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Sample records for 5-aza-2 deoxycytidine treatment

  1. 5-AZA-2'-DEOXYCYTIDINE-INDUCED DYSMORPHOGENESIS IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    5-AZA-2'-deoxycytidine-induced dysmorphogenesis in the rat.

    Branch S, Chernoff N, Brownie C, Francis BM.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA. S_Branch@ncsu.edu

    5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (d-AZA) causes tem...

  2. Treatment with 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine Induces Expression of NY-ESO-1 and Facilitates Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Mediated Tumor Cell Killing

    PubMed Central

    Klar, Agnes S.; Gopinadh, Jakka; Kleber, Sascha; Wadle, Andreas; Renner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background NY-ESO-1 belongs to the cancer/testis antigen (CTA) family and represents an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. Its expression is induced in a variety of solid tumors via DNA demethylation of the promoter of CpG islands. However, NY-ESO-1 expression is usually very low or absent in some tumors such as breast cancer or multiple myeloma. Therefore, we established an optimized in vitro treatment protocol for up-regulation of NY-ESO-1 expression by tumor cells using the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC). Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrated de novo induction of NY-ESO-1 in MCF7 breast cancer cells and significantly increased expression in U266 multiple myeloma cells. This effect was time- and dose-dependent with the highest expression of NY-ESO-1 mRNA achieved by the incubation of 10 μM DAC for 72 hours. NY-ESO-1 activation was also confirmed at the protein level as shown by Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence staining. The detection and quantification of single NY-ESO-1 peptides presented at the tumor cell surface in the context of HLA-A*0201 molecules revealed an increase of 100% and 50% for MCF7 and U266 cells, respectively. Moreover, the enhanced expression of NY-ESO-1 derived peptides at the cell surface was accompanied by an increased specific lysis of MCF7 and U266 cells by HLA-A*0201/NY-ESO-1(157–165) peptide specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) CD8+ T cells. In addition, the killing activity of CAR T cells correlated with the secretion of higher IFN-gamma levels. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that NY-ESO-1 directed immunotherapy with specific CAR T cells might benefit from concomitant DAC treatment. PMID:26447882

  3. 5-AZA-2'-DEOXYCYTIDINE INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY AND LONG BONE REDUCTION DEFECTS IN THE MURINE LIMB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The antineoplastic drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (dAZA) is a DNA hypomethylating agent that can be used to induce hind limb phocomelia in the offspring of CD-1 Swiss Webster mice. Previously, our laboratory investigated the possibility that dAZA induced alterations in gene express...

  4. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Is Frequently Expressed in Glioblastoma and May Be Induced in Vitro by Combined 5-Aza-2′-Deoxycytidine and Interferon-γ Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wastowski, Isabela J.; Simões, Renata T.; Yaghi, Layale; Donadi, Eduardo A.; Pancoto, João T.; Poras, Isabelle; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuèle; Bernaudin, Myriam; Valable, Samuel; Carlotti, Carlos G.; Flajollet, Sébastien; Jensen, Stine S.; Ferrone, Soldano; Carosella, Edgardo D.; Kristensen, Bjarne W.; Moreau, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a nonclassical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule involved in immune tolerance processes, playing an important role in the maintenance of the semi-allogeneic fetus. Although HLA-G expression is restricted in normal tissues, it is broadly expressed in malignant tumors and may favor tumor immune escape. We analyzed HLA-G protein and mRNA expression in tumor samples from patients with glioblastoma collected in France, Denmark, and Brazil. We found HLA-G protein expression in 65 of 108 samples and mRNA in 20 of 21 samples. The absence of HLA-G protein expression was associated with a better long-term survival rate. The mechanisms underlying HLA-G gene expression were investigated in glioma cell lines U251MG, D247MG, and U138MG. Induction of HLA-G transcriptional activity was dependent of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment and enhanced by interferon-γ. HLA-G protein expression was observed in U251MG cells only. These cells exhibited a permissive chromatin state at the HLA-G gene promoter and the highest levels of induced HLA-G transcriptional activity following 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment. Several antigen-presenting machinery components were up-regulated in U251MG cells after demethylating and IFN-γ treatments, suggesting an effect on the up-regulation of HLA-G cell surface expression. Therefore, because of its role in tumor tolerance, HLA-G found to be expressed in glioblastoma samples should be taken into consideration in clinical studies on the pathology and in the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent its expression in HLA-G–negative tumors. PMID:23219427

  5. CELL DEATH AND CELL CYCLE PERTURBATION IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF THE DEMETHYLATING AGENT 5-AZA-2'-DEOXYCYTIDINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA methylation is a probable mechanism for regulating gene expression, and alterations in methylation may significantly affect embryonic development. e administered the cytidine analog 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAZA) to pregnant mice to determine its teratogenicity and effects on ...

  6. The PARP inhibitor Olaparib disrupts base excision repair of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine lesions.

    PubMed

    Orta, Manuel Luis; Höglund, Andreas; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Domínguez, Inmaculada; Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Visnes, Torkild; Pastor, Nuria; Ström, Cecilia; López-lázaro, Miguel; Helleday, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, 5-azadC) is used in the treatment of Myelodysplatic syndrome (MDS) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Its mechanism of action is thought to involve reactivation of genes implicated in differentiation and transformation, as well as induction of DNA damage by trapping DNA methyltranferases (DNMT) to DNA. We demonstrate for the first time that base excision repair (BER) recognizes 5-azadC-induced lesions in DNA and mediates repair. We find that BER (XRCC1) deficient cells are sensitive to 5-azadC and display an increased amount of DNA single- and double-strand breaks. The XRCC1 protein co-localizes with DNMT1 foci after 5-azadC treatment, suggesting a novel and specific role of XRCC1 in the repair of trapped DNMT1. 5-azadC-induced DNMT foci persist in XRCC1 defective cells, demonstrating a role for XRCC1 in repair of 5-azadC-induced DNA lesions. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition prevents XRCC1 relocation to DNA damage sites, disrupts XRCC1-DNMT1 co-localization and thereby efficient BER. In a panel of AML cell lines, combining 5-azadC and Olaparib cause synthetic lethality. These data suggest that PARP inhibitors can be used in combination with 5-azadC to improve treatment of MDS and AML. PMID:25074383

  7. Mechanisms of resistance to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine in human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Taichun; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Si, Jiali; Shu, Jingmin

    2009-01-01

    5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC) is approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes, but resistance to this agent is common. In search for mechanisms of resistance, we measured the half maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DAC and found it differed 1000-fold among a panel of cancer cell lines. The IC50 was correlated with the doses of DAC that induced the most hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE; R = 0.94, P < .001), but not with LINE methylation or DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), 3a, and 3b expression at baseline. Sensitivity to DAC showed a low correlation (R = 0.44, P = .11) to that of 5-azacytidine (AZA), but a good correlation to that of cytarabine (Ara-C; R = 0.89, P < .001). The 5 cell lines most resistant to DAC had a combination of low dCK, hENT1, and 2 transporters, and high cytosine deaminase. In an HL60 clone, resistance to DAC could be rapidly induced by drug exposure and was related to a switch from heterozygous to homozygous mutation of DCK. Transfection of wild-type DCK restored DAC sensitivity. DAC induced DNA breaks as evidenced by H2AX phosphorylation and increased homologous recombination rates by 7- to 10-fold. These results suggest that in vitro resistance to DAC can be explained by insufficient incorporation into DNA. PMID:18931345

  8. Inhibiting DNA Methylation by 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine Ameliorates Atherosclerosis Through Suppressing Macrophage Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Qiang; Wang, Xianfeng; Jia, Lin; Mondal, Ashis K.; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Das, Swapan K.; Parks, John S.; Yu, Liqing; Shi, Huidong

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation marks all stages of atherogenesis. DNA hypermethylation in the whole genome or specific genes is associated with inflammation and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we aimed to study whether inhibiting DNA methylation by DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) ameliorates atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr−/−) mice. Ldlr−/− mice were fed an atherogenic diet and adminisered saline or 5-aza-dC (0.25 mg/kg) for up to 30 weeks. 5-aza-dC treatment markedly decreased atherosclerosis development in Ldlr−/− mice without changes in body weight, plasma lipid profile, macrophage cholesterol levels and plaque lipid content. Instead, this effect was associated with decreased macrophage inflammation. Macrophages with 5-aza-dC treatment had downregulated expression of genes involved in inflammation (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and inducible nitric oxidase) and chemotaxis (CD62/L-selectin, chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 2/MCP-1 [CCL2/MCP-1], CCL5, CCL9, and CCL2 receptor CCR2). This resulted in attenuated macrophage migration and adhesion to endothelial cells and reduced macrophage infiltration into atherosclerotic plaques. 5-aza-dC also suppressed macrophage endoplasmic reticulum stress, a key upstream signal that activates macrophage inflammation and apoptotic pathways. Finally, 5-aza-dC demethylated liver X receptor α (LXRα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ1 (PPARγ1) promoters, which are both enriched with CpG sites. This led to overexpression of LXRα and PPARγ, which may be responsible for 5-aza-dC's anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective effect. Our findings provide strong evidence that DNA methylation may play a significant role in cardiovascular diseases and serve as a therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:25251587

  9. Antineoplastic action of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Dacogen) and depsipeptide on Raji lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Sepideh; Bernstein, Mark; Momparler, Richard L

    2004-06-01

    Epigenetic alterations, such as aberrant DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, can silence genes that suppress leukemogenesis. The objective of our study was to investigate the in vitro antineoplastic and gene re-activation activity of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5AZA), a potent inhibitor of DNA methylation, and depsipeptide (depsi), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, on Raji lymphoma cells. The combination of 5AZA with depsi produced a significantly greater inhibition of growth and colony formation than either agent alone. Using RT-PCR, we observed that combination also produced a synergistic activation of E-cadherin, a gene that is silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in Raji cells. This latter interaction indicates that there is cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modifications in chromatin for E-cadherin in this cell line. 5AZA and depsi may be an interesting drug combination to investigate in patients with lymphoma. PMID:15138563

  10. DNA demethylation caused by 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine induces mitotic alterations and aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Lentini, Laura; Cilluffo, Danilo; Di Leonardo, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploidy, the unbalanced number of chromosomes in a cell, is considered a prevalent form of genetic instability and is largely acknowledged as a condition implicated in tumorigenesis. Epigenetic alterations like DNA hypomethylation have been correlated with cancer initiation/progression. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of epigenome-wide disruption as a cause of global DNA hypomethylation in aneuploidy generation. Here, we report that the DNA hypomethylating drug 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC), affects the correct ploidy of nearly diploid HCT-116 human cells by altering the methylation pattern of the chromosomes. Specifically, we show that a DAC-induced reduction of 5-Methyl Cytosine at the pericentromeric region of chromosomes correlates with aneuploidy and mitotic defects. Our results suggest that DNA hypomethylation leads to aneuploidy by altering the DNA methylation landscape at the centromere that is necessary to ensure proper chromosomes segregation by recruiting the proteins necessary to build up a functional kinetochore. PMID:26771138

  11. 5-Azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine behave as different antineoplastic agents in B16 melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Cortvrindt, R.; Bernheim, J.; Buyssens, N.; Roobol, K.

    1987-01-01

    The antiproliferative effects of 5-azacytidine (acaCyd) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (azadCyd) were studied in murine B16 melanoma and a series of B16 melanoma derived mutant strains with selective resistances to the respective drugs. The in vitro cytotoxicities of azaCyd and azadCyd on B16 wild type, expressed in terms of IC50 values, were found to be 5 microM and 0.2 microM, respectively. The in vitro cytotoxicity of both drugs was dependent on the duration of exposure. Uridine and cytidine were able to reverse the in vitro cytotoxicity of azaCyd, but not of azadCyd. Conversely, 2'-deoxycytidine was able to reverse the cytotoxic effect of azadCyd but not of azaCyd. Thymidine and 2'-deoxyuridine had no detectable effects on the in vitro cytotoxicity of either azaCyd or azadCyd. B16 melanoma mutant strains that were selected for resistance to azaCyd showed no cross-resistance to azadCyd, cytosine arabinoside or the fluorinated pyrimidine analogues FUrd, FCyd, FdUrd and FdCyd. Mutant strains that were selected for resistance to azadCyd showed no cross-resistance to azaCyd or fluorinated pyrimidine analogs, but only to cytosine arabinoside. The combined data suggest that azaCyd and azadCyd follow different routes of intracellular metabolic activation and exert their cytotoxic activity via different intracellular targets. PMID:2444244

  12. 5-Azacytidine Enhances the Mutagenesis of HIV-1 by Reduction to 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Jonathan M O; Daly, Michele B; Xie, Jiashu; Clouser, Christine L; Landman, Sean R; Reilly, Cavan S; Bonnac, Laurent; Kim, Baek; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

    2016-04-01

    5-Azacytidine (5-aza-C) is a ribonucleoside analog that induces the lethal mutagenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by causing predominantly G-to-C transversions during reverse transcription. 5-Aza-C could potentially act primarily as a ribonucleotide (5-aza-CTP) or as a deoxyribonucleotide (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine triphosphate [5-aza-dCTP]) during reverse transcription. In order to determine the primary form of 5-aza-C that is active against HIV-1, Illumina sequencing was performed using proviral DNA from cells treated with 5-aza-C or 5-aza-dC. 5-Aza-C and 5-aza-dC were found to induce highly similar patterns of mutation in HIV-1 in terms of the types of mutations observed, the magnitudes of effects, and the distributions of mutations at individual sequence positions. Further, 5-aza-dCTP was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in cells treated with 5-aza-C, demonstrating that 5-aza-C was a substrate for ribonucleotide reductase. Notably, levels of 5-aza-dCTP were similar in cells treated with equivalent effective concentrations of 5-aza-C or 5-aza-dC. Lastly, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was found to incorporate 5-aza-CTPin vitroat least 10,000-fold less efficiently than 5-aza-dCTP. Taken together, these data support the model that 5-aza-C enhances the mutagenesis of HIV-1 primarily after reduction to 5-aza-dC, which can then be incorporated during reverse transcription and lead to G-to-C hypermutation. These findings may have important implications for the design of new ribonucleoside analogs directed against retroviruses. PMID:26833151

  13. Genome-wide demethylation by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine alters the cell fate of stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Hu, Zhengqing

    2015-02-01

    DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) is able to cause DNA demethylation in the genome and induce the expression of silenced genes. Whether DNA demethylation can affect the gene expression of stem/progenitor cells has not been understood. Mouse utricle epithelia-derived progenitor cells (MUCs), which possess stem cell features as previously described, exhibit a potential DNA methylation status in the genome. In this study, MUCs were treated with 5-aza-CdR to determine whether DNMT inhibitor is able to induce the differentiation of MUCs. With 5-aza-CdR treatment for 72 hr, MUCs expressed epithelial genes including Cdh1, Krt8, Krt18, and Dsp. Further, hair cell genes Myo7a and Myo6 increased their expressions in response to 5-aza-CdR treatment. The decrease in the global methylated DNA values after 5-aza-CdR treatment indicated a significant DNA demethylation in the genome of MUCs, which may contribute to remarkably increased expression of epithelial genes and hair cell genes. The progenitor MUCs then turned into an epithelial-like hair cell fate with the expression of both epithelial and hair cell genes. This study suggests that stem cell differentiation can be stimulated by DNA demethylation, which may open avenues for studying stem cell fate induction using epigenetic approaches. PMID:25096638

  14. Epigenetic Therapy of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Decitabine (5-Aza-2′-Deoxycytidine)

    PubMed Central

    Momparler, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic analysis shows that many genes that suppress malignancy are silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in lung cancer. Many of these genes are interesting targets for reactivation by the inhibitor of DNA methylation, decitabine (5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, DAC). A pilot study on intense dose DAC showed promising results in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, subsequent clinical studies using low dose DAC were not very effective against NSCLC and interest in this therapy diminished. Recently, interesting responses were observed in a patient with NSCLC following treatment with a combination of the related inhibitor of DNA methylation, 5-azacytidine, and an inhibitor of histone deacetylation. This finding has generated a renewed interest in the epigenetic therapy of lung cancer. Preclinical studies indicate that DAC has remarkable chemotherapeutic potential for tumor therapy. This epigenetic agent has a delayed and prolonged epigenetic action on tumor cells. This delayed action should be taken into consideration in the design and evaluation of clinical studies on DAC. Future research should be directed at finding the optimal dose-schedule of de DAC for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:23908969

  15. Effects of 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine on RECK gene expression and tumor invasion in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Q; Huang, S Y; Zhang, D S; Zhang, S Z; Li, W G; Chen, Z W; Wu, H W

    2015-03-01

    Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), a novel tumor suppressor gene that negatively regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), is expressed in various normal human tissues but downregulated in several types of human tumors. The molecular mechanism for this downregulation and its biological significance in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor, 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), on the methylation status of the RECK gene and tumor invasion in SACC cell lines. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP), Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR were used to investigate the methylation status of the RECK gene and expression of RECK mRNA and protein in SACC cell lines. The invasive ability of SACC cells was examined by the Transwell migration assay. Promoter methylation was only found in the ACC-M cell line. Treatment of ACC-M cells with 5-aza-dC partially reversed the hypermethylation status of the RECK gene and significantly enhanced the expression of mRNA and protein, and 5-aza-dC significantly suppressed ACC-M cell invasive ability. Our findings showed that 5-aza-dC inhibited cancer cell invasion through the reversal of RECK gene hypermethylation, which might be a promising chemotherapy approach in SACC treatment. PMID:25517920

  16. Isoform switching and exon skipping induced by the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Xiaojing; Liang, Gangning; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation in gene promoters leads to gene silencing and is the therapeutic target of methylation inhibitors such as 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR). By analyzing the time series RNA-seq data (days 5, 9, 13, 17) obtained from human bladder cells exposed to 5-Aza-CdR with 0.1 uM concentration, we showed that 5-Aza-CdR can affect isoform switching and differential exon usage (i.e., exon-skipping), in addition to its effects on gene expression. We identified more than 2,000 genes with significant expression changes after 5-Aza-CdR treatment. Interestingly, 29 exon-skipping events induced by treatment were identified and validated experimentally. Particularly, exon-skipping event in Enhancer of Zeste Homologue 2 (EZH2) along with expression changes showed significant down regulation on Day 5 and Day 9 but returned to normal level on Day 13 and Day 17. EZH2 is a component of the multi-subunit polycomb repressive complex PRC2, and the down-regulation of exon-skipping event may lead to the regain of functional EZH2 which was consistent with our previous finding that demethylation may cause regain of PRC2 in demethylated regions. In summary, our study identified pervasive transcriptome changes of bladder cancer cells after treatment with 5-Aza-CdR, and provided valuable insights into the therapeutic effects of 5-Aza-CdR in current clinical trials. PMID:27090213

  17. The epigenetic modifiers 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A influence adipocyte differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zych, J; Stimamiglio, M A; Senegaglia, A C; Brofman, P R S; Dallagiovanna, B; Goldenberg, S; Correa, A

    2013-05-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification are important in stem cell differentiation. Methylation is principally associated with transcriptional repression, and histone acetylation is correlated with an active chromatin state. We determined the effects of these epigenetic mechanisms on adipocyte differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue (ADSCs) using the chromatin-modifying agents trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5azadC), a demethylating agent. Subconfluent MSC cultures were treated with 5, 50, or 500 nM TSA or with 1, 10, or 100 µM 5azadC for 2 days before the initiation of adipogenesis. The differentiation was quantified and expression of the adipocyte genes PPARG and FABP4 and of the anti-adipocyte gene GATA2 was evaluated. TSA decreased adipogenesis, except in BM-MSCs treated with 5 nM TSA. Only treatment with 500 nM TSA decreased cell proliferation. 5azadC treatment decreased proliferation and adipocyte differentiation in all conditions evaluated, resulting in the downregulation of PPARG and FABP4 and the upregulation of GATA2. The response to treatment was stronger in ADSCs than in BM-MSCs, suggesting that epigenetic memories may differ between cells of different origins. As epigenetic signatures affect differentiation, it should be possible to direct the use of MSCs in cell therapies to improve process efficiency by considering the various sources available. PMID:23797495

  18. A Perspective on the Comparative Antileukemic Activity of 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Decitabine) and 5-Azacytidine (Vidaza)

    PubMed Central

    Momparler, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-CdR, decitabine, Dacogen®) and 5-azacytidine (5-AC, Vidaza®) are epigenetic agents that have been approved for the clinical treatment of the hematological malignancy myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and are currently under clinical evaluation for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Most investigators currently classify 5-AZA-CdR and 5-AC as inhibitors of DNA methylation, which can reactivate tumor suppressor genes silenced by this epigenetic event. Examination of the pharmacology of these analogues reveals important differences with respect to their molecular mechanism of action. The action of 5-AZA-CdR is due to its incorporation into DNA. 5-AC is a riboside analogue that is incorporated primarily into RNA. A small fraction of 5-AC is converted to its deoxyribose form by ribonucleotide reductase and subsequently incorporated into DNA. The incorporation of 5-AC into RNA can interfere with the biological function of RNA and result in an inhibition protein synthesis. Microarray analysis revealed that both these analogues target the expression of different cohorts of genes. Preclinical studies show that 5-AZA-CdR is a more effective antileukemic agent than 5-AC. One explanation for this observation is that 5-AC blocks the progression of some leukemic cells from G1 into S phase, and this protects these cells from the chemotherapeutic action of this riboside analogue related to its incorporation into DNA. However, differences in chemotherapeutic efficacy of these related analogues have not been clearly demonstrated in clinical trials in patients with hematological malignancies. These observations should be taken into consideration in the design of new clinical trials using 5-AZA-CdR or 5-AC in patients with MDS and AML. PMID:24280679

  19. Delineating the effect of demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine on human Caco-2 colonic carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIUMEI; QIN, BINGZHAO; LIU, BO

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic changes are known to contribute to various phases of tumor development. The gene function loss caused by aberrant methylation is analogous to genetic mutations. Unlike genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations can be reversed. 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as MDS and leukemia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether 5-aza-CdR has the potential to be used in the treatment of colon cancer using a human Caco-2 colonic carcinoma cell line. The effect of 5-aza-CdR on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and reversal of aberrant methylation of the Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A) gene was also examined. The 5-aza-CdR was prepared at different concentrations in sterile tri-distilled water at 0.4, 1.6, 6.4, 25.6 and 102.4 µmol/l and employed to treat the human Caco-2 colonic carcinoma cells. An MTT assay was used to detect the effect of 5-aza-CdR on cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to examine the cell cycle and apoptosis. The RASSF1A mRNA transcript level was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that 5-aza-CdR inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (p<0.01). The 5-aza-CdR treatment affected the cell cycle and caused accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase and this effect was concentration-dependent (p<0.05). 5-aza-CdR treatment caused an increase in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis and reactivated the RASSF1A tumor suppressor gene that was silenced by hypermethylation in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, 5-aza-CdR inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis in Caco-2 cells by upregulating the epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor RASSF1A gene. PMID:27347114

  20. 5-Aza-2′'-deoxycytidine inhibits retinoblastoma cell by reactivating epigenetically silenced RASSF1A gene

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Zhang, Xiao-Huan; Zhang, Kun; Li, Wei; Wang, Wen-Jun; Luo, Di-Xian; Gao, Ling

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor, on the growth and survival of the Chinese retinoblastoma (RB) cell line HXO-RB44. METHODS The DNA methylation status of the Ras association domain family (RASSF1A) promoter in the presence of 5-Aza-CdR at different concentrations was analyzed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). RASSF1A mRNA and protein levels were measured by semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry staining, respectively, when cells were treated with 5.0µmol/L of 5-Aza-CdR. The effect of 5.0µmol/L 5-Aza-CdR on the proliferation and viability of HXO-RB44 cells was examined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry. RESULTS 5-Aza-CdR efficiently induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 and apoptotic death in HXO-RB44 cells. MSP analysis showed that unmethylated RASSF1A DNA increased and methylated RASSF1A decreased in a dose-dependent manner in a range of 0.5-5.0µmol/L 5-Aza-CdR. Accordingly, RASSF1A expression was reactivated at both mRNA and protein levels. Incubation time of 5-Aza-CdR treatment also functioned as a factor for the demethylation status of RASSF1A promoter DNA, with a plateau on day four. 5-Aza-CdR at 5.0µmol/L completely demethylated the RASSF1A promoter in HXO-RB44 cells on day four, and as a result, RASSF1A expression increased significantly from day 4 to day 7. CONCLUSION 5-Aza-CdR inhibits the growth of the HXO-RB44 RB cell line and induces apoptosis by demethylating the RASSF1A gene. PMID:24634863

  1. Synergistic effects of combined DNA methyltransferase inhibition and MBD2 depletion on breast cancer cells; MBD2 depletion blocks 5-aza-2ʹ-deoxycytidine-triggered invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Cheishvili, David; Chik, Flora; Li, Chen Chen; Bhattacharya, Bishnu; Suderman, Matthew; Arakelian, Ani; Hallett, Michael; Rabbani, Shafaat A.; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    5-Aza-2ʹ-deoxycytidine (5-azaCdR) not only inhibits growth of non-invasive breast cancer cells but also increases their invasiveness through induction of pro-metastatic genes. Methylated DNA binding protein 2 (MBD2) is involved in silencing methylated tumor suppressor genes as well as activation of pro-metastatic genes. In this study, we show that a combination of MBD2 depletion and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) inhibition in breast cancer cells results in a combined effect in vitro and in vivo, enhancing tumor growth arrest on one hand, while inhibiting invasiveness triggered by 5-azaCdR on the other hand. The combined treatment of MBD2 depletion and 5-azaCdR suppresses and augments distinct gene networks that are induced by DNMT inhibition alone. These data point to a potential new approach in targeting the DNA methylation machinery by combination of MBD2 and DNMT inhibitors. PMID:25178277

  2. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine acts as a modulator of chondrocyte hypertrophy and maturation in chick caudal region chondrocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Haq, Samina Hyder

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to explore the effect of DNA hypomethylation on chondrocytes phenotype, in particular the effect on chondrocyte hypertrophy, maturation, and apoptosis. Chondrocytes derived from caudal region of day 17 embryonic chick sterna were pretreated with hypomethylating drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine for 48 hours and then maintained in the normal culture medium for up to 14 days. Histological studies showed distinct morphological changes occurred in the pretreated cultures when compared to the control cultures. The pretreated chondrocytes after 7 days in culture became bigger in size and acquired more flattened fibroblastic phenotype as well as a loss of cartilage specific extracellular matrix. Scanning electron microscopy at day 7 showed chondrocytes to have increased in cell volume and at day 14 in culture the extracellular matrix of the pretreated cultures showed regular fibrillar structure heavily embedded with matrix vesicles, which is the characteristic feature of chondrocyte hypertrophy. Transmission electron microscopic studies indicated the terminal fate of the hypertrophic cells in culture. The pretreated chondrocytes grown for 14 days in culture showed two types of cells: dark cells which had condense chromatin in dark patches and dark cytoplasm. The other light chondrocytes appeared to be heavily loaded with endoplasmic reticulum indicative of very active protein and secretory activity; their cytoplasm had large vacuoles and disintegrating cytoplasm. The biosynthetic profile showed that the pretreated cultures were actively synthesizing and secreting type X collagen and alkaline phosphatase as a major biosynthetic product. PMID:27382512

  3. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine acts as a modulator of chondrocyte hypertrophy and maturation in chick caudal region chondrocytes in culture

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore the effect of DNA hypomethylation on chondrocytes phenotype, in particular the effect on chondrocyte hypertrophy, maturation, and apoptosis. Chondrocytes derived from caudal region of day 17 embryonic chick sterna were pretreated with hypomethylating drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine for 48 hours and then maintained in the normal culture medium for up to 14 days. Histological studies showed distinct morphological changes occurred in the pretreated cultures when compared to the control cultures. The pretreated chondrocytes after 7 days in culture became bigger in size and acquired more flattened fibroblastic phenotype as well as a loss of cartilage specific extracellular matrix. Scanning electron microscopy at day 7 showed chondrocytes to have increased in cell volume and at day 14 in culture the extracellular matrix of the pretreated cultures showed regular fibrillar structure heavily embedded with matrix vesicles, which is the characteristic feature of chondrocyte hypertrophy. Transmission electron microscopic studies indicated the terminal fate of the hypertrophic cells in culture. The pretreated chondrocytes grown for 14 days in culture showed two types of cells: dark cells which had condense chromatin in dark patches and dark cytoplasm. The other light chondrocytes appeared to be heavily loaded with endoplasmic reticulum indicative of very active protein and secretory activity; their cytoplasm had large vacuoles and disintegrating cytoplasm. The biosynthetic profile showed that the pretreated cultures were actively synthesizing and secreting type X collagen and alkaline phosphatase as a major biosynthetic product. PMID:27382512

  4. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-mediated c-myc Down-regulation triggers telomere-dependent senescence by regulating human telomerase reverse transcriptase in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Grandjenette, Cindy; Schnekenburger, Michael; Karius, Tommy; Ghelfi, Jenny; Gaigneaux, Anthoula; Henry, Estelle; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Increased proliferation rates as well as resistance to apoptosis are considered major obstacles for the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), thus highlighting the need for novel therapeutic approaches. Since senescence has been recognized as a physiological barrier against tumorigenesis, senescence-based therapy could represent a new strategy against CML. DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) was reported to induce cellular senescence but underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that exposure to DAC triggers senescence in chronic leukemia cell lines as evidenced by increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and lysosomal mass, accompanied by an up-regulation of cell cycle-related genes. We provide evidence that DAC is able to decrease telomere length, to reduce telomerase activity and to decrease human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression through decreased binding of c-myc to the hTERT promoter. Altogether, our results reveal the role of c-myc in telomere-dependent DAC-induced senescence and therefore provide new clues for improving chronic human leukemia treatments. PMID:24970385

  5. Identification of a class of human cancer germline genes with transcriptional silencing refractory to the hypomethylating drug 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Almatrafi, Ahmed; Feichtinger, Julia; Vernon, Ellen G.; Escobar, Natalia Gomez; Wakeman, Jane A.; Larcombe, Lee D.; McFarlane, Ramsay J.

    2014-01-01

    Bona fide germline genes have expression restricted to the germ cells of the gonads. Testis-specific germline development-associated genes can become activated in cancer cells and can potentially drive the oncogenic process and serve as therapeutic/biomarker targets; such germline genes are referred to as cancer/testis genes. Many cancer/testis genes are silenced via hypermethylation of CpG islands in their associated transcriptional control regions and become activated upon treatment with DNA hypomethylating agents; such hypomethylation-induced activation of cancer/testis genes provides a potential combination approach to augment immunotherapeutics. Thus, understanding cancer/testis gene regulation is of increasing clinical importance. Previously studied cancer/testis gene activation has focused on X chromosome encoded cancer/testis genes. Here we find that a sub-set of non-X encoded cancer/testis genes are silenced in non-germline cells via a mechanism that is refractory to epigenetic dysregulation, including treatment with the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor tricostatin A. These findings formally indicate that there is a sub-group of the clinically important cancer/testis genes that are unlikely to be activated in clinical therapeutic approaches using hypomethylating agents and it indicates a unique transcriptional silencing mechanism for germline genes in non-germline cells that might provide a target mechanism for new clinical therapies. PMID:25594001

  6. Okadaic acid blocks the effects of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine on consolidation, acquisition and retrieval of morphine-induced place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Jun; Han, Jin; Sui, Nan

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies indicated that epigenetic modification, especially DNA methylation, play an important role in the persistence of addiction-related memory. 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, was approved for clinical treatment. However, it is not clear whether 5-aza is involved in opiate addiction. In this study, using the morphine-induced conditioned place preference (mCPP) model in rats, we injected 5-aza into hippocampus (CA1) and prelimbic cortex (PL), and tested the behavioral consequences at various stages of consolidation, acquisition and retrieval. Moreover, to test whether protein phosphatase regulates the effects of 5-aza, protein phosphatase (PP) 1/2A inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) was infused before 5-aza injection. We found that 5-aza injection into CA1 but not into PL significantly attenuated the consolidation and acquisition of mCPP, however, the inhibition of DNA methylation in PL but not in CA1 enhanced the retrieval of mCPP. All these behavioral effects were absent when OA was infused before 5-aza injection. These findings suggest that 5-aza interfere opiate-related memory, and protein phosphatase plays an important role in this process. PMID:25139850

  7. Trichostatin A and 5 Aza-2' deoxycytidine decrease estrogen receptor mRNA stability in ER positive MCF7 cells through modulation of HuR.

    PubMed

    Pryzbylkowski, Peter; Obajimi, Oluwakemi; Keen, Judith Clancy

    2008-09-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA) and 5-Aza 2'deoxycytidine (AZA), two well characterized pharmacologic inhibitors of histone deacetylation and DNA methylation, affect estrogen receptor alpha (ER) levels differently in ER-positive versus ER-negative breast cancer cell lines. Whereas pharmacologic inhibition of these epigenetic mechanisms results in re-expression and increased estrogen receptor alpha (ER) levels in ER-negative cells, treatment in ER-positive MCF7 cells results in decreased ER mRNA and protein levels. This decrease is dependent upon protein interaction with the ER 3'UTR. Actinomycin D studies showed a 37.5% reduction in ER mRNA stability from 4 to 1.5 h in AZA/TSA treated MCF7 cell lines; an effect not seen in 231ER + cells transfected with the ER coding region but lacking incorporation of the 3'UTR. AZA/TSA do not appear to directly interact with the 3'UTR but rather decrease stability through altered subcellular localization of the RNA binding protein, HuR. siRNA inhibition of HuR expression reduces both the steady-state and stability of ER mRNA, suggesting that HuR plays a critical role in the control of ER mRNA stability. Our data suggest that epigenetic modulators can alter stability through modulation of HuR subcellular distribution. Taken together, these data provide a novel anti-estrogenic mechanism for AZA and TSA in ER positive human breast cancer cells. PMID:17891453

  8. Preclinical evaluation of the antineoplastic action of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and different histone deacetylase inhibitors on human Ewing's sarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hurtubise, Annie; Bernstein, Mark L; Momparler, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    Background Most patients with advanced Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) respond poorly to conventional chemotherapy, indicating the need for new treatment approaches. Epigenetic events, such as promoter hypermethylation and chromatin histone deacetylation, silence the expression of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and play an important role in tumorigenesis. These epigenetic changes can be reversed by using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5AZA-CdR), a potent inhibitor of DNA methylation, in combination with an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC). Results Here, we used a clonogenic assay to evaluate the in vitro antineoplastic activity of 5AZA-CdR in combination with different HDAC inhibitors on EWS cells. We observed that the HDAC inhibitors, MS-275, trichostatin-A, phenylbutyrate, LAQ824 and depsipeptide, enhanced the antineoplastic action of 5AZA-CdR on EWS cells. The combination of 5AZA-CdR and MS-275 showed marked synergy, and was correlated with significant reactivation of the expression of two TSGs, E-cadherin and tumor suppressor lung cancer-1 (TSLC1), in a EWS cell line. Conclusion These results suggest the value of future clinical studies investigating the combination of 5AZA-CdR and MS-275 in patients with advanced EWS. PMID:19014694

  9. Simultaneous quantitative determination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine genomic incorporation and DNA demethylation by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as exposure-response measures of nucleoside analog DNA methyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Anders, Nicole M; Liu, Jianyong; Wanjiku, Teresia; Giovinazzo, Hugh; Zhou, Jianya; Vaghasia, Ajay; Nelson, William G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Rudek, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    The epigenetic and anti-cancer activities of the nucleoside analog DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DAC), azacitidine, and guadecitabine are thought to require cellular uptake, metabolism to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine triphosphate, and incorporation into DNA. This genomic incorporation can then lead to trapping and degradation of DNMT enzymes, and ultimately, passive loss of DNA methylation. To facilitate measurement of critical exposure-response relationships of nucleoside analog DNMT inhibitors, a sensitive and reliable method was developed to simultaneously quantitate 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine genomic incorporation and genomic 5-methylcytosine content using LC-MS/MS. Genomic DNA was extracted and digested into single nucleosides. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Thermo Hyperpcarb porous graphite column (100mm×2.1mm, 5μm) and isocratic elution with a 10mM ammonium acetate:acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid (70:30, v/v) mobile phase over a 5min total analytical run time. An AB Sciex 5500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization mode was used for the detection of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, 2'-deoxycytidine, and 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine. The assay range was 2-400ng/mL for 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, 50-10,000ng/mL for 2'-deoxycytidine, and was 5-1000ng/mL for 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine. The assay proved to be accurate (93.0-102.2%) and precise (CV≤6.3%) across all analytes. All analytes exhibited long-term frozen digest matrix stability at -70°C for at least 117 days. The method was applied for the measurement of genomic 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine content following exposure of in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models to decitabine. PMID:27082761

  10. A Systematic Assessment of Radiation Dose Enhancement by 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schutter, Harlinde de; Kimpe, Marlies; Isebaert, Sofie; Nuyts, Sandra

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Investigations of epigenetic drugs have shown that radiotherapy can be successfully combined with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-Is) for the treatment of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Whether the reversal of epigenetic silencing by demethylating agents with or without HDAC-Is can also act as radiosensitizing remains unclear. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) alone or in combination with the HDAC-Is trichostatin A, LBH589, or MGCD0103 could radiosensitize HNSCC tumor cell lines. Methods and Materials: Histone acetylation status and expression of epigenetically silenced genes at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels were assessed as measures of drug effectiveness in six HNSCC cell lines. Based on their colony-forming capacity, colony assays were performed in four of six cell lines to evaluate the radiosensitizing potential of DAC with or without HDAC-Is. Additional assays of cell survival, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and DNA damage were performed. Results: Radiosensitization was observed in two HNSCC cell lines treated with noncytotoxic doses of DAC with or without HDAC-Is before irradiation. The radiosensitizing doses induced histone hyperacetylation and reversal of gene silencing to variable extents and increased radiation-induced cell-cycle arrest. Conclusions: A role for low-dose DAC with or without HDAC-Is as radiosensitizers in HNSCC seems promising and is supportive of future clinical use, especially for combinations of DAC with LBH589 or MGCD0103, although the mechanisms by which they work will require further study.

  11. Long-term stability of demethylation after transient exposure to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine correlates with sustained RNA polymerase II occupancy*

    PubMed Central

    Kagey, Jacob D.; Kapoor-Vazirani, Priya; McCabe, Michael T.; Powell, Doris R.; Vertino, Paula M.

    2010-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors are currently the standard of care for myelodysplastic syndrome and are in clinical trials for leukemias and solid tumors. However, the molecular basis underlying their activity remains poorly understood. Here we studied the induction and long-term stability of gene reactivation at three methylated tumor suppressor loci in response to the DNMT inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-azaCdR)in human breast cancer cells. At the TMS/ASC locus, treatment with 5-azaCdR resulted in partial DNA demethylation, the re-engagement of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), and a shift from a repressive chromatin profile marked with H3K9me2 and H4K20me3 to an active profile enriched in H3ac and H3K4me2. Using a single molecule approach coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation with bisulfite sequencing, we show that H3ac, H3K4me2, and Pol II selectively associated with the demethylated alleles, whereas H3K9me2 preferentially marked alleles resistant to demethylation. H4K20me3 was unaffected by DNA demethylation and associated with unmethylated and methylated alleles. After drug removal, TMS1 underwent partial remethylation yet a subset of alleles remained stably demethylated for over three months. These alleles remained selectively associated with H3K4me2, H3ac, and Pol II and correlated with a sustained low level of gene expression. TMS1 alleles reacquire H3K9me2over time and those alleles that became remethylated retained H3ac. In contrast, CDH1and ESR1 were remethylated and completely silenced within ~1 week of drug removal, and failed to maintain stably unmethylated alleles. Our data suggest that the ability to maintain Pol II occupancy is a critical factor in the long-term stability of drug-induced CpG island demethylation. PMID:20587535

  12. Low concentrations of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine induce breast cancer stem cell differentiation by triggering tumor suppressor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Nhan Lu-Chinh; Trinh, Ngu Van; Pham, Phuc Van

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are considered the cause of tumor growth, multidrug resistance, metastasis, and recurrence. Therefore, differentiation therapy to reduce self-renewal of BCSCs is a promising approach. We have examined the effects of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC) on BCSC differentiation. Materials and methods BCSCs were treated with a range of DAC concentrations from 0.625 to 100 µM. The differentiation status of DAC-treated BCSCs was graded by changes in cell proliferation, CD44+CD24− phenotype, expression of tumor suppressor genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, p15, p16, p53, and PTEN, and antitumor drug resistance. Results DAC treatment caused significant BCSC differentiation. BCSCs showed a 15%–23% reduction in proliferation capacity, 3.0%–21.3% decrease in the expression of BCSC marker CD44+/CD24−, activation of p53 expression, and increased p15, p16, BRCA1, and BRCA2 expression. Concentrations of DAC ranging from 0.625 to 40 µM efficiently induce cell cycle arrest in S-phase. ABCG2, highly expressed in BCSCs, also decreased with DAC exposure. Of particular note, drug-sensitivity of BCSCs to doxorubicin, verapamil, and tamoxifen also increased 1.5-, 2.0-, and 3.7-fold, respectively, after pretreatment with DAC. Conclusion DAC reduced breast cancer cell survival and induced differentiation through reexpression of tumor suppressor genes. These results indicate the potential of DAC in targeting specific chemotherapy-resistant cells within a tumor. PMID:26730203

  13. Long-term stability of demethylation after transient exposure to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine correlates with sustained RNA polymerase II occupancy.

    PubMed

    Kagey, Jacob D; Kapoor-Vazirani, Priya; McCabe, Michael T; Powell, Doris R; Vertino, Paula M

    2010-07-01

    DNA methyltransferase inhibitors are currently the standard of care for myelodysplastic syndrome and are in clinical trials for leukemias and solid tumors. However, the molecular basis underlying their activity remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the induction and long-term stability of gene reactivation at three methylated tumor suppressor loci in response to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-azaCdR) in human breast cancer cells. At the TMS1/ASC locus, treatment with 5-azaCdR resulted in partial DNA demethylation, the reengagement of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), and a shift from a repressive chromatin profile marked with H3K9me2 and H4K20me3 to an active profile enriched in H3ac and H3K4me2. Using a single-molecule approach coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation with bisulfite sequencing, we show that H3ac, H3K4me2, and Pol II selectively associated with the demethylated alleles, whereas H3K9me2 preferentially marked alleles resistant to demethylation. H4K20me3 was unaffected by DNA demethylation and associated with both unmethylated and methylated alleles. After drug removal, TMS1 underwent partial remethylation, yet a subset of alleles remained stably demethylated for over 3 months. These alleles remained selectively associated with H3K4me2, H3ac, and Pol II and correlated with a sustained low level of gene expression. TMS1 alleles reacquired H3K9me2 over time, and those alleles that became remethylated retained H3ac. In contrast, CDH1 and ESR1 were remethylated and completely silenced within approximately 1 week of drug removal, and failed to maintain stably unmethylated alleles. Our data suggest that the ability to maintain Pol II occupancy is a critical factor in the long-term stability of drug-induced CpG island demethylation. PMID:20587535

  14. Treating Cloned Embryos, But Not Donor Cells, with 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine Enhances the Developmental Competence of Porcine Cloned Embryos

    PubMed Central

    HUAN, Yan Jun; ZHU, Jiang; XIE, Bing Teng; WANG, Jian Yu; LIU, Shi Chao; ZHOU, Yang; KONG, Qing Ran; HE, Hong Bin; LIU, Zhong Hua

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has remained low. In most cloned embryos, epigenetic reprogramming is incomplete, and usually the genome is hypermethylated. The DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) could improve the developmental competence of cow, pig, cat and human SCNT embryos in previous studies. However, the parameters of 5-aza-dC treatment among species are different, and whether 5-aza-dC could enhance the developmental competence of porcine cloned embryos has still not been well studied. Therefore, in this study, we treated porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFF) that then were used as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer or fibroblast-derived reconstructed embryos with 5-aza-dC, and the concentration- and time-dependent effects of 5-aza-dC on porcine cloned embryos were investigated by assessing pseudo-pronucleus formation, developmental potential and pluripotent gene expression of these reconstructed embryos. Our results showed that 5-aza-dC significantly reduced the DNA methylation level in PFF (0 nM vs. 10 nM vs. 25 nM vs. 50 nM, 58.70% vs. 37.37% vs. 45.43% vs. 39.53%, P<0.05), but did not improve the blastocyst rate of cloned embryos derived from these cells. Treating cloned embryos with 25 nM 5-aza-dC for 24 h significantly enhanced the blastocyst rate compared with that of the untreated group. Furthermore, treating cloned embryos, but not donor cells, significantly promoted pseudo-pronucleus formation at 4 h post activation (51% for cloned embryos treated, 34% for donor cells treated and 36% for control, respectively, P<0.05) and enhanced the expression levels of pluripotent genes (Oct4, Nanog and Sox2) up to those of in vitro fertilized embryos during embryo development. In conclusion, treating cloned embryos, but not donor cells, with 5-aza-dC enhanced the developmental competence of porcine cloned embryos by promotion of pseudo-pronucleus formation and improvement of pluripotent gene expression. PMID

  15. Preclinical evaluation of antineoplastic activity of inhibitors of DNA methylation (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) and histone deacetylation (trichostatin A, depsipeptide) in combination against myeloid leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Sepideh; Bernstein, Mark; Momparler, Louise F; Momparler, Richard L

    2003-05-01

    During the development of leukemia, genes that suppress growth and induce differentiation can be silenced by aberrant DNA methylation and by changes in chromatin structure that involve histone deacetylation. It has been reported that a positive interaction between DNA methylation and histone deacetylation takes place to inhibit transcription. Based on this observation, our working hypothesis was that a combination of inhibitors of these processes should produce an enhancement of their antineoplastic activity on leukemic cells. The cytosine nucleoside analog, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5AZA), is a potent inhibitor of DNA methylation, which can activate tumor suppressor genes in leukemic cells that have been silenced by aberrant methylation. In clinical trials, 5AZA was demonstrated to be an active antileukemic agent. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) can also activate gene expression in leukemic cell lines by producing changes in chromatin configuration, and show antineoplastic activity in preclinical studies. In this report, we investigated the in vitro antineoplastic activity of 5AZA, alone and in combination with the HDI, trichostatin A (TSA) and depsipeptide (FR901228, depsi), on the human myeloid leukemic cell lines, HL-60 and KG1a. The results showed that the combination of 5AZA with TSA or depsi produced a greater inhibition of growth and DNA synthesis and a greater loss of clonogenicity than either agent alone. These results suggest that 5AZA used in combination with HDI may be an interesting chemotherapeutic regimen to investigate in patients with acute myeloid leukemia that is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. PMID:12620295

  16. Differential induction of apoptosis and senescence by the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in solid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Sascha; Berger, Alexander; Weiland, Timo; Essmann, Frank; Waibel, Michaela; Nuebling, Tina; Häcker, Sabine; Schenk, Martin; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Salih, Helmut R; Fulda, Simone; Sipos, Bence; Johnstone, Ricky W; Lauer, Ulrich M; Bitzer, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of cancer that govern the silencing of genes. Up to now, 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR, Vidaza) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC, Dacogen) are the only clinically approved DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi). Current effort tries to exploit DNMTi application beyond acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, especially to solid tumors. Although both drugs only differ by a minimal structural difference, they trigger distinct molecular mechanisms that are highly relevant for a rational choice of new combination therapies. Therefore, we investigated cell death pathways in vitro in human hepatoma, colon, renal, and lung cancer cells and in vivo in chorioallantoic membrane and xenograft models. Real-time cancer cell monitoring and cytokine profiling revealed a profoundly distinct response pattern to both drugs. 5-aza-dC induced p53-dependent tumor cell senescence and a high number of DNA double-strand breaks. In contrast, 5-aza-CR downregulated p53, induced caspase activation and apoptosis. These individual response patterns of tumor cells could be verified in vivo in chorioallantoic membrane assays and in a hepatoma xenograft model. Although 5-aza-CR and 5-aza-dC are viewed as drugs with similar therapeutic activity, they induce a diverse molecular response in tumor cells. These findings together with other reported differences enable and facilitate a rational design of new combination strategies to further exploit the epigenetic mode of action of these two drugs in different areas of clinical oncology. PMID:23924947

  17. Gelatinases-stimuli nanoparticles encapsulating 5-fluorouridine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine enhance the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to chemical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-lei; Li, Ru-Tian; Yang, Mi; Yue, Guo-Feng; Wang, Hui-yu; Liu, Qin; Cui, Fang-bo; Wu, Pu-yuan; Ding, Hui; Yu, Li-Xia; Qian, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Bao-Rui

    2015-07-10

    Aberrant methylation of the transcription factor AP-2 epsilon (TFAP2E) has been attributed to 5-fluorouridine (5-FU) sensitivity. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), an epigenetic drug that inhibits DNA methylation, is able to cause reactive expression of TFAP2E by demethylating activity. This property might be useful in enhancing the sensitivity of cancer cells to 5-FU. However, the effect of DAC is transient because of its instability. Here, we report the use of intelligent gelatinases-stimuli nanoparticles (NPs) to coencapsulate and deliver DAC and 5-FU to gastric cancer (GC) cells. The results showed that NPs encapsulating DAC, 5-FU, or both could be effectively internalized by GC cells. Furthermore, we found that the NPs enhanced the stability of DAC, resulting in improved re-expression of TFAP2E. Thus, the incorporation of DAC into NPs significantly enhanced the sensitivity of GC cells to 5-FU by inhibiting cell growth rate and inducing cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrated that the gelatinases-stimuli NPs are an efficient means to simultaneously deliver epigenetic and chemotherapeutic drugs that may effectively inhibit cancer cell proliferation. PMID:25592042

  18. Distinctive Roles of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine in Anterior Agranular Insular and Basolateral Amygdala in Reconsolidation of Aversive Memory Associated with Morphine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, JianJun; Li, Ming; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), has been implicated in aversive memory and the function of brain region involved in processing emotion. However, little is known about the role of 5-aza in the reconsolidation of opiate withdrawal memory. In the present study, using the morphine-naloxone induced conditioned place aversion (CPA) model in rats, we injected 5-aza into agranular insular (AI), granular insular (GI), basolateral amygdala (BLA) and central amygdala (CeA) immediately after the memory retrieval and tested the behavioral consequences at 24 h, 7 and 14 days after retrieval test. We found that 5-aza injection into AI disrupted the reconsolidation of morphine-associated withdrawal memory, but 5-aza injection into GI had no impact on the reconsolidation. Meanwhile, 5-aza injection into BLA but not CeA attenuated the withdrawal memory trace 14 days later. However, 5-aza administration to rats, in the absence of memory reactivation, had no effect on morphine-associated withdrawal memory. These findings suggest that 5-aza interferes with the reconsolidation of opiate withdrawal memory, and the roles of insular and amygdala in reconsolidation are distinctive. PMID:27014010

  19. The levels of H11/HspB8 DNA methylation in human melanoma tissues and xenografts are a critical molecular marker for 5'-Aza-2-deoxycytidine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Cynthia C.; Li, Baiquan; Liu, Juan; Lee, Kie-Sok; Aurelian, Laure

    2011-01-01

    H11/HspB8 is a functionally distinct small heat shock protein. It causes growth arrest in melanocytes, associated with inhibition of cyclin E/cdk2 and β~-catenin phosphorylation at the transcriptional activity site Ser552 and is silenced through DNA methylation in 27/35 (77%) melanoma tissues/early cultures. 5'-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (Aza-C) induces melanoma cell death correlated with the levels of H11/HspB8 DNA methylation (p<0.001). In lines with low/moderate H11/HspB8 methylation, PI3-K inhibition increases Aza-C-induced cell death. Aza-C Inhibits growth of melanoma xenografts related to the levels of H11/HspB8 methylation, and a non-methylated/non-TAK1 binding H11/HspB8 mutant confers Aza-C resistance. H11/HspB8 is a potential molecular marker for demethylation therapies. PMID:21649464

  20. Equitoxic Doses of 5-Azacytidine and 5-Aza-2Deoxycytidine Induce Diverse Immediate and Overlapping Heritable Changes in the Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Ralfkiær, Ulrik M.; Søgaard, Alexandra; Lu, Qianjin; Workman, Christopher T.; Liang, Gangning; Jones, Peter A.; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Background The hypomethylating agent 5-Azacytidine (5-Aza-CR) is the first drug to prolong overall survival in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Surprisingly, the deoxyribonucleoside analog 5-Aza-2deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) did not have a similar effect on survival in a large clinical trial. Both drugs are thought to exert their effects after incorporation into DNA by covalent binding of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT). While 5-Aza-CdR is incorporated into only DNA, 5-Aza-CR is also incorporated into RNA. Here, we have analyzed whether this difference in nucleic acid incorporation may influence the capacities of these drugs to regulate the expression of mRNA and microRNAs (miRNA), which may potentially affect the activities of the drugs in patients. Methodology/Principal Findings A hematopoietic (HL-60; acute myeloid leukemia) and a solid (T24; transitional cell carcinoma) cancer cell line were treated with equitoxic doses of 5-Aza-CR and 5-Aza-CdR for 24 hrs, and the immediate (day 2) and lasting (day 8) effects on RNA expression examined. There was considerable overlap between the RNAs heritably upregulated by both drugs on day 8 but more RNAs were stably induced by the deoxy analog. Both drugs strongly induced expression of cancer testis antigens. On day 2 more RNAs were downregulated by 5-Aza-CR, particularly at higher doses. A remarkable downregulation of miRNAs and a significant upregulation of tRNA synthetases and other genes involved in amino acid metabolism was observed in T24 cells. Conclusions/Significance Overall, this suggests that significant differences exist in the immediate action of the two drugs, however the dominant pattern of the lasting, and possible heritable changes, is overlapping. PMID:20927380

  1. 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine-mediated c-myc Down-regulation Triggers Telomere-dependent Senescence by Regulating Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia1

    PubMed Central

    Grandjenette, Cindy; Schnekenburger, Michael; Karius, Tommy; Ghelfi, Jenny; Gaigneaux, Anthoula; Henry, Estelle; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Increased proliferation rates as well as resistance to apoptosis are considered major obstacles for the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), thus highlighting the need for novel therapeutic approaches. Since senescence has been recognized as a physiological barrier against tumorigenesis, senescence-based therapy could represent a new strategy against CML. DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC) was reported to induce cellular senescence but underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that exposure to DAC triggers senescence in chronic leukemia cell lines as evidenced by increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and lysosomal mass, accompanied by an up-regulation of cell cycle-related genes. We provide evidence that DAC is able to decrease telomere length, to reduce telomerase activity and to decrease human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression through decreased binding of c-myc to the hTERT promoter. Altogether, our results reveal the role of c-myc in telomere-dependent DAC-induced senescence and therefore provide new clues for improving chronic human leukemia treatments. PMID:24970385

  2. Demethylation drug 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine-induced upregulation of miR-200c inhibits the migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of clear cell renal cell carcinoma in vitro

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, JUAN; YI, BO; DING, SIQING; SUN, JIAN; CAO, WEI; LIU, MENGZI

    2016-01-01

    The microRNA (miR)-200 family has been found to be involved in the process of mesenchymal-epithelial transition during renal development. Deregulation of miR-200c has been suggested to be involved in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the precise role of miR-200c in the regulation of ccRCC metastasis has not been previously reported. In the present study, it was observed that miR-200c was frequently downregulated in ccRCC tissue compared with matched adjacent normal tissue. The expression of miR-200c was additionally reduced in ccRCC cell lines when compared with levels in normal renal cells. The DNA demethylation drug 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Aza) was used to treat several ccRCC cell lines, and it was observed that the expression of miR-200c was significantly increased following Aza treatment. Furthermore, treatment with Aza markedly inhibited ccRCC cell invasion and migration, while treatment with miR-200c inhibitor significantly enhanced invasion and migration of ccRCC cells. In addition, Aza treatment significantly promoted expression of E-cadherin and inhibited the expression of N-cadherin, while the inhibition of miR-200c downregulated E-cadherin and upregulated the expression of N-cadherin, suggesting that miR-200c has a suppressive role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of ccRCC cells. In conclusion, it was suggested that demethylation drug Aza-induced upregulation of miR-200c may inhibit migration, invasion and EMT in ccRCC cells. PMID:27123083

  3. Differential TERT promoter methylation and response to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines: TERT expression, telomerase activity, telomere length, and cell death.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Kerry A; Armstrong, Richard N; Colyer, Hilary A A; Zhang, Shu-Dong; Rea, Irene Maeve; Jones, Rhiannon E; Baird, Duncan M; Mills, Ken I

    2012-08-01

    The catalytic subunit of human telomerase (TERT) is highly expressed in cancer cells, and correlates with complex cytogenetics and disease severity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The TERT promoter is situated within a large CpG island, suggesting that expression is methylation-sensitive. Studies suggest a correlation between hypermethylation and TERT overexpression. We investigated the relationship between TERT promoter methylation and expression and telomerase activity in human leukemia and lymphoma cell lines. DAC-induced demethylation and cell death were observed in all three cell lines, as well as telomere shortening in HL-60 cells. DAC treatment reduced TERT expression and telomerase activity in OCI/AML3 and HL-60 cells, but not in U937 cells. Control U937 cells expressed lower levels of TERT mRNA, carried a highly methylated TERT core promoter, and proved more resistant to DAC-induced repression of TERT expression and cell death. AML patients had significantly lower methylation levels at several CpGs than "well elderly" individuals. This study, the first to investigate the relationship between TERT methylation and telomerase activity in leukemia cells, demonstrated a differential methylation pattern and response to DAC in three AML cell lines. We suggest that, although DAC treatment reduces TERT expression and telomerase activity, this is unlikely to occur via direct demethylation of the TERT promoter. However, further investigations on the regions spanning CpGs 7-12 and 14-16 may reveal valuable information regarding transcriptional regulation of TERT. PMID:22517724

  4. Interaction of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and depsipeptide on antineoplastic activity and activation of 14-3-3sigma, E-cadherin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 expression in human breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Jacynthe; Shaker, Sepideh; Primeau, Mélanie; Hurtubise, Annie; Momparler, Richard L

    2003-03-01

    Genes that suppress tumorigenesis can be silenced by epigenetic events, such as aberrant DNA methylation and modification of chromatin structure. Inhibitors of DNA methylase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) can potentially reverse these events. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antineoplastic activity of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-CdR), a potent inhibitor of DNA methylase, in combination with depsipeptide (depsi), an inhibitor of HDAC, on human breast carcinoma cells. We observed a synergistic antineoplastic interaction between 5-AZA-CdR and depsi in their capacity to inhibit colony formation of Hs578T and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of this interaction, we investigated the effect of these drugs on the activation of the 14-3-3sigma, E-cadherin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) cancer-related genes, which were reported to be silenced by aberrant methylation in many breast tumor cell lines. 14-3-3sigma was reported to produce G cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. E-cadherin and TIMP3 function as suppressors of tumor metastasis. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the effect of the co-administration of 5-AZA-CdR and depsi on four breast carcinoma cell lines for the reactivation of these genes. We observed a synergistic activation of E-cadherin by the combination in Hs578T, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 tumor cells. For 14-3-3sigma, we demonstrated an additive to synergistic activation by the combination for Hs578T and MDA-MB-435 tumor cells, respectively. In the MCF-7 tumor cells, the drug combination produced a synergistic activation of TIMP3. The association between the synergistic antineoplastic activity and the synergistic activation of the target genes in this study suggests that the mechanism of anticancer activity of 5-AZA-CdR, in combination with depsi, is probably related to their enhanced activation of different types of tumor suppressor genes that have been

  5. A randomised, phase II trial of the DNA-hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (decitabine) in combination with carboplatin vs carboplatin alone in patients with recurrent, partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glasspool, R M; Brown, R; Gore, M E; Rustin, G J S; McNeish, I A; Wilson, R H; Pledge, S; Paul, J; Mackean, M; Hall, G D; Gabra, H; Halford, S E R; Walker, J; Appleton, K; Ullah, R; Kaye, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our previous laboratory and clinical data suggested that one mechanism underlying the development of platinum resistance in ovarian cancer is the acquisition of DNA methylation. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytodine (decitabine) can reverse resistance to carboplatin in women with relapsed ovarian cancer. Methods: Patients progressing 6–12 months after previous platinum therapy were randomised to decitabine on day 1 and carboplatin (AUC 6) on day 8, every 28 days or carboplatin alone. The primary objective was response rate in patients with methylated hMLH1 tumour DNA in plasma. Results: After a pre-defined interim analysis, the study closed due to lack of efficacy and poor treatment deliverability in 15 patients treated with the combination. Responses by GCIG criteria were 9 out of 14 vs 3 out of 15 and by RECIST were 6 out of 13 vs 1 out of 12 for carboplatin and carboplatin/decitabine, respectively. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was more common with the combination (60% vs 15.4%) as was G2/3 carboplatin hypersensitivity (47% vs 21%). Conclusions: With this schedule, the addition of decitabine appears to reduce rather than increase the efficacy of carboplatin in partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer and is difficult to deliver. Patient-selection strategies, different schedules and other demethylating agents should be considered in future combination studies. PMID:24642620

  6. Interleukin 6 is a cause of flu-like symptoms in treatment with a deoxycytidine analogue.

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, N.; Negoro, S.; Takeda, K.; Kurata, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Fukuoka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The precise mechanism of fever and flu-like syndrome that occurs in treatment with deoxycytidine analogues remains unclear. This study demonstrated a strong correlation between plasma interleukin 6 levels and fever in treatment with oral (E)-2'-deoxy-2'(fluoromethylene)cytidine, another deoxycytidine analogue. PMID:9703288

  7. A novel apoptosis-inducing mechanism of 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine in melanoma cells: Demethylation of TNF-α and activation of FOXO1.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Shunsuke; Mori, Takashi; Igase, Masaya; Mizuno, Takuya

    2015-12-28

    Melanoma is a poor-prognosis cancer in both humans and dogs, and so the anti-tumor effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine (5-aza) on solid tumors such as melanoma have gained much attention. However, its anti-tumor mechanism remains entirely unclear. This present study revealed a part of the anti-tumor effects of 5-aza, focusing on apoptosis induction, on human and canine melanoma cells. Treatment with 5-aza markedly induced obvious apoptosis in melanoma cells. 5-Aza-induced apoptosis was possibly due to induced expression of cytotoxic cytokines such as TNF-α. We revealed hypermethylation of the promoter region of TNF-α as a consequence of treatment with 5-aza. Concurrently, we evaluated the effect of 5-aza on the Akt/FOXO1 signaling cascade, which plays a pivotal role in the transcription of cytokine genes. As a result, 5-aza inactivated Akt and inversely activated FOXO1, which contributed to the up-regulation of TNF-α. Furthermore, up-regulation of TNF-α by 5-aza administration was found in in vivo experiments. These current data suggest a novel apoptosis-inducing mechanism of 5-aza and indicate that 5-aza could be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of human and canine melanomas. PMID:26335173

  8. 2′-Deoxyriboguanylurea, the primary breakdown product of 5-aza-2′-deoxyribocytidine, is a mutagen, an epimutagen, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases and an inducer of 5-azacytidine-type fragile sites

    PubMed Central

    Lamparska, Katarzyna; Clark, Jarrod; Babilonia, Gail; Bedell, Victoria; Yip, Wesley; Smith, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5azaC-dR) has been employed as an inhibitor of DNA methylation, a chemotherapeutic agent, a clastogen, a mutagen, an inducer of fragile sites and a carcinogen. However, its effects are difficult to quantify because it rapidly breaks down in aqueous solution to the stable compound 2′-deoxyriboguanylurea (GuaUre-dR). Here, we used a phosphoramidite that permits the introduction of GuaUre-dR at defined positions in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides to demonstrate that it is a potent inhibitor of human DNA methyltransferase 1 (hDNMT1) and the bacterial DNA methyltransferase (M.EcoRII) and that it is a mutagen that can form productive base pairs with either Guanine or Cytosine. Pure GuaUre-dR was found to be an effective demethylating agent and was able to induce 5azaC-dR type fragile sites FRA1J and FRA9E in human cells. Moreover, we report that demethylation associated with C:G → G:C transversion and C:G → T:A transition mutations was observed in human cells exposed to pure GuaUre-dR. The data suggest that most of the effects attributed to 5azaC-dR are exhibited by its stable primary breakdown product. PMID:22850746

  9. Scriptaid and 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine enhanced expression of pluripotent genes and in vitro developmental competence in interspecies Black-footed cat cloned embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez, M. C.; Biancardi, M.N.; Jenkins, J.A.; Dumas, C.; Galiguis, J.; Wang, G.; Earle Pope, C.

    2012-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer offers the possibility of preserving endangered species including the black-footed cat, which is threatened with extinction. The effectiveness and efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) depends on a variety of factors, but 'inappropriate epigenetic reprogramming of the transplanted nucleus is the primary cause of the developmental failure of cloned embryos. Abnormal epigenetic events such as DNA methylation and histone modifications during SCNT perturb the expression of imprinted and pluripotent-related genes that, consequently, may result in foetal and neonatal abnormalities. We have demonstrated that pregnancies can be established after transfer of black-footed cat cloned embryos into domestic cat recipients, but none of the implanted embryos developed to term and the foetal failure has been associated to aberrant reprogramming in cloned embryos. There is growing evidence that modifying the epigenetic pattern of the chromatin template of both donor cells and reconstructed embryos with a combination of inhibitors of histone deacetylases and DNA methyltransferases results in enhanced gene reactivation and improved in vitro and in vivo developmental competence. Epigenetic modifications of the chromatin template of black-footed cat donor cells and reconstructed embryos with epigenetic-modifying compounds enhanced in vitro development, and regulated the expression of pluripotent genes, but these epigenetic modifications did not improve in vivo developmental competence.

  10. All-trans retinoic acid combined with 5-Aza-2 Prime -deoxycitidine induces C/EBP{alpha} expression and growth inhibition in MLL-AF9-positive leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiki, Atsushi; Imamura, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Kawashima, Sachiko; Yoshida, Hideki; Hirashima, Yoshifumi; Miyachi, Mitsuru; Yagyu, Shigeki; Nakatani, Takuya; Sugita, Kanji; Hosoi, Hajime

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested whether ATRA and 5-Aza affect AML cell differentiation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell differentiation and growth arrest were induced in MLL-AF9-expressing cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased expression of C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{epsilon}, and PU.1 were also observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MLL-AF4/AF5q31-expressing cells are less sensitive to ATRA and 5-Aza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different MLL fusion has distinct epigenetic properties related to RA pathway. -- Abstract: The present study tested whether all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 5-Aza-2 Prime -deoxycitidine (5-Aza) affect AML cell differentiation and growth in vitro by acting on the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}) and c-Myc axis. After exposure to a combination of these agents, cell differentiation and growth arrest were significantly higher in human and murine MLL-AF9-expressing cells than in MLL-AF4/AF5q31-expressing cells, which were partly associated with increased expression of C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{epsilon}, and PU.1, and decreased expression of c-Myc. These findings indicate that MLL-AF9-expressing cells are more sensitive to ATRA and 5-Aza, indicating that different MLL fusion proteins possess different epigenetic properties associated with retinoic acid pathway inactivation.

  11. Quantitative Targeted Proteomics of Pancreatic Cancer: Deoxycytidine Kinase Protein Level Correlates to Progression-Free Survival of Patients Receiving Gemcitabine Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ohmine, Ken; Kawaguchi, Kei; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Ohtsuka, Hideo; Kamiie, Junichi; Abe, Takaaki; Unno, Michiaki; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to identify the determinant(s) of gemcitabine (dFdC)-sensitivity in pancreatic cancer tissues of patients treated with dFdC alone and in pancreatic cancer cell lines exposed to dFdC in vitro. Protein expression levels of 12 enzymes and 13 transporters potentially involved in transport and metabolism of dFdC in pancreatic cancer cell lines and tissues were quantified by means of our LC-MS/MS-based quantitative targeted proteomics technology. Protein expression levels of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), uridine monophosphate-cytidine monophosphate (UMP-CMP) kinase, cytosolic nucleotidase III (cN-III), and equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) were significantly correlated with IC50 or 1/IC50 in five cell lines with different sensitivities to dFdC (p < 0.05). Expression levels of the selected proteins in pancreatic cancer tissues of 10 patients with different progression-free survival (PFS) (49-955 days) were quantified, and their relationship with PFS was examined. Only the protein expression level of dCK was significantly correlated with PFS (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis was also performed, and combinations of ENT1, UMP-CMP kinase, CTPS1, and dCK were highly correlated with PFS. Our results indicate that the protein expression level of dCK in pancreatic cancer tissue is a good predictor of PFS, and thus dCK may be the best biomarker of dFdC sensitivity in pancreatic cancer patients treated with dFdC, although other proteins would also contribute to dFdC-sensitivity at the cellular level in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26280109

  12. Chemical synthesis of 2'-deoxyoligonucleotides containing 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, S; Pein, C D; Fritz, H J; Cech, D

    1992-01-01

    2'-Deoxyoligonucleotides with 5-fluorocytosine residues incorporated at specific positions of the nucleotide sequence are tools of great potential in the study of the catalytic mechanism by which DNA cytosine methyltransferases methylate the 5-position of DNA cytosine residues in specific sequence contexts. Chemical synthesis of such oligonucleotides is described. Two alternative approaches have been developed, one of which proceeds via a fully protected phosphoramidite of 5-fluoro-4-methylmercapto-2'-deoxyuridine 2, the other via a fully protected phosphoramidite of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine 3. Either building block can be used in automated oligonucleotide synthesis applying standard elongation cycles and deprotection procedures exclusively. The methylmercapto function of 2 is replaced by an amino group in the final ammonia treatment used for cleavage from support and base deprotection. PMID:1598200

  13. Epigenetic alteration by DNA-demethylating treatment restores apoptotic response to glucocorticoids in dexamethasone-resistant human malignant lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids (GCs) are often included in the therapy of lymphoid malignancies because they kill several types of malignant lymphoid cells. GCs activate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), to regulate a complex genetic network, culminating in apoptosis. Normal lymphoblasts and many lymphoid malignancies are sensitive to GC-driven apoptosis. Resistance to GCs can be a significant clinical problem, however, and correlates with resistance to several other major chemotherapeutic agents. Methods We analyzed the effect of treatment with the cytosine analogue 5 aza-2deoxycytidine (AZA) on GC resistance in two acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T or pre-T ALL) cell lines- CEM and Molt-4- and a (B-cell) myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226. Methods employed included tissue culture, flow cytometry, and assays for clonogenicity, cytosine extension, immunochemical identification of proteins, and gene transactivation. High throughput DNA sequencing was used to confirm DNA methylation status. Conclusions Treatment of these cells with AZA resulted in altered DNA methylation and restored GC-evoked apoptosis in all 3 cell lines. In CEM cells the altered epigenetic state resulted in site-specific phosphorylation of the GR, increased GR potency, and GC-driven induction of the GR from promoters that lie in CpG islands. In RPMI 8226 cells, expression of relevant coregulators of GR function was altered. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is central to a feed-forward mechanism of site-specific GR phosphorylation and ultimately, apoptosis, occurred in all 3 cell lines. These data show that in certain malignant hematologic B- and T-cell types, epigenetically controlled GC resistance can be reversed by cell exposure to a compound that causes DNA demethylation. The results encourage studies of application to in vivo systems, looking towards eventual clinical applications. PMID:24795534

  14. Radioimmunoassays of plasma thymidine, uridine, deoxyuridine, and cytidine/deoxycytidine

    SciTech Connect

    Dudman, N.P.B.; Deveski, W.B.; Tattersall, M.H.N.

    1981-08-01

    Radioimmunoassay techniques have been developed for the assay of thymidine, uridine, deoxyuridine, and deoxycytidine. Plasma levels of the first three nucleosides have been measured, and an upper limit has been determined for the plasma concentration of deoxycytidine. The assays involve displacement of a (3H)pyrimidine nucleoside from the appropriate labeled rabbit immunoglobulin. By assaying a mixture of uridine and deoxyuridine in the presence and absence of borax, the concentrations of both nucleosides have been measured. In seven healthy adults, plasma levels of uridine were 21.1 +/- 8.4 ..mu..M (mean +/- SD) and of deoxyuridine were 0.62 +/- 0.39 ..mu..M. In cancer patients, thymidine levels were 7.5 +/- 2.7 x 10/sup -7/M. The upper limit for plasma deoxycytidine levels in six healthy adults was 0.71 +/- 0.1 ..mu..M.

  15. Characterization, development, and localization of the deoxycytidine phosphorylating systems in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Spector, R; Huntoon, S

    1983-05-01

    The accumulation of deoxycytidine by rabbit and mouse brain was studied in vitro. Brain slices from brain stem, cerebellum, and forebrain of rabbits of various ages (1 day to 2.5 years) and forebrain from adult mice were incubated for various times in artificial CSF containing 6 nM [3H]deoxycytidine at 37 degrees C under 95% O2/5% CO2. Rabbit and mouse brain slices of all ages accumulated [3H]deoxycytidine by a saturable system (IC50 = 4 microM) and converted it to [3H]deoxycytidine phosphates and [3H]DNA. When slices from all brain regions of 1-day-old rabbits were incubated in 6 nM [3H]deoxycytidine for 30 min, tissue-to-medium ratios of 3H were between 1.2 and 2.5 and declined with age, except in cortex; the percentages of total 3H in perchloric acid homogenates of brain slices as [3H]DNA were 10-24% and declined to low levels in middle age. However, at all ages and in all regions tested, 30-85% of the [3H]deoxycytidine within the slices was phosphorylated. After homogenization and subcellular fractionation of the brain slices incubated in [3H]deoxycytidine for 30 min, the highest percentage of [3H]deoxycytidine phosphates plus [3H]DNA was present in the nuclear and mitochondrial fractions of all brain regions. Deoxycytidine phosphates were synthesized from deoxycytidine in all brain regions tested into middle age. PMID:6834071

  16. Highly synergistic effect of sequential treatment with epigenetic and anticancer drugs to overcome drug resistance in breast cancer cells is mediated via activation of p21 gene expression leading to G2/M cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavalu, Sivakumar; Dermawan, Josephine Kamtai; Venugopalan, Cheriyath; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations such as aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications contribute substantially to both the cause and maintenance of drug resistance. These epigenetic changes lead to silencing of tumor suppressor genes involved in key DNA damage-response pathways, making drug-resistant cancer cells nonresponsive to conventional anticancer drug therapies. Our hypothesis is that treating drug-resistant cells with epigenetic drugs could restore the sensitivity to anticancer drugs by reactivating previously silenced genes. To test our hypothesis, we used drug-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR) and two epigenetic drugs that act via different mechanisms—5-aza-2deoxycytidine (Decitabine, DAC), a demethylating agent and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor—in combination with doxorubicin. We show that the sequential treatment of resistant cells, first with an epigenetic drug (DAC), and then with doxorubicin, induces a highly synergistic effect, thus reducing the IC50 of doxorubicin by several thousand folds. The sequential treatment caused over 90% resistant cells to undergo G2/M cell cycle arrest, determined to be due to upregulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 expression, which is responsible for cell-cycle regulation. The induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 correlated well with the depletion of DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1), an enzyme that promotes methylation of DNA, suggesting that the p21WAF1/CIP1 gene may have been methylated and hence is inactive in MCF-7/ADR cells. Microarray analysis shows expression of several tumor suppressor genes and downregulation of tumor promoter genes, particularly in sequentially treated resistant cells. Sequential treatment was found to be significantly more effective than simultaneous treatment, and DAC was more effective than SAHA in overcoming doxorubicin resistance. Synergistic effect with sequential treatment was also seen in drug-sensitive breast cancer cells, but the effect was

  17. Preclinical studies of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine and tetrahydrouridine in pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Morfouace, Marie; Nimmervoll, Birgit; Boulos, Nidal; Patel, Yogesh T; Shelat, Anang; Freeman, Burgess B; Robinson, Giles W; Wright, Karen; Gajjar, Amar; Stewart, Clinton F; Gilbertson, Richard J; Roussel, Martine F

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapies active in preclinical studies frequently fail in the clinic due to lack of efficacy, which limits progress for rare cancers since only small numbers of patients are available for clinical trials. Thus, a preclinical drug development pipeline was developed to prioritize potentially active regimens for pediatric brain tumors spanning from in vitro drug screening, through intracranial and intra-tumoral pharmacokinetics to in vivo efficacy studies. Here, as an example of the pipeline, data are presented for the combination of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine and tetrahydrouridine in three pediatric brain tumor models. The in vitro activity of nine novel therapies was tested against tumor spheres derived from faithful mouse models of Group 3 medulloblastoma, ependymoma, and choroid plexus carcinoma. Agents with the greatest in vitro potency were then subjected to a comprehensive series of in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) studies culminating in preclinical efficacy trials in mice harboring brain tumors. The nucleoside analog 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (FdCyd) markedly reduced the proliferation in vitro of all three brain tumor cell types at nanomolar concentrations. Detailed intracranial PK studies confirmed that systemically administered FdCyd exceeded concentrations in brain tumors necessary to inhibit tumor cell proliferation, but no tumor displayed a significant in vivo therapeutic response. Despite promising in vitro activity and in vivo PK properties, FdCyd is unlikely to be an effective treatment of pediatric brain tumors, and therefore was deprioritized for the clinic. Our comprehensive and integrated preclinical drug development pipeline should reduce the attrition of drugs in clinical trials. PMID:26518542

  18. [18F]CFA as a clinically translatable probe for PET imaging of deoxycytidine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woosuk; Le, Thuc M; Wei, Liu; Poddar, Soumya; Bazzy, Jimmy; Wang, Xuemeng; Uong, Nhu T; Abt, Evan R; Capri, Joseph R; Austin, Wayne R; Van Valkenburgh, Juno S; Steele, Dalton; Gipson, Raymond M; Slavik, Roger; Cabebe, Anthony E; Taechariyakul, Thotsophon; Yaghoubi, Shahriar S; Lee, Jason T; Sadeghi, Saman; Lavie, Arnon; Faull, Kym F; Witte, Owen N; Donahue, Timothy R; Phelps, Michael E; Herschman, Harvey R; Herrmann, Ken; Czernin, Johannes; Radu, Caius G

    2016-04-12

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), a rate-limiting enzyme in the cytosolic deoxyribonucleoside (dN) salvage pathway, is an important therapeutic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging target in cancer. PET probes for dCK have been developed and are effective in mice but have suboptimal specificity and sensitivity in humans. To identify a more suitable probe for clinical dCK PET imaging, we compared the selectivity of two candidate compounds-[(18)F]Clofarabine; 2-chloro-2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-9-β-d-arabinofuranosyl-adenine ([(18)F]CFA) and 2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-9-β-d-arabinofuranosyl-guanine ([(18)F]F-AraG)-for dCK and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK), a dCK-related mitochondrial enzyme. We demonstrate that, in the tracer concentration range used for PET imaging, [(18)F]CFA is primarily a substrate for dCK, with minimal cross-reactivity. In contrast, [(18)F]F-AraG is a better substrate for dGK than for dCK. [(18)F]CFA accumulation in leukemia cells correlated with dCK expression and was abrogated by treatment with a dCK inhibitor. Although [(18)F]CFA uptake was reduced by deoxycytidine (dC) competition, this inhibition required high dC concentrations present in murine, but not human, plasma. Expression of cytidine deaminase, a dC-catabolizing enzyme, in leukemia cells both in cell culture and in mice reduced the competition between dC and [(18)F]CFA, leading to increased dCK-dependent probe accumulation. First-in-human, to our knowledge, [(18)F]CFA PET/CT studies showed probe accumulation in tissues with high dCK expression: e.g., hematopoietic bone marrow and secondary lymphoid organs. The selectivity of [(18)F]CFA for dCK and its favorable biodistribution in humans justify further studies to validate [(18)F]CFA PET as a new cancer biomarker for treatment stratification and monitoring. PMID:27035974

  19. DNA hypomethylation upregulates expression of the MGAT3 gene in HepG2 cells and leads to changes in N-glycosylation of secreted glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Klasić, Marija; Krištić, Jasminka; Korać, Petra; Horvat, Tomislav; Markulin, Dora; Vojta, Aleksandar; Reiding, Karli R.; Wuhrer, Manfred; Lauc, Gordan; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2016-01-01

    Changes in N-glycosylation of plasma proteins are observed in many types of cancer, nevertheless, few studies suggest the exact mechanism involved in aberrant protein glycosylation. Here we studied the impact of DNA methylation on the N-glycome in the secretome of the HepG2 cell line derived from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Since the majority of plasma glycoproteins originate from the liver, the HepG2 cells represent a good model for glycosylation changes in HCC that are detectable in blood, which is an easily accessible analytic material in a clinical setting. Two different concentrations of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-2dC) differentially affected global genome methylation and induced different glycan changes. Around twenty percent of 84 glyco-genes analysed changed expression level after the 5-aza-2dC treatment as a result of global genome hypomethylation. A correlation study between the changes in glyco-gene expression and the HepG2 glycosylation profile suggests that the MGAT3 gene might be responsible for the glycan changes consistently induced by both doses of 5-aza-2dC. Core-fucosylated tetra-antennary structures were decreased in quantity likely as a result of hypomethylated MGAT3 gene promoter followed by increased expression of this gene. PMID:27073020

  20. DNA hypomethylation upregulates expression of the MGAT3 gene in HepG2 cells and leads to changes in N-glycosylation of secreted glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Klasić, Marija; Krištić, Jasminka; Korać, Petra; Horvat, Tomislav; Markulin, Dora; Vojta, Aleksandar; Reiding, Karli R; Wuhrer, Manfred; Lauc, Gordan; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2016-01-01

    Changes in N-glycosylation of plasma proteins are observed in many types of cancer, nevertheless, few studies suggest the exact mechanism involved in aberrant protein glycosylation. Here we studied the impact of DNA methylation on the N-glycome in the secretome of the HepG2 cell line derived from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Since the majority of plasma glycoproteins originate from the liver, the HepG2 cells represent a good model for glycosylation changes in HCC that are detectable in blood, which is an easily accessible analytic material in a clinical setting. Two different concentrations of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-2dC) differentially affected global genome methylation and induced different glycan changes. Around twenty percent of 84 glyco-genes analysed changed expression level after the 5-aza-2dC treatment as a result of global genome hypomethylation. A correlation study between the changes in glyco-gene expression and the HepG2 glycosylation profile suggests that the MGAT3 gene might be responsible for the glycan changes consistently induced by both doses of 5-aza-2dC. Core-fucosylated tetra-antennary structures were decreased in quantity likely as a result of hypomethylated MGAT3 gene promoter followed by increased expression of this gene. PMID:27073020

  1. Synthesis and spectral characterization of environmentally responsive fluorescent deoxycytidine analogs

    PubMed Central

    Elmehriki, Adam AH; Suchý, Mojmír; Chicas, Kirby J; Wojciechowski, Filip; Hudson, Robert HE

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the synthesis and spectroscopic properties of five novel pyrrolodeoxycytidine analogs, and the related 5-(1-pyrenylethynyl)-2’-deoxycytidine analog; as well as fluorescence characterization of 5-(p-methoxyphenylethynyl)-2’-deoxyuridine. Within this series of compounds, rigidification of the structure from 6-phenylpyrrolodeoxycytidine to 5,6-benzopyrroldeoxycytidine made remarkable improvement of the fluorescence quantum yield (Φ ~1, EtOH) and substantially increased the Stokes shift. Exchange of the phenyl group of 6-phenylpyrrolodeoxycytidine for other heterocycles (benzofuryl or indolyl) produced an increase in the extinction coefficient at the excitation wavelength while preserving high quantum yields. The steady-state fluorescence response to the environment was determined by sensitivity of Stokes shift to solvent polarity. The effect of solvent polarity on fluorescence emission intensity was concurrently examined and showed that 5,6-benzopyrrolodeoxycytidine is highly sensitive to the presence of water. On the other hand, the previously synthesized 5-(p-methoxyphenylethynyl)-2’-deoxyuridine was found to be sensitive to solvent viscosity indicating molecular rotor behavior. PMID:25483932

  2. Lack of enantiospecificity of human 2'-deoxycytidine kinase: relevance for the activation of beta-L-deoxycytidine analogs as antineoplastic and antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Verri, A; Focher, F; Priori, G; Gosselin, G; Imbach, J L; Capobianco, M; Garbesi, A; Spadari, S

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate that human 2'-deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is a nonenantioselective enzyme because it phosphorylates beta-D-2'-deoxycytidine (D-dCyd), the natural substrate, and beta-L-2'-deoxycytidine (L-dCyd), its enantiomer, with the same efficiency. Kinetic studies showed that L-dCyd is a competitive inhibitor of the phosphorylation of D-dCyd with a Kl value of 0.12 microM, which is lower than the K(m) value for D-dCyd (1,2 microM). Chemical modifications of either the base or the pentose ring strongly decrease the inhibitory potency of L-dCyd, L-dCyd is resistant to cytidine deaminase and competes in cell cultures with the natural D-dCyd as substrate for dCK, thus reducing the incorporation of exogenous [3H]dCyd into DNA. L-dCyd had no effect on the pool of dTTP deriving from the salvage or from the de novo synthesis, does not inhibit short term RNA and protein syntheses, and shows little or no cytotoxicity. Our results indicate a catalytic similarity between human dCK and herpetic thymidine kinases, enzymes that also lack stereospecificity. This functional analogy underlines the potential role of dCK as activator of L-deoxycytidine analogs as antiviral and antineoplastic agents and lends support to the hypothesis that herpesvirus thymidine kinase might have evolved from a captured cellular dCK gene, developing the ability to phosphorylate thymidine and retaining that to phosphorylate deoxycytidine. PMID:9016355

  3. Use of a Ureido-Substituted Deoxycytidine Module for DNA Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shu-Ichi; Oka, Hirohito; Fujii, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2016-07-01

    Ureido-substituted cytosine derivatives are promising for constructing self-assembly structures that can be applied to nanotechnology research. However, conventional cytosine modules achieve assembly in organic solvents. In this study, an N-phenylcarbamoyl deoxycytidine nucleoside was incorporated into a C-rich oligonucleotide to achieve self-assembly in aqueous solution. The results show that the capability of the module to form DNA assemblies varied depending on the number of modules incorporated. The deoxycytidine derivative has a potential application in the development of smart materials based on DNA assembly. PMID:27152551

  4. Melatonin overcomes resistance to clofarabine in two leukemic cell lines by increased expression of deoxycytidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Miho; Narazaki, Hidehiko; Asano, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    Drug resistance remains a serious problem in leukemia therapy. Among newly developed nucleoside antimetabolites, clofarabine has broad cytotoxic activity showing therapeutic promise and is currently approved for relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for clofarabine resistance, we established two clofarabine-resistant lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines from parental lines. To elucidate the mechanisms against clofarabine resistance in two newly established clofarabine-resistant cell lines, we measured the expression of export pumps multidrug resistance protein 1, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2. There were no differences in the expression between clofarabine-sensitive and -resistant cell lines. Next, we determined expression of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), which phosphorylates clofarabine to exert cytotoxicity, in clofarabine-sensitive and -resistant cells. Clofarabine-resistant cells showed significantly decreased expression of dCK RNA when compared with sensitive cells. To elucidate the mechanisms of decreased dCK expression in clofarabine-resistant cells, we analyzed the methylation status of CpG islands of the dCK promoter and found no differences in methylation status between clofarabine-sensitive and -resistant cells. Next, we measured the acetylation status of histone and found that total histone acetylation, and histone H3 and H4 acetylation on chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were significantly decreased in resistant cells. Melatonin is an indolamine that functions in the regulation of chronobiological rhythms to exert cytotoxic effects. We examined the effects of melatonin in clofarabine-resistant cells and found that melatonin treatment led to significantly increased cytotoxicity with clofarabine in resistant cells via increased acetylation. Melatonin may be a useful candidate for overcoming clofarabine resistance in two newly established clofarabine

  5. Hypoxia-induced Deoxycytidine Kinase Contributes to Epithelial Proliferation in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Tingting; Poth, Jens M.; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Garcia-Morales, Luis J.; Melicoff, Ernestina; Luo, Fayong; Chen, Ning-yuan; Evans, Christopher M.; Bunge, Raquel R.; Bruckner, Brian A.; Loebe, Matthias; Volcik, Kelly A.; Eltzschig, Holger K.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a deadly lung disease with few therapeutic options. Apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells, followed by abnormal tissue repair characterized by hyperplastic epithelial cell formation, is a pathogenic process that contributes to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. However, the signaling pathways responsible for increased proliferation of epithelial cells remain poorly understood. Objectives: To investigate the role of deoxycytidine kinase (DCK), an important enzyme for the salvage of deoxynucleotides, in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: DCK expression was examined in the lungs of patients with IPF and mice exposed to bleomycin. The regulation of DCK expression by hypoxia was studied in vitro and the importance of DCK in experimental pulmonary fibrosis was examined using a DCK inhibitor and alveolar epithelial cell-specific knockout mice. Measurements and Main Results: DCK was elevated in hyperplastic alveolar epithelial cells of patients with IPF and in mice exposed to bleomycin. Increased DCK was localized to cells associated with hypoxia, and hypoxia directly induced DCK in alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. Hypoxia-induced DCK expression was abolished by silencing hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and treatment of bleomycin-exposed mice with a DCK inhibitor attenuated pulmonary fibrosis in association with decreased epithelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, DCK expression, and proliferation of epithelial cells and pulmonary fibrosis was attenuated in mice with conditional deletion of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α in the alveolar epithelium. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the induction of DCK after hypoxia plays a role in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis by contributing to alveolar epithelial cell proliferation. PMID:25358054

  6. Genomic structure and chromosomal localization of the human deoxycytidine kinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.J.; Walker, S.; Gribbin, T. ); Chen, E. Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill ); Johnson, E.E.; Spychala, J.; Mitchell, B.S. )

    1993-01-15

    Deoxycytidine kinase (NTP:deoxycytidine 5[prime]-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.74) is an enzyme that catalyzes phosphorylation of deoxyribonucleosides and a number of nucleoside analogs that are important in antiviral and cancer chemotherapy. Deficiency of this enzyme activity is associated with resistance to these agents, whereas increased enzyme activity is associated with increased activation of such compounds to cytotoxic nucleoside triphosphate derivatives. To characterize the regulation of expression of this gene, we have isolated genomic clones encompassing its entire coding and 5[prime] flanking regions and delinated all the exon/intron boundaries. The gene extends over more than 34 kilobases on chromosome 4 and the coding region is composed of 7 exons ranging in size from 90 to 1544 base pairs (bp). The 5[prime] flanking region is highly G+C-rich and contains four regions that are potential Sp1 binding sites. A 697-bp fragment encompassing 386 bp of 5[prime] upstream region, the 250-bp first exon, and 61 bp of the first intron was demonstrated to promote chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in a T-lymphoblast cell line and to have >6-fold greater activity in a Jurkat T-lymphoblast than in a Raji B-lymphoblast cell line. Our data suggest that these 5[prime] sequences may contain elements that are important for the tissue-specific differences in deoxycytidine kinase expression. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Nonenantioselectivity Property of Human Deoxycytidine Kinase Explained by Structures of the Enzyme in Complex with [subscript L]- and [subscript D]-Nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Sabini, Elisabetta; Hazra, Saugata; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2008-07-31

    Biological molecules are predominantly enantioselective. Yet currently two nucleoside analogue prodrugs (3TC and FTC) with opposite chirality compared to physiological nucleosides are clinically approved for the treatment of HIV infections. These prodrugs require conversion to their triphosphorylated forms to achieve pharmacological activity. The first step in the activation of these agents is catalyzed by human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). This enzyme possesses the ability to phosphorylate nucleosides of the unnatural L-chirality. To understand the molecular basis for the nonenantioselectivity of dCK, we solved the crystal structures of the enzyme in complex with the L-enantiomer and of its physiological substrate deoxycytidine and with the L-nucleoside analogue FTC. These were compared to a structure solved with D-dC. Our results highlight structural adjustments imposed on the L-nucleosides and properties of the enzyme endowing it with the ability to phosphorylate substrates with nonphysiological chirality. This work reveals the molecular basis for the activation of L-nucleosides by dCK.

  8. Associations of urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine with phthalate exposure and semen quality in 562 Chinese adult men.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yitao; Jing, Jun; Yeung, Leo W Y; Sheng, Nan; Zhang, Hongxia; Yao, Bing; Dai, Jiayin

    2016-09-01

    5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5hmdC), products of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation processes, have been detected previously in human urine, but their associations with environmental chemicals or healthy outcomes are unclear. The present investigation explored the associations between urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC with phthalate exposure and semen quality. We assessed semen parameters including sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, before measuring urinary 5mdC, 5hmdC and 13 phthalate metabolites among 562 subfertile men from Nanjing, China. Urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC were positively associated with the levels of low molecular weight phthalate metabolites (Low-MWP), high molecular weight phthalate metabolites (High-MWP), and the sum of all phthalate metabolites (ΣPAEs), respectively. Urinary 5mdC was associated with below-reference sperm concentration (odds ratios for increasing quartiles=1.0, 2.2, 3.0, 2.0; p for trend =0.02), sperm motility (1.0, 1.1, 1.9, 1.3; p for trend =0.05), and sperm morphology (1.0, 1.4, 2.3, 1.5; p for trend =0.05). Sperm concentration was associated with the highest quartile of urinary 5hmdC [odds ratio=1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.6)]. Our findings showed significant associations between urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC with phthalate metabolites and semen parameters, which suggested urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC may be promising biomarkers in future epidemiological studies. PMID:27346742

  9. Deoxycytidine Kinase Augments ATM-Mediated DNA Repair and Contributes to Radiation Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bunimovich, Yuri L.; Nair-Gill, Evan; Riedinger, Mireille; McCracken, Melissa N.; Cheng, Donghui; McLaughlin, Jami; Radu, Caius G.; Witte, Owen N.

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and adequate generation of deoxyribonucleotides is critical to successful DNA repair. We show that ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) integrates the DNA damage response with DNA metabolism by regulating the salvage of deoxyribonucleosides. Specifically, ATM phosphorylates and activates deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) at serine 74 in response to ionizing radiation (IR). Activation of dCK shifts its substrate specificity toward deoxycytidine, increases intracellular dCTP pools post IR, and enhances the rate of DNA repair. Mutation of a single serine 74 residue has profound effects on murine T and B lymphocyte development, suggesting that post-translational regulation of dCK may be important in maintaining genomic stability during hematopoiesis. Using [18F]-FAC, a dCK-specific positron emission tomography (PET) probe, we visualized and quantified dCK activation in tumor xenografts after IR, indicating that dCK activation could serve as a biomarker for ATM function and DNA damage response in vivo. In addition, dCK-deficient leukemia cell lines and murine embryonic fibroblasts exhibited increased sensitivity to IR, indicating that pharmacologic inhibition of dCK may be an effective radiosensitization strategy. PMID:25101980

  10. Inhibition of DNA methylation reverses norepinephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, DaLiao; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Chen, Man; Zhang, Kangling; Buchholz, John; Xu, Zhice; Zhang, Lubo

    2014-01-01

    Aims The mechanisms of heart failure remain largely elusive. The present study determined a causative role of DNA methylation in norepinephrine-induced heart hypertrophy and reduced cardiac contractility. Methods and results Male adult rats were subjected to norepinephrine infusion for 28 days, some of which were treated with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine for the last 6 days of norepinephrine treatment. At the end of the treatment, hearts were isolated and left ventricular morphology and function as well as molecular assessments was determined. Animals receiving chronic norepinephrine infusion showed a sustained increase in blood pressure, heightened global genomic DNA methylation and changes in the expression of subsets of proteins in the left ventricle, left ventricular hypertrophy, and impaired contractility with an increase in the susceptibility to ischaemic injury. Treatment of animals with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine for the last 6 days of norepinephrine infusion reversed norepinephrine-induced hypermethylation, corrected protein expression patterns, and rescued the phenotype of heart hypertrophy and failure. Conclusions The findings provide novel evidence of a causative role of increased DNA methylation in programming of heart hypertrophy and reduced cardiac contractility, and suggest potential therapeutic targets of demethylation in the treatment of failing heart and ischaemic heart disease. PMID:24272874

  11. Identification by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy of an imino tautomer of 5-hydroxy-2′-deoxycytidine, a powerful base analog transition mutagen with a much higher unfavored tautomer frequency than that of the natural residue 2′-deoxycytidine

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Wu; Spiro, Thomas G.; Sowers, Lawrence C.; Fresco, Jacques R.

    1999-01-01

    UV resonance Raman spectroscopy was used to detect and estimate the frequency of the unfavored imino tautomer of the transition mutagen 5-hydroxy-2′-deoxycytidine (HO5dCyt) in its anionic form. In DNA, this 2′-deoxycytidine analog arises from the oxidation of 2′-deoxycytidine and induces C → T transitions with 102 greater frequency than such spontaneous transitions. An imino tautomer marker carbonyl band (≈1650 cm−1) is enhanced at ≈65°C against an otherwise stable spectrum of bands associated with the favored amino tautomer. This band is similarly present in the UV resonance Raman spectra of the imino cytidine analogs N3-methylcytidine at high pH and N4-methoxy-2′-deoxycytidine at pH 7 and displays features attributable to the imino form of C residues and their derivatives. The fact that the imino tautomer of HO5dCyt occurs at a frequency consistent with its high mutagenic enhancement lends strong support to the hypothesis that unfavored base tautomers play important roles in the mispair intermediates of replication leading to substitution mutations. PMID:10200291

  12. Excited-state hydrogen atom abstraction initiates the photochemistry of β-2′-deoxycytidine

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Jesús; Šponer, Judit E.; Šponer, Jiřĺ

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of ultraviolet radiation on nucleotides in solution is an important step towards a comprehensive description of the photochemistry of nucleic acids and their constituents. Apart from having implications for mutagenesis and DNA photoprotection mechanisms, the photochemistry of cytidines is a central element in UV-assisted syntheses of pyrimidine nucleotides under prebiotically plausible conditions. In this contribution, we present UV-irradiation experiments of β-2′-deoxycytidine in aqueous solution involving H–D exchange followed by NMR spectroscopic analysis of the photoproducts. We further elucidate the outcome of these experiments by means of high-level quantum chemical calculations. In particular, we show that prolonged UV-irradiation of cytidine may lead to H–C1′ hydrogen atom abstraction by the carbonyl oxygen atom of cytosine. This process may enable photoanomerisation and nucleobase loss, two previously unexplained photoreactions observed in pyrimidine nucleotides. PMID:27182431

  13. Epigenetic silencing of S100A2 in bladder and head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juna; Wysocki, Piotr T.; Topaloglu, Ozlem; Maldonado, Leonel; Brait, Mariana; Begum, Shahnaz; Moon, David; Kim, Myoung Sook; Califano, Joseph A.; Sidransky, David; Hoque, Mohammad O.; Moon, Chulso

    2015-01-01

    S100A2, a member of the S100 protein family, is known to be downregulated in a number of human cancers, leading to its designation as a potential tumor suppressor gene. Here, we investigated the expression and methylation status of S100A2 in head&neck and bladder cancer. Reduced mRNA and protein expression was observed in 8 head&neck and bladder cancer cell lines. To explore the mechanism responsible for the downregulation of S100A2, we treated six cell lines with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. We found S100A2 is silenced in association with aberrant promoter-region methylation and its expression is restored with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment. Of 31 primary head&neck cancer cases and 31 bladder cancer cases, promoter methylation was detected in 90% and 80% of cases, respectively. Interestingly, only 1/9 of normal head&neck tissues and 2/6 of normal bladder tissues showed promoter methylation. S100A2 promoter methylation can be detected in urine and is more frequent in bladder cancer patients than in healthy subjects (96% vs 48% respectively). Moreover, increased methylation of S100A2 is linked to the progression of the tumor in bladder cancer (p<0.01). Together, this data shows that methylation-associated inactivation of S100A2 is frequent and may be an important event in the tumorigenesis of head&neck and bladder cancer. PMID:26097874

  14. Identification of Novel HLA-A*24:02-Restricted Epitope Derived from a Homeobox Protein Expressed in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Maiko; Otsuka, Yohei; Tsutsumida, Naoya; Tanaka, Chiaki; Uchiumi, Akane; Ozawa, Koji; Suzuki, Takuma; Ichikawa, Daiju; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Kawakami, Yutaka; Hattori, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The homeobox protein, PEPP2 (RHOXF2), has been suggested as a cancer/testis (CT) antigen based on its expression pattern. However, the peptide epitope of PEPP2 that is recognized by cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) is unknown. In this study, we revealed that PEPP2 gene was highly expressed in myeloid leukemia cells and some other hematological malignancies. This gene was also expressed in leukemic stem-like cells. We next identified the first reported epitope peptide (PEPP2271-279). The CTLs induced by PEPP2271-279 recognized PEPP2-positive target cells in an HLA-A*24:02-restricted manner. We also found that a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine, could enhance PEPP2 expression in leukemia cells but not in blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. The cytotoxic activity of anti-PEPP2 CTL against leukemic cells treated with 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine was higher than that directed against untreated cells. These results suggest a clinical rationale that combined treatment with this novel antigen-specific immunotherapy together with demethylating agents might be effective in therapy-resistant myeloid leukemia patients. PMID:26784514

  15. DNA methylation and histone acetylation regulate the expression of MGMT and chemosensitivity to temozolomide in malignant melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Ping; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Yang, Ming; Xu, Xi-Feng; Feng, Shou-Xin; Liu, Yan-Qun; Jiang, Guan

    2016-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive, highly lethal dermatological malignancy. Chemoresistance and rapid metastasis limit the curative effect of multimodal therapies like surgery or chemotherapy. The suicide enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) removes adducts from the O6-position of guanine to repair DNA damage. High MGMT expression is associated with resistance to therapy in melanoma. However, it is unknown if MGMT is regulated by DNA methylation or histone acetylation in melanoma. We examined the effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A alone or in combination on MGMT expression and promoter methylation and histone acetylation in A375, MV3, and M14 melanoma cells. This study demonstrates that MGMT expression, CpG island methylation, and histone acetylation vary between melanoma cell lines. Combined treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and Trichostatin A led to reexpression of MGMT, indicating that DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are associated with silencing of MGMT in melanoma. This study provides information on the role of epigenetic modifications in malignant melanoma that may enable the development of new strategies for treating malignant melanoma. PMID:26943799

  16. Involvement of aberrant DNA methylation on reduced expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 gene in rat tumor cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi . E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp; Shimizu, Kyoko; Onishi, Mariko; Sugata, Eriko; Fujii, Hiromasa; Mori, Toshio; Honoki, Kanya; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

    2006-10-27

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and protects cells from apoptosis. It interacts with specific G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. Recently, it has been reported that alterations of LPA receptor expression might be important in the malignant transformation of tumor cells. Therefore, to assess an involvement of DNA methylation in reduced expression of the LPA receptor-1 (lpa1) gene, we investigated the expression of the lpa1 gene and its DNA methylation patterns in rat tumor cell lines. Both rat brain-derived neuroblastoma B103 and liver-derived hepatoma RH7777 cells used in this study indicated no expression of lpa1. For the analysis of methylation status, bisulfite sequencing was performed with B103 and RH7777 cells, comparing with other lpa1 expressed cells and normal tissues of brain and liver. The lpa1 expressed cells and tissues were all unmethylated in this region of lpa1. In contrast, both B103 and RH7777 cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expression of the lpa1. Treatment with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine induced expression of lpa1 gene in B103 and RH7777 cells after 24 h. In RH7777 cells treated with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine, stress fiber formation was also observed in response to LPA in RH7777 cells, but not in untreated RH7777 cells. These results suggest that aberrant DNA methylation of the lpa1 gene may be involved in its reduced expression in rat tumor cells.

  17. Cardiomyocyte marker expression in a human lymphocyte cell line using mouse cardiomyocyte extract.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Zahra; Tavakolinejad, Sima; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh; Rasooli, Manuchehr

    2011-03-01

    Cell transplantation shows potential for the treatment of cardiac diseases. Embryonic stem cells, cord blood and mesenchymal stem cells have been suggested as sources for transplantation therapy. Because of some technical limitations with the use of stem cells, transdifferentiation of fully differentiated cells is a potentially useful alternative. We investigated whether human peripheral blood cells could transdifferentiate into cardiomyocyte. Transdifferentiation was induced in a human B lymphocyte cell line (Raji). Cardiomyocyte extract was prepared from adult mouse cardiomyocytes. The cells were treated with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A, permeabilized with streptolysin O, and exposed to the mouse cardiomyocyte extract. They were cultured for 10 days, 3 weeks and 4 weeks. Cardiomyocyte markers were detected with immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Immunocytochemistry revealed that some cells expressed myosin heavy chain, α-actinin and cardiac troponin T after 3 and 4 weeks. Flow cytometry confirmed these data. In cells exposed to trichostatin A and 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and permeabilized in the presence of the cardiomyocyte extract, troponin T expression was seen in 3.53% of the cells and 3.11% of them expressed α-actinin. After exposure to the cardiomyocyte extract, some permeabilized cells adhered to the plate loosely; however, the morphology did not change significantly, and they continued to show a rounded shape after 4 weeks. Our treated lymphocytes expressed cardiomyocyte markers. Our results suggest that lymphocytes may be useful in future research as a source of cells for reprogramming procedures. PMID:21547694

  18. Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) co-transcriptional scanning at single-molecule resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senavirathne, Gayan; Bertram, Jeffrey G.; Jaszczur, Malgorzata; Chaurasiya, Kathy R.; Pham, Phuong; Mak, Chi H.; Goodman, Myron F.; Rueda, David

    2015-12-01

    Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) generates antibody diversity in B cells by initiating somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) during transcription of immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and switch region (IgS) DNA. Using single-molecule FRET, we show that AID binds to transcribed dsDNA and translocates unidirectionally in concert with RNA polymerase (RNAP) on moving transcription bubbles, while increasing the fraction of stalled bubbles. AID scans randomly when constrained in an 8 nt model bubble. When unconstrained on single-stranded (ss) DNA, AID moves in random bidirectional short slides/hops over the entire molecule while remaining bound for ~5 min. Our analysis distinguishes dynamic scanning from static ssDNA creasing. That AID alone can track along with RNAP during transcription and scan within stalled transcription bubbles suggests a mechanism by which AID can initiate SHM and CSR when properly regulated, yet when unregulated can access non-Ig genes and cause cancer.

  19. Structural analysis of the activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase required in immunoglobulin diversification.

    PubMed

    Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A; Shimoda, Mayuko; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Pedersen, Lars C; Goodman, Myron F

    2016-07-01

    Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) by deaminating C→U during transcription of Ig-variable (V) and Ig-switch (S) region DNA, which is essential to produce high-affinity antibodies. Here we report the crystal structure of a soluble human AID variant at 2.8Å resolution that favors targeting WRC motifs (W=A/T, R=A/G) in vitro, and executes Ig V SHM in Ramos B-cells. A specificity loop extending away from the active site to accommodate two purine bases next to C, differs significantly in sequence, length, and conformation from APOBEC proteins Apo3A and Apo3G, which strongly favor pyrimidines at -1 and -2 positions. Individual amino acid contributions to specificity and processivity were measured in relation to a proposed ssDNA binding cleft. This study provides a structural basis for residue contributions to DNA scanning properties unique to AID, and for disease mutations in human HIGM-2 syndrome. PMID:27258794

  20. Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) co-transcriptional scanning at single-molecule resolution.

    PubMed

    Senavirathne, Gayan; Bertram, Jeffrey G; Jaszczur, Malgorzata; Chaurasiya, Kathy R; Pham, Phuong; Mak, Chi H; Goodman, Myron F; Rueda, David

    2015-01-01

    Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) generates antibody diversity in B cells by initiating somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) during transcription of immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and switch region (IgS) DNA. Using single-molecule FRET, we show that AID binds to transcribed dsDNA and translocates unidirectionally in concert with RNA polymerase (RNAP) on moving transcription bubbles, while increasing the fraction of stalled bubbles. AID scans randomly when constrained in an 8 nt model bubble. When unconstrained on single-stranded (ss) DNA, AID moves in random bidirectional short slides/hops over the entire molecule while remaining bound for ∼ 5 min. Our analysis distinguishes dynamic scanning from static ssDNA creasing. That AID alone can track along with RNAP during transcription and scan within stalled transcription bubbles suggests a mechanism by which AID can initiate SHM and CSR when properly regulated, yet when unregulated can access non-Ig genes and cause cancer. PMID:26681117

  1. Photoelectron spectroscopic and density functional theoretical studies of the 2'-deoxycytidine homodimer radical anion.

    PubMed

    Storoniak, Piotr; Rak, Janusz; Ko, Yeon Jae; Wang, Haopeng; Bowen, Kit H

    2013-08-21

    The intact (parent) 2'-deoxycytidine homodimer anion, (dC)2 (●-), was generated in the gas phase (in vacuo) using an infrared desorption∕photoemission source and its photoelectron spectrum was recorded using a pulsed, magnetic bottle photoelectron spectrometer. The photoelectron spectrum (PES) revealed a broad peak with the maximum at an electron binding energy between 1.6 and 1.9 eV and with a threshold at ∼1.2 eV. The relative energies and vertical detachment energies of possible anion radicals were calculated at the B3LYP/6-31++G(∗∗) level of theory. The most stable anion radicals are the complexes involving combinations of the sugar[middle dot][middle dot][middle dot]base and base[middle dot][middle dot][middle dot]base interactions. The calculated adiabatic electron affinities and vertical detachment energies of the most stable (dC)2 (●-) anions agree with the experimental values. In contrast with previous experimental-computational studies on the anionic complexes involving nucleobases with various proton-donors, the electron-induced proton transferred structures of (dC)2 (●-) are not responsible for the shape of PES. PMID:23968113

  2. Photoelectron spectroscopic and density functional theoretical studies of the 2'-deoxycytidine homodimer radical anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storoniak, Piotr; Rak, Janusz; Ko, Yeon Jae; Wang, Haopeng; Bowen, Kit H.

    2013-08-01

    The intact (parent) 2'-deoxycytidine homodimer anion, (dC)2•-, was generated in the gas phase (in vacuo) using an infrared desorption/photoemission source and its photoelectron spectrum was recorded using a pulsed, magnetic bottle photoelectron spectrometer. The photoelectron spectrum (PES) revealed a broad peak with the maximum at an electron binding energy between 1.6 and 1.9 eV and with a threshold at ˜1.2 eV. The relative energies and vertical detachment energies of possible anion radicals were calculated at the B3LYP/6-31++G** level of theory. The most stable anion radicals are the complexes involving combinations of the sugar...base and base...base interactions. The calculated adiabatic electron affinities and vertical detachment energies of the most stable (dC)2•- anions agree with the experimental values. In contrast with previous experimental-computational studies on the anionic complexes involving nucleobases with various proton-donors, the electron-induced proton transferred structures of (dC)2•- are not responsible for the shape of PES.

  3. Role of Genetic Polymorphisms of Deoxycytidine Kinase and Cytidine Deaminase to Predict Risk of Death in Children with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Ramírez-Pacheco, Arturo; Moreno-Guerrero, Silvia Selene; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Sánchez-Preza, Metzeri; Reyes-López, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Cytarabine is one of the most effective antineoplastic agents among those used for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. However, some patients develop resistance and/or severe side effects to the drug, which may interfere with the efficacy of the treatment. The polymorphisms of some Ara-C metabolizing enzymes seem to affect outcome and toxicity in AML patients receiving cytarabine. We conducted this study in a cohort of Mexican pediatric patients with AML to investigate whether the polymorphisms of the deoxycytidine kinase and cytidine deaminase enzymes are implicated in clinical response and toxicity. Bone marrow and/or peripheral blood samples obtained at diagnosis from 27 previously untreated pediatric patients with de novo AML were processed for genotyping and in vitro chemosensitivity assay, and we analyzed the impact of genotypes and in vitro sensitivity on disease outcome and toxicity. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, we found that age at diagnosis, wild-type genotype of the CDA A79C polymorphism, and wild-type genotype of the dCK C360G polymorphism were the most significant prognostic factors for predicting the risk of death. PMID:26090398

  4. Extending Thymidine Kinase Activity to the Catalytic Repertoire of Human Deoxycytidine Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Saugata; Sabini, Eliszbetta; Ort, Stephan; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2009-03-04

    Salvage of nucleosides in the cytosol of human cells is carried out by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and thymidine kinase 1 (TK1). Whereas TK1 is only responsible for thymidine phosphorylation, dCK is capable of converting dC, dA, and dG into their monophosphate forms. Using structural data on dCK, we predicted that select mutations at the active site would, in addition to making the enzyme faster, expand the catalytic repertoire of dCK to include thymidine. Specifically, we hypothesized that steric repulsion between the methyl group of the thymine base and Arg104 is the main factor preventing the phosphorylation of thymidine by wild-type dCK. Here we present kinetic data on several dCK variants where Arg104 has been replaced by select residues, all performed in combination with the mutation of Asp133 to an alanine. We show that several hydrophobic residues at position 104 endow dCK with thymidine kinase activity. Depending on the exact nature of the mutations, the enzyme's substrate preference is modified. The R104M-D133A double mutant is a pyrimidine-specific enzyme due to large K{sub m} values with purines. The crystal structure of the double mutant R104M-D133A in complex with the L-form of thymidine supplies a structural explanation for the ability of this variant to phosphorylate thymidine and thymidine analogs. The replacement of Arg104 by a smaller residue allows L-dT to bind deeper into the active site, making space for the C5-methyl group of the thymine base. The unique catalytic properties of several of the mutants make them good candidates for suicide-gene/protein-therapy applications.

  5. Downregulation of glutathione S-transferase M1 protein in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced mouse bladder carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Jing-Jing; Dai, Yuan-Chang; Lin, Yung-Lun; Chen, Yang-Yi; Lin, Wei-Han; Chan, Hong-Lin; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2014-09-15

    Bladder cancer is highly recurrent following specific transurethral resection and intravesical chemotherapy, which has prompted continuing efforts to develop novel therapeutic agents and early-stage diagnostic tools. Specific changes in protein expression can provide a diagnostic marker. In our present study, we investigated changes in protein expression during urothelial carcinogenesis. The carcinogen BBN was used to induce mouse bladder tumor formation. Mouse bladder mucosa proteins were collected and analyzed by 2D electrophoresis from 6 to 20 weeks after commencing continuous BBN treatment. By histological examination, the connective layer of the submucosa showed gradual thickening and the number of submucosal capillaries gradually increased after BBN treatment. At 12-weeks after the start of BBN treatment, the urothelia became moderately dysplastic and tumors arose after 20-weeks of treatment. These induced bladder lesions included carcinoma in situ and connective tissue invasive cancer. In protein 2D analysis, the sequentially downregulated proteins from 6 to 20 weeks included GSTM1, L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain, keratin 8, keratin 18 and major urinary proteins 2 and 11/8. In contrast, the sequentially upregulated proteins identified were GSTO1, keratin 15 and myosin light polypeptide 6. Western blotting confirmed that GSTM1 and NQO-1 were decreased, while GSTO1 and Sp1 were increased, after BBN treatment. In human bladder cancer cells, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased the GSTM1 mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that the downregulation of GSTM1 in the urothelia is a biomarker of bladder carcinogenesis and that this may be mediated by DNA CpG methylation. - Highlights: • GSTM1 and NQO-1 proteins decreased in the mouse bladder mucosa after BBN treatment. • BBN induced GSTO1 and Sp1 protein expression in the mouse bladder mucosa. • 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased GSTM1 mRNA and protein in human bladder cancer cell. • GSTM1

  6. Flexible double-headed cytosine-linked 2'-deoxycytidine nucleotides. Synthesis, polymerase incorporation to DNA and interaction with DNA methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Kielkowski, Pavel; Cahová, Hana; Pohl, Radek; Hocek, Michal

    2016-03-15

    New types of double-headed 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-O-triphosphates (dC(XC)TPs) bearing another cytosine or 5-fluorocytosine linked through a flexible propargyl, homopropargyl or pent-1-ynyl linker to position 5 were prepared by the aqueous Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions of 5-iodo-dCTP with the corresponding (fluoro)cytosine-alkynes. The modified dC(XC)TPs were good substrates for DNA polymerases and were used for enzymatic synthesis of cytosine-functionalized DNA by primer extension or PCR. The cytosine- or fluorocytosine-linked DNA probes did not significantly inhibit DNA methyltransferases and did not cross-link to these proteins. PMID:26899597

  7. Altered expression of topoisomerase IIα contributes to cross-resistant to etoposide K562/MX2 cell line by aberrant methylation

    PubMed Central

    Asano, T; Nakamura, K; Fujii, H; Horichi, N; Ohmori, T; Hasegawa, K; Isoe, T; Adachi, M; Otake, N; Fukunaga, Y

    2005-01-01

    KRN 8602 (MX2) is a novel morpholino anthracycline derivative having the chemical structure 3′-deamino-3′-morpholino-13-deoxo-10-hydroxycarminomycin hydrochloride. To investigate the mechanisms of resistance to MX2, we established an MX2-resistant phenotype (K562/MX2) of the human myelogeneous leukaemia cell line (K562/P), by continuously exposing a suspension culture to increasing concentrations of MX2. K562/MX2 cells were more resistant to MX2 than the parent cells, and also showed cross-resistance to etoposide and doxorubicin. Topoisomerase (Topo) IIα protein levels in K562/MX2 cells were lower of those in K562/P cells on immunoblot analysis and decreased expression of Topo IIα mRNA was seen in K562/MX2 cells. Topoisomerase II catalytic activity was also reduced in the nuclear extracts from K562/MX2 cells when compared with K562/P cells. Aberrant methylated CpG of Topo IIα gene was observed in K562/MX2 cells when compared with the parent line on methylation-specific restriction enzyme analysis. To overcome the drug resistance to MX2 and etoposide, we investigated treatment with 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5AZ), which is a demethylating agent, in K562/MX2 cells. 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment increased Topo IIα mRNA expression in K562/MX2 cells, but not in K562/P cells, and increased the cytotoxicity of MX2 and etoposide. Methylated CpG was decreased in K562/MX2 cells after 5AZ treatment. We concluded that the mechanism of drug resistance to MX2 and etoposide in K562/MX2 cells might be the combination of decreased expression of Topo IIα gene and increased methylation, and that 5AZ could prove to be a novel treatment for etoposide-resistant cell lines, such as K562/MX2. PMID:15798770

  8. Immunoproteasome deficiency is a feature of non-small cell lung cancer with a mesenchymal phenotype and is associated with a poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Satyendra C; Peters, Haley L; Taguchi, Ayumu; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Wang, Hong; Momin, Amin; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Celiktas, Muge; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Liu, Hui; Behrens, Carmen; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Levine, Herbert; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Hanash, Samir M; Ostrin, Edwin J

    2016-03-15

    The immunoproteasome plays a key role in generation of HLA peptides for T cell-mediated immunity. Integrative genomic and proteomic analysis of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines revealed significantly reduced expression of immunoproteasome components and their regulators associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Low expression of immunoproteasome subunits in early stage NSCLC patients was associated with recurrence and metastasis. Depleted repertoire of HLA class I-bound peptides in mesenchymal cells deficient in immunoproteasome components was restored with either IFNγ or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment. Our findings point to a mechanism of immune evasion of cells with a mesenchymal phenotype and suggest a strategy to overcome immune evasion through induction of the immunoproteasome to increase the cellular repertoire of HLA class I-bound peptides. PMID:26929325

  9. Gene Body Methylation can alter Gene Expression and is a Therapeutic Target in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojing; Han, Han; De Carvalho, Daniel D.; Lay, Fides D.; Jones, Peter A.; Liang, Gangning

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA methylation in promoters is well known to silence genes and is the presumed therapeutic target of methylation inhibitors. Gene body methylation is positively correlated with expression yet its function is unknown. We show that 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment not only reactivates genes but decreases the over-expression of genes, many of which are involved in metabolic processes regulated by c-MYC. Down-regulation is caused by DNA demethylation of the gene bodies and restoration of high levels of expression requires remethylation by DNMT3B. Gene body methylation may therefore be an unexpected therapeutic target for DNA methylation inhibitors, resulting in the normalization of gene over-expression induced during carcinogenesis. Our results provide direct evidence for a causal relationship between gene body methylation and transcription. PMID:25263941

  10. Endothelial glucocorticoid receptor promoter methylation according to dexamethasone sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mata-Greenwood, Eugenia; Jackson, P Naomi; Pearce, William J; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-10-01

    We have previously shown that in vitro sensitivity to dexamethasone (DEX) stimulation in human endothelial cells is positively regulated by the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1, GR). The present study determined the role of differential GR transcriptional regulation in glucocorticoid sensitivity. We studied 25 human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that had been previously characterized as DEX-sensitive (n=15), or resistant (n=10). Real-time PCR analysis of GR 5'UTR mRNA isoforms showed that all HUVECs expressed isoforms 1B, 1C, 1D, 1F, and 1H, and isoforms 1B and 1C were predominantly expressed. DEX-resistant cells expressed higher basal levels of the 5'UTR mRNA isoforms 1C and 1D, but lower levels of the 5'UTR mRNA isoform 1F than DEX-sensitive cells. DEX treatment significantly decreased GRα and GR-1C mRNA isoform expression in DEX-resistant cells only. Reporter luciferase assays indicated that differential GR mRNA isoform expression was not due to differential promoter usage between DEX-sensitive and DEX-resistant cells. Analysis of promoter methylation, however, showed that DEX-sensitive cells have higher methylation levels of promoter 1D and lower methylation levels of promoter 1F than DEX-resistant cells. Treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine abolished the differential 5'UTR mRNA isoform expression between DEX-sensitive and DEX-resistant cells. Finally, both GRα overexpression and 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment eliminated the differences between sensitivity groups to DEX-mediated downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), and upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (SERPINE1). In sum, human endothelial GR 5'UTR mRNA expression is regulated by promoter methylation with DEX-sensitive and DEX-resistant cells having different GR promoter methylation patterns. PMID:26242202

  11. Potential clinical relevance of Eph receptors and ephrin ligands expressed in prostate carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fox, Brian P; Tabone, Christopher J; Kandpal, Raj P

    2006-04-21

    The family of Eph and ephrin receptors is involved in a variety of functions in normal cells, and the alterations in their expression profiles have been observed in several cancers. We have compared the transcripts for Eph receptors and ephrin ligands in cell lines established from normal prostate epithelium and several carcinoma cell lines isolated from prostate tumors of varying degree of metastasis. These cell lines included NPTX, CTPX, LNCaP, DU145, PC-3, and PC-3ML. The cell lines displayed characteristic pattern of expression for specific Eph receptors and ephrin ligands, thus allowing identification of Eph receptor signatures for a particular cell line. The sensitivity of these transcripts to genome methylation is also investigated by treating the cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. The comparison of expression profiles revealed that normal prostate and primary prostate tumor cell lines differ in the expression of EphA3, EphB3, and ephrin A3 that are over-expressed in normal prostate. Furthermore, the transcript levels for EphA1 decrease progressively from normal prostate to primary prostate tumor cell line and metastatic tumor cells. A converse relationship was observed for ephrin B2. The treatment of cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine revealed the sensitivity of EphA3, EphA10, EphB3, and EphB6 to methylation status of genomic DNA. The utility of methylation specific PCR to identify prostate tumor cells and the importance of specific Eph receptors and ephrin ligands in initiation and progression of prostate tumor are discussed. PMID:16516143

  12. Genome-wide unmasking of epigenetically silenced genes in lung adenocarcinoma from smokers and never smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yingling, Christin M.; Liu, Yushi; Tellez, Carmen S.; Van Neste, Leander; Baylin, Stephen S.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer in never smokers (NS) shows striking demographic, clinicopathological and molecular distinctions from the disease in smokers (S). Studies on selected genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung cancer identified that the frequency and profile of some abnormalities significantly differ by smoking status. This study compared the transcriptome of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from S (n = 3) and NS (n = 3) each treated with vehicle (control), histone deacetylation inhibitor (trichostatin A) or DNA methylation inhibitor (5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine). Among 122 genes reexpressed following 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine but not trichostatin A treatment in two or more cell lines (including 32 genes in S-only and 12 NS-only), methylation was validated for 80% (98/122 genes). After methylation analysis of 20 normal tissue samples and 14 additional non–small cell lung cancer cell lines (total 20), 39 genes frequently methylated in normal (>20%, 4/20) and 21 genes rarely methylated in non–small cell lung cancer (≤10%, 2/20) were excluded. The prevalence for methylation of the remaining 38 genes in lung adenocarcinomas from S (n = 97) and NS (n = 75) ranged from 8–89% and significantly differs between S and NS for CPEB1, CST6, EMILIN2, LAYN and MARVELD3 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, methylation of EMILIN2, ROBO3 and IGDCC4 was more prevalent in advanced (Stage II–IV, n = 61) than early (Stage I, n = 110) tumors. Knockdown of MARVELD3, one of the novel epigenetically silenced genes, by small interfering RNA significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth of lung cancer cells (P < 0.001). Collectively, this study has identified multiple, novel, epigenetically silenced genes in lung cancer and provides invaluable resources for the development of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:24398667

  13. Frequent methylation of eyes absent 4 gene in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hongzhi; Osborn, Neal K; Harrington, Jonathan J; Klatt, Kristie K; Molina, Julian R; Burgart, Lawrence J; Ahlquist, David A

    2005-04-01

    Most esophageal adenocarcinomas arise within Barrett's esophagus but the cause of this increasingly prevalent condition remains unknown. Early detection improves survival and discriminant screening markers for Barrett's esophagus and cancer are needed. This study was designed to explore the natural history of eyes absent 4 (EYA4) gene methylation in the neoplastic progression of Barrett's esophagus and to evaluate methylated EYA4 as a candidate marker. Aberrant promoter methylation of EYA4 was studied by methylation-specific PCR using bisulfite-treated DNA from esophageal adenocarcinomas, Barrett's esophagus, and normal epithelia, and then confirmed by sequencing. Eight cancer cell lines were treated with the demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, and EYA4 mRNA expression with and without treatment was quantified by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. EYA4 hypermethylation was detected in 83% (33 of 40) of esophageal adenocarcinomas and 77% (27 of 35) of Barrett's tissues, but only in 3% (2 of 58) of normal esophageal and gastric mucosa samples (P < 0.001). The unmethylated cancer cell lines had much higher EYA4 mRNA expression than the methylated cancer cell lines. Demethylation caused by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine increased the mRNA expression level by a median of 3.2-fold in methylated cells, but its effect on unmethylated cells was negligible. Results indicate that aberrant promoter methylation of EYA4 is very common during tumorigenesis in Barrett's esophagus, occurs in early metaplasia, seems to be an important mechanism of down-regulating EYA4 expression, and represents an intriguing candidate marker for Barrett's metaplasia and esophageal cancer. PMID:15824152

  14. Reprogramming of Pancreatic Exocrine Cells AR42J Into Insulin-producing Cells Using mRNAs for Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Koblas, Tomas; Leontovyc, Ivan; Loukotova, Sarka; Kosinova, Lucie; Saudek, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    Direct reprogramming of pancreatic nonendocrine cells into insulin-producing β-cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. However, its clinical application is limited by the potential for insertional mutagenesis associated with the viral vectors currently used for cell reprogramming. With the aim of developing a nonintegrative reprogramming strategy for derivation of insulin-producing cells, here, we evaluated a new approach utilizing synthetic messenger RNAs encoding reprogramming transcription factors. Administration of synthetic mRNAs encoding three key transcription regulators of β-cell differentiation-Pdx1, Neurogenin3, and MafA-efficiently reprogrammed the pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells. In addition to the insulin genes expression, the synthetic mRNAs also induced the expressions of genes important for proper pancreatic β-cell function, including Sur1, Kir6.2, Pcsk1, and Pcsk2. Pretreating cells with the chromatin-modifying agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine further enhanced reprogramming efficiency, increasing the proportion of insulin-producing cells from 3.5 ± 0.9 to 14.3 ± 1.9% (n = 4). Moreover, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine pretreatment enabled the reprogrammed cells to respond to glucose challenge with increased insulin secretion. In conclusion, our results support that the reprogramming of pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells, induced by synthetic mRNAs encoding pancreatic transcription factors, represents a promising approach for cell-based diabetes therapy. PMID:27187823

  15. Clinical significance of promoter region hypermethylation of microRNA-148a in gastrointestinal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingxu; Song, Yongxi; Wang, Zhenning; Wang, Guoli; Gao, Peng; Chen, Xiaowan; Gao, Zhaohua; Xu, Huimian

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs are associated with tumor genesis and progression in various carcinomas. MicroRNA-148a (miR-148a) was reported to have low expression in gastrointestinal cancers, and might be regulated by promoter region DNA methylation. Methods Bisulfite-modified sequencing was used to determine the promoter region DNA methylation status of human gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. Expression levels of miR-148a in cell lines treated with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Total DNA was extracted from the tissues of 64 patients with gastric cancer and 51 patients with colorectal cancer. Methylation status was determined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 17.0 software. Results The promoter regions of genes in human gastrointestinal cancer cell lines were all hypermethylated, except for HT-29, and the expression of miR-148a tended to be higher than in controls after treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. The methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction results showed that 56.25% of gastric cancer tissues and 19.61% of colorectal cancer tissues were hypermethylated. A strong correlation was found between the expression of miR-148a and the methylation status of promoter regions (P<0.001, chi-square test and Pearson’s correlation). Furthermore, promoter region CpG site hypermethylation of miR-148a was correlated with increased tumor size (P=0.01) in gastric cancer after analyzing the correlation between methylation status and clinicopathologic characteristics. Conclusion The promoter region CpG sites were hypermethylated in gastrointestinal cancers. Promoter region hypermethylation status was associated with the expression of miR-148a and tumor invasiveness in gastric cancer, and may prove to be a new biomarker and method for treating gastric cancer. PMID:24920927

  16. The nucleotidohydrolases DCTPP1 and dUTPase are involved in the cellular response to decitabine.

    PubMed

    Requena, Cristina E; Pérez-Moreno, Guiomar; Horváth, András; Vértessy, Beáta G; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis M; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; Vidal, Antonio E

    2016-09-01

    Decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, aza-dCyd) is an anti-cancer drug used clinically for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukaemia that can act as a DNA-demethylating or genotoxic agent in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, DCTPP1 (dCTP pyrophosphatase 1) and dUTPase are two 'house-cleaning' nucleotidohydrolases involved in the elimination of non-canonical nucleotides. In the present study, we show that exposure of HeLa cells to decitabine up-regulates the expression of several pyrimidine metabolic enzymes including DCTPP1, dUTPase, dCMP deaminase and thymidylate synthase, thus suggesting their contribution to the cellular response to this anti-cancer nucleoside. We present several lines of evidence supporting that, in addition to the formation of aza-dCTP (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-5'-triphosphate), an alternative cytotoxic mechanism for decitabine may involve the formation of aza-dUMP, a potential thymidylate synthase inhibitor. Indeed, dUTPase or DCTPP1 down-regulation enhanced the cytotoxic effect of decitabine producing an accumulation of nucleoside triphosphates containing uracil as well as uracil misincorporation and double-strand breaks in genomic DNA. Moreover, DCTPP1 hydrolyses the triphosphate form of decitabine with similar kinetic efficiency to its natural substrate dCTP and prevents decitabine-induced global DNA demethylation. The data suggest that the nucleotidohydrolases DCTPP1 and dUTPase are factors involved in the mode of action of decitabine with potential value as enzymatic targets to improve decitabine-based chemotherapy. PMID:27325794

  17. A phase I, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic evaluation of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-fuoro-2′-deoxycytidine, administered with tetrahydrouridine

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert J.; Kummar, Shivaani; Beumer, Jan H.; Blanchard, M. Suzette; Ruel, Christopher; El-Khoueiry, Anthony B.; Carroll, Mary I.; Hou, Jessie M.; Li, Chun; Lenz, Heinz J.; Eiseman, Julie L.; Doroshow, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Inhibitors of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases (DNMT) are active antineoplastic agents. We conducted the first-in-human phase I trial of 5-fluoro-2′-deoxycytidine (FdCyd), a DNMT inhibitor stable in aqueous solution, in patients with advanced solid tumors. Objectives were to establish the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of FdCyd + tetrahydrouridine (THU). Methods FdCyd + THU were administered by 3 h IV infusion on days 1–5 every 3 weeks, or days 1–5 and 8–12 every 4 weeks. FdCyd was administered IV with a fixed 350 mg/m2/day dose of THU to inhibit deamination of FdCyd. Pharmacokinetics of FdCyd, downstream metabolites and THU were assessed by LC–MS/MS. RBC γ-globin expression was evaluated as a pharmacodynamics biomarker. Results Patients were enrolled on the 3-week schedule at doses up to 80 mg/m2/day without dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) prior to transitioning to the 4-week schedule, which resulted in an MTD of 134 mg/m2/day; one of six patients had a first-cycle DLT (grade 3 colitis). FdCyd ≥40 mg/m2/day produced peak plasma concentrations >1 μM. Although there was inter-patient variability, γ-globin mRNA increased during the first two treatment cycles. One refractory breast cancer patient experienced a partial response (PR) of >90 % decrease in tumor size, lasting over a year. Conclusions The MTD was established at 134 mg/m2 FdCyd + 350 mg/m2 THU days 1–5 and 8–12 every 4 weeks. Based on toxicities observed over multiple cycles, good plasma exposures, and the sustained PR observed at 67 mg/m2/day, the phase II dose for our ongoing multi-histology trial is 100 mg/m2/day FdCyd with 350 mg/m2/day THU. PMID:25567350

  18. Synthesis and restriction enzyme analysis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing the anti-cancer drug 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, F C; Richardson, K K; Kroin, J S; Hertel, L W

    1992-01-01

    The anti-cancer drug 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (dFdC) is internally incorporated into DNA in vitro. To determine the effects of this incorporation on DNA structure and function, the beta-cyanoethyl phosphoramidite of dFdC was synthesized and oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing dFdC were made using automated solid phase DNA synthesis techniques. Extension of the coupling time was required to achieve high coupling efficiency, suggesting a significant reduction in the rate of phosphotriester formation. Insertion of dFdC 5' into the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes HpaII and KpnI reduced the rate of cutting by 4% and 14% over 60 minutes. This reduction is similar to the effects seen with arabinofuranosylcytidine (ara-C) but small compared to the reductions caused by base analogues and phosphothioates. Insertion of dFdC into the BamHI recognition sequence, but not 5' to the cut site, did not alter the rate of cutting/recognition. The presence of a single dFdC reduced the Tm's of oligomers by 2-4 degrees C, depending on sequence and location. These results demonstrate that, once incorporated into DNA, dFdC does not greatly alter recognition between DNA and restriction enzymes; however, it does significantly alter duplex stability. Images PMID:1579470

  19. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde: a strange case of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxycytidine.

    PubMed

    Ligasová, Anna; Liboska, Radek; Friedecký, David; Mičová, Kateřina; Adam, Tomáš; Oždian, Tomáš; Rosenberg, Ivan; Koberna, Karel

    2016-01-01

    5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxycytidine (EdC) are mainly used as markers of cellular replicational activity. Although EdU is employed as a replicational marker more frequently than EdC, its cytotoxicity is commonly much higher than the toxicity of EdC. To reveal the reason of the lower cytotoxicity of EdC, we performed a DNA analysis of five EdC-treated human cell lines. Surprisingly, not a single one of the tested cell lines contained a detectable amount of EdC in their DNA. Instead, the DNA of all the cell lines contained EdU. The content of incorporated EdU differed in particular cells and EdC-related cytotoxicity was directly proportional to the content of EdU. The results of experiments with the targeted inhibition of the cytidine deaminase (CDD) and dCMP deaminase activities indicated that the dominant role in the conversion pathway of EdC to EdUTP is played by CDD in HeLa cells. Our results also showed that the deamination itself was not able to effectively prevent the conversion of EdC to EdCTP, the conversion of EdC to EdCTP occurs with much lesser effectivity than the conversion of EdU to EdUTP and the EdCTP is not effectively recognized by the replication complex as a substrate for the synthesis of nuclear DNA. PMID:26740587

  20. Targeted Delivery of Deoxycytidine Kinase to Her2-Positive Cells Enhances the Efficacy of the Nucleoside Analog Fludarabine

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Brian K.; Lavie, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxic drugs, such as nucleoside analogs and toxins, commonly suffer from off-target effects. One approach to mitigate this problem is to deliver the cytotoxic drug selectively to the intended site. While for toxins this can be achieved by conjugating the cell-killing moiety to a targeting moiety, it is not an option for nucleoside analogs, which rely on intracellular enzymes to convert them to their active triphosphorylated form. To overcome this limitation, and achieve site-targeted activation of nucleoside analogs, we fused the coding region of a prodrug-activating enzyme, deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), to affinity reagents that bind to the Her2 cell surface protein. We evaluated dCK fusions to an anti-Her2 affibody and Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin) for their ability to kill cancer cells by promoting the activation of the nucleoside analog fludarabine. Cell staining and flow cytometry experiments with three Her2 positive cancer cell lines (BT-474-JB, JIMT-1 and SK-OV-3) indicate dCK fusions binding and cellular internalization. In contrast, these reagents bind only weakly to the Her2 negative cell line, MCF-7. Cell proliferation assays indicate that SK-OV-3 and BT-474-JB cell lines exhibit significantly reduced proliferation rates when treated with targeting-module fused dCK and fludarabine, compared to fludarabine alone. These findings demonstrate that we have succeeded in delivering active dCK into the Her2-positive cells, thereby increasing the activation of fludarabine, which ultimately reduces the dose of nucleoside analog needed for cell killing. This strategy may help establish the therapeutic index required to differentiate between healthy tissues and cancer cells. PMID:27280468

  1. N3 and O2 protonated tautomeric conformations of 2'-deoxycytidine and cytidine coexist in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Wu, R R; Yang, Bo; Frieler, C E; Berden, G; Oomens, J; Rodgers, M T

    2015-05-01

    Infrared multiple photon dissociation action spectra of the protonated forms of the cytidyl nucleosides, 2'-deoxycytidine, [dCyd+H](+), and cytidine, [Cyd+H](+), are acquired over the IR fingerprint and hydrogen-stretching regions. Electronic structure calculations are performed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level to determine the stable low-energy tautomeric conformations of these species generated upon electrospray ionization (ESI) and to generate the linear IR absorption spectra of these protonated nucleosides. Comparison between the experimental and theoretical spectra allows the tautomeric conformations of [dCyd+H](+) and [Cyd+H](+) populated by ESI to be determined. B3LYP predicts N3 as the preferred protonation site for both [dCyd+H](+) and [Cyd+H](+), whereas MP2 suggests that protonation at O2 is more favorable. The 2'-hydroxyl substituent does not significantly alter the structures of the B3LYP N3 and MP2 O2 protonated ground tautomeric conformations of [dCyd+H](+) vs [Cyd+H](+). [dCyd+H](+) and [Cyd+H](+) exhibit very similar spectral signatures in both regions. Nonetheless, the 2'-hydroxyl does affect the relative intensities of the IRMPD bands of [dCyd+H](+) vs [Cyd+H](+). The spectral features observed in the hydrogen-stretching region complement those of the fingerprint region and allow the N3 and O2 protonated tautomeric conformations to be readily distinguished. Comparison between the measured and computed spectra indicates that both N3 and O2 protonated tautomeric conformations coexist in the experiments, and the populations are dominated by the most stable N3 and O2 protonated tautomeric conformations. Least-squares fitting of the IRMPD spectra to the IR spectra for these most stable conformers suggests relative populations of ∼55% N3 vs 45% O2 protonated conformers of [dCyd+H](+), whereas ∼47% N3 vs 53% O2 protonated conformers of [Cyd+H](+). This change in the preferred site of protonation indicates that the 2'-hydroxyl substituent plays an

  2. Detection of 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine and 3,N4-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine occurring endogenously in DNA.

    PubMed

    Watson, W P; Aston, J P; Barlow, T; Crane, A E; Potter, D; Brown, T

    1999-01-01

    1,N6-Etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (epsilon dA) and 3,N4-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (epsilon dC) are DNA adducts formed by a number of genotoxic chemicals, including vinyl chloride. They are also formed endogenously in tissue DNA, probably from a reactive metabolite of lipid peroxidation. Both the qualitative and quantitative detection of endogenous adducts is important in order to place adduct formation by chemicals such as vinyl chloride in the context of this natural background level. Methods with sufficient sensitivity are therefore being developed to measure the natural background of epsilon dA and epsilon dC adducts. We have developed a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-32P-postlabelling method to measure epsilon dA and epsilon dC at alkylation frequencies of 1 adduct in 10(7)-10(8) nucleotides in 10-microgram samples of DNA. In HPLC-32P-postlabelling analysis of liver DNA from control Wistar rats, epsilon dA and epsilon dC were determined at levels of 1 adduct in 8.1 x 10(7) and 1 adduct in 1.8 x 10(7) nucleotides, respectively. The levels of epsilon dA and epsilon dC measured in liver DNA of animals exposed orally to five daily doses of 50 mg/kg body weight vinyl chloride were found by this method to be 1 adduct in 2.9 x 10(7) and 1 adduct in 1.4 x 10(7) nucleotides, respectively. In contrast, in a direct labelling study, radiolabelled epsilon dA and epsilon dC were not detected in liver DNA of rats exposed for 6 h by nose-only inhalation to [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride at up to 45 ppm v/v. Immunochemical procedures are also being developed for recognizing etheno adducts. Thus, a monoclonal antibody raised to protein conjugates of epsilon dC showed high selectivity in the recognition of this DNA adduct. When the antibody was immobilized on a solid support and used in an immunoenrichment procedure to purify epsilon dC from a large excess of normal nucleotides, one epsilon dC adduct from about 10(8) normal nucleotides could be resolved. Coupling the

  3. DNA Methylation Modulates Nociceptive Sensitization after Incision

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Sahbaie, Peyman; Liang, DeYong; Li, Wenwu; Shi, Xiaoyou; Kingery, Paige; Clark, J. David

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling DNA accessibility and gene expression. Blockade of DNA methylation can significantly affect pain behaviors implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of DNA methylation with regard to postoperative pain has not yet been explored. In this study we sought to investigate the role of DNA methylation in modulating incisional pain and identify possible targets under DNA methylation and contributing to incisional pain. DNA methyltranferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine significantly reduced incision-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal sensitivity. Aza-2′-deoxycytidine also reduced hindpaw swelling after incision, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Global DNA methylation and DNMT3b expression were increased in skin after incision, but none of DNMT1, DNMT3a or DNMT3b was altered in spinal cord or DRG. The expression of proopiomelanocortin Pomc encoding β-endorphin and Oprm1 encoding the mu-opioid receptor were upregulated peripherally after incision; moreover, Oprm1 expression was further increased under DNMT inhibitor treatment. Finally, local peripheral injection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone significantly exacerbated incision-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These results suggest that DNA methylation is functionally relevant to incisional nociceptive sensitization, and that mu-opioid receptor signaling might be one methylation regulated pathway controlling sensitization after incision. PMID:26535894

  4. DNA Methylation Modulates Nociceptive Sensitization after Incision.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Sahbaie, Peyman; Liang, DeYong; Li, Wenwu; Shi, Xiaoyou; Kingery, Paige; Clark, J David

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling DNA accessibility and gene expression. Blockade of DNA methylation can significantly affect pain behaviors implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of DNA methylation with regard to postoperative pain has not yet been explored. In this study we sought to investigate the role of DNA methylation in modulating incisional pain and identify possible targets under DNA methylation and contributing to incisional pain. DNA methyltranferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine significantly reduced incision-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal sensitivity. Aza-2'-deoxycytidine also reduced hindpaw swelling after incision, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Global DNA methylation and DNMT3b expression were increased in skin after incision, but none of DNMT1, DNMT3a or DNMT3b was altered in spinal cord or DRG. The expression of proopiomelanocortin Pomc encoding β-endorphin and Oprm1 encoding the mu-opioid receptor were upregulated peripherally after incision; moreover, Oprm1 expression was further increased under DNMT inhibitor treatment. Finally, local peripheral injection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone significantly exacerbated incision-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These results suggest that DNA methylation is functionally relevant to incisional nociceptive sensitization, and that mu-opioid receptor signaling might be one methylation regulated pathway controlling sensitization after incision. PMID:26535894

  5. Downregulation of deoxycytidine kinase in cytarabine-resistant mantle cell lymphoma cells confers cross-resistance to nucleoside analogs gemcitabine, fludarabine and cladribine, but not to other classes of anti-lymphoma agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with poor prognosis. Implementation of high-dose cytarabine (araC) into induction therapy became standard-of-care for all newly diagnosed younger MCL patients. However, many patients relapse even after araC-based regimen. Molecular mechanisms responsible for araC resistance in MCL are unknown and optimal treatment strategy for relapsed/refractory MCL patients remains elusive. Methods Five araC-resistant (R) clones were derived by long-term culture of five MCL cell lines (CTRL) with increasing doses of araC up to 50 microM. Illumina BeadChip and 2-DE proteomic analysis were used to identify gene and protein expression changes associated with araC resistance in MCL. In vitro cytotoxicity assays and experimental therapy of MCL xenografts in immunodeficient mice were used to analyze their relative responsiveness to a set of clinically used anti-MCL drugs. Primary MCL samples were obtained from patients at diagnosis and after failure of araC-based therapies. Results Marked downregulation of deoxycytidine-kinase (DCK) mRNA and protein expression was identified as the single most important molecular event associated with araC-resistance in all tested MCL cell lines and in 50% primary MCL samples. All R clones were highly (20-1000x) cross-resistant to all tested nucleoside analogs including gemcitabine, fludarabine and cladribine. In vitro sensitivity of R clones to other classes of clinically used anti-MCL agents including genotoxic drugs (cisplatin, doxorubicin, bendamustine) and targeted agents (bortezomib, temsirolimus, rituximab) remained unaffected, or was even increased (ibrutinib). Experimental therapy of immunodeficient mice confirmed the anticipated loss of anti-tumor activity (as determined by overall survival) of the nucleoside analogs gemcitabine and fludarabine in mice transplanted with R clone compared to mice transplanted with CTRL cells, while the anti

  6. Relationship Between Chromatin Structure and Sensitivity to Molecularly Targeted Auger Electron Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, Samantha Y.A.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The open structure of euchromatin renders it susceptible to DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR) compared with compact heterochromatin. The effect of chromatin configuration on the efficacy of Auger electron radiotherapy was investigated. Methods and Materials: Chromatin structure was altered in MDA-MB-468 and 231-H2N human breast cancer cells by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, or hypertonic treatment. The extent and duration of chromatin structural changes were evaluated using the micrococcal nuclease assay. DNA damage ({gamma}H2AX assay) and clonogenic survival were evaluated after exposure to {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF, an Auger electron-emitting radiopharmaceutical, or IR. The intracellular distribution of {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF after chromatin modification was investigated in cell fractionation experiments. Results: Chromatin remained condensed for up to 20 minutes after NaCl and in a relaxed state 24 hours after SAHA treatment. The number of {gamma}H2AX foci per cell was greater in MDA-MB-468 and 231-H2N cells after IR (0.5 Gy) plus SAHA (1 {mu}M) compared with IR alone (16 {+-} 0.6 and 14 {+-} 0.3 vs. 12 {+-} 0.4 and 11 {+-} 0.2, respectively). More {gamma}H2AX foci were observed in MDA-MB-468 and 231-H2N cells exposed to {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF (6 MBq/{mu}g) plus SAHA vs. {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF alone (11 {+-} 0.3 and 12 {+-} 0.7 vs. 9 {+-} 0.4 and 7 {+-} 0.3, respectively). 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine enhanced the DNA damage caused by IR and {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF. Clonogenic survival was reduced in MDA-MB-468 and 231-H2N cells after IR (6 Gy) plus SAHA (1 {mu}M) vs. IR alone (0.6% {+-} 0.01 and 0.3% {+-} 0.2 vs. 5.8% {+-} 0.2 and 2% {+-} 0.1, respectively) and after {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF plus SAHA compared to {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF alone (21% {+-} 0.4% and 19% {+-} 4.6 vs. 33% {+-} 2.3 and 32% {+-} 3.7). SAHA did not affect {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF nuclear localization. Hypertonic treatment resulted in fewer {gamma}H2AX foci per cell

  7. Post-Translational Phosphorylation of Serine 74 of Human Deoxycytidine Kinase Favors the Enzyme Adopting the Open Conformation Making It Competent for Nucleoside Binding and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Saugata; Szewczak, Andrzej; Ort, Stephan; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2012-03-26

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) uses either ATP or UTP as a phosphoryl donor to catalyze the phosphorylation of nucleoside acceptors. The kinetic properties of human dCK are modulated in vivo by phosphorylation of serine 74. This residue is a part of the insert region and is distant from the active site. Replacing the serine with a glutamic acid (S74E variant) can mimic phosphorylation of Ser74. To understand how phosphorylation affects the catalytic properties of dCK, we examined the S74E variant of dCK both structurally and kinetically. We observe that the presence of a glutamic acid at position 74 favors the adoption by the enzyme of the open conformation. Glu74 stabilizes the open conformation by directly interacting with the indole side chain of Trp58, a residue that is in the proximity of the base of the nucleoside substrate. The open dCK conformation is competent for the binding of nucleoside but not for phosphoryl transfer. In contrast, the closed conformation is competent for phosphoryl transfer but not for product release. Thus, dCK must make the transition between the open and closed states during the catalytic cycle. We propose a reaction scheme for dCK that incorporates the transition between the open and closed states, and this serves to rationalize the observed kinetic differences between wild-type dCK and the S74E variant.

  8. Low energy electron induced cytosine base release in 2′-deoxycytidine-3′-monophosphate via glycosidic bond cleavage: A time-dependent wavepacket study

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskaran, Renjith; Sarma, Manabendra

    2014-09-14

    Low energy electron (LEE) induced cytosine base release in a selected pyrimidine nucleotide, viz., 2′-deoxycytidine-3′-monophosphate is investigated using ab initio electronic structure methods and time dependent quantum mechanical calculations. It has been noted that the cytosine base scission is comparatively difficult process than the 3′ C–O bond cleavage from the lowest π{sup *} shape resonance in energy region <1 eV. This is mainly due to the high activation energy barrier associated with the electron transfer from the π{sup *} orbital of the base to the σ{sup *} orbital of the glycosidic N–C bond. In addition, the metastable state formed after impinging LEE (0–1 eV) has very short lifetime (10 fs) which may decay in either of the two competing auto-detachment or dissociation process simultaneously. On the other hand, the selected N–C mode may cleave to form the cytosine base anion at higher energy regions (>2 eV) via tunneling of the glycosidic bond. Resonance states generated within this energy regime will exist for a duration of ∼35–55 fs. Comparison of salient features of the two dissociation events, i.e., 3′ C–O single strand break and glycosidic N–C bond cleavage in 3′-dCMPH molecule are also provided.

  9. Low energy electron induced cytosine base release in 2'-deoxycytidine-3'-monophosphate via glycosidic bond cleavage: A time-dependent wavepacket study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, Renjith; Sarma, Manabendra

    2014-09-01

    Low energy electron (LEE) induced cytosine base release in a selected pyrimidine nucleotide, viz., 2'-deoxycytidine-3'-monophosphate is investigated using ab initio electronic structure methods and time dependent quantum mechanical calculations. It has been noted that the cytosine base scission is comparatively difficult process than the 3' C-O bond cleavage from the lowest π* shape resonance in energy region <1 eV. This is mainly due to the high activation energy barrier associated with the electron transfer from the π* orbital of the base to the σ* orbital of the glycosidic N-C bond. In addition, the metastable state formed after impinging LEE (0-1 eV) has very short lifetime (10 fs) which may decay in either of the two competing auto-detachment or dissociation process simultaneously. On the other hand, the selected N-C mode may cleave to form the cytosine base anion at higher energy regions (>2 eV) via tunneling of the glycosidic bond. Resonance states generated within this energy regime will exist for a duration of ˜35-55 fs. Comparison of salient features of the two dissociation events, i.e., 3' C-O single strand break and glycosidic N-C bond cleavage in 3'-dCMPH molecule are also provided.

  10. Global identification of genes regulated by estrogen signaling and demethylation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Putnik, Milica; Zhao, Chunyan; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen signaling and demethylation can both control gene expression in breast cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cross-talk between these mechanisms is investigated in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 137 genes are influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol and demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A set of genes is identified as targets of both estrogen signaling and demethylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is no direct molecular interplay of mediators of estrogen and epigenetic signaling. -- Abstract: Estrogen signaling and epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are involved in regulation of gene expression in breast cancers. Here we investigated a potential regulatory cross-talk between these two pathways by identifying their common target genes and exploring underlying molecular mechanisms in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that the expression of approximately 140 genes was influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and a demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine (DAC). Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggests that these genes are involved in intracellular signaling cascades, regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Based on previously reported association with breast cancer, estrogen signaling and/or DNA methylation, CpG island prediction and GO analysis, we selected six genes (BTG3, FHL2, PMAIP1, BTG2, CDKN1A and TGFB2) for further analysis. Tamoxifen reverses the effect of E2 on the expression of all selected genes, suggesting that they are direct targets of estrogen receptor. Furthermore, DAC treatment reactivates the expression of all selected genes in a dose-dependent manner. Promoter CpG island methylation status analysis revealed that only the promoters of BTG3 and FHL2 genes are methylated, with DAC inducing demethylation, suggesting DNA methylation directs repression of

  11. ADAM33 gene silencing by promoter hypermethylation as a molecular marker in breast invasive lobular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background ADAM33 protein is a member of the family of transmembrane glycoproteins composed of multidomains. ADAM family members have different activities, such as proteolysis and adhesion, making them good candidates to mediate the extracellular matrix remodelling and changes in cellular adhesion that characterise certain pathologies and cancer development. It was reported that one family member, ADAM23, is down-regulated by promoter hypermethylation. This seems to correlate with tumour progression and metastasis in breast cancer. In this study, we explored the involvement of ADAM33, another ADAM family member, in breast cancer. Methods First, we analysed ADAM33 expression in breast tumour cell lines by RT-PCR and western blotting. We also used 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5azadCR) treatment and DNA bisulphite sequencing to study the promoter methylation of ADAM33 in breast tumour cell lines. We evaluated ADAM33 methylation in primary tumour samples by methylation specific PCR (MSP). Finally, ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation was correlated with clinicopathological data using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results The expression analysis of ADAM33 in breast tumour cell lines by RT-PCR revealed gene silencing in 65% of tumour cell lines. The corresponding lack of ADAM33 protein was confirmed by western blotting. We also used 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dCR) demethylation and bisulphite sequencing methodologies to confirm that gene silencing is due to ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation. Using MSP, we detected ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation in 40% of primary breast tumour samples. The correlation between methylation pattern and patient's clinicopathological data was not significantly associated with histological grade; tumour stage (TNM); tumour size; ER, PR or ERBB2 status; lymph node status; metastasis or recurrence. Methylation frequency in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) was 76.2% compared with 25.5% in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and this

  12. Tautomerism provides a molecular explanation for the mutagenic properties of the anti-HIV nucleoside 5-aza-5,6-dihydro-2′-deoxycytidine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Deyu; Fedeles, Bogdan I.; Singh, Vipender; Peng, Chunte Sam; Silvestre, Katherine J.; Simi, Allison K.; Simpson, Jeffrey H.; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Essigmann, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Viral lethal mutagenesis is a strategy whereby the innate immune system or mutagenic pool nucleotides increase the error rate of viral replication above the error catastrophe limit. Lethal mutagenesis has been proposed as a mechanism for several antiviral compounds, including the drug candidate 5-aza-5,6-dihydro-2′-deoxycytidine (KP1212), which causes A-to-G and G-to-A mutations in the HIV genome, both in tissue culture and in HIV positive patients undergoing KP1212 monotherapy. This work explored the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the mutagenicity of KP1212, and specifically whether tautomerism, a previously proposed hypothesis, could explain the biological consequences of this nucleoside analog. Establishing tautomerism of nucleic acid bases under physiological conditions has been challenging because of the lack of sensitive methods. This study investigated tautomerism using an array of spectroscopic, theoretical, and chemical biology approaches. Variable temperature NMR and 2D infrared spectroscopic methods demonstrated that KP1212 existed as a broad ensemble of interconverting tautomers, among which enolic forms dominated. The mutagenic properties of KP1212 were determined empirically by in vitro and in vivo replication of a single-stranded vector containing a single KP1212. It was found that KP1212 paired with both A (10%) and G (90%), which is in accord with clinical observations. Moreover, this mutation frequency is sufficient for pushing a viral population over its error catastrophe limit, as observed before in cell culture studies. Finally, a model is proposed that correlates the mutagenicity of KP1212 with its tautomeric distribution in solution. PMID:25071207

  13. Tautomerism provides a molecular explanation for the mutagenic properties of the anti-HIV nucleoside 5-aza-5,6-dihydro-2'-deoxycytidine.

    PubMed

    Li, Deyu; Fedeles, Bogdan I; Singh, Vipender; Peng, Chunte Sam; Silvestre, Katherine J; Simi, Allison K; Simpson, Jeffrey H; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Essigmann, John M

    2014-08-12

    Viral lethal mutagenesis is a strategy whereby the innate immune system or mutagenic pool nucleotides increase the error rate of viral replication above the error catastrophe limit. Lethal mutagenesis has been proposed as a mechanism for several antiviral compounds, including the drug candidate 5-aza-5,6-dihydro-2'-deoxycytidine (KP1212), which causes A-to-G and G-to-A mutations in the HIV genome, both in tissue culture and in HIV positive patients undergoing KP1212 monotherapy. This work explored the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the mutagenicity of KP1212, and specifically whether tautomerism, a previously proposed hypothesis, could explain the biological consequences of this nucleoside analog. Establishing tautomerism of nucleic acid bases under physiological conditions has been challenging because of the lack of sensitive methods. This study investigated tautomerism using an array of spectroscopic, theoretical, and chemical biology approaches. Variable temperature NMR and 2D infrared spectroscopic methods demonstrated that KP1212 existed as a broad ensemble of interconverting tautomers, among which enolic forms dominated. The mutagenic properties of KP1212 were determined empirically by in vitro and in vivo replication of a single-stranded vector containing a single KP1212. It was found that KP1212 paired with both A (10%) and G (90%), which is in accord with clinical observations. Moreover, this mutation frequency is sufficient for pushing a viral population over its error catastrophe limit, as observed before in cell culture studies. Finally, a model is proposed that correlates the mutagenicity of KP1212 with its tautomeric distribution in solution. PMID:25071207

  14. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde: a strange case of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxycytidine

    PubMed Central

    Ligasová, Anna; Liboska, Radek; Friedecký, David; Mičová, Kateřina; Adam, Tomáš; Oždian, Tomáš; Rosenberg, Ivan; Koberna, Karel

    2016-01-01

    5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxycytidine (EdC) are mainly used as markers of cellular replicational activity. Although EdU is employed as a replicational marker more frequently than EdC, its cytotoxicity is commonly much higher than the toxicity of EdC. To reveal the reason of the lower cytotoxicity of EdC, we performed a DNA analysis of five EdC-treated human cell lines. Surprisingly, not a single one of the tested cell lines contained a detectable amount of EdC in their DNA. Instead, the DNA of all the cell lines contained EdU. The content of incorporated EdU differed in particular cells and EdC-related cytotoxicity was directly proportional to the content of EdU. The results of experiments with the targeted inhibition of the cytidine deaminase (CDD) and dCMP deaminase activities indicated that the dominant role in the conversion pathway of EdC to EdUTP is played by CDD in HeLa cells. Our results also showed that the deamination itself was not able to effectively prevent the conversion of EdC to EdCTP, the conversion of EdC to EdCTP occurs with much lesser effectivity than the conversion of EdU to EdUTP and the EdCTP is not effectively recognized by the replication complex as a substrate for the synthesis of nuclear DNA. PMID:26740587

  15. Inactivation of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleotide reductase by 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate: adenosylcobalamin destruction and formation of a nucleotide-based radical.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Gregory J S; Gerfen, Gary J; Stubbe, Joanne

    2010-02-23

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR, 76 kDa) from Lactobacillus leichmannii is a class II RNR that requires adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor. It catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleotides and is 100% inactivated by 1 equiv of 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate (F(2)CTP) in <2 min. Sephadex G-50 chromatography of the inactivation reaction mixture for 2 min revealed that 0.47 equiv of a sugar moiety is covalently bound to RNR and 0.25 equiv of a cobalt(III) corrin is tightly associated, likely through a covalent interaction with C(419) (Co-S) in the active site of RNR [Lohman, G. J. S., and Stubbe, J. (2010) Biochemistry 49, DOI: 10.1021/bi902132u ]. After 1 h, a similar experiment revealed 0.45 equiv of the Co-S adduct associated with the protein. Thus, at least two pathways are associated with RNR inactivation: one associated with alkylation by the sugar of F(2)CTP and the second with AdoCbl destruction. To determine the fate of [1'-(3)H]F(2)CTP in the latter pathway, the reaction mixture at 2 min was reduced with NaBH(4) (NaB(2)H(4)) and the protein separated from the small molecules using a centrifugation device. The small molecules were dephosphorylated and analyzed by HPLC to reveal 0.25 equiv of a stereoisomer of cytidine, characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, indicating the trapped nucleotide had lost both of its fluorides and gained an oxygen. High-field ENDOR studies with [1'-(2)H]F(2)CTP from the reaction quenched at 30 s revealed a radical that is nucleotide-based. The relationship between this radical and the trapped cytidine analogue provides insight into the nonalkylative pathway for RNR inactivation relative to the alkylative pathway. PMID:20088568

  16. Thiarabine, 1-(4-Thio-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine. A Deoxycytidine Analog With Excellent Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Parker, W B; Waud, W R; Secrist, J A

    2015-01-01

    Thiarabine has demonstrated exceptional antitumor activity against numerous human tumor xenografts in mice, being superior to gemcitabine, clofarabine, or cytarabine. Unlike cytarabine, thiarabine demonstrated excellent activity against solid tumor xenografts, suggesting that this agent has the kind of robust activity in animal models that leads to clinical utility. Thiarabine is effective orally (bioavailability of approximately 16%) and with once per day dosing: Two characteristics that distinguish it from cytarabine. Although both the structure and basic mechanism of action of thiarabine are similar to that of cytarabine, there are many quantitative differences in the biochemical pharmacology of these two agents that can explain the superior antitumor activity of thiarabine. Two important attributes are the long retention time of the 5'-triphosphate of thiarabine in tumor cells and its potent inhibition of DNA synthesis. The biochemical pharmacology of thiarabine is also different from that of gemcitabine. Thiarabine has been evaluated in three phase I clinical trials, where it has demonstrated some activity in heavily pretreated patients with hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Because of its impressive activity against numerous human tumor xenografts in mice, its unique biochemical activity, and encouraging clinical results in phase I clinical trials, we believe thiarabine should continue to be evaluated in the clinic for treatment of hematologic and/or solid tumors. The preclinical results to date (superior in vivo antitumor activity, oral bioavailability, and once per day dosing), suggest that thiarabine could replace cytarabine in the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia. PMID:26597061

  17. Inhibition of DNA Methylation Suppresses Intestinal Tumor Organoids by Inducing an Anti-Viral Response

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yoshimasa; Nakaoka, Toshiaki; Sakai, Kasumi; Muramatsu, Toshihide; Toshimitsu, Kohta; Kimura, Masaki; Kanai, Takanori; Sato, Toshiro; Saito, Hidetsugu

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed that the major anti-tumor effect of DNA methylation inhibitors is induction of interferon-responsive genes via dsRNAs-containing endogenous retroviruses. Recently, a 3D culture system for stem cells known as organoid culture has been developed. Lgr5-positive stem cells form organoids that closely recapitulate the properties of original tissues. To investigate the effect of DNA demethylation on tumor organoids, we have established organoids from intestinal tumors of ApcMin/+ (Min) mice and subjected them to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) treatment and Dnmt1 knockdown. DNA demethylation induced by 5-Aza-CdR treatment and Dnmt1 knockdown significantly reduced the cell proliferation of the tumor organoids. Microarray analyses of the tumor organoids after 5-Aza-CdR treatment and Dnmt1 knockdown revealed that interferon-responsive genes were activated by DNA demethylation. Gene ontology and pathway analyses clearly demonstrated that these genes activated by DNA demethylation are involved in the anti-viral response. These findings indicate that DNA demethylation suppresses the proliferation of intestinal tumor organoids by inducing an anti-viral response including activation of interferon-responsive genes. Treatment with DNA methylation inhibitors to activate a growth-inhibiting immune response may be an effective therapeutic approach for colon cancers. PMID:27143627

  18. Resetting the histone code at CDKN2A in HNSCC by inhibition of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Madelene M; Briggs, Katrina L; Bone, James R; Clayman, Gary L; El-Naggar, Adel K; Dent, Sharon Y R

    2003-12-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the fifth most frequent cancer in the US. Several genetic and epigenetic alterations are associated with HNSCC tumorigenesis, including inactivation of CDKN2A, which encodes the p16 tumor suppressor, in cell lines and primary tumors by DNA methylation. Reactivation of tumor suppressor genes by DNA-demethylating agents and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors shows therapeutic promise for other cancers. Therefore, we investigated the ability of these agents to reactivate p16 in Tu159 HNSCC cells. Treatment of cells with 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) increases CDKN2A expression and slightly increases histone H3 acetylation at this gene. No reactivation of CDKN2A is observed upon treatment with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), but synergistic reactivation of CDKN2A is observed upon sequential treatment of Tu159 cells with both 5-aza-dC and TSA. Silencing of CDKN2A in Tu159 cells is correlated with increased methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and decreased methylation at lysine 4 relative to the upstream p15 gene promoter. Interestingly, global levels of H3-K9 methylation are decreased upon treatment with 5-aza-dC. Together these data indicate that DNA methylation is a dominant epigenetic mark for silencing of CDKN2A in Tu159 tumor cells. Moreover, changes in DNA methylation can reset the histone code by impacting multiple H3 modifications. PMID:14654786

  19. Time-course gene profiling and networks in demethylated retinoblastoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Malusa, Federico; Taranta, Monia; Zaki, Nazar; Cinti, Caterina; Capobianco, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma, a very aggressive cancer of the developing retina, initiatiates by the biallelic loss of RB1 gene, and progresses very quickly following RB1 inactivation. While its genome is stable, multiple pathways are deregulated, also epigenetically. After reviewing the main findings in relation with recently validated markers, we propose an integrative bioinformatics approach to include in the previous group new markers obtained from the analysis of a single cell line subject to epigenetic treatment. In particular, differentially expressed genes are identified from time course microarray experiments on the WERI-RB1 cell line treated with 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (decitabine; DAC). By inducing demethylation of CpG island in promoter genes that are involved in biological processes, for instance apoptosis, we performed the following main integrative analysis steps: i) Gene expression profiling at 48h, 72h and 96h after DAC treatment; ii) Time differential gene co-expression networks and iii) Context-driven marker association (transcriptional factor regulated protein networks, master regulatory paths). The observed DAC-driven temporal profiles and regulatory connectivity patterns are obtained by the application of computational tools, with support from curated literature. It is worth emphasizing the capacity of networks to reconcile multi-type evidences, thus generating testable hypotheses made available by systems scale predictive inference power. Despite our small experimental setting, we propose through such integrations valuable impacts of epigenetic treatment in terms of gene expression measurements, and then validate evidenced apoptotic effects. PMID:26143641

  20. Prolonged re-expression of the hypermethylated gene EPB41L3 using artificial transcription factors and epigenetic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Huisman, Christian; van der Wijst, Monique GP; Falahi, Fahimeh; Overkamp, Juul; Karsten, Gellért; Terpstra, Martijn M; Kok, Klaas; van der Zee, Ate GJ; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G Bea A; Rots, Marianne G

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) is considered a significant event in the progression of cancer. For example, EPB41L3, a potential biomarker in cervical cancer, is often silenced by cancer-specific promoter methylation. Artificial transcription factors (ATFs) are unique tools to re-express such silenced TSGs to functional levels; however, the induced effects are considered transient. Here, we aimed to improve the efficiency and sustainability of gene re-expression using engineered zinc fingers fused to VP64 (ZF-ATFs) or DNA methylation modifiers (ZF-Tet2 or ZF-TDG) and/or by co-treatment with epigenetic drugs [5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine or Trichostatin A (TSA)]. The EPB41L3-ZF effectively bound its methylated endogenous locus, as also confirmed by ChIP-seq. ZF-ATFs reactivated the epigenetically silenced target gene EPB41L3 (∼10-fold) in breast, ovarian, and cervical cancer cell lines. Prolonged high levels of EPB41L3 (∼150-fold) induction could be achieved by short-term co-treatment with epigenetic drugs. Interestingly, for otherwise ineffective ZF-Tet2 or ZF-TDG treatments, TSA facilitated re-expression of EPB41L3 up to twofold. ATF-mediated re-expression demonstrated a tumor suppressive role for EPB41L3 in cervical cancer cell lines. In conclusion, epigenetic reprogramming provides a novel way to improve sustainability of re-expression of epigenetically silenced promoters. PMID:25830725

  1. IL-2 regulates FOXP3 expression in human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells through a STAT-dependent mechanism and induces the expansion of these cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Emmanuel; Nelson, Erik A; Mohseni, Mehrdad; Porcheray, Fabrice; Kim, Haesook; Litsa, Despina; Bellucci, Roberto; Raderschall, Elke; Canning, Christine; Soiffer, Robert J; Frank, David A; Ritz, Jerome

    2006-09-01

    IL-2 plays a critical role in the maintenance of CD4+CD25+ FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vivo. We examined the effects of IL-2 signaling in human Tregs. In vitro, IL-2 selectively up-regulated the expression of FOXP3 in purified CD4+CD25+ T cells but not in CD4+CD25- cells. This regulation involved the binding of STAT3 and STAT5 proteins to a highly conserved STAT-binding site located in the first intron of the FOXP3 gene. We also examined the effects of low-dose IL-2 treatment in 12 patients with metastatic cancer and 9 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Overall, IL-2 treatment resulted in a 1.9 median fold increase in the frequency of CD4+CD25+ cells in peripheral blood as well as a 9.7 median fold increase in FOXP3 expression in CD3+ T cells. CD56+CD3- natural killer (NK) cells also expanded during IL-2 therapy but did not express FOXP3. In vitro treatment of NK cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored the IL-2 signaling pathway leading to FOXP3 expression, suggesting that this gene was constitutively repressed by DNA methylation in these cells. Our findings support the clinical evaluation of low-dose IL-2 to selectively modulate CD4+CD25+ Tregs and increase expression of FOXP3 in vivo. PMID:16645171

  2. Formation of 1,4-dioxo-2-butene-derived adducts of 2'-deoxyadenosine and 2'-deoxycytidine in oxidized DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingzi; Vu, Choua C; Byrns, Michael C; Dedon, Peter C; Peterson, Lisa A

    2006-08-01

    Oxidation of deoxyribose in DNA produces a variety of electrophilic residues that are capable of reacting with nucleobases to form adducts such as M(1)dG, the pyrimidopurinone adduct of dG. We now report that deoxyribose oxidation in DNA leads to the formation of oxadiazabicyclo(3.3.0)octaimine adducts of dC and dA. We previously demonstrated that these adducts arise in reactions of nucleosides and DNA with trans-1,4-dioxo-2-butene, the beta-elimination product of the 2-phosphoryl-1,4-dioxobutane residue arising from 5'-oxidation of deoxyribose in DNA, and with cis-1,4-dioxo-2-butene, a metabolite of furan. Treatment of DNA with enediyne antibiotics capable of oxidizing the 5'-position of deoxyribose (calicheamicin and neocarzinostatin) led to a concentration-dependent formation of oxadiazabicyclo(3.3.0)octaimine adducts of dC and dA, while the antibiotic bleomycin, which is capable of performing only 4-oxidation of deoxyribose, did not give rise to the adducts. The nonspecific DNA oxidant, gamma-radiation, also produced the adducts that represented approximately 0.1% of the 2-phosphoryl-1,4-dioxobutane residues formed during the irradiation. These results suggest that the oxadiazabicyclo(3.3.0)octaimine adducts of dC and dA could represent endogenous DNA lesions arising from oxidative stresses that also give rise to other DNA adducts. PMID:16918236

  3. Paclitaxel alters the expression and specific activity of deoxycytidine kinase and cytidine deaminase in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Shord, Stacy S; Patel, Shitalben R

    2009-01-01

    Background We observed that paclitaxel altered the pharmacokinetic properties of gemcitabine in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and limited the accumulation of gemcitabine and its metabolites in various primary and immortalized human cells. Therefore, we classified the drug-drug interaction and the effects of paclitaxel on deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and cytidine deaminase (CDA) in three NSCLC cell lines. These enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of gemcitabine to its deaminated metabolite dFdU (80% of the parent drug) and the phosphorylated metabolites dFdCMP, dFdCDP and dFdCTP. These metabolites appear to relate to sensitivity and tolerability of gemcitabine based on previous animal and laboratory studies. Methods Three immortalized human cells representative of the most common histological subtypes identified in patients with advanced NSCLC were exposed to the individual drugs or combinations to complete a multiple drug effect analysis. These same cell lines were exposed to vehicle-control or paclitaxel and the mRNA levels, protein expression and specific activity of dCK and CDA were compared. Comparisons were made using a two-tailed paired t-test or analysis of variance with a P value of < 0.05 considered significant. Results The multiple drug effect analysis indicated synergy for H460, H520 and H838 cells independent of sequence. As anticipated, paclitaxel-gemcitabine increased the number of G2/M cells, whereas gemcitabine-paclitaxel increased the number of G0/G1 or S cells. Paclitaxel significantly decreased dCK and CDA mRNA levels in H460 and H520 cells (40% to 60%, P < 0.05) and lowered dCK protein (24% to 56%, P < 0.05) without affecting CDA protein. However, paclitaxel increased both dCK (10% to 50%) and CDA (75% to 153%) activity (P < 0.05). Paclitaxel caused substantial declines in the accumulation of the deaminated and phosphorylated metabolites in H520 cells (P < 0.05); the metabolites were not measurable in the remaining two

  4. Regulatory T Cell DNA Methyltransferase Inhibition Accelerates Resolution of Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Benjamin D.; Mock, Jason R.; Aggarwal, Neil R.; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K.; Florez, Marcus A.; Chau, Eric; Gibbs, Kevin W.; Mandke, Pooja; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; King, Landon S.

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common and often fatal inflammatory lung condition without effective targeted therapies. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) resolve lung inflammation, but mechanisms that enhance Tregs to promote resolution of established damage remain unknown. DNA demethylation at the forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) locus and other key Treg loci typify the Treg lineage. To test how dynamic DNA demethylation affects lung injury resolution, we administered the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC) to wild-type (WT) mice beginning 24 hours after intratracheal LPS-induced lung injury. Mice that received DAC exhibited accelerated resolution of their injury. Lung CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ Tregs from DAC-treated WT mice increased in number and displayed enhanced Foxp3 expression, activation state, suppressive phenotype, and proliferative capacity. Lymphocyte-deficient recombinase activating gene-1–null mice and Treg-depleted (diphtheria toxin-treated Foxp3DTR) mice did not resolve their injury in response to DAC. Adoptive transfer of 2 × 105 DAC-treated, but not vehicle-treated, exogenous Tregs rescued Treg-deficient mice from ongoing lung inflammation. In addition, in WT mice with influenza-induced lung inflammation, DAC rescue treatment facilitated recovery of their injury and promoted an increase in lung Treg number. Thus, DNA methyltransferase inhibition, at least in part, augments Treg number and function to accelerate repair of experimental lung injury. Epigenetic pathways represent novel manipulable targets for the treatment of ARDS. PMID:25295995

  5. The combination of FLT3 and DNA methyltransferase inhibition is synergistically cytotoxic to FLT3/ITD acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, E; Ganguly, S; Rajkhowa, T; Gocke, C D; Levis, M; Konig, H

    2016-05-01

    Effective treatment regimens for elderly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients harboring internal tandem duplication mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) gene (FLT3/ITD) are lacking and represent a significant unmet need. Recent data on the effects of FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors on FLT3/ITD(+) AML showed promising clinical activity, including in elderly patients. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors such as decitabine (5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, DEC) and 5-azacitidine (AZA) demonstrated clinical benefit in AML, are well tolerated and are associated with minimal increases in FLT3 ligand, which can represent a potential resistance mechanism to FLT3 inhibitors. In addition, both FLT3 and DNMT inhibition are associated with the induction of terminal differentiation of myeloid blasts. Consequently, there is a strong theoretical rationale for combining FLT3 and DNMT inhibition for FLT3/ITD(+) AML. We therefore sought to study the anti-leukemic effects of DEC, AZA and FLT3 inhibitors, either as single agents or in combination, on AML cell lines and primary cells derived from newly diagnosed and relapsed AML patients. Our studies indicate that combined treatment using FLT3 inhibition and hypomethylation confers synergistic anti-leukemic effects, including apoptosis, growth inhibition and differentiation. The simultaneous administration of AZA and FLT3 inhibition appears to be the most efficacious combination in this regard. These drugs may provide a novel therapeutic approach for FLT3/ITD(+) AML, in particular for older patients. PMID:26686245

  6. Re-expression of CXCL14, a common target for epigenetic silencing in lung cancer, induces tumor necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Mathewos; Klinge, Donna M.; Yingling, Christin M.; Do, Kieu; Van Neste, Leander; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemokines are important regulators of directional cell migration and tumor metastasis. A genome-wide transcriptome array designed to uncover novel genes silenced by methylation in lung cancer identified the CXC-subfamily of chemokines. Expression of eleven of the sixteen known human CXC-chemokines was increased in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines after treatment with 5-aza-2deoxycytidine (DAC). Tumor-specific methylation leading to silencing of CXCL5, 12 and 14 was found in over 75% of primary lung adenocarcinomas and DAC treatment restored expression of each silenced gene. Forced expression of CXCL14 in H23 cells where this gene is silenced by methylation increased cell death in vitro and dramatically reduced in vivo growth of lung tumor xenografts through necrosis of up to 90% of the tumor mass. CXCL14 re-expression had a profound effect on the genome altering the transcription of over 1,000 genes, including increased expression of 30 cell cycle inhibitor and pro-apoptosis genes. In addition, CXCL14 methylation in sputum from asymptomatic early stage lung cancer cases was associated with a 2.9-fold elevated risk for this disease compared to controls, substantiating its potential as a biomarker for early detection of lung cancer. Together these findings identify CXCL14 as an important tumor suppressor gene epigenetically silenced during lung carcinogenesis. PMID:20562917

  7. Promoter methylation status of tumor suppressor genes and inhibition of expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bangqing; Song, Jianfei; Luan, Jiaqiang; Sun, Xiaolin; Bai, Jian; Wang, Haiyong; Li, Angui; Zhang, Lifei; Feng, Xiaoyan; Du, Zhenzong

    2016-08-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic DNA modification catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). The purpose of this study was to investigate DNMT1 gene and protein expression and the effects of methylation status on tumor suppressor genes in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines grown in vitro and in vivo Human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and H838, were grown in vitro and inoculated subcutaneously into nude mice to form tumors and were then treated with the DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, with and without treatment with the benzamide histone deacetylase inhibitor, entinostat (MS-275). DNMT1 protein expression was quantified by Western blot. Promoter methylation status of tumor suppressor genes (RASSF1A, ASC, APC, MGMT, CDH13, DAPK, ECAD, P16, and GATA4) was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Methylation status of the tumor suppressor genes was regulated by the DNMT1 gene, with the decrease of DNMT1 expression following DNA methylation treatment. Demethylation of tumor suppressor genes (APC, ASC, and RASSF1A) restored tumor growth in nude mice. The results of this study support a role for methylation of DNA as a potential epigenetic clinical biomarker of prognosis or response to therapy and for DNMT1 as a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC. PMID:27190263

  8. Upregulation of p27Kip1 by demethylation sensitizes cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Li, Qiaoyan; Wu, Xiaoying; Chen, Puxiang

    2016-08-01

    Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis due to its chemoresistance, and p27Kip1 (p27) has been implicated in tumor prognosis and drug-resistance. However, the regulatory mechanisms of p27 in drug‑resistance in ovarian cancer remain unknown. The current study successfully established chemoresistant cell lines using paclitaxel (TAX), cisplatin (DDP) and carboplatin (CBP) in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. The results indicated that the expression levels of p27 were dramatically downregulated in chemoresistant cells. However, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza) treatment restored p27 expression in DDP-resistant cells, and increased their sensitivity to DDP. In addition, it was observed that the methylation of DDP‑resistant cells, which was downregulated by 5‑aza treatment, was significantly higher compared with SKOV3 cells. Additionally, the overexpression of p27 arrested the cell cycle in S phase and promoted an apoptotic response to DDP. In conclusion, p27 was involved in chemoresistance of SKOV3 cells. Upregulated p27 expression induced by demethylation may enhance sensitivity to DDP through the regulation of the cell cycle. PMID:27314502

  9. The Identification of Senescence-Specific Genes during the Induction of Senescence in Prostate Cancer Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze, Steven R; Fu, Vivian X; Desotelle, Joshua A; Kenowski, Michelle L; Jarrard, David F

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Classic mechanisms of tumor response to chemotherapy include apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe. Recent studies have suggested that cellular senescence, a terminal proliferationarrest seen in vitro, may be invoked during the exposure of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. To identify markers associated specifically with the cellular senescence phenotype, we utilized expression data from cDNA microarray experiments identifying transcripts whose expression levels increased as human prostate epithelial cells progressed to senescence. When screened against other growth-inhibitory conditions, including quiescence and apoptosis, many of these transcripts were also upregulated, indicating that similar pathways occur between apoptosis and senescence. A senescent-like phenotype was then induced in several prostate cancer cell lines using 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, doxorubicin, or Docetaxel. Treatment with these agents resulted in a significant increase in the induction of senescence-specific genes when compared to nonsenescent conditions. The performance of the panel was improved with fluorescence-activated cell sorting using PKH26 to isolate nonproliferating, viable, drug-treated populations, indicating that a heterogeneous response occurs with chemotherapy. We have defined an RNA-based gene panel that characterizes the senescent phenotype induced in cancer cells by drug treatment. These data also indicate that a panel of genes, rather than one marker, needs to be utilized to identify senescence. PMID:16229804

  10. IL-8 suppresses E-cadherin expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by enhancing E-cadherin promoter DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Li; Peng, Li-Xia; Yang, Jun-Ping; Zheng, Li-Sheng; Xie, Ping; Wang, Meng-Yao; Huang, Bi-Jun; Zhao, Hua-Rong; Bao, Yong-Xing; Qian, Chao-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has the highest metastasis potential among head and neck cancers. Distant metastasis is the major cause of treatment failure. Recent studies from our laboratory have revealed that IL-8 promotes NPC metastasis via activation of AKT signaling and induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the cells. In the present study, we found that IL-8 treatment for NPC cells resulted in an accumulation of DNMT1 protein through activating AKT1 pathway and consequent DNMT1 protein stabilization. Then DNMT1 suppressed E-cadherin expression by increasing the methylation of its promoter region. LY-294002 blocked IL-8-induced p-AKT1 activation resulting in reduction of DNMT1 and increase of E-cadherin expression, whereas forced demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored E-cadherin expression. In conclusion, our study, for the first time, shows that the IL-8/AKT1 signaling pathway stabilizes DNMT1 protein, consequently enhancing hypermethylation of E-cadherin promoter regions and downregulating E-cadherin protein level in NPC cells. Upon blockage of the IL-8/AKT pathway and inhibition of DNMT1, E-cadherin expression can be reversed. These data suggest that targeting the IL-8/AKT1 signaling pathway and DNMT1 may provide a potential therapeutic approach for blocking NPC metastasis. PMID:26530812

  11. Differential effects of epigenetic modifiers on the expansion and maintenance of human cord blood stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Nadim; Petro, Benjamin; Baluchamy, Sudhakar; Li, Xinmin; Taioli, Simona; Lavelle, Donald; Quigley, John G; Suphangul, Montha; Araki, Hiroto

    2014-04-01

    Epigenetic therapies, including DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are increasingly being considered to treat hematological malignancies, but their effects on normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remain largely unexplored. We compared the effects of several HDAC inhibitors, including valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA), alone or in combination with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5azaD) on the expansion of HSCs. VPA induced the highest expansion of CD34+CD90+ cells and progenitor cells compared with other HDAC inhibitors or the sequential addition of 5azaD/TSA in culture. Xenotransplantation studies demonstrated that VPA prevents HSC loss, whereas 5azaD/TSA treatment leads to a net expansion of HSCs that retain serial transplantation ability. 5azaD/TSA-mediated HSC expansion was associated with increased histone acetylation and transient DNA demethylation, which corresponded with higher gene transcript levels. However, some genes with increased transcript levels lacked changes in methylation. Importantly, a global microarray analysis revealed a set of differentially expressed genes in 5azaD/TSA- and VPA-expanded CD34+ cells that might be involved in the expansion and maintenance of transplantable HSCs, respectively. In summary, our data indicate that treatment of HSCs with different chromatin-modifying agents results in either the expansion or maintenance of HSCs, an observation of potential therapeutic importance. PMID:24374212

  12. Sustained IL-6/STAT-3 Signaling in Cholangiocarcinoma Cells due to SOCS-3 Epigenetic Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Isomoto, Hajime; Mott, Justin L.; Kobayashi, Shogo; Werneburg, Nathan W.; Bronk, Steve F.; Haan, Serge; Gores, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims IL-6 mediated STAT-3 phosphorylation (activation) is aberrantly sustained in cholangiocarcinoma cells resulting in enhanced Mcl-1 expression and resistance to apoptosis. Because SOCS-3 controls the IL-6/STAT-3 signaling pathway by a classic feedback loop, the aims of this study were to examine SOCS-3 regulation in human cholangiocarcinoma. Methods SOCS-3 expression was assessed in human cholangiocarcinoma tissue and the Mz-ChA-1 and CCLP1 human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. Results An inverse correlation was observed between phospho-STAT-3 and SOCS-3 protein expression in cholangiocarcinoma. In those cancers failing to express SOCS-3, extensive methylation of the SOCS-3 promoter was demonstrated in tumor but not in paired non-tumor tissue. Likewise, methylation of the socs-3 promoter was also identified in two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. Treatment with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC), restored IL-6 induction of SOCS-3, terminated the phospho-STAT-3 response, and reduced cellular levels of Mcl-1. Enforced expression of SOCS-3 also reduced IL-6 induction of phospho-STAT-3 and Mcl-1. Either DAC treatment or enforced SOCS-3 expression sensitized the cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Conclusion SOCS-3 epigenetic silencing is responsible for sustained IL-6/STAT-3 signaling and enhanced Mcl-1 expression in cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:17241887

  13. Label-free real-time detection of DNA methylation based on quartz crystal microbalance measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Ma, Hongwei

    2013-02-19

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene transcription, chromatin compaction, genome imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. DNA methyltransferase is considered a potential target for anticancer drug design. It is important to locate aberrantly methylated sequences on the human genome that are linked to specific diseases and to discover new low-toxic methylation inhibitors for medical treatments. We developed a DNA methylation detection method using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). We applied this method to assay genes p16 and GALR2 in two cell lines. Methylation of p16 was detected in both HT29 and HepG2 cell lines, whereas methylation of GALR2 was detected only in the HT29 cell line. We also used this method to evaluate the effect of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine), a methyltransferase inhibitor used in clinical treatment. We found methylation of genes p16 and GALR2 to be strongly inhibited. The results show that this method is sensitive to DNA methylation and is fit for evaluation of methyltransferase inhibitors. PMID:23360334

  14. Antenatal hypoxia induces epigenetic repression of glucocorticoid receptor and promotes ischemic-sensitive phenotype in the developing heart.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fuxia; Lin, Thant; Song, Minwoo; Ma, Qingyi; Martinez, Shannalee R; Lv, Juanxiu; MataGreenwood, Eugenia; Xiao, Daliao; Xu, Zhice; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-02-01

    Large studies in humans and animals have demonstrated a clear association of an adverse intrauterine environment with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Yet mechanisms remain largely elusive. The present study tested the hypothesis that gestational hypoxia leads to promoter hypermethylation and epigenetic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene in the developing heart, resulting in increased heart susceptibility to ischemia and reperfusion injury in offspring. Hypoxic treatment of pregnant rats from day 15 to 21 of gestation resulted in a significant decrease of GR exon 14, 15, 16, and 17 transcripts, leading to down-regulation of GR mRNA and protein in the fetal heart. Functional cAMP-response elements (CREs) at -4408 and -3896 and Sp1 binding sites at -3425 and -3034 were identified at GR untranslated exon 1 promoters. Hypoxia significantly increased CpG methylation at the CREs and Sp1 binding sites and decreased transcription factor binding to GR exon 1 promoter, accounting for the repression of the GR gene in the developing heart. Of importance, treatment of newborn pups with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed hypoxia-induced promoter methylation, restored GR expression and prevented hypoxia-mediated increase in ischemia and reperfusion injury of the heart in offspring. The findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of epigenetic repression of the GR gene in fetal stress-mediated programming of ischemic-sensitive phenotype in the heart. PMID:26779948

  15. CXorf61 is a target for T cell based immunotherapy of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Paret, Claudia; Simon, Petra; Vormbrock, Kirsten; Bender, Christian; Kölsch, Anne; Breitkreuz, Andrea; Yildiz, Özlem; Omokoko, Tana; Hubich-Rau, Stefanie; Hartmann, Christoph; Häcker, Sabine; Wagner, Meike; Roldan, Diana Barea; Selmi, Abderaouf; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2015-09-22

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a high medical need disease with limited treatment options. CD8+ T cell-mediated immunotherapy may represent an attractive approach to address TNBC. The objectives of this study were to assess the expression of CXorf61 in TNBCs and healthy tissues and to evaluate its capability to induce T cell responses. We show by transcriptional profiling of a broad comprehensive set of normal human tissue that CXorf61 expression is strictly restricted to testis. 53% of TNBC patients express this antigen in at least 30% of their tumor cells. In CXorf61-negative breast cancer cell lines CXorf61 expression is activated by treatment with the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. By vaccination of HLA-A*02-transgenic mice with CXorf61 encoding RNA we obtained high frequencies of CXorf61-specific T cells. Cloning and characterization of T cell receptors (TCRs) from responding T cells resulted in the identification of the two HLA-A*0201-restricted T cell epitopes CXorf6166-74 and CXorf6179-87. Furthermore, by in vitro priming of human CD8+ T cells derived from a healthy donor recognizing CXorf6166-74 we were able to induce a strong antigen-specific immune response and clone a human TCR recognizing this epitope. In summary, our data confirms this antigen as promising target for T cell based therapies. PMID:26327325

  16. CXorf61 is a target for T cell based immunotherapy of triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paret, Claudia; Simon, Petra; Vormbrock, Kirsten; Bender, Christian; Kölsch, Anne; Breitkreuz, Andrea; Yildiz, Özlem; Omokoko, Tana; Hubich-Rau, Stefanie; Hartmann, Christoph; Häcker, Sabine; Wagner, Meike; Roldan, Diana Barea; Selmi, Abderaouf

    2015-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a high medical need disease with limited treatment options. CD8+ T cell-mediated immunotherapy may represent an attractive approach to address TNBC. The objectives of this study were to assess the expression of CXorf61 in TNBCs and healthy tissues and to evaluate its capability to induce T cell responses. We show by transcriptional profiling of a broad comprehensive set of normal human tissue that CXorf61 expression is strictly restricted to testis. 53% of TNBC patients express this antigen in at least 30% of their tumor cells. In CXorf61-negative breast cancer cell lines CXorf61 expression is activated by treatment with the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. By vaccination of HLA-A*02-transgenic mice with CXorf61 encoding RNA we obtained high frequencies of CXorf61-specific T cells. Cloning and characterization of T cell receptors (TCRs) from responding T cells resulted in the identification of the two HLA-A*0201-restricted T cell epitopes CXorf6166–74 and CXorf6179–87. Furthermore, by in vitro priming of human CD8+ T cells derived from a healthy donor recognizing CXorf6166–74 we were able to induce a strong antigen-specific immune response and clone a human TCR recognizing this epitope. In summary, our data confirms this antigen as promising target for T cell based therapies. PMID:26327325

  17. Epigenetic regulation by decitabine of melanoma differentiation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Alcazar, Oscar; Achberger, Susan; Aldrich, Wayne; Hu, Zhenbo; Negrotto, Soledad; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Triozzi, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis genes, such as TP53 and p16/CDKN2A, that mediate responses to cytotoxic chemotherapy, are frequently non-functional in melanoma. Differentiation may be an alternative to apoptosis for inducing melanoma cell cycle exit. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate differentiation, and DNA methylation alterations are associated with the abnormal differentiation of melanoma cells. The effects of the deoxycytidine analogue decitabine (5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine), which depletes DNA methyl transferase 1 (DNMT1), on melanoma differentiation were examined. Treatment of human and murine melanoma cells in vitro with concentrations of decitabine that did not cause apoptosis inhibited proliferation accompanied by cellular differentiation. A decrease in promoter methylation, and increase in expression of the melanocyte late-differentiation driver SOX9, were followed by increases in cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKN) p27/CDKN1B and p21/CDKN1A that mediate cell cycle exit with differentiation. Effects were independent of the TP53, p16/CDKN2A, and also the BRAF status of the melanoma cells. Resistance, when observed, was pharmacologic, characterized by diminished ability of decitabine to deplete DNMT1. Treatment of murine melanoma models in vivo with intermittent, low-dose decitabine, administered sub-cutaneously to limit high peak drug levels that cause cytotoxicity and increase exposure time for DNMT1 depletion, and with tetrahydrouridine to decrease decitabine metabolism and further increase exposure time, inhibited tumor growth and increased molecular and tumor stromal factors implicated in melanocyte differentiation. Modification of decitabine dose, schedule and formulation for differentiation rather than cytotoxic objectives inhibits the growth of melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21796622

  18. DNMT1-mediated PTEN hypermethylation confers hepatic stellate cell activation and liver fibrogenesis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Er-Bao; Huang, Cheng; Ma, Tao-Tao; Tao, Hui; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Chang; Lv, Xiong-Wen; Li, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during liver fibrogenesis. Phosphatase and tension homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor, is a negative regulator of this process. PTEN promoter hypermethylation is a major epigenetic silencing mechanism in tumors. The present study aimed to investigate whether PTEN promoter methylation was involved in HSC activation and liver fibrosis. Treatment of activated HSCs with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-azadC) decreased aberrant hypermethylation of the PTEN gene promoter and prevented the loss of PTEN expression that occurred during HSC activation. Silencing DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) gene also decreased the PTEN gene promoter methylation and upregulated the PTEN gene expression in activated HSC-T6 cells. In addition, knockdown of DNMT1 inhibited the activation of both ERK and AKT pathways in HSC-T6 cells. These results suggest that DNMT1-mediated PTEN hypermethylation caused the loss of PTEN expression, followed by the activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways, resulting in HSC activation. Highlights: ► PTEN methylation status and loss of PTEN expression ► DNMT1 mediated PTEN hypermethylation. ► Hypermethylation of PTEN contributes to the activation of ERK and AKT pathways.

  19. Epigenetic therapy of cancer stem and progenitor cells by targeting DNA methylation machineries.

    PubMed

    Wongtrakoongate, Patompon

    2015-01-26

    Recent advances in stem cell biology have shed light on how normal stem and progenitor cells can evolve to acquire malignant characteristics during tumorigenesis. The cancer counterparts of normal stem and progenitor cells might be occurred through alterations of stem cell fates including an increase in self-renewal capability and a decrease in differentiation and/or apoptosis. This oncogenic evolution of cancer stem and progenitor cells, which often associates with aggressive phenotypes of the tumorigenic cells, is controlled in part by dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms including aberrant DNA methylation leading to abnormal epigenetic memory. Epigenetic therapy by targeting DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) 1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B via 5-Azacytidine (Aza) and 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza-dC) has proved to be successful toward treatment of hematologic neoplasms especially for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. In this review, I summarize the current knowledge of mechanisms underlying the inhibition of DNA methylation by Aza and Aza-dC, and of their apoptotic- and differentiation-inducing effects on cancer stem and progenitor cells in leukemia, medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer and testicular germ cell tumors. Since cancer stem and progenitor cells are implicated in cancer aggressiveness such as tumor formation, progression, metastasis and recurrence, I propose that effective therapeutic strategies might be achieved through eradication of cancer stem and progenitor cells by targeting the DNA methylation machineries to interfere their "malignant memory". PMID:25621113

  20. Inhibition of DNA Methylation Impairs Synaptic Plasticity during an Early Time Window in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Paula; Ardiles, Álvaro O.

    2016-01-01

    Although the importance of DNA methylation-dependent gene expression to neuronal plasticity is well established, the dynamics of methylation and demethylation during the induction and expression of synaptic plasticity have not been explored. Here, we combined electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular, and immunohistochemical approaches to examine the contribution of DNA methylation and the phosphorylation of Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) to synaptic plasticity. We found that, at twenty minutes after theta burst stimulation (TBS), the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5AZA) impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Surprisingly, after two hours of TBS, when LTP had become a transcription-dependent process, 5AZA treatment had no effect. By comparing these results to those in naive slices, we found that, at two hours after TBS, an intergenic region of the RLN gene was hypomethylated and that the phosphorylation of residue S80 of MeCP2 was decreased, while the phosphorylation of residue S421 was increased. As expected, 5AZA affected only the methylation of the RLN gene and exerted no effect on MeCP2 phosphorylation patterns. In summary, our data suggest that tetanic stimulation induces critical changes in synaptic plasticity that affects both DNA methylation and the phosphorylation of MeCP2. These data also suggest that early alterations in DNA methylation are sufficient to impair the full expression of LTP. PMID:27493805

  1. A dual amplification fluorescent strategy for sensitive detection of DNA methyltransferase activity based on strand displacement amplification and DNAzyme amplification.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wanling; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2016-03-15

    DNA methyltransferase (MTase) plays a critical role in many biological processes and has been regarded as a predictive cancer biomarker and a therapeutic target in cancer treatment. Sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is essential for early cancer diagnosis and therapeutics. Here, we developed a dual amplification fluorescent strategy for sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity based on strand displacement amplification (SDA) and DNAzyme amplification. A trifunctional double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) probe was designed including a methylation site for DNA MTase recognition, a complementary sequence of 8-17 DNAzyme for synthesizing DNAzyme, and a nicking site for nicking enzyme cleavage. Firstly, the trifunctional dsDNA probe was methylated by DNA MTase to form the methylated dsDNA. Subsequently, HpaII restriction endonuclease specifically cleaved the residue of unmethylated dsDNA. Next, under the action of polymerase and nicking enzyme, the methylared dsDNA initiated SDA, releasing numbers of 8-17 DNAzymes. Finally, the released 8-17 DNAzymes triggered DNAzyme amplification reaction to induce a significant fluorescence enhancement. This strategy could detect DNA MTase activity as low as 0.0082U/mL. Additionally, the strategy was successfully applied for evaluating the inhibitions of DNA MTase using two anticancer drugs, 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. The results indicate the proposed strategy has a potential application in early cancer diagnosis and therapeutics. PMID:26492469

  2. Prognostic implication of PTPRH hypomethylation in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    SATO, TAKASHI; SOEJIMA, KENZO; ARAI, ERI; HAMAMOTO, JUNKO; YASUDA, HIROYUKI; ARAI, DAISUKE; ISHIOKA, KOTA; OHGINO, KEIKO; NAOKI, KATSUHIKO; KOHNO, TAKASHI; TSUTA, KOJI; WATANABE, SHUN-ICHI; KANAI, YAE; BETSUYAKU, TOMOKO

    2015-01-01

    PTPRH is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase thought to be a potential regulator of tumorigenesis. The aim of the present study was to clarify the significance of PTPRH expression and its regulation by DNA methylation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially in lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). PTPRH mRNA expression was examined in 89 NSCLC and corresponding non-cancerous tissues. The correlation between DNA methylation and PTPRH gene expression was investigated in another cohort that consisted of 145 patients with LADC, a major NSCLC subtype. Gene regulation by DNA methylation was assessed using a DNA methylation inhibitor. PTPRH mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in NSCLC. PTPRH DNA methylation was reduced in LADC samples and inversely correlated with mRNA expression. 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment of lung cancer cell lines with low PTPRH expression, restored mRNA PTPRH expression levels. Furthermore, low PTPRH methylation was associated with shorter recurrence-free survival (P=1.64×10−4) and overall survival (P=5.54×10−5). Multivariate analysis revealed that PTPRH DNA methylation was an independent prognostic factor (P=6.88×10−3). It was confirmed that PTPRH is overexpressed in NSCLC. Furthermore, we determined that PTPRH is epigenetically regulated by DNA hypomethylation, with prognostic implications for LADC. PMID:26134684

  3. Prognostic implication of PTPRH hypomethylation in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takashi; Soejima, Kenzo; Arai, Eri; Hamamoto, Junko; Yasuda, Hiroyuki; Arai, Daisuke; Ishioka, Kota; Ohgino, Keiko; Naoki, Katsuhiko; Kohno, Takashi; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Kanai, Yae; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2015-09-01

    PTPRH is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase thought to be a potential regulator of tumorigenesis. The aim of the present study was to clarify the significance of PTPRH expression and its regulation by DNA methylation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially in lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). PTPRH mRNA expression was examined in 89 NSCLC and corresponding non-cancerous tissues. The correlation between DNA methylation and PTPRH gene expression was investigated in another cohort that consisted of 145 patients with LADC, a major NSCLC subtype. Gene regulation by DNA methylation was assessed using a DNA methylation inhibitor. PTPRH mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in NSCLC. PTPRH DNA methylation was reduced in LADC samples and inversely correlated with mRNA expression. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment of lung cancer cell lines with low PTPRH expression, restored mRNA PTPRH expression levels. Furthermore, low PTPRH methylation was associated with shorter recurrence-free survival (P=1.64x10(-4)) and overall survival (P=5.54x10(-5)). Multivariate analysis revealed that PTPRH DNA methylation was an independent prognostic factor (P=6.88x10(-3)). It was confirmed that PTPRH is overexpressed in NSCLC. Furthermore, we determined that PTPRH is epigenetically regulated by DNA hypomethylation, with prognostic implications for LADC. PMID:26134684

  4. Down-regulation of BRMS1 by DNA hypermethylation and its association with metastatic progression in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Bin; Lv, Zhi-Dong; Wang, Yu; Jin, Li-Ying; Ding, Lei; Yang, Zhao-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is a metastasis suppressor gene in several solid tumors. However, the expression and function of BRMS1 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have not been reported. In this study, we found that BRMS1 was down-regulation in breast cancer cell lines and primary TNBC, while decreased expression of BRMS1 mRNA was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. And this down-regulation was found to be in accordance with aberrant methylation of the gene. Hypermethylation of the gene was observed in 53.4% (62/116) of the TNBC primary breast carcinomas, while it was found in only 24.1% (28/116) of the corresponding nonmalignant tissues. In addition, BRMS1 expression was restored in MDA-MB-231 after treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC), and demethylation of the highly metastatic cells MDA-MB-231 induced invasion suppression of the cells. Furthermore, the suppression of BRMS1 by siRNA transfection enhanced cancer cells invasion. Collectively, our results suggest that the aberrant methylation of BRMS1 frequently occurs in the down-regulation of BRMS1 in TNBC and that it may play a role in the metastasis of breast cancer. PMID:26617826

  5. MiR-34c suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by targeting MET

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y-Q; Ren, X-Y; He, Q-M; Xu, Y-F; Tang, X-R; Sun, Y; Zeng, M-S; Kang, T-B; Liu, N; Ma, J

    2015-01-01

    Our previous microarray analysis indicated that miR-34c was downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, little is known about the function and molecular mechanism of miR-34c in NPC. In this study, miR-34c was found to be significantly downregulated in NPC cell lines and clinical tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-34c suppressed NPC cell viability, colony formation, anchorage-independent growth, cell migration and invasion in vitro, and inhibited xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. MET proto-oncogene (MET) was identified as a direct target of miR-34c using luciferase reporter assays, quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Overexpression of miR-34c markedly reduced MET expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of MET suppressed NPC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas the restoration of MET rescued the suppressive effects of miR-34c. The demethylation agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC) restored the expression of miR-34c in NPC cell lines. The promoter region of miR-34c was hypermethylated in NPC cells. In conclusion, miR-34c suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in NPC by targeting MET. The newly identified miR-34c/MET pathway provides further insights into the development and progression of NPC, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for NPC treatment. PMID:25611392

  6. The role of PAQR3 gene promoter hypermethylation in breast cancer and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinpeng; Wang, Feiran; Xu, Junfei; He, Zhixian; Lu, Yuhua; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-09-01

    PAQR3 is a tumor suppressor in breast cancer and its expression regulation mechanism has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that PAQR3 expression was downregulated in breast cancer tissues, and the downregulation of PAQR3 expression was found to be significantly associated with aberrant methylation of the gene promoter. Methylation‑specific PCR showed that hypermethylation of the PAQR3 gene was observed in 71.8% of the breast cancers, whereas it was found in only 28.2% of the corresponding non‑tumor tissues. Moreover, we found that the PAQR3 promoter methylation status was related to lymph node metastasis (P=0.01). In addition, overexpression of PAQR3 inhibited breast cancer cell invasion and growth. Furthermore, PAQR3 expression was restored in MCF‑7 cells after treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, and the effect of demethylation induced invasion and proliferation suppression of MCF‑7 cells. Collectively, our results suggested that the aberrant methylation of PAQR3 underlies its downregulation in breast cancer and our data indicated that epigenetic silencing of PAQR3 gene expression by promoter hypermethylation may play an important role in breast cancer. PMID:27461225

  7. The high mobility group A2 protein epigenetically silences the Cdh1 gene during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Tan, E-Jean; Kahata, Kaoru; Idås, Oskar; Thuault, Sylvie; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    The loss of the tumour suppressor E-cadherin (Cdh1) is a key event during tumourigenesis and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) triggers EMT by inducing the expression of non-histone chromatin protein High Mobility Group A2 (HMGA2). We have previously shown that HMGA2, together with Smads, regulate a network of EMT-transcription factors (EMT-TFs) like Snail1, Snail2, ZEB1, ZEB2 and Twist1, most of which are well-known repressors of the Cdh1 gene. In this study, we show that the Cdh1 promoter is hypermethylated and epigenetically silenced in our constitutive EMT cell model, whereby HMGA2 is ectopically expressed in mammary epithelial NMuMG cells and these cells are highly motile and invasive. Furthermore, HMGA2 remodels the chromatin to favour binding of de novo DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) to the Cdh1 promoter. E-cadherin expression could be restored after treatment with the DNA de-methylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Here, we describe a new epigenetic role for HMGA2, which follows the actions that HMGA2 initiates via the EMT-TFs, thus achieving sustained silencing of E-cadherin expression and promoting tumour cell invasion. PMID:25492890

  8. Tissue Factor Regulation by miR-520g in Primitive Neuronal Brain Tumor Cells: A Possible Link between Oncomirs and the Vascular Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    D'Asti, Esterina; Huang, Annie; Kool, Marcel; Meehan, Brian; Chan, Jennifer A; Jabado, Nada; Korshunov, Andrey; Pfister, Stefan M; Rak, Janusz

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric embryonal brain tumors with multilayered rosettes demonstrate a unique oncogenic amplification of the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster, C19MC. Because oncogenic lesions often cause deregulation of vascular effectors, including procoagulant tissue factor (TF), this study explores whether there is a link between C19MC oncogenic miRNAs (oncomirs) and the coagulant properties of cancer cells, a question previously not studied. In a pediatric embryonal brain tumor tissue microarray, we observed an association between C19MC amplification and reduced fibrin content and TF expression, indicative of reduced procoagulant activity. In medulloblastoma cell lines (DAOY and UW228) engineered to express miR-520g, a biologically active constituent of the C19MC cluster, we observed reduced TF expression, procoagulant and TF signaling activities (responses to factor VIIa stimulation), and diminished TF emission as cargo of extracellular vesicles. Antimir and luciferase reporter assays revealed a specific and direct effect of miR-520g on the TF 3' untranslated region. Although the endogenous MIR520G locus is methylated in differentiated cells, exposure of DAOY cells to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or their growth as stem cell-like spheres up-regulated endogenous miR-520g with a coincident reduction in TF expression. We propose that the properties of tumors harboring oncomirs may include unique alterations of the vascular microenvironment, including deregulation of TF, with a possible impact on the biology, therapy, and hemostatic adverse effects of both disease progression and treatment. PMID:26687818

  9. NDN is an imprinted tumor suppressor gene that is downregulated in ovarian cancers through genetic and epigenetic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yinhua; Mao, Weiqun; Wang, Yan; Baggerly, Keith; Wang, Ying; Marquez, Rebecca T.; Bedi, Anuja; Liu, Jinsong; Fishman, David; Lu, Zhen; Bast, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    NDN is a maternally imprinted gene consistently expressed in normal ovarian epithelium, is dramatically downregulated in the majority of ovarian cancers. Little or no NDN expression could be detected in 73% of 351 epithelial ovarian cancers. NDN was also downregulated in 10 ovarian cancer cell lines with total loss in 6 of 10. Re-expression of NDN decreased Bcl-2 levels and induced apoptosis, which significantly inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth in cell culture and in xenografts. In addition, re-expression of NDN inhibited cell migration by decreasing actin stress fiber and focal adhesion complex formation through deactivation of Src, FAK and RhoA. Loss of NDN expression in ovarian cancers could be attributed to LOH in 28% of 18 informative cases and to hypermethylation of CpG sites 1 and 2 of NDN promoter in 23% and 30% of 43 ovarian cancers, respectively. Promoter hypermethylation was also found in 5 of 10 ovarian cancer cell lines. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored NDN expression in 4 of 7 cell lines with enhanced promoter methylation levels. These observations support the conclusion that NDN is an imprinted tumor suppressor gene which affects cancer cell motility, invasion and growth and that its loss of function in ovarian cancer can be caused by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:26689988

  10. Mitochondrial DNA variants can mediate methylation status of inflammation, angiogenesis and signaling genes.

    PubMed

    Atilano, Shari R; Malik, Deepika; Chwa, Marilyn; Cáceres-Del-Carpio, Javier; Nesburn, Anthony B; Boyer, David S; Kuppermann, Baruch D; Jazwinski, S Michal; Miceli, Michael V; Wallace, Douglas C; Udar, Nitin; Kenney, M Cristina

    2015-08-15

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA can be classified into haplogroups representing different geographic and/or racial origins of populations. The H haplogroup is protective against age-related macular degeneration (AMD), while the J haplogroup is high risk for AMD. In the present study, we performed comparison analyses of human retinal cell cybrids, which possess identical nuclei, but mtDNA from subjects with either the H or J haplogroups, and demonstrate differences in total global methylation, and expression patterns for two genes related to acetylation and five genes related to methylation. Analyses revealed that untreated-H and -J cybrids have different expression levels for nuclear genes (CFH, EFEMP1, VEGFA and NFkB2). However, expression levels for these genes become equivalent after treatment with a methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Moreover, sequencing of the entire mtDNA suggests that differences in epigenetic status found in cybrids are likely due to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the haplogroup profiles rather than rare variants or private SNPs. In conclusion, our findings indicate that mtDNA variants can mediate methylation profiles and transcription for inflammation, angiogenesis and various signaling pathways, which are important in several common diseases. PMID:25964427

  11. Differential expression and tumorigenic function of neurotensin receptor 1 in neuroendocrine tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Tae; Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Lee, Eun Y.; Weiss, Heidi L.; Townsend, Courtney M.; Evers, B. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Neurotensin (NTS), localized predominantly to the small bowel, stimulates the growth of a variety of cancers, including neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), mainly through its interaction with the high-affinity NTS receptor 1 (NTSR1). Here, we observed increased expression of NTSR1 in almost all tested clinical NET samples, but not in normal tissues. Through RT-PCR analysis, we found that the expression of NTSR1 and NTSR2 was either variable (NTSR1) or absent (NTSR2) in human NET cell lines. In contrast, NTSR3 and NTS were expressed in all NET cells. Treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent, increased levels of NTSR1 and NTSR2 suggesting that DNA methylation contributes to NTSR1/2 expression patterns, which was confirmed by methylation analyses. In addition, we found that knockdown of NTSR1 decreased proliferation, expression levels of growth-related proteins, and anchorage-independent growth of BON human carcinoid cells. Moreover, stable silencing of NTSR1 suppressed BON cell growth, adhesion, migration and invasion. Our results show that high expression of NTSR1 is found in clinical NETs and that promoter methylation is an important mechanism controlling the differential expression of NTSR1 and silencing of NTSR2 in NET cells. Furthermore, knockdown of NTSR1 in BON cells suppressed oncogenic functions suggesting that NTSR1 contributes to NET tumorigenesis. PMID:26298774

  12. Reactivation of Syk gene by AZA suppresses metastasis but not proliferation of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian-Song; Shi, Jing-Ping; Ding, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-An; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yue-Xian; Xia, Jian-Guo; Wang, Shui; Ding, Yong-Bin

    2012-06-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is reported to be involved in the suppression of proliferation and invasion of breast cancer. Methylation-mediated Syk gene silencing is found in a subset of breast cancer. In this study, we used a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (AZA), to restore Syk expression of breast cancer cells. Surprisingly, we found that AZA treatment could reestablish the expression of Syk, but not affect the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Moreover, tumor formation in situ by MDA-MB-435s treated with (+) or without (-) AZA in a nude mice MFP (Mammary fat pad) model did not show significant difference, too. Interestingly, pulmonary metastasis was still significantly suppressed in MDA-MB-435s(+) group (1/9 vs. 7/9). Our findings suggested Syk may be more correlated to metastasis rather than proliferation. This study implied a potential use of Syk methylation as a valuable biomarker to detect high metastatic potential cancerous lesions and the prospect of AZA to join the arsenal of drug candidates to be developed as a new reagent for management of advanced breast cancer. PMID:21347717

  13. Short Hairpin RNA Causes the Methylation of Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor II Promoter and Silencing of the Target Gene in Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Zern, Mark A; Rossi, John J.; Wu, Jian

    2008-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) induces transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in plant and animal cells. RNA dependent DNA methylation (RdDM) accounts for TGS in plants, but it is unclear whether siRNA induces RdDM in mammalian cells. To determine whether stable expression of short hairpin siRNA (shRNA) induces DNA methylation in mammalian cells, we transduced rat hepatic stellate SBC10 cells with lentiviral vectors which encode an U6 promoter-driven shRNA expression cassette homologous to the transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβRII) promoter region. Sequencing analysis of bisulfite-modified genomic DNA showed the methylation of cytosine residues both in CpG dinucleotides and non-CpG sites around the target region of the TGFβRII promoter in SBC10 cells transduced with the promoter-targeting lentiviral vector. In these cells, real-time RT-PCR showed a decrease in TGFβRII mRNA levels which were reversed by treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Our results demonstrate that recombinant lentivirus-mediated shRNA delivery resulted in the methylation of the homologous promoter area in mammalian cells, and this approach may be used as a tool for transcriptional gene silencing by epigenetic modification of mammalian cell promoters. PMID:17533113

  14. PDCD4 gene silencing in gliomas is associated with 5′CpG island methylation and unfavourable prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Faliang; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Xia; Guo, Chun; Zhou, Chengjun; Ma, Chunhong; Sun, Wensheng; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Youhai H; Zhang, Lining

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is a newly described tumour suppressor that inhibits oncogenesis by suppressing gene transcription and translation. Loss of PDCD4 expression has been found in several types of human cancers including the most common cancer of the brain, the gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for PDCD4 gene silencing in tumour cells remain unclear. Here we report the identification of 5′CpG island methylation as the predominant cause of PDCD4 mRNA silencing in gliomas. The methylation of the PDCD4 5′CpG island was found in 47% (14/30) of glioma tissues, which was significantly associated with the loss of PDCD4 mRNA expression (γ=−1.000, P < 0.0001). Blocking methylation in glioma cells using a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, restored the PDCD4 gene expression, inhibited their proliferation and reduced their colony formation capacity. Longitudinal studies of a cohort of 84 patients with gliomas revealed that poor prognosis of patients with high-grade tumours were significantly associated with loss of PDCD4 expression. Thus, our current study suggests, for the first time, that PDCD4 5′CpG island methylation blocks PDCD4 expression at mRNA levels in gliomas. These results also indicate that PDCD4 reactivation might be an effective new strategy for the treatment of gliomas. PMID:18793349

  15. PCFT/SLC46A1 promoter methylation and restoration of gene expression in human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gonen, Nitzan; Bram, Eran E.; Assaraf, Yehuda G.

    2008-11-28

    The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT/SLC46A1) displays optimal and prominent folate and antifolate transport activity at acidic pH in human carcinoma cells but poor activity in leukemia cells. Consistently herein, human leukemia cell lines expressed poor PCFT transcript levels, whereas various carcinoma cell lines showed substantial PCFT gene expression. We identified a CpG island with high density at nucleotides -200 through +100 and explored its role in PCFT promoter silencing. Leukemia cells with barely detectable PCFT transcripts consistently harbored 85-100% methylation of this CpG island, whereas no methylation was found in carcinoma cells. Treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine which induced demethylation but not with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, restored 50-fold PCFT expression only in leukemia cells. These findings constitute the first demonstration of the dominant epigenetic silencing of the PCFT gene in leukemia cells. The potential translational implications of the restoration of PCFT expression in chemotherapy of leukemia are discussed.

  16. Downregulation of ADAMTS8 by DNA Hypermethylation in Gastric Cancer and Its Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiakui; Li, Xin; Zhang, Chundong; Zhang, Hongbin; Jin, Junzhe; Dai, Dongqiu

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metallopeptidase with thrombospondin motif type 8 (ADAMTS8), a member of the ADAMTS family, was discovered as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. We analyzed the expression and methylation of ADAMTS8 in primary gastric tumors and gastric cancer cell lines. We also examined the relationship between ADAMTS8 expression and methylation and clinicopathologic features. The results showed that the significant downregulation of ADAMTS8 mRNA expression was observed in gastric cancer cell lines and tissues, and its expression was related to invasive depth and lymph node metastasis. CpG was hypermethylated in gastric cancer cell lines MKN45, MGC803, and BGC823, as well as primary gastric cancer specimens. ADAMTS8 mRNA expression was significantly lower in methylated primary gastric tumors. A significant association was found between ADAMTS8 methylation status and lymph node metastasis in primary gastric cancer. Moreover, ADAMTS8 expression was upregulated in the gastric cancer cell lines MGC803, BGC823, and MKN45 after treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Thus, our results demonstrate that expression of ADAMTS8 mRNA is significantly decreased and DNA methylation is frequent in gastric cancer. ADAMTS8 hypermethylation is associated with decreased expression in gastric cancer and may play an important role in the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer. PMID:27493958

  17. Cysteine Dioxygenase 1 Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene Silenced by Promoter Methylation in Multiple Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Brait, Mariana; Ling, Shizhang; Nagpal, Jatin K.; Chang, Xiaofei; Park, Hannah Lui; Lee, Juna; Okamura, Jun; Yamashita, Keishi; Sidransky, David; Kim, Myoung Sook

    2012-01-01

    The human cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1) gene is a non-heme structured, iron-containing metalloenzyme involved in the conversion of cysteine to cysteine sulfinate, and plays a key role in taurine biosynthesis. In our search for novel methylated gene promoters, we have analyzed differential RNA expression profiles of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines with or without treatment of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Among the genes identified, the CDO1 promoter was found to be differentially methylated in primary CRC tissues with high frequency compared to normal colon tissues. In addition, a statistically significant difference in the frequency of CDO1 promoter methylation was observed between primary normal and tumor tissues derived from breast, esophagus, lung, bladder and stomach. Downregulation of CDO1 mRNA and protein levels were observed in cancer cell lines and tumors derived from these tissue types. Expression of CDO1 was tightly controlled by promoter methylation, suggesting that promoter methylation and silencing of CDO1 may be a common event in human carcinogenesis. Moreover, forced expression of full-length CDO1 in human cancer cells markedly decreased the tumor cell growth in an in vitro cell culture and/or an in vivo mouse model, whereas knockdown of CDO1 increased cell growth in culture. Our data implicate CDO1 as a novel tumor suppressor gene and a potentially valuable molecular marker for human cancer. PMID:23028699

  18. The synergistic effect of 5Azadc and TSA on maintenance of pluripotency of chicken ESCs by overexpression of NANOG gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yingjie; Zuo, Qisheng; Li, Dong; Zhang, Wenhui; Lian, Chao; Tang, Beibei; Xiao, Tianrong; Wang, Man; Wang, Kehua; Li, Bichun; Zhang, Yani

    2016-04-01

    NANOG is a transcription factor that functions in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and a key factor in maintaining pluripotency. Here, we cloned the NANOG gene promoter from the Rugao yellow chicken and constructed a dual luciferase reporter vector to detect its transcriptional activity and analyze the effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Azadc) and trichostatin A (TSA) on NANOG promoter activity and ESC pluripotency maintenance in vitro. NANOG transcriptional activity was enhanced when 5-Azadc and TSA were used alone or together, suggesting the possibility of elevated methylation of the CpG island in the NANOG regulatory region. When ESCs were cultured in basic medium with 5-Azadc and TSA in vitro, significantly more cell colonies were maintained in the 5-Azadc + TSA group than in the control group, which had many differentiated cells and few cell colonies after 6 d of induction. On the tenth day of induction, the cells in the control group fully differentiated and no cell colonies remained, but many cell colonies were present in the 5-Azadc + TSA group. The expression of NANOG in the cell colonies was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence. Furthermore, ESCs could be passaged to the 12th generation under 5-Azadc and TSA treatment and maintained their pluripotency. Thus, we showed that 5-Azadc and TSA can effectively maintain chicken ESC pluripotency in vitro by increasing NANOG gene expression. PMID:26822431

  19. RA induces the neural-like cells generated from epigenetic modified NIH/3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Mei; Li, Qiu-Ming; Su, Dong-Ju; Wang, Ning; Shan, Zhi-Yan; Jin, Lian-Hong; Lei, Lei

    2010-03-01

    Recently, differentiated somatic cells had been reprogrammed to pluripotential state in vitro, and various tissue cells had been elicited from those cells. Epigenetic modifications allow differentiated cells to perpetuate the molecular memory needed for the cells to retain their identity. DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are important patterns involved in epigenetic modification, which take critical roles in regulating DNA expression. In this study, we dedifferentiated NIH/3T3 fibroblasts by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and Trichstatin A (TSA) combination, and detected gene expression pattern, DNA methylation level, and differentiation potential of reprogrammed cells. As the results, embryonic marker Sox2, klf4, c-Myc and Oct4 were expressed in reprogrammed NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Total DNA methylation level was significant decreased after the treatment. Moreover, exposure of the reprogrammed cells to all trans-retinoic acid (RA) medium elicited the generation of neuronal class IIIbeta-tubulin-positive, neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-positive, nestin-positive, and neurofilament light chain (NF-L)-positive neural-like cells. PMID:19263240

  20. Identification of cis- and trans-acting elements regulating calretinin expression in mesothelioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kresoja-Rakic, Jelena; Kapaklikaya, Esra; Ziltener, Gabriela; Dalcher, Damian; Santoro, Raffaella; Christensen, Brock C.; Johnson, Kevin C.; Schwaller, Beat; Weder, Walter; Stahel, Rolf A.; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Calretinin (CALB2) is a diagnostic marker for epithelioid mesothelioma. It is also a prognostic marker since patients with tumors expressing high calretinin levels have better overall survival. Silencing of calretinin decreases viability of epithelioid mesothelioma cells. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms regulating calretinin expression in mesothelioma. Analysis of calretinin transcript and protein suggested a control at the mRNA level. Treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and analysis of TCGA data indicated that promoter methylation is not likely to be involved. Therefore, we investigated CALB2 promoter by analyzing ~1kb of genomic sequence surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) + 1 using promoter reporter assay. Deletion analysis of CALB2 proximal promoter showed that sequence spanning the −161/+80bp region sustained transcriptional activity. Site-directed analysis identified important cis-regulatory elements within this −161/+80bp CALB2 promoter. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed binding of NRF-1 and E2F2 to the CALB2 promoter and siRNA knockdown of NRF-1 led to decreased expression of calretinin. Cell synchronization experiment showed that calretinin expression was cell cycle regulated with a peak of expression at G1/S phase. This study provides the first insight in the regulation of CALB2 expression in mesothelioma cells. PMID:26848772

  1. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 1 Expression Associated with Gene Demethylation Confers Anoikis Resistance in Early Phases of Melanocyte Malignant Transformation1

    PubMed Central

    Ricca, Tatiana I; Liang, Gangning; Suenaga, Ana Paula M; Han, Sang W; Jones, Peter A; Jasiulionis, Miriam G

    2009-01-01

    Although anoikis resistance has been considered a hallmark of malignant phenotype, the causal relation between neoplastic transformation and anchorage-independent growth remains undefined. We developed an experimental model of murine melanocyte malignant transformation, where a melanocyte lineage (melan-a) was submitted to sequential cycles of anchorage blockade, resulting in progressive morphologic alterations, and malignant transformation. Throughout this process, cells corresponding to premalignant melanocytes and melanoma cell lines were established and show progressive anoikis resistance and increased expression of Timp1. In melan-a melanocytes, Timp1 expression is suppressed by DNA methylation as indicated by its reexpression after 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment. Methylation-sensitive single-nucleotide primer extension analysis showed increased demethylation in Timp1 in parallel with its expression along malignant transformation. Interestingly, TIMP1 expression has already been related with negative prognosis in some human cancers. Although described as a MMP inhibitor, this protein has been associated with apoptosis resistance in different cell types. Melan-a cells overexpressing Timp1 showed increased survival in suspension but were unable to form tumors in vivo, whereas Timp1-overexpressing melanoma cells showed reduced latency time for tumor appearance and increased metastatic potential. Here, we demonstrated for the first time an increment in Timp1 expression since the early phases of melanocyte malignant transformation, associated to a progressive gene demethylation, which confers anoikis resistance. In this way, Timp1 might be considered as a valued marker for melanocyte malignant transformation. PMID:19956395

  2. CMTM5 exhibits tumor suppressor activity through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Heyu; Nan, Xu; Li, Xuefen; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jianyun; Sun, Lisha; Han, Wenlin; Li, Tiejun

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Down-regulation of CMTM5 expression in OSCC tissues was found. • The promoter methylation status of CMTM5 was measured. • CMTM5-v1 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. • CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene in OSCC. - Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of malignancies in the head and neck region. CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing member 5 (CMTM5) has been recently implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in several cancer types. Herein, we examined the expression and function of CMTM5 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CMTM5 was down-regulated in oral squamous cell lines and tumor samples from patients with promoter methylation. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored CMTM5 expression. In the OSCC cell lines CAL27 and GNM, the ectopic expression of CMTM5-v1 strongly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. In addition, CMTM5-v1 inhibited tumor formation in vivo. Therefore, CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  3. DNA Methylation and Gene Expression Profiling of Ewing Sarcoma Primary Tumors Reveal Genes That Are Potential Targets of Epigenetic Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nikul; Black, Jennifer; Chen, Xi; Marcondes, A. Mario; Grady, William M.; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Borinstein, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    The role of aberrant DNA methylation in Ewing sarcoma is not completely understood. The methylation status of 503 genes in 52 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded EWS tumors and 3 EWS cell lines was compared to human mesenchymal stem cell primary cultures (hMSCs) using bead chip methylation analysis. Relative expression of methylated genes was assessed in 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine-(5-AZA)-treated EWS cell lines and in a cohort of primary EWS samples and hMSCs by gene expression and quantitative RT-PCR. 129 genes demonstrated statistically significant hypermethylation in EWS tumors compared to hMSCs. Thirty-six genes were profoundly methylated in EWS and unmethylated in hMSCs. 5-AZA treatment of EWS cell lines resulted in upregulation of expression of hundreds of genes including 162 that were increased by at least 2-fold. The expression of 19 of 36 candidate hypermethylated genes was increased following 5-AZA. Analysis of gene expression from an independent cohort of tumors confirmed decreased expression of six of nineteen hypermethylated genes (AXL, COL1A1, CYP1B1, LYN, SERPINE1,) and VCAN. Comparing gene expression and DNA methylation analyses proved to be an effective way to identify genes epigenetically regulated in EWS. Further investigation is ongoing to elucidate the role of these epigenetic alterations in EWS pathogenesis. PMID:23024594

  4. DNA Demethylation Upregulated Nrf2 Expression in Alzheimer’s Disease Cellular Model

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huimin; Wang, Li; Chen, Beibei; Zheng, Peng; He, Yi; Ding, Yubin; Deng, Yushuang; Lu, Xi; Guo, Xiuming; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Yu; Yu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor in the defense against oxidative stress. Cumulative evidence has shown that oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous animal and clinical studies had observed decreased expression of Nrf2 in AD. However, the underlying regulation mechanisms of Nrf2 in AD remain unclear. Here, we used the DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) to test whether Nrf2 expression was regulated by methylation in N2a cells characterizing by expressing human Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (N2a/APPswe). We found 5-Aza treatment increased Nrf2 at both messenger RNA and protein levels via downregulating the expression of Dnmts and DNA demethylation. In addition, 5-Aza-mediated upregulation of Nrf2 expression was concomitant with increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and higher expression of Nrf2 downstream target gene NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductas (NQO1). Our study showed that DNA demethylation promoted the Nrf2 cell signaling pathway, which may enhance the antioxidant system against AD development. PMID:26779013

  5. (Some) Cellular Mechanisms Influencing the Transcription of Human Endogenous Retrovirus, HERV-Fc1

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Magdalena Janina; Nissen, Kari Konstantin; Nexø, Bjørn Andersen

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone acetylation are epigenetic modifications that act as regulators of gene expression. DNA methylation is considered an important mechanism for silencing of retroelements in the mammalian genome. However, the methylation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) is not well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional potential of HERV-Fc1 proviral 5′LTR in more detail, and examined the specific influence of CpG methylation on this LTR in number of cell lines. Specifically, the role of demethylating chemicals e.g. 5-aza-2deoxycytidine and Trichostatin-A, in inducing or reactivating expression of HERV-Fc1 specific sequences and the mechanisms were investigated. In our present study, 5-aza-dC is shown to be a powerful inducer of HERV-Fc1, and at the same time it strongly inhibits methylation of DNA. Treatment with this demethylating agent 5-aza-dC, results in significantly increased levels of HERV-Fc1 expression in cells previously not expressing HERV-Fc1, or with a very low expression level. The extent of expression of HERV-Fc1 RNAs precisely correlates with the apparent extent of demethylation of the related DNA sequences. In conclusion, the results suggest that inhibition of DNA methylation/histone deacetylase can interfere with gene silencing mechanisms affecting HERV-Fc1 expression in human cells. PMID:23382858

  6. Epigenetic modification suppresses proliferation, migration and invasion of urothelial cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeyer, Phillipp; Hemmerlein, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic approaches offer additional therapeutic options, including apoptosis induction, modification of cell cycle regulating proteins and the re-expression of pharmaceutical targets, such as hormone receptors. The present study analyzed the effect of the epigenetic modifiers 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and Trichostatin A on the proliferative, migratory and invasive behavior of four urinary bladder cancer cell lines (RT-4, RT-112, VMCUB-1 and T-24), and the expression of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays revealed that treatment with the two epigenetic modifiers resulted in proliferation inhibition in all cell lines, and migration and invasion inhibition in RT-4, RT-112 and T-24 cell lines. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the mRNA expression of a broad selection of MMPs and their TIMPs was induced in all cell lines, and MMP-14 mRNA expression was suppressed in all cell lines, with the exception of RT-4. In conclusion, epigenetic modifications suppressed the motility and invasiveness of three out of four urothelial cancer cell lines. The inhibitory effect on cell motility appears to be crucial for reduced invasive properties. However, even a broad spectrum of mRNA analysis does not sufficiently explain the loss of invasiveness, as it does not allow for functional conclusions. Further complex urothelial tumour models should be applied to investigate whether epigenetic therapeutic approaches may be an option in urothelial cancer. PMID:27602104

  7. TROP2 is epigenetically inactivated and modulates IGF-1R signalling in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jau-Chen; Wu, Yi-Ying; Wu, Jing-Yi; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Wu, Chen-Tu; Chang, Yih-Leong; Jou, Yuh-Shan; Hong, Tse-Ming; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2012-01-01

    Trop-2, a cell surface glycoprotein, contains both extracellular epidermal growth factor-like and thyroglobulin type-1 repeat domains. Low TROP2 expression was observed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues as compared with their normal counterparts. The lack of expression could be due to either the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or hypermethylation of the CpG island DNA of TROP2 upstream promoter region as confirmed by bisulphite sequencing and methylation-specific (MS) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment on lung cancer cell (CL) lines, CL1-5 and A549, reversed the hypermethylation status and elevated both TROP2 mRNA and protein expression levels. Enforced expression of TROP2 in the lung CL line H1299 reduced AKT as well as ERK activation and suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation. Conversely, silencing TROP2 with shRNA transfection in the less efficiently tumour-forming cell line H322M enhanced AKT activation and increased tumour growth. Trop-2 could attenuate IGF-1R signalling-mediated AKT/β-catenin and ERK activation through a direct binding of IGF1. In conclusion, inactivation of TROP2 due to LOH or by DNA methylation may play an important role in lung cancer tumourigenicity through losing its suppressive effect on IGF-1R signalling and tumour growth. PMID:22419550

  8. The apoptosis associated tyrosine kinase gene is frequently hypermethylated in human cancer and is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Tanja; Herkt, Christina E.; Walesch, Sara K.; Richter, Antje M.; Dammann, Reinhard H.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic gene inactivation through promoter hypermethylation is an important aberration involved in the silencing of tumor-associated genes in cancer. Here we identified the apoptosis associated tyrosine kinase (AATK) as an epigenetically downregulated tumor related gene. We analyzed the epigenetic regulation of AATK in several human cancer cell lines and normal tissues by methylation and expression analysis. Hypermethylation of AATK was also analyzed in 25 primary lung tumors, 30 breast cancers and 24 matching breast tissues. In normal tissues the AATK CpG island promoter was unmethylated and AATK was expressed. Hypermethylation of AATK occurred frequently in 13 out of 14 (93%) human cancer cell lines. Methylation was reversed by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment leading to re-expression of AATK in cancer cell lines. Aberrant methylation of AATK was also revealed in primary lung (40%) and breast (53%) cancers, but was found to be significantly less methylated in matching normal breast tissues (17%; p<0.01). In addition, we observed that AATK is epigenetically reactivated through the chromatin regulator CTCF. We further show that overexpression of Aatk significantly suppresses colony formation in cancer cell lines. Our findings suggest that the apoptosis associated tyrosine kinase is frequently inactivated in human cancers and acts as a tumor suppressive gene. PMID:25352953

  9. TROP2 is epigenetically inactivated and modulates IGF-1R signalling in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Chen; Wu, Yi-Ying; Wu, Jing-Yi; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Wu, Chen-Tu; Chang, Yih-Leong; Jou, Yuh-Shan; Hong, Tse-Ming; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2012-06-01

    Trop-2, a cell surface glycoprotein, contains both extracellular epidermal growth factor-like and thyroglobulin type-1 repeat domains. Low TROP2 expression was observed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues as compared with their normal counterparts. The lack of expression could be due to either the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or hypermethylation of the CpG island DNA of TROP2 upstream promoter region as confirmed by bisulphite sequencing and methylation-specific (MS) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment on lung cancer cell (CL) lines, CL1-5 and A549, reversed the hypermethylation status and elevated both TROP2 mRNA and protein expression levels. Enforced expression of TROP2 in the lung CL line H1299 reduced AKT as well as ERK activation and suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation. Conversely, silencing TROP2 with shRNA transfection in the less efficiently tumour-forming cell line H322M enhanced AKT activation and increased tumour growth. Trop-2 could attenuate IGF-1R signalling-mediated AKT/β-catenin and ERK activation through a direct binding of IGF1. In conclusion, inactivation of TROP2 due to LOH or by DNA methylation may play an important role in lung cancer tumourigenicity through losing its suppressive effect on IGF-1R signalling and tumour growth. PMID:22419550

  10. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  11. Folate deficiency and DNA-methyltransferase inhibition modulate G-quadruplex frequency.

    PubMed

    François, Maxime; Leifert, Wayne Richard; Tellam, Ross; Fenech, Michael Felix

    2016-07-01

    G-quadruplexes (G4) are highly stable tetra-stranded DNA secondary structures known to mediate gene regulation and to trigger genomic instability events during replication. G4 structural stability can be affected by DNA methylation and oxidation modifications; thus nutrients such as folate that have the ability to alter these processes could potentially modify the genomic occurrence of G4 elements. Hela cells were cultured in a range of folate concentrations or in the presence or absence of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA-methyltransferase inhibitor. G4 structures were then quantified by immunofluorescence using an automated quantitative imaging system. G4 frequency in Hela cells and nuclei area mean were increased in 20nM folate medium compared with 2000nM folate, as well as in the presence of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine when compared to cells non-exposed to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. These changes were exacerbated when pyridostatin, a G4 stabilising ligand, was added to the culture medium. G4 intensity in Hela cells cultured in deficient folate condition with pyridostatin was highly correlated with DNA damage as measured by γH2AX immunofluorescence (r = 0.71). This study showed for the first time that cellular G4 balance is modifiable by low folate concentrations and that these changes may occur as a consequence of DNA hypomethylation. Although the exact mechanism by which these changes occur is unclear, these findings establish the possibility that nutrients could be utilised as a tool for sustaining genome integrity by modifying G4 frequency at a cellular level. PMID:26758645

  12. DNMT (DNA methyltransferase) inhibitors radiosensitize human cancer cells by suppressing DNA repair activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Histone modifications and DNA methylation are two major factors in epigenetic phenomenon. Unlike the histone deacetylase inhibitors, which are known to exert radiosensitizing effects, there have only been a few studies thus far concerning the role of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors as radiosensitizers. The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of DNMT inhibitors on the radiosensitivity of human cancer cell lines, and to elucidate the mechanisms relevant to that process. Methods A549 (lung cancer) and U373MG (glioblastoma) cells were exposed to radiation with or without six DNMT inhibitors (5-azacytidine, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, zebularine, hydralazine, epigallocatechin gallate, and psammaplin A) for 18 hours prior to radiation, after which cell survival was evaluated via clonogenic assays. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed via flow cytometry. Expressions of DNMT1, 3A/3B, and cleaved caspase-3 were detected via Western blotting. Expression of γH2AX, a marker of radiation-induced DNA double-strand break, was examined by immunocytochemistry. Results Pretreatment with psammaplin A, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, and zebularine radiosensitized both A549 and U373MG cells. Pretreatment with psammaplin A increased the sub-G1 fraction of A549 cells, as compared to cells exposed to radiation alone. Prolongation of γH2AX expression was observed in the cells treated with DNMT inhibitors prior to radiation as compared with those treated by radiation alone. Conclusions Psammaplin A, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, and zebularine induce radiosensitivity in both A549 and U373MG cell lines, and suggest that this effect might be associated with the inhibition of DNA repair. PMID:22429326

  13. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancers in gerbils by a DNA demethylating agent.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Tohru; Toyoda, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Mori, Akiko; Tatematsu, Masae; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2013-04-01

    Suppression of aberrant DNA methylation is a novel approach to cancer prevention, but, so far, the efficacy of the strategy has not been evaluated in cancers associated with chronic inflammation. Gastric cancers induced by Helicobacter pylori infection are known to involve aberrant DNA methylation and associated with severe chronic inflammation in their early stages. Here, we aimed to clarify whether suppression of aberrant DNA methylation can prevent H. pylori-induced gastric cancers using a Mongolian gerbil model. Administration of a DNA demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), to gerbils (0.125 mg/kg for 50-55 weeks) decreased the incidence of gastric cancers induced by H. pylori infection and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) treatment from 55.2% to 23.3% (P < 0.05). In gastric epithelial cells, DNA methylation levels of six CpG islands (HE6, HG2, SB1, SB5, SF12, and SH6) decreased to 46% to 68% (P < 0.05) of gerbils without 5-aza-dC treatment. Also, the global DNA methylation level decreased from 83.0% ± 4.5% to 80.3% ± 4.4% (mean ± SD) by 5-aza-dC treatment (P < 0.05). By 5-aza-dC treatment, Il1b and Nos2 were downregulated (42% and 58% of gerbils without, respectively) but Tnf was upregulated (187%), suggesting that 5-aza-dC treatment induced dysregulation of inflammatory responses. No obvious adverse effect of 5-aza-dC treatment was observed, besides testicular atrophy. These results showed that 5-aza-dC treatment can prevent H. pylori-induced gastric cancers and suggested that removal of induced DNA methylation and/or suppression of DNA methylation induction can become a target for prevention of chronic inflammation-associated cancers. PMID:23559452

  14. Degradation or consumption of exogenous thymidine in absence or presence of exogenous deoxycytidine: Effect on DNA chain elongation and (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation in control and uv-irradiated CHO-K1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, C.N.; Hagler, M.

    1986-04-01

    When CHO-K1 cells monolayers are grown in Ham's F-12 culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (medium A) exogenous thymidine (dThd) is degraded to thymine by a putative dThd phosphorylase. Thymine is then poorly incorporated into cellular DNA. When 2 mM deoxycytidine (dCyd) is added to medium A (medium B) no degradation of exogenous dThd occurs; rather dThd is consumed in the synthesis of DNA, presumably via a dThd kinase or other nucleoside salvage pathway. Differences in the kinetics of DNA synthesis, measured by (/sup 3/H)dThd pulse-incorporation or by alkaline sucrose velocity sedimentation, are observed in the two media. In comparison to cells in medium A, DNA chain elongation rates of cells in medium B are faster but total DNA synthesis in these cells, measured by incorporation of (/sup 3/H)dThd, appears to be 2- to 3-fold more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of 10 Jm/sup -2/ uv-radiation. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Sustained Epigenetic Drug Delivery Depletes Cholesterol-Sphingomyelin Rafts from Resistant Breast Cancer Cells, Influencing Biophysical Characteristics of Membrane Lipids.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Vijay; Vijayaraghavalu, Sivakumar; Peetla, Chiranjeevi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Morisada, Megan; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2015-10-27

    Cell-membrane lipid composition can greatly influence biophysical properties of cell membranes, affecting various cellular functions. We previously showed that lipid synthesis becomes altered in the membranes of resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR); they form a more rigid, hydrophobic lipid monolayer than do sensitive cell membranes (MCF-7). These changes in membrane lipids of resistant cells, attributed to epigenetic aberration, significantly affected drug transport and endocytic function, thus impacting the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The present study's objective was to determine the effects of the epigenetic drug, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), delivered in sustained-release nanogels (DAC-NGs), on the composition and biophysical properties of membrane lipids of resistant cells. Resistant and sensitive cells were treated with DAC in solution (DAC-sol) or DAC-NGs, and cell-membrane lipids were isolated and analyzed for lipid composition and biophysical properties. In resistant cells, we found increased formation of cholesterol-sphingomyelin (CHOL-SM) rafts with culturing time, whereas DAC treatment reduced their formation. In general, the effect of DAC-NGs was greater in changing the lipid composition than with DAC-sol. DAC treatment also caused a rise in levels of certain phospholipids and neutral lipids known to increase membrane fluidity, while reducing the levels of certain lipids known to increase membrane rigidity. Isotherm data showed increased lipid membrane fluidity following DAC treatment, attributed to decrease levels of CHOL-SM rafts (lamellar beta [Lβ] structures or ordered gel) and a corresponding increase in lipids that form lamellar alpha-structures (Lα, liquid crystalline phase). Sensitive cells showed marginal or insignificant changes in lipid profile following DAC-treatment, suggesting that epigenetic changes affecting lipid biosynthesis are more specific to resistant cells. Since membrane fluidity plays a major role in drug transport

  16. Changes in global gene expression in response to chemical and genetic perturbation of chromatin structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA methylation and histone acetylation are important for controlling gene expression in all eukaryotes. Microarray analysis revealed an altered gene expression profile after treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2’ deoxyctidine (5-AC), which included the upregulation of many transposab...

  17. Promoter hypermethylation of progesterone receptor isoform B (PR-B) in adenomyosis and its rectification by a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a demethylation agent.

    PubMed

    Jichan Nie; Xishi Liu; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2010-11-01

    Adenomyosis is a fairly common gynecologic disease with unknown pathogenesis. We sought to investigate as to whether the promoter of progesterone receptor isoform B (PR-B) is hypermethylated in adenomyosis and to investigate the treatment of ectopic endometrial stromal cells with trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI), and 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (ADC), a demethylation agent, on PR-B gene and protein expression, and on cell viability. Ectopic endometrial tissue specimens were obtained from 9 women with adenomyosis whereas control endometrial tissue samples were obtained from 8 women with surgically diagnosed benign ovarian cysts but without any clinical history of endometriosis/adenomyosis/ myoma. Endometrial stromal cells were isolated, purified, cultured, and analyzed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and Western blot analysis, cell viability assays, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that none of the normal endometrial stromal cells had PR-B promoter methylation. In contrast, 2 out of 3 ectopic endometrial stromall cells had PR-B hypermethylation (P < .05). The treatment with both TSA and ADC elevated PR-B gene and protein expression in ectopic, but not in normal, endometrial stromal cells. Both TSA and ADC treatment dose-dependently reduced cell viability of ectopic endometrial stromal cells. Trichostatin A and ADC treatment also suppressed the cell cycle progression in ectopic endometrial stromal cells. Thus, this study provides the first piece of evidence that adenomyosis has epigenetic aberration and may also be an epigenetic disease amenable to rectification by pharmacological means. This perspective may shed new light onto the pathogenesis of adenomyosis and lead to novel ways to treat the disease. PMID:20697142

  18. DAC can restore expression of NALP1 to suppress tumor growth in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Wang, B; Sun, J; Na, H; Chen, Z; Zhu, Z; Yan, L; Ren, S; Zuo, Y

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress in the identification of genetic and molecular alternations in colorectal carcinoma, the precise molecular pathogenesis remains unclear. NALP1 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 1) is a member of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family of proteins that are key organization proteins in the inflammasome. It is reported that NALP1 plays a central role in cell apoptosis, pyroptosis, inflammatory reactions and autoimmune diseases. DAC (5-aza-2-deoxycytidine) is an antitumor drug useful to lung cancer, myelodysplastic disorders, myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we examined the expression of NALP1 in human normal and cancerous colon tissues using tissue microarray, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR and we measured the expression of NALP1 in three kinds of colon cancer cell lines and animal models before and after treatment with DAC. Furthermore, we examined the treatment effects of DAC on colon cancer in our animal model. Our data indicate that NALP1 is expressed low in human colorectal tumoral tissues relative to paratumoral tissues and was associated with the survival and tumor metastasis of patients. The expression of NALP1 increased after treatment with DAC both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, DAC suppressed the growth of colon cancer and increased lifespan in mouse model. Therefore, we conclude that NALP1 is expressed low in colon cancer and associated with the survival and tumor metastasis of patients, and treatment with DAC can restore NALP1 levels to suppress the growth of colon cancer. PMID:25611377

  19. Mechanism of Hb F stimulation by S-stage compounds. In vitro studies with bone marrow cells exposed to 5-azacytidine, Ara-C, or hydroxyurea.

    PubMed Central

    Galanello, R; Stamatoyannopoulos, G; Papayannopoulou, T

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro effect of S-stage-specific drugs on the fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) potential of erythroid precursors and progenitors was tested by exposing bone marrow cells to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, Ara-C, or hydroxyurea in suspension cultures and reculturing the cells in drug-free clonal cultures. Analysis of Hb F in the erythroblasts present at the end of suspension cultures and in the erythroid colonies formed from treated progenitors showed that 1 X 10(-9)-5 X 10(-8) M 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine produced a concentration-related increase in the proportion of Hb F-positive erythroblasts, of Hb F-positive erythroid CFU (CFUe) colonies, and at the higher doses used, an increased Hb F expression in erythroid burst-forming unit (BFUe)-derived colonies. Preincubation of bone marrow cells with Ara-C produced significant megaloblastic changes by the end of the 2-d incubation and increased the proportion of Hb F-positive erythroblasts, CFUe colonies, and e-clusters, but BFUe-derived progeny was unaffected. Hydroxyurea failed to produce significant changes in Hb F at the range of concentrations used. The data raise the possibility of more than one mechanism underlying the stimulation of Hb F by S-stage drugs. PMID:2450894

  20. Antileukemic potency of CD19-specific T cells against chemoresistant pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dolnikov, Alla; Shen, Sylvie; Klamer, Guy; Joshi, Swapna; Xu, Ning; Yang, Lu; Micklethwaite, Kenneth; O'Brien, Tracey A

    2015-12-01

    Adoptive therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells (CART cells) has exhibited great promise in clinical trials, with efficient response correlated with CART-cell expansion and persistence. Despite extensive clinical use, the mechanisms regulating CART-cell expansion and persistence have not been completely elucidated. We have examined the antileukemia potency of CART cells targeting CD19 antigen using second-generation CAR containing a CD28 co-stimulatory domain cloned into piggyBac-transposon vector and patient-derived chemoresistant pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia samples. In the presence of large numbers of target cells characteristic of patients with high leukemia burden, excessive proliferation of CART cells leads to differentiation into short-lived effector cells. Transient leukemia growth delay was induced by CART-cell infusion in mice xenografted with rapidly growing CD19+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and was followed by rapid CART-cell extinction. Conditioning with the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-activating caspase 3 and promotion of apoptosis in leukemia cells maximized the effect of CART cells and improved CART-cell persistence. These data suggest that the clinical use of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine before CART cells could be considered. Coculture of leukemia cells with bone marrow stroma cells reduced target cell loss, suggesting that leukemia cell mobilization into circulation may help to remove the protective effect of bone marrow stroma and increase the efficacy of CART-cell therapy. PMID:26384559

  1. Identification of coexistence of DNA methylation and H3K27me3 specifically in cancer cells as a promising target for epigenetic therapy.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Hideyuki; Wakabayashi, Mika; Hattori, Naoko; Yamashita, Satoshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2015-02-01

    Alterations of epigenetic modifications are promising targets for cancer therapy, and several epigenetic drugs are now being clinically utilized. At the same time, individual epigenetic modifications have physiological functions in normal cells, and cancer cell specificity is considered difficult to achieve using a drug against a single epigenetic modification. To overcome this limitation, a combination of epigenetic modifications specifically or preferentially present in cancer cells is a candidate target. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate (i) the presence of a cancer cell-specific combination of epigenetic modifications by focusing on DNA methylation and trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and (ii) the therapeutic efficacy of a combination of DNA demethylation and EZH2 inhibition. Analyses of DNA methylation and H3K27me3 in human colon, breast and prostate cancer cell lines revealed that 24.7±4.1% of DNA methylated genes had both DNA methylation and H3K27me3 (dual modification) in cancer cells, while it was 11.8±7.1% in normal cells. Combined treatment with a DNA demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and an EZH2 inhibitor, GSK126, induced marked re-expression of genes with the dual modification, including known tumor-suppressor genes such as IGFBP7 and SFRP1, and showed an additive inhibitory effect on growth of cancer cells in vitro. Finally, an in vivo combined treatment with 5-aza-dC and GSK126 inhibited growth of xenograft tumors more efficiently than a single treatment with 5-aza-dC. These results showed that the dual modification exists specifically in cancer cells and is a promising target for cancer cell-specific epigenetic therapy. PMID:25477340

  2. Epigenetic modulation of endogenous tumor suppressor expression in lung cancer xenografts suppresses tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Joshua P; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Rao, Atul S; Druck, Teresa; Semba, Shuho; Han, Shuang-Yin; McCorkell, Kelly A; Lakshman, Thiru V; Collins, Joshua E; Wachsberger, Phyllis; Friedberg, Joseph S; Huebner, Kay

    2007-01-01

    Epigenetic changes involved in cancer development, unlike genetic changes, are reversible. DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors show antiproliferative effects in vitro, through tumor suppressor reactivation and induction of apoptosis. Such inhibitors have shown activity in the treatment of hematologic disorders but there is little data concerning their effectiveness in treatment of solid tumors. FHIT, WWOX and other tumor suppressor genes are frequently epigenetically inactivated in lung cancers. Lung cancer cell clones carrying conditional FHIT or WWOX transgenes showed significant suppression of xenograft tumor growth after induction of expression of the FHIT or WWOX transgene, suggesting that treatments to restore endogenous Fhit and Wwox expression in lung cancers would result in decreased tumorigenicity. H1299 lung cancer cells, lacking Fhit, Wwox, p16(INK4a) and Rassf1a expression due to epigenetic modifications, were used to assess efficacy of epigenetically targeted protocols in suppressing growth of lung tumors, by injection of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (AZA) and trichostatin A (TSA) in nude mice with established H1299 tumors. High doses of intraperitoneal AZA/TSA suppressed growth of small tumors but did not affect large tumors (200 mm(3)); lower AZA doses, administered intraperitoneally or intratumorally, suppressed growth of small tumors without apparent toxicity. Responding tumors showed restoration of Fhit, Wwox, p16(INKa), Rassf1a expression, low mitotic activity, high apoptotic fraction and activation of caspase 3. These preclinical studies show the therapeutic potential of restoration of tumor suppressor expression through epigenetic modulation and the promise of re-expressed tumor suppressors as markers and effectors of the responses. PMID:17019711

  3. Demethylation regulation of BDNF gene expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons is implicated in opioid-induced pain hypersensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yu-Chieh; Xie, Fang; Li, Xueyang; Guo, Ruijuan; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Chen; Shi, Rong; Guan, Yun; Yue, Yun; Wang, Yun

    2016-07-01

    Repeated administration of morphine may result in opioid-induced hypersensitivity (OIH), which involves altered expression of numerous genes, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Yet, it remains unclear how BDNF expression is increased in DRG neurons after repeated morphine treatment. DNA methylation is an important mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression. In the current study, we hypothesized that the demethylation regulation of certain BDNF gene promoters in DRG neurons may contribute to the development of OIH. Real-time RT-PCR was used to assess changes in the mRNA transcription levels of major BDNF exons including exon I, II, IV, VI, as well as total BDNF mRNA in DRGs from rats after repeated morphine administration. The levels of exon IV and total BDNF mRNA were significantly upregulated by repeated morphine administration, as compared to that in saline control group. Further, ELISA array and immunocytochemistry study revealed a robust upregulation of BDNF protein expression in DRG neurons after repeated morphine exposure. Correspondingly, the methylation levels of BDNF exon IV promoter showed a significant downregulation by morphine treatment. Importantly, intrathecal administration of a BDNF antibody, but not control IgG, significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity that developed in rats after repeated morphine treatment. Conversely, intrathecal administration of an inhibitor of DNA methylation, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) markedly upregulated the BDNF protein expression in DRG neurons and enhanced the mechanical allodynia after repeated morphine exposure. Together, our findings suggest that demethylation regulation of BDNF gene promoter may be implicated in the development of OIH through epigenetic control of BDNF expression in DRG neurons. PMID:26970395

  4. Deregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through genetic or epigenetic alterations in human neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Tae; Li, Jing; Jang, Eun Ryoung; Gulhati, Pat; Rychahou, Piotr G; Napier, Dana L; Wang, Chi; Weiss, Heidi L; Lee, Eun Y; Anthony, Lowell; Townsend, Courtney M; Liu, Chunming; Evers, B Mark

    2013-05-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that are increasing in incidence. Mutation and altered expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling components have been described in many tumors but have not been well-studied in NETs. Here, we observed accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus in 25% of clinical NET tissues. By mutational analysis, the mutations of β-catenin (I35S) and APC (E1317Q, T1493T) were identified in NET cells and the tissues. Expression of representative Wnt inhibitors was absent or markedly decreased in BON, a human pancreatic carcinoid cell line; treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) increased expression levels of the Wnt inhibitors. Methylation analyses demonstrated that CpG islands of SFRP-1 and Axin-2 were methylated, whereas the promoters of DKK-1, DKK-3 and WIF-1 were unmethylated in four NET cells. Aberrant methylation of SFRP-1 was particularly observed in most of clinical NET tissues. In addition, the repression of these unmethylated genes was associated with histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in BON cells. Together, 5-aza-CdR treatment inhibited cell proliferation and decreased the protein levels of H3K9me2 and G9a. Moreover, a novel G9a inhibitor, UNC0638, suppressed BON cell proliferation through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Overexpression of the inhibitory genes, particularly SFRP-1 and WIF-1 in BON cells, resulted in suppression of anchorage-independent growth and inhibition of tumor growth in mice. Our findings suggest that aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling, through either mutations or epigenetic silencing of Wnt antagonists, contributes to the pathogenesis and growth of NETs and have important clinical implications for the prognosis and treatment of NETs. PMID:23354304

  5. Epigenetic Regulation of Vitamin D 24-Hydroxylase/CYP24A1 in Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Karpf, Adam R.; Deeb, Kristin K.; Muindi, Josephia R.; Morrison, Carl D.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Calcitriol, a regulator of calcium homeostasis with antitumor properties, is degraded by the product of the CYP24A1 gene which is downregulated in human prostate cancer by unknown mechanisms. We found that CYP24A1 expression is inversely correlated with promoter DNA methylation in prostate cancer cell lines. Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC) activates CYP24A1 expression in prostate cancer cells. In vitro methylation of the CYP24A1 promoter represses its promoter activity. Furthermore, inhibition of histone deacetylases by trichostatin A (TSA) enhances the expression of CYP24A1 in prostate cancer cells. ChIP-qPCR reveals that specific histone modifications are associated with the CYP24A1 promoter region. Treatment with TSA increases H3K9ac and H3K4me2 and simultaneously decreases H3K9me2 at the CYP24A1 promoter. ChIP-qPCR assay reveals that treatment with DAC and TSA increases the recruitment of VDR to the CYP24A1 promoter. RT-PCR analysis of paired human prostate samples reveals that CYP24A1 expression is down-regulated in prostate malignant lesions compared to adjacent histologically benign lesions. Bisulfite pyrosequencing shows that CYP24A1 gene is hypermethylated in malignant lesions compared to matched benign lesions. Our findings indicate that repression of CYP24A1 gene expression in human prostate cancer cells is mediated in part by promoter DNA methylation and repressive histone modifications. PMID:20587525

  6. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. PMID:26905204

  7. Dexamethasone Induces Cardiomyocyte Terminal Differentiation via Epigenetic Repression of Cyclin D2 Gene.

    PubMed

    Gay, Maresha S; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Li, Yong; Kanna, Angela; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-08-01

    Dexamethasone treatment of newborn rats inhibited cardiomyocyte proliferation and stimulated premature terminal differentiation of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart. Yet mechanisms remain undetermined. The present study tested the hypothesis that the direct effect of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated epigenetic repression of cyclin D2 gene in the cardiomyocyte plays a key role in the dexamethasone-mediated effects in the developing heart. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from 2-day-old rats. Cells were stained with a cardiomyocyte marker α-actinin and a proliferation marker Ki67. Cyclin D2 expression was evaluated by Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Promoter methylation of CcnD2 was determined by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP). Overexpression of Cyclin D2 was conducted by transfection of FlexiCcnD2 (+CcnD2) construct. Treatment of cardiomyocytes isolated from newborn rats with dexamethasone for 48 hours significantly inhibited cardiomyocyte proliferation with increased binucleation and decreased cyclin D2 protein abundance. These effects were blocked with Ru486 (mifepristone). In addition, the dexamethasone treatment significantly increased cyclin D2 gene promoter methylation in newborn rat cardiomyocytes. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine inhibited dexamethasone-mediated promoter methylation, recovered dexamethasone-induced cyclin D2 gene repression, and blocked the dexamethasone-elicited effects on cardiomyocyte proliferation and binucleation. In addition, the overexpression of cyclin D2 restored the dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of proliferation and increase in binucleation in newborn rat cardiomyocytes. The results demonstrate that dexamethasone acting on glucocorticoid receptors has a direct effect and inhibits proliferation and stimulates premature terminal differentiation of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart via epigenetic repression of cyclin D2 gene. PMID:27302109

  8. Glycolic Acid Silences Inflammasome Complex Genes, NLRC4 and ASC, by Inducing DNA Methylation in HaCaT Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheau-Chung; Yeh, Jih-I; Hung, Sung-Jen; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Liu, Fu-Tong; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2016-03-01

    AHAs (α-hydroxy acids), including glycolic acid (GA), have been widely used in cosmetic products and superficial chemical peels. Inflammasome complex has been shown to play critical roles in inflammatory pathways in human keratinocytes. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of GA is still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the expression of the inflammasome complex and epigenetic modification to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of GA in HaCaT cells. We evaluated NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2, and ASC inflammasome complex gene expression on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methylation changes were detected in these genes following treatment with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) with or without the addition of GA using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). GA inhibited the expressions of these inflammasome complex genes, and the decreases in the expressions of mRNA were reversed by 5-Aza treatment. Methylation was detected in NLRC4 and ASC on MSP, but not in NLRP3 or AIM2. GA decreased NLRC4 and ASC gene expression by increasing not only DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT-3B) protein level, but also total DNMT activity. Furthermore, silencing of DNMT-3B (shDNMT-3B) increased the expressions of NLRC4 and ASC. Our data demonstrated that GA treatment induces hypermethylation of promoters of NLRC4 and ASC genes, which may subsequently lead to the hindering of the assembly of the inflammasome complex in HaCaT cells. These results highlight the anti-inflammatory potential of GA-containing cosmetic agents in human skin cells and demonstrate for the first time the role of aberrant hypermethylation in this process. PMID:26784358

  9. Five-aza-2′-deoxycytidine-induced hypomethylation of cholesterol 25-hydroxylase gene is responsible for cell death of myelodysplasia/leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsujioka, Takayuki; Yokoi, Akira; Itano, Yoshitaro; Takahashi, Kentaro; Ouchida, Mamoru; Okamoto, Shuichiro; Kondo, Toshinori; Suemori, Shin-ichiro; Tohyama, Yumi; Tohyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMT inhibitors) are administered for high-risk MDS, but their action mechanisms are not fully understood. Hence, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation assay and focused on cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) among the genes whose expression was up-regulated and whose promoter region was hypomethylated after decitabine (DAC) treatment in vitro. CH25H catalyzes hydroxylation of cholesterol and produces 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC). Although CH25H mRNA expression level was originally low in MDS/leukemia cell lines, exposure to DNMT inhibitors enhanced CH25H mRNA expression. The promoter region of CH25H was originally hypermethylated in HL-60 and MDS-L cells, but DAC treatment induced their hypomethylation together with increased CH25H mRNA expression, activation of CH25H-oxysterol pathway, 25-OHC production and apoptotic cell death. We further confirmed that normal CD34-positive cells revealed hypomethylated status of the promoter region of CH25H gene. CH25H-knockdown by transfection of shRNA lentiviral vector into the cell lines partially protected the cells from DAC-induced cell death. Exogenous addition of 25-OHC suppressed leukemic cell growth. The present study raises a possibility that DNMT inhibitors activate CH25H-oxysterol pathway by their hypomethylating mechanism and induce leukemic cell death. Further investigations of the promoter analysis of CH25H gene and therapeutic effects of DNMT inhibitors on MDS/leukemia will be warranted. PMID:26577244

  10. Novel Epigenetic Target Therapy for Prostate Cancer: A Preclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Gherardini, Lisa; Pelosi, Gualtiero; Viglione, Federica; Grimaldi, Settimio; Pani, Luca; Cinti, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic events are critical contributors to the pathogenesis of cancer, and targeting epigenetic mechanisms represents a novel strategy in anticancer therapy. Classic demethylating agents, such as 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Decitabine), hold the potential for reprograming somatic cancer cells demonstrating high therapeutic efficacy in haematological malignancies. On the other hand, epigenetic treatment of solid tumours often gives rise to undesired cytotoxic side effects. Appropriate delivery systems able to enrich Decitabine at the site of action and improve its bioavailability would reduce the incidence of toxicity on healthy tissues. In this work we provide preclinical evidences of a safe, versatile and efficient targeted epigenetic therapy to treat hormone sensitive (LNCap) and hormone refractory (DU145) prostate cancers. A novel Decitabine formulation, based on the use of engineered erythrocyte (Erythro-Magneto-Hemagglutinin Virosomes, EMHVs) drug delivery system (DDS) carrying this drug, has been refined. Inside the EMHVs, the drug was shielded from the environment and phosphorylated in its active form. The novel magnetic EMHV DDS, endowed with fusogenic protein, improved the stability of the carried drug and exhibited a high efficiency in confining its delivery at the site of action in vivo by applying an external static magnetic field. Here we show that Decitabine loaded into EMHVs induces a significant tumour mass reduction in prostate cancer xenograft models at a concentration, which is seven hundred times lower than the therapeutic dose, suggesting an improved pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of drug. These results are relevant for and discussed in light of developing personalised autologous therapies and innovative clinical approach for the treatment of solid tumours. PMID:24851905

  11. Methylated Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (BMP3) Gene: Evaluation of Tumor Suppressor Function and Biomarker Potential in Biliary Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kisiel, John B; Li, Jia; Zou, Hongzhi; Oseini, Abdul M; Strauss, Benjamin B; Gulaid, Kadra H.; Moser, Catherine D; Aderca, Ileana; Ahlquist, David A; Roberts, Lewis R; Shire, Abdirashid M

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is an uncommon and highly lethal malignancy, early detection enables the application of potentially curative therapies and improves survival. Consequently, tools to improve the early diagnosis of CC are urgently needed. During a screen for genes epigenetically suppressed by methylation in CC that might serve as methylation markers for CC, we found that the BMP3 gene is methylated in CC cell lines, but the potential diagnostic value and the function of BMP3 in CC are unknown. Methods We aimed to quantitatively assess BMP3 methylation in resected CC tumor specimens using methylation specific PCR and evaluate the tumor suppressor role of BMP3 in biliary cancer cell lines in comparison to an immortalized normal cholangiocyte cell line. Expression of BMP3 was quantified by mRNA levels before and after treatment with 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A. After transfection with a BMP3-containing plasmid, cell viability was measured using the bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay and apoptosis quantified by caspase assay. Results In primary CC tumor tissue specimens significantly more methylated BMP3 copies were found when compared to matched benign bile duct epithelium from the same patient, with high specificity. BMP3 expression was absent in cell lines with BMP3 methylation; this suppression of BMP3 expression was reversed by treatment with a DNA demethylating agent and histone de-acetylase inhibitor. Transfection of a BMP3-expressing construct into a BMP3-negative biliary cancer cell line restored BMP3 mRNA expression and reduced cell proliferation and cell viability while increasing the rate of apoptosis. Conclusion These findings strongly support a tumor suppressor role for BMP3 in CC and suggest that BMP3 methylation may be a new biomarker for early detection of CCs. of the peptidome are also involved. PMID:25077038

  12. Silencing of CHD5 Gene by Promoter Methylation in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui; Meng, Fanyi; Wang, Nisha; Ma, Wenli; Yan, Qitao

    2014-01-01

    Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) was previously proposed to function as a potent tumor suppressor by acting as a master regulator of a tumor-suppressive network. CHD5 is down-regulated in several cancers, including leukemia and is responsible for tumor generation and progression. However, the mechanism of CHD5 down-regulation in leukemia is largely unknown. In this study, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses revealed that CHD5 was down-regulated in human leukemia cell lines and samples. Luciferase reporter assays showed that most of the baseline regulatory activity was localized from 500 to 200 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Bisulfite DNA sequencing of the identified regulatory element revealed that the CHD5 promoter was hypermethylated in human leukemia cells and samples. Thus, CHD5 expression was inversely correlated with promoter DNA methylation in these samples. Treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC) activates CHD5 expression in human leukemia cell lines. In vitro luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that methylation of the CHD5 promoter repressed its promoter activity. Furthermore, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay combined with qualitative PCR identified activating protein 2 (AP2) as a potential transcription factor involved in CHD5 expression and indicated that treatment with DAC increases the recruitment of AP2 to the CHD5 promoter. In vitro transcription-factor activity studies showed that AP2 over-expression was able to activate CHD5 promoter activity. Our findings indicate that repression of CHD5 gene expression in human leukemia is mediated in part by DNA methylation of its promoter. PMID:24454811

  13. DNMT1 mediates chemosensitivity by reducing methylation of miRNA-20a promoter in glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Daoyang; Wan, Yingfeng; Xie, Dajiang; Wang, Yirong; Wei, Junhua; Yan, Qingfeng; Lu, Peng; Mo, Lianjie; Xie, Jixi; Yang, Shuxu; Qi, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Although methyltransferase has been recognized as a major element that governs the epigenetic regulation of the genome during temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients, its regulatory effect on glioblastoma chemoresistance has not been well defined. This study investigated whether DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) expression was associated with TMZ sensitivity in glioma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanism. DNMT expression was analyzed by western blotting. miR-20a promoter methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assays, respectively. The results showed that compared with parental U251 cells, DNMT1 expression was downregulated, miR-20a promoter methylation was attenuated and miR-20a levels were elevated in TMZ-resistant U251 cells. Methyltransferase inhibition by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment reduced TMZ sensitivity in U251 cells. In U251/TM cells, DNMT1 expression was negatively correlated with miR-20a expression and positively correlated with TMZ sensitivity and leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 expression; these effects were reversed by changes in miR-20a expression. DNMT1 overexpression induced an increase in U251/TM cell apoptosis that was inhibited by the miR-20a mimic, whereas DNMT1 silencing attenuated U251/TM cell apoptosis in a manner that was abrogated by miR-20a inhibitor treatment. Tumor growth of the U251/TM xenograft was inhibited by pcDNA-DNMT1 pretreatment and boosted by DNMT1-small hairpin RNA pretreatment. In summary, DNMT1 mediated chemosensitivity by reducing methylation of the microRNA-20a promoter in glioma cells. PMID:26337869

  14. Reversible epigenetic fingerprint-mediated glutathione-S-transferase P1 gene silencing in human leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Karius, Tommy; Schnekenburger, Michael; Ghelfi, Jenny; Walter, Jörn; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2011-06-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene is commonly silenced by CpG island promoter hypermethylation in prostate, breast, and liver cancers. However, mechanisms leading to GSTP1 repression by promoter hypermethylation in leukemia and its relationship with pathological alterations of the chromatin structure remain poorly understood. A panel of leukemia cell lines was analyzed for their GSTP1 expression, revealing cell lines with high, moderate or no detectable GSTP1 expression. Bisulfite sequencing, methylation-specific PCR and combined bisulfite restriction analysis revealed that GSTP1 promoter was completely methylated in transcriptionally inactive RAJI and MEG-01 cell lines. In contrast, cell lines expressing GSTP1 exhibited an unmethylated and transcriptionally active promoter. Furthermore, histone marks and effector proteins associated with transcriptional activity were detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation in the GSTP1 expressing hypomethylated K-562 cell line. However, repressive chromatin marks and the recruitment of silencing protein complexes were found in the non-expressing hypermethylated RAJI and MEG-01 cell lines. Finally, we provide evidence that treatment of RAJI and MEG-01 cells with the DNA demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, resulted in GSTP1 promoter demethylation, drastic changes of histone modifications and promoter associated proteins and GSTP1 gene activation. In contrast, treatments with HDAC inhibitors failed to demethylate and reactivate the GSTP1 gene. Our study extends the knowledge on leukemia-specific epigenetic alterations of GSTP1 gene. Furthermore, we are showing the correlation of DNA methylation and histone modifications with the positive/negative GSTP1 transcriptional expression state. Finally, these data support the concept of the dominance of DNA methylation over HDAC inhibitor-sensitive histone deacetylation in gene silencing. PMID:21453686

  15. Amyloid beta-mediated epigenetic alteration of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 controls cell survival in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hye Youn; Choi, Eun Nam; Lyu, Dahyun; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Ahn, Jung-Hyuck

    2014-01-01

    Swedish double mutation (KM670/671NL) of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is reported to increase toxic amyloid β (Aβ) production via aberrant cleavage at the β-secretase site and thereby cause early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to AD pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Previously, our transcriptome sequence analyses revealed global expressional modifications of over 600 genes in APP-Swedish mutant-expressing H4 (H4-sw) cells compared to wild type H4 cells. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) is one gene that showed significantly decreased mRNA expression in H4-sw cells. In this study, we investigated the functional role of IGFBP3 in AD pathogenesis and elucidated the mechanisms regulating its expression. We observed decreased IGFBP3 expression in the H4-sw cell line as well as the hippocampus of AD model transgenic mice. Treatment with exogenous IGFBP3 protein inhibited Aβ1-42- induced cell death and caspase-3 activity, whereas siRNA-mediated suppression of IGFBP3 expression induced cell death and caspase-3 cleavage. In primary hippocampal neurons, administration of IGFBP3 protein blocked apoptotic cell death due to Aβ1-42 toxicity. These data implicate a protective role for IGFBP3 against Aβ1-42-mediated apoptosis. Next, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms of IGFBP3 expression in AD pathogenesis. We observed abnormal IGFBP3 hypermethylation within the promoter CpG island in H4-sw cells. Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored IGFBP3 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Chronic exposure to Aβ1-42 induced IGFBP3 hypermethylation at CpGs, particularly at loci -164 and -173, and subsequently suppressed IGFBP3 expression. Therefore, we demonstrate that expression of anti-apoptotic IGFBP3 is regulated by epigenetic DNA methylation, suggesting a mechanism that contributes to AD pathogenesis. PMID:24964199

  16. Rescued expression of WIF-1 in gallbladder cancer inhibits tumor growth and induces tumor cell apoptosis with altered expression of proteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Du, Qiang; Wu, Weibao; She, Feifei; Chen, Yanling

    2016-09-01

    As a highly conserved metabolic pathway, the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in cell differentiation, proliferation and several other processes. In normal cells, this pathway is suppressed, and abnormal activation is often associated with tumor occurrence and development. In certain types of tumor, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF‑1), an inhibitor of the Wnt pathway, inhibits tumor growth. However, the effect of the expression of WIF-1 on gallbladder cancer remains to be fully elucidated. In the current study, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were conducted. The present study demonstrated that, in gallbladder cancer, WIF‑1 generally exhibited low levels of expression as a result of gene promoter methylation. Treatment with the drug, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, increased the expression of WIF‑1 in the GBC‑SD gallbladder cell line. In addition, a WIF‑1‑expression plasmid was transfected into GBC‑SD cells, and it was found that cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis declined significantly, whereas the apoptotic rate increased. A nude mouse tumor transplantation experiment showed that the oncogenicity of the GBC‑SD cells expressing WIF‑1 was substantially lower, compared with that of the untransfected GBC‑SD cells and of GBD‑SD cells expressing the control plasmid. A fluorescent protein chip experiment showed that the restored expression of WIF‑1 affected the expression of several cellular proteins. These alterations may explain the different biological behavior of the tumor cells expressing WIF‑1. As an effective inhibitory factor of the Wnt signaling pathway, WIF‑1 modulated the expression of proteins controlling the proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis of gallbladder tumor cells, thus suppressing the tumor. Therefore, WIF‑1 may be an effective treatment target for gallbladder cancer. PMID:27430608

  17. Histone deacetylation contributes to low extracellular superoxide dismutase expression in human idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Woods, Crystal; Stearman, Robert S; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Ferguson, Bradley S; Swain, Kalin; Bowler, Russell P; Geraci, Mark W; Ihida-Stansbury, Kaori; Stenmark, Kurt R; McKinsey, Timothy A; Domann, Frederick E

    2016-07-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation, regulate gene expression in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). These mechanisms can modulate expression of extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3 or EC-SOD), a key vascular antioxidant enzyme, and loss of vascular SOD3 worsens outcomes in animal models of pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that SOD3 gene expression is decreased in patients with IPAH due to aberrant DNA methylation and/or histone deacetylation. We used lung tissue and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) from subjects with IPAH at transplantation and from failed donors (FD). Lung SOD3 mRNA expression and activity was decreased in IPAH vs. FD. In contrast, mitochondrial SOD (Mn-SOD or SOD2) protein expression was unchanged and intracellular SOD activity was unchanged. Using bisulfite sequencing in genomic lung or PASMC DNA, we found the methylation status of the SOD3 promoter was similar between FD and IPAH. Furthermore, treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine did not increase PASMC SOD3 mRNA, suggesting DNA methylation was not responsible for PASMC SOD3 expression. Though total histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, acetylated histones, and acetylated SP1 were similar between IPAH and FD, treatment with two selective class I HDAC inhibitors increased SOD3 only in IPAH PASMC. Class I HDAC3 siRNA also increased SOD3 expression. Trichostatin A, a pan-HDAC inhibitor, decreased proliferation in IPAH, but not in FD PASMC. These data indicate that histone deacetylation, specifically via class I HDAC3, decreases SOD3 expression in PASMC and HDAC inhibitors may protect IPAH in part by increasing PASMC SOD3 expression. PMID:27233998

  18. MicroRNA-429 inhibits the migration and invasion of colon cancer cells by targeting PAK6/cofilin signaling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiangyang; Wei, Zibai; Wang, Jia; Liu, Ping; Qin, Yijun; Zhong, Meizuo

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs), a class of non-coding RNAs 18-25 nucleotides in length, can lead to mRNA degradation or inhibit protein translation by directly binding to the 3'-untranslational region (UTR) of their target mRNAs. The deregulation of miR-429 has been suggested to be involved in the development and progression of colon cancer. However, the detailed molecular mechanism involved remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-429 in the regulation of migration and invasion of colon cancer cells using RT-qPCR and western blotting. The results showed that the expression of miR-429 was reduced in colon cancer cell lines, when compared to a normal colon epithelial cell line. Treatment with DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate (PBA), or transfection with the pre-miR-429 lentivirus plasmid led to the upregulation of miR-429 expression, as well as inhibition of migration and invasion in colon cancer cells. Investigation of the molecular mechanism showed that PAK6 was a novel target of miR-429, and the expression of PAK6 was upregulated in colon cancer tissues and cell lines, and was negatively regulated by miR-429 in colon cancer cells. Moreover, the cofilin signaling acted as a downstream effector of miR-429 in colon cancer cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that miR-429 inhibits the migration and invasion of colon cancer cells, partly at least, by mediating the expression of PAK6, as well as the activity of cofilin signaling. Therefore, miR-429 is as a potential molecular target for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:26058485

  19. Downregulation of thrombospondin-1 by DNA hypermethylation is associated with tumor progression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuang; Zhou, Xiaohong; Li, Zhenhua; Liu, Hong; He, Yun; Ye, Guo; Huang, Kun

    2016-09-01

    Thrombospondin‑1 (THBS‑1) has been demonstrated to have a complicated role in human cancer and to exert stimulatory and inhibitory effects in different types of tumors. DNA methylation, as the most frequent mechanism for gene silencing, has been widely investigated in regards to the development of tumors. However, the expression levels and methylation status of THBS‑1, and their roles in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) remain to be elucidated. The present study detected downregulated THBS‑1 mRNA and protein expression levels in LSCC by using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting, while decreased expression levels of THBS‑1 mRNA and protein were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and tumor‑node‑metastasis (TNM) stage. Furthermore, aberrant methylation of THBS‑1 was frequently observed in LSCC by methylation‑specific PCR, particularly in tumor tissues from lymph node metastasis or samples from cancer with advanced TNM stage. Furthermore, the current study demonstrated that downregulated expression of THBS‑1 in LSCC was consistent with aberrant methylation of this gene. Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxy-cytidine in Hep‑2 cells induced demethylation of THBS-1, enhanced THBS‑1 expression, and inhibited the proliferative and invasive ability of Hep‑2 cells. Collectively, the results of the present study suggest that THBS‑1 may exert an inhibitory effect in the development of LSCC. Aberrant methylation was an important reason for the downregulation of THBS‑1 and was involved in the invasion and metastasis of LSCC. Demethylating agents may be effective candidates for the treatment of LSCC. PMID:27485791

  20. Rescued expression of WIF-1 in gallbladder cancer inhibits tumor growth and induces tumor cell apoptosis with altered expression of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Du, Qiang; Wu, Weibao; She, Feifei; Chen, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    As a highly conserved metabolic pathway, the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in cell differentiation, proliferation and several other processes. In normal cells, this pathway is suppressed, and abnormal activation is often associated with tumor occurrence and development. In certain types of tumor, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF-1), an inhibitor of the Wnt pathway, inhibits tumor growth. However, the effect of the expression of WIF-1 on gallbladder cancer remains to be fully elucidated. In the current study, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were conducted. The present study demonstrated that, in gallbladder cancer, WIF-1 generally exhibited low levels of expression as a result of gene promoter methylation. Treatment with the drug, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, increased the expression of WIF-1 in the GBC-SD gallbladder cell line. In addition, a WIF-1-expression plasmid was transfected into GBC-SD cells, and it was found that cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis declined significantly, whereas the apoptotic rate increased. A nude mouse tumor transplantation experiment showed that the oncogenicity of the GBC-SD cells expressing WIF-1 was substantially lower, compared with that of the untransfected GBC-SD cells and of GBD-SD cells expressing the control plasmid. A fluorescent protein chip experiment showed that the restored expression of WIF-1 affected the expression of several cellular proteins. These alterations may explain the different biological behavior of the tumor cells expressing WIF-1. As an effective inhibitory factor of the Wnt signaling pathway, WIF-1 modulated the expression of proteins controlling the proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis of gallbladder tumor cells, thus suppressing the tumor. Therefore, WIF-1 may be an effective treatment target for gallbladder cancer. PMID:27430608

  1. DNA methyltransferase inhibitor-mediated apoptosis in the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway in a renal cell carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Konac, Ece; Varol, Nuray; Yilmaz, Akin; Menevse, Sevda; Sozen, Sinan

    2013-09-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is activated in most cancer types when Wnt antagonist genes are inactivated. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3β) is an important regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The mechanisms underlying GSK3β regulation of neoplastic transformation and tumor development are unclear. Studies have raised the possibility that the Wnt signaling pathway may be implicated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, in the present study, we hypothesize that the expression and methylation status of the secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) gene, one of the secreted antagonists that bind Wnt protein, and re-expression of this gene with the demethylation agent (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine; DAC) may induce apoptosis in RCC cells. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship among epigenetic inactivation of sFRP2 and p-GSK3β (Ser9) and other Wnt antagonists (sFRP1, DKK3, WIF-1) and apoptotic factors (Bax and Caspase3) as well as the anti-apoptotic factor BCL2. Our results indicate that DAC-mediated inhibition of DNA methylation led to a re-activation of sFRP2 expression and increased expression levels of the Wnt antagonists and apoptotic factors. In contrast, the level of β-catenin (CTNNB1) expression decreased. The p-GSK3β (Ser9) protein level in Caki-2 cells was significantly down-regulated, while the DNA fragmentation rate increased after treatment with 5 μM DAC at 96 h. Our data show that sFRP2 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in RCC and that its restoration may offer a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of RCC. Moreover, our study draws attention to the regulatory features of epigenetic molecules and analyses their underlying molecular mechanisms of action and their potential use in clinical practice. PMID:23975733

  2. Carcinogen exposure differentially modulates RAR-beta promoter hypermethylation, an early and frequent event in mouse lung carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vuillemenot, Brian R; Pulling, Leah C; Palmisano, William A; Hutt, Julie A; Belinsky, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    The retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-beta) gene encodes one of the primary receptors for retinoic acid, an important signaling molecule in lung growth, differentiation and carcinogenesis. RAR-beta has been shown to be down-regulated by methylation in human lung cancer. We have used previously lung tumors induced in mice to evaluate the timing and effect of specific carcinogen exposures on targeting genes altered in human lung cancer. These studies were extended to characterize the role of methylation of the RAR-beta gene in murine lung cancers. After treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), RAR-beta was re-expressed in silenced cell lines or expressed at a higher rate than without DAC, supporting methylation as the inactivating mechanism. Bisulfite sequencing detected dense methylation in the area of the CpG island that contained the 5' untranslated region and the first translated exon in non-expressing cell lines, compared with minimal and heterogeneous methylation in normal mouse lung. Methylation-specific PCR revealed that this gene is targeted differentially by carcinogen exposures with the detection of methylated alleles in virtually all primary tumors associated with cigarette smoke or 4-methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-butanone (NNK) in contrast to half of tumors induced by methylene chloride or vinyl carbamate. RAR-beta methylation was also detected in 54% of preneoplastic hyperplasias induced by treatment with NNK. Bisulfite sequencing of both premalignant and malignant lesions detected dense methylation in the same area observed in cell lines, substantiating that this gene is functionally inactivated at the earliest histologic stage of adenocarcinoma development. These studies demonstrate that aberrant methylation of RAR-beta is an early and common alteration in murine lung tumors induced by several environmentally relevant exposures. PMID:14656941

  3. HER-2, gp100, and MAGE-1 are expressed in human glioblastoma and recognized by cytotoxic T cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gentao; Ying, Han; Zeng, Gang; Wheeler, Christopher J; Black, Keith L; Yu, John S

    2004-07-15

    It has recently been demonstrated that malignant glioma cells express certain known tumor-associated antigens, such as HER-2, gp100, and MAGE-1. To further determine the possible utilization of these antigens for glioma immunotherapy and as surrogate markers for specific tumor antigen cytotoxicity, we characterized the presence of mRNA and protein expression in 43 primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines and 7 established human GBM cell lines. HER-2, gp100, and MAGE-1 mRNA expression was detected in 81.4%, 46.5%, and 39.5% of the GBM primary cell lines, respectively. Using immunoreactive staining analysis by flow cytometry, HER-2, gp100, and MAGE-1 protein expression was detected in 76%, 45%, and 38% of the GBM primary cell lines, respectively. HLA-A1-restricted epitope specific for MAGE-1 peptide (EADPTGHSY) CTL clone B07 and HLA-A2-restricted epitope specific for HER-2 peptide (KIFGSLAFL) CTL clone A05 and gp100 peptide (ITDQVPFSV) CTL clone CK3H6 were used in this study. The specificity of CTL clone was verified by HLA/peptide tetramer staining. Three CTL clones could efficiently recognize GBM tumor cells in an antigen-specific and MHC class I-restricted manner. IFN-gamma treatment can dramatically increase MHC class I expression of GBM tumor cells and significantly increase CTL recognition of tumor cells. Treatment with the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine induced and up-regulated the mRNA expression of MAGE-1 and epitope presentation by autologous MHC. These data indicate that HER-2, gp100, and MAGE-1 could be used as tumor antigen targets for surrogate assays for antigen-specific CTLs or to develop antigen-specific active immunotherapy strategies for glioma patients. PMID:15256472

  4. Identification of the collagen type 1 alpha 1 gene (COL1A1) as a candidate survival-related factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major causes of cancer-related death especially among Asian and African populations. It is urgent that we identify carcinogenesis-related genes to establish an innovative treatment strategy for this disease. Methods Triple-combination array analysis was performed using one pair each of HCC and noncancerous liver samples from a 68-year-old woman. This analysis consists of expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism array and methylation array. The gene encoding collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1) was identified and verified using HCC cell lines and 48 tissues from patients with primary HCC. Results Expression array revealed that COL1A1 gene expression was markedly decreased in tumor tissues (log2 ratio –1.1). The single nucleotide polymorphism array showed no chromosomal deletion in the locus of COL1A1. Importantly, the methylation value in the tumor tissue was higher (0.557) than that of the adjacent liver tissue (0.008). We verified that expression of this gene was suppressed by promoter methylation. Reactivation of COL1A1 expression by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment was seen in HCC cell lines, and sequence analysis identified methylated CpG sites in the COL1A1 promoter region. Among 48 pairs of surgical specimens, 13 (27.1%) showed decreased COL1A1 mRNA expression in tumor sites. Among these 13 cases, 10 had promoter methylation at the tumor site. The log-rank test indicated that mRNA down-regulated tumors were significantly correlated with a poor overall survival rate (P = 0.013). Conclusions Triple-combination array analysis successfully identified COL1A1 as a candidate survival-related gene in HCCs. Epigenetic down-regulation of COL1A1 mRNA expression might have a role as a prognostic biomarker of HCC. PMID:24552139

  5. Promoter methylation-independent reactivation of PAX1 by curcumin and resveratrol is mediated by UHRF1.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Gaurav; Capalash, Neena

    2016-08-01

    Paired box gene1 (PAX1) is essential for normal chordate development and has been recently characterised to be a tumour suppressor gene which is frequently hypermethylated in different cancer types. We investigated the reactivation of PAX1 using curcumin and resveratrol in HeLa, SiHa and Caski cell lines and role of hypermethylation in 39 CpG sites of PAX1 promoter from -6 to -286 region in regulating its expression. Curcumin in HeLa and SiHa cells and resveratrol in Caski cells caused significant (P < 0.01) reactivation of PAX1 expression as shown by qRT PCR, but reversal of promoter hypermethylation was not observed across the three cell lines. Interestingly, even positive control 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine was not found to be effective to cause demethylation of CpG sites under consideration suggesting the promoter region to be resistant towards hypomethylating effects as shown by bisulphite sequencing. However, a striking correlation between PAX1 reactivation and Ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1) downregulation after treatment with curcumin and resveratrol in HeLa, SiHa and Caski cell lines was observed which was further confirmed after transient silencing of UHRF1 expression. PAX1 reexpression was also obtained in Caski and SiHa cell lines after treatment with sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suggesting that PAX1 reactivation by curcumin and resveratrol may be due to their effect on histone deacetylase mediated through downregulation of UHRF1 which can regulate both DNA methylation and histone acetylation. PMID:26081871

  6. Sensitization for death receptor- or drug-induced apoptosis by re-expression of caspase-8 through demethylation or gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Fulda, S; Küfer, M U; Meyer, E; van Valen, F; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, B; Debatin, K M

    2001-09-13

    Resistance of tumors to treatment with cytotoxic drugs, irradiation or immunotherapy may be due to disrupted apoptosis programs. Here, we report in a variety of different tumor cells including Ewing tumor, neuroblastoma, malignant brain tumors and melanoma that caspase-8 expression acts as a key determinant of sensitivity for apoptosis induced by death-inducing ligands or cytotoxic drugs. In tumor cell lines resistant to TRAIL, anti-CD95 or TNFalpha, caspase-8 protein and mRNA expression was decreased or absent without caspase-8 gene loss. Methylation-specific PCR revealed hypermethylation of caspase-8 regulatory sequences in cells with impaired caspase-8 expression. Treatment with the demethylation agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-dAzaC) reversed hypermethylation of caspase-8 resulting in restoration of caspase-8 expression and recruitment and activation of caspase-8 at the CD95 DISC upon receptor cross-linking thereby sensitizing for death receptor-, and importantly, also for drug-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of caspase-8 activity also inhibited apoptosis sensitization by 5-dAzaC. Similar to demethylation, introduction of caspase-8 by gene transfer sensitized for apoptosis induction. Hypermethylation of caspase-8 was linked to reduced caspase-8 expression in different tumor cell lines in vitro and, most importantly, also in primary tumor samples. Thus, these findings indicate that re-expression of caspase-8, e.g. by demethylation or caspase-8 gene transfer, might be an effective strategy to restore sensitivity for chemotherapy- or death receptor-induced apoptosis in various tumors in vivo. PMID:11593392

  7. Ras-induced epigenetic inactivation of the RRAD (Ras-related associated with diabetes) gene promotes glucose uptake in a human ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Guiling; Mao, Fengbiao; Li, Xianfeng; Liu, Qi; Chen, Lin; Lv, Lu; Wang, Xin; Wu, Jinyu; Dai, Wei; Wang, Guan; Zhao, Enfeng; Tang, Kai-Fu; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2014-05-16

    RRAD (Ras-related associated with diabetes) is a small Ras-related GTPase that is frequently inactivated by DNA methylation of the CpG island in its promoter region in cancer tissues. However, the role of the methylation-induced RRAD inactivation in tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study, the Ras-regulated transcriptome and epigenome were profiled by comparing T29H (a Ras(V12)-transformed human ovarian epithelial cell line) with T29 (an immortalized but non-transformed cell line) through reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and digital gene expression. We found that Ras(V12)-mediated oncogenic transformation was accompanied by RRAD promoter hypermethylation and a concomitant loss of RRAD expression. In addition, we found that the RRAD promoter was hypermethylated, and its transcription was reduced in ovarian cancer versus normal ovarian tissues. Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in demethylation in the RRAD promoter and restored RRAD expression in T29H cells. Additionally, treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI277 resulted in restored RRAD expression and inhibited DNA methytransferase expression and activity in T29H cells. By employing knockdown and overexpression techniques in T29 and T29H, respectively, we found that RRAD inhibited glucose uptake and lactate production by repressing the expression of glucose transporters. Finally, RRAD overexpression in T29H cells inhibited tumor formation in nude mice, suggesting that RRAD is a tumor suppressor gene. Our results indicate that Ras(V12)-mediated oncogenic transformation induces RRAD epigenetic inactivation, which in turn promotes glucose uptake and may contribute to ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. PMID:24648519

  8. HPP1: A transmembrane protein-encoding gene commonly methylated in colorectal polyps and cancers

    PubMed Central

    Young, Joanne; Biden, Kelli G.; Simms, Lisa A.; Huggard, Phillip; Karamatic, Rozemary; Eyre, Helen J.; Sutherland, Grant R.; Herath, Nirmitha; Barker, Melissa; Anderson, Gregory J.; Fitzpatrick, David R.; Ramm, Grant A.; Jass, Jeremy R.; Leggett, Barbara A.

    2001-01-01

    Adenomas are the precursors of most colorectal cancers. Hyperplastic polyps have been linked to the subset of colorectal cancers showing DNA microsatellite instability, but little is known of their underlying genetic etiology. Using a strategy that isolates differentially methylated sequences from hyperplastic polyps and normal mucosa, we identified a 370-bp sequence containing the 5′ untranslated region and the first exon of a gene that we have called HPP1. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to isolate HPP1 from normal mucosa. Using reverse transcription–PCR, HPP1 was expressed in 28 of 30 (93%) normal colonic samples but in only seven of 30 (23%) colorectal cancers (P < 0.001). The 5′ region of HPP1 included a CpG island containing 49 CpG sites, of which 96% were found to be methylated by bisulfite sequencing of DNA from colonic tumor samples. By COBRA analysis, methylation was detected in six of nine (66%) adenomas, 17 of 27 (63%) hyperplastic polyps, and 46 of 55 (84%) colorectal cancers. There was an inverse relationship between methylation level and mRNA expression in cancers (r = −0.67; P < 0.001), and 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment restored HPP1 expression in two colorectal cancer cell lines. In situ hybridization of HPP1 indicated that expression occurs in epithelial and stromal elements in normal mucosa but is silenced in both cell types in early colonic neoplasia. HPP1 is predicted to encode a transmembrane protein containing follistatin and epidermal growth factor-like domains. Silencing of HPP1 by methylation may increase the probability of neoplastic transformation. PMID:11120884

  9. Hypermethylation of the spleen tyrosine kinase promoter in T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Patricia A; Burkhardt, Nicole; Juran, Brian; Tibbles, Heather E; Uckun, Faith M

    2003-04-24

    Sequence analysis of the noncoding first exon (exon 1) of the Syk gene demonstrated the presence of a previously cloned CpG island (GenBank #Z 65706). Transient transfection analysis in Daudi cells demonstrated promoter activity (18-fold increase over parental luciferase plasmid) for a 348 bp BstXI-BsrBI fragment containing this island. This region exhibits a high GC content (approximately 75%), contains several SP1 binding sites and a potential initiator sequence, but lacks a strong TATA consensus. Bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) of this region demonstrated that the Syk promoter CpG island was largely unmethylated in B-lineage leukemia cell lines, control peripheral blood cells, human thymocytes and CD3(+) T lymphocytes. However, dense methylation was seen in four T-lineage leukemia cell lines, Jurkat, H9, Molt 3 and HUT 78. MSP screening of leukemia cells from six T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients demonstrated methylation of the Syk promoter CpG island in one T-lineage ALL patient. Promoter methylation was correlated with reduced to absent expression of Syk mRNA and SYK protein in the T-lineage leukemia cell lines. Treatment of the leukemia lines Ha and Molt 3, with the methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) resulted in increased Syk mRNA expression. The presence of a methylated promoter sequence in these T-lineage leukemia cell lines and in one T-lineage patient suggests a potential role for SYK as a tumor suppressor in T-ALL. PMID:12717427

  10. BTG1 expression correlates with pathogenesis, aggressive behaviors and prognosis of gastric cancer: a potential target for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hua-chuan; Li, Jing; Shen, Dao-fu; Yang, Xue-feng; Zhao, Shuang; Wu, Ya-zhou; Takano, Yasuo; Sun, Hong-zhi; Su, Rong-jian; Luo, Jun-sheng; Gou, Wen-feng

    2015-08-14

    Here, we found that BTG1 overexpression inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion, induced G2/M arrest, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis in BGC-823 and MKN28 cells (p < 0.05). BTG1 transfectants showed a higher mRNA expression of Cyclin D1 and Bax, but a lower mRNA expression of cdc2, p21, mTOR and MMP-9 than the control and mock (p < 0.05). After treated with cisplatin, MG132, paclitaxel and SAHA, both BTG1 transfectants showed lower mRNA viability and higher apoptosis than the control in both time- and dose-dependent manners (p < 0.05) with the hypoexpression of chemoresistance-related genes (slug, CD147, GRP78, GRP94, FBXW7 TOP1, TOP2 and GST-π). BTG1 expression was restored after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment in gastric cancer cells. BTG1 expression was statistically lower in gastric cancer than non-neoplastic mucosa and metastatic cancer in lymph node (p < 0.05). BTG1 expression was positively correlated with depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM staging and worse prognosis (p < 0.05). The diffuse-type carcinoma showed less BTG1 expression than intestinal- and mixed-type ones (p < 0.05). BTG1 overexpression suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis of gastric cancer cells by inhibiting proliferation, enhancing autophagy and apoptosis in xenograft models. It was suggested that down-regulated BTG1 expression might promote gastric carcinogenesis partially due to its promoter methylation. BTG1 overexpression might reverse the aggressive phenotypes and be employed as a potential target for gene therapy of gastric cancer. PMID:26050197

  11. The roles of BTG3 expression in gastric cancer: a potential marker for carcinogenesis and a target molecule for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Gou, Wen-feng; Yang, Xue-feng; Shen, Dao-fu; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Yun-peng; Sun, Hong-zhi; Takano, Yasuo; Su, Rong-jian; Luo, Jun-sheng; Zheng, Hua-chuan

    2015-08-14

    BTG (B-cell translocation gene) can inhibit cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis, cell cycle progression, and induce differentiation in various cells. Here, we found that BTG3 overexpression inhibited proliferation, induced S/G2 arrest, differentiation, autophagy, apoptosis, suppressed migration and invasion in MKN28 and MGC803 cells (p < 0.05). BTG3 transfectants showed a higher mRNA expression of p27, Bax, 14-3-3, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Beclin 1, NF-κB, IL-1, -2, -4, -10 and -17, but a lower mRNA expression of p21, MMP-9 and VEGF than the control and mock (p < 0.05). At protein level, BTG3 overexpression increased the expression of CDK4, AIF, LC-3B, Beclin 1 and p38 (p < 0.05), but decreased the expression of p21 and β-catenin in both transfectants (p < 0.05). After treated with cisplatin, MG132, paclitaxel and SAHA, both BTG3 transfectants showed lower viability and higher apoptosis than the control in both time- and dose-dependent manners (p < 0.05). BTG3 expression was restored after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or MG132 treatment in gastric cancer cells. BTG3 expression was decreased in gastric cancer in comparison to the adjacent mucosa (p < 0.05), and positively correlated with venous invasion and dedifferentiation of cancer (p < 0.05). It was suggested that BTG3 expression might contribute to gastric carcinogenesis. BTG3 overexpression might reverse the aggressive phenotypes and be employed as a potential target for gene therapy of gastric cancer. PMID:25904053

  12. Methylation Profiling of Multiple Tumor Suppressor Genes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and the Epigenetic Mechanism of 3OST2 Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Tingguo; Sheng, Yan; Zhang, Cheng; Peng, Yunfei; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Cuijuan

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is considered as a significant mechanism that silences tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and could be used in the early diagnosis of cancer. Histone modifications often work together with DNA methylation; however, how these epigenetic alterations regulate TSGs remains unclear. Here, we determined the methylation status of ten TSGs (3OST2, ppENK, CHFR, LKB1, THBS1, HIC1, SLIT2, EDNRB, COX2, and CLDN7) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and corresponding noncancerous tissues. Methylation profiling revealed that four genes had very high frequencies of methylation in HCCs, but interestingly, similar high frequencies were also detected in corresponding noncancerous tissues (97.9% vs 95.8% for SLIT2, 93.8% vs 81.3% for EDNRB, 66.7% vs 85.4% for HIC1, and 56.3% vs 56.3% for ppENK, P > 0.05). Only the 3OST2 gene was frequently methylated in HCCs and there was significant difference between HCCs and corresponding noncancerous tissues (68.8% vs 37.5%, P < 0.05). 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) or trichostatin A (TSA) alone could partially reverse 3OST2 methylation, and their combination resulted in complete reversal. UHRF1 and histone H3R8me2s were both enriched on the hypermethylated 3OST2 promoter, but H3R8me2a was not. After 5-Aza-CdR or TSA treatment, the UHRF1 and H3R8me2s enrichment was decreased, while H3R8me2a enrichment increased. We demonstrated that 3OST2 methylation may play a critical role in the earliest steps of hepatocarcinogenesis and is directly regulated by UHRF1. Furthermore, H3R8me2s acted as a repressive mark, while H3R8me2a was correlated with 3OST2 transcriptional activity. PMID:26185536

  13. Quantitative Expression and Immunogenicity of MAGE-3 and -6 in Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Andrade Filho, Pedro A.; López-Albaitero, Andrés; Xi, Liqiang; Gooding, William; Godfrey, Tony; Ferris, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The MAGE antigens are frequently expressed cancer vaccine targets. However, quantitative analysis of MAGE expression in upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) tumor cells and its association with T cell recognition has not been performed, hindering the selection of appropriate candidates for MAGE specific immunotherapy. Using quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR), we evaluated the expression of MAGE-3/6 in 65 UADT cancers, 48 normal samples from tumor matched sites and 7 HLA-A*0201+squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) cell lines. Expression results were confirmed using western blot. HLA-A*0201:MAGE-3(271–279) specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (MAGE-CTL) from SCCHN patients and healthy donors showed that MAGE-3/6 expression was highly associated with CTL recognition in vitro. Based on MAGE-3/6 expression we could identify 31 (47%) of the 65 UADT tumors which appeared to express MAGE-3/6 at levels that correlated with efficient CTL recognition. To confirm that the level of MAGE-3 expression was responsible for CTL recognition, two MAGE-3/6 mRNAhigh SCCHN cell lines, PCI-13 and PCI-30, were subjected to MAGE-3/6 specific knockdown. RNAi–transfected cells showed that MAGE expression, and MAGE-CTL recognition, were significantly reduced. Furthermore, treatment of cells expressing low MAGE-3/6 mRNA with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), increased the expression of MAGE-3/6 and CTL recognition. Thus, using QRT-PCR UADT cancers frequently express MAGE-3/6 at levels sufficient for CTL recognition, supporting the use of a QRT-PCR based assay for the selection of candidates likely to respond to MAGE-3/6 immunotherapy. Demethylating agents could increase the number of patients amenable for targeting epigenetically modified tumor antigens in vaccine trials. PMID:19610063

  14. Quantitative expression and immunogenicity of MAGE-3 and -6 in upper aerodigestive tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Filho, Pedro A Andrade; López-Albaitero, Andrés; Xi, Liqiang; Gooding, William; Godfrey, Tony; Ferris, Robert L

    2009-10-15

    The MAGE antigens are frequently expressed cancer vaccine targets. However, quantitative analysis of MAGE expression in upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) tumor cells and its association with T-cell recognition has not been performed, hindering the selection of appropriate candidates for MAGE-specific immunotherapy. Using quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR), we evaluated the expression of MAGE-3/6 in 65 UADT cancers, 48 normal samples from tumor matched sites and 7 HLA-A*0201+ squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) cell lines. Expression results were confirmed using Western blot. HLA-A*0201:MAGE-3- (271-279) specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (MAGE-CTL) from SCCHN patients and healthy donors showed that MAGE-3/6 expression was highly associated with CTL recognition in vitro. On the basis of the MAGE-3/6 expression, we could identify 31 (47%) of the 65 UADT tumors, which appeared to express MAGE-3/6 at levels that correlated with efficient CTL recognition. To confirm that the level of MAGE-3 expression was responsible for CTL recognition, 2 MAGE-3/6 mRNA(high) SCCHN cell lines, PCI-13 and PCI-30, were subjected to MAGE-3/6-specific knockdown. RNAi-transfected cells showed that MAGE expression and MAGE-CTL recognition were significantly reduced. Furthermore, treatment of cells expressing low MAGE-3/6 mRNA with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), increased the expression of MAGE-3/6 and CTL recognition. Thus, using QRT-PCR UADT cancers frequently express MAGE-3/6 at levels sufficient for CTL recognition, supporting the use of a QRT-PCR-based assay for the selection of candidates likely to respond to MAGE-3/6 immunotherapy. Demethylating agents could increase the number of patients amenable for targeting epigenetically modified tumor antigens in vaccine trials. PMID:19610063

  15. DNA Methylation Profiles at Precancerous Stages Associated with Recurrence of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takashi; Arai, Eri; Kohno, Takashi; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Soejima, Kenzo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Kanai, Yae

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations at precancerous stages of lung adenocarcinoma. Using single-CpG resolution Infinium array, genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was performed in 36 samples of normal lung tissue obtained from patients without any primary lung tumor, 145 samples of non-cancerous lung tissue (N) obtained from patients with lung adenocarcinomas, and 145 samples of tumorous tissue (T). Stepwise progression of DNA methylation alterations from normal lung tissue to non-cancerous lung tissue obtained from patients with lung adenocarcinomas, and then tumorous tissue samples, was observed at 3,270 CpG sites, suggesting that non-cancerous lung tissue obtained from patients with lung adenocarcinomas was at precancerous stages with DNA methylation alterations. At CpG sites of 2,083 genes, DNA methylation status in samples of non-cancerous lung tissue obtained from patients with lung adenocarcinomas was significantly correlated with recurrence after establishment of lung adenocarcinomas. Among such recurrence-related genes, 28 genes are normally unmethylated (average β-values based on Infinium assay in normal lung tissue samples was less than 0.2) and their DNA hypermethylation at precancerous stages was strengthened during progression to lung adenocarcinomas (ΔβT–N>0.1). Among these 28 genes, we focused on 6 for which implications in transcription regulation, apoptosis or cell adhesion had been reported. DNA hypermethylation of the ADCY5, EVX1, GFRA1, PDE9A, and TBX20 genes resulted in reduced mRNA expression in tumorous tissue samples. 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment of lung cancer cell lines restored the mRNA expression levels of these 5 genes. Reduced mRNA expression in tumorous tissue samples was significantly correlated with tumor aggressiveness. These data suggest that DNA methylation alterations at precancerous stages determine tumor aggressiveness and outcome through silencing of specific genes

  16. HOXA11 hypermethylation is associated with progression of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jung-Ah; Lee, Bo Bin; Kim, Yujin; Park, Seong-Eun; Heo, Kyun; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ho; Han, Joungho; Shim, Young Mog; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Duk-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the functional significance of HOXA11 hypermethylation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). HOXA11 hypermethylation was characterized in six lung cancer cell lines, and its clinical significance was analyzed using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 317 NSCLC patients, and Ki-67 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The promoter region of HOXA11 was highly methylated in six lung cancer cell lines, but not in normal bronchial epithelial cells. The loss of expression was restored by treatment of the cells with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC). Transient transfection of HOXA11 into H23 lung cancer cells resulted in the inhibition of cell migration and proliferation. HOXA11 hypermethylation was found in 218 (69%) of 317 primary NSCLCs. HOXA11 hypermethylation was found at a higher prevalence in squamous cell carcinoma than in adenocarcinoma (74% vs. 63%, respectively). HOXA11 hypermethylation was associated with Ki-67 proliferation index (P = 0.03) and pT stage (P = 0.002), but not with patient survival. Patients with pT2 and pT3 stages were 1.85 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-3.29; P = 0.04) and 5.47 times (95% CI = 1.18-25.50; P = 0.01), respectively, more likely to show HOXA11 hypermethylation than those with pT1 stage, after adjusting for age, sex, and histology. In conclusion, the present study suggests that HOXA11 hypermethylation may contribute to the progression of NSCLC by promoting cell proliferation or migration. PMID:24259349

  17. HOXA9 inhibits migration of lung cancer cells and its hypermethylation is associated with recurrence in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jung-Ah; Lee, Bo Bin; Kim, Yujin; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ho; Han, Joungho; Shim, Young Mog; Yoon, Chae-Yeong; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Duk-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the clinicopathological significance of HOXA9 hypermethylation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). HOXA9 hypermethylation was characterized in six lung cancer cell lines, and its clinicopathological significance was analyzed using methylation-specific PCR in 271 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and 27 fresh-frozen tumor and matched normal tissues from 298 NSCLC patients, and Ki-67 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The promoter region of HOXA9 was highly methylated in six lung cancer cell lines, but not in normal bronchial epithelial cells. The loss of expression was restored by treatment of the cells with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC). Transient transfection of HOXA9 into H23 lung cancer cells resulted in the inhibition of cell migration but not proliferation. Conversely, sequence-specific siRNA-mediated knockdown of HOXA9 enhanced cell migration. The mRNA levels of HOXA9 in 27 fresh-frozen tumor tissues were significantly lower than in matched normal tissues (P<0.0001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). HOXA9 hypermethylation was found in 191 (70%) of 271 primary NSCLCs. HOXA9 hypermethylation was not associated with tumor size (P=0.12) and Ki-67 proliferation index (P=0.15). However, patients with HOXA9 hypermethylation had poor recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio=3.98, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-17.09, P=0.01) in never-smokers, after adjusting for age, sex, tumor size, adjuvant therapy, pathologic stage, and histology. In conclusion, the present study suggests that HOXA9 inhibits migration of lung cancer cells and its hypermethylation is an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival in never-smokers with NSCLC. PMID:24817037

  18. Differential Epigenetic Regulation of TOX Subfamily High Mobility Group Box Genes in Lung and Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Mathewos; Yingling, Christin M.; Grimes, Marcie J.; Thomas, Cynthia L.; Liu, Yushi; Leng, Shuguang; Joste, Nancy; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant cytosine methylation affects regulation of hundreds of genes during cancer development. In this study, a novel aberrantly hypermethylated CpG island in cancer was discovered within the TOX2 promoter. TOX2 was unmethylated in normal cells but 28% lung (n = 190) and 23% breast (n = 80) tumors were methylated. Expression of two novel TOX2 transcripts identified was significantly reduced in primary lung tumors than distant normal lung (p<0.05). These transcripts were silenced in methylated lung and breast cancer cells and 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment re-expressed both. Extension of these assays to TOX, TOX3, and TOX4 genes that share similar genomic structure and protein homology with TOX2 revealed distinct methylation profiles by smoking status, histology, and cancer type. TOX was almost exclusively methylated in breast (43%) than lung (5%) cancer, whereas TOX3 was frequently methylated in lung (58%) than breast (30%) tumors. TOX4 was unmethylated in all samples and showed the highest expression in normal lung. Compared to TOX4, expression of TOX, TOX2 and TOX3 in normal lung was 25, 44, and 88% lower, respectively, supporting the premise that reduced promoter activity confers increased susceptibility to methylation during lung carcinogenesis. Genome-wide assays revealed that siRNA-mediated TOX2 knockdown modulated multiple pathways while TOX3 inactivation targeted neuronal development and function. Although these knockdowns did not result in further phenotypic changes of lung cancer cells in vitro, the impact on tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, and cell differentiation pathways suggest a potential role for TOX2 in modulating tumor microenvironment. PMID:22496870

  19. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltranferase-2 behaves as a cancer testis gene and promotes growth and tumorigenicity of the breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line.

    PubMed

    Pellon-Maison, Magali; Montanaro, Mauro A; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Garcia-Fabiani, Maria B; Soler-Gerino, Mercedes C; Cattaneo, Elizabeth R; Quiroga, Ivana Y; Abba, Martin C; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    The de novo synthesis of glycerolipids in mammalian cells begins with the acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate, catalyzed by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). GPAT2 is a mitochondrial isoform primarily expressed in testis under physiological conditions. Because it is aberrantly expressed in multiple myeloma, it has been proposed as a novel cancer testis gene. Using a bioinformatics approach, we found that GPAT2 is highly expressed in melanoma, lung, prostate and breast cancer, and we validated GPAT2 expression at the protein level in breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. In this case GPAT2 expression correlated with a higher histological grade. 5-Aza-2' deoxycytidine treatment of human cells lines induced GPAT2 expression suggesting epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In order to evaluate the contribution of GPAT2 to the tumor phenotype, we silenced its expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. GPAT2 knockdown diminished cell proliferation, anchorage independent growth, migration and tumorigenicity, and increased staurosporine-induced apoptosis. In contrast, GPAT2 over-expression increased cell proliferation rate and resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis. To understand the functional role of GPAT2, we performed a co-expression analysis in mouse and human testis and found a significant association with semantic terms involved in cell cycle, DNA integrity maintenance, piRNA biogenesis and epigenetic regulation. Overall, these results indicate the GPAT2 would be directly associated with the control of cell proliferation. In conclusion, we confirm GPAT2 as a cancer testis gene and that its expression contributes to the tumor phenotype of MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:24967918

  20. Impacts of TCDD and MeHg on DNA methylation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) across two generations.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Williams, Timothy D; Tung, Hui-shan; Mirbahai, Leda; Sanden, Monica; Skjaerven, Kaja H; Ellingsen, Ståle

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether dioxin (TCDD) and methylmercury (MeHg) pose a threat to offspring of fish exposed to elevated concentrations of these chemicals via epigenetic-based mechanisms. Adult female zebrafish were fed diets added either 20 μg/kg 2,3,7,8 TCDD or 10 mg/kg MeHg for 47 days, or 10 mg/kg 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA), a hypomethylating agent, for 32 days, and bred with unexposed males in clean water to produce F1 and F2 offspring. Global DNA methylation, promoter CpG island methylation and target gene transcription in liver of adult females and in 3 days post fertilization (dpf) F1 and F2 embryos were determined with HPLC, a novel CpG island tiling array containing 54,933 different probes and RT-qPCR, respectively. The results showed that chemical treatment had no significant effect on global DNA methylation levels in F1 (MeHg and TCDD) and F2 (MeHg) embryos and only a limited number of genes were identified with altered methylation levels at their promoter regions. CYP1A1 transcription, an established marker of TCDD exposure, was elevated 27-fold in F1 embryos compared to the controls, matching the high levels of CYP1A1 expression observed in F0 TCDD-treated females. This suggests that maternal transfer of TCDD is a significant route of exposure for the F1 offspring. In conclusion, the selected doses of TCDD and MeHg, two chemicals often found in high concentrations in fish, appear to have only modest effects on DNA methylation in F1 (MeHg and TCDD) and F2 (MeHg) embryos of treated F0 females. PMID:24878852

  1. Synergistic reduction of HIV-1 infectivity by 5-azacytidine and inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Jonathan M O; Roth, Megan E; Xie, Jiashu; Daly, Michele B; Clouser, Christine L; Landman, Sean R; Reilly, Cavan S; Bonnac, Laurent; Kim, Baek; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

    2016-06-01

    Although many compounds have been approved for the treatment of human immunodeficiency type-1 (HIV-1) infection, additional anti-HIV-1 drugs (particularly those belonging to new drug classes) are still needed due to issues such as long-term drug-associated toxicities, transmission of drug-resistant variants, and development of multi-class resistance. Lethal mutagenesis represents an antiviral strategy that has not yet been clinically translated for HIV-1 and is based on the use of small molecules to induce excessive levels of deleterious mutations within the viral genome. Here, we show that 5-azacytidine (5-aza-C), a ribonucleoside analog that induces the lethal mutagenesis of HIV-1, and multiple inhibitors of the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) interact in a synergistic fashion to more effectively reduce the infectivity of HIV-1. In these drug combinations, RNR inhibitors failed to significantly inhibit the conversion of 5-aza-C to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, suggesting that 5-aza-C acts primarily as a deoxyribonucleoside even in the presence of RNR inhibitors. The mechanism of antiviral synergy was further investigated for the combination of 5-aza-C and one specific RNR inhibitor, resveratrol, as this combination improved the selectivity index of 5-aza-C to the greatest extent. Antiviral synergy was found to be primarily due to the reduced accumulation of reverse transcription products rather than the enhancement of viral mutagenesis. To our knowledge, these observations represent the first demonstration of antiretroviral synergy between a ribonucleoside analog and RNR inhibitors, and encourage the development of additional ribonucleoside analogs and RNR inhibitors with improved antiretroviral activity. PMID:27117260

  2. GPX3 hypermethylation serves as an independent prognostic biomarker in non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing-Dong; Yao, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ji-Chun; Wen, Xiang-Mei; Yang, Jing; Guo, Hong; Chen, Qin; Lin, Jiang; Qian, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hypermethylation of GPX3 (glutathione peroxidase 3) promoter has been identified in various solid tumors. However, the pattern of GPX3 promoter methylation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unknown. The current study was intended to investigate the clinical significance of GPX3 promoter methylation in de novo AML patients and further determine its role in regulating GPX3 expression. GPX3 promoter methylation status was detected in 181 de novo AML patients and 44 normal controls by real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing PCR. Real-time quantitative PCR was carried out to assess GPX3 expression. GPX3 promoter was significantly methylated in AML patients compared with normal controls (P=0.022). The patients with GPX3 methylation presented significantly older age than those with GPX3 unmethylation (P=0.011). GPX3 methylated patients had significantly lower frequency of C/EBPA mutation and higher incidence of FLT3-ITD mutation (P=0.037 and 0.030, respectively). The non-M3 patients with GPX3 methylation had significantly lower overall survival than those with GPX3 unmethylation (P=0.036). No significant correlation was observed between GPX3 expression and its promoter methylation (R=0.110, P=0.284). However, GPX3 mRNA level was significantly increased after 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine treatment in leukemic cell line THP1. Our data suggest that GPX3 methylation predicts adverse clinical outcome in non-M3 AML patients. Moreover, GPX3 expression is regulated by its promoter methylation in leukemic cell line THP1. PMID:26269763

  3. GPX3 hypermethylation serves as an independent prognostic biomarker in non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-Dong; Yao, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ji-Chun; Wen, Xiang-Mei; Yang, Jing; Guo, Hong; Chen, Qin; Lin, Jiang; Qian, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hypermethylation of GPX3 (glutathione peroxidase 3) promoter has been identified in various solid tumors. However, the pattern of GPX3 promoter methylation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unknown. The current study was intended to investigate the clinical significance of GPX3 promoter methylation in de novo AML patients and further determine its role in regulating GPX3 expression. GPX3 promoter methylation status was detected in 181 de novo AML patients and 44 normal controls by real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing PCR. Real-time quantitative PCR was carried out to assess GPX3 expression. GPX3 promoter was significantly methylated in AML patients compared with normal controls (P=0.022). The patients with GPX3 methylation presented significantly older age than those with GPX3 unmethylation (P=0.011). GPX3 methylated patients had significantly lower frequency of C/EBPA mutation and higher incidence of FLT3-ITD mutation (P=0.037 and 0.030, respectively). The non-M3 patients with GPX3 methylation had significantly lower overall survival than those with GPX3 unmethylation (P=0.036). No significant correlation was observed between GPX3 expression and its promoter methylation (R=0.110, P=0.284). However, GPX3 mRNA level was significantly increased after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment in leukemic cell line THP1. Our data suggest that GPX3 methylation predicts adverse clinical outcome in non-M3 AML patients. Moreover, GPX3 expression is regulated by its promoter methylation in leukemic cell line THP1. PMID:26269763

  4. GPX3 hypermethylation serves as an independent prognostic biomarker in non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-Dong; Yao, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ji-Chun; Wen, Xiang-Mei; Yang, Jing; Guo, Hong; Chen, Qin; Lin, Jiang; Qian, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hypermethylation of GPX3 (glutathione peroxidase 3) promoter has been identified in various solid tumors. However, the pattern of GPX3 promoter methylation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains poorly known. The current study was intended to investigate the clinical significance of GPX3 promoter methylation in de novo AML patients and further determine its role in regulating GPX3 expression. GPX3 promoter methylation status in 181 de novo AML patients and 44 normal controls was detected by real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing PCR. Real-time quantitative PCR was carried out to assess GPX3 expression. GPX3 promoter was significantly methylated in 181 AML patients compared with normal controls (P=0.022). The patients with GPX3 methylation presented significantly older age than those with GPX3 unmethylation (P=0.011). GPX3 methylated patients had significantly lower frequency of C/EBPA mutation and higher incidence of FLT3-ITD mutation (P=0.037 and 0.030). The non-M3 patients with GPX3 methylation had significantly lower overall survival than thoes with GPX3 unmethylation (P=0.036). No significant correlation was observed between GPX3 expression and its promoter methylation (R=0.110, P=0.284). However, GPX3 mRNA level was significantly increased after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment in leukemic cell line THP1. GPX3 methylation predicts adverse clinical outcome in non-M3 AML patients. Moreover, GPX3 expression is regulated by its promoter methylation in leukemic cell line THP1. PMID:26175946

  5. GPX3 hypermethylation serves as an independent prognostic biomarker in non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing-Dong; Yao, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ji-Chun; Wen, Xiang-Mei; Yang, Jing; Guo, Hong; Chen, Qin; Lin, Jiang; Qian, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hypermethylation of GPX3 (glutathione peroxidase 3) promoter has been identified in various solid tumors. However, the pattern of GPX3 promoter methylation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains poorly known. The current study was intended to investigate the clinical significance of GPX3 promoter methylation in de novo AML patients and further determine its role in regulating GPX3 expression. GPX3 promoter methylation status in 181 de novo AML patients and 44 normal controls was detected by real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing PCR. Real-time quantitative PCR was carried out to assess GPX3 expression. GPX3 promoter was significantly methylated in 181 AML patients compared with normal controls (P=0.022). The patients with GPX3 methylation presented significantly older age than those with GPX3 unmethylation (P=0.011). GPX3 methylated patients had significantly lower frequency of C/EBPA mutation and higher incidence of FLT3-ITD mutation (P=0.037 and 0.030). The non-M3 patients with GPX3 methylation had significantly lower overall survival than thoes with GPX3 unmethylation (P=0.036). No significant correlation was observed between GPX3 expression and its promoter methylation (R=0.110, P=0.284). However, GPX3 mRNA level was significantly increased after 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine treatment in leukemic cell line THP1. GPX3 methylation predicts adverse clinical outcome in non-M3 AML patients. Moreover, GPX3 expression is regulated by its promoter methylation in leukemic cell line THP1. PMID:26175946

  6. EPB41L3, TSP-1 and RASSF2 as new clinically relevant prognostic biomarkers in diffuse gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Janices, Noemi; Blanco-Luquin, Idoia; Tuñón, Maria Teresa; Barba-Ramos, Edurne; Ibáñez, Berta; Zazpe-Cenoz, Idoya; Martinez-Aguillo, Maria Teresa; Hernandez, Berta; Martínez-Lopez, Enrique; Fernández, Agustin F.; Mercado, Maria Roasario; Cabada, Teresa; Escors, David; Megias, Diego; Guerrero-Setas, David

    2015-01-01

    Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is one of the hallmarks in the progression of brain tumors. Our objectives were to analyze the presence of the hypermethylation of EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 genes in 132 diffuse gliomas (astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors) and in 10 cases of normal brain, and to establish their association with the patients’ clinicopathological characteristics. Gene hypermethylation was analyzed by methylation-specific-PCR and confirmed by pyrosequencing (for EPB41L3 and TSP-1) and bisulfite-sequencing (for RASSF2). EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 genes were hypermethylated only in tumors (29%, 10.6%, and 50%, respectively), confirming their cancer-specific role. Treatment of cells with the DNA-demethylating-agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restores their transcription, as confirmed by quantitative-reverse-transcription-PCR and immunofluorescence. Immunohistochemistry for EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 was performed to analyze protein expression; p53, ki-67, and CD31 expression and 1p/19q co-deletion were considered to better characterize the tumors. EPB41L3 and TSP-1 hypermethylation was associated with worse (p = 0.047) and better (p = 0.037) prognosis, respectively. This observation was confirmed after adjusting the results for age and tumor grade, the role of TSP-1 being most pronounced in oligodendrogliomas (p = 0.001). We conclude that EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 genes are involved in the pathogenesis of diffuse gliomas, and that EPB41L3 and TSP-1 hypermethylation are of prognostic significance. PMID:25621889

  7. MicroRNA profiling of novel African American and Caucasian Prostate Cancer cell lines reveals a reciprocal regulatory relationship of miR-152 and DNA methyltranferase 1

    PubMed Central

    Theodore, Shaniece C.; Davis, Melissa; Zhao, Fu; Wang, Honghe; Chen, Dongquan; Rhim, Johng; Dean-Colomb, Windy; Turner, Timothy; Ji, Weidong; Zeng, Guohua; Grizzle, William; Yates, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    miRNA expression in African American compared to Caucasian PCa patients has not been widely explored. Herein, we probed the miRNA expression profile of novel AA and CA derived prostate cancer cell lines. We found a unique miRNA signature associated with AA cell lines, independent of tumor status. Evaluation of the most differentially expressed miRNAs showed that miR-132, miR-367b, miR-410, and miR-152 were decreased in more aggressive cells, and this was reversed after treatment of the cells with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Sequencing of the miR-152 promoter confirmed that it was highly methylated. Ectopic expression of miR-152 resulted in decreased growth, migration, and invasion. Informatics analysis of a large patient cohort showed that decreased miR-152 expression correlated with increased metastasis and a decrease in biochemical recurrence free survival. Analysis of 39 prostate cancer tissues with matched controls (20 AA and 19 CA), showed that 50% of AA patients had statistically significant lower miR-152 expression compared to only 35% of CA patients. Ectopic expression of miR-152 in LNCaP, PC-3, and MDA-PCa-2b cells down-regulated DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) through direct binding in the DNMT1 3'UTR. There appeared to be a reciprocal regulatory relationship of miR-152/DNMT1 expression, as cells treated with siRNA DNMT1 caused miR-152 to be re-expressed in all cell lines. In summary, these results demonstrate that epigenetic regulation of miR-152/DNMT1 may play an important role in multiple events that contribute to the aggressiveness of PCa tumors, with an emphasis on AA PCa patients. PMID:25004396

  8. Inhibition of DNA Methylation Alters Chromatin Organization, Nuclear Positioning and Activity of 45S rDNA Loci in Cycling Cells of Q. robur

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Tomislav; Maglica, Željka; Vojta, Aleksandar; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2014-01-01

    Around 2200 copies of genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in pedunculate oak, Quercus robur, are organized into two rDNA loci, the major (NOR-1) and the minor (NOR-2) locus. We present the first cytogenetic evidence indicating that the NOR-1 represents the active nucleolar organizer responsible for rRNA synthesis, while the NOR-2 probably stays transcriptionally silent and does not participate in the formation of the nucleolus in Q. robur, which is a situation resembling the well-known phenomenon of nucleolar dominance. rDNA chromatin topology analyses in cycling root tip cells by light and electron microscopy revealed the minor locus to be highly condensed and located away from the nucleolus, while the major locus was consistently associated with the nucleolus and often exhibited different levels of condensation. In addition, silver precipitation was confined exclusively to the NOR-1 locus. Also, NOR-2 was highly methylated at cytosines and rDNA chromatin was marked with histone modifications characteristic for repressive state. After treatment of the root cells with the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, we observed an increase in the total level of rRNA transcripts and a decrease in DNA methylation level at the NOR-2 locus. Also, NOR-2 sites relocalized with respect to the nuclear periphery/nucleolus, however, the relocation did not affect the contribution of this locus to nucleolar formation, nor did it affect rDNA chromatin decondensation, strongly suggesting that NOR-2 has lost the function of rRNA synthesis and nucleolar organization. PMID:25093501

  9. Inhibition of DNA methylation alters chromatin organization, nuclear positioning and activity of 45S rDNA loci in cycling cells of Q. robur.

    PubMed

    Bočkor, Vedrana Vičić; Barišić, Darko; Horvat, Tomislav; Maglica, Željka; Vojta, Aleksandar; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2014-01-01

    Around 2200 copies of genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in pedunculate oak, Quercus robur, are organized into two rDNA loci, the major (NOR-1) and the minor (NOR-2) locus. We present the first cytogenetic evidence indicating that the NOR-1 represents the active nucleolar organizer responsible for rRNA synthesis, while the NOR-2 probably stays transcriptionally silent and does not participate in the formation of the nucleolus in Q. robur, which is a situation resembling the well-known phenomenon of nucleolar dominance. rDNA chromatin topology analyses in cycling root tip cells by light and electron microscopy revealed the minor locus to be highly condensed and located away from the nucleolus, while the major locus was consistently associated with the nucleolus and often exhibited different levels of condensation. In addition, silver precipitation was confined exclusively to the NOR-1 locus. Also, NOR-2 was highly methylated at cytosines and rDNA chromatin was marked with histone modifications characteristic for repressive state. After treatment of the root cells with the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, we observed an increase in the total level of rRNA transcripts and a decrease in DNA methylation level at the NOR-2 locus. Also, NOR-2 sites relocalized with respect to the nuclear periphery/nucleolus, however, the relocation did not affect the contribution of this locus to nucleolar formation, nor did it affect rDNA chromatin decondensation, strongly suggesting that NOR-2 has lost the function of rRNA synthesis and nucleolar organization. PMID:25093501

  10. Estrogen and promoter methylation in the regulation of PLA2G7 transcription.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Danjie; Wang, Yunliang; Shen, Yusheng; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Huangkai; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Hongwei; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-10-10

    In the current study, cell lines including HEK293, SW480, HPASMC, HPCASMC and HAEC were cultured with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (DAC) and 17-β-estradiol to investigate whether PLA2G7 transcription was under the control of promoter methylation and 17-β-estradiol. Luciferase reporter gene assays were used to evaluate whether reporter gene activity was enhanced by PLA2G7 promoter fragment. Gene expression and methylation were detected using RT-PCR and pyrosequencing methods, respectively. Endogenous PLA2G7 transcription levels were found to be significantly lower in vascular related cell lines than in the other cell lines. Luciferase reporter gene assays indicated that gene activity was significantly enhanced by PLA2G7 promoter fragment. PLA2G7 transcription was found to be up-regulated with the treatment of DAC. The 17-β-estradiol was found to down-regulate PLA2G7 transcription in all the cell lines. However, 17-β-estradiol did not have significant effect on PLA2G7 methylation. Further chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that 17-β-estradiol might regulate gene transcription by affecting the acetylated histone H3 and H4 marks on PLA2G7 promoter. Our results showed that PLA2G7 gene expression was co-regulated by 17-β-estradiol and promoter methylation. Our findings might provide molecular clues for gender disparity in the contribution of PLA2G7 to vascular related diseases such as coronary heart disease. PMID:27450918

  11. Small Activating RNA Restores the Activity of the Tumor Suppressor HIC-1 on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yan; Guo, Shanyu; Dai, Qiancheng; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    HIC-1 is a gene that is hypermethylated in cancer, and commonly downregulated in human breast cancer. However, the precise mechanisms and molecular pathways regulated by HIC-1 remain unclear. We assessed HIC-1 expression on a tissue microarray containing 80 cases of breast cancer. We also analyzed its biological function by restoring HIC-1 expression using 5-aza-2deoxycytidine (5-CdR) and small-activating RNAs for the reversal of HIC-1 tumor suppressive effects on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. An Agilent Q44h global expressing microarray was probed after restoring the expression of HIC-1. Data demonstrated that HIC-1 expression was reduced significantly in breast cancer tissues. HIC-1 immunohistochemistry resulted in mean staining scores in cancer tissue and normal ductal epithelia of 3.54 and 8.2, respectively (p<0.01). 5-CdR partially reversed HIC-1 expression, and modulated cell growth and apoptosis. dsHIC1-2998, an saRNA, showed activating efficacy in breast cancer cells. A group of differentially expressed genes were characterized by cDNA microarray. Upon saRNA treatment, genes upregulated included those involved in immune activation, cell cycle interference, the induction of apoptosis, anti-metastasis, and cell differentiation. Downregulated genes included oncogenes and those that play roles in cell invasion, cell growth, and cell division. Our findings may provide valuable resources not only for gene functional studies, but also for potential clinical applications to develop novel drug targets. PMID:24489730

  12. Epigenetic regulation of COL15A1 in smooth muscle cell replicative aging and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Jessica J.; Cherepanova, Olga A.; Doss, Jennifer F.; Karaoli, Themistoclis; Lillard, Travis S.; Markunas, Christina A.; Nelson, Sarah; Wang, Tianyuan; Ellis, Peter D.; Langford, Cordelia F.; Haynes, Carol; Seo, David M.; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J.; Shah, Svati H.; Kraus, William E.; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Gregory, Simon G.

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a hallmark of vascular injury and disease. Global hypomethylation occurs during SMC proliferation in culture and in vivo during neointimal formation. Regardless of the programmed or stochastic nature of hypomethylation, identifying these changes is important in understanding vascular disease, as maintenance of a cells' epigenetic profile is essential for maintaining cellular phenotype. Global hypomethylation of proliferating aortic SMCs and concomitant decrease of DNMT1 expression were identified in culture during passage. An epigenome screen identified regions of the genome that were hypomethylated during proliferation and a region containing Collagen, type XV, alpha 1 (COL15A1) was selected by ‘genomic convergence’ for characterization. COL15A1 transcript and protein levels increased with passage-dependent decreases in DNA methylation and the transcript was sensitive to treatment with 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine, suggesting DNA methylation-mediated gene expression. Phenotypically, knockdown of COL15A1 increased SMC migration and decreased proliferation and Col15a1 expression was induced in an atherosclerotic lesion and localized to the atherosclerotic cap. A sequence variant in COL15A1 that is significantly associated with atherosclerosis (rs4142986, P = 0.017, OR = 1.434) was methylated and methylation of the risk allele correlated with decreased gene expression and increased atherosclerosis in human aorta. In summary, hypomethylation of COL15A1 occurs during SMC proliferation and the consequent increased gene expression may impact SMC phenotype and atherosclerosis formation. Hypomethylated genes, such as COL15A1, provide evidence for concomitant epigenetic regulation and genetic susceptibility, and define a class of causal targets that sit at the intersection of genetic and epigenetic predisposition in the etiology of complex disease. PMID:23912340

  13. Frequent inactivation of MCC/CTNNBIP1 and overexpression of phospho-beta-catenin(Y654) are associated with breast carcinoma: Clinical and prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Nupur; Dasgupta, Hemantika; Bhattacharya, Rittwika; Pal, Debolina; Roy, Rituparna; Islam, Saimul; Alam, Neyaz; Biswas, Jaydip; Roy, Anup; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Transcriptional activation of β-catenin is a hallmark of Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. The MCC (Mutated in colorectal cancers) and CTNNBIP1 (catenin, beta interacting protein 1) are two candidate genes which inhibit the transcriptional activity of nuclear β-catenin. The importance of MCC and CTNNBIP1 in breast cancer (BC) development has not yet been studied in detail. For this reason, in present study, the alterations (deletion/methylation/mutation/expression) of MCC and CTNNBIP1 were analyzed in BC of Indian patients (N=120) followed by expression/mutation analysis of β-catenin. Then transcriptional activity of β-catenin was checked by expression analysis of its target genes (EGFR, C-MYC and CCND1) in the same set of samples. Frequent methylation (44-45%) than deletion (20-32%) with overall alterations of 52-55% was observed in MCC/CTNNBIP1 in the BC samples. The alterations of MCC/CTNNBIP1 showed significant correlation with increased nuclear β-catenin/p-β-catenin(Y654) expression. Also, a significant correlation was seen between nuclear β-catenin expression and overexpression of its target genes like EGFR, MYC and CCND1 in the BC samples (P<0.0001). An upregulation of MCC and CTNNBIP1 expression by 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines lead to downregulation of β-catenin and its target genes. The expression of nuclear p-β-catenin(Y654), EGFR, MYC and CCND1 were significantly high in TNBC (Triple negative BC) and Her2+ compared to Luminal A/B+ subtypes. The TNBC patients in stage III/IV having reduced expression of MCC in the tumors showed poor prognosis. Thus, our data suggests that inactivation of MCC/CTNNBIP1 could be an important event in activation of β-catenin mediated transcription of target genes in BC. PMID:27208794

  14. Effect of Chromatin-Remodeling Agents in Hepatic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Danna; Li, Tong; Heraud, Philip; Parnpai, Rangsun

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic events, including covalent histone modifications and DNA methylation, play fundamental roles in the determination of lineage-specific gene expression and cell fates. The aim of this study was to determine whether the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (DNMTi) 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) trichostatin A (TSA) promote the hepatic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBM-MSCs) and their therapeutic effect on liver damage. 1 μM TSA and 20 μM 5-aza-dC were added to standard hepatogenic medium especially at differentiation and maturation steps and their potential function on hepatic differentiation in vitro and in vivo was determined. Exposure of rBM-MSCs to 1 μM TSA at both the differentiation and maturation steps considerably improved hepatic differentiation. TSA enhanced the development of the hepatocyte shape, promoted the chronological expression of hepatocyte-specific markers, and improved hepatic functions. In contrast, treatment of rBM-MSCs with 20 μM 5-aza-dC alone or in combination with TSA was ineffective in improving hepatic differentiation in vitro. TSA and/or 5-aza-dC derived hepatocytes-like cells failed to improve the therapeutic potential in liver damage. We conclude that HDACis enhance hepatic differentiation in a time-dependent manner, while DNMTis do not induce the hepatic differentiation of rBM-MSCs in vitro. Their in vivo function needs further investigation. PMID:27242905

  15. Epigenetic repression of Krüppel-like factor 4 through Dnmt1 contributes to EMT in renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiangcheng; Tang, Wenbin; Yuan, Qiongjing; Peng, Ling; Yu, Pingping

    2015-06-01

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor which plays divergent roles in a number of physiological or pathological process. However, the expression and role of KLF4 in renal fibrosis remain undetermined. The aim of the present study was to determine the epigenetic alterations of KLF4 and its potential role and mechanisms of action in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal fibrosis. The hypermethylation of the KLF4 promoter accompanied by a decrease in KLF4 expression were observed in mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and in HK-2 cells stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. However, treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine attenuated the TGF-β1-induced downregulation of KLF4 and E-cadherin and the upregulation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the HK-2 cells. DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) participated in the TGF-β1-mediated hypermethylation of the KLF4 promoter in the HK-2 cells. In addition, functional analysis demonstrated that the overexpression of KLF4 led to an increase in the expression of E-cadherin and zonula occludens-l (ZO-1), and a decrease in the expression of α-SMA and fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP-1), thus reversing the effects of the suppression of KLF4. These data suggest that KLF4 inhibits the progression of EMT in renal epithelial cells. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that KLF4 is downregulated during EMT in renal fibrosis in vivo and in vitro; thus, KLF4 functions as a suppressor of renal fibrogenesis. The hypermethylation of KLF4 directly mediated by Dnmt1 contributes to the progression of EMT in renal epithelial cells. KLF4 promoter methylation may thus be a promising diagnostic marker or therapeutic target in renal fibrosis. PMID:25892014

  16. DNA Promoter Methylation-dependent Transcription of the Double C2-like Domain β (DOC2B) Gene Regulates Tumor Growth in Human Cervical Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Bhat, Samatha; Radhakrishnan, Raghu; Aithal, Abhijit; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Pandey, Deeksha; Rai, Lavanya; Kushtagi, Pralhad; Mundyat, Gopinath Puthiya; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2014-01-01

    Double C2-like domain β (DOC2B) gene encodes for a calcium-binding protein, which is involved in neurotransmitter release, sorting, and exocytosis. We have identified the promoter region of the DOC2B gene as hypermethylated in pre-malignant, malignant cervical tissues, and cervical cancer cell lines by methylation-sensitive dimethyl sulfoxide-polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite genome sequencing; whereas, it was unmethylated in normal cervical tissues (p < 0.05). The promoter hypermethylation was inversely associated with mRNA expression in SiHa, CaSki, and HeLa cells and treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine restored DOC2B expression. The region −630 to +25 bp of the DOC2B gene showed robust promoter activity by a luciferase reporter assay and was inhibited by in vitro artificial methylation with Sss1 methylase prior to transient transfections. Overexpression of the DOC2B gene in SiHa cells when compared with controls showed significantly reduced colony formation, cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest, and repressed cell migration and invasion (p < 0.05). Ectopic expression of DOC2B resulted in anoikis-mediated cell death and repressed tumor growth in a nude mice xenograft model (p < 0.05). DOC2B expressing cells showed a significant increase in intracellular calcium level (p < 0.05), impaired AKT1 and ERK1/2 signaling, and induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Our results show that promoter hypermethylation and silencing of the DOC2B gene is an early and frequent event during cervical carcinogenesis and whose reduced expression due to DNA promoter methylation may lead to selective cervical tumor growth. PMID:24570007

  17. CADM1 is a strong neuroblastoma candidate gene that maps within a 3.72 Mb critical region of loss on 11q23

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Evi; Hoebeeck, Jasmien; De Preter, Katleen; Schramm, Alexander; Brichard, Bénédicte; De Paepe, Anne; Eggert, Angelika; Laureys, Geneviève; Vandesompele, Jo; Speleman, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Recurrent loss of part of the long arm of chromosome 11 is a well established hallmark of a subtype of aggressive neuroblastomas. Despite intensive mapping efforts to localize the culprit 11q tumour suppressor gene, this search has been unsuccessful thus far as no sufficiently small critical region could be delineated for selection of candidate genes. Methods To refine the critical region of 11q loss, the chromosome 11 status of 100 primary neuroblastoma tumours and 29 cell lines was analyzed using a BAC array containing a chromosome 11 tiling path. For the genes mapping within our refined region of loss, meta-analysis on published neuroblastoma mRNA gene expression datasets was performed for candidate gene selection. The DNA methylation status of the resulting candidate gene was determined using re-expression experiments by treatment of neuroblastoma cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and bisulphite sequencing. Results Two small critical regions of loss within 11q23 at chromosomal band 11q23.1-q23.2 (1.79 Mb) and 11q23.2-q23.3 (3.72 Mb) were identified. In a first step towards further selection of candidate neuroblastoma tumour suppressor genes, we performed a meta-analysis on published expression profiles of 692 neuroblastoma tumours. Integration of the resulting candidate gene list with expression data of neuroblastoma progenitor cells pinpointed CADM1 as a compelling candidate gene. Meta-analysis indicated that CADM1 expression has prognostic significance and differential expression for the gene was noted in unfavourable neuroblastoma versus normal neuroblasts. Methylation analysis provided no evidence for a two-hit mechanism in 11q deleted cell lines. Conclusion Our study puts CADM1 forward as a strong candidate neuroblastoma suppressor gene. Further functional studies are warranted to elucidate the role of CADM1 in neuroblastoma development and to investigate the possibility of CADM1 haploinsufficiency in neuroblastoma. PMID

  18. Genome-wide promoter methylation analysis in neuroblastoma identifies prognostic methylation biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate outcome prediction in neuroblastoma, which is necessary to enable the optimal choice of risk-related therapy, remains a challenge. To improve neuroblastoma patient stratification, this study aimed to identify prognostic tumor DNA methylation biomarkers. Results To identify genes silenced by promoter methylation, we first applied two independent genome-wide methylation screening methodologies to eight neuroblastoma cell lines. Specifically, we used re-expression profiling upon 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) treatment and massively parallel sequencing after capturing with a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD-seq). Putative methylation markers were selected from DAC-upregulated genes through a literature search and an upfront methylation-specific PCR on 20 primary neuroblastoma tumors, as well as through MBD- seq in combination with publicly available neuroblastoma tumor gene expression data. This yielded 43 candidate biomarkers that were subsequently tested by high-throughput methylation-specific PCR on an independent cohort of 89 primary neuroblastoma tumors that had been selected for risk classification and survival. Based on this analysis, methylation of KRT19, FAS, PRPH, CNR1, QPCT, HIST1H3C, ACSS3 and GRB10 was found to be associated with at least one of the classical risk factors, namely age, stage or MYCN status. Importantly, HIST1H3C and GNAS methylation was associated with overall and/or event-free survival. Conclusions This study combines two genome-wide methylation discovery methodologies and is the most extensive validation study in neuroblastoma performed thus far. We identified several novel prognostic DNA methylation markers and provide a basis for the development of a DNA methylation-based prognostic classifier in neuroblastoma. PMID:23034519

  19. Comprehensive DNA Methylation Analysis Reveals a Common Ten-Gene Methylation Signature in Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Patai, Árpád V.; Valcz, Gábor; Hollósi, Péter; Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Patai, Árpád; Wichmann, Barnabás; Spisák, Sándor; Barták, Barbara Kinga; Leiszter, Katalin; Tóth, Kinga; Sipos, Ferenc; Kovalszky, Ilona; Péter, Zoltán; Miheller, Pál; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Microarray analysis of promoter hypermethylation provides insight into the role and extent of DNA methylation in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and may be co-monitored with the appearance of driver mutations. Colonic biopsy samples were obtained endoscopically from 10 normal, 23 adenoma (17 low-grade (LGD) and 6 high-grade dysplasia (HGD)), and 8 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients (4 active and 4 inactive). CRC samples were obtained from 24 patients (17 primary, 7 metastatic (MCRC)), 7 of them with synchronous LGD. Field effects were analyzed in tissues 1 cm (n = 5) and 10 cm (n = 5) from the margin of CRC. Tissue materials were studied for DNA methylation status using a 96 gene panel and for KRAS and BRAF mutations. Expression levels were assayed using whole genomic mRNA arrays. SFRP1 was further examined by immunohistochemistry. HT29 cells were treated with 5-aza-2deoxycytidine to analyze the reversal possibility of DNA methylation. More than 85% of tumor samples showed hypermethylation in 10 genes (SFRP1, SST, BNC1, MAL, SLIT2, SFRP2, SLIT3, ALDH1A3, TMEFF2, WIF1), whereas the frequency of examined mutations were below 25%. These genes distinguished precancerous and cancerous lesions from inflamed and healthy tissue. The mRNA alterations that might be caused by systematic methylation could be partly reversed by demethylation treatment. Systematic changes in methylation patterns were observed early in CRC carcinogenesis, occuring in precursor lesions and CRC. Thus we conclude that DNA hypermethylation is an early and systematic event in colorectal carcinogenesis, and it could be potentially reversed by systematic demethylation therapy, but it would need more in vitro and in vivo experiments to support this theory. PMID:26291085

  20. Transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B) mediates noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Fakhera; Ackermann, Sandra; Kahlert, Yvonne; Volland, Ruth; Roels, Frederik; Engesser, Anne; Hertwig, Falk; Kocak, Hayriye; Hero, Barbara; Dreidax, Daniel; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Berthold, Frank; Nürnberg, Peter; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal pediatric tumor that originates from the developing sympathetic nervous system and shows a broad range of clinical behavior, ranging from fatal progression to differentiation into benign ganglioneuroma. In experimental neuroblastoma systems, retinoic acid (RA) effectively induces neuronal differentiation, and RA treatment has been therefore integrated in current therapies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation are still poorly understood. We here investigated the role of transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B), a key factor in sympathetic nervous system development, in neuroblastoma pathogenesis and differentiation. Microarray analyses of primary neuroblastomas (n = 649) demonstrated that low TFAP2B expression was significantly associated with unfavorable prognostic markers as well as adverse patient outcome. We also found that low TFAP2B expression was strongly associated with CpG methylation of the TFAP2B locus in primary neuroblastomas (n = 105) and demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in induction of TFAP2B expression in vitro, suggesting that TFAP2B is silenced by genomic methylation. Tetracycline inducible re-expression of TFAP2B in IMR-32 and SH-EP neuroblastoma cells significantly impaired proliferation and cell cycle progression. In IMR-32 cells, TFAP2B induced neuronal differentiation, which was accompanied by up-regulation of the catecholamine biosynthesizing enzyme genes DBH and TH, and down-regulation of MYCN and REST, a master repressor of neuronal genes. By contrast, knockdown of TFAP2B by lentiviral transduction of shRNAs abrogated RA-induced neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)c neuroblastoma cells almost completely. Taken together, our results suggest that TFAP2B is playing a vital role in retaining RA responsiveness and mediating noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma. PMID:26598443

  1. Consistent transcriptional silencing of 35S-driven transgenes in gentian.

    PubMed

    Mishiba, Kei-ichiro; Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Abe, Yoshiko; Hirano, Hiroshi; Yokoi, Takahide; Kikuchi, Akiko; Yamamura, Saburo

    2005-11-01

    In this study, no transgenic gentian (Gentiana triflora x Gentiana scabra) plants produced via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation exhibited transgene (GtMADS, gentian-derived MADS-box genes or sGFP, green fluorescent protein) expression in their leaf tissues, despite the use of constitutive Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Strikingly, no expression of the selectable marker gene (bar) used for bialaphos selection was observed. To investigate the possible cause of this drastic transgene silencing, methylation-specific sequences were analysed by bisulfite genomic sequencing using tobacco transformants as a control. Highly methylated cytosine residues of CpG and CpWpG (W contains A or T) sites were distinctively detected in the promoter and 5' coding regions of the transgenes 35S-bar and 35S-GtMADS in all gentian lines analysed. These lines also exhibited various degrees of cytosine methylation in asymmetrical sequences. The methylation frequencies in the other transgene, nopaline synthase (NOS) promoter-driven nptII, and the endogenous GtMADS gene coding region, were much lower and were variable compared with those in the 35S promoter regions. Transgene methylation was observed in the bialaphos-selected transgenic calluses expressing the transgenes, and methylation sequences were distributed preferentially around the as-1 element in the 35S promoter. Calluses derived from leaf tissues of silenced transgenic gentian also exhibited transgene suppression, but expression was recovered by treatment with the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (aza-dC). These results indicated that cytosine methylation occurs exclusively in the 35S promoter regions of the expressed transgenes during selection of gentian transformants, causing transcriptional gene silencing. PMID:16262705

  2. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of the death-associated protein kinase gene is early and frequent in murine lung tumors induced by cigarette smoke and tobacco carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Pulling, Leah C; Vuillemenot, Brian R; Hutt, Julie A; Devereux, Theodora R; Belinsky, Steven A

    2004-06-01

    Loss of expression of the death-associated protein (DAP)-kinase gene by aberrant promoter methylation may play an important role in cancer development and progression. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the commonality for inactivation of the DAP-kinase gene in adenocarcinomas induced in mice by chronic exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke, the tobacco carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and vinyl carbamate, and the occupational carcinogen methylene chloride. The timing for inactivation was also determined in alveolar hyperplasias that arise in lung cancer induced in the A/J mouse by NNK. The DAP-kinase gene was not expressed in three of five NNK-induced lung tumor-derived cell lines or in a spontaneously arising lung tumor-derived cell line. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored expression; dense methylation throughout the DAP-kinase CpG island detected by bisulfite sequencing supported methylation as the inactivating event in these cell lines. Methylation-specific PCR detected inactivation of the DAP-kinase gene in 43% of tumors associated with cigarette smoke, a frequency similar to those reported in human non-small cell lung cancer. In addition, DAP-kinase methylation was detected in 52%, 60%, and 50% of tumors associated with NNK, vinyl carbamate, and methylene chloride, respectively. Methylation was observed at similar prevalence in both NNK-induced hyperplasias and adenocarcinomas (46% versus 52%), suggesting that inactivation of this gene is one pathway for tumor development in the mouse lung. Bisulfite sequencing of both premalignant and malignant lesions revealed dense methylation, substantiating that this gene is functionally inactivated at the earliest histological stages of adenocarcinoma development. This study is the first to use a murine model of cigarette smoke-induced lung cancer and demonstrate commonality for inactivation by promoter hypermethylation of a gene implicated in the development

  3. Hypoxia-induced DNA hypermethylation in human pulmonary fibroblasts is associated with Thy-1 promoter methylation and the development of a pro-fibrotic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary fibrosis is a debilitating and lethal disease with no effective treatment options. Understanding the pathological processes at play will direct the application of novel therapeutic avenues. Hypoxia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis yet the precise mechanism by which it contributes to disease progression remains to be fully elucidated. It has been shown that chronic hypoxia can alter DNA methylation patterns in tumour-derived cell lines. This epigenetic alteration can induce changes in cellular phenotype with promoter methylation being associated with gene silencing. Of particular relevance to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the observation that Thy-1 promoter methylation is associated with a myofibroblast phenotype where loss of Thy-1 occurs alongside increased alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. The initial aim of this study was to determine whether hypoxia regulates DNA methylation in normal human lung fibroblasts (CCD19Lu). As it has been reported that hypoxia suppresses Thy-1 expression during lung development we also studied the effect of hypoxia on Thy-1 promoter methylation and gene expression. Methods CCD19Lu were grown for up to 8 days in hypoxia and assessed for global changes in DNA methylation using flow cytometry. Real-time PCR was used to quantify expression of Thy-1, α-SMA, collagen I and III. Genomic DNA was bisulphite treated and methylation specific PCR (MSPCR) was used to examine the methylation status of the Thy-1 promoter. Results Significant global hypermethylation was detected in hypoxic fibroblasts relative to normoxic controls and was accompanied by increased expression of myofibroblast markers. Thy-1 mRNA expression was suppressed in hypoxic cells, which was restored with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. MSPCR revealed that Thy-1 became methylated following fibroblast exposure to 1% O2. Conclusion These data suggest that global and gene-specific changes in

  4. The activation of human gene MAGE-1 in tumor cells is correlated with genome-wide demethylation.

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, C; De Backer, O; Faraoni, I; Lurquin, C; Brasseur, F; Boon, T

    1996-01-01

    Human gene MAGE-1 encodes tumor-specific antigens that are recognized on melanoma cells by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes. This gene is expressed in a significant proportion of tumors of various histological types, but not in normal tissues except male germ-line cells. We reported previously that reporter genes driven by the MAGE-1 promoter are active not only in the tumor cell lines that express MAGE-1 but also in those that do not. This suggests that the critical factor causing the activation of MAGE-1 in certain tumors is not the presence of the appropriate transcription factors. The two major MAGE-1 promoter elements have an Ets binding site, which contains a CpG dinucleotide. We report here that these CpG are demethylated in the tumor cell lines that express MAGE-1, and are methylated in those that do not express the gene. Methylation of these CpG inhibits the binding of transcription factors, as seen by mobility shift assay. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine activated gene MAGE-1 not only in tumor cell lines but also in primary fibroblasts. Finally, the overall level of CpG methylation was evaluated in 20 different tumor cell lines. It was inversely correlated with the expression of MAGE-1. We conclude that the activation of MAGE-1 in cancer cells is due to the demethylation of the promoter. This appears to be a consequence of a genome-wide demethylation process that occurs in many cancers and is correlated with tumor progression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8692960

  5. Down-regulation of interferon regulatory factor 4 gene expression in leukemic cells due to hypermethylation of CpG motifs in the promoter region

    PubMed Central

    Ortmann, Christina A.; Burchert, Andreas; Hölzle, Katharina; Nitsche, Andreas; Wittig, Burghardt; Neubauer, Andreas; Schmidt, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Although the bcr-abl translocation has been shown to be the causative genetic aberration in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), there is mounting evidence that the deregulation of other genes, such as the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4), is also implicated in the pathogenesis of CML. Promoter methylation of CpG target sites or direct deletions/insertions of genes are mechanisms of a reversible or permanent silencing of gene expression, respectively. Therefore, we investigated whether IRF-4 promoter methylation or mutation may be involved in the regulation of IRF-4 expression in leukemia cells. Whereas promoter mutations or structural rearrangements could be excluded as a cause of altered IRF-4 expression in hematopoietic cells, the IRF-4 promoter methylation status was found to significantly influence IRF-4 transcription. First, treatment of IRF-4-negative lymphoid, myeloid and monocytic cell lines with the methylation-inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent increase of IRF-4 mRNA and protein levels. Second, using a restriction-PCR-assay and bisulfite-sequencing we identified specifically methylated CpG sites in IRF-4-negative but not in IRF-4-positive cells. Third, we clearly determined promoter methylation as a mechanism for IRF-4 down-regulation via reporter gene assays, but did not detect an association of methylational status and mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferases or methyl-CpG-binding proteins. Together, these data suggest CpG site-specific IRF-4 promoter methylation as a putative mechanism of down-regulated IRF-4 expression in leukemia. PMID:16396836

  6. Development of TRAIL Resistance by Radiation-Induced Hypermethylation of DR4 CpG Island in Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong Cheol; Lee, Won Hyeok; Min, Young Joo; Cha, Hee Jeong; Han, Myung Woul; Chang, Hyo Won; Kim, Sun-A; Choi, Seung-Ho; Kim, Seong Who; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: There are limited therapeutic options for patients with recurrent head and neck cancer after radiation therapy failure. To assess the use of tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a salvage chemotherapeutic agent for recurrent cancer after radiation failure, we investigated the effect of clinically relevant cumulative irradiation on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Methods and Materials: Using a previously established HN3 cell line from a laryngeal carcinoma patient, we generated a chronically irradiated HN3R isogenic cell line. Viability and apoptosis in HN3 and HN3R cells treated with TRAIL were analyzed with MTS and PI/annexin V-FITC assays. Western blotting and flow cytometry were used to determine the underlying mechanism of TRAIL resistance. DR4 expression was semiquantitatively scored in a tissue microarray with 107 laryngeal cancer specimens. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite sequencing for DR4 were performed for genomic DNA isolated from each cell line. Results: HN3R cells were more resistant than HN3 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis because of significantly reduced levels of the DR4 receptor. The DR4 staining score in 37 salvage surgical specimens after radiation failure was lower in 70 surgical specimens without radiation treatment (3.03 ± 2.75 vs 5.46 ± 3.30, respectively; P<.001). HN3R cells had a methylated DR4 CpG island that was partially demethylated by the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Conclusion: Epigenetic silencing of the TRAIL receptor by hypermethylation of a DR4 CpG island might be an underlying mechanism for TRAIL resistance in recurrent laryngeal carcinoma treated with radiation.

  7. Comparative Epigenomics of Human and Mouse Mammary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Demircan, Berna; Dyer, Lisa M.; Gerace, Mallory; Lobenhofer, Edward K.; Robertson, Keith D.; Brown, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Gene silencing by aberrant epigenetic chromatin alteration is a well-recognized event contributing to tumorigenesis. While genetically engineered tumor-prone mouse models have proven a powerful tool in understanding many aspects of carcinogenesis, to date few studies have focused on epigenetic alterations in mouse tumors. To uncover epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in mouse mammary tumor cells, we conducted initial genome-wide screening by combining the treatment of cultured cells with the DNA demethylating drug 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-azadC) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) with expression microarray. By conducting this initial screen on EMT6 cells and applying protein function and genomic structure criteria to genes identified as upregulated in response to 5-azadC/TSA, we were able to identify 2 characterized breast cancer TSGs (Timp3 and Rprm) and 4 putative TSGs (Atp1B2, Dusp2, FoxJ1 and Smpd3) silenced in this line. By testing a panel of ten mouse mammary tumor lines, we determined that each of these genes is commonly hypermethylated, albeit with varying frequency. Furthermore, by examining a panel of human breast tumor lines and primary tumors we observed that the human orthologs of ATP1B2, FOXJ1 and SMPD3 are aberrantly hypermethylated in the human disease while DUSP2 was not hypermethylated in primary breast tumors. Finally, we examined hypermethylation of several genes targeted for epigenetic silencing in human breast tumors in our panel of ten mouse mammary tumor lines. We observed that the orthologs of Cdh1, RarB, Gstp1, RassF1 genes were hypermethylated, while neither Dapk1 nor Wif1 were aberrantly methylated in this panel of mouse tumor lines. From this study, we conclude that there is significant, but not absolute, overlap in the epigenome of human and mouse mammary tumors. PMID:18836996

  8. IGFBP7 is a p53 target gene inactivated in human lung cancer by DNA hypermethylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Cui, Tiantian; Knösel, Thomas; Yang, Linlin; Zöller, Kristin; Petersen, Iver

    2011-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) was considered a tumor suppressor gene in lung cancer. However, the mechanism responsible for the downregulation of this gene has not yet been fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the epigenetic inactivation of IGFBP7 expression in human lung cancer. We found that 14 out of 16 lung cancer cell lines showed decreased expression of IGFBP7 compared to control cells by real-time RT-PCR, and 42 out of 90 patients (46.7%) with primary lung tumor exhibited negative staining of IGFBP7 by immunohistochemistry analysis. The IGFBP7 expression could be restored by demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) in 7 cancer cell lines. Methylation status of IGFBP7 was further evaluated by bisulfite sequencing (BS) and methylation-specific-PCR (MSP). It turned out that low expression of IGFBP7 was associated with DNA methylation in lung cancer cell lines and in primary lung tumors (P=0.019). To explore the regulatory role of p53 on IGFBP7, we transfected a wild type p53 expression vector into lung cancer cell lines H1299, H2228, and H82. Forced expression of p53 increased IGFBP7 expression only in H82 harboring no IGFBP7 methylation, while transfection in combination with DAC induced the expression of IGFBP7 in H1299 and H2228, in which IGFBP7 was methylated. Additionally, treatment with p53 inducer adriamycin (ADR) alone or in combination with DAC increased the expression of IGFBP7 in the 3 cell lines. Our data suggest that IGFBP7 is inactivated in lung cancer by DNA hypermethylation in both lung cancer cell lines and primary lung tumors, and IGFBP7 might be regulated by p53 in lung cancer cells. PMID:21095038

  9. The p53 target gene desmocollin 3 acts as a novel tumor suppressor through inhibiting EGFR/ERK pathway in human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cui, Tiantian; Chen, Yuan; Yang, Linlin; Knösel, Thomas; Huber, Otmar; Pacyna-Gengelbach, Manuela; Petersen, Iver

    2012-12-01

    Desmosomes are intercellular junctions that confer strong cell-cell adhesion. Altered expression of desmocollin 3 (DSC3), a member of the desmosomal cadherin family, was found in various cancers; however, its functional involvement in carcinogenesis has not yet been elucidated. Expression/localization of DSC3 was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Methylation status of DSC3 was examined by demethylation tests, methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing. It turned out that downregulation of DSC3 in lung cancer cells was associated with DNA hypermethylation. In primary lung tumors, DSC3 was a potential diagnostic marker for lung squamous cell carcinoma, and DSC3 DNA hypermethylation was correlated with poor clinical outcome. To investigate the effect of the tumor suppressor gene p53 on DSC3, transient transfection with a wild-type p53-expression vector was performed. Overexpression of p53 resulted in an increased expression of DSC3 in a DSC3-unmethylated lung cancer cell line H2170, but not in H1299, a DSC3-methylated cell line. However, combination of p53 transfection with demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment led to increased expression of DSC3 in H1299 cells. Furthermore, functional studies after stable transfection of a DSC3 expression vector showed that ectopic expression of DSC3 inhibited cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, as well as invasion, and most interestingly led to reduced phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2. Taken together, our data suggested that DSC3 acts as a novel tumor suppressor gene through inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in lung cancer cells. PMID:22941060

  10. Formation of Fused-Ring 2′-Deoxycytidine Adducts from 1-Chloro-3-buten-2-one, an in Vitro 1,3-Butadiene Metabolite, under in Vitro Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Pelah, Avishay; Zhang, Dong-Ping; Zhong, Yu-Fang; An, Jing; Yu, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2013-01-01

    1-Chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO) is a potential metabolite of 1,3-butadiene (BD), a carcinogenic air pollutant. CBO is a bifunctional alkylating agent that readily reacts with glutathione (GSH) to form mono-GSH and di-GSH adducts. Recently, CBO and its precursor 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) were found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic in human liver cells in culture with CBO being approximately 100-fold more potent than CHB. In the present study, CBO was shown to react readily with 2′-deoxycytidine (dC) under in vitro physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37 °C) to form four dC adducts with the CBO moieties forming fused rings with the N3 and N4 atoms of dC. The four products were structurally characterized as 2-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-7-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahy dro-6-oxo-6H,7H-pyrimido[1,6-a]pyrimidin-5-ium (dC-1 and dC-2, a pair of diastereomers), 4-chloromethyl-4-hydroxy-7-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydr o-6-oxo-6H,7H-pyrimido[1,6-a]pyrimidin-5-ium (dC-3), and 2-chloromethyl-2-hydroxy-7-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydr o-6-oxo-6H,7H-pyrimido[1,6-a]pyrimidin-5-ium (dC-4). Interestingly, dC-1 and dC-2 were stable under our experimental conditions (pH 7.4, 37 °C, 6 h) and existed in equilibrium as indicated by HPLC analysis, whereas dC-3 and dC-4 were labile with the half-lives being 3.0 ± 0.36 and 1.7 ± 0.06 h, respectively. Decomposition of dC-4 produced both dC-1 and dC-2, whereas acid hydrolysis of dC-1/dC-2 and dC-4 in 1 M HCl at 100 °C for 30 min yielded the deribosylated adducts dC-1H/dC-2H and dC-4H, respectively. Because fused-ring dC adducts of other chemicals are mutagenic, the characterized CBO-dC adducts could be mutagenic and play a role in the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of CBO and its precursors, CHB and BD. The CBO-dC adducts may also be used as standards to characterize CBO-DNA adducts and to develop potential biomarkers for CBO formation in vivo. PMID:24020501