to differ in several respects. Crystallography of the protein bound to 3'-deoxy-3'-amino-ADP showed that the drug was in a distorted position, and was unable to interact correctly with active site side chains. The interaction of pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates with the hexameric enzyme is characterized by a lower affinity than that with purine nucleotides. Titration showed the stoichiometry of the interaction to be abnormal, with 9--12 binding sites/hexamer. The presence of supplementary binding sites might have physiological implications. PMID:11294625

  3. Three-dimensional structure of E. Coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase at 0.99 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Abramchik, Yu. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2016-03-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs) catalyze the reversible phosphorolysis of nucleosides and are key enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism. They are essential for normal cell function and can catalyze the transglycosylation. Crystals of E. coli PNP were grown in microgravity by the capillary counterdiffusion method through a gel layer. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined by the molecular-replacement method at 0.99 Å resolution. The structural features are considered, and the structure of E. coli PNP is compared with the structures of the free enzyme and its complexes with purine base derivatives established earlier. A comparison of the environment of the purine base in the complex of PNP with formycin A and of the pyrimidine base in the complex of uridine phosphorylase with thymidine revealed the main structural features of the base-binding sites. Coordinates of the atomic model determined with high accuracy were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB_ID: 4RJ2).

  4. Syntheses of Isoxazoline-Carbocyclic Nucleosides and Their Antiviral Evaluation: A Standard Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Quadrelli, Paolo; Vazquez Martinez, Naiara; Scrocchi, Roberto; Corsaro, Antonino; Pistarà, Venerando

    2014-01-01

    The current synthesis of racemic purine and pyrimidine isoxazoline-carbocyclic nucleosides is reported, detailing the key-steps for standard and reliable preparations. Improved yields were obtained by the proper tuning of the single synthetic steps, opening the way for the preparation of a variety of novel compounds. Some of the obtained compounds were also evaluated against a wide variety of DNA and RNA viruses including HIV. No specific antiviral activity was observed in the cases at hand. Novel compounds were prepared for future biological tests. PMID:25544956

  5. Functional and genetic diversity in the concentrative nucleoside transporter, CNT1, in human populations.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jennifer H; Mangravite, Lara M; Owen, Ryan P; Urban, Thomas J; Chan, Wendy; Carlson, Elaine J; Huang, Conrad C; Kawamoto, Michiko; Johns, Susan J; Stryke, Douglas; Ferrin, Thomas E; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2004-03-01

    The concentrative nucleoside transporter, CNT1 (SLC28A1), mediates the cellular uptake of naturally occurring pyrimidine nucleosides and many structurally diverse anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogs. As a first step toward understanding whether genetic variation in CNT1 contributes to variation in the uptake and disposition of clinically used nucleoside analogs, we determined the haplotype structure and functionally analyzed all coding region variants of CNT1 identified in ethnically diverse populations (100 African Americans, 100 European Americans, 30 Asians, 10 Mexican Americans, and 7 Pacific Islanders) (Leabman et al., 2003). A total of 58 coding region haplotypes were identified using PHASE analysis, 44 of which contained at least one amino acid variant. More than half of the coding region haplotypes were population-specific. Using site-directed mutagenesis, 15 protein-altering CNT1 variants, including one amino acid insertion and one base pair (bp) deletion, were constructed and expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. All variant transporters took up [3H]thymidine with the exception of CNT1-Ser546Pro, a rare variant, and CNT1-1153del, a single bp deletion found at a frequency of 3% in the African American population. The bp deletion results in a frame-shift followed by a stop-codon. The anticancer nucleoside analog gemcitabine had a reduced affinity for CNT1-Val189Ile (a common CNT1 variant found at a frequency of 26%) compared with reference CNT1 (IC50=13.8 +/- 0.60 microM for CNT1-reference and 23.3 +/- 1.5 microM for CNT1-Val189Ile, p<0.05). These data suggest that common genetic variants of CNT1 may contribute to variation in systemic and intracellular levels of anti-cancer nucleoside analogs. PMID:14978229

  6. Characterization of intestinal absorption of mizoribine mediated by concentrative nucleoside transporters in rats.

    PubMed

    Mori, Nobuhiro; Yokooji, Tomoharu; Kamio, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Teruo

    2008-05-31

    Mizoribine, an imidazole nucleoside, is an inhibitor of purine synthesis and has been used as an orally available immunosuppressive agent in human renal transplantation. In the present study, the intestinal absorption of mizoribine was characterized by examining the contribution of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT1, CNT2) in rats. When mizoribine was administered orally in conscious rats, the bioavailability of mizoribine estimated by urinary excretion percentage of unchanged mizoribine was a dose dependent: 53.1+/-6.0% at 5 mg/kg and 24.0+/-5.1% at 20 mg/kg. In in-situ loop studies, the disappearance rate, or absorption rate, of mizoribine from the intestinal lumen was comparable between 1 and 5 mg/kg, but significantly lower at 25 mg/kg. Coadministration of adenosine (a substrate of both CNT1 and CNT2), thymidine (a CNT1 substrate) and inosine (a CNT2 substrate) significantly suppressed the intestinal mizoribine absorption, depending on the nucleoside concentrations coadministered. Gemcitabine (a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue, a CNT1 substrate) and ribavirin (a purine nucleoside analog, a CNT2 substrate) also significantly suppressed the mizoribine intestinal absorption. Bile salts such as sodium cholate and sodium glycocholate (10 mM) also significantly suppressed the intestinal mizoribine absorption, but not ribavirin absorption. Mizoribine is an amphoteric compound, however, the suppression of intestinal absorption by bile salts was not ascribed to the electrostatic interaction or micellar formation between mizoribine and bile salts. In conclusion, the intestinal absorption of mizoribine is mediated by CNT1 and CNT2, and nucleoside-derived drugs such as gemcitabine and ribavirin can suppress the intestinal absorption of mizoribine. Bile salts such as sodium glycocholate were also found to cause interaction with mizoribine. PMID:18371949

  7. Nucleoside transporter proteins as biomarkers of drug responsiveness and drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Pérez-Torras, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoside and nucleobase analogs are currently used in the treatment of solid tumors, lymphoproliferative diseases, viral infections such as hepatitis and AIDS, and some inflammatory diseases such as Crohn. Two gene families are implicated in the uptake of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs into cells, SCL28 and SLC29. The former encodes hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3 proteins. They translocate nucleosides in a Na+ coupled manner with high affinity and some substrate selectivity, being hCNT1 and hCNT2 pyrimidine- and purine-preferring, respectively, and hCNT3 a broad selectivity transporter. SLC29 genes encode four members, being hENT1 and hENT2 the only two which are unequivocally implicated in the translocation of nucleosides and nucleobases (the latter mostly via hENT2) at the cell plasma membrane. Some nucleoside-derived drugs can also interact with and be translocated by members of the SLC22 gene family, particularly hOCT and hOAT proteins. Inter-individual differences in transporter function and perhaps, more importantly, altered expression associated with the disease itself might modulate the transporter profile of target cells, thereby determining drug bioavailability and action. Drug transporter pharmacology has been periodically reviewed. Thus, with this contribution we aim at providing a state-of-the-art overview of the clinical evidence generated so far supporting the concept that these membrane proteins can indeed be biomarkers suitable for diagnosis and/or prognosis. Last but not least, some of these transporter proteins can also be envisaged as drug targets, as long as they can show “transceptor” functions, in some cases related to their role as modulators of extracellular adenosine levels, thereby providing a functional link between P1 receptors and transporters. PMID:25713533

  8. Involvement of concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 in intestinal absorption of trifluorothymidine, a novel antitumor nucleoside, in rats.

    PubMed

    Okayama, Takashige; Yoshisue, Kunihiro; Kuwata, Keizo; Komuro, Masahito; Ohta, Shigeru; Nagayama, Sekio

    2012-02-01

    ααα-Trifluorothymidine (TFT), an anticancer nucleoside analog, is a potent thymidylate synthase inhibitor. TFT exerts its antitumor activity primarily by inducing DNA fragmentation after incorporation of the triphosphate form of TFT into the DNA. Although an oral combination of TFT and a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor has been clinically developed, there is little information regarding TFT absorption. Therefore, we investigated TFT absorption in the rat small intestine. After oral administration of TFT in rats, more than 75% of the TFT was absorbed. To identify the uptake transport system, uptake studies were conducted by using everted sacs prepared from rat small intestines. TFT uptake was saturable, significantly reduced under Na(+)-free conditions, and strongly inhibited by the addition of an endogenous pyrimidine nucleoside. From these results, we suggested the involvement of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) in TFT absorption into rat small intestine. In rat small intestines, the mRNAs coding for rat CNT1 (rCNT1) and rCNT2, but not for rCNT3, were predominantly expressed. To investigate the roles of rCNT1 and rCNT2 in TFT uptake, we conducted uptake assays by using Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with rCNT1 complementary RNA (cRNA) and rCNT2 cRNA. TFT uptake by X. laevis oocytes injected with rCNT1 cRNA, and not rCNT2 cRNA, was significantly greater than that by water-injected oocytes. In addition, in situ single-pass perfusion experiments performed using rat jejunum regions showed that thymidine, a substrate for CNT1, strongly inhibited TFT uptake. In conclusion, TFT is absorbed via rCNT1 in the intestinal lumen in rats. PMID:22076553

  9. Purification and characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from developing embryos of Hyalomma dromedarii.

    PubMed

    Kamel, M Y; Fahmy, A S; Ghazy, A H; Mohamed, M A

    1991-04-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Hyalomma dromedarii, the camel tick, was purified to apparent homogeneity. A molecular weight of 56,000 - 58,000 was estimated for both the native and denatured enzyme, suggesting that the enzyme is monomeric. Unlike purine nucleoside phosphorylase preparations from other tissues, the H. dromedarii enzyme was unstable in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol. The enzyme had a sharp pH optimum at pH 6.5. It catalyzed the phosphorolysis and arsenolysis of ribo- and deoxyribo-nucleosides of hypoxanthine and guanine, but not of adenine or pyrimidine nucleosides. The Km values of the enzyme at the optimal pH for inosine, deoxyinosine, guanosine, and deoxyguanosine were 0.31, 0.67, 0.55, and 0.33 mM, respectively. Inactivation and kinetic studies suggested that histidine and cysteine residues were essential for activity. The pKa values determined for catalytic ionizable groups were 6-7 and 8-9. The enzyme was completely inactivated by thiol reagents and reactivated by excess beta-mercaptoethanol. The enzyme was also susceptible to pH-dependent photooxidation in the presence of methylene blue, implicating histidine. Initial velocity studies showed an intersecting pattern of double-reciprocal plots of the data, consistent with a sequential mechanism. PMID:1905141

  10. Allelic isoforms of the H+/nucleoside co-transporter (CaCNT) from Candida albicans reveal separate high- and low-affinity transport systems for nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Slugoski, Melissa D; Loewen, Shaun K; Ng, Amy M L; Baldwin, Stephen A; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D

    2004-11-01

    Contigs 19-10196 and 19-20196 of the Stanford Candida albicans genome sequence databank encode two putative allelic isoforms of C. albicans CaCNT, a recently characterized 608 amino acid residue H+-coupled fungal member of the CNT family of concentrative nucleoside transport proteins. The single Ser/Gly difference between CaCNT/19-20196 and CaCNT occurs at position 328 in putative TM 7, and corresponds to a Ser/Gly substitution previously shown to contribute to the contrasting pyrimidine and purine nucleoside selectivities of human (h) and rat (r) Na+-dependent CNT1 and CNT2. CaCNT/19-10196 differs from CaCNT by four amino acids, but has Gly at position 328. These new proteins were recreated by site-directed mutagenesis of CaCNT and characterized functionally by heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. In marked contrast to h/rCNT1/2, both CaCNT/19-10196 and CaCNT/19-20196 exhibited permeant selectivities for purine nucleosides (adenosine, guanosine and inosine) and uridine similar to that of CaCNT. However, although H+-coupled, CaCNT/19-20196 exhibited a approximately 10-fold higher apparent Km for uridine than either CaCNT or CaCNT/19-10196. CaCNT/19-20196 also exhibited a low apparent affinity for inosine. We conclude that the three proteins correspond to high-affinity (CaCNT, CaCNT/19-10196) and low-affinity (CaCNT/19-20196) allelic isoforms of the C. albicans CNT nucleoside transporter. This is the first example of a single amino acid residue substitution altering a CNT protein's overall apparent affinity for nucleosides. PMID:15543539

  11. 1-Benzyl-6-phenyl­imino-5-(pyrrol-2-yl­idene)hexa­hydro­pyrimidine-2,4-dione

    PubMed Central

    Tamazyan, Rafael; Ayvazyan, Armen; Martirosyan, Vahan; Avagyan, Kristine; Martirosyan, Ashot

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, C21H20N4O2, a potential anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, the pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation, while the hydrogenated pyrimidine ring adopts a weakly expressed twist conformation. The mol­ecules are connected into infinite chains via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21201507

  12. A Novel [15N] Glutamine Flux using LC-MS/MS-SRM for Determination of Nucleosides and Nucleobases

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Feng; Bhowmik, Salil Kumar; Putluri, Vasanta; Gu, Franklin; Gohlke, Jie; Von Rundstedt, Friedrich Carl; Dasgupta, Subhamoy; Krishnapuram, Rashmi; O’Malley, Bert W.; Sreekumar, Arun; Putluri, Nagireddy

    2016-01-01

    The growth of cancer cells relies more on increased proliferation and autonomy compared to non-malignant cells. The rate of de novo nucleotide biosynthesis correlates with cell proliferation rates. In part, glutamine is needed to sustain high rates of cellular proliferation as a key nitrogen donor in purine and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. In addition, glutamine serves as an essential substrate for key enzymes involved in the de novo synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Here, we developed a novel liquid chromatography (LC-MS) to quantify glutamine-derived [15N] nitrogen flux into nucleosides and nucleobases (purines and pyrimidines). For this, DNA from 5637 bladder cancer cell line cultured in 15N labelled glutamine and then enzymatically hydrolyzed by sequential digestion. Subsequently, DNA hydrolysates were separated by LC-MS and Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) was employed to identify the nucleobases and nucleosides. Thus, high sensitivity and reproducibility of the method make it a valuable tool to identify the nitrogen flux primarily derived from glutamine and can be further adaptable for high throughput analysis of large set of DNA in a clinical setting. PMID:27158554

  13. Insights into the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum as chemotherapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Krungkrai, Sudaratana R; Krungkrai, Jerapan

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Artemisinins remain as the first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria although drug resistance has already emerged and spread in Southeast Asia. Thus, to fight this disease, there is an urgent need to develop new antimalarial drugs for malaria chemotherapy. Unlike human host cells, P. falciparum cannot salvage preformed pyrimidine bases or nucleosides from the extracellular environment and relies solely on nucleotides synthesized through the de novo biosynthetic pathway. This review presents significant progress on understanding the de novo pyrimidine pathway and the functional enzymes in the human parasite P. falciparum. Current knowledge in genomics and metabolomics are described, particularly focusing on the parasite purine and pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism. These include gene annotation, characterization and molecular mechanism of the enzymes that are different from the human host pathway. Recent elucidation of the three-dimensional crystal structures and the catalytic reactions of three enzymes: dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, as well as their inhibitors are reviewed in the context of their therapeutic potential against malaria. PMID:27262062

  14. Primary structure and functional expression of a cDNA encoding the bile canalicular, purine-specific Na(+)-nucleoside cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Che, M; Ortiz, D F; Arias, I M

    1995-06-01

    We previously characterized a purine-specific Na(+)-nucleoside cotransport system in bile canalicular membrane. The function of this transport system may be related to conserving nucleosides and preventing cholestasis. We report here the isolation of a cDNA encoding a Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporter from rat liver using an expression cloning strategy. The substrate specificities and kinetic characteristics of the cloned cotransporter are consistent with the properties of the Na(+)-dependent, purine-selective nucleoside transporter in bile canalicular membranes. The nucleotide sequence predicts a protein of 659 amino acids (72 kDa) with 14 putative membrane-spanning domains. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcripts are present in liver and several other tissues. Data base searches indicate significant sequence similarity to the pyrimidine-selective nucleoside transporter (cNT1) of rat jejunum. Although these two subtypes of Na(+)-nucleoside cotransporter have different substrate specificities and tissue localizations, they are members of a single gene family. PMID:7775409

  15. Synthesis, structural, conformational and DFT studies of N-3 and O-4 alkylated regioisomers of 5-(hydroxypropyl)pyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salihović, Mirsada; Osmanović, Amar; Špirtović-Halilović, Selma; Roca, Sunčica; Meščić, Andrijana; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Trifunović, Snežana; Završnik, Davorka; Sofić, Emin

    2015-07-01

    Because of the great pharmacological potential of the pyrimidine motif, novel C-5 substituted N-3 acyclic and O-4 acyclic pyrimidine derivatives were prepared as an interesting class of compounds for biological evaluation. Introduction of the 2,3-dihydroxypropyl (DHP) and penciclovir (PCV)-like side chains to 2-methoxypyrimidin-4-one (2) afforded a mixture of N- and O-acyclic pyrimidine nucleosides in the ratio of 54: 29 (3:4) and 57:21 (5:6) with N-3 isomer being dominant. Distinction between N- and O-alkylated pyrimidine moiety was deduced from extensive experimental FT-IR, HPLC-MS and 1D (1H, 13C) and 2D (COSY, HMQC and HMBC) NMR analyses. The N-, O-regioisomers were also examined by computational method at density functional theory (DFT) RB3LYP/6-31G(d), 6-31G∗∗ and 6-31+G∗ levels. DFT global chemical reactivity descriptors (total energy, chemical hardness, electronic chemical potential and electrophilicity) were calculated for the isomers and used to predict and describe their relative stability and reactivity. The chemical reactivity indices were related to the C2sbnd N3sbnd C4 bond angle. Theoretical predictions can be used to compare chemical reactivity and stability with future biological evaluation and behaviour of these compounds.

  16. Base-Modified Nucleosides: Etheno Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Jahnz-Wechmann, Zofia; Framski, Grzegorz R.; Januszczyk, Piotr A.; Boryski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This review presents synthesis and chemistry of nucleoside analogs, possessing an additional fused, heterocyclic ring of the “etheno” type, such as 1,N6-ethenoadenosine, 1,N4-ethenocytidine, 1,N2-ethenoguanosine, and other related derivatives. Formation of ethenonucleosides, in the presence of α-halocarbonyl reagents and their mechanism, stability, and degradation, reactions of substitution and transglycosylation, as well as their application in the nucleoside synthesis, have been described. Some of the discussed compounds may be applied as chemotherapeutic agents in antiviral and anticancer treatment, acting as pro-nucleosides of already known, biologically active nucleoside analogs. PMID:27200341

  17. Marine Nucleosides: Structure, Bioactivity, Synthesis and Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ri-Ming; Chen, Yin-Ning; Zeng, Ziyu; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds. PMID:25474189

  18. The Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Uridine Phosphorylase Reveals a Distinct Subfamily of Nucleoside Phosphorylases

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Timothy H.; Christoffersen, S.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I.; Terreni, M.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2011-09-20

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an ?/? monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is {approx}7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.

  19. Effect of dietary nucleosides on growth and maturation of the developing gut in the rat.

    PubMed

    Uauy, R; Stringel, G; Thomas, R; Quan, R

    1990-05-01

    Dietary nucleoside (DN) as a precursor for nucleic acid synthesis may be important for rapidly dividing cells, since gut epithelial cells have limited capacity for de novo purine and pyrimidine synthesis. We evaluated in a controlled blinded study the effect of added nucleosides, 0.8% by weight, given for 2 weeks, on gut growth and maturation in 20 weanling rats. Mucosal protein and DNA in the proximal intestinal segment were 50% and 77% higher, respectively, in the DN-supplemented group (n = 10; p less than 0.05). Villus height based on cell count was 25% greater in the DN group (p less than 0.05). Maltase activity was significantly greater in proximal, middle, and distal intestinal segments, and the largest increase, 87%, was seen in the proximal gut mucosa. The maltase/lactase ratio was also higher in this segment. Increases in sucrase were less prominent. Lactase was minimally affected. The pattern of change in disaccharidase activity suggests that DN may enhance gut growth and maturation of the intestine in the weanling rat, the effects being more pronounced in the proximal segment. Diets free of nucleosides and nitrogenous bases may have adverse effects on the gut. PMID:2358983

  20. The search for and identification of amino acids, nucleobases and nucleosides in samples returned from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, Charles W.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril; Kuo, Kenneth C.; Stalling, David L.; Zumwalt, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the returned Mars samples for biologically important organic compounds, with emphasis on amino acid, the puring and pyrimidine bases, and nucleosides is proposed. These studies would be conducted on subsurface samples obtained by drilling past the surface oxidizing layer with emphasis on samples containing the larges quantities of organic carbon as determined by the rover gas chromatographic mass spectrometer (GCMS). Extraction of these molecules from the returned samples will be performed using the hydrothermal extraction technique described by Cheng and Ponnamperuma. More rigorous extraction methods will be developed and evaluated. For analysis of the extract for free amino acids or amino acids present in a bound or peptidic form, aliquots will be analyzed by capillary GCMS both before and after hydrolysis with 6N hydrochloric acid. Establishment of the presence of amino acids would then lead to the next logical step which would be the use of chiral stationary gas chromatography phases to determine the enatiomeic composition of the amino acids present, and thus potentially establish their biotic or abiotic origin. Confirmational analyses for amino acids would include ion-exchange and reversed-phase liquid chromatographic analysis. For analyses of the returned Mars samples for nucleobases and nucleosides, affinity and reversed-phase liquid chromatography would be utilized. This technology coupled with scanning UV detection for identification, presents a powerful tool for nucleobase and nucleoside analysis. Mass spectrometric analysis of these compounds would confirm their presence in samples returned form Mars.

  1. Molecular cloning, functional expression and chromosomal localization of a cDNA encoding a human Na+/nucleoside cotransporter (hCNT2) selective for purine nucleosides and uridine.

    PubMed

    Ritzel, M W; Yao, S Y; Ng, A M; Mackey, J R; Cass, C E; Young, J D

    1998-01-01

    Two Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters implicated in adenosine and uridine transport in mammalian cells are distinguished functionally on the basis of substrate specificity: CNT1 is selective for pyrimidine nucleosides but also transports adenosine; CNT2 (also termed SPNT) is selective for purine nucleosides but also transports uridine. Both proteins belong to a gene family that includes the NupC proton/nucleoside symporter of E. coli. cDNAs encoding members of the CNT family have been isolated from rat tissues (jejunum, brain, liver; rCNT1 and rCNT2/SPNT) and, most recently, human kidney (hCNT1 and hSPNT1). Here, the molecular cloning and functional characterization of a CNT2/SPNT-type transporter from human small intestine are described. The encoded 658-residue protein (hCNT2 in the nomenclature) had the same predicted amino acid sequence as human kidney hSPNT1, except for a polymorphism at residue 75 (Arg substituted by Ser), and was 83 and 72% identical to rCNT2 and hCNT1, respectively. Sequence differences between hCNT2 and rCNT2 were greatest at the N-terminus. In Xenopus oocytes, recombinant hCNT2 exhibited the functional characteristics of a Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporter with selectivity for adenosine, other purine nucleosides and uridine (adenosine and uridine K(m) app values 8 and 40 microM, respectively). hCNT2 transcripts were found in kidney and small intestine but, unlike rCNT2, were not detected in liver. Deoxyadenosine, which undergoes net renal secretion in humans, was less readily transported than adenosine. hCNT2 also mediated small, but significant, fluxes of the antiviral purine nucleoside analogue 2',3'-dideoxyinosine. hCNT2 is, therefore potentially involved in both the intestinal absorption and renal handling of purine nucleosides (including adenosine), uridine and purine nucleoside drugs. The gene encoding hCNT2 was mapped to chromosome 15q15. PMID:10087507

  2. Identification of a nucleoside/nucleobase transporter from Plasmodium falciparum, a novel target for anti-malarial chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, M D; Hyde, R J; Yao, S Y; McRobert, L; Cass, C E; Young, J D; McConkey, G A; Baldwin, S A

    2000-01-01

    Plasmodium, the aetiologic agent of malaria, cannot synthesize purines de novo, and hence depends upon salvage from the host. Here we describe the molecular cloning and functional expression in Xenopus oocytes of the first purine transporter to be identified in this parasite. This 422-residue protein, which we designate PfENT1, is predicted to contain 11 membrane-spanning segments and is a distantly related member of the widely distributed eukaryotic protein family the equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). However, it differs profoundly at the sequence and functional levels from its homologous counterparts in the human host. The parasite protein exhibits a broad substrate specificity for natural nucleosides, but transports the purine nucleoside adenosine with a considerably higher apparent affinity (K(m) 0.32+/-0.05 mM) than the pyrimidine nucleoside uridine (K(m) 3.5+/-1.1 mM). It also efficiently transports nucleobases such as adenine (K(m) 0.32+/-0.10 mM) and hypoxanthine (K(m) 0.41+/-0.1 mM), and anti-viral 3'-deoxynucleoside analogues. Moreover, it is not sensitive to classical inhibitors of mammalian ENTs, including NBMPR [6-[(4-nitrobenzyl)thio]-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine, or nitrobenzylthioinosine] and the coronary vasoactive drugs, dipyridamole, dilazep and draflazine. These unique properties suggest that PfENT1 might be a viable target for the development of novel anti-malarial drugs. PMID:10861212

  3. Variability of gemcitabine accumulation and its relationship to expression of nucleoside transporters in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Koo

    2012-05-01

    The concentrative nucleoside transporter CNT1 and equilibrated nucleoside transporter ENT1 mediate the cellular uptake of naturally occurring pyrimidine and purine nucleosides and many structurally diverse anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogs, thereby regulating drug responses or toxicity at the target site. The objectives of this study were to analyze interindividual variations in the cellular accumulation of gemcitabine and to examine the correlation between the uptake of gemcitabine and expression levels of CNT1 and ENT1 transporters. Gemcitabine was a substrate for both CNT1 and ENT1 with higher affinity to CNT1 than to ENT1. The difference in gemcitabine uptake was 4.8-fold in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 subjects. Among these, the CNT1- and ENT1-mediated uptake of gemcitabine was 14.3- and 16.5-folds, respectively. CNT1-mediated gemcitabine uptake showed a higher correlation with the CNT1 expression level than did ENT1-mediated uptake with ENT1 expression level. In conclusion, CNT1 seemed to be a major contributing factor to gemcitabine uptake in PBMCs and showed 14.3-fold inter-individual variations. However, ENT1-mediated uptake of gemcitabine might compensate for the total uptake of gemcitabine; therefore, the variation in the apparent accumulation of gemcitabine was smaller than that of the individual transporters. PMID:22644860

  4. Alpha-carboxy nucleoside phosphonates as universal nucleoside triphosphate mimics

    PubMed Central

    Balzarini, Jan; Das, Kalyan; Bernatchez, Jean A.; Martinez, Sergio E.; Ngure, Marianne; Keane, Sarah; Ford, Alan; Maguire, Nuala; Mullins, Niki; John, Jubi; Kim, Youngju; Dehaen, Wim; Vande Voorde, Johan; Liekens, Sandra; Naesens, Lieve; Götte, Matthias; Maguire, Anita R.; Arnold, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    Polymerases have a structurally highly conserved negatively charged amino acid motif that is strictly required for Mg2+ cation-dependent catalytic incorporation of (d)NTP nucleotides into nucleic acids. Based on these characteristics, a nucleoside monophosphonate scaffold, α-carboxy nucleoside phosphonate (α-CNP), was designed that is recognized by a variety of polymerases. Kinetic, biochemical, and crystallographic studies with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase revealed that α-CNPs mimic the dNTP binding through a carboxylate oxygen, two phosphonate oxygens, and base-pairing with the template. In particular, the carboxyl oxygen of the α-CNP acts as the potential equivalent of the α-phosphate oxygen of dNTPs and two oxygens of the phosphonate group of the α-CNP chelate Mg2+, mimicking the chelation by the β- and γ-phosphate oxygens of dNTPs. α-CNPs (i) do not require metabolic activation (phosphorylation), (ii) bind directly to the substrate-binding site, (iii) chelate one of the two active site Mg2+ ions, and (iv) reversibly inhibit the polymerase catalytic activity without being incorporated into nucleic acids. In addition, α-CNPs were also found to selectively interact with regulatory (i.e., allosteric) Mg2+-dNTP-binding sites of nucleos(t)ide-metabolizing enzymes susceptible to metabolic regulation. α-CNPs represent an entirely novel and broad technological platform for the development of specific substrate active- or regulatory-site inhibitors with therapeutic potential. PMID:25733891

  5. Three new double-headed nucleotides with additional nucleobases connected to C-5 of pyrimidines; synthesis, duplex and triplex studies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Pawan K; Hansen, Jonas; Jedinak, Lukas; Reslow-Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hornum, Mick; Nielsen, Poul

    2016-02-15

    In the search for double-coding DNA-systems, three new pyrimidine nucleosides, each coded with an additional nucleobase anchored to the major groove face, are synthesized. Two of these building blocks carry a thymine at the 5-position of 2'-deoxyuridine through a methylene linker and a triazolomethylene linker, respectively. The third building block carries an adenine at the 6-position of pyrrolo-2'-deoxycytidine through a methylene linker. These double-headed nucleosides are introduced into oligonucleotides and their effects on the thermal stabilities of duplexes are studied. All studied double-headed nucleotide monomers reduce the thermal stability of the modified duplexes, which is partially compensated by using consecutive incorporations of the modified monomers or by flanking the new double-headed analogs with members of our former series containing propyne linkers. Also their potential in triplex-forming oligonucleotides is studied for two of the new double-headed nucleotides as well as the series of analogs with propyne linkers. The most stable triplexes are obtained with single incorporations of additional pyrimidine nucleobases connected via the propyne linker. PMID:26778611

  6. Nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from psychrophilic bacterium Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus--preparation of an immobilized biocatalyst for the enzymatic synthesis of therapeutic nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Fresco-Taboada, Alba; Serra, Immacolata; Fernández-Lucas, Jesús; Acebal, Carmen; Arroyo, Miguel; Terreni, Marco; de la Mata, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase (NDT) from the psychrophilic bacterium Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus CECT 4074 has been cloned and produced for the first time. A preliminary characterization of the recombinant protein indicates that the enzyme is an NDT type II since it catalyzes the transfer of 2'-deoxyribose between purines and pyrimidines. The enzyme (BpNDT) displays a high activity and stability in a broad range of pH and temperature. In addition, different approaches for the immobilization of BpNDT onto several supports have been studied in order to prepare a suitable biocatalyst for the one-step industrial enzymatic synthesis of different therapeutic nucleosides. Best results were obtained by adsorbing the enzyme on PEI-functionalized agarose and subsequent cross-linking with aldehyde-dextran (20 kDa and 70% oxidation degree). The immobilized enzyme could be recycled for at least 30 consecutive cycles in the synthesis of 2'-deoxyadenosine from 2'-deoxyuridine and adenine at 37 °C and pH 8.0, with a 25% loss of activity. High conversion yield of trifluridine (64.4%) was achieved in 2 h when 20 mM of 2'-deoxyuridine and 10 mM 5-trifluorothymine were employed in the transglycosylation reaction catalyzed by immobilized BpNDT at 37 °C and pH 7.5. PMID:25090115

  7. Conformation-sensitive nucleoside analogues as topology-specific fluorescence turn-on probes for DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes

    PubMed Central

    Tanpure, Arun A.; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probes that can discriminate G-quadruplex (GQ) structures and indentify efficient GQ binders on the basis of topology and nucleic acid type is highly desired to advance GQ-directed therapeutic strategies. In this context, we describe the development of minimally perturbing and environment-sensitive pyrimidine nucleoside analogues, based on a 5-(benzofuran-2-yl)uracil core, as topology-specific fluorescence turn-on probes for human telomeric DNA and RNA GQs. The pyrimidine residues of one of the loop regions (TTA) of telomeric DNA and RNA GQ oligonucleotide (ON) sequences were replaced with 5-benzofuran-modified 2′-deoxyuridine and uridine analogues. Depending on the position of modification the fluorescent nucleoside analogues distinguish antiparallel, mixed parallel-antiparallel and parallel stranded DNA and RNA GQ topologies from corresponding duplexes with significant enhancement in fluorescence intensity and quantum yield. Further, these GQ sensors enabled the development of a simple fluorescence binding assay to quantify topology- and nucleic acid-specific binding of small molecule ligands to GQ structures. Together, our results demonstrate that these nucleoside analogues are useful GQ probes, which are anticipated to provide new opportunities to study and discover efficient G-quadruplex binders of therapeutic potential. PMID:26202965

  8. Structural modifications of nucleosides in ionic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vineet; Parmar, Virinder S.; Malhotra, Sanjay V.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleoside chemistry represents an important research area for drug discovery, as many nucleoside analogs are prominent drugs and have been widely applied for cancer and viral chemotherapy. However, the synthesis of modified nucleosides presents a major challenge, which is further aggravated by poor solubility of these compounds in common organic solvents. Most of the currently available methods for nucleoside modification employ toxic high boiling solvents; require long reaction time and tedious workup methods. As such, there is constant effort to develop process chemistry in alternative medium to limit the use of organic solvents that are hazardous to the environment and can be deleterious to human health. One such approach is to use ionic liquids, which are ‘designer materials’ with unique and tunable physico-chemical properties. Studies have shown that methodologies using ionic liquids are highly efficient and convenient for the synthesis of nucleoside analogs, as demonstrated by the preparation of pharmaceutically important anti-viral drugs. This article summarizes recent efforts on nucleoside modification using ionic liquids. PMID:20178825

  9. De novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis mainly occurs outside of plastids, but a previously undiscovered nucleobase importer provides substrates for the essential salvage pathway in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Witz, Sandra; Jung, Benjamin; Fürst, Sarah; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2012-04-01

    Nucleotide de novo synthesis is highly conserved among organisms and represents an essential biochemical pathway. In plants, the two initial enzymatic reactions of de novo pyrimidine synthesis occur in the plastids. By use of green fluorescent protein fusions, clear support is provided for a localization of the remaining reactions in the cytosol and mitochondria. This implies that carbamoyl aspartate, an intermediate of this pathway, must be exported and precursors of pyrimidine salvage (i.e., nucleobases or nucleosides) are imported into plastids. A corresponding uracil transport activity could be measured in intact plastids isolated from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) buds. PLUTO (for plastidic nucleobase transporter) was identified as a member of the Nucleobase:Cation-Symporter1 protein family from Arabidopsis thaliana, capable of transporting purine and pyrimidine nucleobases. A PLUTO green fluorescent protein fusion was shown to reside in the plastid envelope after expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Heterologous expression of PLUTO in an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the bacterial uracil permease uraA allowed a detailed biochemical characterization. PLUTO transports uracil, adenine, and guanine with apparent affinities of 16.4, 0.4, and 6.3 μM, respectively. Transport was markedly inhibited by low concentrations of a proton uncoupler, indicating that PLUTO functions as a proton-substrate symporter. Thus, a protein for the absolutely required import of pyrimidine nucleobases into plastids was identified. PMID:22474184

  10. Enzymology of Pyrimidine Metabolism and Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Vincenzetti, Silvia; Polzonetti, Valeria; Micozzi, Daniela; Pucciarelli, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that disorders of pyrimidine pathways may lead to neurological, hematological, immunological diseases, renal impairments, and association with malignancies. Nucleotide homeostasis depends on the three stages of pyrimidine metabolism: de novo synthesis, catabolism and recycling of these metabolites. Cytidine and uridine, in addition to be used as substrates for pyrimidine nucleotide salvaging, also act as the precursors of cytidine triphosphate used in the biosynthetic pathway of both brain's phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine via the Kennedy cycle. The synthesis in the brain of phosphatidylcholine and other membrane phosphatides can utilize, in addition to glucose, three compounds present in the blood stream: choline, uridine, and a polyunsaturated fatty acids like docosahexaenoic acid. Some authors, using rat models, found that oral administration of two phospholipid precursors such as uridine and omega-3 fatty acids, along with choline from the diet, can increase the amount of synaptic membrane generated by surviving striatal neurons in rats with induced Parkinson's disease. Other authors found that in hypertensive rat fed with uridine and choline, cognitive deficit resulted improved. Uridine has also been recently considered as a neuroactive molecule, because of its involvement in important neurological functions by improving memory, sleep disorders, anti-epileptic effects, as well as neuronal plasticity. Cytidine and uridine are uptaken by the brain via specific receptors and successively salvaged to the corresponding nucleotides. The present review is devoted to the enzymology of pyrimidine pathways whose importance has attracted the attention of several researchers investigating on the mechanisms underlying the physiopathology of brain. PMID:27063261

  11. Broad-spectrum antiviral and cytocidal activity of cyclopentenylcytosine, a carbocyclic nucleoside targeted at CTP synthetase.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, E; Murase, J; Marquez, V E

    1991-06-15

    Cyclopentenylcytosine (Ce-Cyd) is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent active against DNA viruses [herpes (cytomegalo), pox (vaccinia)], (+)RNA viruses [picorna (polio, Coxsackie, rhino), toga (Sindbis, Semliki forest), corona], (-)RNA viruses [orthomyxo (influenza), paramyxo (parainfluenza, measles), arena (Junin, Tacaribe), rhabdo (vesicular stomatitis)] and (+/-)RNA viruses (reo). Ce-Cyd is a more potent antiviral agent than its saturated counterpart, cyclopentylcytosine (carbodine, C-Cyd). Ce-Cyd also has potent cytocidal activity against a number of tumor cell lines. The putative target enzyme for both the antiviral and antitumor action of Ce-Cyd is assumed to be the CTP synthetase that converts UTP to CTP. In keeping with this hypothesis was the finding that the antiviral and cytocidal effects of Ce-Cyd are readily reversed by Cyd and, to a lesser extent, Urd, but not by other nucleosides such as dThd or dCyd. In contrast, pyrazofurin and 6-azauridine, two nucleoside analogues that are assumed to interfere with OMP decarboxylase, another enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, potentiate the cytocidal activity of Ce-Cyd. Ce-Cyd should be further pursued, as such and in combination with OMP decarboxylase inhibitors, for its therapeutic potential in the treatment of both viral and neoplastic diseases. PMID:1710119

  12. Involvement of Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 in Intestinal Absorption of Trifluridine Using Human Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koichi; Yoshisue, Kunihiro; Chiba, Masato; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2015-09-01

    TAS-102, which is effective for refractory metastatic colorectal cancer, is a combination drug of anticancer trifluridine (FTD; which is derived from pyrimidine nucleoside) and FTD-metabolizing enzyme inhibitor tipiracil hydrochloride (TPI) at a molecular ratio of 1:0.5. To evaluate the intestinal absorption mechanism of FTD, the uptake and transcellular transport of FTD by human small intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) monolayer as a model of human intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. The uptake and membrane permeability of FTD by HIEC monolayers were saturable, Na(+) -dependent, and inhibited by nucleosides. These transport characteristics are mostly comparable with those of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs). Moreover, the uptake of FTD by CNT1-expressing Xenopus oocytes was the highest among human CNT transporters. The obtained Km and Vmax values of FTD by CNT1 were 69.0 μM and 516 pmol/oocyte/30 min, respectively. The transcellular transport of FTD by Caco-2 cells, where CNT1 is heterologously expressed, from apical to basolateral side was greater than that by Mock cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that FTD exhibits high oral absorption by the contribution of human CNT1. PMID:25900515

  13. Identification of a nucleoside triphosphate binding site on calf thymus RNA polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, E.; McGuire, P.M.

    1986-01-14

    A nucleoside triphosphate binding site on calf thymus RNA polymerase II was identified by using photoaffinity analogues of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and guanosine 5'-triphosphate. Both radiolabeled 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3ATP) and radiolabeled 8-azidoguanosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3GTP) bound to a single polypeptide of this enzyme. This polypeptide has a molecular mass of 37 kilodaltons and an isoelectric point of 5.4. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was necessary for photolabeling to occur. In addition, no labeling occurred when the probe was prephotolyzed or when the enzyme was inactivated. Furthermore, photolabeling of the enzyme could be decreased by preincubation with natural substrates. To provide evidence that the radiolabeled polypeptide forms a part of the domain of the nucleoside triphosphate binding site, experiments were performed using unlabeled 8-N3ATP. Although this unlabeled analogue was not a substrate for RNA polymerase II, it photoinactivated the enzyme in the presence of UV irradiation, and it inhibited transcription elongation by the enzyme in a competitive manner in the absence of UV irradiation. As in the case with photolabeling, photoinactivation by 8-N3ATP could be decreased by natural substrates; in both cases, purine ribonucleoside triphosphates were more efficient than pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates. Furthermore, photoinactivation was saturable at about the same concentration as the inhibition constant for 8-N3ATP. Collectively, these results provide evidence that the radiolabeled polypeptide in calf thymus RNA polymerase II is an essential component for activity and suggest that this polypeptide may be part of this enzyme's purine ribonucleoside triphosphate binding site.

  14. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha and bile acids regulate human concentrative nucleoside transporter-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kerstin; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Wagner, Martin; Trauner, Michael; Eloranta, Jyrki J

    2009-04-01

    The concentrative nucleoside transporter-1 (CNT1) is a member of the solute carrier 28 (SLC28) gene family and is expressed in the liver, intestine, and kidneys. CNT1 mediates the uptake of naturally occurring pyrimidine nucleosides, but also nucleoside analogs used in anticancer and antiviral therapy. Thus expression levels of CNT1 may affect the pharmacokinetics of these drugs and the outcome of drug therapy. Because little is known about the transcriptional regulation of human CNT1 gene expression, we have characterized the CNT1 promoter with respect to DNA response elements and their binding factors. The transcriptional start site of the CNT1 gene was determined by 5'-RACE. In silico analysis revealed the existence of three putative binding sites for the nuclear receptor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) within the CNT1 promoter. A luciferase reporter gene construct containing the CNT1 promoter region was transactivated by HNF-4alpha in human cell lines derived from the liver, intestine, and kidneys. Consistent with this, we showed in electromobility shift assays that HNF-4alpha specifically binds to two conserved direct repeat-1 motifs within the proximal CNT1 promoter. In cotransfection experiments, the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha further increased, whereas the bile acid-inducible corepressor small heterodimer partner reduced, HNF-4alpha-dependent CNT1 promoter activity. Consistent with the latter phenomenon, CNT1 mRNA expression levels were suppressed in primary human hepatocytes upon bile acid treatment. Supporting the physiological relevance and species conservation of this effect, ileal Cnt1 mRNA expression was decreased upon bile acid feeding and increased upon bile duct ligation in mice. PMID:19228884

  15. Human UMP-CMP kinase 2, a novel nucleoside monophosphate kinase localized in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunjian; Johansson, Magnus; Karlsson, Anna

    2008-01-18

    Enzyme deficiency in the salvage pathway of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis in mitochondria can cause mtDNA depletion syndromes. We have identified a human mitochondrial UMP-CMP kinase (UMP-CMPK, cytidylate kinase; EC 2.7.4.14), designated as UMP-CMP kinase 2 (UMP-CMPK2). The C-terminal domain of this 449-amino acid protein contains all consensus motifs of a nucleoside monophosphate kinase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that UMP-CMPK2 belonged to a novel nucleoside monophosphate kinase family, which was closer to thymidylate kinase than to cytosolic UMP-CMP kinase. Subcellular localization with green fluorescent protein fusion proteins illustrated that UMP-CMPK2 was localized in the mitochondria of HeLa cells and that the mitochondrial targeting signal was included in the N-terminal 22 amino acids. The enzyme was able to phosphorylate dUMP, dCMP, CMP, and UMP with ATP as phosphate donor, but the kinetic properties were different compared with the cytosolic UMP-CMPK. Its efficacy to convert dUMP was highest, followed by dCMP, whereas CMP and UMP were the poorest substrates. It also phosphorylated the monophosphate forms of the nucleoside analogs ddC, dFdC, araC, BVDU, and FdUrd, which suggests that UMP-CMPK2 may be involved in mtDNA depletion caused by long term treatment with ddC or other pyrimidine analogs. UMP-CMPK2 mRNA expression was exclusively detected in chronic myelogenous leukemia K-562 and lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 among eight studied cancer cell lines. Particular high expression in leukemia cells, dominant expression in bone marrow, and tight correlation with macrophage activation and inflammatory response suggest that UMP-CMPK2 may have other functions in addition to the supply of substrates for mtDNA synthesis. PMID:17999954

  16. Nucleoside transporters and liver cell growth.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Anglada, M; Felipe, A; Casado, F J; del Santo, B; Mata, J F; Valdés, R

    1998-01-01

    Liver parenchymal cells show a wide variety of plasma membrane transporters that are tightly regulated by endocrine and nutritional factors. This review summarizes work performed in our laboratory on these transport systems, particularly nucleoside transporters, which are up-regulated in physiological situations associated with liver cell growth. Rat hepatocytes show a Na+-dependent nucleoside transport activity that is stimulated by pancreatic hormones. Indeed, this biological activity appears to be the result of the co-expression of at least two isoforms of nucleoside carriers, CNT1 and CNT2 (also called SPNT). These two transporters are up-regulated during the early phase of liver growth after partial hepatectomy, although to different extents, suggesting differential regulation of the two isoforms. The recent generation of isoform-specific antibodies allowed us to demonstrate that carrier expression may also have complex post-transcriptional regulation on the basis of the lack of correspondence between mRNA and protein levels. The analysis of nucleoside transport systems in hepatoma cells and the comparison with those in hepatocytes has also provided evidence that the differentiation status of liver parenchymal cells may determine the pattern of nucleoside transporters expressed. PMID:10353710

  17. Targeting the Plasmodium vivax equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (PvENT1) for antimalarial drug development

    PubMed Central

    Deniskin, Roman; Frame, I.J.; Sosa, Yvett; Akabas, Myles H.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Plasmodium falciparum and vivax cause most cases of malaria. Emerging resistance to current antimalarial medications makes new drug development imperative. Ideally a new antimalarial drug should treat both falciparum and vivax malaria. Because malaria parasites are purine auxotrophic, they rely on purines imported from the host erythrocyte via Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters (ENTs). Thus, the purine import transporters represent a potential target for antimalarial drug development. For falciparum parasites the primary purine transporter is the P. falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter Type 1 (PfENT1). Recently we identified potent PfENT1 inhibitors with nanomolar IC50 values using a robust, yeast-based high throughput screening assay. In the current work we characterized the Plasmodium vivax ENT1 (PvENT1) homologue and its sensitivity to the PfENT1 inhibitors. We expressed a yeast codon-optimized PvENT1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PvENT1-expressing yeast imported both purines ([3H]adenosine) and pyrimidines ([3H]uridine), whereas wild type (fui1Δ) yeast did not. Based on radiolabel substrate uptake inhibition experiments, inosine had the lowest IC50 (3.8 μM), compared to guanosine (14.9 μM) and adenosine (142 μM). For pyrimidines, thymidine had an IC50 of 183 μM (vs. cytidine and uridine; mM range). IC50 values were higher for nucleobases compared to the corresponding nucleosides; hypoxanthine had a 25-fold higher IC50 than inosine. The archetypal human ENT1 inhibitor 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) had no effect on PvENT1, whereas dipyridamole inhibited PvENT1, albeit with a 40 μM IC50, a 1000-fold less sensitive than human ENT1 (hENT1). The PfENT1 inhibitors blocked transport activity of PvENT1 and the five known naturally occurring non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with similar IC50 values. Thus, the PfENT1 inhibitors also target PvENT1. This implies that development of novel antimalarial drugs

  18. Targeting the Plasmodium vivax equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (PvENT1) for antimalarial drug development.

    PubMed

    Deniskin, Roman; Frame, I J; Sosa, Yvett; Akabas, Myles H

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Plasmodium falciparum and vivax cause most cases of malaria. Emerging resistance to current antimalarial medications makes new drug development imperative. Ideally a new antimalarial drug should treat both falciparum and vivax malaria. Because malaria parasites are purine auxotrophic, they rely on purines imported from the host erythrocyte via Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters (ENTs). Thus, the purine import transporters represent a potential target for antimalarial drug development. For falciparum parasites the primary purine transporter is the P. falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter Type 1 (PfENT1). Recently we identified potent PfENT1 inhibitors with nanomolar IC50 values using a robust, yeast-based high throughput screening assay. In the current work we characterized the Plasmodium vivax ENT1 (PvENT1) homologue and its sensitivity to the PfENT1 inhibitors. We expressed a yeast codon-optimized PvENT1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PvENT1-expressing yeast imported both purines ([(3)H]adenosine) and pyrimidines ([(3)H]uridine), whereas wild type (fui1Δ) yeast did not. Based on radiolabel substrate uptake inhibition experiments, inosine had the lowest IC50 (3.8 μM), compared to guanosine (14.9 μM) and adenosine (142 μM). For pyrimidines, thymidine had an IC50 of 183 μM (vs. cytidine and uridine; mM range). IC50 values were higher for nucleobases compared to the corresponding nucleosides; hypoxanthine had a 25-fold higher IC50 than inosine. The archetypal human ENT1 inhibitor 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) had no effect on PvENT1, whereas dipyridamole inhibited PvENT1, albeit with a 40 μM IC50, a 1000-fold less sensitive than human ENT1 (hENT1). The PfENT1 inhibitors blocked transport activity of PvENT1 and the five known naturally occurring non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with similar IC50 values. Thus, the PfENT1 inhibitors also target PvENT1. This implies that development of novel antimalarial

  19. The effect of the glycosylation position on the base pairing and supramolecular structure of the 5‧-deoxyribosyl Janus-type AT nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinglong; Liu, Jiang; Guo, Xiurong; Meng, Liying; Chu, Liangyin; Chen, Qianming; Zhao, Hang; He, Yang

    2015-11-01

    The intrinsic structural diversity of the nucleosides is one of the essential properties for their wide participation in myriads of chemical or biochemical processes. Two unique regio-isomeric Janus-type AT nucleosides with the 5‧-deoxyribose attached on N1 or N3 position has been synthesized through Vorbrueggen or transglycosylation reactions. These two isomers display different supramolecular morphologies in solution state from their N8 glycosylated counterpart. The underneath structural details of the N3 glycosylated isomer were revealed by the single-crystal X-ray analysis. In addition to a novel base pair pattern was identified which is entirely different from the reverse Watson-Crick base pair adopted by its N8 isomer, an interesting water-filled columnar nanotuble-like structure was also found in its solid state. This study not only enriches the structural varieties of AT Janus-type nucleosides, but also provides specific information concerning the effect of the sugar glycosylation position on the properties of these new type of pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine nucleosides.

  20. Polymeric nanogel formulations of nucleoside analogs

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei V

    2008-01-01

    Nanogels are colloidal microgel carriers that have been introduced recently as a prospective drug delivery system for nucleotide therapeutics. The crosslinked protonated polymer network of nanogels binds oppositely charged drug molecules, encapsulating them into submicron particles with a core-shell structure. The nanogel network also provides a suitable template for chemical engineering, surface modification and vectorisation. This review reveals recent attempts to develop novel drug formulations of nanogels with antiviral and antiproliferative nucleoside analogs in the active form of 5′-triphosphates; discusses structural approaches to the optimisation of nanogel properties, and; discusses the development of targeted nanogel drug formulations for systemic administration. Notably, nanogels can improve the CNS penetration of nucleoside analogs that are otherwise restricted from passing across the blood–brain barrier. The latest findings reviewed here demonstrate an efficient intracellular release of nucleoside analogs, encouraging further applications of nanogel carriers for targeted drug delivery. PMID:17184158

  1. Prebiotic phosphorylation of nucleosides in formamide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoffstall, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study intended to assess phosphorylation under neither aqueous nor dry thermal conditions. Instead, phosphorylations were attempted in possible nonaqueous prebiotic solvents. Formamide appeared to be the most obvious candidate for phosphorylation studies. Three main classes of phosphorylated products were formed in formamide solution: adenosine monophosphates, cyclic adenosine phosphate, and adenosine diphosphates. Experiments were designed to investigate the extent of phosphorylation of nucleosides in formamide, the relative amounts of nucleoside monophosphate, diphosphates and cyclic phosphate formed and the relative effectiveness of different sources of phosphate as phosphorylating agents in formamide. Reaction variables were temperature, nature of the phosphate or condensed phosphate, nucleoside, concentration of reactants and possible effects of additives. Product identification was based on qualitative and quantitative thin layer chromatography.

  2. Synthesis of Nucleoside Triphosphates from 2'-3'-Protected Nucleosides Using Trimetaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Mohamady, Samy; Taylor, Scott D

    2016-02-01

    Chemists have been attempting to triphosphorylate nucleosides and other alcohols using trimetaphosphate (TriMP) since the 1960s. However, this route appears to have been abandoned due to poor yields. The first practical syntheses of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) are reported using TriMP as the key reagent. This was achieved by reacting the tetrabutylammonium salt of TriMP with mesitylenesulfonyl chloride in the presence of DABCO in pyridine followed by the addition of an appropriately protected nucleoside and phthalimide. Quenching the reaction with aqueous buffer followed by hydrolysis of the OH protecting groups gave the NTPs in good yield. PMID:26759914

  3. Effect of carbon source on pyrimidine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas oryzihabitans.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2010-08-01

    The effect of carbon source on the regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas oryzihabitans was studied at the level of enzyme synthesis. Although pyrimidine supplementation of glucose-grown Ps. oryzihabitans cells produced a slight but statistically significant effect on the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway enzyme activities, catabolite repression of the enzyme activities by glucose appeared to be occurring. Pyrimidine limitation experiments undertaken using an orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase mutant strain grown on glucose indicated that repression of enzyme synthesis by pyrimidines was occurring. Following pyrimidine limitation of the mutant strain cells, dihydroorotase and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase activities were found to about double while aspartate transcarbamoylase and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase activities were slightly elevated compared to their activities in the mutant strain cells grown on excess uracil. PMID:20473969

  4. Chemical evolution. XXIX - Pyrimidines from hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Joshi, P. C.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Compounds obtained by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers formed by allowing pH 9.2, 0.1 M cyanide to stand at room temperature for 4 to 12 months were analyzed. Hydrolysis of HCN oligomers yielded 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine and 5-hydroxyuracil; orotic acid was detected after hydrolysis at pH 8.5. A unified pathway from diaminofumaronitrile to the pyrimidines observed is suggested. As purines, pyrimidines and amino acids are released by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers in either acidic or mildly basic aqueous solutions, they could have been formed on the primitive earth in spite of fluctuations in pH. 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidines appear to be likely candidates for incorporation into primitive nucleic acids, as they should undergo Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with adenine.

  5. Repair of DNA-containing pyrimidine dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, L.; Caron, P.R.; Mazur, S.J.; Oh, E.Y.

    1988-08-01

    Ultraviolet light-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA are recognized and repaired by a number of unique cellular surveillance systems. The most direct biochemical mechanism responding to this kind of genotoxicity involves direct photoreversal by flavin enzymes that specifically monomerize pyrimidine:pyrimidine dimers monophotonically in the presence of visible light. Incision reactions are catalyzed by a combined pyrimidine dimer DNA-glycosylase:apyrimidinic endonuclease found in some highly UV-resistant organisms. At a higher level of complexity, Escherichia coli has a uvr DNA repair system comprising the UvrA, UvrB, and UvrC proteins responsible for incision. There are several preincision steps governed by this pathway, which includes an ATP-dependent UvrA dimerization reaction required for UvrAB nucleoprotein formation. This complex formation driven by ATP binding is associated with localized topological unwinding of DNA. This same protein complex can catalyze an ATPase-dependent 5'----3'-directed strand displacement of D-loop DNA or short single strands annealed to a single-stranded circular or linear DNA. This putative translocational process is arrested when damaged sites are encountered. The complex is now primed for dual incision catalyzed by UvrC. The remainder of the repair process involves UvrD (helicase II) and DNA polymerase I for a coordinately controlled excision-resynthesis step accompanied by UvrABC turnover. Furthermore, it is proposed that levels of repair proteins can be regulated by proteolysis. UvrB is converted to truncated UvrB* by a stress-induced protease that also acts at similar sites on the E. coli Ada protein. Although UvrB* can bind with UvrA to DNA, it cannot participate in helicase or incision reactions. It is also a DNA-dependent ATPase.21 references.

  6. Spectroscopic and Computational Characterization of Hydrated Pyrimidine Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, John T.; Hammer, Nathan I.

    2014-06-01

    Pyrimidine is known to possess a negative electron affinity. Anions created from such molecules, whose energies are higher than those of their neutral counterparts, are unstable with respect to autodetachment. The solvation of pyrimidine with just one water molecule results in a positive electron binding energy. The addition of water molecules stabilizes the excess charge and increase the binding energy. The most interesting feature is the orientation of the hydrated pyrimidine complex to help accommodate an excess electron.

  7. Prebiotic syntheses of purines and pyrimidines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, B.; Lazcano, A.; Oró, J.

    The work done in many laboratories during the last two decades has confirmed that hydrogen cyanide and cyanoacetylene are the two major precursors for the prebiotic synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, respectively. Although several different pathways for the synthesis of purines have been described, they are all variations of the initial mechanism proposed by Oró and Kimball, where hydrogen cyanide leads first to the formation of a 4,5-disubstituted imidazole derivative, and then to the closing of the purine ring with a C1 compound. A number of experiments have shown that purines and pyrimidines can also be obtained from methane, ammonia (nitrogen), and water mixtures, provided an activating source of energy (radiation, electric discharges, etc.) is available. However, in this case the yields are lower by about two orders of magnitude because of the intermediate formation of hydrogen cyanide and cyanoacetylene. The latter two compounds have been found in interstellar space, Titan and other bodies of the solar system. They were probably present in the primordial parent bodies from the solar nebula in concentrations of 10-2 to 10-3 M as inferred from recent calculations by Miller and coworkers obtained for the Murchison meteorite. These concentrations should have been sufficient to generate relatively large amounts of purine and pyrimidine bases on the primitive Earth.

  8. Basolateral Uptake of Nucleosides by Sertoli Cells Is Mediated Primarily by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Klein, David M.; Evans, Kristen K.; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Dantzler, William H.; Wright, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents the entry of many xenobiotic compounds into seminiferous tubules thereby protecting developing germ cells. Understanding drug transport across the BTB may improve drug delivery into the testis. Members of one class of drug, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), do penetrate the BTB, presumably through interaction with physiologic nucleoside transporters. By investigating the mechanism of nucleoside transport, it may be possible to design other drugs to bypass the BTB in a similar manner. We present a novel ex vivo technique to study transport at the BTB that employs isolated, intact seminiferous tubules. Using this system, we found that over 80% of total uptake by seminiferous tubules of the model nucleoside uridine could be inhibited by 100 nM nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR, 6-S-[(4-nitrophenyl)methyl]-6-thioinosine), a concentration that selectively inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) activity. In primary cultured rat Sertoli cells, 100 nM NBMPR inhibited all transepithelial transport and basolateral uptake of uridine. Immunohistochemical staining showed ENT1 to be located on the basolateral membrane of human and rat Sertoli cells, whereas ENT2 was located on the apical membrane of Sertoli cells. Transepithelial transport of uridine by rat Sertoli cells was partially inhibited by the NRTIs zidovudine, didanosine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, consistent with an interaction between these drugs and ENT transporters. These data indicate that ENT1 is the primary route for basolateral nucleoside uptake into Sertoli cells and a possible mechanism for nucleosides and nucleoside-based drugs to undergo transepithelial transport. PMID:23639800

  9. Urine Pyrimidine Metabolite Determination by HPLC Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Pyrimidine diseases result from deficiencies in pyrimidine de novo synthesis, degradation, and salvage pathways. Enzymatic deficiencies in pyrimidine catabolism lead to mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE), pyrimidinuria, dihydropyrimidinuria, ureidopropionic aciduria, and other disorders. While MNGIE presents with gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, and leukoencephalopathy, pyrimidinuria and dihydropyrimidinuria may show symptoms of epilepsy, autism, mental retardation, and dysmorphic features. The application of HPLC-MS/MS facilitates rapid screening of pyrimidine metabolites. Here we describe an LCMS method for determination of uracil, thymine, thymidine, dihydrouracil, and dihydrothymine that are diagnostic biomarkers of MNGIE, pyrimidinuria, and dihydropyrimidinuria. PMID:26602135

  10. New hypoxanthine nucleosides with RNA antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Nair, V; Ussery, M A

    1992-08-01

    A series of novel C-2 functionalized hypoxanthine and purine ribonucleosides have been synthesized and evaluated against exotic RNA viruses of the family or genus alpha, arena, flavi, and rhabdo. Both specific and broad-spectrum antiviral activities were discovered but only with hypoxanthine nucleosides. PMID:1444325

  11. Mycoplasmas and cancer: focus on nucleoside metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vande Voorde, Johan; Balzarini, Jan; Liekens, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care for patients suffering cancer often includes treatment with nucleoside analogues (NAs). NAs are internalized by cell-specific nucleobase/nucleoside transporters and, after enzymatic activation (often one or more phosphorylation steps), interfere with cellular nucleo(s)(t)ide metabolism and DNA/RNA synthesis. Therefore, their efficacy is highly dependent on the expression and activity of nucleo(s)(t)ide-metabolizing enzymes, and alterations thereof (e.g. by down/upregulated expression or mutations) may change the susceptibility to NA-based therapy and/or confer drug resistance. Apart from host cell factors, several other variables including microbial presence may determine the metabolome (i.e. metabolite concentrations) of human tissues. Studying the diversity of microorganisms that are associated with the human body has already provided new insights in several diseases (e.g. diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease) and the metabolic exchange between tissues and their specific microbiota was found to affect the bioavailability and toxicity of certain anticancer drugs, including NAs. Several studies report a preferential colonization of tumor tissues with some mycoplasma species (mostly Mycoplasma hyorhinis). These prokaryotes are also a common source of cell culture contamination and alter the cytostatic activity of some NAs in vitro due to the expression of nucleoside-catabolizing enzymes. Mycoplasma infection may therefore bias experimental work with NAs, and their presence in the tumor microenvironment could be of significance when optimizing nucleoside-based cancer treatment. PMID:26417262

  12. Nucleoside phosphorylation by the mineral schreibersite

    PubMed Central

    Gull, Maheen; Mojica, Mike A.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Gaul, David A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Liotta, Charles L.; Pasek, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the nucleosides adenosine and uridine by the simple mixing and mild heating of aqueous solutions of the organic compounds with synthetic analogs of the meteoritic mineral schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P under slightly basic conditions (pH ~9) is reported. These results suggest a potential role for meteoritic phosphorus in the origin and development of early life. PMID:26606901

  13. Isolation and characterization of pyrimidine-psoralen-pyrimidine photodiadducts from DNA. [Ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, D.; Straub, K.; Hearst, J.E.; Rapoport, H.

    1982-12-01

    The isolation and characterization of pyrimidine-psoralen-pyrimidine photodiadducts from DNA are reported for the first time. For each of the four psoralens studied, a single pair of diastereomeric thymidine-psoralen-thymidine photodiadducts, each with cis-syn stereochemistry, was found to account for > 90% of the diadducts formed. Additionally, pulse-chase experiments that establish that these photo cross-links are formed by cycloaddition of a second thymidine residue to the 3,4 double bond (pyrone side) of an initially formed 4',5' (furan-side) psoralen-thymidine photomonoadduct have been carried out.

  14. Of the Nine Cytidine Deaminase-Like Genes in Arabidopsis, Eight Are Pseudogenes and Only One Is Required to Maintain Pyrimidine Homeostasis in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingjia; Herde, Marco; Witte, Claus-Peter

    2016-06-01

    CYTIDINE DEAMINASE (CDA) catalyzes the deamination of cytidine to uridine and ammonia in the catabolic route of C nucleotides. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CDA gene family comprises nine members, one of which (AtCDA) was shown previously in vitro to encode an active CDA. A possible role in C-to-U RNA editing or in antiviral defense has been discussed for other members. A comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of plant CDA sequences, combined with biochemical functionality tests, strongly suggests that all Arabidopsis CDA family members except AtCDA are pseudogenes and that most plants only require a single CDA gene. Soybean (Glycine max) possesses three CDA genes, but only two encode functional enzymes and just one has very high catalytic efficiency. AtCDA and soybean CDAs are located in the cytosol. The functionality of AtCDA in vivo was demonstrated with loss-of-function mutants accumulating high amounts of cytidine but also CMP, cytosine, and some uridine in seeds. Cytidine hydrolysis in cda mutants is likely caused by NUCLEOSIDE HYDROLASE1 (NSH1) because cytosine accumulation is strongly reduced in a cda nsh1 double mutant. Altered responses of the cda mutants to fluorocytidine and fluorouridine indicate that a dual specific nucleoside kinase is involved in cytidine as well as uridine salvage. CDA mutants display a reduction in rosette size and have fewer leaves compared with the wild type, which is probably not caused by defective pyrimidine catabolism but by the accumulation of pyrimidine catabolism intermediates reaching toxic concentrations. PMID:27208239

  15. Indolizines and pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines decorated with a pyrimidine and a pyridine unit respectively.

    PubMed

    Popa, Marcel Mirel; Georgescu, Emilian; Caira, Mino R; Georgescu, Florentina; Draghici, Constantin; Stan, Raluca; Deleanu, Calin; Dumitrascu, Florea

    2015-01-01

    The three possible structural isomers of 4-(pyridyl)pyrimidine were employed for the synthesis of new pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and new indolizines, by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of their corresponding N-ylides generated in situ from their corresponding cycloimmonium bromides. In the case of 4-(3-pyridyl)pyrimidine and 4-(4-pyridyl)pyrimidine the quaternization reactions occur as expected at the pyridine nitrogen atom leading to pyridinium bromides and consequently to new indolizines via the corresponding pyridinium N-ylides. However, in the case of 4-(2-pyridyl)pyrimidine the steric hindrance directs the reaction to the pyrimidinium N-ylides and, subsequently, to the formation of the pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines. The new pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and the new indolizines were structurally characterized through NMR spectroscopy. The X-ray structures of two of the starting materials, 4-(2-pyridyl)pyrimidine and 4-(4-pyridyl)pyrimidine, are also reported. PMID:26199663

  16. Indolizines and pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines decorated with a pyrimidine and a pyridine unit respectively

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Emilian; Georgescu, Florentina; Draghici, Constantin; Stan, Raluca; Deleanu, Calin; Dumitrascu, Florea

    2015-01-01

    Summary The three possible structural isomers of 4-(pyridyl)pyrimidine were employed for the synthesis of new pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and new indolizines, by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of their corresponding N-ylides generated in situ from their corresponding cycloimmonium bromides. In the case of 4-(3-pyridyl)pyrimidine and 4-(4-pyridyl)pyrimidine the quaternization reactions occur as expected at the pyridine nitrogen atom leading to pyridinium bromides and consequently to new indolizines via the corresponding pyridinium N-ylides. However, in the case of 4-(2-pyridyl)pyrimidine the steric hindrance directs the reaction to the pyrimidinium N-ylides and, subsequently, to the formation of the pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines. The new pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and the new indolizines were structurally characterized through NMR spectroscopy. The X-ray structures of two of the starting materials, 4-(2-pyridyl)pyrimidine and 4-(4-pyridyl)pyrimidine, are also reported. PMID:26199663

  17. Synthesis and antiviral activity of novel acyclic nucleoside analogues of 5-(1-azido-2-haloethyl)uracils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Sharma, N; Nath, M; Saffran, H A; Tyrrell, D L

    2001-11-22

    We present the discovery of a novel category of 5-substituted acyclic pyrimidine nucleosides as potent antiviral agents. A series of 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl] (5-7), 1-[(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl] (8-10), and 1-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-butyl] (11-13) derivatives of 5-(1-azido-2-haloethyl)uracil were synthesized and evaluated for their biological activity in cell culture. 1-[4-Hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-butyl]-5-(1-azido-2-chloroethyl)uracil (12) was the most effective antiviral agent in the in vitro assays against DHBV (EC(50) = 0.31-1.55 microM) and HCMV (EC(50) = 3.1 microM). None of the compounds investigated showed any detectable toxicity to several stationary and proliferating host cells. PMID:11708924

  18. Comparison of the binding of the therapeutically active nucleosides to DNA molecules with different level of lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglova, E. B.; Gladkovskaya, N. A.

    2002-12-01

    Recently we have shown that DNA molecules extracted from epididymis of the Wistar male rats exposed to low doses of gamma radiation interact with some pyrimidine nucleosides. The bindign affinities of NUC to control DNA molecules are unessential. Comparing the UV melting curves for the various DNA sammples we show that observed differences are related to conformational chagnes in the DNA double helix. The samples of the damaged DNA have been obtained by partial denaturation of the calf thymus DNA in the salt-free aqueous solutions. The level of DNA damages in the model DNA smplase depends on the DNA concentration. It was shown that damages in the DNA molecules lead to changes of the melting curves of DNA-NUC mixtures that are similar to those for the DNA samples extracted from irradiated tissues. ALso it has been found that the binding mechanisms to cytosine arabinoside and 6-azacytosine to DNA molecuels having modifeid secondary structures are different.

  19. A previously undescribed pathway for pyrimidine catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Kevin D.; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Markenscoff Papadimitriou, Eirene; Fong, Rebecca; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Parales, Rebecca; Zhou, Zhongrui; Inwood, William; Kustu, Sydney

    2006-01-01

    The b1012 operon of Escherichia coli K-12, which is composed of seven unidentified ORFs, is one of the most highly expressed operons under control of nitrogen regulatory protein C. Examination of strains with lesions in this operon on Biolog Phenotype MicroArray (PM3) plates and subsequent growth tests indicated that they failed to use uridine or uracil as the sole nitrogen source and that the parental strain could use them at room temperature but not at 37°C. A strain carrying an ntrB(Con) mutation, which elevates transcription of genes under nitrogen regulatory protein C control, could also grow on thymidine as the sole nitrogen source, whereas strains with lesions in the b1012 operon could not. Growth-yield experiments indicated that both nitrogens of uridine and thymidine were available. Studies with [14C]uridine indicated that a three-carbon waste product from the pyrimidine ring was excreted. After trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography, the waste product was identified by mass spectrometry as 3-hydroxypropionic acid. In agreement with this finding, 2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionic acid was released from thymidine. Both the number of available nitrogens and the waste products distinguished the pathway encoded by the b1012 operon from pyrimidine catabolic pathways described previously. We propose that the genes of this operon be named rutA–G for pyrimidine utilization. The product of the divergently transcribed gene, b1013, is a tetracycline repressor family regulator that controls transcription of the b1012 operon negatively. PMID:16540542

  20. Summary: the modified nucleosides of RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Limbach, P A; Crain, P F; McCloskey, J A

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive listing is made of posttranscriptionally modified nucleosides from RNA reported in the literature through mid-1994. Included are chemical structures, common names, symbols, Chemical Abstracts registry numbers (for ribonucleoside and corresponding base), Chemical Abstracts Index Name, phylogenetic sources, and initial literature citations for structural characterization or occurrence, and for chemical synthesis. The listing is categorized by type of RNA: tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, snRNA, and other RNAs. A total of 93 different modified nucleosides have been reported in RNA, with the largest number and greatest structural diversity in tRNA, 79; and 28 in rRNA, 12 in mRNA, 11 in snRNA and 3 in other small RNAs. PMID:7518580

  1. 2'-modified nucleosides for site-specific labeling of oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, Elizabeth S.; Miller, Jeremiah E.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    We report the synthesis of 2'-modified nucleosides designed specifically for incorporating labels into oligonucleotides. Conversion of these nucleosides to phosphoramidite and solid support-bound derivatives proceeds in good yield. Large-scale synthesis of 11-mer oligonucleotides possessing the 2'-modified nucleosides is achieved using these derivatives. Thermal denaturation studies indicate that the presence of 2'-modified nucleosides in 11-mer duplexes has minimal destabilizing effects on the duplex structure when the nucleosides are placed at the duplex termini. The powerful combination of phosphoramidite and support-bound derivatives of 2'-modified nucleosides affords the large-scale preparation of an entirely new class of oligonucleotides. The ability to synthesize oligonucleotides containing label attachment sites at 3', intervening, and 5' locations of a duplex is a significant advance in the development of oligonucleotide conjugates.

  2. Arginine kinase shows nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity toward deoxythymidine diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Hernandez-Flores, Jose M; Lugo-Sanchez, Maria E; Sugich-Miranda, Rocio; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D

    2016-06-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) (ATP: L-arginine phosphotransferase, E.C. 2.7.3.3) catalyzes the reversible transfer of ATP γ-phosphate group to L-arginine to synthetize phospho-arginine as a high-energy storage. Previous studies suggest additional roles for AK in cellular processes. Since AK is found only in invertebrates and it is homologous to creatine kinase from vertebrates, the objective of this work was to demonstrate nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity for shrimp AK. For this, AK from marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvAK) was purified and its activity was assayed for phosphorylation of TDP using ATP as phosphate donor. Moreover, by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) the phosphate transfer reaction was followed. Also, LvAK tryptophan fluorescence emission changes were detected by dTDP titration, suggesting that the hydrophobic environment of Trp 221, which is located in the top of the active site, is perturbed upon dTDP binding. The kinetic constants for both substrates Arg and dTDP were calculated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Besides, docking calculations suggested that dTDP could bind LvAK in the same cavity where ATP bind, and LvAK basic residues (Arg124, 126 and 309) stabilize the dTDP phosphate groups and the pyrimidine base interact with His284 and Ser122. These results suggest that LvAK bind and phosphorylate dTDP being ATP the phosphate donor, thus describing a novel alternate nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity for this enzyme. PMID:27072556

  3. Substrate and Inhibitor Specificity of the Plasmodium berghei Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter Type 1.

    PubMed

    Arora, Avish; Deniskin, Roman; Sosa, Yvett; Nishtala, Sita Nirupama; Henrich, Philipp P; Kumar, T R Santha; Fidock, David A; Akabas, Myles H

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is a critical public health issue in the tropical world, causing extensive morbidity and mortality. Infection by unicellular, obligate intracellular Plasmodium parasites causes malaria. The emergence of resistance to current antimalarial drugs necessitates the development of novel therapeutics. A potential novel drug target is the purine import transporter. Because Plasmodium parasites are purine auxotrophic, they must import purines from their host to fulfill metabolic requirements. They import purines via equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) homologs. Recently, we used a yeast-based high-throughput screen to identify inhibitors of the P. falciparum ENT1 (PfENT1) that kill P. falciparum parasites in culture. P. berghei infection of mice is an animal model for human malaria. Because P. berghei ENT1 (PbENT1) shares only 60% amino acid sequence identity with PfENT1, we sought to characterize PbENT1 and its sensitivity to our PfENT1 inhibitors. We expressed PbENT1 in purine auxotrophic yeast and used radiolabeled substrate uptake to characterize its function. We showed that PbENT1 transports both purines and pyrimidines. It preferred nucleosides compared with nucleobases. Inosine (IC50 = 3.7 µM) and guanosine (IC50 = 21.3 µM) had the highest affinities. Our recently discovered PfENT1 inhibitors were equally effective against both PbENT1- and PfENT1-mediated purine uptake. The PfENT1 inhibitors are at least 10-fold more potent against PfENT1 than human hENT1. They kill P. berghei parasites in 24-hour ex vivo culture. Thus, the P. berghei murine malaria model may be useful to evaluate the efficacy of PfENT1 inhibitors in vivo and their therapeutic potential for treatment of malaria. PMID:27048953

  4. Enzymatic regioselective acylation of nucleosides in biomass-derived 2-methyltetrahydrofuran: kinetic study and enzyme substrate recognition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen-Li; Li, Ning; Zong, Min-Hua

    2013-03-10

    Enzymatic regioselective acylation of pyrimidine nucleosides was mediated by immobilized lipase from Penicillium expansum in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF), a bio-solvent derived from biomass. Despite of the moderate dissolution ability of MeTHF toward nucleosides, the initial enzymatic reaction rate was much higher in this eco-friendly solvent than in other commonly used organic solvents. This could be explained by the lower apparent activation energy of the enzymatic reaction (24.5 vs. 43.3-57.1kJ/mol) and the higher catalytic efficiency of the enzyme (Vmax/Km, 5.8 vs. 1.1-2.9h(-1)) in MeTHF. The enzymatic acylation of a group of ribonucleosides afforded the desirable 5'-esters with the conversions of 96-99% and 5'-regioselectivities of 96 to >99%. In enzymatic acylation of 2'-deoxynucleosides, however, 5'-regioselectivities showed a clear dependence on the 5-substituents present in the base moiety although the substrate conversions reached >98% within 1-3h. In the cases of 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside analogs, the reaction rate decreased markedly due to the lack of 3'-hydroxyl. PMID:23337886

  5. Oxidation half-reaction of aqueous nucleosides and nucleotides via photoelectron spectroscopy augmented by ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Christi A; Pluhařová, Eva; Seidel, Robert; Schroeder, William P; Faubel, Manfred; Slavíček, Petr; Winter, Bernd; Jungwirth, Pavel; Bradforth, Stephen E

    2015-01-14

    Oxidative damage to DNA and hole transport between nucleobases in oxidized DNA are important processes in lesion formation for which surprisingly poor thermodynamic data exist, the relative ease of oxidizing the four nucleobases being one such example. Theoretical simulations of radiation damage and charge transport in DNA depend on accurate values for vertical ionization energies (VIEs), reorganization energies, and standard reduction potentials. Liquid-jet photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to directly study the oxidation half-reaction. The VIEs of nucleic acid building blocks are measured in their native buffered aqueous environment. The experimental investigation of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, nucleosides, pentose sugars, and inorganic phosphate demonstrates that photoelectron spectra of nucleotides arise as a spectral sum over their individual chemical components; that is, the electronic interactions between each component are effectively screened from one another by water. Electronic structure theory affords the assignment of the lowest energy photoelectron band in all investigated nucleosides and nucleotides to a single ionizing transition centered solely on the nucleobase. Thus, combining the measured VIEs with theoretically determined reorganization energies allows for the spectroscopic determination of the one-electron redox potentials that have been difficult to establish via electrochemistry. PMID:25551179

  6. Characterization of nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase activity in Trichomonas gallinae and the influence of penicillin and streptomycin in extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Borges, Fernanda Pires; de Brum Vieira, Patrícia; Wiltuschnig, Renata C M; Tasca, Tiana; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2008-06-01

    Here we described an nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity in living trophozoites of Trichomonas gallinae. The enzyme hydrolyzes a variety of purine and pyrimidine nucleoside di- and triphosphates in an optimum pH range of 6.0-8.0. This enzyme activity was activated by high concentrations of divalent cations, such as calcium and magnesium. Contaminant activities were ruled out because the enzyme was not inhibited by classical inhibitors of ATPases (ouabain, 5.0 mM sodium azide, oligomycin) and alkaline phosphatases (levamisole). A significant inhibition of ATP hydrolysis (38%) was observed in the presence of 20 mM sodium azide. Sodium orthovanadate inhibited ATP and ADP hydrolysis (24% and 78%), respectively. The apparent K(M) (Michaelis constant) values were 667.62+/-13 microM for ATP and 125+/-5.3 microM for ADP. V(max) (maximum velocity) values were 0.44+/-0.007 nmol Pi min(-1) per 10(6) trichomonads and 0.91+/-0.12 nmol Pi min(-1) per 10(6) trichomonads for ATP and ADP, respectively. Moreover, we showed a marked decrease in ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis when the parasites were grown in the presence of penicillin and streptomycin. The existence of an NTPDase activity in T. gallinae may be involved in pathogenicity, protecting the parasite from the cytolytic effects of the extracellular nucleotides. PMID:18422631

  7. Plant Purine Nucleoside Catabolism Employs a Guanosine Deaminase Required for the Generation of Xanthosine in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Dahncke, Kathleen; Witte, Claus-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purine nucleotide catabolism is common to most organisms and involves a guanine deaminase to convert guanine to xanthine in animals, invertebrates, and microorganisms. Using metabolomic analysis of mutants, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana uses an alternative catabolic route employing a highly specific guanosine deaminase (GSDA) not reported from any organism so far. The enzyme is ubiquitously expressed and deaminates exclusively guanosine and 2’-deoxyguanosine but no other aminated purines, pyrimidines, or pterines. GSDA belongs to the cytidine/deoxycytidylate deaminase family of proteins together with a deaminase involved in riboflavin biosynthesis, the chloroplastic tRNA adenosine deaminase Arg and a predicted tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase 2 in A. thaliana. GSDA is conserved in plants, including the moss Physcomitrella patens, but is absent in the algae and outside the plant kingdom. Our data show that xanthosine is exclusively generated through the deamination of guanosine by GSDA in A. thaliana, excluding other possible sources like the dephosphorylation of xanthosine monophosphate. Like the nucleoside hydrolases NUCLEOSIDE HYDROLASE1 (NSH1) and NSH2, GSDA is located in the cytosol, indicating that GMP catabolism to xanthine proceeds in a mostly cytosolic pathway via guanosine and xanthosine. Possible implications for the biosynthetic route of purine alkaloids (caffeine and theobromine) and ureides in other plants are discussed. PMID:24130159

  8. Hypouricemic effects of novel concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 inhibitors through suppressing intestinal absorption of purine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Hiratochi, Masahiro; Tatani, Kazuya; Shimizu, Kazuo; Kuramochi, Yu; Kikuchi, Norihiko; Kamada, Noboru; Itoh, Fumiaki; Isaji, Masayuki

    2012-09-01

    We have developed concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 (CNT2) inhibitors as a novel pharmacological approach for improving hyperuricemia by inhibiting intestinal absorption of purines. Dietary purine nucleosides are absorbed in the small intestines by CNTs expressed in the apical membrane. In humans, the absorbed purine nucleosides are rapidly degraded to their final end product, uric acid, by xanthine oxidase. Based on the expression profile of human CNTs in digestive tract tissues, we established a working hypothesis that mainly CNT2 contributes to the intestinal absorption of purine nucleosides. In order to confirm this possibility, we developed CNT2 inhibitors and found that (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-8-{[3'-(3-aminopropoxy)-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diol (KGO-2142) and 1-[3-(5-{[1-((2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylamino]-methyl}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)-propyl]-piperidine-4-carboxylic acid amide (KGO-2173) were inhibitory. These CNT2 inhibitors had potent inhibitory activity against inosine uptake via human CNT2, but they did not potently interfere with nucleoside uptake via human CNT1, CNT3 or equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) in vitro. After oral administration of KGO-2173 along with [(14)C]-inosine, KGO-2173 significantly decreased the urinary excretion of radioactivity at 6 and 24h in rats. Since dietary purine nucleosides are not utilized in the body and are excreted into the urine rapidly, this decrease in radioactivity in the urine represented the inhibitory activity of KGO-2173 toward the absorption of [(14)C]-inosine in the small intestines. KGO-2142 almost completely inhibited dietary RNA-induced hyperuricemia and the increase in urinary excretion of uric acid in cebus monkeys. These novel CNT2 inhibitors, KGO-2142 and KGO-2173, could be useful therapeutic options for the treatment of hyperuricemia. PMID:22709993

  9. Hybridization accompanying FRET event in labeled natural nucleoside-unnatural nucleoside containing chimeric DNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Das, Suman K; Pradhan, Manoj Kumar; Jana, Subhashis

    2016-09-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a highly efficient strategy in illuminating the structures, structural changes and dynamics of DNA, proteins and other biomolecules and thus is being widely utilized in studying such phenomena, in designing molecular/biomolecular probes for monitoring the hybridization event of two single stranded DNA to form duplex, in gene detection and in many other sensory applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. Moreover, FRET can give information about the positional status of chromophores within the associated biomolecules with much more accuracy than other methods can yield. Toward this end, we want to report here the ability of fluorescent unnatural nucleoside, triazolylphenanthrene ((TPhen)BDo) to show FRET interaction upon hybridization with fluorescently labeled natural nucleosides, (Per)U or (OxoPy)U or (Per)U, forming two stable chimeric DNA duplexes. The pairing selectivity and the thermal duplex stability of the chimeric duplexes are higher than any of the duplexes with natural nucleoside formed. The hybridization results in a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from donor triazolylphenanthrene of (TPhen)BDo to acceptor oxopyrene of (OxoPy)U and/or to perylene chromophore of (Per)U, respectively, in two chimeric DNA duplexes. Therefore, we have established the FRET process in two chimeric DNA duplexes wherein a fluorescently labeled natural nucleoside ((OxoPy)U or (Per)U) paired against an unnatural nucleoside ((TPhen)BDo) without sacrificing the duplex stability and B-DNA conformation. The hybridization accompanying FRET event in these classes of interacting fluorophores is new. Moreover, there is no report of such designed system of chimeric DNA duplex. Our observed phenomenon and the design can potentially be exploited in designing more of such efficient FRET pairs for useful application in the detection and analysis of biomolecular interactions and in material science application. PMID:27498231

  10. Search for Interstellar Pyrimidine using the Submillimeter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Y.-J.; Wang, K.-S.; Charnley, S. B.; Kisiel, Z.; Liu, S.-Y.; Huang, H.-C.

    Molecular cloud cores contain many organic molecules that are known to be prebiotically important and are fundamental components of the large organic macromolecules central to biochemistry A key interstellar molecule for astrobiology would be pyrimidine c -C 4H 4N 2 the unsubstituted ring analogue for three of the DNA and RNA bases thymine cytosine and uracil A submillimeter spectral search using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope resulted in a detection of a spectral feature corresponding to a pyrimidine bandhead If this feature is indeed due to pyrimidine other lines at submillimeter and millimeter frequencies should be detectable We have thus used the Submillimeter Array SMA to search for confirmatory evidence for the nucleic acid building-block pyrimidine in Orion KL which is known to contain the precursor molecules of this heterocyclic ring molecule Some of our preliminary SMA results will be presented in this meeting

  11. The search for an identification of amino acids, nucleobases and nucleosides in samples returned from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, Charles W.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril; Kuo, Kenneth C.; Stalling, David L.; Zumwalt, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return mission will provide us with a unique source of material from our solar system; material which could advance our knowledge of the processes of chemical evolution. As has been pointed out, Mars geological investigations based on the Viking datasets have shown that primordial Mars was in many biologically important ways similar to the primordial Earth; the presence of surface liquid water, moderate surface temperatures, and atmosphere of carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and high geothermal heat flow. Indeed, it would seem that conditions on Earth and Mars were fundamentally similar during the first one billion years or so. As has been pointed out, Mars may well contain the best preserved record of the events that transpired on the early planets. Examination of that early record will involve searching for many things, from microfossils to isotopic abundance data. We propose an investigation of the returned Mars samples for biologically important organic compounds, with emphases on amino acids, the purine and pyrimidine bases, and nucleosides.

  12. Purines and pyrimidines in sediments from lake erie.

    PubMed

    Van Der Velden, W; Schwartz, A W

    1974-08-23

    Quantitative analyses of purines and pyrimidines in sequential sections of cores from the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie show steeply increasing concentrations in the youngest sediments. This may be related to increased loading of nutrients and recent cultural eutrophication of the lake. The purine and pyrimidine distributions suggest the operation of a specific degradative process for uracil at an extremely early stage in, or prior to, sediment formation. PMID:17736373

  13. (Biological applications of nucleosides and nucleotides)

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.

    1990-08-20

    The traveler was invited to visit The Meditech Group, VTT Technology, Inc., Reactor Laboratory, VTT Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT), Otakaari, Espoo, Finland. The Meditech Group commands a 70 percent market share of Finland's radiopharmaceutical business and plans to expand its activities to other Scandinavian countries as well as in the Leningrad area of USSR. Meditech has plans to separate itself from Technical Research Center of Finland and its subsidiary VTT Technology, Inc., to become a private radiopharmaceutical company in the near future. As a private company, Meditech could expand its activities to encompass radiopharmaceutical research and development and may require foreign technical experts to support its research endeavors. The traveler also attended the Ninth International Round Table Conference on Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Their Biological Applications held at the Biomedical Center, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden. The meeting focused on the chemistry and biology of RNA and DNA and their building blocks, nucleosides and nucleotides. The traveler also presented an invited paper entitled Design, Synthesis and Tumor Specificity of Azomycin Ribo- and Acyclonucleosides,'' describing his recent work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. An improved method for the enzymatic transformation of nucleosides into 5'-monophosphates.

    PubMed

    Barai, Vladimir N; Kvach, Sergei V; Zinchenko, Anatoli I; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2004-12-01

    An improved method to transform nucleosides into 5'-monophosphates using nucleoside phosphotransferase from Erwinia herbicola is reported. The method is based on the shift in the equilibrium state of the reaction to the formation of desired product due to its precipitation by Zn2+. Under optimal conditions, the extent of nucleoside transformations into nucleoside-5'-monophosphates were 41-91% (mol). PMID:15672226

  15. Natural and engineered biosynthesis of nucleoside antibiotics in Actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenqing; Qi, Jianzhao; Wu, Pan; Wan, Dan; Liu, Jin; Feng, Xuan; Deng, Zixin

    2016-03-01

    Nucleoside antibiotics constitute an important family of microbial natural products bearing diverse bioactivities and unusual structural features. Their biosynthetic logics are unique with involvement of complex multi-enzymatic reactions leading to the intricate molecules from simple building blocks. Understanding how nature builds this family of antibiotics in post-genomic era sets the stage for rational enhancement of their production, and also paves the way for targeted persuasion of the cell factories to make artificial designer nucleoside drugs and leads via synthetic biology approaches. In this review, we discuss the recent progress and perspectives on the natural and engineered biosynthesis of nucleoside antibiotics. PMID:26153500

  16. Purine and pyrimidine excretion in psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, H. A.; Bowyer, A.

    1974-01-01

    1 Urinary purine excretion has been investigated in two healthy controls and two patients with psoriasis, one a hyperuricaemic, one a normouricaemic. No difference was detected between the patients and controls. Therapy with allopurinol effectively lowered blood and urinary uric acid levels and produced a deficit in total urinary oxypurine excretion in both controls and patients with psoriasis. The concomitant increase in xanthine excretion was greater than the increase in hypoxanthine excretion and xanthine/hypoxanthine ratios (average 0.70 and 1.0 prior to therapy) were increased by allopurinol to an average of 3.0 and 3.8 respectively in the two groups. Allopurinol also reduced the excretion of 8-hydroxy-7-methyl guanine but no effect on the excretion levels of other minor purine bases was noted. 2 Allopurinol was metabolized similarly by both patients and controls, 84% of the administered allopurinol being accounted for as urinary metabolites. 74% of the drug in the urine was excreted as oxipurinol, 26% as unchanged allopurinol plus allopurinol riboside, the remainder being oxipurinol riboside. 3 Pseudouridine excretion in 25 healthy controls was 86.5 ± 17.8 mg/24 hours. Pseudouridine excretion was not excessive in the patients with psoriasis and was not altered by allopurinol therapy. 4 No abnormality or difference in purine or pyrimidine excretion in either patient was detected prior to or during therapy which could be related to the epidermal lesion. PMID:22454896

  17. Low-energy positron scattering by pyrimidine

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Pastega, Diego F.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.

    2015-12-28

    This work reports elastic integral and differential cross sections for positron collisions with pyrimidine, for energies up to 20 eV. The cross sections were computed with the Schwinger multichannel method in the static plus polarization approximation. We also employed the Born closure procedure to account for the long range potential due to the permanent dipole moment of the molecule. Our results are compared with the experimental total cross section of Zecca et al. [J. Phys. B 43, 215204 (2010)], the experimental grand-total, quasi-elastic integral and differential cross section of Palihawadana et al. [Phys. Rev. A 88, 12717 (2013)]. We also compare our results with theoretical integral and differential cross sections obtained by Sanz et al. [Phys. Rev. A 88, 62704 (2013)] with the R-matrix and the independent atom model with screening-corrected additivity rule methods, and with the results computed by Franz and Gianturco [Phys. Rev. A 88, 042711 (2013)] using model correlation-polarization potentials. The agreement between the theory and the experiment is encouraging.

  18. Low-energy positron scattering by pyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Pastega, Diego F.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.

    2015-12-01

    This work reports elastic integral and differential cross sections for positron collisions with pyrimidine, for energies up to 20 eV. The cross sections were computed with the Schwinger multichannel method in the static plus polarization approximation. We also employed the Born closure procedure to account for the long range potential due to the permanent dipole moment of the molecule. Our results are compared with the experimental total cross section of Zecca et al. [J. Phys. B 43, 215204 (2010)], the experimental grand-total, quasi-elastic integral and differential cross section of Palihawadana et al. [Phys. Rev. A 88, 12717 (2013)]. We also compare our results with theoretical integral and differential cross sections obtained by Sanz et al. [Phys. Rev. A 88, 62704 (2013)] with the R-matrix and the independent atom model with screening-corrected additivity rule methods, and with the results computed by Franz and Gianturco [Phys. Rev. A 88, 042711 (2013)] using model correlation-polarization potentials. The agreement between the theory and the experiment is encouraging.

  19. The Human SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 Genes of Solute Carrier Family 25 Encode Two Mitochondrial Pyrimidine Nucleotide Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Todisco, Simona; Cirigliano, Angela; Rinaldi, Teresa; Agrimi, Gennaro; Iacobazzi, Vito; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport inorganic anions, amino acids, carboxylates, nucleotides, and coenzymes across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. Here two members of this family, SLC25A33 and SLC25A36, have been thoroughly characterized biochemically. These proteins were overexpressed in bacteria and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Their transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A33 transports uracil, thymine, and cytosine (deoxy)nucleoside di- and triphosphates by an antiport mechanism and SLC25A36 cytosine and uracil (deoxy)nucleoside mono-, di-, and triphosphates by uniport and antiport. Both carriers also transported guanine but not adenine (deoxy)nucleotides. Transport catalyzed by both carriers was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. In confirmation of their identity (i) SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 were found to be targeted to mitochondria and (ii) the phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking RIM2, the gene encoding the well characterized yeast mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide carrier, were overcome by expressing SLC25A33 or SLC25A36 in these cells. The main physiological role of SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 is to import/export pyrimidine nucleotides into and from mitochondria, i.e. to accomplish transport steps essential for mitochondrial DNA and RNA synthesis and breakdown. PMID:25320081

  20. Functional non-nucleoside adenylyl cyclase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lelle, Marco; Hameed, Abdul; Ackermann, Lisa-Maria; Kaloyanova, Stefka; Wagner, Manfred; Berisha, Filip; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Peneva, Kalina

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we describe the synthesis of novel functional non-nucleoside adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, which can be easily modified with thiol containing biomolecules such as tumour targeting structures. The linkage between inhibitor and biomolecule contains cleavable bonds to enable efficient intracellular delivery in the reductive milieu of the cytosol as well as in the acidic environment within endosomes and lysosomes. The suitability of this synthetic approach was shown by the successful bioconjugation of a poor cell-permeable inhibitor with a cell-penetrating peptide. Additionally, we have demonstrated the excellent inhibitory effect of the compounds presented here in a live-cell Förster resonance energy transfer-based assay in human embryonic kidney cells. PMID:25319071

  1. Hepatotoxicity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Montessori, Valentina; Harris, Marianne; Montaner, Julio S G

    2003-05-01

    Hepatotoxicity is an adverse effect of all available classes of antiretrovirals, including nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). A syndrome of hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis has been recognized as a rare, potentially fatal complication since the advent of NRTI monotherapy in the early 1990s. Today, NRTI remain the backbone of antiretroviral combination regimens, and, with the success of current treatment strategies, exposure to two or more of these agents may occur over a number of years. Hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis are accordingly being observed more frequently, along with a more recently recognized syndrome of chronic hyperlactatemia. These as well as other adverse effects of NRTI are mediated by inhibition of human DNA polymerase gamma, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver and other tissues. Early recognition and intervention are essential to avert serious outcomes. PMID:12800069

  2. Crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae at 2.4;#8201;Å

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Zachary Lee; Cheong, Cheom-Gil; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2012-07-11

    Nucleosides are required for DNA and RNA synthesis, and the nucleoside adenosine has a function in a variety of signalling processes. Transport of nucleosides across cell membranes provides the major source of nucleosides in many cell types and is also responsible for the termination of adenosine signalling. As a result of their hydrophilic nature, nucleosides require a specialized class of integral membrane proteins, known as nucleoside transporters (NTs), for specific transport across cell membranes. In addition to nucleosides, NTs are important determinants for the transport of nucleoside-derived drugs across cell membranes. A wide range of nucleoside-derived drugs, including anticancer drugs (such as Ara-C and gemcitabine) and antiviral drugs (such as zidovudine and ribavirin), have been shown to depend, at least in part, on NTs for transport across cell membranes. Concentrative nucleoside transporters, members of the solute carrier transporter superfamily SLC28, use an ion gradient in the active transport of both nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs against their chemical gradients. The structural basis for selective ion-coupled nucleoside transport by concentrative nucleoside transporters is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae in complex with uridine at 2.4 {angstrom}. Our functional data show that, like its human orthologues, the transporter uses a sodium-ion gradient for nucleoside transport. The structure reveals the overall architecture of this class of transporter, unravels the molecular determinants for nucleoside and sodium binding, and provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of nucleoside and nucleoside drug transport across cell membranes.

  3. Base-Modified Nucleosides as Chemotherapeutic Agents: Past and Future.

    PubMed

    Burke, Matthew P; Borland, Kayla M; Litosh, Vladislav A

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside and nucleobase antimetabolites have substantially impacted treatment of cancer and infections. Their close resemblance to natural analogs gives them the power to interfere with a variety of intracellular targets, which on one hand gives them high potency, but on the other hand incurs severe side effects, especially of the chemotherapeutics used against malignancies. Therefore, the development of novel nucleoside analogs with widened therapeutic windows represents an attractive target to synthetic organic and medicinal chemists. This review discusses the current antimetabolite drugs: 5- fluorouracil, 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, Cladribine, Vidaza, Decitabine, Emtricitabine, Abacavir, Sorivudine, Clofarabine, Fludarabine, and Nelarabine; gives insight into the nucleoside drug candidates that are being developed; and outlines the approaches to nucleobase modifications that may help discover novel bioactive nucleoside analogs with the mechanism of action focused on termination of DNA synthesis, which is expected to diminish the off-target toxicity in non-proliferating human cells. PMID:26369814

  4. Membrane-permeable Triphosphate Prodrugs of Nucleoside Analogues.

    PubMed

    Gollnest, Tristan; Dinis de Oliveira, Thiago; Rath, Anna; Hauber, Ilona; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2016-04-18

    The metabolic conversion of nucleoside analogues into their triphosphates often proceeds insufficiently. Rate-limitations can be at the mono-, but also at the di- and triphosphorylation steps. We developed a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) delivery system (TriPPPro-approach). In this approach, NTPs are masked by two bioreversible units at the γ-phosphate. Using a procedure involving H-phosphonate chemistry, a series of derivatives bearing approved, as well as potentially antivirally active, nucleoside analogues was synthesized. The enzyme-triggered delivery of NTPs was demonstrated by pig liver esterase, in human T-lymphocyte cell extracts and by a polymerase chain reaction using a prodrug of thymidine triphosphate. The TriPPPro-compounds of some HIV-inactive nucleoside analogues showed marked anti-HIV activity. For cellular uptake studies, a fluorescent TriPPPro-compound was prepared that delivered the triphosphorylated metabolite to intact CEM cells. PMID:27008042

  5. Medicinal chemistry of fluorinated cyclic and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates.

    PubMed

    Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Janeba, Zlatko

    2013-11-01

    The fluorine atom plays an important role in medicinal chemistry because fluorine substitution has a strong impact on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of bioactive compounds. Such fluorine modifications have also been extensively studied among the pharmaceutically important class of nucleoside phosphonates, nucleotide analogues in which the phosphate group is replaced by the enzymatically and chemically stable phosphonate moiety. The fluorinated nucleoside phosphonates abound with antiviral, antiparasitic, and anticancer properties because they are able to act as inhibitors of important enzymes of nucleoside/nucleotide metabolism. In this paper, we review the biological properties of cyclic and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates modified by the attachment of one or more fluorine atoms to various parts of the molecule, namely to nucleobases, alkylphosphonate groups, cyclic or acyclic linkers, or to prodrug moieties. PMID:23893552

  6. 5-Chlorodeoxycytidine when coadministered with modulators of pyrimidine metabolism is an effective and potentially tumor-selective in vivo radiosensitizer

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, O.

    1989-01-01

    5-Chlorodeoxycytidine, a halogenated pyrimidine nucleoside analog, was coadministered with several modulators of pyrimidine metabolism, in order to achieve tumor selective radiosensitization in murine tumor models. The modulators were tetrahydrouridine (an inhibitor of cytidine deaminase), PALA (an inhibitor of aspartate transcarbamylase), 5-fluorodeoxycytidine (which acts to inhibit thymidylate synthetase, and also produces single and double strand breaks in DNA, through incorporation of FdUTP and dUTP into DNA, and subsequent repair) and 5-benzylacyclourindine (an inhibitor of uridine phosphorylase). Several experimental approaches were utilized to determine the extent of tumor radiosensitization and selectivity. Studies measuring the levels of the various metabolites of CldC one hour following CldC administration with or without the various modulators of metabolism showed that it is possible to selectively generate CldU and CldUMP in the tumor compared to normal tissues. DNA incorporation studies measuring the extent of substitution of CldU (derived from CldC) for thymidine also demonstrated the potential for tumor selectivity. Incorporation positively correlated with the levels of cytidine deaminase and dCMP deaminase (two enzymes involved in the metabolism of CldC) in a particular tissue. The levels of these enzymes have been reported to be elevated in many human malignancies. Two model systems were used to assay tumor radiosensitization. The optimum CldC treatment protocol (with tetrahydrouridine, PALA, and 5-fluorodeoxycytidine) yielded a two-fold dose enhancement ratio with the RIF-1 tumor model irradiated in vivo (cell survival was assayed via clonogenic assay). Utilizing the Lewis lung carcinoma model and measuring tumor growth over time, tumor growth was completely arrested for six days following irradiation, with the CldC protocol.

  7. Synthesis and antiviral activity of certain 4- and 4,5-disubstituted 7-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Pudlo, J S; Saxena, N K; Nassiri, M R; Turk, S R; Drach, J C; Townsend, L B

    1988-11-01

    In vitro evaluation of a series of previously prepared tubercidin analogues revealed that certain 5-halogen-substituted analogues were active against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) at concentrations lower than those that produced comparable cytotoxicity in uninfected cells. In contrast, tubercidin was cytotoxic at all antiviral concentrations. Even though the antiviral selectivity of the 5-substituted compounds was slight, this observation led us to prepare a series of acyclic analogues. Treatment of the sodium salt of 4-chloropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (2) with (2-acetoxyethoxy)methyl bromide (2a) provided the acyclic nucleoside 4-chloro-7-[(2-acetoxyethoxy)methyl]pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (3). A nucleophilic displacement of the 4-chloro group with methoxide, methylamine, and dimethylamine yielded the corresponding 4-substituted compounds 4, 5, and 6, respectively, in good yield. Electrophilic substitution (chlorination, bromination, and iodination) was effected at the C-5 position of compound 3 with N-chlorosuccinimide, N-bromosuccinimide, and iodine monochloride, respectively, in methylene chloride. Removal of the acetyl group from these intermediates (7a-9a) with methanolic ammonia at room temperature afforded the 5-chloro (7b), 5-bromo (8b), and 5-iodo (9b) derivatives of 4-chloro-7-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine. Treatment of compounds 7b-9b with methanolic ammonia at an elevated temperature produced the corresponding 5-halotubercidin analogues 10, 11, and 12, respectively. An alternate procedure for the preparation of these 4,5-disubstituted 7-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines involved an electrophilic substitution prior to the condensation of the heterocycle with 2a. Treatment of 2 with N-chlorosuccinimide and N-bromosuccinimide gave compounds 13a and 13b, respectively. The condensation of 13a and 13b with 2a and subsequent treatment with methylamine and ethylamine furnished the corresponding 5-halo-4-substituted-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines

  8. Synthesis and Evaluation of 2'-Deoxy-2'-Spirodiflurocyclopropyl Nucleoside Analogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Xia, Xueliang; Sun, Chenghai; Lin, Cai; Zhou, Yiqian; Hussain, Muzammal; Tang, Fei; Liu, Lu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Jiancun

    2016-09-01

    The preparation of 2'-deoxy-2'-siprodifluorocyclopropany-lnucleoside analogs has been achieved from α-d-glucose in several steps. The key step in the synthesis was the introduction of the difluorocyclopropane through a difluorocarbene type reaction at the 2'-position. Then, a series of novel 2'-deoxy-2'-spirodifluorocyclopropanyl nucleoside analogs were synthesized using the Vorbrüggen method. All the synthesized nucleosides were characterized and subsequently evaluated against hepatitis C and influenza A virus strains in vitro. PMID:27556785

  9. Distribution of nucleosides in populations of Cordyceps cicadae.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen-Bo; Yu, Hong; Ge, Feng; Yang, Jun-Yuan; Chen, Zi-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Bing; Dai, Yong-Dong; Adams, Alison

    2014-01-01

    A rapid HPLC method had been developed and used for the simultaneous determination of 10 nucleosides (uracil, uridine, 2'-deoxyuridine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, adenine, adenosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine and cordycepin) in 10 populations of Cordyceps cicadae, in order to compare four populations of Ophicordyceps sinensis and one population of Cordyceps militaris. Statistical analysis system (SAS) 8.1 was used to analyze the nucleoside data. The pattern of nucleoside distribution was analyzed in the sampled populations of C. cicadae, O. sinensis and C. militaris, using descriptive statistical analysis, nested analysis and Q cluster analysis. The total amount of the 10 nucleosides in coremium was 1,463.89-5,678.21 µg/g in 10 populations of C. cicadae, 1,369.80-3,941.64 µg/g in sclerotium. The average contents of the 10 analytes were 4,392.37 µg/g and 3,016.06 µg/g in coremium and sclerotium, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) of nucleosides ranged from 8.36% to 112.36% in coremium of C. cicadae, and from 10.77% to 155.87% in sclerotium of C. cicadae. The CV of the nucleosides was wide within C. cicadae populations. The nested variation analysis by the nine nucleosides' distribution indicated that about 42.29% of the nucleoside variability in coremium was attributable to the differentiation among populations, and the remaining 57.71% resided in the populations. It was also shown that about 28.94% of the variation in sclerotium was expressed between populations, while most of the variation (71.06%) corresponded to the populations. PMID:24830714

  10. Flexibility as a Strategy in Nucleoside Antiviral Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Peters, H L; Ku, T C; Seley-Radtke, K L

    2015-01-01

    As far back as Melville Wolfrom's acyclic sugar synthesis in the 1960's, synthesis of flexible nucleoside analogues have been an area of interest. This concept, however, went against years of enzyme-substrate binding theory. Hence, acyclic methodology in antiviral drug design did not take off until the discovery and subsequent FDA approval of such analogues as Acyclovir and Tenofovir. More recently, the observation that flexible nucleosides could overcome drug resistance spawned a renewed interest in the field of nucleoside drug design. The next generation of flexible nucleosides shifted the focus from the sugar moiety to the nucleobase. With analogues such as Seley-Radtke "fleximers", and Herdewijn's C5 substituted 2'-deoxyuridines, the area of base flexibility has seen great expansion. More recently, the marriage of these methodologies with acyclic sugars has resulted in a series of acyclic flex-base nucleosides with a wide range of antiviral properties, including some of the first to exhibit anti-coronavirus activity. Various flexible nucleosides and their corresponding nucleobases will be compared in this review. PMID:26282942

  11. Expedient and generic synthesis of imidazole nucleosides by enzymatic transglycosylation.

    PubMed

    Vichier-Guerre, S; Dugué, L; Bonhomme, F; Pochet, S

    2016-04-14

    A straightforward route to original imidazole-based nucleosides that makes use of an enzymatic N-transglycosylation step is reported in both the ribo- and deoxyribo-series. To illustrate the scope of this approach, a diverse set of 4-aryl and 4-heteroaryl-1H-imidazoles featuring variable sizes and hydrogen-bonding patterns was prepared using a microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. These imidazole derivatives were examined as possible substrates for the nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from L. leichmannii and the purine nucleoside phosphorylase from E. coli. The optimum transglycosylation conditions, including the use of co-adjuvants to address solubility issues, were defined. Enzymatic conversion of 4-(hetero)arylimidazoles to 2'-deoxyribo- or ribo-nucleosides proceeded in good to high conversion yields, except bulky hydrophobic imidazole derivatives. Nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase of class II was found to convert the widest range of functionalized imidazoles into 2'-deoxyribonucleosides and was even capable of bis-glycosylating certain heterocyclic substrates. Our findings should enable chemoenzymatic access to a large diversity of flexible nucleoside analogues as molecular probes, drug candidates and original building blocks for synthetic biology. PMID:26986701

  12. Chemotherapy of leishmaniasis. Part VII: synthesis and bioevaluation of substituted terpenyl pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, S N; Bhat, B A; Pandey, Susmita; Chandra, Naveen; Gupta, Suman

    2007-09-01

    Some novel 4-N-substituted terpenyl pyrimidines 5(a-d) and 7(a-g) have been synthesized using novel synthetic methods. The compounds were screened for in vivo antileishmanial screening. When compared to 4-thiomethoxy substituted pyrimidine 2 4-N-substituted terpenyl pyrimidines 5(a-d) and 7(a-g) were found inactive. PMID:17499393

  13. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as dual inhibitors of TS and AICARFTase and as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Li, Meng; Zhang, Hongying; Yuan, Jiangsong; Zhang, Congying; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Huicai; Zhao, Lijuan; Du, Yumin; Wang, Lei; Ren, Leiming

    2016-06-10

    A new series of 2-amino-4-oxo-6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines, with an isosteric replacement of the side chain amide moiety to a sulfur atom, were designed and synthesized as multitargeted antifolates as well as potential antitumor agents. Starting from previously synthesized 2-amino-4-oxo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-yl-acetic acid, a reduction by lithium triethylborohydride and successive mesylation afforded the key mesylate. Nucleophilic substitution by mercaptoacetic or mercaptopropionic acid methyl esters, followed by hydrolysis and condensation with pyridinyl-methylamines provided the nonclassical compounds 1-6, whereas condensation with glutamic acid diethyl ester hydrochloride and saponification afforded the classical analogs 7-8. All target compounds exhibited inhibitory activities toward KB, SW620 and A549 tumor cell lines. The most potent compounds of this series, 7 and 8, are better inhibitors against A549 cells than methotrexate (MTX) and pemetrexed (PMX). Nucleoside protection assays establish compound 8 a dual inhibitor of thymidylate synthase (TS) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (AICARFTase) targeting both de novo thymidylate and purine nucleotide biosynthesis, which is further verified by the molecular modeling studies. Analogous to PMX, target compound 8 alternates the cell cycle of SW620 cells with S-phase accumulation and induces apoptosis, leading to cell death. PMID:27017552

  14. Significance and Biological Importance of Pyrimidine in the Microbial World

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vinita; Agarwal, Ajay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Microbes are unique creatures that adapt to varying lifestyles and environment resistance in extreme or adverse conditions. The genetic architecture of microbe may bear a significant signature not only in the sequences position, but also in the lifestyle to which it is adapted. It becomes a challenge for the society to find new chemical entities which can treat microbial infections. The present review aims to focus on account of important chemical moiety, that is, pyrimidine and its various derivatives as antimicrobial agents. In the current studies we represent more than 200 pyrimidines as antimicrobial agents with different mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted classes along with in vitro antimicrobial activities of pyrimidines derivatives which can facilitate the development of more potent and effective antimicrobial agents. PMID:25383216

  15. The pyrimidine nucleotide carrier PNC1 and mitochondrial trafficking of thymidine phosphates in cultured human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Franzolin, Elisa; Miazzi, Cristina; Frangini, Miriam; Palumbo, Elisa; Rampazzo, Chiara; Bianchi, Vera

    2012-10-15

    In cycling cells cytosolic de novo synthesis of deoxynucleotides is the main source of precursors for mitochondrial (mt) DNA synthesis. The transfer of deoxynucleotides across the inner mt membrane requires protein carriers. PNC1, a SLC25 family member, exchanges pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates in liposomes and its downregulation decreases mtUTP concentration in cultured cells. By an isotope-flow protocol we confirmed transport of uridine nucleotides by PNC1 in intact cultured cells and investigated PNC1 involvement in the mt trafficking of thymidine phosphates. Key features of our approach were the manipulation of PNC1 expression by RNA interference or inducible overexpression, the employment of cells proficient or deficient for cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) to distinguish the direction of flow of thymidine nucleotides across the mt membrane during short pulses with [{sup 3}H]-thymidine, the determination of mtdTTP specific radioactivity to quantitate the rate of mtdTTP export to the cytoplasm. Downregulation of PNC1 in TK1{sup -} cells increased labeled dTTP in mitochondria due to a reduced rate of export. Overexpression of PNC1 in TK1{sup +} cells increased mtdTTP pool size and radioactivity, suggesting an involvement in the import of thymidine phosphates. Thus PNC1 is a component of the network regulating the mtdTTP pool in human cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thymidine phosphates exchange between mitochondria and cytosol in mammalian cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer siRNA-downregulation of PNC1 delays mitochondrial dTTP export in TK1{sup -} cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PNC1 overexpression accumulates dTTP in mitochondria of TK1{sup +} cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PNC1 exchanges thymidine nucleotides across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PNC1 participates in the regulation of the mtdTTP pool supporting mtDNA synthesis.

  16. Effects of toxic chemicals on the release of pyrimidine compounds in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Uziel, M; Butler, A; Owen, B

    1987-07-01

    Exposure of hamster embryo cells and BF lymphoblastoid cells to 18 known toxic substances and four nominally nontoxic substances results in the release of pyrimidines (and their nucleosides) into the culture medium. The extent of release is dependent on the specific chemical and the specific cells present in the assay. BF cells are not affected by exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, while the hamster embryo cells exhibit enhanced excretion on exposure to benzo(a)pyrene. This difference in response may be due to the difference in endogenous aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (BaP) activity. In contrast, diethylstilbestrol, which is metabolized by a peroxidase-mediated enzyme system, causes enhanced excretion in both cell types. Direct alkylating agents and Ni(+2) salts also cause enhanced excretion in both cell types. We have used concentrations of chemicals that give a 5% enhanced excretion as the criterion of low-dose response. Within the range of concentrations tested, chromate induces enhanced excretion in BF cells but not the HEC cells, and Pb(+2) induces enhanced excretion in HEC cells but not the BF cells. Benzene, dimethylnitrosamine, and Mg(+2) did not affect either cell type. 7,12-Dimethylbenzo(a)anthracene, anthracene, benzo(a)anthracene, phenylazoaniline, N-methyl, N-nitroso, N'-nitroguanidine, dioxane, and pyrene cause enhanced excretion in the hamster embryo cells while benzo(e)pyrene, ZnSO4 and cholesterol do not cause enhanced excretion in the hamster embryo cells. Of those chemicals causing enhanced excretion, the concentration range bracketing 5% enhanced excretion approximated low-dose exposures reported to result in toxic responses like cancer, teratogenesis or pulmonary disease. PMID:3662812

  17. The prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidines in frozen solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleaves, H. James, II; Nelson, Kevin E.; Miller, Stanley L.

    2006-05-01

    Most prebiotic syntheses depend on the reaction of concentrated precursor compounds to produce bio-organic molecules. It is now believed that the early Earth’s atmosphere was not reducing enough to have permitted copious synthesis of precursor molecules. Freezing allows reaction to occur even from dilute solution. This reaction has been demonstrated for the purines but not for the pyrimidines. It is shown here that dilute solutions of simple prebiotic molecules produce the biological pyrimidines cytosine and uracil upon freezing. Cold environments may have allowed synthesis of all of the RNA bases even from low organic yielding atmospheres, such as those of the early Earth, Mars, Titan and Europa.

  18. Human white blood cells contain cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer photolyase

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Bennett, P.V.

    1995-10-10

    Although enzymatic photoreactivation of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in DNA is present in almost all organisms, its presence in placental mammals is controversial. We tested human white blood cells for photolyase by using three defined DNAs (suprecoiled pET-2, nonsupercoiled bacteriphage {lambda}, and a defined-sequence 287-bp oligonucleotide), two dimer-specific endonucleases (T4 endonuclease V and UV endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus), and three assay methods. We show that human white blood cells contain photolyase that can photorepair pyrimidine dimers in defined supercoiled and linear DNAs and in a 287-bp oligonucleotide and that human photolyase is active on genomic DNA in intact human cells. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Nucleoside transporter subtype expression and function in rat skeletal muscle microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Archer, Richard G E; Pitelka, Václav; Hammond, James R

    2004-09-01

    1. Microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) form a barrier between circulating metabolites, such as adenosine, and the surrounding tissue. We hypothesize that MVECs have a high capacity for the accumulation of nucleosides, such that inhibition of the endothelial nucleoside transporters (NT) would profoundly affect the actions of adenosine in the microvasculature. 2. We assessed the binding of [(3)H]nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR), a specific probe for the inhibitor-sensitive subtype of equilibrative NT (es), and the uptake of [(3)H]formycin B (FB), by MVECs isolated from rat skeletal muscle. The cellular expression of equilibrative (ENT1, ENT2, ENT3) and concentrative (CNT1, CNT2, CNT3) NT subtypes was also determined using both qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques. 3. In the absence of Na(+), MVECs accumulated [(3)H]FB with a V(max) of 21+/-1 pmol microl(-1) s(-1). This uptake was mediated equally by es (K(m) 260+/-70 microm) and ei (equilibrative inhibitor-insensitive; K(m) 130+/-20 microm) NTs. 4. A minor component of Na(+)-dependent cif (concentrative inhibitor-insensitive FB transporter)/CNT2-mediated [(3)H]FB uptake (V(i) 0.008+/-0.005 pmol microl(-1) s(-1) at 10 microm) was also observed at room temperature upon inhibition of ENTs with dipyridamole (2,6-bis(diethanolamino)-4,8-dipiperidinopyrimido-[5,4-d]pyrimidine)/NBMPR. 5. MVECs had 122,000 high-affinity (K(d) 0.10 nm) [(3)H]NBMPR binding sites (representing es transporters) per cell. A lower-affinity [(3)H]NBMPR binding component (K(d) 4.8 nm) was also observed that may be related to intracellular es-like proteins. 6. Rat skeletal muscle MVECs express es/ENT1, ei/ENT2, and cif/CNT2 transporters with characteristics typical of rat tissues. This primary cell culture model will enable future studies on factors influencing NT subtype expression, and the consequent effect on adenosine bioactivity, in the microvasculature. PMID:15289294

  20. Nucleoside transporter subtype expression and function in rat skeletal muscle microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Richard G E; Pitelka, Václav; Hammond, James R

    2004-01-01

    Microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) form a barrier between circulating metabolites, such as adenosine, and the surrounding tissue. We hypothesize that MVECs have a high capacity for the accumulation of nucleosides, such that inhibition of the endothelial nucleoside transporters (NT) would profoundly affect the actions of adenosine in the microvasculature. We assessed the binding of [3H]nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR), a specific probe for the inhibitor-sensitive subtype of equilibrative NT (es), and the uptake of [3H]formycin B (FB), by MVECs isolated from rat skeletal muscle. The cellular expression of equilibrative (ENT1, ENT2, ENT3) and concentrative (CNT1, CNT2, CNT3) NT subtypes was also determined using both qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques. In the absence of Na+, MVECs accumulated [3H]FB with a Vmax of 21±1 pmol μl−1 s−1. This uptake was mediated equally by es (Km 260±70 μM) and ei (equilibrative inhibitor-insensitive; Km 130±20 μM) NTs. A minor component of Na+-dependent cif (concentrative inhibitor-insensitive FB transporter)/CNT2-mediated [3H]FB uptake (Vi 0.008±0.005 pmol μl−1 s−1 at 10 μM) was also observed at room temperature upon inhibition of ENTs with dipyridamole (2,6-bis(diethanolamino)-4,8-dipiperidinopyrimido-[5,4-d]pyrimidine)/NBMPR. MVECs had 122,000 high-affinity (Kd 0.10 nM) [3H]NBMPR binding sites (representing es transporters) per cell. A lower-affinity [3H]NBMPR binding component (Kd 4.8 nM) was also observed that may be related to intracellular es-like proteins. Rat skeletal muscle MVECs express es/ENT1, ei/ENT2, and cif/CNT2 transporters with characteristics typical of rat tissues. This primary cell culture model will enable future studies on factors influencing NT subtype expression, and the consequent effect on adenosine bioactivity, in the microvasculature. PMID:15289294

  1. Efficient DNA strand displacement by a W-shaped nucleoside analogue (WNA-βT) containing an ortho-methyl-substituted phenyl ring.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Eriko; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Wada, Yasumasa; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2012-05-29

    Molecules that can target duplex DNA with sequence selectivity have the potential to be useful tools in genomic research and also as therapeutic agents. Homopurine-homopyrimidine stretches in duplex DNA can be recognized by homopurine or homopyrimidine TFOs (triplex-forming oligonucleotides) through the formation of triplex DNA. We have previously developed bicyclic nucleoside analogues (WNAs) for the formation of stable triplexes in the formation of stable antiparallel triplexes containing a TA or a CG interrupting site. In this study, we investigated the effects on triplex DNA formation of ortho-, meta-, and para-methyl substituent groups on the aromatic ring of the WNA analogue. It was found that the homopurine TFO containing meta- and para-methyl-substituted WNA-βT (mMe-WNA-βT, pMe-WNA-βT) stabilized triplexes containing a TA interrupting site or a GC site, respectively. Interestingly, the ortho-methyl-substituted WNA-βT (oMe-WNA-βT) efficiently promoted DNA strand displacement to form the TFO/pyrimidine duplex. A detailed investigation showed that the duplex was in the antiparallel orientation and that its formation took place prior to triplex formation with the need for a magnesium cation. NOESY measurements indicated a significant difference in the rotation flexibilities of the phenyl rings of WNA-βTs: that is, the conformation of the ortho-methylated phenyl ring was stable in a temperature-independent manner. It was speculated that the initial formation of a ternary complex was followed by strand displacement and then the formation of the TFO/pyrimidine duplex together with the TFO(2)/pyrimidine triplex formation during the early stage, and that the equilibrium shifted to the triplex during the later stage. Although the detailed role is still uncertain, the fixed phenyl ring of oMe-WNA-βT might play a role in the displacement reaction. PMID:22549913

  2. Synthesis of Pyrimidine Incorporated Piperazine Derivatives and their Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Thriveni, K. S.; Padmashali, B.; Siddesh, M. B.; Sandeep, C.

    2014-01-01

    Thiophene substituted chalcones (1a-e) were cyclised with thiourea in presence of potassium hydroxide to get 4-substituted-6-(thiophen-2-yl)pyrimidine-2-thiols (2a-e) which were then stirred with methyl iodide to obtain 4-substituted-2-(methylsulfanyl)-6-(thiophen-2-yl)pyrimidines (3a-e). Compounds (3a-e) were refluxed with different N-methylpiperazine and N-phenylpiperazine to afford 4-substituted-2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-6-(thiophen-2-yl)pyrimidines (4a-e) and 4-substituted-2-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)-6-(thiophen-2-yl)pyrimidines (5a-e). The structures of all the newly synthesised compounds 4b, 4d, 5a and 5b showed good antibacterial activity at 40μg/mlconcentration. Compounds 4a, 4d, 4e, 5c and 5e showed significant antifungal activity at 40 μg/ml concentration compared with standard drugs. PMID:25284931

  3. Crystal structure of (E)-13-(pyrimidin-5-yl)parthenolide

    PubMed Central

    Bommagani, Shobanbabu; Penthala, Narsimha R.; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C19H22N2O3, {systematic name (1aR,4E,7aS,8E,10aS,10bR)-1a,5-dimethyl-8-[(pyrimidin-5-yl)­methylid­ene]-2,3,6,7,7a,8,10a,10b-octa­hydro­oxireno[2′,3′:9,10]cyclo­deca­[1,2-b]furan-9(1aH)-one} was obtained from the reaction of parthenolide [systematic name (1aR,7aS,10aS,10bR,E)-1a,5-dimethyl-8-methyl­ene-2,3,6,7,7a,8,10a,10b-octa­hydro­oxireno[2′,3′:9,10]cyclodeca­[1,2-b]furan-9(1aH)-one] with 5-bromo­pyrimidine under Heck reaction conditions, and was identified as an E isomer. The mol­ecule possesses ten-, five- (lactone) and three-membered (epoxide) rings with a pyrimidine group as a substituent. The ten-membered ring displays an approximate chair–chair conformation, while the lactone ring shows a flattened envelope-type conformation. The dihedral angle between the pyrimidine moiety and the lactone ring system is 29.43 (7)°. PMID:26870423

  4. Pyrimidine homeostasis is accomplished by directed overflow metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Reaves, Marshall Louis; Young, Brian D.; Hosios, Aaron M.; Xu, Yi-Fan; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular metabolism converts available nutrients into usable energy and biomass precursors. The process is regulated to facilitate efficient nutrient use and metabolic homeostasis. Feedback inhibition of the first committed step of a pathway by its final product is a classical means of controlling biosynthesis1–4. In a canonical example, the first committed enzyme in the pyrimidine pathway in Escherichia coli is allosterically inhibited by cytidine triphosphate1,4,5. The physiological consequences of disrupting this regulation, however, have not been previously explored. Here we identify an alternative regulatory strategy that enables precise control of pyrimidine pathway end-product levels, even in the presence of dysregulated biosynthetic flux. The mechanism involves cooperative feedback regulation of the near-terminal pathway enzyme uridine monophosphate kinase6. Such feedback leads to build-up of the pathway intermediate uridine monophosphate, which is in turn degraded by a conserved phosphatase, here termed UmpH, with previously unknown physiological function7,8. Such directed overflow metabolism allows homeostasis of uridine triphosphate and cytidine triphosphate levels at the expense of uracil excretion and slower growth during energy limitation. Disruption of the directed overflow regulatory mechanism impairs growth in pyrimidine-rich environments. Thus, pyrimidine homeostasis involves dual regulatory strategies, with classical feedback inhibition enhancing metabolic efficiency and directed overflow metabolism ensuring end-product homeostasis. PMID:23903661

  5. Investigation of riboflavin sensitized degradation of purine and pyrimidine derivatives of DNA and RNA under UVA and UVB.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prakash C; Keane, Thomas C

    2010-10-01

    DNA and RNA undergo photodegradation in UVC (200-290nm) due to direct absorption by the purine and pyrimidine bases. Limited effects are observed under UVB (290-320nm) or UVA (320-400nm). We have observed that an endogenous photosensitizer, riboflavin (RF), upon exposure to UVB or UVA can extensively damage the DNA and RNA bases. Guanine, uracil, thymine, adenine and cytosine were degraded by 100%, 82%, 60.4%, 46.3% and 10.3% under UVA (12J) and by 100%, 54.1%, 38.9%, 42.2% and <1.0% under UVB (6J), respectively. Guanosine and deoxyguanosine were degraded by 98±1.0% and 80±1.0% under UVA (4J) and UVB (12J), respectively. With an exception of GMP (53-82%), dGMP (51-88%) and to some extent TMP (3-4%) the remaining nucleosides and nucleotides were resistant to RF-induced photodecomposition. The photodegradation of G derivatives by RF was 2-fold higher than a well known photodynamic agent rose bengal. A comparison of the intensities of UVA and UVB sources used in this study with natural sunlight suggests that exposure with the latter along with an endogenous photosensitizer can have similar effects on DNA and RNA depending upon the duration of exposure. PMID:20816939

  6. Nucleosides Accelerate Inflammatory Osteolysis, Acting as Distinct Innate Immune Activators

    PubMed Central

    Pan, George; Zheng, Rui; Yang, Pingar; Li, Yao; Clancy, John P.; Liu, Jianzhong; Feng, Xu; Garber, David A; Spearman, Paul; McDonald, Jay M

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system and its components play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bone destruction. Blockade of inflammatory cytokines does not completely arrest bone erosion, suggesting that other mediators also may be involved in osteolysis. Previously we showed that nucleosides promote osteoclastogenesis and bone-resorption activity in the presence of receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in vitro. The studies described here further demonstrate that selected nucleosides and nucleoside analogues accelerate bone destruction in mice immunized with collagen II alone (CII) but also further enhance bone erosion in mice immunized by collagen II plus complete Freund's adjuvant (CII + CFA). Abundant osteoclasts are accumulated in destructive joints. These data indicate that nucleosides act as innate immune activators distinct from CFA, synergistically accelerating osteoclast formation and inflammatory osteolysis. The potential roles of the surface triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) and the intracellular inflammasome in nucleoside-enhanced osteoclastogenesis have been studied. These observations provide new insight into the pathogenesis and underlying mechanism of bone destruction in inflammatory autoimmune osteoarthritis. PMID:21472777

  7. Brain transfer RNA. II. Analysis of modified nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, K.D.; Carrier-Malhotra, L.; Murthy, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Transfer RNAs were isolated from rat and calf brains and their nucleosides were analysed by tritium derivative technique. Qualitative changes in the minor nucleoside components were compared on the fluorograms which showed differences in the intensities of spots. Cerebellar and cortical tRNAs were also compared, but revealed no significant quantitative differences in their methylated constituants despite 60% higher methyltransferase activity observed in cerebellum compared to cerebral cortex. An overall similarity was noticed between the relative proportions of the major and minor nucleosides of tRNAs derived from rat or calf brain, expressed as mol%. Brain tRNA was also analysed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which showed qualitative and quantitative changes during postnatal development.

  8. Nucleoside transporter expression and adenosine uptake in the rat cochlea.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul F; Thorne, Peter R; Muñoz, David J B; Wang, Carol J H; Housley, Gary D; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M

    2007-02-12

    Even though extracellular adenosine plays multiple roles in the cochlea, the mechanisms that control extracellular adenosine concentrations in this organ are unclear. This study investigated the expression of nucleoside transporters and adenosine uptake in the rat cochlea. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the expression of mRNA transcripts for two equilibrative (ENT1 and ENT2) and two concentrative (CNT1 and CNT2) nucleoside transporters. Exogenous adenosine perfused through the cochlear perilymphatic compartment was taken up by cells lining the compartment. Adenosine uptake was sensitive to changes in extracellular Na concentrations and inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine (an adenosine uptake blocker). The study suggests that the bi-directional nucleoside transport supports the uptake and recycling of purines and regulates the activation of adenosine receptors by altering adenosine concentrations in cochlear fluid spaces. PMID:17314663

  9. Supramolecular gels made from nucleobase, nucleoside and nucleotide analogs.

    PubMed

    Peters, Gretchen Marie; Davis, Jeffery T

    2016-06-01

    Supramolecular or molecular gels are attractive for various applications, including diagnostics, tissue scaffolding and targeted drug release. Gelators derived from natural products are of particular interest for biomedical purposes, as they are generally biocompatible and stimuli-responsive. The building blocks of nucleic acids (i.e. nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides) are desirable candidates for supramolecular gelation as they readily engage in reversible, noncovalent interactions. In this review, we describe a number of organo- and hydrogels formed through the assembly of nucleosides, nucleotides, and their derivatives. While natural nucleosides and nucleotides generally require derivatization to induce gelation, guanosine and its corresponding nucleotides are well known gelators. This unique gelating ability is due to propensity of the guanine nucleobase to self-associate into stable higher-order assemblies, such as G-ribbons, G4-quartets, and G-quadruplexes. PMID:27146863

  10. Flow cytomeric measurement of DNA and incorporated nucleoside analogs

    DOEpatents

    Dolbeare, Frank A.; Gray, Joe W.

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for simultaneously measuring total cellular DNA and incorporated nucleoside analog. The method entails altering the cellular DNA of cells grown in the presence of a nucleoside analog so that single stranded and double stranded portions are present. Separate stains are used against the two portions. An immunochemical stain is used against the single stranded portion to provide a measure of incorporated nucleoside analog, and a double strand DNA-specific stain is used against the double stranded portion to simultaneously provide a measure of total cellular DNA. The method permits rapid flow cytometric analysis of cell populations, rapid identification of cycling and noncycling subpopulations, and determination of the efficacy of S phase cytotoxic anticancer agents.

  11. Effect of various pyrimidines possessing the 1-[(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl] moiety, able to mimic natural 2'-deoxyribose, on wild-type and mutant hepatitis B virus replication.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Semaine, Wassila; Johar, Monika; Tyrrell, D Lorne J; Agrawal, Babita

    2006-06-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Development of drug resistance against clinical anti-HBV drug lamivudine due to long-term use and rebound of viral DNA after cessation of treatment has been a major setback of the current therapy. We have synthesized a series of pyrimidine nucleosides possessing a variety of substituents at the C-5 position, and a 1-[(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl] flexible acyclic glycosyl moiety at the N-1 position, that have the ability to mimic the natural 2'-deoxyribosyl moiety. Some of these potential antiviral compounds included variations at both C-5 and C-6 positions of the uracil base. Other variations of the uracil derivatives were the 6-aza congeners. 4-Amino and 4-methoxy pyrimidine derivatives were also made. Compounds in which the base moiety was substituted by 5-chloro- (25), 5-(2-bromovinyl)- (32), or 5-bromo-6-methyl- (37) groups possess significant activity against duck-HBV, wild-type human HBV (2.2.15 cells), and lamivudine-resistant HBV containing single and double mutations. No cytotoxicity was seen in host HepG2 and Vero cells, up to the highest concentration tested. The anti-HBV activity exhibited by compounds 25, 32, and 37 was superior for human HBV and comparable for DHBV to that of the corresponding purine nucleoside, ganciclovir. Further, they were only 10-15-fold less inhibitory against human HBV in 2.2.15 cells than the reference drug, lamivudine. Other compounds in the series were moderately inhibitory against DHBV and wild-type human HBV. The size of the halogen and the electronegativity of the substituents at the 5- and 6-positions are important for antiviral activity toward HBV. These compounds were also evaluated for their antiviral activity for West Nile virus, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS-coronavirus, and hepatitis C virus. They were generally inactive in these antiviral assay systems (at concentrations up to 100 microg/mL). 1-[(2-Hydroxy-1

  12. Detection of Potential TNA and RNA Nucleoside Precursors in a Prebiotic Mixture by Pure Shift Diffusion-Ordered NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Saidul; Aguilar, Juan A; Powner, Matthew W; Nilsson, Mathias; Morris, Gareth A; Sutherland, John D

    2013-01-01

    In the context of prebiotic chemistry, one of the characteristics of mixed nitrogenous-oxygenous chemistry is its propensity to give rise to highly complex reaction mixtures. There is therefore an urgent need to develop improved spectroscopic techniques if onerous chromatographic separations are to be avoided. One potential avenue is the combination of pure shift methodology, in which NMR spectra are measured with greatly improved resolution by suppressing multiplet structure, with diffusion-ordered spectroscopy, in which NMR signals from different species are distinguished through their different rates of diffusion. Such a combination has the added advantage of working with intact mixtures, allowing analyses to be carried out without perturbing mixtures in which chemical entities are part of a network of reactions in equilibrium. As part of a systems chemistry approach towards investigating the self-assembly of potentially prebiotic small molecules, we have analysed the complex mixture arising from mixing glycolaldehyde and cyanamide, in a first application of pure shift DOSY NMR to the characterisation of a partially unknown reaction composition. The work presented illustrates the potential of pure shift DOSY to be applied to chemistries that give rise to mixtures of compounds in which the NMR signal resolution is poor. The direct formation of potential RNA and TNA nucleoside precursors, amongst other adducts, was observed. These preliminary observations may have implications for the potentially prebiotic assembly chemistry of pyrimidine threonucleotides, and therefore of TNA, by using recently reported chemistries that yield the activated pyridimidine ribonucleotides. PMID:23371787

  13. 6-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)alkoxy]pyrimidines with antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Holý, Antonín; Votruba, Ivan; Masojídková, Milena; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; Naesens, Lieve; De Clercq, Erik; Balzarini, Jan

    2002-04-25

    6-Hydroxypyrimidines substituted at positions 2 and 4 by hydrogen, methyl, amino, cyclopropylamino, dimethylamino, methylsulfanyl, or hydroxyl group afford by the reaction with diisopropyl 2-(chloroethoxy)methylphosphonate in the presence of NaH, Cs(2)CO(3), or DBU a mixture of N(1)- and O(6)-[2-(diisopropylphosphorylmethoxy)ethyl] isomers which were converted to the free phosphonic acids by treatment with bromotrimethylsilane followed by hydrolysis. Analogously, 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine gave on reaction with [(R)- and (S)-2-(diisopropylphosphorylmethoxy)propyl] tosylate, followed by deprotection, the enantiomeric 6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propoxy]pyrimidines. 2,4-Diamino-6-sulfanylpyrimidine gave, on treatment with diisopropyl 2-(chloroethoxy)methylphosphonate in the presence of NaH and subsequent deprotection, 2,4-diamino-6-[[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]sulfanyl]pyrimidine. 2-Amino-4-hydroxy-6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]pyrimidine was obtained from the appropriate 2-amino-4-chloropyrimidine derivative by alkaline hydrolysis and ester cleavage. Direct alkylation of 2-amino-4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine afforded a mixture of 2-amino-4,6-bis[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]- and 2-amino-1,4-bis[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]pyrimidine. None of the N(1)-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl] isomers exhibited any antiviral activity against DNA viruses or RNA viruses tested in vitro. On the contrary, the O(6)-isomers, namely the compounds derived from 2,4-diamino-, 2-amino-4-hydroxy-, or 2-amino-4-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethoxy]-6-hydroxypyrimidine, inhibited the replication of herpes viruses [herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV)] and retroviruses [Moloney sarcoma virus (MSV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2)], their activity being most pronounced against the latter. The antiviral activity was lower if the oxygen at the position 6 was replaced by a sulfur atom, as in 2,4-diamino-6

  14. Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase in rat liver mitochondria by added 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine.

    PubMed

    Valenti, D; Barile, M; Quagliariello, E; Passarella, S

    1999-02-12

    The effect of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine on nucleoside diphosphate kinase of isolated rat liver mitochondria has been studied. This is done by monitoring the increase in the rate of oxygen uptake by nucleoside diphosphate (TDP, UDP, CDP or GDP) addition to mitochondria in state 4. It is shown that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibits the mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of about 10 microM as measured for each tested nucleoside diphosphate. It is also shown that high concentrations of GDP prevent 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibition of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase. PMID:10050777

  15. Thiamin Pyrimidine Biosynthesis in Candida albicans: A Remarkable Reaction between Histidine and Pyridoxal Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Rung-Yi; Huang, Siyu; Fenwick, Michael K.; Hazra, Amrita; Zhang, Yang; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Philmus, Benjamin; Kinsland, Cynthia; Sanders, Jennie Mansell; Ealick, Steven E.; Begley, Tadhg P.

    2012-06-26

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thiamin pyrimidine is formed from histidine and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). The origin of all of the pyrimidine atoms has been previously determined using labeling studies and suggests that the pyrimidine is formed using remarkable chemistry that is without chemical or biochemical precedent. Here we report the overexpression of the closely related Candida albicans pyrimidine synthase (THI5p) and the reconstitution and preliminary characterization of the enzymatic activity. A structure of the C. albicans THI5p shows PLP bound at the active site via an imine with Lys62 and His66 in close proximity to the PLP. Our data suggest that His66 of the THI5 protein is the histidine source for pyrimidine formation and that the pyrimidine synthase is a single-turnover enzyme.

  16. Regulation of Pyrimidine Biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae1

    PubMed Central

    Lacroute, Francois

    1968-01-01

    Biochemical steps of the pyrimidine pathway have been found to be the same in yeast as in bacteria, and all except one step have been characterized. The activities of the first two enzymes, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and aspartic transcarbamylase, are simultaneously controlled by feedback inhibition and repression. Moreover, these enzymes are coded by the same genetic region (ura-2) and seem to form a single enzymatic complex. The enzymes that follow later in the pathway are induced in a sequential way by the intermediary products and are insensitive to pyrimidine repression. The corresponding genes (ura-4, ura-1, ura-3) are not linked to each other or to ura-2, the gene for carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and aspartic transcarbamylase. Mutants that have simultaneously lost feedback inhibition by uridine triphosphate for carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and for aspartic transcarbamylase have been found and mapped in the gene ura-2. PMID:5651325

  17. Infrared Spectroscopy of Charge Transfer Complexes of Purines and Pyrimidines

    SciTech Connect

    Rathod, Pravinsinh I.; Oza, A. T.

    2011-10-20

    The FTIR spectra of charge transfer complexes of purines and pyrimidines with organic acceptors such as TCNQ, TCNE, DDQ, chloranil and iodine are obtained and studied in the present work. Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine and uracil are the purines and pyrimidines which are found as constituent of DNA and RNA. Charge transfer induced hydrogen bonding is concluded on the basis of indirect transitions observed in the infrared range in these CTCs. Some CTCs show gaussian bands revealing delocalization of charge carriers. The CTCs show interband transition in three-dimensions rather than two-dimensions unlike CTCs of amino acids. There is no extended hydrogen bonded network spanning the whole crystal. This leads to indirect transition due to locally deformed lattice furnishing a phonon-assisted transition.

  18. Electron- and proton-induced ionization of pyrimidine

    SciTech Connect

    Champion, Christophe; Quinto, Michele; Weck, Philippe F

    2015-03-27

    This present work describes a quantum-mechanically based model of the electron- and proton-induced ionization of isolated pyrimidine molecules. The impact energies range from the target ionization threshold up to ~1 keV for electrons and from 10 keV up to 10 MeV for protons. The cross-section calculations are performed within the 1st Born approximation in which the ejected electron is described by a Coulomb wave whereas the incident and the scattered projectiles are both described by plane waves. The pyrimidine target is described using the Gaussian 09 software package. Furthermore, our theoretical predictions obtained are in good agreement with experimental absolute total cross sections, while large discrepancies are observed between existing semi-empirical models and the present calculations.

  19. Electron- and proton-induced ionization of pyrimidine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Champion, Christophe; Quinto, Michele; Weck, Philippe F

    2015-03-27

    This present work describes a quantum-mechanically based model of the electron- and proton-induced ionization of isolated pyrimidine molecules. The impact energies range from the target ionization threshold up to ~1 keV for electrons and from 10 keV up to 10 MeV for protons. The cross-section calculations are performed within the 1st Born approximation in which the ejected electron is described by a Coulomb wave whereas the incident and the scattered projectiles are both described by plane waves. The pyrimidine target is described using the Gaussian 09 software package. Furthermore, our theoretical predictions obtained are in good agreement with experimental absolutemore » total cross sections, while large discrepancies are observed between existing semi-empirical models and the present calculations.« less

  20. Synthesis pharmacological evaluation and docking studies of pyrimidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Giles, D; Roopa, Karki; Sheeba, F R; Gurubasavarajaswamy, P M; Divakar, Goli; Vidhya, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    A new group of pyrimidine derivatives of indane-1,3-dione were synthesized aiming at the synthesis of new compounds acting as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity in a single component. The title compounds (3a-l) were synthesized from chalcone derivatives of indane-1,3-dione (2a-l) through cyclization reaction with urea. The synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, mass spectral data, elemental analysis and evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial and antifungal activities. The most active compound 3e, was evaluated for its ulcerogenicity. Good anti-inflammatory property was observed for chlorophenyl substituted pyrimidine derivatives. It mainly binds with Pro 218 of 1CX2, and the ligand could have caused much conformational changes in the protein structure than other derivatives. It also exhibits good analgesic and antimicrobial agent in a single component. PMID:23159805

  1. Blocking cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation by steric hindrance.

    PubMed

    Vendrell-Criado, Victoria; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Yamaji, Minoru; Cuquerella, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

    2016-04-26

    The efficiency of thymine (Thy) and uracil (Ura) to form cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in solution, upon UV irradiation differs by one order of magnitude. This could to be partially related to the steric hindrance induced by the methyl at C5 in thymine. The aim of the present work is to establish the influence of a bulky moiety at this position on the photoreactivity of pyrimidines. With this purpose, photosensitization with benzophenone and acetone of a 5-tert-butyl uracil derivative () and the equivalent Thy () has been compared. Introduction of the tert-butyl group completely blocks CPD formation. Moreover, the mechanistic insight obtained by laser flash photolysis is in accordance with the observed photoreactivity. PMID:27112630

  2. Unanticipated role of melanin in causing carcinogenic cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers.

    PubMed

    Premi, Sanjay; Brash, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) instantaneously generates cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). Paradoxically, we recently observed that UV enables the protective pigment melanin to create CPDs in the dark long after the exposure ends. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) oxidize melanin to create melanin carbonyls in a high-energy quantum state. These energetic melanin carbonyls transfer their energy to DNA in the dark, creating CPDs in the absence of UVR. PMID:27308551

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana nucleosidase mutants provide new insights into nucleoside degradation

    PubMed Central

    Riegler, Heike; Geserick, Claudia; Zrenner, Rita

    2011-01-01

    A central step in nucleoside and nucleobase salvage pathways is the hydrolysis of nucleosides to their respective nucleobases. In plants this is solely accomplished by nucleosidases (EC 3.2.2.x). To elucidate the importance of nucleosidases for nucleoside degradation, general metabolism, and plant growth, thorough phenotypic and biochemical analyses were performed using Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion mutants lacking expression of the previously identified genes annotated as uridine ribohydrolases (URH1 and URH2). Comprehensive functional analyses of single and double mutants demonstrated that both isoforms are unimportant for seedling establishment and plant growth, while one participates in uridine degradation. Rather unexpectedly, nucleoside and nucleotide profiling and nucleosidase activity screening of soluble crude extracts revealed a deficiency of xanthosine and inosine hydrolysis in the single mutants, with substantial accumulation of xanthosine in one of them. Mixing of the two mutant extracts, and by in vitro activity reconstitution using a mixture of recombinant URH1 and URH2 proteins, both restored activity, thus providing biochemical evidence that at least these two isoforms are needed for inosine and xanthosine hydrolysis. This mutant study demonstrates the utility of in vivo systems for the examination of metabolic activities, with the discovery of the new substrate xanthosine and elucidation of a mechanism for expanding the nucleosidase substrate spectrum. PMID:21599668

  4. The GABA transaminase, ABAT, is essential for mitochondrial nucleoside metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Arnaud; Wu, Ping; Bruni, Francesco; Donti, Taraka; Graham, Brett H.; Craigen, William J.; McFarland, Robert; Moretti, Paolo; Lalani, Seema; Scott, Kenneth L.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bonnen, Penelope E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary ABAT is a key enzyme responsible for catabolism of principal inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We report an essential role for ABAT in a seemingly unrelated pathway, mitochondrial nucleoside salvage, and demonstrate that mutations in this enzyme cause an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder and mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). We describe a family with encephalomyopathic MDS caused by a homozygous missense mutation in ABAT that results in elevated GABA in subjects’ brains as well as decreased mtDNA levels in subjects’ fibroblasts. Nucleoside rescue and co-IP experiments pinpoint that ABAT functions in the mitochondrial nucleoside salvage pathway to facilitate conversion of dNDPs to dNTPs. Pharmacological inhibition of ABAT through the irreversible inhibitor Vigabatrin caused depletion of mtDNA in photoreceptor cells that was prevented through addition of dNTPs in cell culture media. This work reveals ABAT as a connection between GABA metabolism and nucleoside metabolism and defines a neurometabolic disorder that includes MDS. PMID:25738457

  5. Macrophages require different nucleoside transport systems for proliferation and activation.

    PubMed

    Soler, C; García-Manteiga, J; Valdés, R; Xaus, J; Comalada, M; Casado, F J; Pastor-Anglada, M; Celada, A; Felipe, A

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms involved in macrophage proliferation and activation, we studied the regulation of the nucleoside transport systems. In murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, the nucleosides required for DNA and RNA synthesis are recruited from the extracellular medium. M-CSF induced macrophage proliferation and DNA and RNA synthesis, whereas interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) led to activation, blocked proliferation, and induced only RNA synthesis. Macrophages express at least the concentrative systems N1 and N2 (CNT2 and CNT1 genes, respectively) and the equilibrative systems es and ei (ENT1 and ENT2 genes, respectively). Incubation with M-CSF only up-regulated the equilibrative system es. Inhibition of this transport system blocked M-CSF-dependent proliferation. Treatment with IFN-gamma only induced the concentrative N1 and N2 systems. IFN-gamma also down-regulated the increased expression of the es equilibrative system induced by M-CSF. Thus, macrophage proliferation and activation require selective regulation of nucleoside transporters and may respond to specific requirements for DNA and RNA synthesis. This report also shows that the nucleoside transporters are critical for macrophage proliferation and activation. PMID:11532978

  6. Theophylline inhibition of renal and cerebral nucleoside formation.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    1 Theophylline inhibits the enzymatic formation of purine nucleosides, among these adenosine (dephosphorylated adenosine 5'-monophosphate), in kidney and brain of the rat. 2 Some pharmacological effects of theophylline on regional blood flow and electrophysiological activity of the nervous system may be caused by inhibition of the endogenous formation of adenosine. PMID:7236996

  7. Nucleoside-Based Diarylethene Photoswitches: Synthesis and Photochromic Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Xia; Xi, Dan-Dan; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Hui-Xuan; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Diarylethene photoswitches based on the natural nucleoside deoxyadenosine were designed and synthesized. In aqueous solution, some of them exhibited good photochromic properties, including clear changes in color upon irradiation at 365 nm, red-shifts of the absorption wavelength, with good fatigue resistance, thermal stability, conversion efficiency, and base-pairing properties. PMID:27124421

  8. Theoretical Study of Carborane:Pyridine and Carborane:Pyrimidine Aggregates and Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Han, Zhong-Kang; Shao, Nan; Mei, Wai-Ning

    The carboranes are cross-linked by the pyridines and pyrimidines to form aggregates and polymers. Their geometries and electronic structures are studied by the first-principle calculations. Our results show different connections influence the orientations of the aromatic rings of pyridines and pyrimidines, which would highly affect the electronic structures of carborane:pyridine and carborane:pyrimidine aggregates and polymers. This study might be helpful for the future design of new class of semiconducting boron carbides.

  9. Pyrimidine starvation induced by adenosine in fibroblasts and lymphoid cells: role of adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Green, H; Chan, T

    1973-11-23

    In the presence of 10(-4) to 10(-5) molar adenosine, established cell lines of fibroblastic or lymphoid origin die of pyrimidine starvation. Less than lethal concentrations inhibit cell growth. Over a broad concentration range, the effects of adenosine are prevented by providing a suitable pyrimidine source. We suggest that the recently described immune deficiency disease associated with absence of adenosine deaminase may be the result of pyrimidine starvation induced by adenosine nucleotides in cells of the lymphoid system. PMID:4795749

  10. 2-Alkyl-4-aryl-pyrimidine fused heterocycles as selective 5-HT2A antagonists.

    PubMed

    Shireman, Brock T; Dvorak, Curt A; Rudolph, Dale A; Bonaventure, Pascal; Nepomuceno, Diane; Dvorak, Lisa; Miller, Kirsten L; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Carruthers, Nicholas I

    2008-03-15

    The synthesis and SAR for a novel series of 2-alkyl-4-aryl-tetrahydro-pyrido-pyrimidines and 2-alkyl-4-aryl-tetrahydro-pyrimido-azepines is described. Representative compounds were shown to be subtype selective 5-HT(2A) antagonists. Optimal placement of a basic nitrogen relative to the pyrimidine and the presence of a 4-fluorophenyl group in the pyrimidine 4-position was found to have a profound effect on affinity and selectivity. PMID:18282705

  11. Novel reactivity of Fhit proteins: catalysts for fluorolysis of nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidates and nucleoside 5'-phosphosulfates to generate nucleoside 5'-phosphorofluoridates.

    PubMed

    Wojdyła-Mamoń, Anna M; Zimny, Jarosław; Romanowska, Joanna; Kraszewski, Adam; Stawinski, Jacek; Bieganowski, Paweł; Guranowski, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Fragile histidine triad (HIT) proteins (Fhits) occur in all eukaryotes but their function is largely unknown. Human Fhit is presumed to function as a tumour suppressor. Previously, we demonstrated that Fhits catalyse hydrolysis of not only dinucleoside triphosphates but also natural adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate (NH2-pA) and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (SO4-pA) as well as synthetic adenosine 5'-phosphorofluoridate (F-pA). In the present study, we describe an Fhit-catalysed displacement of the amino group of nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidates (NH2-pNs) or the sulfate moiety of nucleoside 5'-phosphosulfates (SO4-pNs) by fluoride anion. This results in transient accumulation of the corresponding nucleoside 5'-phosphorofluoridates (F-pNs). Substrate specificity and kinetic characterization of the fluorolytic reactions catalysed by the human Fhit and other examples of involvement of fluoride in the biochemistry of nucleotides are described. Among other HIT proteins, human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein (Hint1) catalysed fluorolysis of NH2-pA 20 times and human Hint2 40 times more slowly than human Fhit. PMID:25826698

  12. Synthesis, cytostatic activity and ADME properties of C-5 substituted and N-acyclic pyrimidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kraljević, Tatjana Gazivoda; Klika, Mateja; Kralj, Marijeta; Martin-Kleiner, Irena; Jurmanović, Stella; Milić, Astrid; Padovan, Jasna; Raić-Malić, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of the novel 5-alkyl pyrimidine derivatives, 5,6-dihydrofuro[2,3-d]pyrimidines and 5-alkyl N-methoxymethyl pyrimidine derivatives and evaluation of their cytostatic activities are described. The mechanism of antiproliferative effect of 5-(2-chloroethyl)-substituted pyrimidine 3 that exerted the pronounced cytostatic activity was studied in further details on colon carcinoma (HCT116) cells. The cell cycle perturbation analysis demonstrated severe DNA damage (G2/M arrest) pointing to a potential DNA alkylating ability of 3. Preliminary ADME data of 3 and its 6-methylated structural congener (6-Me-3) showed their high permeability and good metabolic stability. PMID:22130132

  13. Sensing Metal Ions with DNA Building Blocks: Fluorescent Pyridobenzimidazole Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jeong; Kool, Eric T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe novel fluorescent N-deoxyribosides (1 and 2) having 2-pyrido-2-benzimidazole and 2-quino-2-benzimidazole as aglycones. The compounds were prepared from the previously unknown heterocyclic precursors and Hoffer’s chlorosugar, yielding alpha anomers as the chief products. X-ray crystal structures confirmed the geometry, and showed that the pyridine and benzimidazole ring systems deviated from coplanarity in the solid state by 154° and 140°, respectively. In methanol the compounds 1 and 2 had absorption maxima at 360 and 370 nm respectively, and emission maxima at 494 and 539 nm. Experiments revealed varied fluorescence responses of the nucleosides to a panel of seventeen monovalent, divalent and trivalent metal ions in methanol. One or both of the nucleosides showed significant changes with ten of the metal ions. The most pronounced spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 1 included red shifts in fluorescence (Au+, Au3+), strong quenching (Cu2+, Ni2+, Pt2+), and in substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with redshifts (Ag+, Cd2+, Zn2+). The greatest spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 2 included a redshift in fluorescence (Ag+), a blueshift (Cd2+), strong quenching (Pd2+, Pt2+), and in substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with a blueshift (Zn2+). The compounds could be readily incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides, where an initial study revealed that they retained sensitivity to metal ions in aqueous solution, and demonstrated possible cooperative sensing behavior with several ions. The two free nucleosides alone can act as differential sensors for at multiple metal ions, and they are potentially useful monomers for contributing metal ion sensing capability to DNAs. PMID:16669686

  14. Selective loss of nucleoside carrier expression in rat hepatocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Y; Valdés, R; Gomez-Angelats, M; Felipe, A; Javier Casado, F; Pitot, H; Pastor-Anglada, M

    2000-08-01

    Evidence that hepatoma cell lines show differential expression of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT1 and CNT2) prompted us to study the transporter proteins in 2 models of hepatocarcinogenesis, the chemically induced Solt and Farber model and the albumin-SV40 large T antigen (Alb-SV40) transgenic rat. CNT1 expression was lower in tumor biopsy specimens from Alb-SV40 rat livers than in normal tissue. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the CNT1 protein was indeed absent in the tumor lesions. CNT1 was also absent in a cell line, L25, derived from the Alb-SV40 transgenic rat liver tumors, whereas another cell line, L37, derived from the normal-appearing parenchyma, retained the expression of both carrier isoforms. The protein expression correlated with the nucleoside transport properties of these cell lines. Moreover, although CNT2 expression was highly dependent on the growth characteristics of the 2 cell lines, as was CNT1 (albeit to a lower extent) in L37 cells, it was not expressed in L25 cells at any stage of cell growth. In contrast to the transgenic model of hepatocarcinogenesis, in the chemically induced tumors the expression of CNT2 was lower, although still detectable. In summary, these data indicate that hepatocarcinogenesis leads to a selective loss or diminished expression of nucleoside carrier isoforms, a feature that may be relevant to our understanding of the molecular basis of the bioavailability of those drugs that are nucleoside derivatives and may be substrates of these carriers. The transport properties and isoform-expression profile of the L25 and L37 cell lines make them suitable hepatocyte culture models with which to study nucleoside transport processes and drug sensitivity. PMID:10915730

  15. Nucleoside transporters, bcl-2 and apoptosis in CLL cells exposed to nucleoside analogues in vitro.

    PubMed

    Petersen, A J; Brown, R D; Gibson, J; Pope, B; Luo, X F; Schutz, L; Wiley, J S; Joshua, D E

    1996-04-01

    The purine nucleoside analogues fludarabine (F1) and chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) are considered to be cell cycle specific agents which require DNA synthesis for cytotoxicity. However, their efficacy in the treatment of CLL, an indolent lymphoid malignancy suggests additional mechanisms of action. Like cytosine arabinoside (AraC), F1 and 2-CdA gain access to the cell via a specific nucleoside transporter (NST) protein. To investigate the mode of action of these drugs in CLL, we used a fluorescent ligand for the NST (5'-(SAENTA- x8)-fluorescein) and 3-colour flow cytometry to determine NST expression on CD5+/CD19+ B-cells from the peripheral blood (PB) of patients with CLL. NST levels on these cells was found to be not significantly different from normal control lymphocytes (mean = 485 +/- 425) vs. (mean = 553 +/- 178). Exposure to varying concentrations (0, 3 microM and 30 microM) of F1 and 2-CdA, however, resulted in an upregulation of NST (mean = 1552 +/- 775 with 30 microM FL; mean = 3392 +/- 2197 with 30 microM 2-CdA) after 48. "Large" lymphoid cells (not present in normal PB) were found to express significantly more NST (mean = 2540 +/- 2861) and have a higher proliferative capacity than "small" cells (mean = 357 +/- 517 NST/cell). Incubation of CLL cells with F1 (n = 6) and 2-CdA (n = 8) in vitro over 48 h also resulted in an increase in the proportion of cells in S-phase (0 microM = 0.2 + 2 - 0.1; 30 microM FL = 2.4 +/- 2.0; 30 microM 2-CdA = 3.3 +/- 1.3) and a significant increase in morphologically identifiable apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by flow cytometric DNA analysis (0 microM = 13 +/- 8%; 30 microM FL = 40 +/- 20%; 30 microM 2-CdA = 48 +/- 11%). In situ hybridization using a biotinylated cDNA bcl-2 probe demonstrated that bcl-2 mRNA expression was markedly decreased in treated cells after 24 h. These studies have demonstrated that: (1) NST expression on CLL lymphocytes is low; (2) in vitro exposure to the analogues increases both the level of

  16. Purine Analog-Like Properties of Bendamustine Underlie Rapid Activation of DNA Damage Response and Synergistic Effects with Pyrimidine Analogues in Lymphoid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Nobuya; Kikuchi, Jiro; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Koyama, Daisuke; Wada, Taeko; Uesawa, Mitsuyo; Akutsu, Miyuki; Mori, Shigehisa; Nakamura, Yuichi; Ueda, Takanori; Kano, Yasuhiko; Furukawa, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    Bendamustine has shown considerable clinical activity against indolent lymphoid malignancies as a single agent or in combination with rituximab, but combination with additional anti-cancer drugs may be required for refractory and/or relapsed cases as well as other intractable tumors. In this study, we attempted to determine suitable anti-cancer drugs to be combined with bendamustine for the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, aggressive lymphomas and multiple myeloma, all of which are relatively resistant to this drug, and investigated the mechanisms underlying synergism. Isobologram analysis revealed that bendamustine had synergistic effects with alkylating agents (4-hydroperoxy-cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil and melphalan) and pyrimidine analogues (cytosine arabinoside, gemcitabine and decitabine) in HBL-2, B104, Namalwa and U266 cell lines, which represent the above entities respectively. In cell cycle analysis, bendamustine induced late S-phase arrest, which was enhanced by 4-hydroperoxy-cyclophosphamide, and potentiated early S-phase arrest by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), followed by a robust increase in the size of sub-G1 fractions. Bendamustine was able to elicit DNA damage response and subsequent apoptosis faster and with shorter exposure than other alkylating agents due to rapid intracellular incorporation via equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). Furthermore, bendamustine increased the expression of ENT1 at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced the uptake of Ara-C and subsequent increase in Ara-C triphosphate (Ara-CTP) in HBL-2 cells to an extent comparable with the purine analog fludarabine. These purine analog-like properties of bendamustine may underlie favorable combinations with other alkylators and pyrimidine analogues. Our findings may provide a theoretical basis for the development of more effective bendamustine-based combination therapies. PMID:24626203

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains selected for resistance against the HIV-1-specific [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro- 5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2''-dioxide)]-beta-D-pentofurano syl (TSAO) nucleoside analogues retain sensitivity to HIV-1-specific nonnucleoside inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Balzarini, J; Karlsson, A; Vandamme, A M; Pérez-Pérez, M J; Zhang, H; Vrang, L; Oberg, B; Bäckbro, K; Unge, T; San-Félix, A

    1993-01-01

    We recently reported that a newly discovered class of nucleoside analogues--[2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)- 3'-spiro-5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2''-dioxide)]-beta-D - pentofuranosyl derivatives of pyrimidines and purines (designated TSAO)--are highly specific inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and targeted at the nonsubstrate binding site of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). We now find that HIV-1 strains selected for resistance against three different TSAO nucleoside derivatives retain sensitivity to the other HIV-1-specific nonnucleoside derivatives (tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one and -thione (TIBO), 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-phenylthiothymine, nevirapine, and pyridinone L697,661, as well as to the nucleoside analogues 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, ddI, ddC, and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Pol gene nucleotide sequence analysis of the TSAO-resistant and -sensitive HIV-1 strains revealed a single amino acid substitution at position 138 (Glu-->Lys) in the RT of all TSAO-resistant HIV-1 strains. HIV-1 RT in which the Glu-138-->Lys substitution was introduced by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in Escherichia coli could not be purified because of rapid degradation. However, HIV-1 RT containing the Glu-138-->Arg substitution was stable. It lost its sensitivity to the TSAO nucleosides but not to the other HIV-1-specific RT inhibitors (i.e., TIBO and pyridinone). Our findings point to a specific interaction of the 4''-amino group on the 3'-spiro-substituted ribose moiety of the TSAO nucleosides with the carboxylic acid group of glutamic acid at position 138 of HIV-1 RT. PMID:7688467

  18. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for In-vitro Selection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dellafiore, María A.; Montserrat, Javier M.; Iribarren, Adolfo M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed. PMID:27200340

  19. A Novel and Fast Purification Method for Nucleoside Transporters.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhenyu; Thomsen, Maren; Postis, Vincent L G; Lesiuk, Amelia; Sharples, David; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Goldman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) play critical biological roles in humans, and to understand the molecular mechanism of nucleoside transport requires high-resolution structural information. However, the main bottleneck for structural analysis of NTs is the production of pure, stable, and high quality native protein for crystallization trials. Here we report a novel membrane protein expression and purification strategy, including construction of a high-yield membrane protein expression vector, and a new and fast purification protocol for NTs. The advantages of this strategy are the improved time efficiency, leading to high quality, active, stable membrane proteins, and the efficient use of reagents and consumables. Our strategy might serve as a useful point of reference for investigating NTs and other membrane proteins by clarifying the technical points of vector construction and improvements of membrane protein expression and purification. PMID:27376071

  20. A Novel and Fast Purification Method for Nucleoside Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zhenyu; Thomsen, Maren; Postis, Vincent L. G.; Lesiuk, Amelia; Sharples, David; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Goldman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) play critical biological roles in humans, and to understand the molecular mechanism of nucleoside transport requires high-resolution structural information. However, the main bottleneck for structural analysis of NTs is the production of pure, stable, and high quality native protein for crystallization trials. Here we report a novel membrane protein expression and purification strategy, including construction of a high-yield membrane protein expression vector, and a new and fast purification protocol for NTs. The advantages of this strategy are the improved time efficiency, leading to high quality, active, stable membrane proteins, and the efficient use of reagents and consumables. Our strategy might serve as a useful point of reference for investigating NTs and other membrane proteins by clarifying the technical points of vector construction and improvements of membrane protein expression and purification. PMID:27376071

  1. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for In-vitro Selection Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dellafiore, María A; Montserrat, Javier M; Iribarren, Adolfo M

    2016-01-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed. PMID:27200340

  2. Overcoming nucleoside analog chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer: A therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Sau Wai; Mody, Hardik R.; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2013-01-01

    Clinical refractoriness to nucleoside analogs (e.g., gemcitabine, capecitabine) is a major scientific problem and is one of the main reasons underlying the extremely poor prognostic state of pancreatic cancer. The drugs’ effects are suboptimal partly due to cellular mechanisms limiting their transport, activation, and overall efficacy. Nonetheless, novel therapeutic approaches are presently under study to circumvent nucleoside analog resistance in pancreatic cancer. With these new approaches come additional challenges to be addressed. This review describes the determinants of chemoresistance in the gemcitabine cytotoxicity pathways, provides an overview of investigational approaches for overcoming chemoresistance, and discusses new challenges presented. Understanding the future directions of the field may assist in the successful development of novel treatment strategies for enhancing chemotherapeutic efficacy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:22425961

  3. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for in-vitro Selection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren, Adolfo; Dellafiore, María; Montserrat, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed.

  4. A comparison of enzymatic phosphorylation and phosphatidylation of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Birichevskaya, Larisa L; Kvach, Sergei V; Sivets, Grigorii G; Kalinichenko, Elena N; Zinchenko, Anatoly I; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2007-04-01

    Enzymatic 5'-monophosphorylation and 5'-phosphatidylation of a number of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides was investigated. The first reaction, catalyzed by nucleoside phosphotransferase (NPT) from Erwinia herbicola, consisted of the transfer of the phosphate residue from p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) to the 5'-hydroxyl group of nucleoside; the second was the phospholipase D (PLD)-catalyzed transphosphatidylation of L-alpha-lecithin with a series of beta-L- and beta-D-nucleosides as the phosphatidyl acceptor resulted in the formation of the respective phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates. Some beta-L-nucleosides displayed similar or even higher substrate activity compared to the beta-D-enantiomers. PMID:17206374

  5. Localization of GFP-tagged concentrative nucleoside transporters in a renal polarized epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Mangravite, L M; Lipschutz, J H; Mostov, K E; Giacomini, K M

    2001-05-01

    Many nucleosides undergo active reabsorption within the kidney, probably via nucleoside transporters. To date, two concentrative nucleoside transporters have been cloned, the sodium-dependent purine-selective nucleoside transporter (SPNT) and concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (CNT1). We report the stable expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged SPNT and CNT1 in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, a polarized renal epithelial line. We demonstrate that the GFP tag does not alter the substrate selectivity and only modestly affects the kinetic activity of the transporters. By using confocal microscopy and functional studies, both SPNT and CNT1 are localized primarily to the apical membrane of MDCK and LLC-PK(1) cells. Apical localization of these transporters suggests a role in renal nucleoside reabsorption and regulation of tubular function via the adenosine pathway. PMID:11292631

  6. Pyrimidine dimer formation and repair in human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Harber, L.C.; Kochevar, I.E.

    1980-09-01

    Cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers have been detected in the DNA of human skin following in vivo irradiation with suberythermal doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from FS-20 sun lamp fluorescent tubes. Dimers were assayed by treatment of extracted DNA with Micrococus luteus UV-specific endonuclease, alkaline agarose electrophoresis, and ethidum bromide staining. This technique, in contrast to conventional dimer assays, can be used with nonradioactive DNA and is optimal at low UV light doses. These data suggest that some dimer disappearance by excision repair occurs within 20 min of UV irradiation and that photoreactivation of dimers can make a contribution to the total repair process.

  7. Nucleobase and nucleoside transport and integration into plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Girke, Christopher; Daumann, Manuel; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is an essential process in all living organisms. Besides newly synthesized nucleotides, the recycling (salvage) of partially degraded nucleotides, i.e., nucleosides and nucleobases serves to keep the homeostasis of the nucleotide pool. Both types of metabolites are substrates of at least six families of transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with a total of 49 members. In the last years several members of such transport proteins have been analyzed allowing to present a more detailed picture of nucleoside and nucleobase transport and the physiological function of these processes. Besides functioning in nucleotide metabolism it turned out that individual members of the before named transporters exhibit the capacity to transport a wide range of different substrates including vitamins and phytohormones. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on nucleobase and nucleoside transport processes in plants and integrate this into nucleotide metabolism in general. Thereby, we will focus on those proteins which have been characterized at the biochemical level. PMID:25250038

  8. Broad-spectrum non-nucleoside inhibitors of human herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Lora; Zhi, Yun; Cheng, Hoyee; Ghosh, Ayantika; Piazza, Paolo; Yee, Michael B.; Kumar, Santosh; Milosevic, Jadranka; Bloom, David C.; Arav-Boger, Ravit; Kinchington, Paul R.; Yolken, Robert; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; D’Aiuto, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Herpesvirus infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality through lifelong recurrent cycles of lytic and latent infection in several tissues, including the human nervous system. Acyclovir (ACV) and its prodrug, the current antivirals of choice for herpes simplex virus (HSV) and, to some extent, varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections are nucleoside analogues that inhibit viral DNA replication. Rising viral resistance and the need for more effective second-line drugs have motivated searches for additional antiviral agents, particularly non-nucleoside based agents. We evaluated the antiviral activity of five compounds with predicted lysosomotropic activity using conventional and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal (iPSC-neurons) cultures. Their potency and toxicity were compared with ACV and the lysosomotropic agents chloroquine and bafilomycin A1. Out of five compounds tested, micromolar concentrations of 30N12, 16F19, and 4F17 showed antiviral activity comparable to ACV (50μM) during lytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections, reduced viral DNA copy number, and reduced selected HSV-1 protein levels. These compounds also inhibited the reactivation of ‘quiescent’ HSV-1 infection established in iPSC-neurons, but did not inhibit viral entry into host cells. The same compounds had greater potency than ACV against lytic VZV infection; they also inhibited replication of human cytomegalovirus. The anti-herpetic effects of these non-nucleoside agents merit further evaluation in vivo. PMID:26079681

  9. Broad-spectrum non-nucleoside inhibitors of human herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    McClain, Lora; Zhi, Yun; Cheng, Hoyee; Ghosh, Ayantika; Piazza, Paolo; Yee, Michael B; Kumar, Santosh; Milosevic, Jadranka; Bloom, David C; Arav-Boger, Ravit; Kinchington, Paul R; Yolken, Robert; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; D'Aiuto, Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Herpesvirus infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality through lifelong recurrent cycles of lytic and latent infection in several tissues, including the human nervous system. Acyclovir (ACV) and its prodrug, the current antivirals of choice for herpes simplex virus (HSV) and, to some extent, varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections are nucleoside analogues that inhibit viral DNA replication. Rising viral resistance and the need for more effective second-line drugs have motivated searches for additional antiviral agents, particularly non-nucleoside based agents. We evaluated the antiviral activity of five compounds with predicted lysosomotropic activity using conventional and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal (iPSC-neurons) cultures. Their potency and toxicity were compared with ACV and the lysosomotropic agents chloroquine and bafilomycin A1. Out of five compounds tested, micromolar concentrations of 30N12, 16F19, and 4F17 showed antiviral activity comparable to ACV (50μM) during lytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections, reduced viral DNA copy number, and reduced selected HSV-1 protein levels. These compounds also inhibited the reactivation of 'quiescent' HSV-1 infection established in iPSC-neurons, but did not inhibit viral entry into host cells. The same compounds had greater potency than ACV against lytic VZV infection; they also inhibited replication of human cytomegalovirus. The anti-herpetic effects of these non-nucleoside agents merit further evaluation in vivo. PMID:26079681

  10. Effects of halides on reaction of nucleosides with ozone.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshinori; Kaya, Eriko; Inukai, Michiyo

    2012-01-01

    Ozone (O(3)), a major component of photochemical oxidants, is used recently as a deodorizer in living spaces. It has been reported that O(3) can directly react with DNA, causing mutagenesis in human cells and carcinogenesis in mice. However, little is known about the effects of coexistent ions in the reaction of O(3). In the present study, we analyzed the effects of halides on the reaction of O(3) with nucleosides using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. When aqueous O(3) solution was added to a nucleoside mixture in potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.3), the nucleosides were consumed with the following decreasing order of importance: dGuo > Thd > dCyd > dAdo. The effects of addition of fluoride and chloride in the system were slight. Bromide suppressed the reactions of dGuo, Thd, and dAdo but enhanced the reaction of dCyd. The major products were 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine, 5-bromo-2'-deoxycytidine, and 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine. The time course and pH dependence of the product yield indicated formation of hypobromous acid as the reactive agent. Iodide suppressed all the reactions effectively. The results suggest that bromide may alter the mutation spectrum by O(3) in humans. PMID:22646086

  11. Adenine Synthesis in Interstellar Space: Mechanisms of Prebiotic Pyrimidine-Ring Formation of Monocyclic HCN-Pentamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Rainer; Hodgen, Brian; Farrelly, Dean; McKee, Elliot

    2007-06-01

    The question whether the nucleobases can be synthesized in interstellar space is of fundamental significance in considerations of the origin of life. Adenine is formally the HCN pentamer, and experiments have demonstrated that adenine is formed under certain conditions by HCN pentamerization in gas, liquid, and condensed phases. Most mechanistic proposals invoke the intermediacy of the HCN tetramer AICN (4), and it is thought that adenine synthesis is completed by addition of the 5th HCN to 4 to form amidine 5 and subsequent pyrimidine cyclization. In this context, we have been studying the mechanism for prebiotic pyrimidine-ring formation of monocyclic HCN-pentamers with ab initio electronic structure theory. The calculations model gas phase chemistry, and the results primarily inform discussions of adenine synthesis in interstellar space. Purine formation requires tautomerization of 5 to the conjugated amidine 6 (via hydrogen-tunneling, thermally with H+ -catalysis, or by photolysis) or to keteneimine 7 (by photolysis). It was found that 5-(N'-formamidinyl)-1H-imidazole-4-carbonitrile (6) can serve as a substrate for proton-catalyzed purine formation under photolytic conditions and N-(4-(iminomethylene)-1H-imidazol-5(4H)-ylidene)formamidine (7) can serve as a substrate for uncatalyzed purine formation under photolytic conditions. The absence of any sizeable activation barrier for the cyclization of 7 to the (Z)-imino form of 9H-adenine (Z)-2 is quite remarkable, and it is this feature that allows for the formation of the purine skeleton from 7 without any further activation.

  12. A metal-containing nucleoside that possesses both therapeutic and diagnostic activity against cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Suk; Maity, Ayan; Gray, Thomas; Berdis, Anthony J

    2015-04-10

    Nucleoside transport is an essential process that helps maintain the hyperproliferative state of most cancer cells. As such, it represents an important target for developing diagnostic and therapeutic agents that can effectively detect and treat cancer, respectively. This report describes the development of a metal-containing nucleoside designated Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside that displays both therapeutic and diagnostic properties against the human epidermal carcinoma cell line KB3-1. The cytotoxic effects of Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside are both time- and dose-dependent. Flow cytometry analyses validate that the nucleoside analog causes apoptosis by blocking cell cycle progression at G2/M. Fluorescent microscopy studies show rapid accumulation in the cytoplasm within 4 h. However, more significant accumulation is observed in the nucleus and mitochondria after 24 h. This localization is consistent with the ability of the metal-containing nucleoside to influence cell cycle progression at G2/M. Mitochondrial depletion is also observed after longer incubations (Δt ∼48 h), and this effect may produce additional cytotoxic effects. siRNA knockdown experiments demonstrate that the nucleoside transporter, hENT1, plays a key role in the cellular entry of Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside. Collectively, these data provide evidence for the development of a metal-containing nucleoside that functions as a combined therapeutic and diagnostic agent against cancer. PMID:25713072

  13. A review of non-nucleoside anti-hepatitis B virus agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Gang

    2014-03-21

    Hepatitis B Virus is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently approved agents of chronic HBV infection treatment include interferon and nucleoside analogues. However, the side effects of interferon and the viral resistance of nucleoside analogues make the current treatment far from satisfactory. Therefore, new drugs with novel structures and mechanisms are needed. Recently, a number of non-nucleoside HBV inhibitors have been obtained from natural sources or prepared by synthesis/semi-synthesis. Some of them exhibited potent anti-HBV activity with novel mechanisms. These compounds provide useful information for the medicinal chemist to develop novel non-nucleoside compounds as anti-HBV agents. PMID:24549242

  14. Nucleoside transport at the blood-testis barrier studied with primary-cultured sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ryo; Maeda, Tomoji; Akaike, Toshihiro; Tamai, Ikumi

    2005-02-01

    Nucleosides are essential for nucleotide synthesis in testicular spermatogenesis. In the present study, the mechanism of the supply of nucleosides to the testicular system across the blood-testis barrier was studied using primary-cultured Sertoli cells from rats and TM4 cells from mice. Uptake of uridine by these cells was time- and concentration-dependent. Uridine uptake was decreased under Na(+)-free conditions, and the system was presumed to be high affinity, indicating an Na(+)-dependent concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) is involved. On the other hand, nitrobenzylthioinosine, a potent inhibitor of Na(+)-independent equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs), inhibited uridine uptake by the Sertoli cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of nucleoside transporters ENT1, ENT2, ENT3, CNT1, CNT2, and CNT3 was detected in Sertoli cells by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Inhibition studies of the uptake of uridine by various nucleosides both in the presence and absence of Na(+) indicated that the most of those expressed nucleoside transporters, ENTs and CNTs, are involved functionally. These results demonstrated that Sertoli cells are equipped with multiple nucleoside transport systems, including ENT1, ENT2, and CNTs, to provide nucleosides for spermatogenesis. PMID:15547112

  15. Nucleosides of 4-methylthio-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Shingarova, I.D.; Yartseva, I.V.; Preobrazhenskaya, M.N.

    1987-08-01

    2-..beta..-D-Ribofuranosyl-4-methylthio-5-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3-triazole was obtained by fusing 4-methylthio-5-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3-triazole together with tetraacyl-D-ribofuranose, followed by deacylation, and its amide and hydrazide were prepared. The structures of the new nucleosides were established by converting them into known 2-nucleosides of 1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives. By comparing PMR spectra with previously reported PMR spectra for the isomeric 1- and 2-nucleosides of 1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives, the synthesized nucleosides could be assigned to 2-substituted triazoles.

  16. Chemical Logic and Enzymatic Machinery for Biological Assembly of Peptidyl Nucleoside Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Christopher T.; Zhang, Wenjun

    2011-01-01

    Peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics are a group of natural products targeting MraY, a bacterial translocase involved in the lipid-linked cycle in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. In this Perspective, we explore how Nature builds complex peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics scaffolds from simple nucleoside and amino acid building blocks. We discuss the current stage of research on biosynthetic pathways for peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics, primarily focusing on chemical logic and enzymatic machinery for uridine transformation and coupling to peptides. We further survey the nonribosomal biosynthetic paradigm for a subgroup of uridyl peptide antibiotics represented by pacidamycins, concluded by diversification opportunities for antibiotic optimization. PMID:21851099

  17. Long Term Expression of Drosophila melanogaster Nucleoside Kinase in Thymidine Kinase 2-deficient Mice with No Lethal Effects Caused by Nucleotide Pool Imbalances*

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Shuba; Paredes, João A.; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Hultenby, Kjell; Curbo, Sophie; Karlsson, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion caused by thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency can be compensated by a nucleoside kinase from Drosophila melanogaster (Dm-dNK) in mice. We show that transgene expression of Dm-dNK in Tk2 knock-out (Tk2−/−) mice extended the life span of Tk2−/− mice from 3 weeks to at least 20 months. The Dm-dNK+/−Tk2−/− mice maintained normal mitochondrial DNA levels throughout the observation time. A significant difference in total body weight due to the reduction of subcutaneous and visceral fat in the Dm-dNK+/−Tk2−/− mice was the only visible difference compared with control mice. This indicates an effect on fat metabolism mediated through residual Tk2 deficiency because Dm-dNK expression was low in both liver and fat tissues. Dm-dNK expression led to increased dNTP pools and an increase in the catabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides but these alterations did not apparently affect the mice during the 20 months of observation. In conclusion, Dm-dNK expression in the cell nucleus expanded the total dNTP pools to levels required for efficient mitochondrial DNA synthesis, thereby compensated the Tk2 deficiency, during a normal life span of the mice. The Dm-dNK+/− mouse serves as a model for nucleoside gene or enzyme substitutions, nucleotide imbalances, and dNTP alterations in different tissues. PMID:25296759

  18. Purine nucleoside modulation of functions of human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Priebe, T; Platsoucas, C D; Seki, H; Fox, F E; Nelson, J A

    1990-09-01

    The accumulation of endogenous substrates in patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency or purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency is believed to be responsible for the immunodeficiency observed in these patients. To identify the lymphocyte populations that are most susceptible to these substrates, we investigated the effect of their nucleoside analogs on a number of T and B cell functions of human lymphocytes. We found that tubercidin (Tub), 2-chloro 2'deoxyadenosine (2CldA), 2-fluoro adenine arabinoside-5'phosphate (FaraAMP), and 9-beta-D-arabinosyl guanine (AraGua) inhibited the proliferative responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to polyclonal activators (PHA, OKT3 mab) or to allogeneic PBMC in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC). Addition of recombinant IL-2 from the beginning of the culture did not alter the inhibition by Tub of the proliferative responses of PBMC. These purine nucleoside analogs also inhibited the proliferative responses of purified human peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to PHA and of purified B cells to SAC. The concentrations of these nucleosides required to achieve a given degree of inhibition of proliferative responses of T lymphocyte subpopulations or B cells was similar, suggesting that these analogs do not exhibit any selectivity for these purified lymphocyte populations. Tub and FaraAMP, respectively, inhibited and enhanced, at the effector phase, both NK cytotoxicity and specific T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast to these findings, LAK cytotoxicity at the effector phase was not significantly inhibited by Tub, and was not enhanced by FaraAMP. Both analogs inhibited rIL-2-induced proliferative responses of PBMC, but did not affect the generation of LAK cytotoxicity (induction phase) against the K562 targets when added at the beginning of the culture. This suggests that DNA synthesis is not required for LAK cell induction. Both Tub and FaraAMP inhibited immunoglobulin production (IgG and IgM) by

  19. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase as a cytosolic arsenate reductase.

    PubMed

    Gregus, Zoltán; Németi, Balázs

    2002-11-01

    The findings of the accompanying paper (Németi and Gregus, Toxicol: Sci. 70, 4-12) indicate that the arsenate (AsV) reductase activity of rat liver cytosol is due to an SH enzyme that uses phosphate (or its analogue, arsenate, AsV) and a purine nucleoside (guanosine or inosine) as substrates. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is such an enzyme. It catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of 6-oxopurine nucleosides according to the following scheme: guanosine (or inosine) + phosphate <--> guanine (or hypoxanthine) + ribose-1-phosphate. Therefore, we have tested the hypothesis that PNP is responsible for the thiol- and purine nucleoside-dependent reduction of AsV to AsIII by rat liver cytosol. AsIII formed from AsV was quantified by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry analysis of the deproteinized incubates. The following findings support the conclusion that PNP reduces AsV to AsIII, using AsV instead of phosphate in the reaction above: (1) Specific PNP inhibitors (CI-1000, BCX-1777) at a concentration of 1 microM completely inhibited cytosolic AsV reductase activity. (2) During anion-exchange chromatography of cytosolic proteins, PNP activity perfectly coeluted with the AsV reductase activity, suggesting that both activities belong to the same protein. (3) PNP purified from calf spleen catalyzed reduction of AsV to AsIII in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT) and a 6-oxopurine nucleoside (guanosine or inosine). (4) AsV reductase activity of purified PNP, like the cytosolic AsV reductase activity, was inhibited by phosphate (a substrate of PNP alternative to AsV), guanine and hypoxanthine (products of PNP favoring the reverse reaction), mercurial thiol reagents (nonspecific inhibitors of PNP), as well as CI-1000 and BCX-1777 (specific PNP inhibitors). Thus, PNP appears to be responsible for the AsV reductase activity of rat liver cytosol in the presence of DTT. Further research should clarify the mechanism and the in vivo significance of PNP

  20. Electron- and proton-induced ionization of pyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion, Christophe; Quinto, Michele A.; Weck, Philippe F.

    2015-05-01

    The present work describes a quantum-mechanically based model of the electron- and proton-induced ionization of isolated pyrimidine molecules. The impact energies range from the target ionization threshold up to ~1 keV for electrons and from 10 keV up to 10 MeV for protons. The cross-section calculations are performed within the 1st Born approximation in which the ejected electron is described by a Coulomb wave whereas the incident and the scattered projectiles are both described by plane waves. The pyrimidine target is described using the Gaussian 09 software package. The theoretical predictions obtained are in good agreement with experimental absolute total cross sections, while large discrepancies are observed between existing semi-empirical models and the present calculations. Contribution to the Topical Issue "COST Action Nano-IBCT: Nano-scale Processes Behind Ion-Beam Cancer Therapy", edited by Andrey Solov'yov, Nigel Mason, Gustavo García, Eugene Surdutovich.

  1. Soft functional polynuclear coordination compounds containing pyrimidine bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Jorge A. R.; Barea, Elisa; Galindo, Miguel A.; Salas, Juan M.; Romero, M. Angustias; Quirós, Miguel; Masciocchi, Norberto; Galli, Simona; Sironi, Angelo; Lippert, Bernhard

    2005-08-01

    In this account, we describe the use of simple pyrimidine derivatives in combination with metal ions to build highly structured molecular architectures containing functional nanoenvironments, cavities and surfaces that can interact with additional species. The supramolecular structure of these systems can be rationally controlled by metal fragment geometry, reaction conditions and presence of templating agents. Thus, the use of transition metals with low coordination numbers or blocked bonding positions in combination with pyrimidines (e.g. 2-hydroxypyrimidine, 4-hydroxypyrimidine, 2,4-dihydroxypyrimidine, 2-aminopyrimidine) leads to the formation of either discrete assemblies, 1D polymers or helixes. When metal ions with higher coordination possibilities are applied instead, 2D and 3D networks are generated. Some of the assemblies built in this way possess functional cavities, pores and surfaces that can interact with additional species by means of hydrophobic, electrostatic, H-bonding interactions and coordinative bonds to give rise to recognition processes. The latter range from molecular recognition in homogeneous phase as well as clathrate formation, to heterogeneous solid-gas and solid-liquid adsorption phenomena. It should be noted that these materials are not rigid but able to undergo guest-induced reorganisation processes even in the solid state. Finally, some of these materials also combine additional interesting magneto-optical properties. Thus, dual systems can be envisaged in which two or more of these properties are present in the same material.

  2. Potential formation of three pyrimidine bases in interstellar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Liton; Gorai, Prasanta; Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2015-12-01

    Work on the chemical evolution of pre-biotic molecules remains incomplete since the major obstacle is the lack of adequate knowledge of rate coefficients of various reactions which take place in interstellar conditions. In this work, we study the possibility of forming three pyrimidine bases, namely, cytosine, uracil and thymine in interstellar regions. Our study reveals that the synthesis of uracil from cytosine and water is quite impossible under interstellar circumstances. For the synthesis of thymine, reaction between uracil and :CH2 is investigated. Since no other relevant pathways for the formation of uracil and thymine were available in the literature, we consider a large gas-grain chemical network to study the chemical evolution of cytosine in gas and ice phases. Our modeling result shows that cytosine would be produced in cold, dense interstellar conditions. However, presence of cytosine is yet to be established. We propose that a new molecule, namely, C4N3OH5 could be observable in the interstellar region. C4N3OH5 is a precursor (Z isomer of cytosine) of cytosine and far more abundant than cytosine. We hope that observation of this precursor molecule would enable us to estimate the abundance of cytosine in interstellar regions. We also carry out quantum chemical calculations to find out the vibrational as well as rotational transitions of this precursor molecule along with three pyrimidine bases.

  3. Isolation of Purines and Pyrimidines from the Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    The origin of life on Earth, and possibly on other planets such as Mars, would have required the presence of liquid water and a continuous supply of prebiotic organic compounds. The delivery of organic matter by asteroids, comets, and carbonaceous meteorites could have contributed to the early Earth's prebiotic inventory by seeding the planet with biologically important organic compounds. A wide variety of prebiotic organic compounds have previously been detected in the Murchison CM type carbonaceous chondrite including amino acids, purines and pyrimidines'. These compounds play a major role in terrestrial biochemistry and are integral components of proteins, DNA and RNA. In this study we developed a new extraction technique using sublimation in order to isolate purines and pyrimidines from Murchison2, which is cleaner and more time efficient that traditional methods3. Several purines including adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine and xanthine were positively identified by high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet absorption detection in our Murchison extracts. The purines detected in Murchison do not correlate with the distribution of nucleobases found in geological environments on Earth4. Moreover, the abundance of extraterrestrial amino acids and the low level of terrestrial amino acid contaminants found in Murchison', support the idea that the purines in t h s meteorite are extraterrestrial in origin.

  4. Cell growth arrest by nucleotides, nucleosides and bases as a tool for improved production of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Carvalhal, Ana V; Santos, Sónia Sá; Calado, José; Haury, Matthias; Carrondo, Manuel J T

    2003-01-01

    Arresting cell growth and thus decreasing cell division potentially lessens the chance for genetic drift in the cell population; this would be of utmost importance for the consistent production of biopharmaceuticals during long periods. The drawback of the addition of well-known synchronizing agents, such as chemotherapeutics, is that they cause a disproportionate accumulation of cellular constituents, leading to cell death. The use of compounds that are naturally synthesized by the cell, as is the case of nucleotides, nucleosides, and bases (Nt/Ns/B), is shown in this work to be a promising tool. The addition of purines and pyrimidines was tested using a CHO cell line producing the secreted form of the human placental alkaline phosphatase enzyme (SEAP). From the chemical alternatives tested, AMP was the most promising compound for protein production improvement; it reduced cell growth and maintained the culture with high cell viability for long periods, while increasing SEAP specific productivity 3-fold. The use of CHO and BHK mammalian cells producing Factor VII and the use of a insect cell line (Sf9) showed that the effect of AMP addition seems to be independent of the r-protein and cell line. With the addition of AMP, accumulation of cells at the S phase was accompanied by an increase of the protein specific productivity. Addition of known synchronizing drugs (aphidicolin and doxorubicin) and application of environmental cell growth arrest strategies (depletion of nutrients and byproduct accumulation) showed also to effectively arrest CHO cell growth. A careful look onto cell cycle distribution in the different scenarios created, shows whether it is important to consider r-protein expression dependency upon cell cycle in process optimization and operation strategies. PMID:12573009

  5. Flexible synthesis of pyrimidines with chiral monofluorinated and difluoromethyl side chains.

    PubMed

    Bannwarth, Pierre; Valleix, Alain; Grée, Danielle; Grée, René

    2009-06-19

    Chiral pyrimidines with a fluorine atom in the benzylic position are easily accessible in high enantiomeric excesses from optically active propargylic intermediates by two complementary routes. Both the use of optically active propargylic fluorides and the fluorination of the chiral pyrimidine in the final stage give excellent results in terms of enantiocontrol. On the other hand, original pyrimidines with a difluoromethyl side chain are also obtained in a few steps from new propargylic ketones bearing a CHF(2) substituent on the triple bond. PMID:19518154

  6. Novel developments in metabolic disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism and therapeutic applications of their analogs.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosa J; Peters, Godefridus J; Puig, Juan G

    2014-01-01

    The biennial 15th symposium on Purine and Pyrimidine metabolism was held in Madrid, June 2013 (PP13). During the meeting, several novel developments on the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of several inborn errors of purine and pyrimidine metabolism were presented. These ranged from new drugs for gout to enzyme replacement therapies for mitochondrial diseases. A relatively novel aspect in this meeting was the interest in purine and pyrimidine metabolism in nonmammalian systems, such as parasites, mycoplasms, and bacteria. Development of novel analogs for parasite infections, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, and cancer were also discussed. PMID:24940665

  7. Induction of pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA of hairless mice by UVB: an action spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Ley, R.D.; Peak, M.J.; Lyon, L.L.

    1983-03-01

    An action spectrum for the induction of pyrimidine dimers in the epidermis of hairless mice was determined between 288 and 307 nm. The presence of pyrimidine dimers in tritium-labeled DNA extracted from exposed SKH:hairless-1 mouse skin was determined using dimer-specific nucleases from Micrococcus luteus in conjunction with sedimentation of the irradiated DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients. The rate of induction of pyrimidine dimers was maximal at 293 nm. These values were used to propose a UVB transmission curve for mouse epidermis.

  8. Carboranyl Nucleosides & Oligonucleotides for Neutron Capture Therapy Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2004-12-01

    This proposal enabled us to synthesize and develop boron-rich nucleosides and oligonucleotide analogues for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the treatment of various malignancies. First, we determined the relationship between structure, cellular accumulation and tissue distribution of 5-o-carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine (D-CDU) and its derivatives D-ribo-CU and 5-o-carboranyluracil (CU), to potentially target brain and other solid tumors for neutron capture therapy. Synthesized carborane containing nucleoside derivatives of CDU, D- and L-enantiomers of CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU were used. We measured tissue disposition in xenografted mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors xenografts and in rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma isografts in their flanks and intracranially. The accumulation of D-CDU, 1-({beta}-L-arabinosyl)-5-o-carboranyluracil, D-ribo-CU, and CU were also studied in LnCap human prostate tumor cells and their retention was measured in male nude mice bearing LnCap and 9479 human prostate tumor xenografts. D-CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU levels were measured after administration in mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors in their flanks. D-CDU achieved high cellular concentrations in LnCap cells and up to 2.5% of the total cellular compound was recovered in the 5'-monophosphorylated form. D-CDU cellular concentrations were similar in LnCap and 9479 tumor xenografts. Studies in tumor bearing animals indicated that increasing the number of hydroxyl moieties in the sugar constituent of the carboranyl nucleosides lead to increased rate and extent of renal elimination, a decrease in serum half-lives and an increased tissue specificity. Tumor/brain ratios were greatest for CDU and D-ribo-CU, while tumor/prostate ratios were greatest with CU. CDU and D-ribo-CU have potential for BNCT of brain malignancies, while CU may be further developed for prostate cancer. A method was developed for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides containing (ocarboran-1-yl

  9. Synthesis of carbocyclic nucleoside analogs with five-membered heterocyclic nucleobases

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jong hyun; Coats, Steven J.; Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2015-01-01

    New carbocyclic nucleoside analogs with five-membered heterocyclic nucleobases were synthesized and evaluated as potential anti-HIV and anti-HCV agents. Among the synthesized carbocyclic nucleoside analogs, the pyrazole amide 15f exhibited modest selective anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50 = 24 µM). PMID:26028788

  10. Visualizing nucleic acid metabolism using non-natural nucleosides and nucleotide analogs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Suk; Berdis, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosides and their corresponding mono-, di-, and triphosphates play important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis. In addition, perturbations in this homeostasis can result in dysfunctional cellular processes that cause pathological conditions such as cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review article discusses contemporary research areas applying nucleoside analogs to probe the mechanistic details underlying the complexities of nucleoside metabolism at the molecular and cellular levels. The first area describes classic and contemporary approaches used to quantify the activity of nucleoside transporters, an important class of membrane proteins that mediate the influx and efflux of nucleosides and nucleobases. A focal point of this section is describing how biophotonic nucleosides are replacing conventional assays employing radiolabeled substrates to study the mechanism of these proteins. The second section describes approaches to understand the utilization of nucleoside triphosphates by cellular DNA polymerases during DNA synthesis. Emphasis here is placed on describing how novel nucleoside analogs such as 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine are being used to quantify DNA synthesis during normal replication as well as during the replication of damaged DNA. In both sections, seminal research articles relevant to these areas are described to highlight how these novel probes are improving our understanding of these biological processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Physiological Enzymology and Protein Functions. PMID:26004088